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Sample records for initial polyp candidate

  1. Stomach Polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Stomach polyps By Mayo Clinic Staff Stomach polyps — also called gastric polyps — are masses of cells that form on the lining inside your stomach. These polyps are rare and usually don't ...

  2. Biopsy - polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyp biopsy ... are treated is the colon. How a polyp biopsy is done depends on the location: Colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy explores the large bowel Colposcopy-directed biopsy examines the vagina and cervix Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or ...

  3. Avalanche Effect in Improperly Initialized CAESAR Candidates

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    Martin Ukrop

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptoprimitives rely on thorough theoretical background, but often lack basic usability features making them prone to unintentional misuse by developers. We argue that this is true even for the state-of-the-art designs. Analyzing 52 candidates of the current CAESAR competition has shown none of them have an avalanche effect in authentication tag strong enough to work properly when partially misconfigured. Although not directly decreasing their security profile, this hints at their security usability being less than perfect. Paper details available at crcs.cz/papers/memics2016

  4. Colorectal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk for new polyps. Be aware that these medicines can have serious side effects if taken for a long time. Side effects include bleeding in the stomach or colon and heart disease. Talk with your provider before taking these medicines. ...

  5. Nasal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43. Becker SS. Surgical management of polyps in the treatment of nasal airway ...

  6. Matching colonic polyps using correlation optimized warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Yao, Jianhua; Petrick, Nicholas; Summers, Ronald M.

    2010-03-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) combined with a computer aided detection system has the potential for improving colonic polyp detection and increasing the use of CTC for colon cancer screening. In the clinical use of CTC, a true colonic polyp will be confirmed with high confidence if a radiologist can find it on both the supine and prone scans. To assist radiologists in CTC reading, we propose a new method for matching polyp findings on the supine and prone scans. The method performs a colon registration using four automatically identified anatomical salient points and correlation optimized warping (COW) of colon centerline features. We first exclude false positive detections using prediction information from a support vector machine (SVM) classifier committee to reduce initial false positive pairs. Then each remaining CAD detection is mapped to the other scan using COW technique applied to the distance along the centerline in each colon. In the last step, a new SVM classifier is applied to the candidate pair dataset to find true polyp pairs between supine and prone scans. Experimental results show that our method can improve the sensitivity to 0.87 at 4 false positive pairs per patient compared with 0.72 for a competing method that uses the normalized distance along the colon centerline (p<0.01).

  7. Automatic colonic polyp detection using multi-objective evolutionary techniques

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    Li, Jiang; Huang, Adam; Yao, Jianhua; Bitter, Ingmar; Petrick, Nicholas; Summers, Ronald M.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Choi, J. Richard

    2006-03-01

    Colonic polyps appear like elliptical protrusions on the inner wall of the colon. Curvature based features for colonic polyp detection have proved to be successful in several computer-aided diagnostic CT colonography (CTC) systems. Some simple thresholds are set for those features for creating initial polyp candidates, sophisticated classification scheme are then applied on these polyp candidates to reduce false positives. There are two objective functions, the number of missed polyps and false positive rate, that need to be minimized when setting those thresholds. These two objectives conflict and it is usually difficult to optimize them both by a gradient search. In this paper, we utilized a multiobjective evolutionary method, the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), to optimize those thresholds. SPEA2 incorporates the concept of Pareto dominance and applies genetic techniques to evolve individual solutions to the Pareto front. The SPEA2 algorithm was applied to colon CT images from 27 patients each having a prone and a supine scan. There are 40 colonoscopically confirmed polyps resulting in 72 positive detections in CTC reading. The results obtained by SPEA2 were compared with those obtained by our old system, where an appropriate value was set for each of those thresholds by a histogram examination method. If we keep the sensitivity the same as that of our old system, the SPEA2 algorithm reduced false positive rate by 76.4% from average false positive 55.6 to 13.3 per data set. If the false positive rate is kept the same for both systems, SPEA2 increased the sensitivity by 13.1% from 53 to 61 among 72 ground truth detections.

  8. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  9. Malignant colorectal polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis; Bujanda; Angel; Cosme; Ines; Gil; Juan; I; Arenas-Mirave

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of cases in which malignant colorectal polyps are removed is increasing due to colorectal cancer screening programmes. Cancerous polyps are classified into non-invasive high grade neoplasia (NHGN), when the cancer has not reached the muscularis mucosa, and malignant polyps, classed as T1, when they have invaded the submucosa. NHGN is considered cured with polypectomy, while the prognosis for malignant polyps depends on various morphological and histological factors. The prognostic facto...

  10. Space exploration initiative candidate nuclear propulsion test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darrell; Clark, John S.

    1993-01-01

    One-page descriptions for approximately 200 existing government, university, and industry facilities which may be available in the future to support SEI nuclear propulsion technology development and test program requirements are provided. To facilitate use of the information, the candidate facilities are listed both by location (Index L) and by Facility Type (Index FT). The included one-page descriptions provide a brief narrative description of facility capability, suggest potential uses for each facility, and designate a point of contact for additional information that may be needed in the future. The Nuclear Propulsion Office at NASA Lewis presently plans to maintain, expand, and update this information periodically for use by NASA, DOE, and DOD personnel involved in planning various phases of the SEI Nuclear Propulsion Project.

  11. Classification of colon polyps in NBI endoscopy using vascularization features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Thomas; Auer, Roland; Gross, Sebastian; Behrens, Alexander; Wulff, Jonas; Aach, Til; Winograd, Ron; Trautwein, Christian; Tischendorf, Jens

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of colon cancer starts with colon polyps. There are two different types of colon polyps, namely hyperplasias and adenomas. Hyperplasias are benign polyps which are known not to evolve into cancer and, therefore, do not need to be removed. By contrast, adenomas have a strong tendency to become malignant. Therefore, they have to be removed immediately via polypectomy. For this reason, a method to differentiate reliably adenomas from hyperplasias during a preventive medical endoscopy of the colon (colonoscopy) is highly desirable. A recent study has shown that it is possible to distinguish both types of polyps visually by means of their vascularization. Adenomas exhibit a large amount of blood vessel capillaries on their surface whereas hyperplasias show only few of them. In this paper, we show the feasibility of computer-based classification of colon polyps using vascularization features. The proposed classification algorithm consists of several steps: For the critical part of vessel segmentation, we implemented and compared two segmentation algorithms. After a skeletonization of the detected blood vessel candidates, we used the results as seed points for the Fast Marching algorithm which is used to segment the whole vessel lumen. Subsequently, features are computed from this segmentation which are then used to classify the polyps. In leave-one-out tests on our polyp database (56 polyps), we achieve a correct classification rate of approximately 90%.

  12. Computer-aided detection of colonic polyps with level set-based adaptive convolution in volumetric mucosa to advance CT colonography toward a screening modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbin; Duan, Chaijie; Pickhardt, Perry; Wang, Su; Liang, Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    As a promising second reader of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) screening, the computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps has earned fast growing research interest. In this paper, we present a CAD scheme to automatically detect colonic polyps in CTC images. First, a thick colon wall representation, ie, a volumetric mucosa (VM) with several voxels wide in general, was segmented from CTC images by a partial-volume image segmentation algorithm. Based on the VM, we employed a level set-based adaptive convolution method for calculating the first- and second-order spatial derivatives more accurately to start the geometric analysis. Furthermore, to emphasize the correspondence among different layers in the VM, we introduced a middle-layer enhanced integration along the image gradient direction inside the VM to improve the operation of extracting the geometric information, like the principal curvatures. Initial polyp candidates (IPCs) were then determined by thresholding the geometric measurements. Based on IPCs, several features were extracted for each IPC, and fed into a support vector machine to reduce false positives (FPs). The final detections were displayed in a commercial system to provide second opinions for radiologists. The CAD scheme was applied to 26 patient CTC studies with 32 confirmed polyps by both optical and virtual colonoscopies. Compared to our previous work, all the polyps can be detected successfully with less FPs. At the 100% by polyp sensitivity, the new method yielded 3.5 FPs/dataset. PMID:20428331

  13. High-performance computer aided detection system for polyp detection in CT colonography with fluid and fecal tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Wang, Shijun; Kabadi, Suraj; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is a feasible and minimally invasive method for the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer screening. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps has improved consistency and sensitivity of virtual colonoscopy interpretation and reduced interpretation burden. A CAD system typically consists of four stages: (1) image preprocessing including colon segmentation; (2) initial detection generation; (3) feature selection; and (4) detection classification. In our experience, three existing problems limit the performance of our current CAD system. First, highdensity orally administered contrast agents in fecal-tagging CTC have scatter effects on neighboring tissues. The scattering manifests itself as an artificial elevation in the observed CT attenuation values of the neighboring tissues. This pseudo-enhancement phenomenon presents a problem for the application of computer-aided polyp detection, especially when polyps are submerged in the contrast agents. Second, general kernel approach for surface curvature computation in the second stage of our CAD system could yield erroneous results for thin structures such as small (6-9 mm) polyps and for touching structures such as polyps that lie on haustral folds. Those erroneous curvatures will reduce the sensitivity of polyp detection. The third problem is that more than 150 features are selected from each polyp candidate in the third stage of our CAD system. These high dimensional features make it difficult to learn a good decision boundary for detection classification and reduce the accuracy of predictions. Therefore, an improved CAD system for polyp detection in CTC data is proposed by introducing three new techniques. First, a scale-based scatter correction algorithm is applied to reduce pseudo-enhancement effects in the image pre-processing stage. Second, a cubic spline interpolation method is utilized to accurately estimate curvatures for initial detection generation. Third, a new dimensionality

  14. [Giant esophageal fibrovascular polyp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Fernando; Contardo, Carlos; Guevara, Jorge; Vera, Augusto; Aguilar, Luis; Huamán, Manuel; Palomino, Américo; Yabar, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Fibrovascular polyps are extremely rare benign neoplasias of the esophagus, which usually originate in the lower cricoid area. They do not produce any discomfort in the patient for a long time, however it may make itself evident by the patient's regurgitation of the polyp, producing asphyxia or, more frequently, dysphagia. The case of a 58 year old male patient is presented herein, with a 9 month record of dysphagia, weight loss and intermittent melena. The barium x-ray showed a distended esophagus, with a tumor running from the upper esophageal sphincter to the cardia. The endoscopy confirmed the presence of a pediculated tumor, implanted in the cervical esophagus. Surgeons suspected the potential malignancy of the tumor and performed a transhiatal esophagectomy. The final pathologic diagnosis was giant fibrovascular esophageal polyp.

  15. Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma Presenting as a Rectal Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Fitzgerald

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal adenocarcinoma typically presents as an incidentally noted appendiceal mass, or with symptoms of right lower quadrant pain that can mimic appendicitis, but local involvement of adjacent organs is uncommon, particularly as the presenting sign. We report on a case of a primary appendiceal cancer initially diagnosed as a rectal polyp based on its appearance in the rectal lumen. The management of the patient was in keeping with standard practice for a rectal polyp, and the diagnosis of appendiceal adenocarcinoma was made intraoperatively. The operative strategy had to be adjusted due to this unexpected finding. Although there are published cases of appendiceal adenocarcinoma inducing intussusception and thus mimicking a cecal polyp, there are no reports in the literature describing invasion of the appendix through the rectal wall and thus mimicking a rectal polyp. The patient is a 75-year-old female who presented with spontaneous hematochezia and, on colonoscopy, was noted to have a rectal polyp that appeared to be located within a diverticulum. When endoscopic mucosal resection was not successful, she was referred to colorectal surgery for a low anterior resection. Preoperative imaging was notable for an enlarged appendix adjacent to the rectum. Intraoperatively, the appendix was found to be densely adherent to the right lateral rectal wall. An en bloc resection of the distal sigmoid colon, proximal rectum and appendix was performed, with pathology demonstrating appendiceal adenocarcinoma that invaded through the rectal wall. The prognosis in this type of malignancy weighs heavily on whether or not perforation and spread throughout the peritoneal cavity have occurred. In this unusual presentation, an en bloc resection is required for a complete resection and to minimize the risk of peritoneal spread. Unusual appearing polyps do not always originate from the bowel wall. Abnormal radiographic findings adjacent to an area of

  16. Effects of proton pump inhibitors on pediatric inflammatory esophagogastric polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyong Eun; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Ji Hyuk; Lee, Jong Seung; Lee, Jee Hyun; Choe, Yon Ho

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitors on symptomatic inflammatory esophagogastric polyps (IEPs) in a pediatric cohort and to determine the optimal duration of treatment. The 11 patients with IEPs were managed with lansoprazole. Follow-up endoscopies were performed at 2 and 6 months after the start of medication. Medication was discontinued when the clinical symptoms completely resolved and the polyp size was reduced by more than 50% compared to the initial size. The initial polyp size was 13.7 ± 3.3 mm. After 2 months of medication, the polyp size was reduced to 8.0 ± 5.8 mm. At 6 months, the polyp size was 4.7 ± 2.2 mm. The mean duration of medication was 4.8 ± 2.1 months. The duration of medication and the change in the polyp size appeared to have a linear correlation (p IEPs. About 5 months of lansoprazole was adequate to treat IEPs in children. The optimal duration for complete resolution of the polyp might be more than 7 months. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The fluoroscopic barium enema in colonic polyp detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teefey, S A; Carlson, H C

    1983-12-01

    The results of 1,500 barium enema studies done by vigorous manual palpation under fluoroscopy were reviewed to determine the adequacy of this technique in detecting polyps above the proctoscopic level. Of the 1,500 patients examined, 103 (7%) were diagnosed radiographically as having a total of 149 polyps. Polyps were found at proctoscopy in about 10% of the 1,500 patients. Colonoscopy or surgery was performed on 35 of the 103 patients. Of the 52 polyps discovered during these procedures, only three were missed at fluoroscopic barium enema study, a false-negative rate of 6%. Fourteen patients whose barium enemas initially were reported as negative for polyps or neoplasia had colonoscopy. Two of the 14 patients had positive findings, for a true-negative rate of 86%. If the detection rate of 7% found at barium enema, taking into account an overlap of 10%, is combined with the rate of 7.5% found at proctoscopy, a frequency of about 14% emerges in detecting polyps in the rectum and in the colon. Thus, the fluoroscopic barium enema when combined with proctoscopy is a sensitive method in the detection of colorectal polyps. In addition, it has the advantage of rapid execution and relatively low cost.

  18. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

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    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  19. Flat colon polyps: what should radiologists know?

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    Ignjatovic, A. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Burling, D., E-mail: burlingdavid@yahoo.co.u [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Ilangovan, R.; Clark, S.K.; Taylor, S.A.; East, J.E.; Saunders, B.P. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    With the recent publication of international computed tomography (CT) colonography standards, which aim to improve quality of examinations, this review informs radiologists about the significance of flat polyps (adenomas and hyperplastic polyps) in colorectal cancer pathways. We describe flat polyp classification systems and propose how flat polyps should be reported to ensure patient management strategies are based on polyp morphology as well as size. Indeed, consistency when describing flat polyps is of increasing importance given the strengthening links between CT colonography and endoscopy.

  20. A CAD of fully automated colonic polyp detection for contrasted and non-contrasted CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulum, Gökalp; Bolat, Bülent; Osman, Onur

    2017-04-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are developed to help radiologists detect colonic polyps over CT scans. It is possible to reduce the detection time and increase the detection accuracy rates by using CAD systems. In this paper, we aimed to develop a fully integrated CAD system for automated detection of polyps that yields a high polyp detection rate with a reasonable number of false positives. The proposed CAD system is a multistage implementation whose main components are: automatic colon segmentation, candidate detection, feature extraction and classification. The first element of the algorithm includes a discrete segmentation for both air and fluid regions. Colon-air regions were determined based on adaptive thresholding, and the volume/length measure was used to detect air regions. To extract the colon-fluid regions, a rule-based connectivity test was used to detect the regions belong to the colon. Potential polyp candidates were detected based on the 3D Laplacian of Gaussian filter. The geometrical features were used to reduce false-positive detections. A 2D projection image was generated to extract discriminative features as the inputs of an artificial neural network classifier. Our CAD system performs at 100% sensitivity for polyps larger than 9 mm, 95.83% sensitivity for polyps 6-10 mm and 85.71% sensitivity for polyps smaller than 6 mm with 5.3 false positives per dataset. Also, clinically relevant polyps ([Formula: see text]6 mm) were identified with 96.67% sensitivity at 1.12 FP/dataset. To the best of our knowledge, the novel polyp candidate detection system which determines polyp candidates with LoG filters is one of the main contributions. We also propose a new 2D projection image calculation scheme to determine the distinctive features. We believe that our CAD system is highly effective for assisting radiologist interpreting CT.

  1. Reactivity Initiated Accident Simulation to Inform Transient Testing of Candidate Advanced Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R [ORNL; Wysocki, Aaron J [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Advanced cladding materials with potentially enhanced accident tolerance will yield different light water reactor performance and safety characteristics than the present zirconium-based cladding alloys. These differences are due to different cladding material properties and responses to the transient, and to some extent, reactor physics, thermal, and hydraulic characteristics. Some of the differences in reactors physics characteristics will be driven by the fundamental properties (e.g., absorption in iron for an iron-based cladding) and others will be driven by design modifications necessitated by the candidate cladding materials (e.g., a larger fuel pellet to compensate for parasitic absorption). Potential changes in thermal hydraulic limits after transition from the current zirconium-based cladding to the advanced materials will also affect the transient response of the integral fuel. This paper leverages three-dimensional reactor core simulation capabilities to inform on appropriate experimental test conditions for candidate advanced cladding materials in a control rod ejection event. These test conditions are using three-dimensional nodal kinetics simulations of a reactivity initiated accident (RIA) in a representative state-of-the-art pressurized water reactor with both nuclear-grade iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) and silicon carbide based (SiC-SiC) cladding materials. The effort yields boundary conditions for experimental mechanical tests, specifically peak cladding strain during the power pulse following the rod ejection. The impact of candidate cladding materials on the reactor kinetics behavior of RIA progression versus reference zirconium cladding is predominantly due to differences in: (1) fuel mass/volume/specific power density, (2) spectral effects due to parasitic neutron absorption, (3) control rod worth due to hardened (or softened) spectrum, and (4) initial conditions due to power peaking and neutron transport cross sections in the

  2. Association between the location of colon polyps at baseline and surveillance colonoscopy: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors are used to stratify the probability of polyp recurrence. However, there are no studies correlating the location of the initial polyps and the recurrent ones. The aim of this study was to verify whether the polyp location at the surveillance colonoscopy was correlated with the location of the previously excised polyps at the baseline colonoscopy. Methods: A retrospective study of patients submitted to colonoscopy with presence and excision of all polyps, followed by a surveillance colonoscopy. Polyp location was divided into proximal/distal to splenic flexure and rectum. Characteristics and recurrent rates at the same colon location were also evaluated. Results: Out of the 346 patients who underwent repeated colonoscopy, 268 (77.4% had at least 1 polyp detected. For all the segments there was an increased risk of recurrent polyps in the same location and it was about four times higher in proximal (OR 3.5; CI 2.1-6.0 and distal colon segments (OR 3.8; CI 2.1-6.8, followed by three times higher in the rectum (OR 2.6; CI 1.5-4.6. No difference was found between the rates of recurrence at the same segment, taking into consideration the polyp morphology, size, polypectomy technique employed and histological classification. Conclusion: There seems to be a significant association between polyp location at baseline and surveillance colonoscopy.

  3. Lysosomal exoglycosidases in nasal polyps.

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    Chojnowska, Sylwia; Minarowska, Alina; Knaś, Małgorzata; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Kołodziejczyk, Paweł; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Kępka, Alina; Minarowski, Łukasz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Nasal polyps are smooth outgrowths assuming a shape of grapes, formed from the nasal mucosa, limiting air flow by projecting into a lumen of a nasal cavity. Up to now the surgical resection is the best method of their treatment, but etiology and pathogenesis of the nasal polyps is not yet fully established. The aim of the study was the assessment of the selected lysosomal exoglycosidases activity in the nasal polyps. In this study the activity of β-galactosidase, α-mannosidase and α-fucosidase was determined in the tissue of the nasal polyps obtained from 40 patients (10F, 30M) and control tissues derived from mucosa of lower nasal conchas obtained during mucotomy from 20 patients (10F, 10M). We observed significant lower values of GAL, FUC and tendency to decrease of MAN and GLU concentration in nasal polyps (P) in comparison to control healthy nasal mucosa (C). In nasal polyp tissue (P) no differences of GAL, MAN and FUC specific activity in comparison to control mucosa (C) were found. Our research supports bioelectrical theory of the nasal polyps pathogenesis and directs attention at research on glycoconjugates and glycosidases of the nasal mucosa extracellular matrix. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Antral hyperplastic polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction: Case report

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    Kurtkaya-Yapicier Ozlem

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperplastic polyps are the most common polypoid lesions of the stomach. Rarely, they cause gastric outlet obstruction by prolapsing through the pyloric channel, when they arise in the prepyloric antrum. Case presentation A 62-year-old woman presented with intermittent nausea and vomiting of 4 months duration. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 30 mm prepyloric sessile polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. Following submucosal injection of diluted adrenaline solution, the polyp was removed with a snare. Multiple biopsies were taken from the greater curvature of the antrum and the corpus. Rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori yielded a negative result. Histopathologic examination showed a hyperplastic polyp without any evidence of malignancy. Biopsies of the antrum and the corpus revealed gastritis with neither atrophic changes nor Helicobacter pylori infection. Follow-up endoscopy after a 12-week course of proton pomp inhibitor therapy showed a complete healing without any remnant tissue at the polypectomy site. The patient has been symptom-free during 8 months of follow-up. Conclusions Symptomatic gastric polyps should be removed preferentially when they are detected at the initial diagnostic endoscopy. Polypectomy not only provides tissue to determine the exact histopathologic type of the polyp, but also achieves radical treatment.

  5. Hyperplastic-like colon polyps that preceded microsatellite-unstable adenocarcinomas.

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    Goldstein, Neal S; Bhanot, Punam; Odish, Eva; Hunter, Susan

    2003-06-01

    We compared hyperplastic-like polyps that preceded microsatellite-unstable adenocarcinomas to incidental hyperplastic polyps to identify distinguishing morphologic criteria. The study group included 106 hyperplastic-like, nonadenomatous, serrated polyps, most from the ascending colon in 91 patients; the control group included 106 rectosigmoid hyperplastic polyps from 106 patients in whom adenocarcinoma did not develop. Study group polyps had an expanded crypt proliferative zone, a serrated architectural outline that became apparent in the basilar crypt regions, basilar crypt dilation, inverted crypts, and a predominance of dysmaturational crypts (crypts with minimal cell maturation). In contrast, control group polyps had a proliferative zone confined to the basal crypt region, serrated architecture that became apparent in the superficial crypt region, rare to no basilar crypt dilation, and rare or no dysmaturational crypts. Hyperplastic-like polyps that preceded microsatellite-unstable adenocarcinomas had a distinctive constellation of morphologic features related to altered and decreased cell function and control that resulted in dysmaturational crypts. Dysmaturation constitutes a range of morphologic alterations, some of which overlap with incidental-type innocuous hyperplastic polyps. The morphologic features described herein provide initial guidelines to identify this potentially important subset of premalignant serrated-like polyps.

  6. Distributed human intelligence for colonic polyp classification in computer-aided detection for CT colonography.

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    Nguyen, Tan B; Wang, Shijun; Anugu, Vishal; Rose, Natalie; McKenna, Matthew; Petrick, Nicholas; Burns, Joseph E; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-03-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of distributed human intelligence for the classification of polyp candidates identified with computer-aided detection (CAD) for computed tomographic (CT) colonography. This study was approved by the institutional Office of Human Subjects Research. The requirement for informed consent was waived for this HIPAA-compliant study. CT images from 24 patients, each with at least one polyp of 6 mm or larger, were analyzed by using CAD software to identify 268 polyp candidates. Twenty knowledge workers (KWs) from a crowdsourcing platform labeled each polyp candidate as a true or false polyp. Two trials involving 228 KWs were conducted to assess reproducibility. Performance was assessed by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of KWs with the AUC of CAD for polyp classification. The detection-level AUC for KWs was 0.845 ± 0.045 (standard error) in trial 1 and 0.855 ± 0.044 in trial 2. These were not significantly different from the AUC for CAD, which was 0.859 ± 0.043. When polyp candidates were stratified by difficulty, KWs performed better than CAD on easy detections; AUCs were 0.951 ± 0.032 in trial 1, 0.966 ± 0.027 in trial 2, and 0.877 ± 0.048 for CAD (P = .039 for trial 2). KWs who participated in both trials showed a significant improvement in performance going from trial 1 to trial 2; AUCs were 0.759 ± 0.052 in trial 1 and 0.839 ± 0.046 in trial 2 (P = .041). The performance of distributed human intelligence is not significantly different from that of CAD for colonic polyp classification. © RSNA.

  7. Deep transfer learning of virtual endoluminal views for the detection of polyps in CT colonography

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    Näppi, Janne J.; Hironaka, Toru; Regge, Daniele; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Proper training of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) requires large annotated image databases that are currently not available in CT colonography (CTC). In this study, we employed a deep transfer learning (DETALE) scheme to circumvent this problem in automated polyp detection for CTC. In our method, a DCNN that had been pre-trained with millions of non-medical images was adapted to identify polyps using virtual endoluminal images of the polyp candidates prompted by a computer-aided detection (CADe) system. For evaluation, 154 CTC cases with and without fecal tagging were divided randomly into a development set and an external validation set including 107 polyps >=6 mm in size. A CADe system was trained to detect polyp candidates using the development set, and the virtual endoluminal images of the polyp candidates were labeled manually into true-positive and several false-positive (FP) categories for transfer learning of the DCNN. Next, the trained CADe system was used to detect polyp candidates from the external validation set, and the DCNN reviewed their images to determine the final detections. The detection sensitivity of the standalone CADe system was 93% at 6.4 FPs per patient on average, whereas the DCNN reduced the number of FPs to 2.0 per patient without reducing detection sensitivity. Most of the remaining FP detections were caused by untagged stool. In fecal-tagged CTC cases, the detection sensitivity was 94% at only 0.78 FPs per patient on average. These preliminary results indicate that DETALE can yield substantial improvement in the accuracy of automated polyp detection in CTC.

  8. Polyp Segmentation in NBI Colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Sebastian; Kennel, Manuel; Stehle, Thomas; Wulff, Jonas; Tischendorf, Jens; Trautwein, Christian; Aach, Til

    Endoscopic screening of the colon (colonoscopy) is performed to prevent cancer and to support therapy. During intervention colon polyps are located, inspected and, if need be, removed by the investigator. We propose a segmentation algorithm as a part of an automatic polyp classification system for colonoscopic Narrow-Band images. Our approach includes multi-scale filtering for noise reduction, suppression of small blood vessels, and enhancement of major edges. Results of the subsequent edge detection are compared to a set of elliptic templates and evaluated. We validated our algorithm on our polyp database with images acquired during routine colonoscopic examinations. The presented results show the reliable segmentation performance of our method and its robustness to image variations.

  9. Initial Teacher Education: Does Self-Efficacy Influence Candidate Teacher Academic Achievement and Future Career Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad F.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative investigation examined the influence of low and high self-efficacy on candidate teacher academic performance in a foreign language teaching methodology course through testing the speculation that high self-efficacy levels would improve pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). Positivism guided the research design at the levels of…

  10. Identification and initial assessment of candidate BWR late-phase in-vessel accident management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1991-04-15

    Work sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to identify and perform preliminary assessments of candidate BWR (boiling water reactor) in-vessel accident management strategies was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during fiscal year 1990. Mitigative strategies for containment events have been the subject of a companion study at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The focus of this Oak Ridge effort was the development of new strategies for mitigation of the late phase events, that is, the events that would occur in-vessel after the onset of significant core damage. The work began with an investigation of the current status of BWR in-vessel accident management procedures and proceeded through a preliminary evaluation of several candidate new strategies. The steps leading to the identification of the candidate strategies are described. The four new candidate late-phase (in-vessel) accident mitigation strategies identified by this study and discussed in the report are: (1) keep the reactor vessel depressurized; (2) restore injection in a controlled manner; (3) inject boron if control blade damage has occurred; and (4) containment flooding to maintain core and structural debris in-vessel. Additional assessments of these strategies are proposed.

  11. Endoscopic detection and treatment of colorectal polyps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, TDG

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Most colorectal cancers arise form premalignant colorectal polyps. Colorectal polyps can be roughly subdivided into hyperplastic, non-malignant polyps and

  12. Pathology and Genetics of Syndromic Gastric Polyps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Wood, Laura D; Offerhaus, G Johan; Arnold, Christina A; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Giardiello, Francis M; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps are found in 1% to 4% of patients undergoing gastroscopy. The vast majority are sporadic, but some gastric polyps indicate an underlying syndrome. Gastric polyps can manifest in each of the gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes, including the recently described gastric adenocarcinoma a

  13. An OMERACT Initiative Toward Consensus to Identify and Characterize Candidate Contextual Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finger, Monika E; Boonen, Annelies; Woodworth, Thasia G

    2017-01-01

    selection of potentially relevant CF. RESULTS: The survey revealed that the WG had mostly used the OMERACT Handbook and/or the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) definition. However, significant heterogeneity was found in the methods used to identify, refine......, and categorize CF candidates. The SIG participants agreed on using the ICF as a framework along with the OMERACT Handbook definition. A list with 28 variables was collected including person-related factors and physical and social environments. Recommendations from the SIG guided the CFMG to formulate 3...

  14. Hamartomatous polyps - a clinical and molecular genetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    the knowledge on clinical course and molecular genetics in patients with HPs and HPS, and to investigate research participants' attitude towards the results of extensive genetic testing. Paper I: In the first paper we investigated the occurrence, anatomic distribution, and other demographics of juvenile polyps......-Jeghers syndrome, and the PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. Currently, the HPS diagnoses are based on clinical criteria and are often assisted with genetic testing as candidate genes have been described for each syndrome. This thesis is based on six scientific papers. The overall aim of the studies was to expand......% fulfilled to diagnostic criteria of JPS. The majority of patients had a single juvenile polyp. Paper II: In this paper we conducted a review of the HPS based on the current literature. Paper III: We investigated the hypothesis that patients with one or few HPs may have a HPS based on genetic screening. We...

  15. Combining heterogeneous features for colonic polyp detection in CTC based on semi-definite programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Yao, Jianhua; Petrick, Nicholas A.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) combined with a computer aided detection system provides a feasible combination for improving colonic polyps detection and increasing the use of CTC for colon cancer screening. To distinguish true polyps from false positives, various features extracted from polyp candidates have been proposed. Most of these features try to capture the shape information of polyp candidates or neighborhood knowledge about the surrounding structures (fold, colon wall, etc.). In this paper, we propose a new set of shape descriptors for polyp candidates based on statistical curvature information. These features, called histogram of curvature features, are rotation, translation and scale invariant and can be treated as complementing our existing feature set. Then in order to make full use of the traditional features (defined as group A) and the new features (group B) which are highly heterogeneous, we employed a multiple kernel learning method based on semi-definite programming to identify an optimized classification kernel based on the combined set of features. We did leave-one-patient-out test on a CTC dataset which contained scans from 50 patients (with 90 6-9mm polyp detections). Experimental results show that a support vector machine (SVM) based on the combined feature set and the semi-definite optimization kernel achieved higher FROC performance compared to SVMs using the two groups of features separately. At a false positive per patient rate of 7, the sensitivity on 6-9mm polyps using the combined features improved from 0.78 (Group A) and 0.73 (Group B) to 0.82 (p<=0.01).

  16. Thermal and Osmotic Tolerance of 'Irukandji' Polyps: Cubozoa; Carukia barnesi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Courtney

    Full Text Available This research explores the thermal and osmotic tolerance of the polyp stage of the Irukandji jellyfish Carukia barnesi, which provides new insights into potential polyp habitat suitability. The research also targets temperature, salinity, feeding frequency, and combinations thereof, as cues for synchronous medusae production. Primary findings revealed 100% survivorship in osmotic treatments between 19 and 46‰, with the highest proliferation at 26‰. As salinity levels of 26‰ do not occur within the waters of the Great Barrier Reef or Coral Sea, we conclude that the polyp stage of C. barnesi is probably found in estuarine environments, where these lower salinity conditions commonly occur, in comparison to the medusa stage, which is oceanic. Population stability was achieved at temperatures between 18 and 31°C, with an optimum temperature of 22.9°C. We surmise that C. barnesi polyps may be restricted to warmer estuarine areas where water temperatures do not drop below 18°C. Asexual reproduction was also positively correlated with feeding frequency. Temperature, salinity, feeding frequency, and combinations thereof did not induce medusae production, suggesting that this species may use a different cue, possibly photoperiod, to initiate medusae production.

  17. Giant Hyperplastic Polyp in the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilet Uğur DUMAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic polyps, which account for nearly 75% of all gastric polyps, are generally small (<1 cm, single, sessile, polyps and located in antrum. They are usually asymptomatic. A 77-year-old man was admitted to hospital due to severe fatigue as a consequence of irondeficiency anemia. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy which was done to discover an etiological factor revealed a papillomatous mass 6 cm in diameter that had a malignant endoscopic appearance. Numerous macroscopic sections were taken since larger gastric polyps (especially those greater than 2 cm in diameter have a greater risk of malignancy development. No dysplasia was detected on histological and immunohistochemical evaluation and it was therefore diagnosed as a giant hyperplastic polyp in the stomach. The large size of the polyp in the presented case led us to emphasize the importance of searching for dysplasia in such cases.

  18. Inappropriate colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, R A

    2011-11-15

    Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.

  19. Eigenvalue-weighting and feature selection for computer-aided polyp detection in CT colonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbin; Wang, Su; Fan, Yi; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2010-03-01

    With the development of computer-aided polyp detection towards virtual colonoscopy screening, the trade-off between detection sensitivity and specificity has gained increasing attention. An optimum detection, with least number of false positives and highest true positive rate, is desirable and involves interdisciplinary knowledge, such as feature extraction, feature selection as well as machine learning. Toward that goal, various geometrical and textural features, associated with each suspicious polyp candidate, have been individually extracted and stacked together as a feature vector. However, directly inputting these high-dimensional feature vectors into a learning machine, e.g., neural network, for polyp detection may introduce redundant information due to feature correlation and induce the curse of dimensionality. In this paper, we explored an indispensable building block of computer-aided polyp detection, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA)-weighted feature selection for neural network classifier of true and false positives. The major concepts proposed in this paper include (1) the use of PCA to reduce the feature correlation, (2) the scheme of adaptively weighting each principal component (PC) by the associated eigenvalue, and (3) the selection of feature combinations via the genetic algorithm. As such, the eigenvalue is also taken as part of the characterizing feature, and the necessary number of features can be exposed to mitigate the curse of dimensionality. Learned and tested by radial basis neural network, the proposed computer-aided polyp detection has achieved 95% sensitivity at a cost of average 2.99 false positives per polyp.

  20. INITIAL COMPARISON OF BASELINE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR THE VHTR CANDIDATE GRAPHITE GRADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Mark C

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration that is capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered “candidate” grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades

  1. Computer-Aided Detection of Polyps in CT Colonography Using Logistic Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ravesteijn, V.F.; Van Wijk, C.; Vos, F.M.; Truyen, R.; Peters, J.F.; Stoker, J.; Van Vliet, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for computed tomography colonography that orders the polyps according to clinical relevance. TheCADsystem consists of two steps: candidate detection and supervised classification. The characteristics of the detection step lead to specific choices fo

  2. Appendiceal Hyperplastic Polyp: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Limaiem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Serrated lesions morphologically analogous to those seen in the colorectum are found in the appendix. Appendiceal hyperplastic polyps are very rare, and their true incidence is unknown. A 52-year-old male previously healthy patient with no particular past medical history, presented with a 24-h history of abdominal pain localized to the right lower quadrant. On physical examination, he was tender to palpation in the lower right quadrant. As acute appendicitis was highly suspected, laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed acute inflammation of the appendiceal wall. The crypts were focally elongated but relatively straight with serrations that were visible mainly near the luminal end of the crypts. Columnar cells with or without apical mucous vacuoles alternated with large goblet cells. The crypt bases were not serrated and were lined by regular cells with small nuclei. The muscularis mucosa was intact. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 1. The final pathological diagnosis was acute appendicitis associated with hyperplastic polyp. Hyperplastic lesions of the appendix are often incidental findings although they can be associated with acute appendicitis. They are significantly associated with adenocarcinoma elsewhere in the large intestine and the finding of mucosal hyperplasia in an appendectomy is an indication for further investigations to exclude colorectal neoplasia. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(1.000: 36-38

  3. Confocal Endomicroscopy of Colorectal Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M. Ussui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micron scale via endoscopes. CLE has the potential to be a disruptive technology in that it can change the current algorithms that depend on biopsy to perform surveillance of high-risk conditions. Furthermore, it allows on-table decision making that has the potential to guide therapy in real time and reduce the need for repeated procedures. CLE and related technologies are often termed “virtual biopsy” as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. However, the imaging of living tissue allows more than just pragmatic convenience; it also allows imaging of living tissue such as active capillary circulation, cellular death, and vascular and endothelial translocation, thus extending beyond what is capable in traditional biopsy. Immediate potential applications of CLE are to guide biopsy sampling in Barrett's esophagus and inflammatory bowel disease surveillance, evaluation of colorectal polyps, and intraductal imaging of the pancreas and bile duct. Data on these applications is rapidly emerging, and more is needed to clearly demonstrate the optimal applications of CLE. In this paper, we will focus on the role of CLE as applied to colorectal polyps detected during colonoscopy.

  4. Miss rate of colorectal neoplastic polyps and risk factors for missed polyps in consecutive colonoscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jung, Yoon Suk; Jeong, Woo Shin; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Park, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Kyuyong; Park, Dong Il

    2017-07-01

    Colonoscopic polypectomy is the best diagnostic and therapeutic tool to detect and prevent colorectal neoplasms. However, previous studies have reported that 17% to 28% of colorectal polyps are missed during colonoscopy. We investigated the miss rate of neoplastic polyps and the factors associated with missed polyps from quality-adjusted consecutive colonoscopies. We reviewed the medical records of patients who were found to have colorectal polyps at a medical examination center of the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital between March 2012 and February 2013. Patients who were referred to a single tertiary academic medical center and underwent colonoscopic polypectomy on the same day were enrolled in our study. The odds ratios (ORs) associated with polyp-related and patient-related factors were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. A total of 463 patients and 1,294 neoplastic polyps were analyzed. The miss rates for adenomas, advanced adenomas, and carcinomas were 24.1% (312/1,294), 1.2% (15/1,294), and 0% (0/1,294), respectively. Flat/sessile-shaped adenomas (adjusted OR, 3.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.40-5.46) and smaller adenomas (adjusted OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 2.84- 11.15 for ≤5 mm; adjusted OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.60-6.30 for 6-9 mm, respectively) were more frequently missed than pedunculated/sub-pedunculated adenomas and larger adenomas. In patients with 2 or more polyps compared with only one detected (adjusted OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.55-3.61 for 2-4 polyps; adjusted OR, 11.52; 95% CI, 4.61-28.79 for ≥5 polyps, respectively) during the first endoscopy, the risk of missing an additional polyp was significantly higher. One-quarter of neoplastic polyps was missed during colonoscopy. We encourage endoscopists to detect smaller and flat or sessile polyps by using the optimal withdrawal technique.

  5. Thymosin ß4 expression in colorectal polyps and adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemolato, Sonia; Cabras, Tiziana; Restivo, Angelo; Zorcolo, Luigi; Di Felice, Eliana; Fanni, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Messana, Irene; Castagnola, Massimo; Faa, Gavino; Casula, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous peptide that plays pivotal roles in the cytoskeletal system and in cell differentiation. Recently, a role for Tβ4 has been proposed in experimental and human carcinogenesis, including gastrointestinal cancer. This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between Tβ4 immunoreactivity and the initial steps of carcinogenesis. METHODS: In total, 60 intestinal biopsies, including 10 hyperplastic polyps, 10 sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, 15 colorectal adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, 15 adenomas with high-grade dysplasia, 15 adenocarcinomas and 10 samples of normal colon mucosa, were analyzed for Tβ4 expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Weak cytoplasmic reactivity for Tβ4 was detected in the normal colon mucosa. No reactivity for Tβ4 was found in hyperplastic and sessile serrated polyps/adenomas. Tβ4 expression was observed in 10/15 colorectal adenocarcinomas. In adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, Tβ4 immunoreactivity was mainly detected in dysplastic glands but was absent in hyperplastic glands. Tβ4 immunoreactivity was characterized by spot-like perinuclear staining. In high-grade dysplastic polyps, immunostaining for Tβ4 appeared diffuse throughout the entire cytoplasm of dysplastic cells. Spot-like perinuclear reactivity was detected in adenocarcinoma tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows for the first time that Tβ4 is expressed during different steps of colon carcinogenesis. The shift of Tβ4 immunolocalization from low-grade to high-grade dysplastic glands suggests a role for Tβ4 in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, the real meaning of Tβ4 reactivity in dysplastic intestinal epithelium remains unknown. PMID:24141838

  6. Active contours for localizing polyps in colonoscopic NBI image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, Matthias; Gross, Sebastian; Behrens, Alexander; Stehle, Thomas; Aach, Til

    2011-03-01

    Colon cancer is the third most common type of cancer in the United States of America. Every year about 140,000 people are newly diagnosed with colon cancer. Early detection is crucial for a successful therapy. The standard screening procedure is called colonoscopy. Using this endoscopic examination physicians can find colon polyps and remove them if necessary. Adenomatous colon polyps are deemed a preliminary stage of colon cancer. The removal of a polyp, though, can lead to complications like severe bleedings or colon perforation. Thus, only polyps diagnosed as adenomatous should be removed. To decide whether a polyp is adenomatous the polyp's surface structure including vascular patterns has to be inspected. Narrow-Band imaging (NBI) is a new tool to improve visibility of vascular patterns of the polyps. The first step for an automatic polyp classification system is the localization of the polyp. We investigate active contours for the localization of colon polyps in NBI image data. The shape of polyps, though roughly approximated by an elliptic form, is highly variable. Active contours offer the flexibility to adapt to polyp variation well. To avoid clustering of contour polygon points we propose the application of active rays. The quality of the results was evaluated based on manually segmented polyps as ground truth data. The results were compared to a template matching approach and to the Generalized Hough Transform. Active contours are superior to the Hough transform and perform equally well as the template matching approach.

  7. A Rare Complication of Hyperplastic Gastric Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Nayudu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic gastric polyps are incidentally diagnosed during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. They are known to cause gastric outlet obstruction and chronic blood loss leading to iron deficiency anemia. However, hyperplastic gastric polyp presenting as acute severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, there have been two cases of hyperplastic gastric polyps presenting as acute gastrointestinal bleeding in the medical literature. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American woman who was admitted to our hospital with symptomatic anemia and sepsis. The patient developed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding during her hospital stay. She underwent emergent endoscopy, but bleeding could not be controlled. She underwent emergent laparotomy and wedge resection to control the bleeding. Biopsy of surgical specimen was reported as hyperplastic gastric polyp. We recommend that physicians should be aware of this rare serious complication of hyperplastic gastric polyps as endoscopic polypectomy has diagnostic and therapeutic benefits in preventing future complications including bleeding.

  8. Recurrent giant fibrovascular polyp of the esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ser Yee Lee; Weng Hoong Chan; Ranjiv Sivanandan; Dennis Teck Hock Lim; Wai Keong Wong

    2009-01-01

    Giant fibrovascular polyps of the esophagus and hypopharynx are rare benign esophageal tumors. They arise most commonly in the upper esophagus and may, rarely, originate in the hypopharynx. They can vary significantly in size. Even though they are benign, they may be lethal due to either bleeding or, rarely, asphyxiation if a large polyp is regurgitated. Patients commonly present with dysphagia or hematemesis. The polyps may not be well visualized on endoscopy and imaging plays a vital role in aiding diagnosis as well as providing important information for preoperative planning, such as the location of the pedicle, the vascularity of the polyp and the tissue elements of the mass. They can also be recurrent in rare cases, especially if the resection margins of the base are involved. We review the recent literature and report a case of a 61-year-old man with a recurrent giant esophageal fibrovascular polyp with illustrative contrast barium swallow, CT and intra-operative images, who required several surgeries via a combination of endoscopic, trans-oral, trans-cervical, trans-thoracic and trans-abdominal approaches.

  9. Computer assisted optical biopsy for colorectal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Avila, Fernando J.; Saint-Hill-Febles, Yadira; Renner, Janis; Klare, Peter; von Delius, Stefan; Navab, Nassir; Mateus, Diana

    2017-03-01

    We propose a method for computer-assisted optical biopsy for colorectal polyps, with the final goal of assisting the medical expert during the colonoscopy. In particular, we target the problem of automatic classification of polyp images in two classes: adenomatous vs non-adenoma. Our approach is based on recent advancements in convolutional neural networks (CNN) for image representation. In the paper, we describe and compare four different methodologies to address the binary classification task: a baseline with classical features and a Random Forest classifier, two methods based on features obtained from a pre-trained network, and finally, the end-to-end training of a CNN. With the pre-trained network, we show the feasibility of transferring a feature extraction mechanism trained on millions of natural images, to the task of classifying adenomatous polyps. We then demonstrate further performance improvements when training the CNN for our specific classification task. In our study, 776 polyp images were acquired and histologically analyzed after polyp resection. We report a performance increase of the CNN-based approaches with respect to both, the conventional engineered features and to a state-of-the-art method based on videos and 3D shape features.

  10. Fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx and esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; HAN De-min; NI Xin; MA Li-jing; YE Jing-ying; XIAO Yang

    2011-01-01

    Fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx and esophagus, a rare, benign, intraluminal and submucosal tumor, is most commonly originated from the proximal esophagus. We discussed four cases with regurgitation, respiratory symptom or the feeling of a mass in the throat. All the patients were examined with laryngoscope under general anesthesia. A transverse cervical incision was performed in one patient and the polyps were excised under laryngoscope with CO2 laser in the other three patients. All the lesions were removed successfully. Diagnostic and therapeutic principles involved in these cases are presented and discussed. The recognition of fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx and esophagus as a potential cause of regurgitation is paramount. Surgical excision is recommended because of the satisfactory outcome.

  11. Gallbladder polyps: ultrasonographic and histopathological findings correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodriguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder polyp is an increasingly common diagnosis, primarily as an abdominal ultrasound finding requested by another cause. Studies report a prevalence between 4% and 5.6%. The importance of an accurate diagnosis is related to the possibility of developing a malignancy desease. The objectvie is to correlate ultrasound and histopathologic findings in gallbladder polyp patients operated at the Hospital San Juan de Dios de La Serena. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallbladder polyp from January 2000 to December 2010. a total of 40 patients underwent cholecystectomy for gallbladder polyp. 16 only had its tab clinic with abdominal ultrasonography report and the pathology report. 13 of them (81% were female. The mean age was 46 + / - 12 years. The reason for the ultrasonography was in 9 patients (56% abdominal pain in 3 patients (19%, a finding in asymptomatic patients, in one patient (6% biliary colic, none had jaundice, and in 3 patients (19% the cause was different. According to Abdominal ultrasound, the number of polyps was 1.1 + / - 0.3 per patient, and the average size was 5.8 + / - 1.8 mm. Histopathological examination showed the presence of polyps colesterolínicos in 11 of the 16 patients (69%. In the series described the abdominal ultrasonography showed a PPV = 0.68 for the diagnosis of gallbladder polyp. According to the report histopathological cholesterolosis diagnosed chronic cholecystitis in six cases (37.5%, chronic cholecystitis in six cases (37.5%, cholesterolosis in three cases (18.75% and cholelithiasis in one case (6 , 25%. Not demonstrated the presence of adenomas or foci of carcinoma in situ. In conclusion the described series does not allow to extrapolated or compare conclusions with other national and international series due to the small number of patients studied. There is a substantial sub-register of the pathology because the majority of patients undergoing

  12. Fiber as Protective Factor for Colon Polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango, Yessenia M.; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Sabate, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of death in the United States. The change in incidence patterns observed in populations previously considered at low risk for CRC suggests that environmental factors, including those related to diet, contribute to the etiology of this disease. It has been documented that the majority of colorectal cancers arise in adenomatous polyps. Although most colon polyps are harmless, some turn cancerous over time and as many as 30% to 40% of middle-aged and older adults may have one or more colon polyps. It is estimated that as much as one third to one half of colon cancer risk, and one fourth to one third of distal colon adenoma risk, might be avoidable by modification of dietary and life-style habits. Factors that have shown the most consistent protective effect against adenomas in epidemiologic studies include, among others, dietary fiber contained in fruits, vegetables, and grains. Because colonic polyps are so common in the industrialized world, prevention should play an important role. Methods: This is a cohort study to compare the association between fiber intake from fruits, vegetables, and grains, and the risk of physician-diagnosed colon polyps among 2,818 non-Hispanic white cohort members who had undergone colonoscopy. Subjects participated in two cohort studies, the Adventist Health Study-1 (AHS-1) in 1976 and again in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) in 2002–2005. Dietary information was obtained from the self-administered questionnaire from the AHS-1, while outcome was assessed from the AHS-2. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the period risk of incident cases of polyps with adjustment for age, gender, BMI, physical activity, and alcohol and meat intake. Results: A total of 441 incident cases of colon polyps were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, physical activity, alcohol and meat, total fiber intake was inversely associated with the risk of colon polyps (RR for

  13. Frequency of Thyroid Nodules among Patients with Colonic Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Duran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Colonic polyps and thyroid nodules are common diseases and their frequency increases with age. In the literature, there is no study investigating the coexistence of colonic polyps and thyroid nodules. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate thyroid nodule prevalence in patients with colonic polyps. Material and Methods. Sixty-six patients with colonic polyps and 146 patients without colonic polyps enrolled into the study. Age and sex matched control group was composed from patients without colonic polyps. Colonoscopic examinations, thyroid ultrasonographies were performed in all patients, and TSH were measured. Results. Male/female ratio in polyp and control groups were 40/26 versus 68/78, respectively (P=0.058. Mean ages were similar in both groups (53.3±11.4 versus, 51.8±11.4, P=0.373. Thyroid nodule was detected in 44 (66.7% patients with polyps and in 61 (41.8% controls (P=0.001. Patients with adenomatous polyps had 5 or more thyroid nodules compared to patients with hyperplastic polyps (P=0.03. Thyroid nodules were more prevalent among patients aged 50 or older compared to 50 years or less (P=0.023. Conclusion. Thyroid nodules were detected more common in patients with colonic polyps. Further studies are needed to clarify this coexistence.

  14. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in patients with multiple serrated polyps: a cross-sectional case series from genetics clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Buchanan

    Full Text Available Patients with multiple serrated polyps are at an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC. Recent reports have linked cigarette smoking with the subset of CRC that develops from serrated polyps. The aim of this work therefore was to investigate the association between smoking and the risk of CRC in high-risk genetics clinic patients presenting with multiple serrated polyps.We identified 151 Caucasian individuals with multiple serrated polyps including at least 5 outside the rectum, and classified patients into non-smokers, current or former smokers at the time of initial diagnosis of polyposis. Cases were individuals with multiple serrated polyps who presented with CRC. Controls were individuals with multiple serrated polyps and no CRC. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate associations between smoking and CRC with adjustment for age at first presentation, sex and co-existing traditional adenomas, a feature that has been consistently linked with CRC risk in patients with multiple serrated polyps. CRC was present in 56 (37% individuals at presentation. Patients with at least one adenoma were 4 times more likely to present with CRC compared with patients without adenomas (OR = 4.09; 95%CI 1.27 to 13.14; P = 0.02. For females, the odds of CRC decreased by 90% in current smokers as compared to never smokers (OR = 0.10; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.47; P = 0.004 after adjusting for age and adenomas. For males, there was no relationship between current smoking and CRC. There was no statistical evidence of an association between former smoking and CRC for both sexes.A decreased odds for CRC was identified in females with multiple serrated polyps who currently smoke, independent of age and the presence of a traditional adenoma. Investigations into the biological basis for these observations could lead to non-smoking-related therapies being developed to decrease the risk of CRC and colectomy in these patients.

  15. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in patients with multiple serrated polyps: a cross-sectional case series from genetics clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Daniel D; Sweet, Kevin; Drini, Musa; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko; English, Dallas R; Walsh, Michael D; Clendenning, Mark; McKeone, Diane M; Walters, Rhiannon J; Roberts, Aedan; Pearson, Sally-Ann; Pavluk, Erika; Hopper, John L; Gattas, Michael R; Goldblatt, Jack; George, Jill; Suthers, Graeme K; Phillips, Kerry D; Woodall, Sonja; Arnold, Julie; Tucker, Kathy; Muir, Amanda; Field, Michael; Greening, Sian; Gallinger, Steven; Perrier, Renee; Baron, John A; Potter, John D; Haile, Robert; Frankel, Wendy; de la Chapelle, Albert; Macrae, Finlay; Rosty, Christophe; Walker, Neal I; Parry, Susan; Young, Joanne P

    2010-07-16

    Patients with multiple serrated polyps are at an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Recent reports have linked cigarette smoking with the subset of CRC that develops from serrated polyps. The aim of this work therefore was to investigate the association between smoking and the risk of CRC in high-risk genetics clinic patients presenting with multiple serrated polyps. We identified 151 Caucasian individuals with multiple serrated polyps including at least 5 outside the rectum, and classified patients into non-smokers, current or former smokers at the time of initial diagnosis of polyposis. Cases were individuals with multiple serrated polyps who presented with CRC. Controls were individuals with multiple serrated polyps and no CRC. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate associations between smoking and CRC with adjustment for age at first presentation, sex and co-existing traditional adenomas, a feature that has been consistently linked with CRC risk in patients with multiple serrated polyps. CRC was present in 56 (37%) individuals at presentation. Patients with at least one adenoma were 4 times more likely to present with CRC compared with patients without adenomas (OR = 4.09; 95%CI 1.27 to 13.14; P = 0.02). For females, the odds of CRC decreased by 90% in current smokers as compared to never smokers (OR = 0.10; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.47; P = 0.004) after adjusting for age and adenomas. For males, there was no relationship between current smoking and CRC. There was no statistical evidence of an association between former smoking and CRC for both sexes. A decreased odds for CRC was identified in females with multiple serrated polyps who currently smoke, independent of age and the presence of a traditional adenoma. Investigations into the biological basis for these observations could lead to non-smoking-related therapies being developed to decrease the risk of CRC and colectomy in these patients.

  16. Prevalence of advanced colonic polyps in asymptomatic Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Hsiung Liu; Meng-Chen Wu; Yeh Peng; Ming-Shiang Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of advanced polyps in asymptomatic Chinese and to determine the risk of proximal advanced colonic polyps in subjects with and without polyps in the distal colon.METHODS: Data were collected prospectively during colonoscopic examinations performed in 5 973 subjects as part of health evaluation at our unit from December 1997 to December 2003. Polyps were considered advanced, if they were larger than 10 mm or were tubovillous, villous or malignant. Proximal colon was defined as the splenic flexure and more proximal portions of the colon.RESULTS: Colon polyps were detected in 971 (16.3%)subjects (613 males and 358 females) with their mean age being 56.6±10.7 years. Advanced polyps were noted in 199 (3.3%) individuals. Subjects were sub-classified according to the location of polyps into three groups: distal (569, 58.6%), proximal (284, 29.2%), and combined proximal and distal (118, 12.2%) groups. Subjects with advanced polyps in these three groups were 95 (9.8%),56 (5.8%), and 48 (4.9%) respectively. In the 48 subjects with advanced combined polyps, 13 advanced polyps were distributed at the distal colon, 17 at the proximal colon,and 18 at both. Eighteen colon cancers including 12 at sigmoid and 6 at ascending colon were confirmed by final pathology. The relative risk for advanced proximal polyp according to distal findings was 3.1 (95%CI: 1.3-7.4) for hyperplastic polyp, 2.7 (95%CI: 1.4-5.3) for tubular polyp and 13.5 (95%CI: 5.1-35.4) for advanced polyp as compared to that for no polyp. However, 56 (28.2%) of 199 subjects with advanced polyps had no index polyps at the distal colon and might go undetected under sigmoidoscopic screening.CONCLUSION: Although distal lesions can predict the risk of advanced proximal polyps, a substantial portion of Chinese with advanced proximal polyps is not associated with any distal sentinel lesions. These data have implications for screening policy of colon cancers in Taiwanese Chinese.

  17. Expression profiling of pattern recognition receptors and selected cytokines in miniature dachshunds with inflammatory colorectal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Hirotaka; Ohno, Koichi; Maeda, Shingo; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2014-05-15

    Inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRPs) are commonly seen in miniature dachshund (MD) dogs; typically, multiple polyps form with severe neutrophil infiltration. ICRP is thought to be a novel form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but its etiology has not been investigated. The innate immune system is implicated in the pathogenesis of both human and canine IBD. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and cytokines in ICRPs. Polyp tissues were collected by colonoscopic biopsies from 24 MDs with ICRPs. Non-polypoid colonic mucosa was collected from all MDs with ICRPs and 21 clinically healthy beagles (as the controls). The expression levels of the mRNAs encoding toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1-10; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors NOD1 and NOD2; and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8/CXCL8, and TNF-α were evaluated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Three of the 10 well-known candidate reference genes were selected as housekeeper genes based on analyses from the GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper programs. Levels of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, NOD2, and all cytokines were significantly upregulated in the polyps relative to those in the controls. There was significant decrease in the expression levels of TLR3 and NOD1 in the polyp tissues compared to the non-polypoid colonic mucosa obtained from MDs with ICRPs. All upregulated PRR mRNAs were positively correlated with all proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs. This study demonstrated the dysregulation of PRRs and proinflammatory cytokines in ICRPs of MDs, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  18. Computer-assisted detection of colonic polyps with CT colonography using neural networks and binary classification trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerebko, Anna K; Summers, Ronald M; Malley, James D; Franaszek, Marek; Johnson, C Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Detection of colonic polyps in CT colonography is problematic due to complexities of polyp shape and the surface of the normal colon. Published results indicate the feasibility of computer-aided detection of polyps but better classifiers are needed to improve specificity. In this paper we compare the classification results of two approaches: neural networks and recursive binary trees. As our starting point we collect surface geometry information from three-dimensional reconstruction of the colon, followed by a filter based on selected variables such as region density, Gaussian and average curvature and sphericity. The filter returns sites that are candidate polyps, based on earlier work using detection thresholds, to which the neural nets or the binary trees are applied. A data set of 39 polyps from 3 to 25 mm in size was used in our investigation. For both neural net and binary trees we use tenfold cross-validation to better estimate the true error rates. The backpropagation neural net with one hidden layer trained with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm achieved the best results: sensitivity 90% and specificity 95% with 16 false positives per study.

  19. Endoscopic banding ligation can effectively resect hyperplastic Polyps of stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Chu Lo; Wen-Chi Chen; E-Ming Wang; Kwok-Hung Lai; Ping-I Hsu; Gin-Ho Lo; Hui-Hwa Tseng; Hui-Chun Chen; Ping-Ning Hsu; Chiun-Ku Lin; Hoi-Hung Chan; Wei-Lun Tsai

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Bleeding and perforation are the major and serious complications associated with endoscopic polypectomy. To develop a safe and effective method to resect hyperplastic polyps of the stomach, we employed rubber bands to strangulate hyperplastic polyps and to determine the possibility of inducing avascular necrosis in these lesions.METHODS: Forty-seven patients with 72 hyperplastic polyps were treated with endoscopic banding ligation (EBL). On 14 days after endoscopic ligation, follow-up endoscopies were performed to assess the outcomes of the strangulated polyps.RESULTS: After being strangulated by the rubber bands,all of the polyps immediately became congested (100 %),and then developed cyanotic changes (100 %) approximately 4 minutes later. On follow-up endoscopy 2 weeks later, all the polyps except one had dropped off. The only one residual polyp shrank with a rubber band in its base, and it also dropped off spontaneously during subsequent follow-up.No complications occurred during or following the ligation procedures.CONCLUSION: Gastric polyps develop avascular necrosis following ligation by rubber bands. Employing suction equipment, EBL can easily capture sessile polyps. It is an easy, safe and effective method to eradicate hyperplastic polyps of the stomach.

  20. Are gastric hyperplastic polyps an additional manifestation in celiac disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Maria Pina; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Rocchi, Chiara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Soro, Sara; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gastric polyps are frequently reported in patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures. In this retrospective study, the association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease in Northern Sardinia was estimated. Age, gender, body mass index, and medications taken in the 2 preceding months, including proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 receptor blockers (anti-H2), Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings, and histology from charts of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy were reviewed. Polyps were classified as hyperplastic, fundic gland, inflammatory, and adenomatous. 3.7% (423/11379) patients had celiac disease. Prevalence of gastric polyps was 4.2% (3.8% among celiac vs 4.2% nonceliac patients). Inflammatory polyp was the most common histotype (55.8% and 56.2%) followed by fundic gland polyps (31.4% and 43.7%), hyperplastic (8.7% and 0%), and adenomas, in celiac and nonceliac patients, respectively. Fundic gland polyps were more common in PPI users (odds ratio: 4.06) than in nonusers (2.65, P = 0.001) among celiac and nonceliac patients. Age older than 50, female gender, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy year, and PPI use were associated with the presence of polyps, whereas active H pylori infection was not. Gastric polyps were common in Sardinian patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. However, the previously reported association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease was not confirmed in our study. PMID:28151870

  1. The Effect of Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Their Initial Teacher Education Program on Teaching Anxiety, Efficacy, and Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lia M.; Mandzuk, David; Perry, Raymond P.; Moore, Ceri

    2011-01-01

    In a novel approach to initial teacher education, we combined a program review perspective and a psychological perspective. First, we assessed the extent to which student teachers (n=137) felt that components of their BEd program prepared them for teaching and whether these components represented meaningful program dimensions. Through content…

  2. Antrochoanal polyp derived from periapical granuloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhi-hong; LIN Min; TENG Yao-shu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aatrochoanal polyp (ACP) is an infrequent, benign polypoid lesion that stems from the edematous mucosa of the maxillary sinus, grows from the natural or accessory ostium to the middle meatus, and protrudes toward the choana and nasopharynx.1 Although the exact causes of ACP are still unknown, chronic sinusitis, allergy,and lower respiratory tract infections are often related to ACP.2 Our report is an ACP arising from a secondary infection of the pefiapical granuloma in the maxillary sinus.

  3. Portal hypertensive duodenal polyp: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-David Zeitoun; Ariane Chryssostalis; Benoit Terris; Frederic Prat; Marianne Gaudric; Stanislas Chaussade

    2007-01-01

    Abnormalities of gastric mucosa in patients with portal hypertension are well documented. Manifestations of portal hypertension in small bowel and colon are less common. Colonic polypoid lesions microscopically consisting of a normal mucosa, with dilatation of submucosal vessels, have been described. We here report the first case of portal hypertensive duodenal polyp, responsible for gastro-intestinal bleeding.Endoscopic treatment turned out to be successful.

  4. The development and validation of a multivariable model to predict whether patients referred for total knee replacement are suitable surgical candidates at the time of initial consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Laura; Malian, Samuel J; Chesworth, Bert M; Bryant, Dianne; MacDonald, Steven J; Marsh, Jacquelyn D; Giffin, J Robert

    2016-12-01

    In previous studies, 50%-70% of patients referred to orthopedic surgeons for total knee replacement (TKR) were not surgical candidates at the time of initial assessment. The purpose of our study was to identify and cross-validate patient self-reported predictors of suitability for TKR and to determine the clinical utility of a predictive model to guide the timing and appropriateness of referral to a surgeon. We assessed pre-consultation patient data as well as the surgeon's findings and post-consultation recommendations. We used multivariate logistic regression to detect self-reported items that could identify suitable surgical candidates. Patients' willingness to undergo surgery, higher rating of pain, greater physical function, previous intra-articular injections and patient age were the factors predictive of patients being offered and electing to undergo TKR. The application of the model developed in our study would effectively reduce the proportion of nonsurgical referrals by 25%, while identifying the vast majority of surgical candidates (> 90%). Using patient-reported information, we can correctly predict the outcome of specialist consultation for TKR in 70% of cases. To reduce long waits for first consultation with a surgeon, it may be possible to use these items to educate and guide referring clinicians and patients to understand when specialist consultation is the next step in managing the patient with severe osteoarthritis of the knee.

  5. Inverted Lymphoglandular Polyp in Descending Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old male with a history of left colon cancer, status post left colon resection for 12 years, presented with rectal bleeding. Colonoscopic examination revealed an 8 mm sessile polyp in the proximal descending colon. Microscopic examination showed that the surface of this polyp was covered with a layer of normal colonic mucosa with focal surface erosion. In the submucosal layer, an intimate admixture of multiple cystically dilated glands and prominent lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers was seen. The glands were lined by columnar epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining showed the glands were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7, with a low proliferative index, mostly consistent with reactive colonic glands. The patient remained asymptomatic after one-year follow-up. A review of the literature shows very rare descriptions of similar lesions, but none fits exactly this pattern. We would designate this inverted lymphoglandular polyp and present this case to raise the awareness of recognizing this unusual histological entity.

  6. Thermal and Osmotic Tolerance of ‘Irukandji’ Polyps: Cubozoa; Carukia barnesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Robert; Browning, Sally; Northfield, Tobin; Seymour, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the thermal and osmotic tolerance of the polyp stage of the Irukandji jellyfish Carukia barnesi, which provides new insights into potential polyp habitat suitability. The research also targets temperature, salinity, feeding frequency, and combinations thereof, as cues for synchronous medusae production. Primary findings revealed 100% survivorship in osmotic treatments between 19 and 46‰, with the highest proliferation at 26‰. As salinity levels of 26‰ do not occur within the waters of the Great Barrier Reef or Coral Sea, we conclude that the polyp stage of C. barnesi is probably found in estuarine environments, where these lower salinity conditions commonly occur, in comparison to the medusa stage, which is oceanic. Population stability was achieved at temperatures between 18 and 31°C, with an optimum temperature of 22.9°C. We surmise that C. barnesi polyps may be restricted to warmer estuarine areas where water temperatures do not drop below 18°C. Asexual reproduction was also positively correlated with feeding frequency. Temperature, salinity, feeding frequency, and combinations thereof did not induce medusae production, suggesting that this species may use a different cue, possibly photoperiod, to initiate medusae production. PMID:27441693

  7. CP-Miner : A hybrid Approach for Colorectal Polyp Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. M. Vanitha,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Computed Tomography Colonography (CTC is the new generation technique for detecting colorectal polyps using volumetric CT data combined with Computer Aided Detection (CAD system. The aim of this paper is to detail the implementation of a fully integrated CP-Minersystem that is able to identify the polyps in the CT data. The CP-Miner system has a multistage implementation whose main system components are: 1. Interpolation, 2. Automatic Colon Segmentation,3.Feature extraction, 4.Polyp Detection. The proposed system has the aim to reduce the number of false positives than the existing system. The developed system provides 100% sensitivity for polyps greater than 6mm, provides 83.33% sensitivity for polyps within 3 to 6mm, 69.23% sensitivity for polyps less than 3mm. The overall sensitivityof the CP-Miner system is 84.18%.

  8. Acute Gastric Bleeding Due to Giant Hyperplastic Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Aksel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic gastric polyps account for the majority of benign gastric polyps. The vast majority of these lesions are small, asymptomatic and found incidentally on radiologic or endoscopic examination. Giant hyperplastic gastric polyps are uncommon and most of them are asymptomatic. We report a case of a 66-year-old woman who admitted because of acute gastric bleeding. The gastrin levels were within normal ranges. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed 12 cm pedunculated and multiple lobulated hyperplastic polyps arising from antrum with signs of diffuse oozing. The patient is treated by subtotal gastrectomy with Roux-Y gastrojejunostomy. Histological examination showed the presence of ulcers and regeneration findings with the contemporary occurrence of hyperplastic polyp. Giant hyperplastic gastric polyp should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  9. CP-Miner : A hybrid Approach for Colorectal Polyp Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. M. Vanitha,; Prof. P. Tamije Selvy; Dr. V.Palanisamy,; Prof. AR.Sivakumaran

    2010-01-01

    Computed Tomography Colonography (CTC) is the new generation technique for detecting colorectal polyps using volumetric CT data combined with Computer Aided Detection (CAD) system. The aim of this paper is to detail the implementation of a fully integrated CP-Minersystem that is able to identify the polyps in the CT data. The CP-Miner system has a multistage implementation whose main system components are: 1. Interpolation, 2. Automatic Colon Segmentation,3.Feature extraction, 4.Polyp Detecti...

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Candidate Genes for Control of Plant Height, Branch Initiation Height and Branch Number in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant architecture is crucial for rapeseed yield and is determined by plant height (PH, branch initiation height (BIH, branch number (BN and leaf and inflorescence morphology. In this study, we measured three major factors (PH, BIH, and BN in a panel of 333 rapeseed accessions across 4 years. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed via Q + K model and the panel was genotyped using the 60 k Brassica Infinium SNP array. We identified seven loci for PH, four for BIH, and five for BN. Subsequently, by determining linkage disequilibrium (LD decay associated with 38 significant SNPs, we gained 31, 15, and 17 candidate genes for these traits, respectively. We also showed that PH is significantly correlated with BIH, while no other correlation was revealed. Notably, a GA signaling gene (BnRGA and a flowering gene (BnFT located on chromosome A02 were identified as the most likely candidate genes associated with PH regulation. Furthermore, a meristem initiation gene (BnLOF2 and a NAC domain transcriptional factor (BnCUC3 that may be associated with BN were identified on the chromosome A07. This study reveals novel insight into the genetic control of plant architecture and may facilitate marker-based breeding for rapeseed.

  11. Surveillance of FAP: a prospective blinded comparison of capsule endoscopy and other GI imaging to detect small bowel polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tescher Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is a hereditary disorder characterized by polyposis along the gastrointestinal tract. Information on adenoma status below the duodenum has previously been restricted due to its inaccessibility in vivo. Capsule Endoscopy (CE may provide a useful adjunct in screening for polyposis in the small bowel in FAP patients. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of CE in the assessment of patients with FAP, compared to other imaging modalities for the detection of small bowel polyps. Method 20 consecutive patients with previously diagnosed FAP and duodenal polyps, presenting for routine surveillance of polyps at The Royal Melbourne Hospital were recruited. Each fasted patient initially underwent a magnetic resonance image (MRI of the abdomen, and a barium small bowel follow-through study. Capsule Endoscopy was performed four weeks later on the fasted patient. An upper gastrointestinal side-viewing endoscopy was done one (1 to two (2 weeks after this. Endoscopists and investigators were blinded to results of other investigations and patient history. Results Within the stomach, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy found more polyps than other forms of imaging. SBFT and MRI generally performed poorly, identifying fewer polyps than both upper gastrointestinal and capsule endoscopy. CE was the only form of imaging that identified polyps in all segments of the small bowel as well as the only form of imaging able to provide multiple findings outside the stomach/duodenum. Conclusion CE provides important information on possible polyp development distal to the duodenum, which may lead to surgical intervention. The place of CE as an adjunct in surveillance of FAP for a specific subset needs consideration and confirmation in replication studies. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000616370

  12. Physical activity reduces risk for colon polyps in a multiethnic colorectal cancer screening population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Nelson F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying modifiable factors that influence the epidemiology of colorectal cancer incidence among multiethnic groups might be informative for the development of public health strategies targeting the disease. Minimal data exists describing the impact of physical activity on colorectal polyp risk in United States minority populations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship of exercise on the prevalence of polyps in a multiethnic colorectal cancer screening population. Results We enrolled 982 patients: 558 Hispanic, 202 Asian,149 Black, and 69 White. Patients who reported exercising one or more hours weekly had a lower prevalence of any polyps (25.3% vs 33.2%, P = 0.008 as well as adenomas (13.8 vs. 18.9%, P = 0.03 compared to those who did not exercise. Black and Hispanic patients and those who were overweight or obese also had lower prevalence of polyps if they led an active lifestyle. Multivariate analysis revealed that age >55, male sex, and Black race/ethnicity were positively associated with the presence of adenomas, while a history of exercising one hour or more weekly was an independent negative predictor for the presence of adenomas anywhere in the colon (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.4 - 0.9, P = 0.03. Conclusions Exercising one hour per week was associated with a lower prevalence of polyps and adenomas when compared to those who exercised less or not at all. An active lifestyle provides benefits to groups who are at risk for colorectal cancer, such as Blacks. It also provides significant protection to overweight and obese individuals. Public health initiatives should promote physical activity as a cancer prevention tool in multiethnic populations. Trial registration none

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Multiplexed Mass Spectrometry-Based Assay for Measuring Candidate Peptide Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) CSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Daniel S.; Wildsmith, Kristin R.; Honigberg, Lee A.; Tuefferd, Marianne; Baker, David; Raghavan, Nandini; Nairn, Angus C.; Croteau, Pascal; Schirm, Michael; Allard, Rene; Lamontagne, Julie; Chelsky, Daniel; Hoffmann, Steven; Potter, William Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We describe the outcome of the Biomarkers Consortium CSF Proteomics Project, a public-private partnership of government, academia, non-profit, and industry. The goal of this study was to evaluate a multiplexed mass spectrometry-based approach for the qualification of candidate Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) biomarkers using CSF samples from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Experimental Design Reproducibility of sample processing, analytic variability, and ability to detect a variety of analytes of interest were thoroughly investigated. Multiple approaches to statistical analyses assessed whether panel analytes were associated with baseline pathology (MCI, AD) vs. Healthy Controls (CN) or associated with progression for MCI patients, and included: (i) univariate association analyses, (ii) univariate prediction models, (iii) exploratory multivariate analyses, and (iv) supervised multivariate analysis. Results A robust targeted mass spectrometry-based approach for the qualification of candidate AD biomarkers was developed. The results identified several peptides with potential diagnostic or predictive utility, with the most significant differences observed for the following peptides for differentiating (including peptides from Hemoglobin A (HBA), Hemoglobin B (HBB), and Superoxide dismutase (SODE)) or predicting (including peptides from Neuronal pentraxin-2 (NPTX2), Neurosecretory protein VGF (VGF), and Secretogranin-2 (SCG2)) progression vs. non-progression from mild cognitive impairment to AD. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance These data provide potential insights into the biology of CSF in AD and MCI progression and provide a novel tool for AD researchers and clinicians working to improve diagnostic accuracy, evaluation of treatment efficacy, and early diagnosis. PMID:25676562

  14. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for giant polyps of the rectum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levic, K; Bulut, O; Hesselfeldt, P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential for malignancy in rectal polyps increases with the size of the polyp, and unexpected malignancy is reported in up to 39 % of large rectal adenomas. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) offers the possibility of an en bloc full-thickness excision for lesions in the rec...

  15. Relation between obesity and adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yumi; Nozaki, Ryoichi; Yamada, Kazutaka; Takano, Masahiro; Haruma, Ken

    2009-07-01

    We compared the prevalence of colorectal adenoma (polyps) in men and women and examined the role of body mass index (BMI) on polyp risk according to patient age and gender. The risk of developing colorectal polyps was studied in 15 380 subjects (7155 men and 8225 women) who underwent colonoscopy for the first time from April 1998 to March 2006 at our 'Human Dry Dock', which is the check-up service provided in Japan. Eligible subjects were 20-86 years old (mean age +/- SD, 47.3 +/- 8.5) and were free of invasive cancer, hyperplastic polyps and familial polyposis. Polyps were found in 1590 subjects (1062 men and 528 women). The odds ratio (OR) of detection of polyps in relation to obesity was determined in all cases by multivariate logistic regression analysis after making an adjustment for gender and age. The OR of polyp detection in obese subjects (BMI >or= 25) versus non-obese subjects (BMI < 25, OR = 1) was 1.34 (P < 0.001) in men and 1.13 (P = 0.26) in women. As the BMI increased in increments of one, the OR in men increased significantly to 1.01 (P < 0.001), whereas the OR in women was unchanged at 1.00 (P = 0.23), which was without significance. We conclude that obesity in men is a risk factor for the development of polyps. These results must be confirmed by additional epidemiological studies.

  16. Juvenile Polyps in Denmark From 1995 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Brusgaard, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile polyps in the large bowel are rare but the most common type of polyp in children. The prevalence and incidence are unknown, and few studies exist on the occurrence in adults. They are considered not to harbor any malignant potential unless they are part of the hereditary...... juvenile polyposis syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the demographics of juvenile polyps in Denmark in a 20-year period from 1995 to 2015 in both adults and children. This is the first report on the occurrence, anatomic localization, and reoccurrence of these polyps in a whole population. DESIGN: Data...... from all of the patients who had been diagnosed with 1 or more juvenile polyp from January 1, 1995, until December 31, 2014, were obtained. SETTINGS: The study was conducted based on patients registered in the nationwide pathological register in Denmark, the Danish Pathology Data Bank. PATIENTS: We...

  17. Polyp Detection and Segmentation from Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Surya Prasath

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Video capsule endoscopy (VCE is used widely nowadays for visualizing the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Capsule endoscopy exams are prescribed usually as an additional monitoring mechanism and can help in identifying polyps, bleeding, etc. To analyze the large scale video data produced by VCE exams, automatic image processing, computer vision, and learning algorithms are required. Recently, automatic polyp detection algorithms have been proposed with various degrees of success. Though polyp detection in colonoscopy and other traditional endoscopy procedure based images is becoming a mature field, due to its unique imaging characteristics, detecting polyps automatically in VCE is a hard problem. We review different polyp detection approaches for VCE imagery and provide systematic analysis with challenges faced by standard image processing and computer vision methods.

  18. Prevalence and incidence of hyperplastic polyps and adenomas in familial colorectal cancer: correlation between the two types of colon polyps

    OpenAIRE

    Liljegren, A.; Lindblom, A; Rotstein, S; Nilsson, B; Rubio, C; Jaramillo, E

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims: Colorectal adenomas are recognised as precursors of colorectal carcinomas. The significance of hyperplastic (metaplastic) colorectal polyps is unknown. The relationship between hyperplastic polyps and adenomas, and the prevalence and incidence of these lesions were evaluated in individuals predisposed to familial colorectal cancer.

  19. Calcification process dynamics in coral primary polyps as observed using a calcein incubation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ohno

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcification processes are largely unknown in scleractinian corals. In this study, live confocal imaging was used to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of the calcification process in aposymbiotic primary polyps of the coral species Acropora digitifera. The fluorophore calcein was used as a calcium deposition marker and a visible indicator of extracellular fluid distribution at the tissue-skeleton interface (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM in primary polyp tissues. Under continuous incubation in calcein-containing seawater, initial crystallization and skeletal growth were visualized among the calicoblastic cells in live primary polyp tissues. Additionally, the distribution of calcein-stained SCM and contraction movements of the pockets of SCM were captured at intervals of a few minutes. Our experimental system provided several new insights into coral calcification, particularly as a first step in monitoring the relationship between cellular dynamics and calcification in vivo. Our study suggests that coral calcification initiates at intercellular spaces, a finding that may contribute to the general understanding of coral calcification processes.

  20. Colon polyps: epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic criteria and courses of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteva Е.А.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Article focuses on the intestinal polyps. Intestinal polyps are considered to be obligatory precancerous diseases of the colon. Risk factors, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnostic methods of polyps have been analyzed. The courses of treatment of colon polyps have been revealed.

  1. Role of high definition colonoscopy in colorectal adenomaatous polyp detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tolga Erim; John M Rivas; Evelio Velis; Fernando Castro

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the rates of polyp detection in a mixed risk population using standard definition (SDC) vs high definition colonoscopes (HDC). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort comparative study of 3 colonoscopists who each consecutively performed 150 SDC (307, 200 pixel) and 150 HDC (792, 576 pixels) in a community teaching hospital.RESULTS: A total of 900 colonoscopies were evaluated (mean age 56, 46.8% men), 450 with each resolution. Polyps of any type were detected in 46.0% of patients using SDC and 43.3% with HDC (P = 0.42). There was no significant difference between the overall number of polyps, HDC (397) and SDC (410), detected among all patients examined, (P = 0.73). One or more adenomatous polyps were detected in 24.2% of patients with HDC and 24.9% of patients with SDC colonoscopy (P = 0.82). There was no significant difference between HDC (M = 0.41) and SDC (M = 0.42) regarding adenomatous polyp (P = 0.88) or advanced adenoma (P = 0.56) detection rate among all patients examined.CONCLUSION: HDC did not improve yield of adenomatous polyp, advanced adenoma or overall polyp detection in a population of individuals with mixed risk for colorectal cancer.

  2. Pólipos endometriais Endometrial polyps

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    Antonio Alberto Nogueira

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Os pólipos endometriais são lesões benignas, com baixo potencial de malignização. No período reprodutivo seu diagnóstico é obtido nas pacientes sintomáticas, com sangramento uterino anormal ou infertilidade. Na pós-menopausa em sua maioria são assintomáticos, podendo estar associados a sangramento anormal em torno de um terço dos casos. São mais freqüentes na pós-menopausa e os fatores de risco para câncer de endométrio não têm sido associados da mesma maneira, como de risco para pólipos endometriais, embora sejam hormônio-dependentes, como nas pacientes usuárias do tamoxifeno, por exemplo. Seu diagnóstico definitivo é realizado pelo exame histológico com amostra obtida de maneira mais eficiente por biópsia dirigida por meio da histeroscopia, assim como seu tratamento mais efetivo é a ressecção histeroscópica. Pólipos podem apresentar recorrência após tratamento. A polipectomia é altamente satisfatória na pós-menopausa, tem menor taxa de sucesso em mulheres sintomáticas no período reprodutivo e melhora as taxas de fertilidade em mulheres inférteis.Endometrial polyps are benign lesions, with a low potential of malignancy. In the reproductive period their diagnosis is established in symptomatic patients with abnormal uterine bleeding or infertility. Postmenopausal women are mostly asymptomatic but in approximately one third of the cases there is an association with abnormal bleeding. They are more frequent after the menopause and risk factors of cancer of the endometrium have not been associated in the same way as risk for endometrial polyps, although they are hormone-dependent as in patients in use of tamoxifen, for instance. Their definitive diagnosis is established by hysteroscopy-guided biopsy and their most effective treatment is hysteroscopic resection. Polyps may recur after treatment. Polypectomy is highly satisfactory after the menopause, is less successful in symptomatic women in the reproductive

  3. Positive predictive value for polyps detected at screening CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Wise, Steven M.; Kim, David H. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2010-07-15

    To determine the positive predictive value (PPV) for polyps detected at CT colonography (CTC). Assessment of 739 colorectal lesions {>=}6 mm detected prospectively at CTC screening in 479 patients was performed. By-polyp PPV was analyzed according to small (6-9 mm) versus large ({>=}10 mm) size; morphology (sessile/pedunculated/flat); diagnostic confidence level (3 = most confident, 1 = least confident); and histology. By-patient PPV was analyzed at various polyp size thresholds. By-polyp PPV for CTC-detected lesions {>=}6 mm, 6-9 mm, and {>=}10 mm was 91.6% (677/739), 90.1% (410/451), and 92.7% (267/288), respectively (p = 0.4). By-polyp PPV according to sessile, pedunculated, flat, and mass-like morphology was 92.5% (441/477), 96.5% (139/144), 77.7% (73/94), and 97.6% (40/41), respectively (p < 0.0001 for flat versus polypoid morphology). By-polyp PPV according to diagnostic confidence level was 94.7% (554/585) for highest (= level 3), 83.5% (106/127) for intermediate (= level 2), and 63.0% (17/27) for lowest (= level 1) confidence (p < 0.0001 for levels-2/3 versus level-1). By-patient PPV at 6-mm, 8-mm, 10-mm, and 30-mm polyp size thresholds was 92.3% (442/479), 93.0% (306/329), 93.1% (228/245), and 97.4% (38/39), respectively. The overall per-polyp and per-patient PPV for lesions {>=}6 mm was 92% for CTC screening. Increased diagnostic confidence and polypoid (non-flat) morphology correlated with a higher PPV, whereas small versus large polyp size had very little effect. (orig.)

  4. Associations between dietary fiber and colorectal polyp risk differ by polyp type and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer.

  5. Associations between Dietary Fiber and Colorectal Polyp Risk Differ by Polyp Type and Smoking Status12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Smalley, Walter E.; Ness, Reid M.; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer. PMID:24572038

  6. Evaluation of metal clips combining with microwave therapy in treatinglarge, pedicellated gastrointestinal polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Nian Zhou; Qiu Ju Feng

    2000-01-01

    AIM To evluate the curative effect of metal clips combining with microwave in treating large, pedicellatedgastrointestinal polyps by endoscopy.METHODS Ten patients with pedicellated gastrointestinal polyps were treated with metal clips (OlympusMD-850) combining with microwave by endoscopy. Among them, gastric polyps were found in 6 cases (6polyps), colonic polyps in 4 cases(4 polyps), 9 polyps were 1.5 cm - 2 cm in size, the other one was morethan 2 cm, the diameter of pedicel was 1 cm to 1.5 cm. All patients were repeatedly examined withendoscopy to observe the curative effect at 5 to 10 days and one month after treatment.RESULTS All the 10 polyps were eradicated, 2- 4 metal clips were placed in one polyp, the succeedingcurative rate was 100%. No hemorrhage, perforation and other complications occurred.CONCLUSION The curative effect of metal clips combining with microwave in treating large, pedicellatedgastrointestinal polyps by endoscopy is reliable and safe.

  7. Improving Polyp Detection Algorithms for CT Colonography: Pareto Front Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Adam; Li, Jiang; Summers, Ronald M; Petrick, Nicholas; Hara, Amy K

    2010-03-21

    We investigated a Pareto front approach to improving polyp detection algorithms for CT colonography (CTC). A dataset of 56 CTC colon surfaces with 87 proven positive detections of 53 polyps sized 4 to 60 mm was used to evaluate the performance of a one-step and a two-step curvature-based region growing algorithm. The algorithmic performance was statistically evaluated and compared based on the Pareto optimal solutions from 20 experiments by evolutionary algorithms. The false positive rate was lower (pPareto optimization process can effectively help in fine-tuning and redesigning polyp detection algorithms.

  8. Giant Fibrovascular Polyp of the Larynx

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    Nascimento, Silva Bona do

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fibrovascular polyps (FVPs are rare benign tumors originating in the cervical esophagus, and, rarely, in the hypopharynx. A case of FVP from the larynx has not yet been described in the literature. Objectives To discuss a unique case of FVP originating in the larynx. Resumed Report A 58-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of progressive dysphagia. Endoscopic exams identified an elongated polypoid lesion originating from the mucosa of the epiglottis and the right pharyngoepiglottic fold. Excision of this mass under direct laryngoscopy revealed an 11.5 × 0.8-cm polypoid lesion, histologically diagnosed as an FVP. Conclusion The location of this FVP is important because, despite being a benign tumor, it carries a potentially lethal risk of upper airway obstruction.

  9. Colonoscopic polyp detection using convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Sargent, Dusty

    2016-03-01

    Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for medical image analysis rely on accurate and efficient feature extraction methods. Regardless of which type of classifier is used, the results will be limited if the input features are not diagnostically relevant and do not properly discriminate between the different classes of images. Thus, a large amount of research has been dedicated to creating feature sets that capture the salient features that physicians are able to observe in the images. Successful feature extraction reduces the semantic gap between the physician's interpretation and the computer representation of images, and helps to reduce the variability in diagnosis between physicians. Due to the complexity of many medical image classification tasks, feature extraction for each problem often requires domainspecific knowledge and a carefully constructed feature set for the specific type of images being classified. In this paper, we describe a method for automatic diagnostic feature extraction from colonoscopy images that may have general application and require a lower level of domain-specific knowledge. The work in this paper expands on our previous CAD algorithm for detecting polyps in colonoscopy video. In that work, we applied an eigenimage model to extract features representing polyps, normal tissue, diverticula, etc. from colonoscopy videos taken from various viewing angles and imaging conditions. Classification was performed using a conditional random field (CRF) model that accounted for the spatial and temporal adjacency relationships present in colonoscopy video. In this paper, we replace the eigenimage feature descriptor with features extracted from a convolutional neural network (CNN) trained to recognize the same image types in colonoscopy video. The CNN-derived features show greater invariance to viewing angles and image quality factors when compared to the eigenimage model. The CNN features are used as input to the CRF classifier as before. We report

  10. Hamartomatous polyps - a clinical and molecular genetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    are typically removed concurrently with endoscopy when located in the colon, rectum, or stomach, whereas polyps in the small bowel are removed during push-enteroscopy, device-assisted enteroscopy, or by surgery. HPs can be classified as juvenile polyps or Peutz-Jeghers polyps based on their histopathological......% fulfilled to diagnostic criteria of JPS. The majority of patients had a single juvenile polyp. Paper II: In this paper we conducted a review of the HPS based on the current literature. Paper III: We investigated the hypothesis that patients with one or few HPs may have a HPS based on genetic screening. We...... reported previously none could be classified as definitely pathogenic or likely pathogenic according to our variant classification scheme and thus we concluded that genetic screening of patients with one or few JPs are not indicated. Paper IV: In Paper IV we investigated one of the ethical aspects of next...

  11. Uterine prolapse complicated with a giant cervical polyp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massinde, Anthony Naju; Mpogoro, Filbert; Rumanyika, Richard Nyerere; Magoma, Moke

    2012-01-01

    Uterine prolapse with giant cervical polyp is a rare combination. Although uterine prolapse is common among elderly and menopausal women, giant cervical polyps are commonly encountered in young reproductive-age adults. A 55-year-old, para 7, Tanzanian woman, 7 months postmenopausal, presented with history of a protruding vaginal mass for 3 months. She also had a third-degree uterine prolapse with the cervix beyond the hymen and a huge, ulcerated, round mass on the anterior lip of the cervix. The mass had a large stalk, bled easily on touch, and measured approximately 6 × 6 cm in its largest diameter. The external cervical os and posterior cervical lip were identified and appeared normal. Transvaginal hysterectomy was performed with unremarkable recovery. Giant cervical polyp associated with uterine prolapse, although rare, can occur in menopausal women. Transvaginal hysterectomy as was done in this patient may be all that is required in benign polyps.

  12. [Predictive significance of tissue eosinophilia for nasal polyp recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C S; Lou, H F; Meng, Y F; Piao, Y S; Zhang, L

    2016-04-07

    To evaluate the association between clinical parameters, especially tissue eosinophilia, and chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) recurrence. To identify optimal criteria of tissue eosinophilia as a predictor for recurrence. Two hundred and forty-eight CRSwNP patients were enrolled in this study. The demographic and clinical features were compared between recurrence and no recurrence groups. Mucosal specimens were assessed for the presence of tissue inflammatory cells. Factors associated with polyp recurrence were analyzed by Logistic regression analysis and optimal cutoff point of the predictor for nasal polyp recurrence was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve. SPSS 19.0 software was used to analyze the data. The recurrence rate was 55.6%(138/248 patients) in this cohort. Tissue and peripheral eosinophilia, comorbid asthma, olfactory score and Lund-Mackay score were significantly correlated with polyp recurrence(all Peosinophilia provides valuable information regarding to polyp recurrence. Tissue eosinophil proportion equal to or over 27% may be regarded as the prognostic criterion for nasal polyp recurrence.

  13. Where are the polyps? Molecular identification, distribution and population differentiation of Aurelia aurita jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, van L.; Driessen, F.; Bleijswijk, van J.; Bol, A.; Luttikhuizen, P.; Coolen, J.W.P.; Bos, Oscar; Gittenberger, A.; Schrieken, N.; Langenberg, V.T.; Veer, van der H.W.

    2016-01-01

    For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates

  14. Significance of histologic criteria for the management of patients with malignant colorectal polyps and polypectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzer, P; Binek, J; Hammer, B; Lange, J; Schmassmann, A

    1997-09-01

    The management of invasive cancer in colorectal polyps (malignant polyps) is controversial, particularly with regard to the different sets of histologic criteria for deciding whether malignant colorectal polyps should be treated by polypectomy alone or be followed by surgical resection. We report on the outcome of patients in accordance with the histologic assessment of their malignant polyps. Malignant polyps were defined as having favourable histology (free margin, grade I or II, and no angiolymphatic invasion) or unfavorable histology (no free margin, grade III, or angiolymphatic invasion). Malignant polyps with favourable histology were treated by endoscopic polypectomy alone, whereas further therapy was recommended for malignant polyps with unfavourable histology. Residual cancer in a resection specimen and local or metastatic recurrence during the follow-up period (mean, 60 months; range, 12 - 120) were defined as adverse outcome. Thirty-seven malignant polyps were detected in 35 (0.5%) of 6605 patients. Five of these 35 patients were treated by primary bowel resection and analysed separately. In the other 30 patients the following unfavourable histologic signs were detected in 20 (62.5%) of 32 malignant polyps; no free margin in 16, grade III in 1, and angiolymphatic invasion in 3 polyps. Twelve polyps with favourable histology had no adverse outcome; in contrast, 5 of 20 polyps with unfavourable histology had an average outcome (P < 0.05). Locally excised malignant polyps without unfavourable histologic signs may not need further surgical treatment; for all other malignant polyps an ensuing bowel resection is recommended.

  15. Risk Factors for Self-Reported Colon Polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Henry S; Tatham, Lilith M; Thun, Michael J; Heath, Clark W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate risk factors for colon polyp using multivariate analyses. DESIGN In a group responding to a 1992 mail survey, we assessed the association between physician-diagnosed colon polyp and possible risk factors reported primarily 10 years earlier. SETTING Survey respondents within the Cancer Prevention Study II. PARTICIPANTS Respondents, 72,868 men and 81,356 women, who reported no polyp diagnosis when questioned in 1982 at ages 40 to 64 years. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The characteristics of 7,504 men (10.3%) and 5,111 women (6.3%) reporting a first colon polyp were compared with those of participants who did not report a polyp. After adjustments for age, family history of colorectal cancer, and other potential risk factors, polyp occurrence was associated with 1982 histories of smoking, former smoking, alcohol use of at least two drinks per day (odds ratios [ORs] from 1.5 to 1.1; all p < .005), and a body mass index ≥ 28 kg/m 2(men's OR 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 1.13; women's OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.99, 1.17). Polyps were also associated with a diagnosis of gallbladder disease or gallstone at any time and with gallbladder surgery up to 1982 (OR from 2.7 to 1.3; all p < .001). Polyp occurrence was inversely associated with 1982 histories of high exercise level (men's OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.76, 0.91; women's OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.78, 1.03), frequent aspirin use in women (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.95), and high parity in women (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.75, 0.94). Among participants lacking a clinically normal gallbladder, the polyp risks associated with smoking and high body mass index were reduced (p < .04 for interactions). CONCLUSIONS Despite the limitations and potential biases in these self-reported data, the risk factors described here may be useful for identifying persons at modestly increased risk of having a colon polyp. The effect-modifying role of gallbladder status deserves further investigation. PMID:9613885

  16. Benign Endometrial Polyp and Primary Endometrial Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Confined to the Polyp: A Rare Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pembe Oltulu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are a heterogeneous group of tumoral lesions originating from diffuse endo­crine system cells. They occur mostly in the gastrointes­tinal system and the lung. Primary NETs of the female reproductive tract are rare. In a widely used classification, primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (SCNECs and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs of the endometrium were included in a subgroup of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. SCNECs of the endometrium are very rare and they are often com­bined with other epithelial neoplasms. Their myometrial and extrauterine invasions are common during the initial diagnosis due to their aggressive behaviors. In this ar­ticle, we present a rare case of primary endometrial SC­NEC detected within the benign endometrial polyp and without invasion of myometrium and extrauterine tissues in a 70-year-old female patient presenting with post­menopausal bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor cells showed positive staining with Synaptophysin, the Ki-67 labeling index was 80-90%, the mitotic index was 15/10 per HPF and there was no necrosis and lymphovascular invasion. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 107-110

  17. Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia (EIN In An Endometrial Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devic Ana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN is a monoclonal neoplastic cell proliferation of the endometrium associated with a significantly increased risk of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. We herein present the case of a 58-year-old female patient who underwent a hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy because of the existence of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia in an endometrial polyp. The patient had irregular uterine bleeding, which lasted 10 days. An endometrial polyp was diagnosed by ultrasound examination. The polyp was located in the isthmus of the uterus, on the back wall, and measured 32 mm × 25 mm. The patient underwent fractional dilation and curettage, and the specimens were subjected to a histopathological examination. The histopathological findings were EIN, endometrioid type, a focus of which was found within the endometrial polyps, as well as the endometrial polyp and proliferative endometrium. The endocervical tissue was normal. Given the age of the patient and the histopathological findings, she underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The final histopathological findings were EIN, endometrioid type with a focus found within the endometrial polyp; endometrial polyp; simple hyperplasia; chronic inflammation of the uterine cervix; hyperkeratosis of the cervical squamous epithelium; and cervicitis chronica. There was also hydrosalpinx of the left fallopian tube, and cystic follicles in the left ovary. There was no significant morphological change in the right ovary or fallopian tube. The surgical and postoperative course were normal. The patient was sent home on the fifth postoperative day in good general condition. A check-up performed one month after surgery showed normal findings.

  18. Factors Influencing the Recurrence Potential of Benign Endometrial Polyps after Hysteroscopic Polypectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehn-Hsiahn Yang

    Full Text Available An endometrial polyp is a frequently encountered gynecologic disease with abnormal uterine bleeding and infertility being the two common presenting problems, and hysteroscopic polypectomy is an effective method to remove them. The postoperative polyp recurrence might result in reappearance of abnormal uterine bleeding or infertility, whereas factors influencing the postoperative recurrence potential have limited data.This case-series report included 168 premenopausal women who suffered from endometrial polyps and underwent hysteroscopic polypectomy. All of them were awaiting a future pregnancy. Office hysteroscopy was done before and after hysteroscopic polypectomy, in which preoperative hysteroscopy examined the number, type, and location of endometrial polyps, and postoperative hysteroscopy checked the polyp recurrence. Surgical indications, either infertility or the presentation of abnormal uterine bleeding, and follow-up duration were recorded.Seventy-three out of 168 (43% women had polyp recurrence after hysteroscopic polypectomy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that more endometrial polyps (P = 0.015 and longer duration of follow-up (P = 0.004 were significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative polyp recurrence. The type of endometrial polyps was not correlated with polyp recurrence potential, whereas pedunculated type endometrial polyps were closely related to the presentation of abnormal uterine bleeding (P = 0.001.A higher number of endometrial polyps and longer follow-up duration are associated with a greater potential of polyp recurrence after hysteroscopic polypectomy.

  19. US characteristics for the prediction of neoplasm in gallbladder polyps 10 mm or larger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Sil; Lee, Jeong Kyong; Kim, Yookyung; Lee, Sang Min [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology and Medical Research Institute, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the characteristics of gallbladder polyps 10 mm or larger to predict a neoplasm in US examinations. Fifty-three patients with gallbladder polyps ≥ 10 mm with follow-up images or pathologic diagnosis were included in the retrospective study. All images and reports were reviewed to determine the imaging characteristics of gallbladder polyps. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate predictors for a neoplastic polyp. A neoplastic polyp was verified in 12 of 53 patients and the mean size was 13.9 mm. The univariate analysis revealed that adjacent gallbladder wall thickening, larger size (≥15 mm), older age (≥57 years), absence of hyperechoic foci in a polyp, CT visibility, sessile shape, a solitary polyp, and an irregular surface were significant predictors for a neoplastic polyp. In the multivariate analysis, larger size (≥15 mm) was a significant predictor for a neoplastic polyp. A polyp size ≥15 mm was the strongest predictor for a neoplastic polyp with US. The hyperechoic foci in a polyp and CT visibility would be useful indicators for the differentiation of a neoplastic polyp, in addition to the established predictors. (orig.)

  20. Genome-wide association identifies TBX5 as candidate gene for osteochondrosis providing a functional link to cartilage perfusion as initial factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawan eRangkasenee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteochondrosis (OC is an orthopedic syndrome of the joints that occurs in children and adolescents and domestic animals, particularly pigs, horses, and dogs. OC is the most frequent cause of leg weakness in rapidly growing pigs causing animal welfare issues and economic losses. In this study, a genomewide association study (GWAS was performed using the Porcine 60k SNPChip in animals of the breed Large White (n=298 to identify chromosome regions and candidate genes associated with OC lesion scores. A total of 19 SNPs on chromosomes (SSC 3, 5, 8, 10, 14 and 18 were significantly associated with OC lesion scores (p-values ≤ 10-5. The SNPs MARC0098684, MARC00840086, MARC0093124 and ASGA0062794 at SSC14 36.1 to 38.2 Mb encompass a region of six linkage disequilibrium (LD blocks. The most significant SNP ASGA0062794 is located in a LD block spanning 465 kb and covering the gene encoding T-box transcription factor 5 (TBX5. A SNP (c.54T>C identified in TBX5 was significantly associated with OC lesions scores in a single marker analysis. TBX5 c.54T>C showed highest linkage disequilibrium with ASGA00627974 (r2=0.96 and superior association with OC lesion scores over other SNPs when included in the genome scan, whereas its treatment as an additional fixed effect in the GWAS statistical model led to a drop of significance of nearby markers. Moreover, real time PCR showed different transcript abundance of TBX5 in healthy and defect cartilage. The results imply that the association signal obtained on SCC14 is largely attributable to TBX5 c.54T>C likely to be in linkage disequilibrium with a regulatory polymorphism of TBX5. The transcription factor TBX5 interacts with GJA5 and MEF2C both being involved in vascularization. This study provides evidence for epistatic interaction of TBX5 and MEF2C, thus supporting deficiency of blood supply to growth cartilage as being fundamental for the initiation of osteochondrosis.

  1. Increased prevalence of gallbladder polyps in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Anand K; Gayton, Emma L; Webb, Alison; Halsall, David J; Rice, Caiomhe; Ibram, Ferda; Chaudhry, Afzal N; Simpson, Helen L; Berman, Laurence; Gurnell, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an increased prevalence of benign and malignant tumors in acromegaly, particularly colonic neoplasms. The gallbladder's epithelial similarity to the colon raises the possibility that gallbladder polyps (GBP) may occur more frequently in acromegaly. Thirty-one patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly (14 females, 17 males; mean age 54.7 yr, range 27-76 yr) were referred to our center between 2004 and 2008. All had pituitary adenomas and were treated with somatostatin analogs prior to transsphenoidal surgery. Biliary ultrasonography was performed at the time of referral. In a retrospective case-cohort study, we compared the prevalence of GBP in these scans with those of 13,234 consecutive patients (age range 20-80 yr) presenting at the hospital for abdominal/biliary ultrasound during the same time interval. Associations between GH and IGF-I levels and GBP in acromegaly were also examined. There was a higher prevalence of GBP in patients with acromegaly compared with controls (29.03 vs 4.62%, P = 0.000008); relative risk was 6.29 (95% confidence interval 3.61-10.96). Eight of nine patients with acromegaly and GBP were older than 50 yr of age. GH levels were higher in those with GBP (median 30.8 μg/liter, interquartile range 10.9-39.1) than those without (8.2 μg/liter, interquartile range 6.0-16.0), but IGF-I levels were comparable. This is the first study to demonstrate an increased prevalence of GBP in patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly. Further studies are required to determine whether these patients are at increased risk of developing gallbladder carcinoma and to define the role, if any, of biliary ultrasound surveillance.

  2. A Rare Case of Solitary Peutz Jeghers Type Hamartomatous Duodenal Polyp with Dysplasia!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Chetan Devendra; Solanke, Dattatray Balasaheb; Kabra, Nikita Lalitkumar; Ingle, Meghraj Ananda; Sawant, Prabha Dilip

    2016-07-01

    Solitary Peutz Jeghers (SPJ) type hamartomatous polyp is a rare and separate entity from classic Peutz Jeghers syndrome (PJS). A hamartomatous polyp without associated mucocutaneous pigmentations, any other gastrointestinal polyp or a family history of PJS is diagnosed as a SPJ type polyp. We described a case of 22-year-old young man in whom solitary duodenal polyp was incidentally detected and resected. Histopathological examination revealed PJ type hamartomatous polyp with foci of adenomatous and moderate dysplastic change. Very few cases of solitary duodenal PJ type hamartomatous polyps with malignant transformation have been reported. They can be treated with endoscopic or surgical resection. Endoscopic ultrasound can give an idea about the depth of involvement. This is a rare case of duodenal solitary PJ polyp with dysplasia in a young patient.

  3. Placental polyp: a rare cause of iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Placental polyps are defined as pedunculated or polypoid fragments of placentaor ovular membranes retained for an indefinite period of time into the uterus afterabortion or child birth. An important cause of retention is placental accretism, anabnormal adherence of the placenta into the uterine wall. Chronic cases are rarelyreported in the literature. In these cases, the placental retention in the immediatepostpartum is not followed by heavy bleeding what makes the diagnosischallenging. We report a rare case of iron-deficiency anemia in a multiparous29-year-old female patient two years after the last delivery. She sought medicalcare with clinical symptoms of anemia and recent menses alterations. Therewas no history of abortion. On gynecological examination, there was a twofoldenlarged uterus, and the pelvic ultrasound revealed an image compatible with anendometrial polyp. She underwent open hysterectomy because of uncontrollablebleeding followed by hypotension after curettage. The histolopathologicexamination revealed a partially hyalinized and necrotic placental polyp.

  4. Regulation of polyp-to-jellyfish transition in Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Björn; Wang, Wei; Graspeuntner, Simon; Li, Yizhu; Insua, Santiago; Herbst, Eva-Maria; Dirksen, Philipp; Böhm, Anna-Marei; Hemmrich, Georg; Sommer, Felix; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Rosenstiel, Philip; Bosch, Thomas C G; Khalturin, Konstantin

    2014-02-03

    The life cycle of scyphozoan cnidarians alternates between sessile asexual polyps and pelagic medusa. Transition from one life form to another is triggered by environmental signals, but the molecular cascades involved in the drastic morphological and physiological changes remain unknown. We show in the moon jelly Aurelia aurita that the molecular machinery controlling transition of the sessile polyp into a free-swimming jellyfish consists of two parts. One is conserved and relies on retinoic acid signaling. The second, novel part is based on secreted proteins that are strongly upregulated prior to metamorphosis in response to the seasonal temperature changes. One of these proteins functions as a temperature-sensitive "timer" and encodes the precursor of the strobilation hormone of Aurelia. Our findings uncover the molecule framework controlling the polyp-to-jellyfish transition in a basal metazoan and provide insights into the evolution of complex life cycles in the animal kingdom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Atypical presentation of pseudomembranous colitis localized in adenomatous polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rocha, Cristian; Barra-Carrasco, Jonathan; Guzmán, Ana María; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Lezcano, Gabriel; Zoroquiaín, Pablo; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel

    2013-01-14

    The most frequent cause of pseudomembranous colitis is Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection. This type of colitis is characterized by an endoscopic pattern of numerous small, yellowish or whitish plaques diffusely distributed, which typically compromises the rectum extending to proximal colon. Occasionally, the pseudomembranes compromise only the transverse or right colon, but their exclusive localization over polyps has not been reported. In this case report we have described a patient with symptoms compatible with C. difficile infection and positive for C. difficile toxigenic culture. Colonoscopy examination showed two small polyps with a whitish surface, and histopathological analysis confirmed them to be pseudomembranes over tubular adenomas. The rest of the colonic mucosa was normal and no other cause was demonstrated. We suggest that this particular distribution might be due to a higher affinity for dysplastic cells such as adenomatous polyps of colon by C. difficile and/or its toxins.

  6. Fibroepithelial Polyp of the Tonsil: Report of a Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Ashish, Gaurav

    2015-12-01

    Pedunculated polyps of the palatine tonsil are rare benign tumours of tonsil. Most of the cases have been reported in adults with varying presenting symptoms. We report a 12-year-old male child who presented with 6 months history of difficulty in swallowing. There was no history of breathing difficulty, change in voice or history of trauma. Clinical examination revealed a 2x1 cm small pedunculated polyp arising from the superior pole of right tonsil which was excised under general anaesthesia. Left tonsil was normal. A diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyp of right palatine tonsil was made based on histopathological findings. An unusual presentation of a rare condition in a paediatric patient has been discussed along with the clinical and histopathological features of this lesion.

  7. A Giant Pedunculated Urothelial Polyp Mimicking Bladder Mass in a Child: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ureteral fibroepithelial polyps are rarely seen benign tumors with mesodermal origin. These polyps can involve kidney, pelvis, ureter, bladder, and urethra. The most common symptoms are hematuria and flank pain. The choice of treatment is either endoscopic or surgical resection of polyp by sparing kidney. Here, we presented a pediatric case with giant, fibroepithelial polyp that mimics bladder tumor, originating from middle segment of the ureter.

  8. Accuracy for optical diagnosis of colorectal polyps in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sola-Vera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optical diagnostic involves predicting polyp histopathology from its endoscopic characteristics. It is only recommended for diminutive polyps (≤ 5 mm and for predictions made with high confidence. Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of optical imaging in clinical practice and to assess if optical diagnosis is useful for predicting future colonoscopy surveillance intervals without waiting for histopathological analysis. Methods: consecutive > 18 years patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Colonoscopies were performed by five expert endoscopists who previously participated in an ex-vivo training. Colonoscopes CF-H180AL and CF-Q180AL were used together with Exera II (Olympus Medical System, Tokyo, Japan processors. Each polyp was characterized in real time using white light and Narrow Band Imaging. Accuracy of optical diagnosis (S, E, NPV, PPV and correlation between surveillance interval based on optical diagnosis and histopathological analysis were calculated. Results: 311 colon polyps < 10 mm (216 diminutive in 195 patients were analyzed. Accuracy of optical diagnostics for predictions made with high confidence: Diminutive polyps (sensitivity 0.59, specificity 0.92, NPV 0.48; polyps < 10 mm (sensitivity 0.73, specificity 0.88, NPV 0.50. An optical diagnosis based surveillance recommendation was given to 90 patients. Concordance with histopathology based recommendation was 92.2% according to the European guideline and 93.3% according to the ESGE guideline. Conclusions: Optical diagnostics can be used to predict future surveillance intervals immediately after colonoscopy. However, in this study, based on clinical practice, the accuracy of optical imaging is below the recommended standards.

  9. Could Eosinophilia predict clinical severity in nasal polyps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Figen; Altun, Eren; Paksoy, Serpil; Turan, Gulay

    2017-01-01

    Although nasal polyps are one of the most frequent diseases, their etiopathogenesis remains unclear.Since eosinophils are the main inflammatory cells in the substantial proportion of nasal polyp tissues, they are considered potentially responsible for the etiopathogenesis and prognosis of the disease. Aim of this study was to investigate the relation between mucosal and peripheral eosinophilia and their relation with disease severity in nasal polyps. The study included 53 patients with nasal polyps who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. Preoperative Lund-MacKay computed tomography (CT) scores and the Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores of the patients were recorded. Nasal polyp tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, eosinophil counts were performed using high-power field (HPF, 400×) under the light microscope, and the patients were grouped as those with high mucosal eosinophil count and those with low mucosal eosinophil count. The mean Lund-MacKay CT score and the mean Lund-Kennedy endoscopic score were higher in the patients with high mucosal eosinophil count than in those with low mucosal eosinophil count. Likewise, the mean Lund-MacKay CT score and the mean Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores were significantly higher in the patients with high peripheral eosinophil count than in those with low peripheral eosinophil count (p < 0.05 for both). Moreover, the mean peripheral eosinophil count was significantly higher in the patients with high mucosal eosinophil count than in those with low mucosal eosinophil count (p < 0.05). Mucosal and peripheral eosinophilia can be used as a marker to predict disease severity in nasal polyps.

  10. Giant sporadic fundic gland polyp: Endoscopic and endosonographic features and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ihab I El Hajj; Mohamad Hawchar; Assaad Soweid; Karim Maasd; Ayman Tawil; Kassem A Barada

    2008-01-01

    Fundic gland polyps are the most common gastric polyps. They are usually small in size, sporadic and asymptomatic. We present a case of giant fundic gland polyp. Our case is particular because of the clinical presentation, the endoscopic and endosonographic documented findings, and the treatment otpions followed.

  11. Watchful waiting versus colorectal resection after polypectomy for malignant colorectal polyps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levic, Katarina; Kjær, Monica; Bulut, Orhan;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Unexpected malignancy in removed colorectal polyps is reported in up to 9% of cases. The introduction of screening for colorectal cancer will inevitably increase the number of removed colorectal polyps and therefore also the incidence of malignant polyps. The treatment strategy is e...

  12. Syndromic Gastric Polyps : At the Crossroads of Genetic and Environmental Cancer Predisposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Giardiello, Francis M; Offerhaus, G Johan; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps occur in 1-4 % of patients undergoing gastroscopy. Although most are sporadic, some gastric polyps are part of an underlying hereditary syndrome. Gastric polyps can be seen in each of the well-known gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes, but also in Lynch syndrome and in several rare n

  13. Where are the polyps? Molecular identification, distribution and population differentiation of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walraven, L.; Driessen, F.; van Bleijswijk, J.; Bol, A.; Luttikhuizen, P.C.; Coolen, J.; Bos, O.G.; Gittenberger, A.; Schrieken, N.; Langenberg, V.T.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates

  14. Where are the polyps? Molecular identification, distribution and population differentiation of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walraven, L.; Driessen, F.; van Bleijswijk, J.; Bol, A.; Luttikhuizen, P.C.; Coolen, J.; Bos, O.G.; Gittenberger, A.; Schrieken, N.; Langenberg, V.T.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates

  15. Irukandji jellyfish polyps exhibit tolerance to interacting climate change stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Shannon G; Pitt, Kylie A; Rathjen, Kristen A; Seymour, Jamie E

    2014-01-01

    Increasing ocean temperatures and strengthening boundary currents have caused the poleward migration of many marine species. Cubozoan jellyfish known to cause Irukandji syndrome have historically been confined to tropical waters but may be expanding into subtropical regions. Here, we examine the interactive effects of warming and acidification on the population dynamics of polyps of an Irukandji jellyfish, Alatina nr mordens, and the formation of statoliths in newly metamorphosed medusae, to determine if this jellyfish could tolerate future conditions predicted for southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Two experiments, examining the orthogonal factors of temperature and pH, were undertaken. Experiment 1 mimicked the current, ca. 2050 and ca. 2100 summer temperature and pH conditions predicted for SEQ using A1F1 scenarios (temperature: 25, 27, 29 °C; pH: 7.9, 7.8, 7.6) and Experiment 2 mimicked current and future winter conditions (18 and 22 °C, pH 7.9, 7.8, 7.6). All polyps in Experiment 1 survived and budded. Fewer polyps budded in the lower pH treatments; however, patterns varied slightly among temperature treatments. Statoliths at pH 7.6 were 24% narrower than those at pH 7.8 and 7.9. Most polyps survived the winter conditions mimicked by Experiment 2 but only polyps in the 22 °C, pH 7.9 treatment increased significantly. The current absence of A. nr mordens medusae in SEQ, despite the polyps' ability to tolerate the current temperature and pH conditions, suggests that ecological, rather than abiotic factors currently limit their distribution. Observations that budding was lower under low pH treatments suggest that rates of asexual reproduction will likely be much slower in the future. We consider that A. nr mordens polyps are likely to tolerate future conditions but are unlikely to thrive in the long term. However, if polyps can overcome potential ecological boundaries and acidification proceeds slowly A. nr mordens could expand polewards in the short

  16. Inflammatory polyps in idiopathic inflammation of the colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J.; Schupp, R.R.; Friedrich, M.

    1983-02-01

    The article discusses the morphology and clinical importance of inflammatory polyps. It is shown via an analysis of the authors' own patients that no importance can be attached to such lesions in the differential diagnosis of indiopathic inflammations of the colon: 52,7% of the patients with Crohn's colitis (n = 112) as well as 43.3% of the patients with Colitis ulcerosa (n = 67) showed inflammatory polyps of the colon in the course of their disease. The article discusses the difficulty of radiological differentiation against adenomas or premalignant dysplasias of chronically inflamed mucosa.

  17. Endometrial polyps and associated factors in Danish women aged 36-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Eva; Sorensen, Soren Stampe; Lose, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    , the following was positively associated with endometrial polyps: current use of hormone therapy (odds ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.29-6.13) and being overweight (body mass index > 25 kg/m(2)) (odds ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.12-3.79) (postmenopausal women). Negatively associated was use of oral contraceptive pills (odds...... women were positively associated, whereas the use of oral contraceptive pills was negatively associated with endometrial polyps. Hypertension and cervical polyps were not associated with endometrial polyps. Endometrial polyps were infrequently related to premalignant and malignant disease....

  18. The natural course of endometrial polyps: could they vanish when left untreated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Deri-Hasid, Revital; Hamani, Yaron; Voss, Ernst

    2009-08-01

    To report the occurrence of spontaneous regression of three endometrial polyps detected by hysteroscopy. Case series. A uterine imaging unit in an academic medical center. Three patients diagnosed as having an endometrial polyp of 5-8 mm on hysteroscopy. Patient deferral of the surgical procedure for several months. Presence of a uterine polyp in the next hysteroscopy. The polyps disappeared spontaneously. Deferral of hysteroscopic polypectomy for a few months in asymptomatic women in the hope of spontaneous regression of the polyps may be justified.

  19. Inflammatory fibroid polyp occurring in the transverse colon diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoji Hirasaki; Minoru Matsubara; Fusao Ikeda; Hideaki Taniguchi; Seiyuu Suzuki

    2007-01-01

    A case of an inflammatory fibroid polyp occurring in the transverse colon and diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy is reported. The patient was an 82-year-old man who visited our hospital for further evaluation of occult blood in stool. The Colonoscopy revealed a small,red, and peduncular polyp, about 6 mm in diameter,in the transverse colon. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen obtained from the polyp revealed proliferation of fibroblasts and infiltration of inflammatory cells such as plasma cells and eosinophils. This polyp was diagnosed as an inflammatory fibroid polyp, which can appear in many different locations throughout gastrointestinal tract, though still rare in the transverse colon.

  20. Automated classification of colon polyps in endoscopic image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Sebastian; Palm, Stephan; Tischendorf, Jens J. W.; Behrens, Alexander; Trautwein, Christian; Aach, Til

    2012-03-01

    Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in the US. In recent years, however, early diagnosis and treatment have caused a significant rise in the five year survival rate. Preventive screening is often performed by colonoscopy (endoscopic inspection of the colon mucosa). Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) is a novel diagnostic approach highlighting blood vessel structures on polyps which are an indicator for future cancer risk. In this paper, we review our automated inter- and intra-observer independent system for the automated classification of polyps into hyperplasias and adenomas based on vessel structures to further improve the classification performance. To surpass the performance limitations we derive a novel vessel segmentation approach, extract 22 features to describe complex vessel topologies, and apply three feature selection strategies. Tests are conducted on 286 NBI images with diagnostically important and challenging polyps (10mm or smaller) taken from our representative polyp database. Evaluations are based on ground truth data determined by histopathological analysis. Feature selection by Simulated Annealing yields the best result with a prediction accuracy of 96.2% (sensitivity: 97.6%, specificity: 94.2%) using eight features. Future development aims at implementing a demonstrator platform to begin clinical trials at University Hospital Aachen.

  1. Computer Aided Detection of Polyps in CT Colonography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ravesteijn, V.F.

    2013-01-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive method for detection of colorectal polyps and colon cancer. Limitations of CTC related to the efficiency as well as the sensitivity of radiologists. Additionally, the patient's preparation was considered burdensome and the X-ray radiation that is inheren

  2. Glycoprotein expression by adenomatous polyps of the colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Celeste A.; Xie, Jianwu; Xu, Biying; Jabour, Paul; Griffiths, Gary; Summers, Ronald M.

    2008-03-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Specificity in diagnostic imaging for detecting colorectal adenomas, which have a propensity towards malignancy, is desired. Adenomatous polyp specimens of the colon were obtained from the mouse model of colorectal cancer called adenomatous polyposis coli-multiple intestinal neoplasia (APC Min). Histological evaluation, by the legume protein Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1), determined expression of the glycoprotein α-L-fucose. FITC-labelled UEA-1 confirmed overexpression of the glycoprotein by the polyps on fluorescence microscopy in 17/17 cases, of which 13/17 included paraffin-fixed mouse polyp specimens. In addition, FITC-UEA-1 ex vivo multispectral optical imaging of 4/17 colonic specimens displayed over-expression of the glycoprotein by the polyps, as compared to non-neoplastic mucosa. Here, we report the surface expression of α-L-fucosyl terminal residues by neoplastic mucosal cells of APC specimens of the mouse. Glycoprotein expression was validated by the carbohydrate binding protein UEA-1. Future applications of this method are the development of agents used to diagnose cancers by biomedical imaging modalities, including computed tomographic colonography (CTC). UEA-1 targeting to colonic adenomas may provide a new avenue for the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma by CT imaging.

  3. European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkens, Wytske J; Lund, Valerie J; Mullol, Joachim; Bachert, Claus; Alobid, Isam; Baroody, Fuad; Cohen, Noam; Cervin, Anders; Douglas, Richard; Gevaert, Philippe; Georgalas, Christos; Goossens, Herman; Harvey, Richard; Hellings, Peter; Hopkins, Claire; Jones, Nick; Joos, Guy; Kalogjera, Livije; Kern, Bob; Kowalski, Marek; Price, David; Riechelmann, Herbert; Schlosser, Rodney; Senior, Brent; Thomas, Mike; Toskala, Elina; Voegels, Richard; Wang, De Yun; Wormald, Peter John

    2012-03-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007.The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in children. More emphasis is placed on the diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. Throughout the document the terms chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps are used to further point out differences in pathophysiology and treatment of these two entities. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. Last but not least all available evidence for management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is analyzed and presented and management schemes based on the evidence are proposed.

  4. Case Report of Nasal Polyp Treated by Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋传义

    2007-01-01

    @@ A Patient, female, student, nineteen years old.She was diagnosed with rhinitis and nasal polyps at the age of 17, and was treated with many methods,but the disease was not cured. The patient and her parents were fearful of surgical treatment, so she came for acupuncture therapy.

  5. Aragonite precipitation by "proto-polyps" in coral cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Mass

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of coral calcification at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels are poorly understood. In this study, we examine calcium carbonate precipitation using novel coral tissue cultures that aggregate to form "proto-polyps". Our goal is to establish an experimental system in which calcification is facilitated at the cellular level, while simultaneously allowing in vitro manipulations of the calcifying fluid. This novel coral culturing technique enables us to study the mechanisms of biomineralization and their implications for geochemical proxies. Viable cell cultures of the hermatypic, zooxanthellate coral, Stylophora pistillata, have been maintained for 6 to 8 weeks. Using an enriched seawater medium with aragonite saturation state similar to open ocean surface waters (Ω(arag~4, the primary cell cultures assemble into "proto-polyps" which form an extracellular organic matrix (ECM and precipitate aragonite crystals. These extracellular aragonite crystals, about 10 µm in length, are formed on the external face of the proto-polyps and are identified by their distinctive elongated crystallography and X-ray diffraction pattern. The precipitation of aragonite is independent of photosynthesis by the zooxanthellae, and does not occur in control experiments lacking coral cells or when the coral cells are poisoned with sodium azide. Our results demonstrate that proto-polyps, aggregated from primary coral tissue culture, function (from a biomineralization perspective similarly to whole corals. This approach provides a novel tool for investigating the biophysical mechanism of calcification in these organisms.

  6. Association between Obesity, Serum Lipids, and Colorectal Polyps in Old Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal cancer mostly arises from the polyps of colon. The aim of our study was to examine the association of body mass index (BMI and serum lipids with the colorectal polyps in old Chinese people. Methods. The risk of developing colorectal polyps was studied in 244 subjects (212 men and 32 women, 74.63 ± 11.63 years old who underwent colonoscopy for the first time from January 2008 to July 2012 at the Navy General Hospital, Beijing, China. According to the results of colonoscopy, all the subjects were divided into 112 normal control, 38 right colorectal polyps, 53 left colorectal polyps, and 41 both right and left colorectal polyps groups. The total plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, plasma creatinine concentration, blood urinary nitrogen, and fasting glucose were determined using a multichannel analyzer. Results. There were significant differences among normal control, right colorectal polyps, left colorectal polyps, and both right and left polyps groups, which were the BMI, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, and urinary nitrogen. In binary logistic regression analysis, there were two risk factors associated with the occurrence of colorectal polyps, which included BMI and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. Colorectal polyps were significantly associated with increased BMI, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels.

  7. Reinterpretation of histology of proximal colon polyps called hyperplastic in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omer Khalid; Sofyan Radaideh; Oscar W Cummings; Michael J O'Brien; John R Goldblum; Douglas K Rex

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate how proximal colon polyps interpreted as hyperplastic polyps in 2001 would be interpreted by expert pathologists in 2007. METHODS: Forty consecutive proximal colon polyps ≥ 5 mm in size, removed in 2001, and originally interpreted as hyperplastic polyps by general pathologists at Indiana University, were reviewed in 2007 by 3 GI pathologists. RESULTS: The gastrointestinal (GI) pathologists interpreted 85%, 43% and 30% of the polyps as sessile serrated polyps (sessile serrated adenomas). The overall Kappa was 0.16. When diagnoses were compared in pairs, Kappa values were 0.38 and 0.25 (fair agreement) and 0.14 (slight agreement). CONCLUSION: Many polyps interpreted as hyperplastic in 2001 were considered sessile serrated lesions by GI pathologists in 2007, but there is substantial inter-observer variation amongst GI pathologists.

  8. Feasibility of coblation versus laser resection in recurrent nasal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgner, Justus; Schramm, Karsten; Duwel, Philip; Donner, Andreas; Westhofen, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Introduction: Chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps is one of the commonest diseases of the upper airways, with a recurrence rate of about 15%. Minimally-invasive endoscopic laser procedures have been established to reduce the need for conventional revision surgery whenever medical follow-up fails. However, laser surgery requires special considerations for surgical, safety and economic aspects. This study evaluates the feasibility of coblation versus laser resection for recurrent nasal polyps. Material and methods: 6 nasal polyps were harvested each from the ostiomeatal complex of patients undergoing microscopic endonasal surgery for chronic sinusitis. 3 were dissected using a Neodymium:YAG laser system (Dornier MediLas 5060N) set at 10, 20 and 30w in cw mode with a 600μm bare fiber in contact mode with negative feedback power control, while further 3 polyps were dissected using a Coblation system (ArthroCare® Coblator® I) with a 30° angled and a 0° straight probe with 2.4 mm outer diameter. The specimens were examined histologically for carbonization and coagulation as well as unaltered tissue. Results: Laser resection resulted in a carbonization zone of 30μm in depth plus a coagulation zone of about 100μm, depending on the water content and type of tissue. While the carbonization zone was smaller with coblation, coagulation zones were comparable, leaving ample amount of unaltered tissue available for further diagnosis. Conclusion: Both resection techniques are generally feasible to be used in day case surgery for recurrent polyps. While the coblation system required no special safety requirements, accessibility of the sinuses was limited by the rigidity of applicators that are available.

  9. Polyps of the Colon and Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Assessment and Safety Committee Initiatives Past Presidents Healthcare Economics Committee 2017 Tripartite Meeting Search form Search Login Join Now Find a Surgeon You are here Patients / Resources / ...

  10. Intravenous contrast enhanced computed tomography colonoscopy in children with suspected colonic polyps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, Anmol, E-mail: anmol_bhatia26@yahoo.co.in [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160 012 (India); Saxena, Akshay K., E-mail: fatakshay@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160 012 (India); Kalra, Naveen, E-mail: navkal2004@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160 012 (India); Sodhi, Kushaljit S., E-mail: sodhiks@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160 012 (India); Thapa, Babu R., E-mail: brthapa1@yahoo.co.in [Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160 012 (India); Rao, Katragadda L.N., E-mail: klnrao@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160 012 (India); Khandelwal, Niranjan, E-mail: khandelwaln@hotmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160 012 (India)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of intravenous contrast enhanced computed tomographic colonoscopy (IVCTC) in the diagnosis of clinically suspected colorectal polyps in children, using conventional colonoscopy (CC) as the gold standard. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted between July 2008 and June 2010. 30 pediatric patients with history of rectal bleeding and clinically suspected to have colorectal polyps were enrolled. All of the patients underwent IVCTC followed by CC. 30 IVCTC and 31 CC were performed in 30 patients. The findings of IVCTC were compared with those of CC. Statistical analysis was performed to obtain diagnostic performance values of IVCTC on per polyp (sensitivity and positive predictive value) and per patient (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value) basis. Results: By IVCTC, 63 polyps were detected in 28 patients of which 53 polyps were eligible for inclusion in the statistical analysis. 60 polyps were detected by CC in 28 patients of which 50 polyps were eligible for inclusion in the statistical analysis. The per polyp sensitivity and positive predictive values were 94% and 88.6% respectively. The per patient sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values were 96.4, 50, 96.4, and 50% respectively. Twenty polyps, in 10 patients, were visualized only after intravenous contrast administration of which 5 polyps, in 5 patients, were likely to have been missed in the absence of the intravenous contrast injection as these polyps were submerged in fluid. Four patients would have had a false negative CTC examination if the intravenous contrast had not been injected; while in another patient, the number of polyps would have been underestimated. Conclusion: CTC is capable of serving as a safe and efficient non-invasive tool for evaluating children with clinically suspected colorectal polyps. Administration of

  11. Evaluation of clinico-pathological features and Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric inflammatory fibroid polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Andreia; Rios, Elisabete; Carneiro, Fátima; Macedo, Guilherme

    2014-12-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyps are rare mesenchymal lesions. The frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection in the gastric mucosa overlying inflammatory fibroid polyps and its relation with the histologic features of the polyps are undetermined. The clinico-pathological features of inflammatory fibroid polyps, the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection in the overlying gastric mucosa, and its putative impact on the phenotype of the polyps were evaluated. Gastric inflammatory fibroid polyps diagnosed in our Hospital from 1998 to 2012 were reviewed and the histological. The histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and modified Giemsa for the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori infection. Inconclusive cases were further analyzed by immunohistochemistry with anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody. Diagnosis was confirmed in 54 polyps, 85 % developed in females, mean age 63 ± 11 years. Most polyps were sessile (74 %), with a mean size of 15 ± 12 mm, 96 % were located in the antrum and 85 % were removed by snare polypectomy. Helicobacter pylori infection was identified in 48 % of the polyps. Most inflammatory fibroid polyps developed in the submucosa, and mucosal extension was observed in 96 % of the cases. Chronic gastritis was observed in all cases (63 % with activity, 31 % with intestinal metaplasia, and 61 % with foveolar hyperplasia). Erosion and ulceration of the overlying gastric mucosa was observed in 48 % and 11 % of the polyps, respectively. Onion skin features were present in 52 % of the polyps and were more frequently observed in cases without evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Background changes in gastric mucosa were not distinctive according to Helicobacter pylori infection. Chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia was associated with the presence of perivascular onion skin lesions. To our knowledge, this is the second largest series of gastric inflammatory fibroid polyps. Helicobacter pylori infection was

  12. KRAS and BRAF somatic mutations in colonic polyps and the risk of metachronous neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Miriam; Egoavil, Cecilia; Rodríguez-Soler, María; Hernández-Illán, Eva; Guarinos, Carla; García-Martínez, Araceli; Alenda, Cristina; Giner-Calabuig, Mar; Murcia, Oscar; Mangas, Carolina; Payá, Artemio; Aparicio, José R; Ruiz, Francisco A; Martínez, Juan; Casellas, Juan A; Soto, José L; Zapater, Pedro; Jover, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    High-risk features of colonic polyps are based on size, number, and pathologic characteristics. Surveillance colonoscopy is often recommended according to these findings. This study aimed to determine whether the molecular characteristics of polyps might provide information about the risk of metachronous advanced neoplasia. We retrospectively included 308 patients with colonic polyps. A total of 995 polyps were collected and tested for somatic BRAF and KRAS mutations. Patients were classified into 3 subgroups, based on the polyp mutational profile at baseline, as follows: non-mutated polyps (Wild-type), at least one BRAF-mutated polyp, or at least one KRAS-mutated polyp. At surveillance, advanced adenomas were defined as adenomas ≥ 10 mm and/or with high grade dysplasia or a villous component. In contrast, advanced serrated polyps were defined as serrated polyps ≥ 10 mm in any location, located proximal to the splenic flexure with any size or with dysplasia. At baseline, 289 patients could be classified as wild-type (62.3%), BRAF mutated (14.9%), or KRAS mutated (22.8%). In the univariate analysis, KRAS mutations were associated with the development of metachronous advanced polyps (OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.22-4.58; P = 0.011), and specifically, advanced adenomas (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.13-5.21; P = 0.023). The multivariate analysis, adjusted for age and sex, also showed associations with the development of metachronous advanced polyps (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.15-4.46) and advanced adenomas (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.02-4.85). Our results suggested that somatic KRAS mutations in polyps represent a potential molecular marker for the risk of developing advanced neoplasia.

  13. Human Papillomavirus (HPV Prevalence in Nasal and Antrochoanal Polyps and Association with Clinical Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Knör

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of sinonasal polyposis remains unclear, in spite of several investigative approaches. Antrochoanal polyps, a subgroup of sinonasal polyposis along with allergic- and chronic-inflammatory nasal polyps, mostly originate from the maxillary sinus and develop as a unilateral, pedunculated mass towards the nasopharynx. The human papillomavirus (HPV is discussed as a possible causative and influencing factor in development and progression of sinonasal polyposis. This study aims to elucidate HPV frequency in nasal polyps and antrochoanal polyps.Genomic DNA from 257 tissue specimens (166 nasal polyps, 39 antrochoanal polyps and 52 nasal turbinates was subjected to three different established HPV- polymerase chain reaction assays, testing for 37 low- and high-risk HPV. In addition, immunohistochemical analyses for HPV16 were carried out, as well as immunohistochemistry and western blots of p16, a biomarker for HPV induced cancer.HPV-DNA was detected in 53.8% of antrochoanal polyps, 15.1% of nasal polyps, and 5.8% of nasal turbinates. HPV16 was the predominant type with a detection rate of 76% in nasal polyps and 62% in antrochoanal polyps. Immunohistochemically, HPV positive tissues stained positive for HPV16 antigens and p16 in epithelial cell layers. No significant p16 overexpression was traceable in antrochoanal polyps, nasal polyps and nasal turbinates by western blot. There was no correlation of HPV-status with sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption or allergic background.The present study shows a significant frequency of high-risk type HPV16 in antrochoanal polyps. Absence of oncogenic transformation or correlation of the HPV-status with clinical data suggests a latent superinfection, possibly because of anatomical proximity to the oropharynx.

  14. Discriminating dysplasia: Optical tomographic texture analysis of colorectal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqi; Coats, Maria; Zhang, Jianguo; McKenna, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    Optical projection tomography enables 3-D imaging of colorectal polyps at resolutions of 5-10 µm. This paper investigates the ability of image analysis based on 3-D texture features to discriminate diagnostic levels of dysplastic change from such images, specifically, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer. We build a patch-based recognition system and evaluate both multi-class classification and ordinal regression formulations on a 90 polyp dataset. 3-D texture representations computed with a hand-crafted feature extractor, random projection, and unsupervised image filter learning are compared using a bag-of-words framework. We measure performance in terms of error rates, F-measures, and ROC surfaces. Results demonstrate that randomly projected features are effective. Discrimination was improved by carefully manipulating various important aspects of the system, including class balancing, output calibration and approximation of non-linear kernels.

  15. [Detection of T-antigen in colorectal adenocarcinoma and polyps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S; Lu, Y; Wang, Q

    1995-10-01

    Galactose oxidase method was employed to detect the beta-D-Gal (1-->3) -D-Gal NAc residue of T-antigen present in the large intestinal mucus of 156 subjects. The positive rates of the test were 84.4%, 29.1%, and 7.2% in the mucus samples obtained from 32 patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas, 55 with polyps and 69 controls respectively. Chi-square test demonstrated that there were significant differences between the group of carcinoma and control (P < 0.001) as well as between also polyp and control (P < 0.01). The test had a high sensitivity (84.4%) and specificity (92.8%) in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and may be used as a practical mass screening test for colorectal neoplasms.

  16. Urethral polyp in a 1-month-old child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero [Department of Radiodiagnosis, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Piazzale Golgi, 2, I-27100, Pavia PV (Italy); Berton, Francesca; Gola, Giada [University of Pavia, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Institute of Radiology, Pavia (Italy); Chiari, Giorgio; Romano, Piero; Cassani, Ferdinando [IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Division of Paediatric Surgery, Pavia (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Urethral polyps are a rare finding in children, particularly in the very young. They are suspected by the presence of various clinical signs such as obstruction, voiding dysfunction and haematuria. There is an association with other urinary tract congenital anomalies. They are usually benign fibro-epithelial lesions with no tendency to recur and are treated by surgical ablation, fulguration or laser therapy. We report a 1-month-old boy with an antenatally diagnosed left ectopic pelvic kidney, postnatal urinary tract infection and no clinical signs of obstruction. Voiding cystourethrography to exclude vesico-ureteric reflux showed a trabeculated bladder and a mobile filling defect in the posterior urethra. Owing to its large size, cystotomy was necessary to remove the polyp successfully. (orig.)

  17. Hyperplastic Polyps Are Innocuous Lesions in Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Speake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To compare methylation profiles, protein expression, and microsatellite instability (MSI of sporadic, HNPCC, and familial hyperplastic polyps (HPs. Methods. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP and pyrosequencing assessed p16, MGMT, hMLH-1, MINT 1, and MINT 31 methylation. IHC (Immunohistochemistry assessed Ki67, CK20, hMLH-1, hMSH-2, and hMSH-6 protein expression. MSI analysis was performed on those polyps with adequate DNA remaining. Results. 124 HPs were identified 78 sporadic, 21 HNPCC, 25 familial, and the HNPCC group demonstrated no significant differences in overall methylation (P=.186 Chi2. The familial group demonstrated significantly less over all methylation levels (P=.004 Chi2. Conclusions. HPs that occur in HNPCC have no more worrying features at a molecular level than those patients with HPs in a sporadic setting.

  18. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo In [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Pil [Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Eun [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  19. Local tissue hypoxia and formation of nasal polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜舒; 董震; 朱冬冬; 杨占泉

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the response of nasal mucosa epithelial cells to hypoxia in terms of formation of nasal polyps (NP). Methods Epithelial cells of NP and inferior turbinate (IT) were cultured serum-fr ee under normal oxygen and hypoxic circumstances with stimulation of IL-1β and TNFα. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)mRNA and VEGF protein leve ls of the cultured cells were detected using in situ hybridization and ELISA, re spectively. Results The expression of VEGF mRNA was significantly higher in epithelial cells of NP t han in IT exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines or hypoxia (P<0.01). VEGF levels were higher in NP epithelial cells than those of IT (P<0.01) under hypoxia.Conclusion VEGF-induced by hypoxia is very important for the early stages of forming polyps.

  20. Congenital hairy polyp of the nasopharynx: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljošević Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hairy polyps are very rare benign tumors that can occur anywhere in the body, and they are the most common congenital nasopharyngeal masses. Case report. A two-day-old full-term female was admitted to the newborn Special Care Unit with noisy breathing, intermittent upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulty. A 3.4 kg infant was born by spontaneous vaginal delivery to a healthy mother, following a normal pregnancy. On admission, she presented with noisy inspiratory breathing which was louder and more labored in prone position. Flexible endoscopy showed a pale sausage-like mass protruding from nasopharynx just behind the soft palate, to the oropharynx and back. A computed tomography scan showed a 1.8 cm round mass in the right nasopharynx, with central fat density and no intracranial communication. The mass was excised transorally with no evidence of a residual tumor. The infant made a full and uneventful postoperative recovery. Discussion. Hairy polyps usually occur as isolated defects and they are not associated with other congenital anomalies. Genetic predisposition has not been established. It does not have malignant alteration. However, there is some confusion about the histological classification of these lesions. One theory supports the idea that hairy polyps originate from disturbed development of stomodeum in the 28th week of gestation and regression of the nasopharyngeal membrane. The second theory supports the idea of origin from the first or second bronchial arch. Probably the best assumption would be that it develops as a special and unique entity. Conclusion. Hairy polyp is an unusual malformation that most frequently appears during the first days after birth. Complete resection provides permanent cure. .

  1. Endometrial polyp surveillance in premenopausal breast cancer patients using tamoxifen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jeong; Lee, Jae Il; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the endometrial pathologic lesions in premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of tamoxifen (TMX) use. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 120 premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of TMX use that had undergone a gynecological examination. Results Among 120 patients, 44.2% (n=53) were asymptomatic with an endometrial thickness ≥5 mm, as assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography. Of the patients that reported abnormal uterine bleeding, 5% (n=6) had an endometrial thickness <5 mm and 20% (n=24) had an endometrial thickness ≥5 mm by transvaginal ultrasonography. The final group of patients were asymptomatic, but showed an abnormal endometrial lesion, such as an endometrial polyp, by transvaginal ultrasonography (30.8%, n=37). Of the 56 benign lesions that were histologically reviewed, 50 (41.7%) were endometrial polyps, 3 (2.5%) were submucosal myomas, 2 (1.7%) were endometrial hyperplasias, and 1 (0.8%) was chronic endometritis. There were 64 (53.3%) other non-pathologic conditions, including secreting, proliferative, and atrophic endometrium, or in some cases, there was insufficient material for diagnosis. In our data, only one case was reported as a complex hyperplasia without atypia arising from an endometrial polyp, and one patient was diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Conclusion For premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of TMX use, the majority of the patients were asymptomatic, and endometrial polyps were the most common endometrial pathology observed. Therefore, we believe that endometrial assessment before starting TMX treatment, and regular endometrial screening throughout TMX treatment, are reasonable suggestions for premenopausal breast cancer patients. PMID:28217668

  2. Nasal polyps with metaplastic ossification: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Sung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinna [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seung-Kyu [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young-Hyeh [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Metaplastic ossification is a rare event in nasal polyps. The purpose of this study was to review the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of nasal polyps with metaplastic ossification. CT (n = 5) and MR (n = 3) images of five patients (four men and one woman; mean age, 59 years) with surgically proven nasal polyp with metaplastic ossification were retrospectively reviewed. The location and morphologic characteristics of metaplastic ossification were documented as well. All lesions were seen as lobulated (n = 3), ovoid (n = 1), or dumbbell-shaped (n = 1) benign-looking masses with a mean size of 3.7 cm (range, 2.4-6.5 cm), located unilaterally in the posterior nasal cavity and nasopharynx (n = 2), posterior nasoethmoidal tract (n = 2), and maxillary sinus and nasal cavity (n = 1). Compared with the brain stem, the soft tissue components of all lesions demonstrated isoattenuation on precontrast CT scans, slight hypointensity on T1-weighted MR images, and hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images. On contrast-enhanced MR images, heterogeneous enhancement with marked peripheral enhancement was seen in two and homogeneous moderate enhancement in one. All lesions contained centrally located radiodense materials on CT scans, the shape of which was multiple clustered in three, single nodular in one, and single large lobulated in one. Although rare, metaplastic ossification can occur within nasal polyps. The possibility of its diagnosis may be raised when one sees a benign-looking sinonasal mass with centrally located radiodense materials on CT scans. MR imaging may be useful when mycetoma or inverted papilloma cannot be ruled out on CT scans. (orig.)

  3. [Congenital hairy polyp of the nasopharynx--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljosević, Ivan; Minić, Predrag; Duricić, Slavisa; Subarević, Vladan

    2007-01-01

    Hairy polyps are very rare benign tumors that can occur anywhere in the body, and they are the most common congenital nasopharyngeal masses. A two-day-old full-term female was admitted to the newborn Special Care Unit with noisy breathing, intermittent upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulty. A 3.4 kg infant was born by spontaneous vaginal delivery to a healthy mother, following a normal pregnancy. On admission, she presented with noisy inspiratory breathing which was louder and more labored in prone position. Flexible endoscopy showed a pale sausage-like mass protruding from nasopharynx just behind the soft palate, to the oropharynx and back. A computed tomography scan showed a 1.8 cm round mass in the right nasopharynx, with central fat density and no intracranial communication. The mass was excised transorally with no evidence of a residual tumor. The infant made a full and uneventful postoperative recovery. Hairy polyps usually occur as isolated defects and they are not associated with other congenital anomalies. Genetic predisposition has not been established. It does not have malignant alteration. However, there is some confusion about the histological classification of these lesions. One theory supports the idea that hairy polyps originate from disturbed development of stomodeum in the 28th week of gestation and regression of the nasopharyngeal membrane. The second theory supports the idea of origin from the first or second bronchial arch. Probably the best assumption would be that it develops as a special and unique entity. Hairy polyp is an unusual malformation that most frequently appears during the first days after birth. Complete resection provides permanent cure.

  4. Osteolytic nasal polyp of the maxillary sinus mimicking malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Karikal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an osteolytic nasal polyp of the maxillary sinus with clinical features and radiographic features mimicking that of a malignancy. Maxillary sinusitis being a common inflammatory condition progressed to cause destruction of the maxillary bone and spread into the facial soft tissue, which is quite a rare occurrence. We have discussed in detail the clinical, radiological, histopathology and management of this uncommon presentation of a common case.

  5. Clinicopathologic Analysis of 2,889 Nanchang-Area Patients with Colorectal Polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Li; Wangdi Liao; Ping Xu; Nonghua Lv; Chongwen Wang

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the clinicopathologic characteristics.changes in the nature and incidence of colorectal polyps in the Nanchang area,Jiangxi,Province.METHODS We retrospectively investigated the patients with colorectal polyps who were diagnosed by colonoscopy and pathology in our hospital from 1990 to 2004.The analysis involved the incidence,average patient age,polyp location and pathological types.We recorded the changes of the polyp clinicopathologic features by comparing the clinicopathologic types of colorectal polyps over five-year periods.RESULTS Of the 21,853 patients who received a colonoscopy,2,889(13.2%) were diagnosed with colorectal polyps.Their average age was 46.6±16.5 years,with a male to female ratio of 1.8:1.The males were older than females (47.1±17.5 vs.45.5±14.5.P<0.05).Location of the polyps:41% in the rectum.27-7% in the sigmoid colon.35.8% in the left side verus 23.1% in the right side (P<0.05).Patients with polyps located in the transverse and ascending colon were older than those with polyps in the rectum and sigmoid colon (P<O.05).Adenomatous polyps comprised the most common type (67%) and the rectum was the most common site for each type,especially juvenile and retention polyps.Juvenile polyps were found in the youngest patients (12±4.8,P<0.05)and the adenomatous in the oldest(52±14,P<0.05).The ratio of patients with polyposis comprised 1.2%.and patients with polyps accompanied with colorectal cancer comprised 6.1%.Examination of the changes in the incidence,the average patient age,and adenomatous type showed that they had all increased.but the frequency of inflammatory and retention polyps decreased.CONCLUSIoN Colorectal polyps are a common problem.The frequency iS greater in males compared to females and the rectum and sigmoid colon had the highest incidence.Most iuvenile and retention polyps were found in young patients.but most adenomatous occurred in adults.In recent years,the incidence of colorectal polyps

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of the gallbladder polyps diagnosed by ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duck Moon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. Although there are many studies reporting the prevalence and risk factors of GB polyp, the results varied among each report. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence rate and risk factors of GB polyp, colon polyp and fatty liver in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 4,877 visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. The prevalence of GB polyp was evaluated along with age, gender, metabolic syndrom, body mass index (BMI), Fatty liver, Colon polyp. A showed of total 383 (7.9%) people were found to have GB polyps. The prevalence of sex among 256 (9.8%) patients men and 127 (5.6%) women which showed significantly higher in male than in female subjects(p=0.001). The mean size of the GB polyps 4.92 mm (1.6-17 mm). The sizes of most GB polyps (73.6%) were less than 10 mm in diameter. 122 subjects (31.28%) had multiple GB polyps which 2 or more polyps and 261 subjects (68.2%) had single polyp. Independent risk factors related with GB polyp were male gender (OR 0.551, p<0.001), overweight that BMI above 23 kg/m{sup 2} (OR 0.713, p=0.002) triglyceride (OR 0.571, p<0.001), metabolic syndrome (OR 0.049, p=0.033) and colon polyp (OR 1.409, p=0.002). In spite of the conclusion, the prevalence GB polyp was higher than previous Korea and other country reports. The GB polyp in a healthy population was results as 7.9%. The risk factors of GB polyps were found to be male, being overweight, triglyceride, metabolic syndrome and colon polyp. Not only the subject of a health examination is needed but, a further study of the general public when possible.

  7. [Fungal allergy in chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbek, Selim S; Topal, Ozgül; Erbek, Seyra; Cakmak, Ozcan

    2008-01-01

    Fungi, by systemic or local allergic effect, may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We investigated the incidence of fungal allergy in patients with CRS and its effect on the clinical characteristics of the disease. The study included 127 patients, aged 18 years or over, with CRS (42 females, 85 males; mean age 43+/-12 years; range 19 to 78 years). Fungal allergy was determined by skin prick test and its effect was analyzed on blood eosinophil and total immunoglobulin E levels, the presence of polyps, and paranasal sinus computed tomography scores. Eighty-five patients (66.9%) were found to have allergy. The incidence of allergy did not differ between patients with and without polyps (p>0.05). House dust mites (62.2%) were the most frequent allergens. The incidence of fungal allergy was 38.8% in allergic patients. Isolated fungal allergy was detected in two patients (1.6%). The most frequent fungal allergens were Aspergillus, followed by Alternaria, and Penicillium. No association was found between fungal allergy and blood eosinophil and total immunoglobulin E levels, presence of polyps, or paranasal sinus computed tomography scores (p>0.05). The incidence of fungal allergy in patients with CRS was found to be high in this study. Tissue culture studies are required to determine the definitive relationship between fungal allergy and clinical features of CRS.

  8. Utilizing ultrasonography in the diagnosis of pediatric fibroepithelial polyps causing ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Man; Jia, Li Qun; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ning

    2012-09-01

    Fibroepithelial polyps are a rare cause of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction in children. Preoperative US diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyps is infrequently reported, with intravenous pylogram and retrograde pyelography being most commonly used for diagnosis. To recommend the most accurate process for diagnosing this disease in children by assessing a modified ultrasonographic procedure for the diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyps. A retrospective review of US and IVP imaging studies performed in surgically and histologically confirmed cases of fibroepithelial polyps in children. Each child was asked to drink as much water as possible 30 min before the US testing. For US, the renal pelvis, UPJ and the proximal ureter were inspected for an echogenic mass resulting in hydronephrosis. For IVP studies, abdominal plain films were performed at 7, 15 and 30 min following contrast injection. Thirty-five children, 34 boys and 1 girl, had confirmed fibroepithelial polyps. The children ranged in age from 3 to 14 years (mean age 9 years). Clinical presentation included intermittent vague abdominal pain (100%) and/or hematuria (9.7%) for a period ranging from 1 month to 5 years. Of the 35 children (37 polyps), 21 (23 polyps) were correctly diagnosed preoperatively with US, establishing a 62.2% (23/37) US accuracy rate. Twenty polyps were seen on the left, three on the right and two children had bilateral polyps. The masses were all mildly echogenic with defined edges. Eight children (9 polyps) had an IVP consistent with fibroepithelial polyps giving IVP an accuracy rate of 24.3% (9/37). US is an effective screening tool for identifying fibroepithelial polyps causing UPJ obstruction in children.

  9. Clinical significance of colonoscopy in patients with upper gastrointestinal polyps and neoplasms: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Jie Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some authors have studied the relationship between the presence of polyps, adenomas and cancers of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach and duodenum and risk of colorectal polyps and neoplasms; however, the results are controversial, which may be due to study sample size, populations, design, clinical features, and so on. No meta-analysis, which can be generalized to a larger population and could provide a quantitative pooled risk estimate of the relationship, of this issue existed so far. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate risk of colorectal polyps or neoplasms in patients with polyps, adenomas or cancers in upper gastrointestinal tract comparing with controls. A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, reference lists of potentially relevant papers, and practice guidelines up to 27 November 2013 without languages restriction. Odd ratios (ORs were pooled using random-effects models. RESULTS: The search yielded 3 prospective and 21 retrospective case-control studies (n = 37152 participants. The principal findings included: (1 OR for colorectal polyps was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26 in the gastric polyps group comparing with control groups; (2 Patients with gastric polyps and neoplasms have higher risk (OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.06-1.62], and 1.72 [95% CI, 1.42-2.09], respectively of colorectal neoplasms comparing with their controls; and (3 Positive association was found between the presence of colorectal neoplasms and sporadic duodenal neoplasms (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.64-4.11. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from present meta-analysis of 24 case-control studies suggest that the prevalence of colorectal polyps was higher in patients with gastric polyps than in those without gastric polyps, and the risk of colorectal neoplasms increases significantly in patients with gastric polyps, neoplasms, and duodenal neoplasms. Therefore, screening colonoscopy should be considered for patients with upper gastrointestinal polyps and neoplasms.

  10. Adipokines and obesity are associated with colorectal polyps in adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Comstock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the risk of colon cancer. It is also known that most colorectal cancers develop from adenomatous polyps. However, the effects of obesity and adipokines on colonic polyp formation are unknown. METHODS: To determine if BMI, waist circumference or adipokines are associated with colon polyps in males, 126 asymptomatic men (48-65 yr were recruited at time of colonoscopy, and anthropometric measures as well as blood were collected. Odds ratios were determined using polytomous logistic regression for polyp number (0 or ≥3 and polyp type (no polyp, hyperplastic polyp, tubular adenoma. RESULTS: 41% of the men in our study were obese (BMI ≥30. The odds of an obese individual having ≥3 polyps was 6.5 (CI: 1.3-33.0 times greater than those of a lean (BMI<25 individual. Additionally, relative to lean individuals, obese individuals were 7.8 (CI: 2.0-30.8 times more likely to have a tubular adenoma than no polyp. As BMI category increased, participants were 2.9 (CI: 1.5-5.4 times more likely to have a tubular adenoma than no polyps. Serum leptin, IP-10 and TNF-α were significantly associated with tubular adenoma presence. Serum leptin and IP-10 were significantly associated with increased likelihood of ≥3 polyps, and TNF-α showed a trend (p = 0.09. CONCLUSIONS: Obese men are more likely to have at least three polyps and adenomas. This cross-sectional study provides evidence that colonoscopy should be recommended for obese, white males.

  11. Deep learning of contrast-coated serrated polyps for computer-aided detection in CT colonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näppi, Janne J.; Pickhardt, Perry; Kim, David H.; Hironaka, Toru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Serrated polyps were previously believed to be benign lesions with no cancer potential. However, recent studies have revealed a novel molecular pathway where also serrated polyps can develop into colorectal cancer. CT colonography (CTC) can detect serrated polyps using the radiomic biomarker of contrast coating, but this requires expertise from the reader and current computer-aided detection (CADe) systems have not been designed to detect the contrast coating. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel CADe method that makes use of deep learning to detect serrated polyps based on their contrast-coating biomarker in CTC. In the method, volumetric shape-based features are used to detect polyp sites over soft-tissue and fecal-tagging surfaces of the colon. The detected sites are imaged using multi-angular 2D image patches. A deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) is used to review the image patches for the presence of polyps. The DCNN-based polyp-likelihood estimates are merged into an aggregate likelihood index where highest values indicate the presence of a polyp. For pilot evaluation, the proposed DCNN-CADe method was evaluated with a 10-fold cross-validation scheme using 101 colonoscopy-confirmed cases with 144 biopsy-confirmed serrated polyps from a CTC screening program, where the patients had been prepared for CTC with saline laxative and fecal tagging by barium and iodine-based diatrizoate. The average per-polyp sensitivity for serrated polyps >=6 mm in size was 93+/-7% at 0:8+/-1:8 false positives per patient on average. The detection accuracy was substantially higher that of a conventional CADe system. Our results indicate that serrated polyps can be detected automatically at high accuracy in CTC.

  12. Assessment of information value of targeted biopsy and endoscopic removal of colorectal polyps

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Hajiyev; A. Kh. Kerimov; K. S. Akbarov; N. R. Zeynalova; R. I. Mammadov

    2012-01-01

    This research is based on histological investigation of targeted biopsy material and resected polyps’ at 354 patients who applied to National Center of Oncology from 2005 to 2010. All patients underwent targeted biopsy at first with subsequent endoscopic polypectomy and 494 polyps were removed and histologically investigated. The most prevalence type was tubular polyp — 212 (43 %) cases. The rest types of polyps were distributed as follow: tubule-villous type — 125 (25.3 %), villous type — 16...

  13. Endoscopic excision of a prolapsing malignant polyp which caused intermittent gastric outlet obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huqh J Freeman

    2005-01-01

    A 69-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia presented with iron deficiency anemia and post-prandial abdominal fullness. Endoscopy showed a large polyp on a stalk, protruding through the pylorus into the duodenum causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. While prolapsing gastric antral polyps are usually benign and hyperplastic, inflammatory or regenerative in type, excisional snare polypectomy here led to complete resolution of his symptoms, but showed a malignant polyp.

  14. Gastric hyperplastic polyps causing upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secemsky, Brian J; Robinson, Kenika R; Krishnan, Kumar; Matkowskyj, Kristina A; Jung, Barbara H

    2013-04-16

    Here, we report a case of a young man who presented with a significant upper gastrointestinal bleed treated by endoscopic removal of multiple hyperplastic polyps. Gastric hyperplastic polyps are a relatively uncommon cause of overt gastrointestinal bleeding. While most hyperplastic gastric polyps are asymptomatic, they may present with abdominal pain, iron deficiency anemia or gastric outlet obstruction. These polyps are associated with conditions such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis and atrophic autoimmune gastritis, which predispose the epithelium to chronic inflammation and epithelial repair. The patient presented to Northwestern Memorial Hospital in July 2011. The polyps were resected by clip-assisted snare polypectomy. Histopathologic assessment of the resected polyps demonstrated multiple, non-ulcerative hyperplastic polyps measuring 1.3-1.8 cm in size, without evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. This case describes a young adult patient with multiple, large gastric polyps causing overt gastrointestinal bleeding. This is a rare presentation in a young individual, as these polyps are typically identified in patients older than 60 years of age and less commonly, pediatric populations.

  15. Diagnostic Performance of CT Colonography for the Detection of Colorectal Polyps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji Young; Ro, Hee Jeong; Choi, Jung Bin; Chung, Ji Eun; Kim, Yong Jin; Suh, Won Hyuck; Lee, Jong Kyun [Song-Do Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Beom [East- West Neo Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To investigate the diagnostic value of CT colonography for the detection of colorectal polyps. From December 2004 to December 2005, 399 patients underwent CT colonography and follow-up conventional colonoscopy. We excluded cases of advanced colorectal cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the CT colonography findings and follow-up conventional colonoscopy findings of 113 patients who had polyps more than 6 mm in diameter. Radiologists using 3D and 2D computer generated displays interpreted the CT colonography images. The colonoscopists were aware of the CT colonography findings before the procedure. CT colonography detected 132 polyps in 107 of the 113 patients and conventional colonoscopy detected 114 colorectal polyps more than 6 mm in diameter in 87 of the 113 patients. The sensitivity of CT colonography analyzed per polyp was 91% (41/45) for polyps more than 10 mm in diameter and 89% (101/114) for polyps more than 6 mm in diameter. Thirteen polyps were missed by CT colonography and were detected on follow-up conventional colonoscopy. CT colonography is a sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of colorectal polyps and adequate bowel preparation, optimal bowel distention and clinical experience are needed to reduce the rate of missing appropriate lesions.

  16. Endoscopic resection of a giant fibrovascular polyp of the oesophagus with the assistance of ultrasonic shears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Niyati; Hall, Andrew; Weir, Justin; Mace, Alasdair

    2016-01-14

    Giant fibrovascular polyps of the oesophagus are rare benign tumours originating from the upper oesophagus. A 58-year-old woman presented with a 6-week history of a sore throat, odynophagia and progressive dysphagia, managing only a soft diet. CT of the neck and thorax, and barium swallow, both demonstrated a giant fibrovascular polyp measuring approximately 7 cm in length arising from the proximal oesophagus. The patient underwent endoscopic resection of the polyp with the assistance of ultrasonic shears. We present the case of a giant fibrovascular polyp and describe our novel technique for successful endoscopic resection using ultrasonic shears.

  17. Complex rectal polyps: other treatment modalities required when offering a transanal endoscopic microsurgery service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Joyce, Myles R

    2011-09-01

    Complex rectal polyps may present a clinical challenge. The study aim was to assess different treatment modalities required in the management of patients referred for transanal endoscopic microsurgery.

  18. Predictive gene signatures: molecular markers distinguishing colon adenomatous polyp and carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Janice E; Farquharson, Andrew J; Mayer, Claus Dieter; Vase, Hollie F; Coates, Philip J; Steele, Robert J; Carey, Francis A

    2014-01-01

    Cancers exhibit abnormal molecular signatures associated with disease initiation and progression. Molecular signatures could improve cancer screening, detection, drug development and selection of appropriate drug therapies for individual patients. Typically only very small amounts of tissue are available from patients for analysis and biopsy samples exhibit broad heterogeneity that cannot be captured using a single marker. This report details application of an in-house custom designed GenomeLab System multiplex gene expression assay, the hCellMarkerPlex, to assess predictive gene signatures of normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma colon tissue using archived tissue bank material. The hCellMarkerPlex incorporates twenty-one gene markers: epithelial (EZR, KRT18, NOX1, SLC9A2), proliferation (PCNA, CCND1, MS4A12), differentiation (B4GANLT2, CDX1, CDX2), apoptotic (CASP3, NOX1, NTN1), fibroblast (FSP1, COL1A1), structural (ACTG2, CNN1, DES), gene transcription (HDAC1), stem cell (LGR5), endothelial (VWF) and mucin production (MUC2). Gene signatures distinguished normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma. Individual gene targets significantly contributing to molecular tissue types, classifier genes, were further characterised using real-time PCR, in-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry revealing aberrant epithelial expression of MS4A12, LGR5 CDX2, NOX1 and SLC9A2 prior to development of carcinoma. Identified gene signatures identify aberrant epithelial expression of genes prior to cancer development using in-house custom designed gene expression multiplex assays. This approach may be used to assist in objective classification of disease initiation, staging, progression and therapeutic responses using biopsy material.

  19. Predictive gene signatures: molecular markers distinguishing colon adenomatous polyp and carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice E Drew

    Full Text Available Cancers exhibit abnormal molecular signatures associated with disease initiation and progression. Molecular signatures could improve cancer screening, detection, drug development and selection of appropriate drug therapies for individual patients. Typically only very small amounts of tissue are available from patients for analysis and biopsy samples exhibit broad heterogeneity that cannot be captured using a single marker. This report details application of an in-house custom designed GenomeLab System multiplex gene expression assay, the hCellMarkerPlex, to assess predictive gene signatures of normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma colon tissue using archived tissue bank material. The hCellMarkerPlex incorporates twenty-one gene markers: epithelial (EZR, KRT18, NOX1, SLC9A2, proliferation (PCNA, CCND1, MS4A12, differentiation (B4GANLT2, CDX1, CDX2, apoptotic (CASP3, NOX1, NTN1, fibroblast (FSP1, COL1A1, structural (ACTG2, CNN1, DES, gene transcription (HDAC1, stem cell (LGR5, endothelial (VWF and mucin production (MUC2. Gene signatures distinguished normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma. Individual gene targets significantly contributing to molecular tissue types, classifier genes, were further characterised using real-time PCR, in-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry revealing aberrant epithelial expression of MS4A12, LGR5 CDX2, NOX1 and SLC9A2 prior to development of carcinoma. Identified gene signatures identify aberrant epithelial expression of genes prior to cancer development using in-house custom designed gene expression multiplex assays. This approach may be used to assist in objective classification of disease initiation, staging, progression and therapeutic responses using biopsy material.

  20. Where are the polyps? Molecular identification, distribution and population differentiation of Aurelia aurita jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walraven, Lodewijk; Driessen, Floor; van Bleijswijk, Judith; Bol, Anneke; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C; Coolen, Joop W P; Bos, Oscar G; Gittenberger, Adriaan; Schrieken, Niels; Langenberg, Victor T; van der Veer, Henk W

    For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates (settling plates, marina floats and wrecks) at ten inshore locations in the Netherlands, seven offshore locations in the North Sea and in the Gullmar Fjord in Sweden. Polyps were identified to species level by sequencing both a fragment of 18S rDNA and a fragment of mitochondrial COI, and comparing these sequences to reference sequences available in GenBank and to newly obtained sequences from medusae collected in the area. All polyps sequenced did belong to Aurelia aurita. For this species, molecular diversity in mitochondrial COI was high, with 50 haplotypes among 183 polyps. Population differentiation was detected between the Dogger Bank and other-more coastal-locations, indicating extremely low connectivity. No significant differences were found between coastal samples. The location of polyps of Cyanea capillata, Cyanea lamarckii, Chrysaora hysoscella and Rhizostoma octopus in the study area remains unresolved.

  1. Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression is common in serrated and non-serrated colorectal adenoma, but uncommon in hyperplastic polyp and sessile serrated polyp/adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkner Gregory J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, PTGS2 plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. COX-2 overexpression in colorectal cancer is inversely associated with microsatellite instability (MSI and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. Evidence suggests that MSI/CIMP+ colorectal cancer may arise through the serrated tumorigenic pathway through various forms of serrated neoplasias. Therefore, we hypothesized that COX-2 may play a less important role in the serrated pathway. Methods By immunohistochemistry, we assessed COX-2 expression in 24 hyperplastic polyps, 7 sessile serrated polyp/adenomas (SSA, 5 mixed polyps with SSA and adenoma, 27 traditional serrated adenomas, 515 non-serrated adenomas (tubular adenoma, tubulovillous adenoma and villous adenoma, 33 adenomas with intramucosal carcinomas, 96 adenocarcinomas with serration (corkscrew gland and 111 adenocarcinomas without serration. Results Strong (2+ COX-2 overexpression was more common in non-serrated adenomas (28% = 143/515 than in hyperplastic polyps (4.2% = 1/24, p = 0.008 and serrated polyps (7 SSAs and 5 mixed polyps (0% = 0/12, p = 0.04. Furthermore, any (1+/2+ COX-2 overexpression was more frequent in non-serrated adenomas (60% = 307/515 than in hyperplastic polyps (13% = 3/24, p Conclusion COX-2 overexpression is infrequent in hyperplastic polyp, SSA and mixed polyp with SSA and adenoma, compared to non-serrated and serrated adenoma. COX-2 overexpression becomes more frequent as tumors progress to higher grade neoplasias. Our observations suggest that COX-2 may play a less significant role in the serrated pathway of tumorigenesis; however, COX-2 may still play a role in later stage of the serrated pathway.

  2. Delaunay triangulation-based pit density estimation for the classification of polyps in high-magnification chromo-colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, M; Liedlgruber, M; Uhl, A; Vécsei, A; Wrba, F

    2012-09-01

    In this work we propose a method to extract shape-based features from endoscopic images for an automated classification of colonic polyps. This method is based on the density of pits as used in the pit pattern classification scheme which is commonly used for the classification of colonic polyps. For the detection of pits we employ a noise-robust variant of the LBP operator. To be able to be robust against local texture variations we extend this operator by an adaptive thresholding. Based on the detected pit candidates we compute a Delaunay triangulation and use the edge lengths of the resulting triangles to construct histograms. These are then used in conjunction with the k-NN classifier to classify images. We show that, compared to a previously developed method, we are not only able to almost always get higher classification results in our application scenario, but that the proposed method is also able to significantly outperform the previously developed method in terms of the computational demand.

  3. Is surveillance colonoscopy necessary for patients with sporadic gastric hyperplastic polyps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Cao

    Full Text Available Gastric polyps, such as adenomas and hyperplastic polyps, can be found in various colonic polyposis syndromes. Unlike in sporadic gastric adenomas, in which the increased risk of colorectal neoplasia has been well characterized, information in sporadic gastric hyperplastic polyps was limited.To evaluate the association of sporadic gastric hyperplastic polyps with synchronous colorectal neoplasia in a large cohort.Patients with sporadic gastric hyperplastic polyps who underwent colonoscopy simultaneously or within six months were consecutively enrolled. Each patient was compared with two randomly selected age and sex matched controls without gastric polyps who also underwent colonoscopy in the same period. Data of patients' demographics and characteristics of the gastrointestinal polyps were documented.A total of 261 cases in 118,576 patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy were diagnosed as sporadic gastric hyperplastic polyps, and 192 of 261 (73.6% patients underwent colonoscopy. Colorectal neoplasias were identified in 46 (24.0% of 192 cases and in 40 (10.4% of 384 controls (P<0.001. The mean size and distribution of colorectal neoplasias were not significantly different between the two groups. There was a significantly higher rate of colorectal adenoma (odds ratio [OR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-5.3 in the gastric hyperplastic polyps group than in the control group, while the prevalence of colorectal cancer was similar in the two groups. Logistic regression analysis also suggested that the presence of gastric hyperplastic polyps (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.0 was an independent risk factor for colorectal neoplasias.The risk of colorectal adenoma increases in patients with sporadic gastric hyperplastic polyps, and surveillance colonoscopy for these patients should be considered.

  4. The Assessment of the Colo-rectal Polyps in Order to the New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Diac Andreea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assessment of the histological and endoscopic features of the colo-rectal polyps is requered for the application of the new diagnostic and therapeutical strategies in the managment of the diminutive polyps.

  5. Alcohol hyper-responsiveness in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schryver, Els; Derycke, Lara; Campo, Paloma; Gabriels, Eline; Joos, Guy F; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus; Hellings, Peter W; Gevaert, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    An important percentage of subjects diagnosed with chronic upper airway disease report alcohol-induced worsening of their symptoms. The prevalence and characteristics of respiratory reactions provoked by alcohol-containing drinks have not been fully investigated yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol hyper-responsiveness in patients with chronic airway disease and healthy controls. Furthermore, nasal inflammation was evaluated in nasal polyp patients with and without hyper-responsiveness. We evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol-induced respiratory complaints in 1281 subjects. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) patients with and without NSAID exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD), chronic rhinosinusitis patients without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), allergic rhinitis (AR) patients and healthy controls were approached by means of a questionnaire. Inflammatory markers (eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), IL-5, IgE, SAE-specific IgE, IL-17, TNFα and IFNγ) in tissue were then compared between alcohol hyper-responsive and non-hyper-responsive CRSwNP patients. The highest prevalence of nasal and bronchial alcohol hyper-responsiveness was observed in patients with NERD, followed by CRSwNP, and less frequent in CRSsNP, AR and healthy controls. Alcohol hyper-responsiveness is significantly more prevalent in CRSwNP patients suffering from recurrent disease and in patients with severe symptomatology. In nasal tissue of the hyper-responsive CRSwNP group, we observed significantly higher nasal levels of the eosinophilic biomarker ECP. Nasal hyper-responsiveness to alcohol is significantly more prevalent in severe eosinophilic upper airway disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as metachronous colonic polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Felipe-Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare disease characterized by proliferation of Langerhans-type cells that express CD1a, Langerin (CD207 and S100 protein. Birbeck granules are a hallmark by ultrastructural examination. LCH presents with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from solitary lesions of a single site (usually bone or skin to multiple or disseminated multisystemic lesions, which can lead to severe organ dysfunction. Most cases occur in children. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is rare and has been associated with systemic illness and poor prognosis especially in children under the age of 2 years. Adult gastrointestinal LCH is very rare. We report a case of a previously healthy, nonsmoking 48-year-old male who was referred for routine screening colonoscopy. Two sessile, smooth, firm and yellowish LCH polyps measuring 0.2 cm and 0.3 cm were detected in the sigmoid colon. Fifteen months later a second colonoscopy found two histologically confirmed hyperplastic polyps at the sigmoid colon. No other LCH lesions were seen. A third colonoscopy after 28 months of follow-up found a submucosal 0.5 cm infiltrated and ulcerated LCH polyp in the cecum, close to the ostium of the appendix. The patient had been asymptomatic for all this period. Imaging investigation for systemic or multiorgan disease did not find any sign of extracolonic involvement. On histology all lesions showed typical LCH features and immunohistochemical analysis showed strong and diffuse staining for CD1a and CD207. This case illustrates two distinct clinicopathologic features not previously reported in this particular clinical setting: metachronous colonic involvement and positivity for CD207.

  7. Local fractal dimension based approaches for colonic polyp classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Michael; Tamaki, Toru; Tanaka, Shinji; Uhl, Andreas; Wimmer, Georg; Yoshida, Shigeto

    2015-12-01

    This work introduces texture analysis methods that are based on computing the local fractal dimension (LFD; or also called the local density function) and applies them for colonic polyp classification. The methods are tested on 8 HD-endoscopic image databases, where each database is acquired using different imaging modalities (Pentax's i-Scan technology combined with or without staining the mucosa) and on a zoom-endoscopic image database using narrow band imaging. In this paper, we present three novel extensions to a LFD based approach. These extensions additionally extract shape and/or gradient information of the image to enhance the discriminativity of the original approach. To compare the results of the LFD based approaches with the results of other approaches, five state of the art approaches for colonic polyp classification are applied to the employed databases. Experiments show that LFD based approaches are well suited for colonic polyp classification, especially the three proposed extensions. The three proposed extensions are the best performing methods or at least among the best performing methods for each of the employed databases. The methods are additionally tested by means of a public texture image database, the UIUCtex database. With this database, the viewpoint invariance of the methods is assessed, an important features for the employed endoscopic image databases. Results imply that most of the LFD based methods are more viewpoint invariant than the other methods. However, the shape, size and orientation adapted LFD approaches (which are especially designed to enhance the viewpoint invariance) are in general not more viewpoint invariant than the other LFD based approaches.

  8. Pulp polyp - A periapical lesion: Radiographic observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandagal V Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulp polyp (PP is a chronic hyperplastic condition resulting in formation of granulation tissue and proliferative mass. The radiographic appearance of PP has innumerable presentations. Diagnosing and treatment planning of periapical lesions, heavily relies on the radiographic changes surrounding the root structures. Objective: To evaluate different radiographic periapical changes in clinically detected PP patients. Materials and Methods: Patients reporting to Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and who were clinically diagnosed with PP by an oral diagnostician were subjected to radiographic examination. Digital intraoral periapical radiographs of 50 patients with PP were taken. Various periapical changes in the digital radiographs were recorded by a skilled oral radiologist. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS ver 17.0 and P-value was set at <0.05 as significant. Result: Periapical changes like periodontal space widening (PDLW, loss of lamina dura, periapical abscess, periapical granuloma, hypercementosis, condensing osteitis and root resorption were noted. Periodontal space widening was seen in all patients (100%, loss of lamina dura was noted in 72%, periapical rarefying osteitis in 56%, condensing osteitis in 8%, hypercementosis, periapical granuloma, and root resorption were seen in 4% of PP patients. Majority of PP were asymptomatic (66%. Pulp polyp was commonly seen in mandibular first molar followed by mandibular second molar and maxillary first molar. Statistically significant difference was noticed between periapical changes in PP patients (P value <0.0001. All PP patients showed definite periapical changes suggesting it to be a periapical lesion. Conclusion: Pulp polyp is confined to the pulpal portion of the tooth which, may or may not cause changes in periapical region. The results of the present study showed that majority of the PP patients were associated with definite periapical

  9. Correlation between location, size and histologic type of colorectal polyps at the presence of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Beatriz Marion Valarini; Vinícius Tomadon Bortoli; Noelle Suemi Wassano; Maiara Fontes Pukanski; Dariana Carla Maggi; Lucas Amadeu Bertollo

    2011-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma represents 96-98% of colorectal neoplasms, and neoplastic polyps (adenomas) are their precursors. The aim of this study is to correlate size, location and histologic type of colorectal polyps at the presence of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Methods: Colonoscopies from January/2007 to December/2008 were retrospectively studied, in order to evaluate the characteristics of the polyps. Results and Discussion: Out of the 2,401 analyzed colonoscopies, 583 (24.3%) presented polyps. Du...

  10. Cytogenetic comparisons of synchronous carcinomas and polyps in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardi, G; Parada, L A; Bomme, L;

    1997-01-01

    Thirty tumorous lesions from seven patients with colorectal cancer were short-term cultured and cytogenetically analysed: 16 non-adenomatous polyps, six adenomas, seven carcinomas, including one in polyp, and one lymph node metastasis. Clonal chromosome aberrations were found in 20 samples in 100...

  11. Artificial substrates preference for proliferation and immigration in Aurelia aurita (s. l.) polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Song; Lin, Jianing; Sun, Song; Zhang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The increasing amounts of artificial marine substrates, in many parts of the world have been proposed as a potential driver of Aurelia spp. blooms, on account of providing extra habitats for the settlement and the proliferation of the benthic stage (polyps). Previous experiments have mainly focused on the substrate choices of Aurelia spp. planulae. However, substrate preferences for the proliferation and immigration of polyps have not been reported. We monitored the propagation and immigration of Aurelia aurita (s. l.) polyps on two natural and nine artificial substrates at constant temperature (20±0.5°C) and salinity (30±0.5) in beakers and a glass aquarium in the laboratory, respectively. The results showed that, among artificial substrates, the highest number for polyp proliferation and immigration was found on nets, rigid polyvinyl chloride plates (RPVC), and wood. The lowest density of polyps was present on iron plates. Among natural substrates, the asexual reproduction rate of polyps on Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857) shells was significantly higher than Azumapecten farreri (Jones & Preston, 1904). On the account of the distinction in the roughness, chemical properties and biofilms of these material surfaces, bare artificial or natural substrates discriminatively affect the proliferation and the immigration of Aurelia spp. polyps at laboratory. These observations suggest that, even in the natural environment, different materials and texture may influence the composition and the abundance of the fouling communities and the assemblages of polyps and, indirectly, have effects on the amounts of released medusae.

  12. A large hymenal polyp in a 21-year-old virgin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borko, Elko; Dosen, Marko; Kavalar, Rajko; Pivec, Gregor; Zebeljan, Ivan

    2009-12-01

    Pathological conditions of the hymen are rare in everyday medical practice. They are usually encountered in the pediatric patient population and are sometimes a matter of forensic interest. We report an interesting case of a large hymenal polyp in an adolescent virgin that presented only a cosmetic problem. The polyp was excised, the hymenal ring was preserved, and the sample was histologically verified.

  13. Assessment of colorectal polyp recognition skill: development and validation of an objective test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew; Horswill, Mark S; Plooy, Annaliese M; Watson, Marcus O; Rowlands, Lachlan N; Wallis, Guy M; Riek, Stephan; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Hewett, David G

    2017-06-01

    The quality of colonoscopy is known to vary. The extent to which colonoscopists can recognize the presence of subtle colorectal lesions by visually distinguishing them from the surrounding mucosa (i.e., polyp recognition skill) may be one of several attributes that influence polyp detection rates. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the first objective test of polyp recognition skill. Validation study. Twenty-eight experienced colonoscopists and eighty novices took a preliminary 280-item computer-based polyp recognition test. Items were genuine endoscopic images which participants assessed for the presence of "likely polyps." Half included clinically identified polyps. Participants clicked on a suspected lesion or a button marked "no likely polyp", and the main outcome measures were accuracy and response latency. The best items were selected for the final 50-item test. In the preliminary test, experienced colonoscopists correctly identified more polyps than novices (P skill can be quantified objectively. The final test may potentially be used to assess trainees, but test sensitivity may be insufficient to make fine-grained distinctions between different skill levels among experienced colonoscopists. More sensitive future tests may provide a valuable supplement to clinical detection rates, allowing objective comparisons between skilled colonoscopists.

  14. Unilateral Lymphangiomatous Polyp of the Palatine Tonsil in a Very Young Child: A Clinicopathologic Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Park

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood lymphangiomatous polyp of the palatine tonsil is a very unusual lesion found in the head and neck. Tonsillectomy has been reported to be the curative procedure of choice for this lesion. We report a case of a very young child with unilateral lymphangiomatous polyp of the palatine tonsil.

  15. Prevalence of colonic polyp and its predictors in patients with acromegaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Purnima; Rai, Praveer; Jain, Manoj; Mishra, Shambhavi; Singh, Uttam; Gupta, Sushil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are conflicting data regarding the prevalence of colorectal polyp in patients with acromegaly. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive forty-seven acromegalic patients (21 men, 26 women), with a mean age of (40 ± 12 years) attending endocrinology outpatient department underwent full colonoscopy. All the patients underwent clinical and biochemical evaluation (glucose suppressed growth hormone (GH), Insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], fasting insulin, and glucose). The control group (n = 120) for colonoscopy was adult subjects undergoing evaluation for symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical and biochemical parameters in acromegalic patients with colonic polyp were compared to those without a polyp. Results: Patients with acromegaly had significantly higher prevalence of colonic polyp as compared to control subjects (10.6% vs. 0.8%). None of the patients with polyp had skin tags. There was no significant difference between subjects with and without colonic polyp in duration of illness, basal, and glucose-suppressed GH and most recent IGF-1. Fasting blood sugar was significantly higher (P acromegaly as compared to control have a higher prevalence of colonic polyps. There was no association of polyps seen with age, BMI, skin tags, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, duration of disease, and basal and glucose-suppressed GH and IGF-1 levels. There were no specific predictive factors detected. Screening full colonoscopy is recommended in all cases with acromegaly. PMID:27366708

  16. Congenital urethral polyps: a report of two cases; Polipos uretrales congenitos. A proposito de dos casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, D.; Vivas, I.; Torres, E.; Garcia, L.; Fernandez-Villa, T. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra. Pamplona (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Congenital urethral polyps are uncommon lesions, very few cases of which have been previously reported in the literature. We present two cases of congenital urethral polyps in children, describing the clinical and radiological features and the diagnostic method employed, as well as reviewing the literature. (Author) 6 refs.

  17. Postcolonoscopy Followup Recommendations: Comparison with and without Use of Polyp Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva K. Ratuapli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Appropriate recommendations for a followup exam after an index colonoscopy are an important quality indicator. Lack of knowledge of polyp pathology at the time of colonoscopy may be one reason that followup recommendations are not made. Aim. To describe and compare the accuracy of followup recommendations made at colonoscopy based on the size and number of polyps with recommendations made at a later date based on actual polyp pathology. Methods. All patients who underwent screening and surveillance colonoscopy from March, 2012, to August, 2012, were included. Surveillance recommendations from the endoscopy reports were graded as “accurate” or “not accurate” based on the postpolypectomy surveillance guidelines established by US Multisociety Task Force on Colon Cancer. Polyp pathology was then used to regrade the surveillance recommendations. Results. Followup recommendations were accurate in 759/884 (86% of the study colonoscopies, based upon size and number of polyps with the assumption that all polyps were adenomatous. After incorporating actual polyp pathology, 717/884 (81% colonoscopies had accurate recommendations. Conclusion. In our practice, the knowledge of actual polyp pathology does not change the surveillance recommendations made at the time of colonoscopy in the majority of patients.

  18. Detection of helicobacter pylori in nasal polyps using rapid urease test and ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Kaviani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal polyposis is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology. Recently concerns regarding gastroesophageal reflux or helicobacter pylori as a possible pathologic cause of nasal polyps have been increasing. The present study was planned to investigate the presence of helicobacter pylori in nasal polyps. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was undertaken enrolling 37 patients with nasal polyps who had undergone nasal endoscopic sinus surgery and 38 control subjects. Biopsy specimens of nasal polyps and inferior turbinates were assessed by rapid urease test. Blood samples of both study and control subjects were evaluated for anti H.pylori IgG by ELISA. H. pylori status was regarded positive, if both tests were positive. Results: Seropositivity was more common in the patients with nasal polyps (66.2% than control subjects (36.8% (P

  19. Groups travel further: pelagic metamorphosis and polyp clustering allow higher dispersal potential in sun coral propagules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Damián; Navarrete, Sergio A.; Flores, Augusto A. V.

    2014-06-01

    We report that planulae produced by Tubastraea coccinea can metamorphose and aggregate in groups of up to eight polyps in the water column, without previous settlement on benthic substrate. We also evaluated the survival of propagules to test whether different levels of aggregation allowed for longer planktonic life and, therefore, higher dispersal potential. Our results show that pelagic polyps live longer than planulae, probably because they can feed and meet the presumably high-energy demands of swimming. Clusters of two or more individuals lived longer than solitary polyps. However, mortality did not differ between small (2-3 polyps) and large (4-8 polyps) clusters, suggesting the existence of an upper limit to cluster size. Most swimming clusters (80 %) remained alive after 6 months, suggesting that pelagic metamorphosis and cluster formation can be a key life-history feature increasing dispersal potential, population connectivity, and the colonization of new habitats in this invasive species.

  20. Increased polyp detection using narrow band imaging compared with high resolution endoscopy in patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.S. Boparai; F.J.C. van den Broek; S. van Eeden; P. Fockens; E. Dekker

    2011-01-01

    Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome (HPS) is associated with colorectal cancer and is characterized by multiple hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) and adenomas. Narrow band imaging (NBI) may improve the detection of polyps in HPS. We aimed to compare polyp miss rates with NBI with tho

  1. Sessile serrated polyps of the colorectum are rare in patients with Lynch syndrome and in familial colorectal cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S H; Lykke, E; Folker, M B;

    2008-01-01

    (FCF) is addressed. Polyps coded as hyperplastic polyps (HP) from subjects with Lynch syndrome and FCF enrolled in the HNPCC-register at the Hvidovre University Hospital as well as adenomas from this population were retrieved and reviewed for features of SSP. Ninety-eight polyps coded as HP and 41...

  2. Phenotypic diversity in patients with multiple serrated polyps: a genetics clinic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Daniel D; Sweet, Kevin; Drini, Musa; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko; Gattas, Michael; Walsh, Michael D; Clendenning, Mark; McKeone, Diane; Walters, Rhiannon; Roberts, Aedan; Young, Alasdair; Hampel, Heather; Hopper, John L; Goldblatt, Jack; George, Jill; Suthers, Graeme K; Phillips, Kerry; Young, Graeme P; Chow, Elizabeth; Parry, Susan; Woodall, Sonja; Tucker, Kathy; Muir, Amanda; Field, Michael; Greening, Sian; Gallinger, Steven; Green, Jane; Woods, Michael O; Spaetgens, Renee; de la Chapelle, Albert; Macrae, Finlay; Walker, Neal I; Jass, Jeremy R; Young, Joanne P

    2010-06-01

    Hyperplastic polyposis is a colonic polyposis condition of unknown aetiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the spectrum of phenotypic variation in patients with multiple serrated polyps as a basis for gene discovery. One hundred and twenty-six patients with multiple (> or = 5) serrated polyps were recruited to the study. Polyp counts were extracted from histology and colonoscopy reports. Ethnicity was self-reported. Family history of cancer data were derived from pedigrees. Ascertainment status was classified as either index case or identified by screening. The average reported polyp count was 39. Patients with highest polyp numbers were more likely to be male (P = 0.02). Colorectal cancer (CRC) was identified in 49 of 119 patients (41%) and 28% of these patients had multiple CRC. Young onset patients had higher polyp numbers (P = 0.03) and were more likely to have their CRC in the distal colon (P = 0.02). CRC was significantly associated with the presence of adenomas (P = 0.03). Patients were divided into moderate polyposis (5-79 serrated polyps) and dense polyposis (80 or more) categories. The dense polyposis category was associated with a lack of family history for CRC (P = 0.034) and male gender (P = 0.014), independent of ascertainment status and recruitment site. Multiple serrated polyps were associated with an increased personal risk of CRC. A subset of patients with the highest polyp numbers was more likely to be male and to have no family history of CRC. This result suggests heterogeneous modes of inheritance and has implications for studies investigating the genetic basis of multiple serrated polyps.

  3. Effect of visualization display colour on polyp conspicuity at virtual colonoscopy

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    Burling, D. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom)], E-mail: burlingdavid@yahoo.co.uk; Moore, A.; Gupta, A.; East, J.; Tam, E.; Pickhardt, P.J.; Marshall, M.; Taylor, S.A. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    Aim: To investigate the effect of different colour three-dimensional (3D) displays on polyp detection at virtual colonoscopy (VC). Methods: Five VC trained observers were shown 'brief flashes' (lasting 0.2 s) of 125 3D endoluminal image snap-shots, repeated for each of six display colours (750 images total). One hundred images contained a single polyp (diameter range 5-42 mm) and 25 contained no polyp ('normal'). Images were reviewed in random order over five reading sessions, readers recording either normality or presence and location of a polyp. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine any influence of colour on polyp detection stratified according to polyp size (medium 5-9 mm/large {>=}10 mm). The kappa statistic was used to assess effect of colour on observer agreement. Results: Individual reader polyp detection rates ranged between 75-94%. Compared to the default pink 'soft tissue' display, the odds of polyp detection were 0.65 (CI 0.41,1.01) for green, 0.82 (0.53,1.30) for blue, 1 (0.63,1.59) for red, 1.12 (0.7,1.79) for monochrome, and 1.15 for yellow (0.72,1.84). Overall, there was no significant difference between the displays (p = 0.11). Including normal cases, there was no overall difference in correct case classification between the six colours (p = 0.44). The odds of detecting large versus medium polyps was significantly greater for 3/5 observers; odds ratio (OR) 2.84-10.1, although unaffected by display colour (p = 0.3). Conclusion: The background colour display generally has a minimal effect on polyp detection at VC, although green should be avoided.

  4. Distinct characteristics of nasal polyps with and without eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changzhi; Ouyang, Hong; Luo, Renzhong

    Eosinophilic and noneosinophilic Nasal polyps (NPs) are different subtypes of NPs and require different treatment methods. To compare the histologic characteristics, mRNA and protein expression between Nasal Polyps with and without eosinophilia. NPs tissues were obtained from eighty-six NPs patients during surgery. Eosinophilic and noneosinophilic NPs were distinguished according to immunochemical results of the specimen. The histological, mRNA and protein expression features were compared between the two groups. In eosinophilic NPs, we observed a significantly higher GATA-3, IL-5, IL-4, IL-13 mRNA and protein expression. In noneosinophilic NPs, IL-17, IL-23 and RORc mRNA and protein expression were increased. Immunohistochemistry tests showed, more mast cells and less neutrophils in eosinophilic NPs compared with noneosinophilic NPs. Eosinophilic NPs patient presented more severe symptom scores when compared to noneosinophilic NPs. We demonstrate for the first time that Th2 is the predominant reaction in eosinophilic NPs while Th17 is the predominant reaction in noneosinophilic NPs. Our study may provide new treatment strategy for NPs. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Severe dyspnea due to a giant antrochoanal polyp

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    Coloma-Milano M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SummaryIntroduction: The antrochoanal polyp is a prevalent pathology in teenagers and young adults. It usually presents with nasal obstruction.Patient and method: Case report: An 80-year-old male with alcoholic encephalopathy, chronic bronchial disease of unknown etiology and polypoid chronic rhinosinusitis came to the emergency service with severe dyspnea without laryngeal features.Anterior rhinoscopy showed a polypoid mass in left nostril that prevented the visualization with nasal endoscopy.Examination of the mouth revealed a large polypoid mass involving nasopharynx and extends to hypopharynx until the laryngeal side of epiglottis.CT was requested urgently. ResultsCT demonstrated an almost complete opacification of the left maxillary sinus, left complex ethmoid cells and the presence of a soft-tissue mass, passing through the maxilary ostium into the posterior nasal cavity and choana. Mass caudal extention was located close to the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis and partially occupying the laryngeal vestibule conditioning the air way.Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed urgently with clinical remission.ConclusionsIn case we are treating a patient with severe dyspnea, we must determinate the etiology and localization of it, in order to decide the best treatment option.Dyspnea´s features dismissed the laryngeal site.Complementary image studies give us information about the extension.Antrochoanal polyp cases causing dyspnea are unsual, but we must think of it, or in pharyngeal formations, every time dyspnea improves with a cervical extention.

  6. Nasopharyngeal polyp causing sensory disturbances: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeh, Abrar Majed; Ahmed, Iffat Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal polyps are benign abnormal mucosal protrusions associated with nasal and pharyngeal mucosa. They are commonly found in all age groups with various symptoms. This paper presents a case of a 52-year-old male who presented with constant numbness over the dental midline and extending along the right side of the maxilla for the past few weeks. The patient also reported difficulty in breathing, especially lying down. After a comprehensive head and neck examination, including muscle palpation and temporomandibular joint examination, all within normal limits, a CNS lesion was suspected. A cranial nerve screening examination disclosed hyposensitivity in the area of teeth # 7 to 10. A panoramic radiograph demonstrated right sinus abnormality. We determined the need for additional diagnostic testing, including cone beam computed tomography, which showed a thickened sinus membrane with a polypoid structure (extending posterior from the right inferior concha into the oropharynx). The patient was referred to an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist for further evaluation. The ENT diagnosis was a nasal polyp, and the patient was prescribed a steroid spray to be used three times daily. On follow-up, the patient’s symptoms were reduced from constant numbness to intermittent “fading sensation” with no breathing difficulties lying down. Ancillary diagnostic testing, such as Cone Beam CT, is useful and may be required for the diagnosis of sensory disturbances in the Orofacial region. PMID:27279994

  7. Serrated polyposis associated with a family history of colorectal cancer and/or polyps: The preferential location of polyps in the colon and rectum defines two molecular entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Albuquerque, Cristina; Lage, Pedro; Fontes, Vanessa; Fonseca, Ricardo; Vitoriano, Inês; Filipe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Paula; Moita, Susana; Ferreira, Sara; Sousa, Rita; Claro, Isabel; Nobre Leitão, Carlos; Chaves, Paula; Dias Pereira, António

    2016-09-01

    Serrated polyposis (SPP) is characterized by the development of multiple serrated polyps and an increased predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to characterize, at a clinical and molecular level, a cohort of SPP patients with or without a family history of SPP and/or polyps/CRC (SPP-FHP/CRC). Sixty-two lesions from 12 patients with SPP-FHP/CRC and 6 patients with sporadic SPP were included. The patients with SPP-FHP/CRC presented with an older mean age at diagnosis (p=0.027) and a more heterogeneous histological pattern of lesions (p=0.032) than the patients with sporadic SPP. We identified two molecular forms of SPP-FHP/CRC, according to the preferential location of the lesions: proximal/whole-colon or distal colon. Mismatch repair (MMR) gene methylation [mutS homolog 6 (MSH6)/mutS homolog 3 (MSH3)] or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of D2S123 (flanking MSH6) were detected exclusively in the former (p=3.0x10-7), in most early lesions. Proximal/whole‑colon SPP-FHP/CRC presented a higher frequency of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation/LOH, microsatellite instability (MSI) and Wnt mutations (19/29 vs. 7/17; 16/23 vs. 1/14, p=2.2x10-4; 15/26 vs. 2/15, p=0.006; 14/26 vs. 4/20, p=0.02) but a lower frequency of B-raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) mutations (7/30 vs. 12/20, p=0.0089) than the distal form. CRC was more frequent in cases of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-associated proximal/whole-colon SPP-FHP/CRC than in the remaining cases (4/4 vs. 1/8, p=0.01). Thus, SPP-FHP/CRC appears to be a specific entity, presenting two forms, proximal/whole-colon and distal, which differ in the underlying tumor initiation pathways. Early MGMT and MMR gene deficiency in the former may underlie an inherited susceptibility to genotoxic stress.

  8. Detection Rate, Distribution, Clinical and Pathological Features of Colorectal Serrated Polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Long Cao; Xue Chen; Shao-Chun Du; Wen-Jing Song; Wei-Qiang Wang; Meng-Que Xu; Si-Nan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Colorectal serrated polyp is considered as histologically heterogeneous lesions with malignant potential in western countries.However,few Asian studies have investigated the comprehensive clinical features of serrated polyps in symptomatic populations.The aim of the study was to evaluate the features of colorectal serrated polyps in a Chinese symptomatic population.Methods:Data from all consecutive symptomatic patients were documented from a large colonoscopy database and were analyzed.Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test and logistic regression analysis were used for the data processing.Results:A total of 9191 (31.7%) patients were detected with at least one colorectal polyp.The prevalence of serrated polyps was 0.53% (153/28,981).The proportions of hyperplastic polyp (HP),sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P),and traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) of all serrated polyps were 41.2%,7.2%,and 51.6%,respectively,which showed a lower proportion of HP and SSA/P and a higher proportion of TSA.Serrated polyps appeared more in males and elder patients while there was no significant difference in the subtype distribution in gender and age.The proportions of large and proximal serrated polyps were 13.7% (21/153) and 46.4% (71/153),respectively.In total,98.9% (89/90) serrated adenomas were found with dysplasia.Moreover,14 patients with serrated polyps were found with synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia,and large serrated polyps (LSPs) (odds ratio:3.446,95% confidence interval:1.010-11.750,P < 0.05),especially large HPs,might have an association with synchronous advanced neoplasia (AN).Conclusions:The overall detection rate ofcolorectal serrated polyps in Chinese symptomatic patient population was low,and distribution pattern of three subtypes is different from previous reports.Moreover,LSPs,especially large HPs,might be associated with an increased risk of synchronous AN.

  9. Expression of POSTN, IL-4, and IL-13 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milonski, Jaroslaw; Zielinska-Blizniewska, Hanna; Majsterek, Ireneusz; Przybyłowska-Sygut, Karolina; Sitarek, Przemyslaw; Korzycka-Zaborowska, Barbara; Olszewski, Jurek

    2015-05-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is one of the most frequently encountered chronic nasal diseases with a significant impact on patient quality of life. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the association between the POSTN, IL-4, and IL-13 gene expression and the nasal polyp development. The objective of this study was to determine differential expression of POSTN, IL-4, and IL-13 genes in the mucosa and polyps of 63 patients with CRSwNP and 23 chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) when compared with patients with nasal septum deviation (n=18) who were used as controls. The expression level was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays in the polyp tissue and the mucosa of paranasal sinus collected while undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Expression of the mRNAs of all three genes, IL-4, IL-13, and POSTN, was significantly greater in the paired tissues of CRS patients with NPs or without NPs than in control subjects, with highest levels of POSTN and IL-13 seen in CRSwNP. An increased level of POSTN, IL-4, and IL-13 gene expression may be related to the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, but polyp formation seemed to be associated especially with POSTN and IL-13 expression.

  10. EMPLOYING TOPOGRAPHICAL HEIGHT MAP IN COLONIC POLYP MEASUREMENT AND FALSE POSITIVE REDUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Li, Jiang; Summers, Ronald M

    2009-01-01

    CT Colonography (CTC) is an emerging minimally invasive technique for screening and diagnosing colon cancers. Computer Aided Detection (CAD) techniques can increase sensitivity and reduce false positives. Inspired by the way radiologists detect polyps via 3D virtual fly-through in CTC, we borrowed the idea from geographic information systems to employ topographical height map in colonic polyp measurement and false positive reduction. After a curvature based filtering and a 3D CT feature classifier, a height map is computed for each detection using a ray-casting algorithm. We design a concentric index to characterize the concentric pattern in polyp height map based on the fact that polyps are protrusions from the colon wall and round in shape. The height map is optimized through a multi-scale spiral spherical search to maximize the concentric index. We derive several topographic features from the map and compute texture features based on wavelet decomposition. We then send the features to a committee of support vector machines for classification. We have trained our method on 394 patients (71 polyps) and tested it on 792 patients (226 polyps). Results showed that we can achieve 95% sensitivity at 2.4 false positives per patient and the height map features can reduce false positives by more than 50%. We compute the polyp height and width measurements and correlate them with manual measurements. The Pearson correlations are 0.74 (p=0.11) and 0.75 (p=0.17) for height and width, respectively.

  11. Respiratory response to temperature of three populations of Aurelia aurita polyps in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Danja P; Lucas, Cathy H; Thatje, Sven

    2017-01-01

    The benthic life stage (polyp or scyphistoma) of the bloom-forming jellyfish, Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1759), also known as the moon jellyfish, contributes to the seasonal occurrence and abundance of medusa blooms via asexual reproduction. A. aurita is widely distributed in coastal areas in northern Europe, and one of the most studied jellyfish species. While the physiology of the visible medusa is largely understood, understanding of the physiology of the perennial benthic life-stage is scarce. To measure the physiological tolerance of A. aurita, the scyphistoma's temperature sensitivity across its distributional range was investigated. Respiration rates of polyps from three northern European locations exposed to 11 temperatures between 2 and 22°C were measured. There was a significant difference in respiration rate among the three polyp populations, which may reflect on differences in their thermal tolerance window. A critical temperature was reached at 14°C with the metabolic rate decreasing below and above that temperature. This pattern was less pronounced in the Norwegian population but polyps were able to survive, at least temporarily, those temperatures exceeding their natural range. While polyps collected from northern Norway, with a narrow environmental thermal window, displayed a low baseline metabolism with a Q10 value of 1.2, polyps from southern England and Scotland had Q10 values of 1.6 and 2.5, respectively. Differences in polyps' respiration rates across their distributional range suggest that populations have evolved adaptations to local environmental thermal conditions.

  12. Automatic Polyp Detection in Pillcam Colon 2 Capsule Images and Videos: Preliminary Feasibility Report

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    Pedro N. Figueiredo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this work is to present an automatic colorectal polyp detection scheme for capsule endoscopy. Methods. PillCam COLON2 capsule-based images and videos were used in our study. The database consists of full exam videos from five patients. The algorithm is based on the assumption that the polyps show up as a protrusion in the captured images and is expressed by means of a P-value, defined by geometrical features. Results. Seventeen PillCam COLON2 capsule videos are included, containing frames with polyps, flat lesions, diverticula, bubbles, and trash liquids. Polyps larger than 1 cm express a P-value higher than 2000, and 80% of the polyps show a P-value higher than 500. Diverticula, bubbles, trash liquids, and flat lesions were correctly interpreted by the algorithm as nonprotruding images. Conclusions. These preliminary results suggest that the proposed geometry-based polyp detection scheme works well, not only by allowing the detection of polyps but also by differentiating them from nonprotruding images found in the films.

  13. Increased Prevalence of Colorectal Polyp in Acromegaly Patients: A Case-Control Study

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    Ali Riza Koksal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the prevalence of colorectal polyps and cancer is reported in patients with acromegaly. This trial is designed to determine whether there is an increase in the prevalence of colorectal polyps/cancer in Turkish acromegaly patients. Sixty-six patients, who were under follow-up with the diagnosis of acromegaly and underwent total colonoscopic examination, were enrolled in the study. Sixty-five age- and gender-matched patients with nonspecific complaints were selected as control. The mean age of acromegalic patients was 51.5±12.8 years of whom 27 (40.9% were females. In 20 (30.3% of the patients with acromegaly a total of 65 colorectal polyps were detected. Forty-seven (72.3% of the polyps were detected at the rectosigmoid region. In 8 (12.3% of the 65 control patients a total of 17 polyps were found. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P=0.018. At the logistic regression analysis we found that the risk for colon polyps increased 3.2-fold in the presence of acromegaly, irrespective of age and gender (OR: 3.191, 95% CI: 1.25–8.13. In conclusion, patients who were followed up with the diagnosis of acromegaly should be taken to the colonoscopic surveillance program and all polyps detected should be excised in order to protect them from colorectal cancer.

  14. A new exploration for gallbladder polyps: gallbladder polypectomy by endolap technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JingMin; Tan, YuYan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Dong; Ji, ZhenLing

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Gallbladder polyps are most commonly treated with cholecystectomy, which is associated with various complications. For benign disease, preserving the gallbladder is preferable. Since 1994, we have been exploring percutaneous polypectomy and have recently developed an improved new technique. This study reports a new endoscopic-laparoscopic (Endolap) technique for the removal of polyps and the preservation of the gallbladder. Nine Chinese mini-pigs were used to observe mucosal regeneration. Microwaves of 50-70 mA for 9 seconds were safe, and the gallbladder mucosa of pigs recovered to nearly normal 2 weeks later. In the clinical cases, 60 patients with gallbladder polyps were studied. With the patient under general anesthesia, each polyp stem was coagulated, and then the polyp was removed. All procedures were successful at between 60 and 135 minutes. The success rate was 93.33% (56/60). A retrospective analysis was conducted to assess the recovery of gallbladder function. All patients were followed up and symptom-free, without recurrence of the polyps; 3 months after the operation, the volume and contraction of the gallbladder recovered to preoperative levels. Thus the Endolap technique is reliable for removing benign gallbladder polyps and is applicable to a wider range of clinical situations than percutaneous polypectomy.

  15. Importance of the surrounding colonic mucosa in distinguishing between hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps during acetic acid chromoendoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong Hwan Kim; Sun-Young Lee; Byung Kook Kim; Won Hyeok Choe; So Young Kwon; In-Kyung Sung; Hyung-Seok Park; Choon-Jo Jin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the characteristics of colonic polyps, where it is difficult to distinguish adenomatous polyps from hyperplastic polyps, with the aid of acetic acid chromoendoscopy.METHODS: Acetic acid spray was applied to colonic polyps smaller than 10 mm before complete excision. Endoscopic images were taken before and 15-30 s after the acetic acid spray. Both pre- and post-sprayed images were shown to 16 examiners, who were asked to interpret the lesions as either hyperplastic or adenomatous polyps. Regression analysis was performed to determine which factors were most likely related to diagnostic accuracy.RESULTS: In 50 cases tested by the 16 examiners, the overall accuracy was 62.4% (499/800). Regression analysis demonstrated that surrounding colonic mucosa was the only factor that was significantly related to accuracy in discriminating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps (P < 0.001). Accuracy was higher for polyps with linear surrounding colonic mucosa than for those with nodular surrounding colonic mucosa (P < 0.001), but was not related to the shape, location, or size of the polyp.CONCLUSION: The accuracy of predicting histology is significantly related to the pattern of colonic mucosa surrounding the polyp. Making a histological diagnosis of colon polyps merely by acetic acid spray is helpful for colon polyps with linear, regularly patterned surrounding colonic mucosa, and less so for those with nodular, irregularly patterned surrounding colonic mucosa.

  16. NASAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE MICROFLORA IN PATIENTS WITH POLYPOUS RHINOSINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kolenchukova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal mucous membrane microbiocenosis Research amongst patients with polypous rhinosinusitis is conducted. Patients with polypous rhinosinusitis (PRS, n = 58 aged from 18 till 64 years and group of control (n = 156. For an microflora assessment of nasal mucous membrane during an exacerbation of a disease carried out crops of microorga nisms on nutrient differential and diagnostic agars. When studying the microflora received from nasal mucous membrane 407 cultures of microorganisms at PRS were revealed. In control group of 174 microorganisms cultures are revealed. Among isolates were established 6 genera of 9 species of bacteria at PRS against 6 genera and 8 species in group of control. Microflora quantitative structure research of nasal mucous membrane at PRS of rather control group considerable prevalence of the microorganisms belonging to the sorts Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, and also to Enterobacteriaceae was revealed. It is also revealed increase S. pneumoniae. When determining specific accessory of the microorganisms relating to the Staphylococcus genera in PRS group concerning control the increase in total number of the strains of S. aureus relating to coagulase-positive and S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis relating to coagulase-negative staphylococcus was established. A big variety the coagulase-negative of Staphylococcus is also revealed: S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. cohnii, S. capitis, S. hyicius and S. xylosus. In control group of such types as S. capitis and S. hyicius it isn’t revealed. Thus at a polypous rhinosinusitis nasal mucous membrane the expressed dysbacteriosis takes place. The analysis of frequency of occurrence of the microorganisms belonging to different childbirth showed that in PRS group bacteria of the sort Streptococcus and this Nesseria, and also S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes were most often allocated concerning control. The frequency prevalence analysis of the gene ra Staphylococcus related

  17. Endoscopic mis-sizing of polyps changes colorectal cancer surveillance recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenseer, Peter J; Dhanekula, Raja; Jakate, Shriram; Mobarhan, Sohrab; Melson, Joshua E

    2013-03-01

    Adenomatous polyps greater than 1 cm are defined as advanced adenomas. Inaccurate size estimation can lead to inappropriate surveillance recommendations of colorectal adenomas. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of endoscopic polyp mis-sizing on colorectal cancer surveillance recommendations. This is a prospective study. This study was conducted in a gastroenterology practice at a US academic medical center. Patients undergoing colorectal cancer screening and surveillance colonoscopies from 2010 to 2011 were included. Endoscopic size estimates of polyps 10 to 25 mm were compared with postfixation histopathologic polyp measurements for 15 different gastroenterologists. Only adenomatous polyps removed in entirety by snare polypectomy were included in the analysis. Size variation was defined as (endoscopic estimate - histopathologic size)/(histopathologic size). Clinical mis-sizing was defined as a size variation of >33%. The mean size variation, the percentage of clinical mis-sizing, and the percentage of inappropriate surveillance recommendation due to size variation >33% were reported per endoscopist. : Included for analysis were 4990 procedures from 15 gastroenterologists. A total of 230 polyps from 200 patients met inclusion criteria. The average age was 62.6 years (SD 10.1), and 52% were men. The mean size variation between the endoscopic polyp size estimation and the histopathologic polyp was 73.6% (range of mean size variation, 13%-127%). 62.6% (range, 0%-91%) of included polyps had clinical mis-sizing. Of included polypectomies, 35.2% (range, 0%-67%) resulted in an inappropriate surveillance recommendation due to clinical mis-sizing even after considering histology and synchronous polyps. This was a single-center study. There is marked variation in endoscopists' ability to accurately size adenomatous polyps. Some endoscopists rarely mis-size adenomas, and their surveillance recommendations are appropriate in regard to sizing. However, other

  18. Gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp: A rare cause of iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jin Tak; Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Dong Pil; Choi, Seung Hwa; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Park, Jun Kyu; Jang, Sun Hee; Park, Yun Jung; Sung, Ye Gyu; Sul, Hae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp (IHP) is a rare gastric polyp characterized by the downward growth of hyperplastic mucosal components into the submucosal layer. Macroscopically, a gastric IHP resembles a subepithelial tumor (SET); as a result, accurately diagnosing gastric IHP is difficult. This issue has clinical significance because gastric IHP can be misdiagnosed as SET or as malignant neoplasm In addition, adenocarcinoma can accompany benign gastric IHP. Although in most cases, gastric IHPs are asymptomatic and are found incidentally, these polyps may cause anemia secondary to chronic bleeding. Here, we report one case involving gastric IHP accompanied by chronic iron deficiency anemia that was successfully managed using endoscopic submucosal dissection. PMID:27099452

  19. A Case of Fibrovascular Polyp of the Stomach: Sonographic and Computed Tomographic Findings

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    Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrovascular polyps are rare, pedunculated, tumor-like lesions that are usually found in the esophagus; occurrence in the stomach is very rare. To our knowledge, sonographic and CT findings of a fibrovascular polyp in the stomach have never been reported. Here, we report a case of a fibrovascular polyp that was identified in the gastric antrum and prolapsed into the duodenal bulb. Sonography revealed a hyperechoic polypoid mass in the gastric antrum, which prolapsed into the duodenal bulb upon a change in the patient’s position. CT also revealed a pedunculated polypoid mass with an inner fatty component.

  20. Study design and patient recruitment for the Japan Polyp Study

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    Sano Y

    2014-05-01

    , Japan Background: The Japan Polyp Study (JPS Workgroup was established in 2000 to evaluate colonoscopic follow-up surveillance strategies. The JPS was a multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate follow-up surveillance strategies in patients who had undergone two complete colonoscopies for control of colorectal cancer, with removal of all detected polyps. The aim of the present analysis was to assess the patient recruitment and whether the clinical characteristics were adequate for enrollment at the participating centers. Materials and methods: Among referrals for colonoscopy at the eleven participating centers, all patients who were 40–69 years old, without a family or personal history of familial polyposis, Lynch syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, or a personal history of polypectomy with unknown histology, and had no invasive colorectal cancer or colectomy, were considered for inclusion from February 2003. Results: Among 4,752 referrals, a total of 3,926 patients with a mean age of 57.3 (range 40–69 years, including 2,440 (62% males, were included in the JPS. The participation rate was 83%. Among them, a total of 2,757 patients who had undergone two complete colonoscopies with removal of all detected polyps were eligible, giving an eligibility rate of 70% (2,757 of 3,926. Among the eligible patients, 2,166 were assigned to randomized groups, and 591 patients to a nonrandomized group. The last steps of data lock, analysis, and complete histopathological assessment based on a pathology review are ongoing. Conclusion: Eligible patients recruited for the JPS were successfully assigned on the basis of the expected sample-size calculation. Keywords: colonoscopy, follow-up surveillance strategies, Japan Polyp Study (JPS, study design, multicenter randomized controlled trial

  1. Management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and coexisting asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rix, Iben; Håkansson, Kåre; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and asthma are strongly associated, and patients suffering from both diseases are often difficult to treat. However, no guidelines about the management of patients with CRS and coexisting asthma exist. OBJECTIVE: The purpose...... of this systematic review was to evaluate the management of CRSwNP and coexisting asthma. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases and included clinical trials in which the clinical outcomes after medical or surgical treatment of patients with CRSwNP and asthma were assessed. The strength...... of the evidence for each outcome was graded on the basis of study quality and consistency in findings. RESULTS: We included seven trials in which the effect of montelukast, omalizumab, erythromycin, and functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) were studied in 317 adults with CRSwNP and asthma. All...

  2. INFLAMMATORY FIBROID POLYPS OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To review the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) of gastrointestinal tract. Methods: The clinical symptoms, histopathologic features and immunohistochemical (ABC method) staining in 9 cases were observed. Results: IFP presented either as a solitary pedunculated or sessile lesion arising from the submucosa and protroding into the lumen; composed of a background of fibroblasts and blood vessels infiltrated by a variable number of inflammatory cells, often numerous eosinophilias leukocytes. Immunohistochemical staining: the spindle cells of all cases reacted with Vimentin. The partial cells of several cases react with Actin, NSE, a -AT. 7 cases were follow-up. No patients had a recurrence of the lesion. Conclusion: IFP are rare lesions, and may represent an exaggerated response to inflammatory or other injury process. The prognosis is good when treated by segmental resections of endoscopic removals.

  3. Adenomyomatous polyp causing acute urinary retention in a postmenopausal woman

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    Selver Özekinci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of adenomyomatous polyp (AP causig acute urinary retention in postmenopausal period is presented. A 65-year-old, G8P8 women admitted to our clinic with the complaint of vaginal bleeding and vaginal mass was identified. During preoperative hospitalization she complained about not able to urinate. Serum urea and creatinine levels increased [66 mg/dL (range= 10-45 and 2,49 mg/dL (range= 0. 6-1.3 respectively]. Emergent abdominopelvic tomography showed vaginal mass and overdistended bladder. Mass was removed by vaginal route and abdominal hysterectomy was also performed. Pathologic examination revealed non-malignant AP with massive necrosis. A variety of female reproductive tract diseases can cause urinary obstruction. Treatment choice depends on reproductive expectance of the patient. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 312-314.

  4. Inflammatory Fibroid Polyp Causing Colocolic Intussusception in an Infant

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    Mark Walton

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-month-old infant presented to the emergency department with a 24 h history of irritability and lesion prolapsing intermittently per anus. The child had a six-week history of blood and mucus per rectum. Digital rectal examination and sigmoidoscopy revealed what appeared to be a large mobile polypoid lesion arising from the rectum. Plans for excision were made. Sigmoidoscopy performed the following morning failed to demonstrate any lesion in the rectum or sigmoid. Barium enema demonstrated a sessile ‘apple core type’ lesion in the descending colon. Segmental resection of the descending colon with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bowel demonstrated features consistent with an inflammatory fibroid polyp. This case appears to be unique because of the young age of the patient, its unusual location and its presentation as an intermittent colocolic intussusception.

  5. [The effect of smoking and forced use of the voice to development of the vocal polyps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjatic, M; Stankovic, P; Djukić, V

    2009-01-01

    Dysphonia is often caused by polyps which are benign changes of pseudotumors. With their presence they are hampering with glotis oclusion. Laryngomicroscopy of general and endotracheal anaesthesia has been preformed on all of the patients. Microsurgical technique has been used to remove the polyps. Bioptic material was analyzed in pathophysiological laboratory of clinic of pathology in Banjaluka. All of the results were presented through tables and graphic representations. Frequency of polyps through age and sex groups, along with the examination of ethyological factors in emergence of polyps of vocal cords. Results are in accordance with the results of other authors who were involved in similar problematics. Through analysis of our data we percieve that the abuse of voice is part of ethiological factors that lead not only to emergence of vocal fold lesions but aswell as other benign changes.

  6. Biopsies of colorectal clinical polyps--emergence of diagnostic information on deeper levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnecke, Mads; Engel, Ulla; Bernstein, Inge;

    2009-01-01

    Although the occasional appearance of a normal histology of biopsies from endoscopic colorectal (CR) polyps is generally held knowledge, its prevalence has rarely been focused on, and the yield of additional sections in such cases has been previously addressed in merely four communications....... Hitherto, this issue has not been discussed in the context of the clinical setting. The prime aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of step sectioning CR biopsies, considered non-diagnostic (non-diagnostic biopsies (NDB)) on routine sections. The results are correlated with the indications...... for endoscopy. Additionally, an appropriate, cost-effective approach for handling NDB was sought. Biopsies from 480 clinical polyps were prospectively evaluated by one of three gastrointestinal pathologists and classified as (a) diagnostic biopsies (DB), comprising neoplastic polyps, hyperplastic polyps (HP...

  7. Analysis of mtDNA sequence variants in colorectal adenomatous polyps

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    Grizzle William

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colorectal tumors mostly arise from sporadic adenomatous polyps. Polyps are defined as a mass of cells that protrudes into the lumen of the colon. Adenomatous polyps are benign neoplasms that, by definition display some characteristics of dysplasia. It has been shown that polyps were benign tumors which may undergo malignant transformation. Adenomatous polyps have been classified into three histologic types; tubular, tubulovillous, and villous with increasing malignant potential. The ability to differentially diagnose these colorectal adenomatous polyps is important for therapeutic intervention. To date, little efforts have been directed to identifying genetic changes involved in adenomatous polyps. This study was designed to examine the relevance of mitochondrial genome alterations in the three adenomatous polyps. Using high resolution restriction endonucleases and PCR-based sequencing, fifty-seven primary fresh frozen tissues of adenomatous polyps (37 tumors and 20 matched surrounding normal tissues obtained from the southern regional Cooperative Human Tissue Network (CHTN and Grady Memorial Hospital at Atlanta were screened with three mtDNA regional primer pairs that spanned 5.9 kbp. Results from our data analyses revealed the presence of forty-four variants in some of these mitochondrial genes that the primers spanned; COX I, II, III, ATP 6, 8, CYT b, ND 5, 6 and tRNAs. Based on the MITODAT database as a sequence reference, 25 of the 44 (57% variants observed were unreported. Notably, a heteroplasmic variant C8515G/T in the MT-ATP 8 gene and a germline variant 8327delA in the tRNAlys was observed in all the tissue samples of the three adenomatous polyps in comparison to the referenced database sequence. A germline variant G9055A in the MT-ATP 6 gene had a frequency of 100% (17/17 in tubular and 57% (13/23 in villous adenomas; no corresponding variant was in tubulovillous adenomas. Furthermore, A9006G variant at MT-ATP 6 gene was

  8. Intracellular poly-P assessment by DAPI staining and image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, A.L.; Mesquita, D. P.; Leal, C; Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Reis, Maria A. M.; Ferreira, E. C.

    2013-01-01

    In wastewater treatment, enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is considered a well-established process to remove phosphate (P). EBPR is based on the activity of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) able to take up and store large amounts of P as intracellular (poly-P) granules. However, monitoring poly-P in mixed cultures is usually performed by a laborious and time consuming off-line chemical analysis. Thus, there is a clear need to develop new techniques to rapidly monitor t...

  9. Predictive significance of tissue eosinophilia for nasal polyp recurrence in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hongfei; Meng, Yifan; Piao, Yingshi; Wang, Chengshuo; Zhang, Luo; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remains a challenging clinical entity with its propensity for recurrence. Tissue eosinophilia is a hallmark of CRSwNP, and its role in polyp recurrence is a subject of much investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between clinical parameters, especially tissue eosinophilia and polyp recurrence, and to identify the optimal cutoff value of tissue eosinophilia as a predictor for polyp recurrence in Chinese subjects. Overall, 387 patients with CRSwNP were enrolled in this retrospective analysis and postoperative follow-up for polyp recurrence was over a period that lasted >24 months (mean [standard deviation], 34.03 ± 4.95 months). The baseline demographic and clinical features and the preoperative computed tomography were compared, and mucosal specimens obtained at endoscopic sinus surgery were assessed for inflammatory cells by using histocytologic staining. Predictive factors associated with polyp recurrence were analyzed by logistic regression analysis, and optimal cutoff points of the predictors were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves and the Youden index. A total of 55.3% patients (214/387) experienced recurrence. Tissue eosinophilia markedly outweighed other parameters and correlated with polyp recurrence. Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that a cutoff value of 27% tissue eosinophils predicted recurrence with 96.7% sensitivity and 92.5% specificity (area under the curve = 0.969; p 27% of total cells or a tissue eosinophil absolute count of >55 eosinophils per high power field may act as a reliable prognostic indicator for nasal polyp recurrence within 2 years after surgery.

  10. CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGIC, AND ENDOSCOPIC PROFILE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH COLONIC POLYPS IN TWO REFERENCE CENTERS

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    Denise O ANDRADE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - The main goal of this paper is to investigate the frequency, clinical profile, and endoscopic findings of children and teenagers submitted to colonoscopies. Methods - Patients of below 18 years of age, diagnosed with polyps by means of colonoscopies at two reference centers of pediatric endoscopy were followed-up between 2002 and 2012. The clinical variables evaluated in this study included: gender, recommendation of colonoscopy, associated signs and symptoms, age of onset of symptoms, age at identification of the polyp, interval of time between the onset of symptoms and the endoscopic diagnosis of colonic polyps, and family history of intestinal polyposis and/or colorectal cancer. The characteristics of the polyps also included: number, morphological type, histology, and distribution. Polyposis syndromes were also investigated. Results - From the 233 patients submitted to colonoscopies, polyps were found in 74 (31.7% patients, with a median age of 6.6 years, of which 61% were male. Juvenile polyps were identified in 55 (74% patients, with 7 (9% characterized within the criteria for juvenile polyposis. Patients with intestinal polyposis syndromes were diagnosed in 35% of the patients. The most frequent clinical presentation was hematochezia. Abdominal pain with acute episodes of intestinal partial obstruction or intussusception with emergency laparotomy was observed in the majority of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients leading to an increased morbidity. Conclusions - Even though juvenile colonic polyps are the most frequent type of diagnosed polyps, the present study identified a significant level of children with polyposis syndromes (35%, associated with a higher morbidity of these individuals.

  11. Jellyfish life histories: role of polyps in forming and maintaining scyphomedusa populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Cathy H; Graham, William M; Widmer, Chad

    2012-01-01

    Large population fluctuations of jellyfish occur over a variety of temporal scales, from weekly to seasonal, inter-annual and even decadal, with some regions of the world reported to be experiencing persistent seasonal bloom events. Recent jellyfish research has focussed on understanding the causes and consequences of these population changes, with the vast majority of studies considering the effect of changing environmental variables only on the pelagic medusa. But many of the bloom-forming species are members of the Scyphozoa with complex metagenic life cycles consisting of a sexually reproducing pelagic medusa and asexually reproducing benthic polyp. Recruitment success during the juvenile (planula, polyp and ephyrae) stages of the life cycle can have a major effect on the abundance of the adult (medusa) population, but until very recently, little was known about the ecology of the polyp or scyphistoma phase of the scyphozoan life cycle. The aim of this review is to synthesise the current state of knowledge of polyp ecology by examining (1) the recruitment and metamorphosis of planulae larvae into polyps, (2) survival and longevity of polyps, (3) expansion of polyp populations via asexual propagation and (4) strobilation and recruitment of ephyrae (juvenile medusae). Where possible, comparisons are made with the life histories of other bentho-pelagic marine invertebrates so that further inferences can be made. Differences between tropical and temperate species are highlighted and related to climate change, and populations of the same species (in particular Aurelia aurita) inhabiting different habitats within its geographic range are compared. The roles that polyps play in ensuring the long-term survival of jellyfish populations as well as in the formation of bloom populations are considered, and recommendations for future research are presented.

  12. Management of male urethral polyps in children: Experience with four cases

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    Eziyi Amogu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital urethral polyps area rare anomaly of the male urethra that may present with features of voiding dysfunction or obstruction. Although the exact incidence is unknown, they are important in the differential diagnosis of lower urethral obstruction in male children. Their diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion because of the variability of presentation. We present our experience with four cases of male urethral polyps in boys with discussion on the related literature.

  13. A matter of tolerance: Distribution potential of scyphozoan polyps in a changing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Josephine; Augustin, Christina B.; Bleich, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms are unpredictable, unsustainable events, frequently affecting aquatic ecosystems severely. Of particular interest are the consequences of environmental change for jellyfish populations, especially in semi-enclosed habitats. Regional and seasonal changes in water chemistry...... psu caused irreversible degeneration of A. aurita and C. capillata polyps, respectively. Observed physiological limits suggest distribution of polyp populations of A. aurita in central and of C. capillata western parts of the Baltic Sea, while future climate changes may particularly restrict...

  14. Prevalence of colonic polyp and its predictors in patients with acromegaly

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    Purnima Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are conflicting data regarding the prevalence of colorectal polyp in patients with acromegaly. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive forty-seven acromegalic patients (21 men, 26 women, with a mean age of (40 ± 12 years attending endocrinology outpatient department underwent full colonoscopy. All the patients underwent clinical and biochemical evaluation (glucose suppressed growth hormone (GH, Insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], fasting insulin, and glucose. The control group (n = 120 for colonoscopy was adult subjects undergoing evaluation for symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical and biochemical parameters in acromegalic patients with colonic polyp were compared to those without a polyp. Results: Patients with acromegaly had significantly higher prevalence of colonic polyp as compared to control subjects (10.6% vs. 0.8%. None of the patients with polyp had skin tags. There was no significant difference between subjects with and without colonic polyp in duration of illness, basal, and glucose-suppressed GH and most recent IGF-1. Fasting blood sugar was significantly higher (P < 0.05 in adenoma group after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI, and insulin levels. Patients in adenoma group showed a trend toward male gender and younger age as compared to those without adenoma. Conclusions: Subjects with acromegaly as compared to control have a higher prevalence of colonic polyps. There was no association of polyps seen with age, BMI, skin tags, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, duration of disease, and basal and glucose-suppressed GH and IGF-1 levels. There were no specific predictive factors detected. Screening full colonoscopy is recommended in all cases with acromegaly.

  15. Seasonality in polyps of a tropical cubozoan: A latina nr mordens.

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    Robert Courtney

    Full Text Available A latina nr mordens have been located in large predictable spawning aggregations near Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea eight to ten days after a full moon; however, polyps have never been located in-situ. The polyp stage contributes to the abundance of medusae through asexual reproduction and metamorphosis, and may influence the periodicity of medusae by metamorphosis of the polyp. To elucidate the relationship between medusae periodicity and polyp ecology, polyps were exposed to thermal and osmotic treatments in order to determine the theoretical environmental limits to their distribution. Maximum fecundity occurred in thermal treatments of 21 to 25ºC and the theoretical minimum thermal requirement for population stability was approximately 17ºC. Polyps were also exposed to five feeding regimes and fecundity was found to be positively correlated with feeding frequency. Thermal and osmotic variations did not induce metamorphosis in this species, however, reduced food did. The implications of asexual reproduction and cues for metamorphosis in relation to population dynamics of this species are discussed.

  16. Detection of flat colorectal polyps at screening CT colonography in comparison with conventional polypoid lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Takashi; Urata, Joji [Diagnostic Imaging Center, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan); Mitsuzaki, Katsuhiko; Matsuda, Katsuhiko; Kawakami, Megumi [Medical Examination Center, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan); Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yamamura, Sadahiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)], e-mail: utsunomi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    2012-09-15

    Background: Although the screening of small, flat polyps is clinically important, the role of CT colonography (CTC) screening in their detection has not been thoroughly investigated. Purpose: To evaluate the detection capability and usefulness of CTC in the screening of flat and polypoid lesions by comparing CTC with optic colonoscopy findings as the gold standard. Material and Methods: We evaluated the CTC detection capability for flat colorectal polyps with a flat surface and a height not exceeding 3 mm (n = 42) by comparing to conventional polypoid lesions (n = 418) according to the polyp diameter. Four types of reconstruction images including multiplanar reconstruction, volume rendering, virtual gross pathology, and virtual endoscopic images were used for visual analysis. We compared the abilities of the four reconstructions for polyp visualization. Results: Detection sensitivity for flat polyps was 31.3 %, 44.4 %, and 87.5 % for lesions measuring 2-3 mm, 4-5 mm, and {>=}6 mm, respectively; the corresponding sensitivity for polypoid lesions was 47.6 %, 79.0 %, and 91.7 %. The overall sensitivity for flat lesions (47.6%) was significantly lower than polypoid lesions (64.1%). Virtual endoscopic imaging showed best visualization among the four reconstructions. Colon cancers were detected in eight patients by optic colonoscopy, and CTC detected colon cancers in all eight patients. Conclusion: CTC using 64-row multidetector CT is useful for colon cancer screening to detect colorectal polyps while the detection of small, flat lesions is still challenging.

  17. Fibroepithelial Polyp of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report and a Literature Review

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    Nobuaki Tanaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first case of fibroepithelial polyp arising independently of the external auditory canal. A 16-year-old female patient presented to our clinic for aural fullness of the left side. Physical examination revealed a papillomatous tumor at the posterior wall of the inlet of the left external auditory canal. After biopsy, which yielded a diagnosis of benign papilloma, the patient underwent tumor excision. Final diagnosis was fibroepithelial polyp. One week after resection, aural fullness had resolved. Fibroepithelial polyp is a benign lesion and occurs mainly in the skin, ureteropelvic system, and genitals. In the head and neck area, there are reports on fibroepithelial polyp of the tongue, piriform fossa, inferior nasal turbinate, and tonsil, in addition to the skin, but none on independent fibroepithelial polyp of the external auditory canal. Excision of fibroepithelial polyp of the external auditory canal is advisable, especially in the presence of any symptoms, and should be preceded by confirmation of nonmalignancy by biopsy, if possible.

  18. What can be the criteria of outpatient-based endoscopic resection for colon polyp?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyung; Hun; Kim; Sung; Eun; Kim; Eun; Joo; Cho

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether out-patient based endo-scopic mucosal resection(EMR) for colon polyps ≤ 10 mm is safe.METHODS: Between January 2004 and December 2012, a total of 3015 EMR cases conducted in 1320 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The factors contributing delayed hemorrhage were analyzed. We calculated the probability of delayed bleeding after stratifying conditions of specific risk factors.RESULTS: The size of the polyp(95%CI: 1.096-1.164, P < 0.001) and patients with chronic renal failure(95%CI: 1.856-45.106, P = 0.007) were identified as independent risk factors for delayed bleeding in multi-variate analysis. 95%CI for percent of delayed bleedingaccording to polyp size was determined for the fol-lowing conditions: size ≤ 10 mm, 0.05%-0.43%; 20 mm ≥ size > 10 mm, 0.54%-2.08%; size > 20 mm, 4.22%-11.41%. 95%CI was determined for the risk of serious immediate bleeding for a polyp ≤ 10 mm was 0.10%-0.56%. Finally, 95%CI for percent of incomplete resection was 0.07%-0.49% in polyps ≤ 10 mm. CONCLUSION: It seems acceptable to perform outpa-tient-based EMR for colon polyps ≤ 10 mm.

  19. Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps, should they be removed during anal fissure surgery?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pravin J. Gupta

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps are not given due importance in the proctology practice.They are mostly ignored being considered as normal structures. The present study was aimed to demonstrate that hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps could cause symptoms to the patients and that they should be removed in treatment of patients with chronic fissure in anus.METHODS: Two groups of patients were studied. A hundred patients were studied in group A in which the associated fibrous polyp or papillae were removed by radio frequency surgical device after a lateral subcutaneous sphincterotomy for relieving the sphincter spasm. Another group of a hundred patients who also had papillae or fibrous polyps, were treated by lateral sphincterotomy alone. They were followed up for one year.RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent patients from group A expressed their satisfaction with the treatment in comparison to only 64% from group B who underwent sphincterotomy alone with the papillae or anal polyps left untreated. Group A patients showed a marked reduction with regard to pain and irritation during defecation (P= 0.0011),pricking or foreign body sensation in the anus (P = 0.0006)and pruritus or wetness around the anal verge (P = 0.0008).CONCLUSION: Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps should be removed during treatment of chronic anal fissure. This would add to effectiveness and completeness of the procedure.

  20. Giant fibrovascular polyp of the oesophagus: a case report and review of the literature

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    Chourmouzi Danai

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of fibrovascular polyp, a rare submucosal tumour of the oesophagus that has been reported only sporadically in the literature. The biapproach for surgical removal of fibrovascular polyp has only been mentioned once in the literature. Case presentation A 65-year-old Greek man presented with a 9-month history of gradually progressive intermittent dysphagia. Radiologic work-up with oesophagogram and computed tomography revealed a large, sausage-shaped intraluminal polyp extending from the level of the cervical oesophagus to the level of the upper body of the stomach. The diagnosis of giant fibrovascular polyp was made radiographically and confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. The polyp was removed using a biapproach surgical technique: pharyngotomy and subsequent gastrostomy. Conclusion Fibrovascular polyp is a rare submucosal tumour. Proper treatment depends on accurate assessment of the origin, size, and vascularity of the pedicle and the size of the tumour. Choice of the appropriate surgical approach depends on the correct diagnosis, which can usually be indicated radiographically by the presence of a smooth, sausage-shaped defect with a discrete bulbous tip.

  1. Activated mammalian target of rapamycin is associated with T regulatory cell insufficiency in nasal polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Jianbo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased infiltration of Foxp3+ T regulatory cell (Treg is considered to be critical for the Th1/Th2 dysregulation of nasal polyps, while the cellular mechanism underlying Foxp3+ Treg insufficiency is currently not well defined. Methods We attempted to investigate the tissue expression of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (pmTOR and infiltration of Foxp3+ Tregs in 28 nasal polyps and 16 controls by histological staining. We also evaluated the effects of blocking the mTOR signaling pathway with rapamycin on T cell phenotype selection and Foxp3+CD4+ Tregs expansion in a tissue culture system. Results Significantly increased infiltration of pmTOR+ inflammatory cells and decreased infiltration of Foxp3+CD4+ Tregs into nasal polyps was observed, with an inverse association. In the tissue culture system, we detected significantly elevated Foxp3 expression and IL-10 production, as well as an increased percentage of Foxp3+ Tregs in nasal polyps after blocking the mTOR signaling pathway with rapamycin. Conclusion Here we demonstrate for the first time that the mTOR signaling pathway is associated with Foxp3+ Tregs insufficiency in nasal polyps. Inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway may be helpful for enhancement of Foxp3+ Treg expansion, as well as modulation of T cell phenotype imbalances in nasal polyps.

  2. An Examination of the Perceptions of Cooperating Teachers and Teacher Candidates Regarding the Initial Implementation of a Co-Teaching Model with Student Teaching at a Northern Louisiana University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tina L.

    2013-01-01

    Since Louisiana now requires 50% of yearly evaluations of classroom teachers be based on student achievement, cooperating teachers who regularly supervise teacher candidates for a northern Louisiana university have become hesitant to accept teacher candidates into their classrooms. Other universities in Louisiana and across the United States have…

  3. THE PREVALENCE OF COLONIC POLYPS IN PATIENTS WITH ACROMEGALY: A CASE-CONTROL, NESTED IN A COHORT COLONOSCOPIC STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Baldomero; Vargas, Guadalupe; Mendoza, Victoria; Nava, Mariana; Rojas, Moisés; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-05-01

    Acromegaly is associated with an increased risk of colonic polyps. The magnitude of such risk is controversial, and the characteristics that distinguish patients who develop polyps from those who do not are not well established. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of colonic polyps upon the diagnosis of acromegaly and to compare the clinical and biochemical features of patients with and without polyps. Out of 165 patients who underwent a full colonoscopy upon diagnosis of acromegaly, 53 were found to harbor colonic lesions (cases), whereas the remaining 112 were used as controls. Demographic, clinical, and biochemical characteristics were compared between the 2 groups. The prevalence of colonic polyps was 32%, with an estimated relative risk of 6.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.08-9.48). Adenomatous and nonadenomatous polyps were found in 22 and 31 patients, respectively. The most common location was the descending colon. Compared to patients without polyps, subjects with polyps were somewhat older and had significantly higher insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and a higher prevalence of diabetes. Upon multivariate analysis, only IGF-1 level at diagnosis remained significantly associated with colonic polyps in general and with hyperplastic polyps in particular. Acromegaly is associated with an elevated risk of developing colonic polyps, particularly, distally located hyperplastic lesions. Except for a higher IGF-1 level at diagnosis, no distinctive clinical or biochemical features can be found among those who develop polyps compared to those who do not. CI = confidence interval GH = growth hormone IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1 IQR = inter-quartile range RR = relative risk ULN = upper limit of normal.

  4. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of thes...

  5. Evaluation of magnifying colonoscopy in the diagnosis of serrated polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinya Ishigooka; Masahito Nomoto; Nobuyuki Obinata; Yoshichika Oishi; Yoshinori Sato; Satoko Nakatsu; Midori Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To elucidate the colonoscopic features of serrated lesions of the colorectum using magnifying colonoscopy.METHODS:Broad division of serrated lesions of the colorectum into hyperplastic polyps (HPs),traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs),and sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) has been proposed on the basis of recent molecular biological studies.However,few reports have examined the colonoscopic features of these divisions,including magnified colonoscopic findings.This study examined 118 lesions excised in our hospital as suspected serrated lesions after magnified observation between January 2008 and September 2011.Patient characteristics (sex,age),conventional colonoscopic findings (location,size,morphology,color,mucin) and magnified colonoscopic findings (pit pattern diagnosis) were interpreted by five colonoscopists with experience in over 1000 colonoscopies,and were compared with histopathological diagnoses.The pit patterns were categorized according to Kudo's classification,but a more detailed investigation was also performed using the subclassification [type Ⅱ-Open (type Ⅱ-O),type Ⅱ-Long (type Ⅱ-L),or type Ⅳ-Serrated (type Ⅳ-S)] proposed by Kimura T and Yamano H.RESULTS:Lesions comprised 23 HPs (23/118:19.5%),39 TSAs (39/118:33.1%:with cancer in one case),50 SSA/Ps (50/118:42.4%:complicated with cancer in three cases),and six others (6/118:5.1%).We excluded six others,including three regular adenomas,one hamartoma,one inflammatory polyp,and one juvenile polyp for further analysis.Conventional colonoscopy showed that SSA/Ps were characterized as larger in diameter than TSAs and HPs (SSA/P vs HP,13.62 ± 8.62 mm vs 7.74 ± 3.24 mm,P < 0.001; SSA/Ps vs TSA,13.62 ±8.62 mm vs 9.89 ± 5.73 mm,P < 0.01); common in the right side of the colon [HPs,30.4% (7/23):TSAs,20.5%(8/39):SSA/P,84.0% (42/50),P < 0.001]; fiat-elevated lesion [HPs,30.4% (7/23):TSAs,5.1% (2/39):SSA/Ps,90.0% (45/50),P < 0.001]; normal-colored or pale

  6. Water Flow Affects Zooplankton Feeding by the Scleractinian Coral Galaxea fascicularis on a Polyp and Colony Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wijgerde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several factors may affect heterotrophic feeding of benthic marine invertebrates, including water flow rate and polyp context (i.e., the presence of neighbouring polyps. We tested the interactive effects of water flow rate and polyp context on zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. Single polyps and colonies were incubated in a flow cell for 30 minutes with an ambient Artemia nauplii concentration of 10,000 L−1 and water flow rates ranging from 1.25 to 40 cm s−1. Water flow rate and polyp context showed significant main and interactive effects on feeding rates of G. fascicularis polyps. More specifically, feeding rates were optimal at flow rates of 1.25 cm s−1 for single polyps and 5 to 10 cm s−1 for polyps inhabiting colonies. The presence of epizoic acoelomorph flatworms may have negatively affected the observed feeding rates, especially at high flow. Our results demonstrate that water flow affects coral feeding and thus heterotrophic nutrient input at both a polyp and colony level. These findings are of relevance to our understanding of how biotic and abiotic factors interact on coral heterotrophy and may serve to optimise coral aquaculture.

  7. Increased Detection of Colorectal Polyps in Screening Colonoscopy Using High Definition i-SCAN Compared with Standard White Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Jung; Park, Sang Young; Park, Iksoo; Lee, Wook Jin; Park, Jaechan; Chon, Nuri; Oh, Tak Geun; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high definition (HD) i-SCAN for colorectal polyp detection in screening colonoscopy. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the records of 501 patients who had undergone screening colonoscopy performed by three endoscopists with either HD i-SCAN (n=149) or standard white light (n=352) from January 2, 2014 through June 30, 2014. Patient information and inter-endoscopist variation as well as polyp number, endoscopic findings, and pathologic characteristics were reviewed. Results: The detection rates of colorectal and neoplastic polyps were significantly higher using HD i-SCAN than standard white light colonoscopy (52% vs. 38.1%, p=0.004 for colorectal polyps; and 37.2% vs. 27.9%, p=0.041 for neoplastic polyps). Analysis of endoscopic findings revealed no difference in detected polyp size between HD i-SCAN and standard white light colonoscopy (4.59±2.35 mm vs. 4.82±2.81 mm, p=0.739), but non-protruding polyps were more commonly detected by i-SCAN than by standard white light colonoscopy (24.6% vs. 13.5%, p=0.007). Conclusions: Colonoscopy using HD i-SCAN had a significantly higher detection rate of colorectal polyps, including neoplastic polyps, because of improved sensitivity for detecting non-protruding lesions. PMID:26855927

  8. Antioxidant enzymes in women with endometrial polyps: relation with sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejić, Snežana A; Kasapović, Jelena D; Todorović, Ana U; Stojiljković, Vesna R; Gavrilović, Ljubica V; Popović, Nataša M; Pajović, Snežana B

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and lipid hydroperoxide levels in patients with endometrial polyps are influenced by the changes in sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, FSH, and LH) during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopause. The material consisted of blood and endometrial tissue specimens from women diagnosed with endometrial polyps. Patients were divided into groups depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle--follicular or luteal--and the postmenopause. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the lipid hydroperoxide levels were compared among the phases and a linear regression model was used to evaluate the associations between hormones and antioxidant/oxidant variables. In the blood of examined women, a significant difference in superoxide dismutase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels was recorded among the phases. There was also a positive correlation between the estradiol concentration and superoxide dismutase. In polyp tissue, we recorded a phase-related difference in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as in the lipid hydroperoxide levels. A negative correlation was observed between FSH/LH and glutathione peroxidase, and between LH and superoxide dismutase. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid hydroperoxide levels in patients with endometrial polyps are influenced by the changes in sex hormones during the menstrual cycle and after the menopause, pointing to a role of the observed relationship in polyp etiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Eun Mi; Kim, Seo Woo; Lim, So Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal adenomatous polyps are precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and determine whether COPD is associated with colorectal malignant potential. Subjects who had undergone post-bronchodilator spirometry and colonoscopy and were 40 years or older were selected from the hospital database. COPD was defined as a spirometry in which the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) is prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps was 39% (98/251) in the non-COPD group and 66% (54/82) in the COPD group. Among 54 patients with adenomatous polyps in the COPD group, 47 had tubular adenoma and seven had villous adenoma. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that only COPD patients whom matched to the criteria of COPD by pulmonary function test (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-3.8; P=0.019) were independently associated with colorectal malignant potential. The risk of colorectal malignant potential in the COPD group was higher than in the non-COPD group. We may suggest that COPD patients should consider regular colonoscopic evaluation to screen for premalignant colon polyps regardless of smoking.

  10. Lovastatin, but not orlistat, reduces intestinal polyp volume in an ApcMin/+ mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Maria; Barone, Michele; Francavilla, Antonio; Tutino, Valeria; Bianco, Giusy; Tafaro, Angela; Minoia, Mario; Polimeno, Lorenzo; Napoli, Anna; Scavo, Maria Principia; Caruso, Maria Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    The statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR) and orlistat, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), inhibit tumor cell growth by restricting cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, respectively. We previously demonstrated that an omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)- or olive oil-enriched diet reduced the polyp number and volume in ApcMin/+ mice. This phenomenon was associated with a significant inhibition of FAS and HMGCoAR, as well as an increase in the estrogen receptor (ER)β/α ratio. Herein, we evaluated the effect of lovastatin and orlistat on polyp development and ER expression in ApcMin/+ mice, in order to confirm previous data obtained with ω‑3-PUFAs and olive oil. As expected, the use of lovastatin and orlistat significantly reduced HMGCoAR and FAS enzymatic activities and gene expression in colonic tissues, but did not affect the number of intestinal polyps, while there was a statistically significant reduction in polyp volume only in the mouse group treated with lovastatin. In the mice receiving orlistat, we observed a significant increase in cell proliferation in the polyp tissue, as well as enhanced expression of ERα. Moreover, the overexpression of ERα was associated with a statistically significant increase in PES1, Shh and Gli1 protein levels, considered ERα-related molecular targets.

  11. Exploring Metabolic Profile Differences between Colorectal Polyp Patients and Controls Using Seemingly Unrelated Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Deng, Lingli; Wei, Siwei; Nagana Gowda, G A; Gu, Haiwei; Chiorean, Elena G; Abu Zaid, Mohammad; Harrison, Marietta L; Pekny, Joseph F; Loehrer, Patrick J; Zhang, Dabao; Zhang, Min; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-06-05

    Despite the fact that colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers in the world, the development of improved and robust biomarkers to enable screening, surveillance, and therapy monitoring of CRC continues to be evasive. In particular, patients with colon polyps are at higher risk of developing colon cancer; however, noninvasive methods to identify these patients suffer from poor performance. In consideration of the challenges involved in identifying metabolite biomarkers in individuals with high risk for colon cancer, we have investigated NMR-based metabolite profiling in combination with numerous demographic parameters to investigate the ability of serum metabolites to differentiate polyp patients from healthy subjects. We also investigated the effect of disease risk on different groups of biologically related metabolites. A powerful statistical approach, seemingly unrelated regression (SUR), was used to model the correlated levels of metabolites in the same biological group. The metabolites were found to be significantly affected by demographic covariates such as gender, BMI, BMI(2), and smoking status. After accounting for the effects of the confounding factors, we then investigated potential of metabolites from serum to differentiate patients with polyps and age matched healthy controls. Our results showed that while only valine was slightly associated, individually, with polyp patients, a number of biologically related groups of metabolites were significantly associated with polyps. These results may explain some of the challenges and promise a novel avenue for future metabolite profiling methodologies.

  12. Polyp measurement based on CT colonography and colonoscopy: variability and systematic differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, Ayso H. de; Bipat, Shandra; Liedenbaum, Marjolein H.; Florie, Jasper; Vos, Frans M.; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dekker, Evelien; Fockens, Paul; Mathus-Vliegen, Elizabeth M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Gastroenterology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kraan, Roel van der; Truyen, Roel [Philips Healthcare, Department of Healthcare Informatics, Best (Netherlands); Reitsma, Johannes B.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    To assess the variability and systematic differences in polyp measurements on optical colonoscopy and CT colonography. Gastroenterologists measured 51 polyps by visual estimation, forceps comparison and linear probe. CT colonography observers randomly assessed polyp size two-dimensionally (abdominal and intermediate window) and three-dimensionally (manually and semi-automatically). Linear mixed models were used to assess the variability and systematic differences between CT colonography and optical colonoscopy techniques. The variability of forceps and linear probe measurements was comparable and both showed less variability than measurement by visual assessment. Measurements by linear probe were 0.7 mm smaller than measurements by visual assessment or by forceps. The variability of all CT colonography techniques was lower than for measurements by forceps or visual assessment and sometimes lower (only 2D intermediate window and manual 3D) compared with measurements by linear probe. All CT colonography measurements judged polyps to be larger than optical colonoscopy, with differences ranging from 0.7 to 2.3 mm. A linear probe does not reduce the measurement variability of endoscopists compared with the forceps. Measurement differences between observers on CT colonography were usually smaller than at optical colonoscopy. Polyps appeared larger when using various CT colonography techniques than when measured during optical colonoscopy. (orig.)

  13. The CIMP Phenotype in BRAF Mutant Serrated Polyps from a Prospective Colonoscopy Patient Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie C. Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancers arising via the serrated pathway are often associated with BRAF V600E mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, and microsatellite instability. Previous studies have shown a strong association between BRAF V600E mutation and serrated polyps. This study aims to evaluate CIMP status of all the serrated polyp subtypes and its association with functionally important genes such as MLH1, p16, and IGFBP7. CIMP status and methylation were evaluated using the real-time based MethyLight assay in 154 serrated polyps and 63 conventional adenomas. Results showed that CIMP-high serrated polyps were strongly associated with BRAF mutation and proximal colon. CIMP-high was uncommon in conventional adenomas (1.59%, occurred in 8.25% of hyperplastic polyps (HPs, and became common in sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs (51.43%. MLH1 methylation was mainly observed in the proximal colon and was significantly associated with BRAF mutation and CIMP-high. The number of samples methylated for p16 and IGFBP7 was the highest in SSAs. The methylation panel we used to detect CIMP is highly specific for CIMP-high cancers. With this panel, we demonstrate that CIMP-high is much more common in SSAs than HPs. This suggests that CIMP-high correlates with increased risk of malignant transformation which was also observed in methylation of functionally important genes.

  14. The Impact of Angiotensin-Modulating Antihypertensives on Time Interval to Revision Surgery for Nasal Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christopher D; Maxfield, Alice Z; Stankovic, Konstantina; Metson, Ralph B

    2016-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to suppress expression of periostin, a matricellular protein that is markedly elevated in nasal polyp tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine whether use of these antihypertensive agents affects the time to revision sinus surgery in patients with polyp regrowth. Case series with chart review. Academic medical center. Records were reviewed for 330 patients who underwent ≥2 operations for chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps from April 1987 through August 2015. The time between surgical interventions was compared with patient demographics and clinical characteristics, including use of ACEIs and ARBs. Sixty patients were taking ACEIs or ARBs during the study period, of which 32 had concurrent asthma. The mean interval between polyp operations was 61.0 ± 45.2 months (range, 2-228.6 months). Among patients with asthma (n = 197), the mean time to revision surgery was prolonged by >2 years for those taking ACEIs or ARBs (81.0 vs 54.5 months, P = .006). A similar impact on time to revision surgery was not observed for nonasthmatics taking these medications (61.0 vs 65.2 months, P = .655). Use of ACEIs and ARBs is associated with an increased time to revision sinus surgery among patients with concurrent nasal polyps and asthma. A possible mechanism of this observed effect is suppression of periostin expression through inhibition of the angiotensin pathway. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  15. Measurement of colonic polyps by radiologists and endoscopists: Who is most accurate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punwani, S.; Halligan, S.; Greenhalgh, R.; Godbold, J.; Taylor, S.A. [University College Hospital, Department of Specialist Radiology, Podium Level 2, London (United Kingdom); Irving, P.; Bloom, S.; Bungay, A. [University College Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, London (United Kingdom); Altman, D.G. [Wolfson College Annexe, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose was to determine the accuracy of polyp measurement by endoscopy and CT. A colonic phantom was constructed containing 12 simulated polyps of known diameter. Polyp diameter was estimated during endoscopy by two observers independently. The phantom was then scanned using a 64-detector-row machine and diameter estimated by a further two observers independently, using 2D and 3D visualisation methods. All measurements were obtained twice. Bland-Altman statistics were used to assess agreement between observers' estimates and the reference diameter. The mean difference between observers' measurements and the reference diameter was smallest for estimates made using 3D CT (-0.09 mm and -0.03 mm) and greatest for endoscopy (-1.10 mm and -1.19 mm), with 2D CT intermediate. However, 95% limits of agreement were largest for 3D CT estimates (-4.38 mm to 4.20 mm). Estimates by 2D CT consistently overestimated polyp diameter, whereas endoscopy consistently underestimated diameter. In contrast, measurements by 3D CT were a combination of over- and under-estimates, with a tendency for disagreement to increase with the size of the polyp. The effect of observer experience was small and repeatability was best for 2D CT. Measurement error was encountered with all three modalities tested. Estimates made by 2D CT were believed to offer the best compromise overall. (orig.)

  16. Association of the DNMT3B polymorphism with colorectal adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Liwei; Wu, Mingli; Wang, Na; Liu, Yanfeng; Er, Limian; Wang, Shunping; Gao, Yang; Yu, Weifang; Xue, Hui; Xu, Zhibin; Wang, Shijie

    2010-01-01

    DNMT3B is an important enzyme to modulate the methylation status in mammalian cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation of the DNMT3B G39179T polymorphism with the susceptibilities of colorectal adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinoma. This case-control study included 146 colorectal adenomatous polyps, 170 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients, and 157 normal controls. DNMT3B polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Family history of colorectal cancer significantly increases the risk of developing colorectal adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinoma. The genotype frequency of DNMT3B polymorphism (T/T and G/T + G/G) in adenocarcinoma patients was significantly different from that in controls (P value = 0.01). Compared with DNMT3B T/T genotype, the G allelotype (G/T + G/G genotype) had lower risk to develop colorectal adenocarcinoma (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29-0.87); while there was no significant difference between the colorectal adenomatous polyps patients and controls (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.37-1.09), although descending tendency could be found in this polyps group. In the stratification analysis, a significant association was confined to subgroups of age DNMT3B G39179T SNP in different ethnics. DNMT3B G39179T SNP may be a potential genetic susceptibility factor for adenocarcinoma of the colon, especially in younger Chinese Han non-drinker men.

  17. High resolution colonoscopy in a bowel cancer screening program improves polyp detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R Banks; Kalpesh Basherdas; Manuel Rodriguez-Justo; Laurence B Lovat; Rehan Haidry; M Adil Butt; Lisa Whitley; Judith Stein; Louise Langmead; Stuart L Bloom; Austin O'Bichere; Sara McCartney

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To compare high resolution colonoscopy (Olympus Lucera) with a megapixel high resolution system (Pentax HiLine) as an in-service evaluation.METHODS:Polyp detection rates and measures of performance were collected for 269 colonoscopy procedures.Five colonoscopists conducted the study over a three month period,as part of the United Kingdom bowel cancer screening program.ration (X2 P = 0.98),caecal intubation rates (X2 P = 0.67),or depth of sedation (X2 P = 0.64).Mild discomfort was more common in the Pentax group (X2 P = 0.036).Adenoma detection rate was significantly higher in the Pentax group (X2 test for trend P = 0.01).Most of the extra polyps detected were flat or sessile adenomas.CONCLUSION:Megapixel definition colonoscopes improve adenoma detection without compromising other measures of endoscope performance.Increased polyp detection rates may improve future outcomes in bowel cancer screening programs.

  18. The polyps of Oceania armata identified by DNA barcoding (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchert, Peter

    2016-10-18

    The polyps of the widely distributed medusa Oceania armata have never been found in nature and only the primary polyp is known from breeding experiments. The fully developed colony is so far unknown. This report shows that DNA sequence data of the medusa stage of O. armata permits to identify several hydroid colonies from different geographic origins as the most likely polyp stage of this medusa. These hydroids had previously been misidentified as Turritopsis species, a closely related genus which also produces medusae resembling Oceania armata. It is concluded that most Turritopsis hydroids are not reliably identifiable to species level using morphological traits only. However, DNA barcodes, particularly 16S sequences, are an excellent tool to identify the species, although we still lack information on a few nominal species and the identities of some sequence-delimited clades need to be corroborated by the addition of topotype samples.

  19. Gastroduodenal Intussusception Caused by a Peutz- Jeghers Polyp in a Young Child: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Jae Eun; Cho, Bum Sang; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee; Lee, Ji Hyuk; Lee, Ho Chang; Koo, Ji Hae [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Gastroduodenal intussusception is a rare condition caused by the prolapse of a gastric tumor with subsequent invagination of a portion of the gastric wall into the duodenum. Various gastric lesions including adenoma, lipoma, leiomyoma, hamartoma, adenocarcinoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and as in our case a Peutz- Jeghers polyp, can serve as a lead point of intussusception. Only three cases of gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to a Peutz-Jeghers polyp have been reported. We experienced a case of gastroduodenal intussusception in a 36-month-old boy who presented with intermittent nonbilious vomiting, abdominal pain, and anemia. An abdominal ultrasound and contrast enhanced CT scan showed gastrointestinal intussusception and a mass-like lesion in the second portion of duodenum. A laparotomy revealed a 7x8 cm sized mass at the gastric body, which was pathologically confirmed as a Peutz-Jeghers polyp

  20. Airway Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Asthma: The United Airways Concept Further Supported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Bachert, Claus; Konge, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been established that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have co-existing asthma. Objective We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) upper and lower airway inflammation in CRSwNP is uniform in agreement with the united airways concept; and (ii....... Inflammatory cytokines were investigated using a Th1/Th2 assay including 14 chemokines and cytokines; tissue concentrations were normalized according to tissue weight and total protein concentration. Individual cytokines and multivariate inflammatory profiles were compared between biopsy sites and between...... patients and controls. Results We found significantly higher concentrations of Th2 cytokines in nasal polyps compared to inferior turbinate and bronchial biopsies. In addition, we showed that the inflammatory profile of nasal polyps and bronchial biopsies correlated significantly (p

  1. Increasing prevalence of advanced colonic polyps in young patients undergoing colonoscopy in a referral academic hospital in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the distribution and frequency of advanced polyps over eight years.METHODS: 6424 colonoscopies were reviewed during the study period 1998 to 2005. The study period was subdivided into period Ⅰ: 1998 to 2001 and period Ⅱ:2002-2005.RESULTS: 1856 polyps (33% advanced polyps) and 328 CRCs were detected. The mean ages of the patients with advanced polyps and cancer were 69.2 ± 12.0 and 71.6 ±13.8 years, respectively. Advanced polyps were mainly left sided (59.5%). Advanced polyps were found in patients ≤ 60 years from 17.7% in period Ⅰ to 26.3% in period Ⅱ (P < 0.05), especially in male subjects ≤ 60 years (21.6% vs 31.6%, P < 0.05). Advanced tubulovillous polyps rose from 21.5% in period Ⅰ to 29.5% in period Ⅱ (P < 0.05).Whereas cancers in male patients ≤ 60 years were similar in both periods: 23.2% vs 16.5% (P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: Advanced polyps increased significantly in the younger male group in the most recent period and there seems to be a shift towards a proximal location.

  2. Analysis of clinical pathological characteristics and pattern changes of 2 643 gastric polyps in the past 15 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林泳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical pathological characteristics and pattern changes of gastric polyps in the past 15 years.Methods From 1998 to 2012,the cases of gastric polyps diagnosed by gastroscopy were collected.Data of gender,age,location,number,size,Yamata type,pathological type,Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori)infection were retrospectively analyzed.The data

  3. Prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun EM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eun Mi Chun, Seo Woo Kim, So Yeon Lim Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Colorectal adenomatous polyps are precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and determine whether COPD is associated with colorectal malignant potential.Methods: Subjects who had undergone post-bronchodilator spirometry and colonoscopy and were 40 years or older were selected from the hospital database. COPD was defined as a spirometry in which the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC is <0.7 in post-bronchodilator spirometry. The non-COPD group was matched for both age and sex, and were defined as having an FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ≥0.7 in spirometry. Finally, 333 patients were retrospectively reviewed; of this group, 82 patients had COPD.Results: Among the subjects, 201 patients (60% were nonsmokers, while 78 (23% were current smokers. The prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps was 39% (98/251 in the non-COPD group and 66% (54/82 in the COPD group. Among 54 patients with adenomatous polyps in the COPD group, 47 had tubular adenoma and seven had villous adenoma. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that only COPD patients whom matched to the criteria of COPD by pulmonary function test (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.8; P=0.019 were independently associated with colorectal malignant potential.Conclusion: The risk of colorectal malignant potential in the COPD group was higher than in the non-COPD group. We may suggest that COPD patients should consider regular colonoscopic evaluation to screen for premalignant colon polyps regardless of smoking. Keywords: COPD, colorectal adenomatous polyp, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  4. Metachronous colon cancer in persons who have had a large adenomatous polyp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otchy, D P; Ransohoff, D F; Wolff, B G; Weaver, A; Ilstrup, D; Carlson, H; Rademacher, D

    1996-03-01

    To determine, among persons who have had a large colon polyp, the risk of subsequent colon cancer at a site distant from that polyp. Follow-up was done for 226 persons at the Mayo Clinic who had had a > or = 1-cm polyp demonstrated on barium enema between 1965 and 1970 and for whom yearly colon surveillance examination was recommended. Information was collected from Mayo Clinic records and from contact with patients, physicians, and other hospitals regarding the results of surveillance examinations and the development of colon cancer. Colon surveillance was routinely done at the Mayo Clinic using the technique of single contrast barium enema with vigorous manual fluoroscopic examination and proctoscopy. The expected rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) was calculated based on previously published rates for this community. Patients received, on average, four colon examinations in addition to the examination that discovered the index polyp. During 2126 person-years of follow-up, 16 persons developed a colon cancer at a location other than the site of the index polyp, in comparison with 4.0 expected cases, for a standardized incidence ratio of 4.0 (95% CI,2.3, 6.4). The cancers were large (mean 4.5cm) at presentation, and eight of the 16 cancers had been preceded within 3 yr by at least one negative barium enema. The rate to develop colon cancer in persons who have had a large colon polyp es about 4 times the expected rate, suggesting that such persons should be considered for aggressive colonoscopic surveillance. The failure to detect early cancer or its precursors by surveillance barium enema is probably explained by inherent insensitivity of single contrast barium enema.

  5. Computer-aided polyp detection on CT colonography: Comparison of three systems in a high-risk human population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung, E-mail: shkim@radcom.snu.ac.k [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Goo [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Gyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the detection performances of two commercial and one academic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for polyp detection on CT colonography (CTC) in a high-risk human population and to assess their detection characteristics. Materials and methods: This retrospective study had institutional review board approval, but informed consent was waived. Sixty-eight patients who were suspected of having colonic polyps and scheduled for colonoscopic polyp removal were included. After CTC was performed using a 64-row MDCT, two commercial (PEV, CAR) and one academic (Hessian matrix-based) CAD systems were applied to each CTC dataset. Colonoscopy using the segmental unblinded technique was performed as a standard of reference. Per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities were calculated and compared for each CAD system. The mean number of false-positives (FPs) and false-negatives (FNs) was computed and the causes of all FPs and FNs were analyzed. Results: A total of 151 polyps in 61 patients were detected (77 polyps <6 mm, 48 6-9.9 mm, 26 {>=} 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity for PEV, CAR, and Hessian matrix-based CAD were: 71.6%, 78.4%, and 83.8% for polyps {>=}6 mm, and 88.5%, 96.2%, and 96.2% for polyps {>=}10 mm. Per-patient sensitivity for polyps {>=}6 mm was 80.4%, 89.1%, and 93.5%, and 87%, 95.7%, and 95.7% for polyps {>=}10 mm, respectively. Per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities were not significantly different among the three CAD systems regardless of size threshold. Mean number of FPs was 6.9 for PEV, 7.3 for CAR, and 14 for Hessian matrix-based CAD. The most common cause of FPs were feces, followed by extracolonic findings, prominent folds and ileocecal valve, and rectal tube. The distribution of the causes of FPs was significantly different among the three systems. Conclusion: Sensitivity of the three CAD systems for polyp detection was comparable regardless of the polyp size threshold; however, the number of FPs was higher in the Hessian matrix

  6. Asthma in ear, nose, and throat primary care patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frendø, Martin; Håkansson, Kåre; Schwer, Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a common inflammatory disorder associated with asthma. This association is well described in patients with CRSwNP undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS); however, some patients are never referred for surgery, and the frequency...... were prospectively recruited from nine PC ear, nose, and throat clinics in the Copenhagen area. CRSwNP was diagnosed according to the European Position Paper on Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps; severity was assessed by using a visual analog scale. Allergy, lung function, and asthma tests...

  7. UTERINE ADENOMYOSIS AND AN ENDOMETRIAL POLYP IN A ROCK HYRAX (PROCAVIA CAPENSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Holly J; Gailbreath, Katherine

    2016-12-01

    An 8-yr-old nulliparous, female rock hyrax ( Procavia capensis ) had intermittent mucoid to bloody discharge late winter-early spring for two consecutive years. Fragments of necrotic tissue, suspected to be vaginal or rectal in origin, were passed on two occasions. Physical examination, radiographs, and ultrasound did not identify the source of the tissue. Exploratory laparotomy and ovariohysterectomy were performed. On histopathology, a diagnosis of adenomyosis with a uterine polyp was made. Postsurgical complications included incisional infection and renal compromise that were medically managed and resolved. No further vaginal discharge was observed. This is the first report of uterine adenomyosis and endometrial polyp in a rock hyrax.

  8. Signet-ring cell carcinoma arising from a fundic gland polyp in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong Seol; Kim, Sung Eun; Kwon, Mi-Jung; Seo, Jae Yong; Lim, Hyun; Park, Ji Won; Kang, Ho Suk; Moon, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Park, Choong Kee

    2014-12-21

    Fundic gland polyps (FGPs) are currently the most common type of gastric polyps and are usually benign. However, although rare, gastric adenocarcinoma of FGP has been recently proposed as a new variant of gastric adenocarcinoma. Here we report the first case of a 49-year-old woman with focal signet ring cell carcinoma that arose from an FGP of the stomach. The tumor was completely excised by endoscopic snare polypectomy. FGPs should therefore be evaluated for malignant changes although they occur rarely, if the FGP has an erosive or irregular surface.

  9. Uterine endometrial polyp with severe hemorrhage and cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Springer, Nora; Wakamatsu, Nobuko

    2010-05-01

    The current report describes an unusual presentation of uterine endometrial polyp with severe hemorrhage and cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex in a 9.5-year-old female Doberman Pinscher. The dog presented with a 2-day history of bloody discharge from the vulva and an enlarged abdomen. The postmortem examination revealed a markedly distended right uterine horn with a large pedunculated mass (17 cm x 9 cm x 4 cm) and blood. Based on the histological findings, the diagnosis of uterine endometrial polyp was made.

  10. Independent candidates in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Gonzalo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the issue of independent candidates in Mexico, because through the so-called political reform of 2012 was incorporated in the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States the right of citizens to be registered as independent candidates. Also, in September 2013 was carried out a reform of Article 116 of the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States in order to allow independent candidates in each state of the Republic. However, prior to the constitutio...

  11. Frequency of coexistent carcinoma in sessile serrated adenoma/polyps and traditional serrated adenomas removed by endoscopic resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Hirotsugu; Nishida, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Masashi; Hayashi, Shiro; Shimakoshi, Hiromi; Shimoda, Akiyoshi; Amano, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Aisa; Otake, Yuriko; Sugimoto, Aya; Takahashi, Kei; Mukai, Kaori; Matsubara, Tokuhiro; Nakajima, Sachiko; Fukui, Koji; Inada, Masami; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Tokuda, Ryozo; Adachi, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) have a different potential than traditional adenomatous polyps for developing into malignant colorectal cancer. However, little is known about the coexistent cancer rate. Here, we evaluate the frequency of carcinoma in serrated polyps removed by endoscopic resection (ER). Patients and methods: This was a retrospective single-center cohort study of consecutive patients with colorectal polyps who underwent ER from March 2003 to October 2014. We determined the frequency of serrated polyps among all resected colorectal polyps and analyzed the clinicopathological findings as well as the frequency and characteristics of coexistent carcinoma in the serrated polyps resected by ER based on pathology reports. Results: A total of 21,048 polyps from 15,326 patients were identified, including 15,984 traditional adenomatous polyps (75.9 %), 621 SSA/Ps (3.0 %), 136 traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) (0.6 %), 1,121 hyperplastic polyps (5.3 %), and 3,186 polyps of other types (15.1 %). The clinical and endoscopic findings of SSA/Ps revealed a male predominance (68.6 %), with 61.7 % of the polyps located in the proximal colon. Males accounted for 77.2 % of all patients with TSAs, and 77.2 % of these polyps were located in the distal colon. The mean sizes of the SSA/Ps and TSAs were 8.8 and 10.7 mm, respectively. Among the SSA/Ps, 8 (1.3 %) cases had coexistent carcinoma, and 1 (0.7 %) patient with TSA showed coexistent carcinoma. In the patients with SSA/Ps, female sex and a tumor size ≥ 10 mm were predictive factors for coexistent carcinoma. Conclusions: The frequency of SSA/Ps with carcinoma was lower than that for traditional adenoma. Female sex and tumor size ≥ 10 mm were significant predictive factors for coexistent carcinoma. PMID:27092327

  12. Does tamoxifen therapy affect the hormone receptor expression and cell proliferation indices of endometrial polyps? An immunohistochemical comparison of endometrial polyps from postmenopausal women exposed and not exposed to tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurgan, P; Taylor, L J; Duffy, S R; O'Donovan, P J

    2006-06-20

    This study set out to test the null hypothesis that tamoxifen therapy would not affect the hormone receptor expression (oestrogen and progesterone receptors-ER and PR) or markers of cell proliferation/apoptosis (Ki67 and Bcl-2) of endometrial polyps from postmenopausal women exposed and not exposed to tamoxifen. Endometrial polyps were prospectively obtained from women presenting with abnormal bleeding attending an out-patient hysteroscopy clinic who subsequently underwent endometrial polypectomy (16 from postmenopausal women not exposed to tamoxifen, 9 from women exposed to tamoxifen). Immunohistochemical staining for ER, PR, Ki67 and Bcl-2 was performed on polyps from both groups of women. Non-parametric statistical analysis was used (Mann-Whitney and Spearmans rank correlation). Endometrial polyps from tamoxifen users had significantly lower oestrogen receptor but increased progesterone receptor and Bcl-2 expression. There were no significant differences for proliferation markers (Ki67) between postmenopausal endometrial polyps exposed and not exposed to tamoxifen. Tamoxifen has a significant affect on hormone receptor expression and markers of apoptosis in endometrial polyps. The results support the hypothesis that tamoxifen promotes polyp growth by inhibiting apoptosis. The mechanism for this does not appear to be oestrogen receptor mediated.

  13. Detection Rate, Distribution, Clinical and Pathological Features of Colorectal Serrated Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Long Cao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The overall detection rate of colorectal serrated polyps in Chinese symptomatic patient population was low, and distribution pattern of three subtypes is different from previous reports. Moreover, LSPs, especially large HPs, might be associated with an increased risk of synchronous AN.

  14. EPOS 2012: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2012. A summary for otorhinolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkens, Wytske J; Lund, Valerie J; Mullol, Joachim; Bachert, Claus; Alobid, Isam; Baroody, Fuad; Cohen, Noam; Cervin, Anders; Douglas, Richard; Gevaert, Philippe; Georgalas, Christos; Goossens, Herman; Harvey, Richard; Hellings, Peter; Hopkins, Claire; Jones, Nick; Joos, Guy; Kalogjera, Livije; Kern, Bob; Kowalski, Marek; Price, David; Riechelmann, Herbert; Schlosser, Rodney; Senior, Brent; Thomas, Mike; Toskala, Elina; Voegels, Richard; Wang, De Yun; Wormald, Peter John

    2012-03-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007. The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in children. More emphasis is placed on the diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. Throughout the document the terms chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) are used to further point out differences in pathophysiology and treatment of these two entities. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. Last but not least all available evidence for management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is analyzed and presented and management schemes based on the evidence are proposed. This executive summary for otorhinolaryngologists focuses on the most important changes and issues for otorhinolaryngologists. The full document can be downloaded for free on the website of this journal: http://www.rhinologyjournal.com.

  15. A comparative and descriptive study of asthma in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Konge, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common health problem that is subclassified as CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNPs) or CRS without NPs (CRSsNP). In accordance with the united airways concept, CRSwNPs frequently coexists with asthma but to date, this association remains unexplained and its...

  16. Airway Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Asthma: The United Airways Concept Further Supported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Bachert, Claus; Konge, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been established that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have co-existing asthma. Objective We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) upper and lower airway inflammation in CRSwNP is uniform in agreement with the united airways concept; and (ii...

  17. Infarction of a polyp within a mesenteric cyst: An unusual presentation as an acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gon Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of mesenteric cyst in a five-year-old male child who presented with acute abdomen due to an infarcted polyp present within the cyst is reported. To the best of our knowledge, such an event has never been reported in the literature previously.

  18. Microbiome Analysis of Stool Samples from African Americans with Colon Polyps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brim, H.; Yooseph, S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Lee, E.; Torralbo, M.; Laiyemo, A.O.; Shokrani, B.; Nelson, K.; Ashktorab, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Colonic polyps are common tumors occurring in similar to 50% of Western populations with similar to 10% risk of malignant progression. Dietary agents have been considered the primary environmental exposure to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) development. However, the colonic mucosa is per

  19. Effect of tea saponin on ephyrae and polyps of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Sun, Tingting; Liang, Likun; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1) is thought to be a nuisance for the sea cucumber aquaculture, which commonly occur in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) culture ponds of the Yellow Sea, China. To develop an appropriate method to control Aurelia sp.1 blooms, the toxic effects of tea saponin on Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps were tested in laboratory experiments. Our results revealed that tea saponin caused significant morphological changes, behavioral abnormality and mortality in Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in 24 h and 48 h exposure experiments. The 24 h and 48 h median lethal concentrations (LC50) values of tea saponin for Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were 1.9 and 1.1 mg L-1 respectively, while the LC50 value for Aurelia sp.1 polyps was 0.4 mg L-1 after 24h and 48 h of exposure to tea saponin. Comparison with literature results of tea saponin on A. japonicus indicates that the resistance of A. japonicus to tea saponin is 12-18 times greater than that of Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae. Therefore, the appropriate tea saponin dosage for the control of Aurelia sp.1 should be paid enough attention in order to minimize possible damage for sea cucumber. We suggest that the recommended level of tea saponin to eradicate Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in sea cucumber culture ponds be lower than 1.35 mg L-1.

  20. Application of a conversion factor to estimate the adenoma detection rate from the polyp detection rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Francis, Dawn L

    2011-03-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a quality benchmark for colonoscopy. Many practices find it difficult to determine the ADR because it requires a combination of endoscopic and histologic findings. It may be possible to apply a conversion factor to estimate the ADR from the polyp detection rate (PDR).

  1. SOLITARY VILLO ADENOMATOUS POLYP WITH CARCINOMATOUS CHANGES – RECTUM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available olitary villo-adenomatous polyp in the rectum with focal dysplastic changes involving both adenomatous and villous component is very uncommon. This 60 year old male patient presented with intermittent hematochezia. Colonoscopy did not reveal any other polypoidal lesion in the colon.

  2. Prophylactic vaccination targeting ERBB3 decreases polyp burden in a mouse model of human colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautz, David J.; Sherpa, Ang T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prophylactic vaccination is typically utilized for the prevention of communicable diseases such as measles and influenza but, with the exception of vaccines to prevent cervical cancer, is not widely used as a means of preventing or reducing the incidence of cancer. Here, we utilize a peptide-based immunotherapeutic approach targeting ERBB3, a pseudo-kinase member of the EGFR/ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, as a means of preventing occurrence of colon polyps. Administration of the peptide resulted in a significant decrease in the development of intestinal polyps in C57BL/6J-ApcMin mice, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). In addition, even though they were not vaccinated, ApcMin offspring born to vaccinated females developed significantly fewer polyps than offspring born to control females. Lastly, to validate ERBB as a valid target for vaccination, we found no overt toxicity, increases in apoptosis, or morphological changes in tissues where Erbb3 was ablated in adult mice. These results indicate that prophylactic vaccination targeting ERBB3 could prevent the development of colon polyps in an at-risk patient population.

  3. Microbiome Analysis of Stool Samples from African Americans with Colon Polyps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brim, H.; Yooseph, S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Lee, E.; Torralbo, M.; Laiyemo, A.O.; Shokrani, B.; Nelson, K.; Ashktorab, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Colonic polyps are common tumors occurring in similar to 50% of Western populations with similar to 10% risk of malignant progression. Dietary agents have been considered the primary environmental exposure to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) development. However, the colonic mucosa is

  4. Endoscopic mucosal resection of large hyperplastic polyps in 3 patients with Barrett's esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonella De Ceglie; Gabriella Lapertosa; Sabrina Blanchi; Marcello Di Muzio; Massimo Picasso; Rosangela Filiberti; Francesco Scotto; Massimo Conio

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To report the endoscopic treatment of large hyperplastic polyps of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) associated with Barrett's esophagus (BE) with low-grade dysplasia (LGD), by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR).METHODS: Cap fitted EMR (EMR-C) was performed in 3 patients with hyperplastic-inflammatory polyps (HIPs) and BE.RESULTS: The polyps were successfully removed in the 3 patients. In two patients, with short segment BE (SSBE)(≤ 3 cm), the metaplastic tissue was completely excised.A 2 cm circumferential EMR was performed in one patient with a polyp involving the whole EGJ. A simultaneous EMR-C of a BE-associated polypoid dysplastic lesion measuring 1cm × 10 cm, was also carried out. In the two patients, histologic assessment detected LGD in BE.No complications occurred. Complete neosquamous reepithelialization occurred in the two patients with SSBE.An esophageal recurrence occurred in the remaining one and was successfully retreated by EMR.CONCLUSION: EMR-C appears to be a safe and effective method for treating benign esophageal mucosal lesions, allowing also the complete removal of SSBE.

  5. Quantitative microlaryngoscopic measurements of vocal fold polyps, glottal gap and their relation to vocal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Kaseta, Marius; Pribuisiene, Rūta; Saferis, Viktoras; Jokūzis, Vytautas; Gelzinis, Adas; Bacauskiene, Marija

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the size of vocal fold polyps and to investigate the relationship between the glottal gap and parameters of acoustic voice analysis and phonetography. Eighty-one microlaryngoscopic images and digital recordings of voices (acoustic analysis and phonetogram) acquired from the patients with vocal fold polyps (VFPs) were employed in this study. Vocal fold (VF) images were collected during routine direct microlaryngoscopy using Moller-Wedel Universa 300 surgical microscope, 3-CCD Elmo 768 x 576-pixel color video camera and a 300 W Xenon light source. Acoustic voice analysis and phonetography were established using Dr. Speech (Tiger Electronics Inc.) software. Microlaryngoscopic images were processed by original software created by ELINTA and displayed on a monitor. The relative lengths and widths of vocal fold polyps as well as percentage area of VFP were calculated. The Pearson's correlation was applied to reveal the correlation between VFP dimensions and acoustic voice parameters. There were no statistically significant differences between the dimensions of left and right vocal folds and VFPs. Statistically significant slight to mild correlations between measured dimensions of VFP acoustic and phonetogram parameters were revealed, with HNR and phonetogram area showing the strongest correlation to the size of VFPs. The results of our study confirm that quantitative microlaryngoscopic measurements of vocal fold polyp and glottal gap dimensions may be a useful tool for objective assessment of glottic incompetence and voice impairment.

  6. Polyps revealed on a virtual colon voyage: three-dimensional colonoscopy reduces discomfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, B.

    2003-01-01

    In the western world, colon cancer is the second-largest cause of death from cancer. Since there is a considerable risk that polyps five millimetres and more in diameter may develop into malicious tumours, it is important that they can be detected at an early stage. Until now, this is done by means

  7. Investigation of the Roles of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Galectin-3 Expression in the Pathogenesis of Premenopausal Endometrial Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Kasap

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathogenesis and etiology of endometrial polyps has not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of endometrial polyp development using immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the expression of galectin-3 and cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2 during the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women with endometrial polyps or normal endometrium. Methods Thirty-one patients with endometrial polyps and 50 healthy control patients were included in this study. The levels of expression of COX-2 and galectin-3 were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results: The percentage of COX-2–positive cells and the intensity of COX-2 staining in the endometrium did not vary during the menstrual cycle either in the control group or in patients with endometrial polyps. However, expression of galectin-3 was significantly lower in endometrial polyps and during the proliferative phase of the endometrium compared with the secretory phase. Conclusions: Our data suggests that the pathogenesis of endometrial polyps does not involve expression of COX-2 or galectin-3.

  8. Polyp measurement and size categorisation by CT colonography: effect of observer experience in a multi-centre setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burling, David; Bartram, Clive; De Villiers, Melinda; Honeyfield, Lesley [St. Marks Hospital, Intestinal Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart [University College Hospital, Specialist Radiology, Level 2 Podium, London (United Kingdom); Altman, Douglas G. [Centre for Medical Statistics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Atkin, Wendy [St Mark' s Hospital, Cancer Research UK, London (United Kingdom); Fenlon, Helen; Foley, Shane; O' Hare, Alan [Mater Misericordiae, Dublin (Ireland); Laghi, Andrea; Iannaccone, Riccardo; Mangiapane, Filipo; Ori, Sante [La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Stoker, Jaap; Florie, Jasper; Poulus, Martin; Hulst, Victor van der [Amersterdam Medican Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Frost, Roger [Salisbury District Hospital, Salisbury (United Kingdom); Dessey, Guido; Lefere, Philippe; Marrannes, Jesse [Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Roeselare (Belgium); Gallo, Teresa; Nieddu, Giulia; Regge, Daniele; Signoretta, Saverio [Candiolo Oncologic Hospital, Turin (Italy); Kay, Clive; Lowe, Andrew; Williams-Butt, Jane [Bradford Royal Infirmary, Bradford (United Kingdom); Neri, Emmanuele; Politi, Benedetta; Vagli, Paola [University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Nicholson, David; Renaut, Lisa; Rudralingham, Velauthan [Hope Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    The extent measurement error on CT colonography influences polyp categorisation according to established management guidelines is studied using twenty-eight observers of varying experience to classify polyps seen at CT colonography as either 'medium' (maximal diameter 6-9 mm) or 'large' (maximal diameter 10 mm or larger). Comparison was then made with the reference diameter obtained in each patient via colonoscopy. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess agreement between observer measurements and colonoscopy, and differences in measurement and categorisation was assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared test statistics respectively. Observer measurements on average underestimated the diameter of polyps when compared to the reference value, by approximately 2-3 mm, irrespective of observer experience. Ninety-five percent limits of agreement were relatively wide for all observer groups, and had sufficient span to encompass different size categories for polyps. There were 167 polyp observations and 135 (81%) were correctly categorised. Of the 32 observations that were miscategorised, 5 (16%) were overestimations and 27 (84%) were underestimations (i.e. large polyps misclassified as medium). Caution should be exercised for polyps whose colonographic diameter is below but close to the 1-cm boundary threshold in order to avoid potential miscategorisation of advanced adenomas. (orig.)

  9. Deep Learning for Classification of Colorectal Polyps on Whole-slide Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbar, Bruno; Olofson, Andrea M; Miraflor, Allen P; Nicka, Catherine M; Suriawinata, Matthew A; Torresani, Lorenzo; Suriawinata, Arief A; Hassanpour, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Histopathological characterization of colorectal polyps is critical for determining the risk of colorectal cancer and future rates of surveillance for patients. However, this characterization is a challenging task and suffers from significant inter- and intra-observer variability. We built an automatic image analysis method that can accurately classify different types of colorectal polyps on whole-slide images to help pathologists with this characterization and diagnosis. Our method is based on deep-learning techniques, which rely on numerous levels of abstraction for data representation and have shown state-of-the-art results for various image analysis tasks. Our method covers five common types of polyps (i.e., hyperplastic, sessile serrated, traditional serrated, tubular, and tubulovillous/villous) that are included in the US Multisociety Task Force guidelines for colorectal cancer risk assessment and surveillance. We developed multiple deep-learning approaches by leveraging a dataset of 2074 crop images, which were annotated by multiple domain expert pathologists as reference standards. We evaluated our method on an independent test set of 239 whole-slide images and measured standard machine-learning evaluation metrics of accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score and their 95% confidence intervals. Our evaluation shows that our method with residual network architecture achieves the best performance for classification of colorectal polyps on whole-slide images (overall accuracy: 93.0%, 95% confidence interval: 89.0%-95.9%). Our method can reduce the cognitive burden on pathologists and improve their efficacy in histopathological characterization of colorectal polyps and in subsequent risk assessment and follow-up recommendations.

  10. Solitary gastric Peutz-Jeghers type stomach polyp mimicking a malignant gastric tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Shiaw Jin; Ji-Kuen Yu; Tang-Yi Tsao; Lien-Fu Lin

    2012-01-01

    Most cases of Peutz-Jeghers type polyps of the stomach are associated with mucocutaneous pigmentation and multiple intestinal polyposis.A solitary PeutzJeghers type polyp of the stomach is rare.We here report a case of a 71-year-old woman with a solitary Peutz-Jeghers type polyp of the stomach who presented with intolerable epigastric pain and weight loss of 5 kg over the prior two months.During the hospital treatment course for this patient,endoscopic examination revealed a bulging lesion with a central hole,mucosal ulceration,an asymmetrical wall thickness and a narrowing of the gastric lumen.A gastric biopsy further revealed ulceration with moderate dysplasia.The patient received endoscopic ultrasonography which showed a second subepithelial lesion that measured 4 cm × 3 cm.Computed tomography of the abdomen subsequently showed a thickened gastric wall with three visibly enlarged lymph nodes,all greater than 1 cm.The suspected diagnosis was malignant gastric cancer with lymph node metastases.The other lesion,which measured 2 cm × 2 cm × 1 cm was noted in the submucosa of the jejunum during surgery.The patient was treated using a subtotal gastrectomy and partial resection of the jejunal tumor.The final pathological report indicated a gastric Peutz-Jeghers type polyp with proliferation of smooth muscle bundles in the submucosal layer,and hyperplastic glands in the mucosal layer and ectopic pancreas of the jejunum.This is the first reported clinical case of a solitary Peutz-Jeghers type polyp of the stomach accompanying a lymph node enlargement and ectopic pancreas in the jejunum that simulates stomach cancer with lymph node metastases.

  11. Adherence to colorectal polyp surveillance guidelines: is there a 'scope' to increase the opportunities for screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal polyps are usually asymptomatic and are found opportunistically. Individuals with adenomata are at increased risk for cancer and therefore guidelines exist for surveillance of these lesions including those of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG). Deviation from these guidelines is common and increases the workload of endoscopy. We examined those individuals waiting for endoscopy for polyp surveillance to see whether strict adherence to BSG guidelines could facilitate opportunities for screening. A total of 413 patients with earlier colonic polyps were examined, of whom 50 patients were excluded based on having alternative indications for surveillance, 179 (49.3%) were appropriately scheduled for surveillance and 184 patients (55.9%) were scheduled incorrectly. Seventy-nine patients (30%) could have been discharged; of these, 59 had hyperplastic polyps. Of the remaining 105 inappropriate triages under surveillance at the wrong interval, seven patients were scheduled for too infrequent surveillance and 98 were too frequent. A total of 284 patients with adenomatous polyps were under surveillance of whom 11 patients (3.8%) were in the high-risk category and all were appropriately scheduled, and 75 patients (26.4%) were in the intermediate-risk category, of whom 48 were appropriately scheduled, 20 were incorrectly triaged as high risk and seven were triaged as low risk. A total of 198 (69.7%) patients were in the low-risk category, 117 of these were correctly triaged, 15 were incorrectly triaged as high risk and 66 were classified as intermediate risk. Over a five-year period, 318 unnecessary colonoscopies are being performed. On the basis of the data obtained from a population-based colorectal screening programme using immunohistochemical-faecal occult blood testing in our department another 1516 patients could be screened annually without requiring any additional endoscopy resources, if strict adherence to guidelines was assured.

  12. Use of multidetector-row CT colonography for detection of colorectal neoplasia in patients referred via the Department of Health '2-week-wait' initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.A.; Halligan, S. E-mail: s.halligan@ic.ac.uk; Saunders, B.P.; Morley, S.; Riesewyk, C.; Atkin, W.; Bartram, C.I

    2003-11-01

    AIM: Patients referred under the Department of Health 2-week wait initiative with symptoms of colorectal cancer frequently undergo whole-colon examination. We investigated the use of computed tomography (CT) colonography as an alternative to colonoscopy in this scenario. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four consecutive patients, referred via the 2-week wait initiative and scheduled for colonoscopy, consented to undergo multidetector CT colonography immediately before endoscopy. The site and morphology of any polyp or cancer detected by CT was noted and comparison made with subsequent colonoscopy. RESULTS: Colonoscopy detected polyps or cancer in 29 patients (53.7%). CT colonography prospectively detected 18 of 41 (44%) polyps of 1-5 mm, three of four (75%) polyps of 6-9 mm, four of four (100%) polyps 10 mm or larger, and five of six (83%) cancers. The missed cancer occurred early in the series and was a perceptive error. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CT colonography for cancer and polyps 10 mm or greater on a per patient basis were 90, 100, 100 and 98%, respectively. CT detected one renal cancer and one colonic cancer, initially missed due to incomplete colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: CT colonography is a robust technique for investigation of symptomatic patients. The learning curve must be overcome for optimal performance.

  13. Hyoscine for polyp detection during colonoscopy: A meta-analysis and systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imran; Ashraf; Sohail; Ashraf; Sameer; Siddique; Douglas; L; Nguyen; Abhishek; Choudhary; Matthew; L; Bechtold

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of hyoscine for polyp detectionduring colonoscopy.METHODS: Studies(randomized controlled trials orRCTs) that compared the use of hyoscine vs no hyo-scine or placebo for polyp detection during colonoscopywere included in our analysis. A search on multiple da-tabases was performed in September 2013 with searchterms being "hyoscine and colonoscopy", "hyoscineand polyp", "hyoscine and adenoma", "antispasmoticand colonoscopy", "antispasmotic and adenoma", and"antispasmotic and polyp". Jadad scoring was used toassess the quality of studies. The efficacy of hyoscinewas analyzed using Mantel-Haenszel model for polypand adenoma detection with odds ratio(OR). The I2measure of inconsistency was used to assess hetero-geneity(P < 0.05 or I2 > 50%). Statistical analysis was performed by RevMan 5.1. Funnel plots was used to assess publication bias.RESULTS: The search of the electronic databases identified 283 articles. Of these articles, eight published RCTs performed at various locations in Europe, Asia, and Australia were included in our meta-analysis, seven published as manuscripts and one published as an ab-stract(n = 2307). All the studies included patients with a hyoscine and a no hyoscine/placebo group and were of adequate quality(Jadad score ≥ 2). Eight RCTs as-sessed the polyp detection rate(PDR)(n = 2307). The use of hyoscine demonstrated no statistically significant difference as compared to no hyoscine or placebo for PDR(OR = 1.06; 95%CI: 0.89-1.25; P = 0.51). Five RCTs assessed the adenoma detection rate(ADR)(n = 2015). The use of hyoscine demonstrated no statisti-cally significant difference as compared to no hyoscine or placebo for ADR(OR = 1.12; 95%CI: 0.92-1.37; P = 0.25). Furthermore, the timing of hyoscine admin-istration(given at cecal intubation or pre-procedure) demonstrated no differences in PDR compared to no hyoscine or placebo. Publication bias or heterogeneity was not observed for any of the outcomes.CONCLUSION: Hyoscine use in

  14. Time of day variation in polyp detection rate for colonoscopies performed on a 3-hour shift schedule.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Munson, Gregory W

    2011-03-01

    Recent research suggests that the colonoscopy polyp detection rate (PDR) varies by time of day, possibly because of endoscopist fatigue. Mayo Clinic Rochester (MCR) schedules colonoscopies on 3-hour shifts, which should minimize fatigue.

  15. Prevalence of endometrial polyps and abnormal uterine bleeding in a Danish population aged 20-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, E; Stampe Sorensen, S; Ibsen, P H;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of endometrial polyps and to investigate associated abnormal uterine bleeding in a Danish population aged 20-74 years. METHODS: This was a study of a random selection of women from the Danish Civil Registration System: 1660 women were invited of whom 686 were...... was performed in 619 women (two failures of TVS and 60 failures of SCSH, in two women SCSH was contraindicated (endometrial cancer), in two women hysteroscopy was contraindicated, and one polyp was lost before histology). World Health Organization histopathological criteria were used for diagnosing true...... diagnosed in 4.2% (26/622; 95% CI, 2.6-5.8%) and intramural myomas in 11.1% (76/684; 95% CI, 8.8-13.5%) of women. Polyps were diagnosed in 2% of oral-contraceptive and 25% of hormone-therapy users. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of endometrial polyps was 7.8% and the prevalence increased with age...

  16. Germline variants in Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndrome-associated genes from patients with one or few hamartomatous polyps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Brusgaard, Klaus; Hansen, Tine Plato;

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing, DNA samples from 77 patients with 84 hamartomatous polyps were sequenced. The detected germline variants were classified into pathogenicity classes. RESULTS: We detected several germline variants, among them three in ENG, two in BMPR1A, one in PTEN, and one in SMAD4. Although some of the detected......OBJECTIVE: A subgroup of patients with hamartomatous polyps in the GI tract has a hereditary Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndrome with an increased risk of cancer. The distinction between patients with one or few polyps and patients with a syndrome can be difficult. A pathogenic germline mutation can...... be detected in a majority of HPS patients. This study investigates whether patients with one or few hamartomatous polyps could have a syndrome based on genetic screening of relevant genes. METHODS: We designed a gene panel including 26 hamartomatous polyposis-associated genes. Using targeted Next Generation...

  17. Induction of segmentation in polyps of Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria) into medusae and formation of mirror-image medusa anlagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroiher, M; Siefker, B; Berking, S

    2000-08-01

    Polyps of Aurelia aurita can transform into several medusae (jellyfish) in a process of sequential subdivision. During this transformation, two processes take place which are well known to play a key role in the formation of various higher metazoa: segmentation and metamorphosis. In order to compare these processes in bilaterians and cnidarians we studied the control and the kinetics of these processes in Aurelia aurita. Segmentation and metamorphosis visibly start at the polyp's head and proceed down the body column but do not reach the basal disc. The small piece of polyp which remains will develop into a new polyp. The commitment to the medusa stage moves down the body column and precedes the visible onset of segmentation by about one day. Segmentation and metamorphosis can start at the cut surface of transversely cut body columns, leading to a mirror-image pattern of sequentially developing medusae.

  18. Large pedinculated antral hyperplastic gastric polyp traversed the bulbus causing outlet obstruction and iron deficiency anemia:endoscopic removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murat Alper; Yusuf Akcan; Olcay Belenli

    2003-01-01

    We present here a large (3 cm) hyperplastic gastric polyp prolapsed into duodenum and caused outlet obstruction and iron deficiency anemia in 60 years old male patient.Endoscopic removal was performed successfully.

  19. Solitary Peutz-Jeghers type hamartomatous polyps in the duodenum are not always associated with a low risk of cancer: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koide Tomoko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A hamartomatous polyp without associated mucocutaneous pigmentation or a family history of Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome is diagnosed as a solitary Peutz-Jeghers type hamartomatous polyp. As compared with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers type hamartomatous polyps are diagnosed with a lower risk of cancer and are regarded as a different disorder. Case presentation In case one, we describe an 84-year-old Japanese man with a 14 mm duodenal polyp. Endoscopic mucosal resection was performed and histological examination showed findings suggestive of a hamartomatous polyp with a focus of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. In case two, we describe a 76-year-old Japanese man who had been treated for prostate, rectal and lung cancer. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a duodenal polyp measuring 15 mm in diameter. Endoscopic mucosal resection was performed, and histological examination showed findings suggestive of a hamartomatous polyp. Liver and thyroid cancers were found after the endoscopic treatment. Conclusion Although duodenal solitary hamartomatous polyps are associated with a lower risk of cancer, four patients, including our cases, have been diagnosed with cancerous polyps. Patients with duodenal solitary hamartomatous polyps should be treated by endoscopic or surgical resection and need whole-body screening.

  20. Comparison of clipping with and without epinephrine injection for the prevention of post-polypectomy bleeding in pedunculated colon polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yehyun; Jeon, Tae Joo; Park, Ji Young; Park, Soo Jung; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Hong, Sung Pil

    2015-10-01

    Post-polypectomy bleeding (PPB) is the most common adverse event of colonoscopic polypectomy, especially in cases with large pedunculated polyps. To minimize the risk of PPB, several endoscopic preventive methods have been performed. The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the rates of PPB following single (clipping alone) and combined (clipping plus epinephrine-saline injection) methods in prevention of PPB in large pedunculated polyps. Adult patients with pedunculated colorectal polyps with heads ≥ 10 mm were prospectively enrolled from March 2011 to January 2013. Patients were randomized to receive treatment of either clips alone (group A) or clips plus injection of epinephrine-saline (group B) prior to a conventional polypectomy. PPB rate in both groups were compared. A total of 148 patients with 173 pedunculated colorectal polyps were enrolled. Groups A and B each had 74 patients, with 83 and 90 polyps, respectively. The mean head diameters were 17.2 ± 6.6 and 17.5 ± 6.7 mm in groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.748). Immediate PPB (IPPB) occurred in 10 cases (12.0%) from group A and 13 cases (14.4%) from group B (P = 0.64). There were no cases of delayed PPB or perforation. Multivariate analysis showed that inadequate bowel preparation and large head diameter of polyp were independent risk factors for IPPB. The rate of IPPB is relatively high in cases with large pedunculated polyps, but these polyps can be successfully resected by snare polypectomy following use of the single prophylactic clipping method. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Environmental control of asexual reproduction and somatic growth of Aurelia spp. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) polyps from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubot, Nathan; Lucas, Cathy H; Piraino, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Polyps of two moon jellyfish species, Aurelia coerulea and A. relicta, from two Adriatic Sea coastal habitats were incubated under multiple combinations of temperature (14, 21°C), salinity (24, 37 ppt) and food regime (9.3, 18.6, 27.9 μg C ind-1 week-1) to comparatively assess how these factors may influence major asexual reproduction processes in the two species. Both species exhibited a shared pattern of budding mode (Directly Budded Polyps: DBP; Stolonal Budded Polyps: SBP), with DBP favoured under low food supply (9.3 μg C ind -1 week-1) and low temperature (14°C), and SBP dominant under high temperature (21°C). However, A. coerulea showed an overall higher productivity than A. relicta, in terms of budding and podocyst production rates. Further, A. coerulea exhibited a wide physiological plasticity across different temperatures and salinities as typical adaptation to ecological features of transitional coastal habitats. This may support the hypothesis that the invasion of A. coerulea across coastal habitats worldwide has been driven by shellfish aquaculture, with scyphistoma polyps and resting stages commonly found on bivalve shells. On the contrary, A. relicta appears to be strongly stenovalent, with cold, marine environmental optimal preferences (salinity 37 ppt, T ranging 14-19°C), corroborating the hypothesis of endemicity within the highly peculiar habitat of the Mljet lake. By exposing A. relicta polyps to slightly higher temperature (21°C), a previously unknown developmental mode was observed, by the sessile polyp regressing into a dispersive, temporarily unattached and tentacle-less, non-feeding stage. This may allow A. relicta polyps to escape climatic anomalies associated to warming of surface layers and deepening of isotherms, by moving into deeper, colder layers. Overall, investigations on species-specific eco-physiological and ontogenetic potentials of polyp stages may contribute to clarify the biogeographic distribution of jellyfish and the

  2. Expression of p53, Ki-67, and CD31 proteins in endometrial polyps of postmenopausal women treated with tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Sergimar P; Traiman, Paulo; Cândido, Eduardo B; Lages, Elisa L; Freitas, Gustavo F; Lamaita, Rívia Mara; Vidigal, Paula V T; da Silva Filho, Agnaldo Lopes

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the expression of p53, Ki-67, and CD31 proteins in endometrial polyps of postmenopausal women treated with tamoxifen (TAM). Postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps treated with TAM (n = 20), postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps without hormone use (n = 20), postmenopausal women with atrophic endometrium (n = 20), and postmenopausal women with endometrial adenocarcinoma (n = 20) were prospectively investigated. Tissue samples were immunohistochemically evaluated by monoclonal antibodies for p53, Ki-67, and CD31. The data were analyzed using the Student t test, analysis of variance, and χ2 to evaluate significant differences between the groups. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. There was no difference in the expression of p53 between the groups (P = 0.067). The expression of Ki-67 was higher in the polyp samples from TAM-treated women compared with those from the women using no hormone (P = 0.0047) and those from the women with atrophic endometrium (P = 0.008). Samples from the women with endometrial cancer was associated with higher Ki-67 expression compared with the polyp samples from TAM-treated women (P = 0.004). The expression of CD31 was higher in the polyp samples of TAM-treated women compared with that of the samples from the women with atrophic endometrium (P < 0.001) and similar to the polyp samples from the women using no hormone (P = 0.319) and to the samples from the women with endometrial cancer (P = 0.418). The use of TAM in postmenopausal women might be associated with increased cellular proliferation in endometrial polyps without interfering angiogenesis or inactivation of tumor suppressor proteins.

  3. An Inflammatory Fibroid Polyp in the Hepatic Flexure of the Colon Treated with Argon Plasma Coagulation, Endoscopic Clipping and Polypectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyo Ihimoyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP is a rare benign polypoid lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IFPs occur in the stomach and colonic occurrence is very rare. Histologically IFP is characterized by a mixture of numerous small vessels, fibroblasts and edematous connective tissue associated with marked inflammatory infiltration by eosinophils. We present a rare case of a pedunculated IFP in the hepatic flexure of the colon treated successfully with a combination of argon plasma coagulation, endoclipping and polypectomy. A 74-year-old asymptomatic female underwent a screening colonoscopy in our hospital. A 12-mm pedunculated polyp was found at the hepatic flexure of the colon. After saline injection, we attempted to remove the polyp with a hot snare. However the polyp stalk was extremely difficult to resect despite several attempts with the hot snare. We placed an endoclip at the base of the stalk and then applied argon plasma coagulation at 1.0 l/min and 40 W. After these measures we were able to resect the stalk and the polyp was retrieved. Histologically the polyp was located in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Proliferation of spindle cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells such as plasma cells and eosinophils were observed. The spindle cells were positive for CD34 and S100 but negative for c-kit and muscle markers. These findings are consistent with a histopathological diagnosis of IFP.

  4. Analysis of risk factors and morphological ultrasound image for gallbladder polyp in adults living in Busan and Gyeongnam provinces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Chul Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo; Ko, Sung Jin [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study were to evaluate risk factors of GB polpy in Busan and Gyeongnam area. This study was performed with patients by abdominal ultrasonography among the patients who came to the P hospital from January to May 2016. Among them, risk factors were analyzed on 399 people at the same time when abdominal ultrasonography and hematological test. The statistical analysis of risk factors related to the GB ployp was performed by independent t-test and chi-square test. In consider of difference verification result for calculations odds ratio about independent variables, multiple logistic regression analysis to conduct verify adequacy by calculating forecasting model from variable. As a result, GB polyp risk factors have relevance to male, HBsAg positive, triglyceride. GB polyp risk factors confirmed to male, HBsAg positive, triglyceride were calculated forecasting model and forecasting probability value. Forecasting probability sensitivity 61.0%, specificity 76.8%, ROC area under curve 0.735 showed, it confirmed validity of forecasting model. When analyzing the GB polyps morphologically, among the GB polyp types observed from abdominal ultrasonography, the hyperechoic and homogeneous pattern with neck was the largest as shown from 27.5% and two GB polyps were shown most from 38%, sizes were shown most by maximum diameter, 5 to 10mm from 53%. As a disease accompany with GB polyp showed mild fatty liver(23%), diffuse hepatopathy(21%)

  5. Clinical analysis on argon plasma coagulation (APC) under painless colonoscopy for treatment of patients with colorectal polyp canceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J-Y; Sun, D-J; Li, X-J; Jiao, K; Zhai, Z-W

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical effects of argon plasma coagulation combined high frequency electric knife in treating patients with colorectal polyp canceration. 56 patients diagnosed with colorectal polyp canceration were divided into control group (n=23) and observation group (n=33). Patients in the control group were treated with high frequency electric band ligation electroexcision while patients in observation group were treated with argon coagulation combined high frequency electric knife therapy. The patients were followed up for 6 months and, then, compared for their clinical effects and prognosis. The average diameter of the polyp, the ratios of sessile and flat polyps in observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group with p0.05. Further, the differences in operation completion rate and polyp resection rate at one time in observation group was significantly higher than those of control group while operative complication rate and operation time was significantly lower than those in the control group with pplasma coagulation combined high frequency electric knife could extend polyp resection indication, along with improvement in the operation effect and reduction of complications.

  6. Giant ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp: a rare cause of intestinal intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cury Ogata

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp is a rare non-neoplastic lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. Intussusception caused by an inflammatory fibroid polyps is uncommon. The authors report a case of a 75 year-old female patient presenting with ileal obstruction due to intussusception of a polypoid lesion. The patient underwent surgical treatment and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis.Os pólipos fibroides inflamatórios são raras lesões não neoplásicas do trato gastrointestinal e a intussuscepção devido a essa entidade é incomum. Os autores relatam um caso de paciente do sexo feminino, 75 anos, que apresentou obstrução ileal devido a uma intussuscepção por lesão polipoide. A paciente foi submetida a tratamento cirúrgico, sendo diagnosticado pólipo fibroide inflamatório do íleo.

  7. Role of Chronic Polypous Rhinosinusitis in Contraction of Cancer of Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yu. Vereshchagin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing number of patients with malignant tumors of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Majority of patients with this pathology are hospitalized with III-IV cancer stages. There is no tendency to decrease the advanced stage of cancer. The efficiency of patients’ treatment can be increased by early diagnostics. The main reason of delayed diagnostics is insufficient oncologic alarm in primary health care. While the background prodromic cancer processes are morphologically detected in 56.7 % of patients, the issues of treatment policy during cavity and paranasal sinuses premalignancy are still unsettled. Chronic polypous rhinosinusitis is one of the most frequent background process of cancer of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Rhinosinusitis morbidity is high; the growth of its incidence is 2–4 % per year in the last decade. There are few works, considering polypous rhinosinusitis as premalignant condition.

  8. A Case of Endobronchial Polyp Mimicking Congenital Lobar Emphysema in an Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Monzavi Sany

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE, also called infantile lobar emphysema, is a respiratory disease that occurs in infants when air enters the lungs but cannot leave easily. It results from cartilage deficiency and bronchomalacia causing distal air trapping and respiratory distress. Acquired forms are usually associated with chronic lung disease or endobronchial obstruction such as mucus plugging. "nWe report a pedunculated endobronchial polyp in a 18-month-old infant causing hyperinflation of the left upper lobe, which is the most common site of CLE, and presented with sudden respiratory distress. The polyp was seen in the left upper bronchus at bronchoscopy. The imaging features of this case in CXR and CT scan will be shown and the possible etiological links with mechanical bronchial obstruction will be discussed. "nWe also emphasize the value of bronchoscopy prior to lobectomy in cases of congenital lobar emphysema (CLE.

  9. Jumbo biopsy is useful for the diagnosis of colonic prolapsing mucosal polyps with diverticulosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shingo Kato; Kazutoshi Hashiguchi; Ryuichi Yamamoto; Mitsuru Seo; Takashi Matsuura; Kazuro Itoh; Akinori Iwashita; Soichiro Miura

    2006-01-01

    We report here a case of multiple prolapsing mucosal polyps with diverticulosis in the sigmoid colon. A 52-yearold man was admitted to our hospital because of bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy and barium enema showed multiple diverticula, markedly thickened mucosal folds and polypoid lesions with mucus on the top of them in the sigmoid colon. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed thickening of the mucosal and submucosal layers.Several endoscopic biopsy specimens were taken from the polypoid lesions. Histological examination revealed only chronic inflammatory cell infiltration. In order to obtain a definite diagnosis, we performed endoscopic jumbo biopsy for the polypoid lesions after obtaining informed consent. Histological examination revealed marked lymphocyte infiltration, hemosiderin deposits and fibromuscular obliteration in the lamina propria, features similar to those of mucosal prolapsing syndrome. After anti-diarrhetic treatment, clinical findings were improved.Thus, jumbo biopsy is useful for diagnosis and treatment of prolapsing mucosal polyps.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of endometrial polyps in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The prevalence of endometrial polyps (EPs in the general female population is about 24%. Abnormal uterine bleeding is frequently the presenting symptom of EPs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of EPs in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods. The prevalence and characteristics of EPs were investigated in 961 patients with abnormal uterine bleeding who underwent dilatation and curettage between January and December 2006. Regarding histopathological features of EPs (presence of atypical hyperplasia or endometrial carcinoma, patients were divided into two groups: group A - patients who had EPs and EPs with hyperplasia without atypia (n = 204 and group B - patients who had EPs with atypical hyperplasia and EPs with carcinoma (n = 7. Results. In 211 (21.94% patients EPs were found with abnormal uterine bleeding. Histopathologically, there were 175 (82.94% EPs, 29 (13.74% EPs with hyperplasia without atypia, 5 (2.37% EPs with atypical hyperplasia, and 2 (0.95% EPs with endometrial carcinoma. Contrary to the patients with EPs and EPs with hyperplasia without atypia (group A, patients who had EPs with atypical hyperplasia and EPs with carcinoma (group B were older (p < 0.05, and more commonly postmenopausal (p < 0.05 and with hypertension (p < 0.05, all of statistical significance. Conclusion. The prevalence of endometrial polyps in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding according to our data was 21.95%. Atypical hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma were rarely confined to a polyp. Older age, postmenopausal period and hypertension may increase the risk of premalignant and malignant changes in endometrial polyps.

  11. Mixed T helper cell signatures in chronic rhinosinusitis with and without polyps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Derycke

    Full Text Available In chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS different phenotypes have been reported based on cytokine profile and inflammatory cell patterns. The aim of this study was to characterize the intracytoplasmatic cytokines of T cells infiltrating the inflamed sinonasal mucosa.Infiltrated T cells and tissue homogenates from sinonasal mucosal samples of 7 healthy subjects, 9 patients with CRS without nasal polyp (CRSsNP, 15 with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP and 5 cystic fibrosis patients (CF-NP were analyzed for cytokine expression using flow cytometry and multiplex analysis respectively. Intracytoplasmic cytokinesin T cells were analyzed after stimulation of nasal polyps with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B for 24 hours.The number of T cells per total living cells was significantly higher in patients with CRSwNP vs. CRSsNP and controls. 85% of the CD4(+ T cells showed to be memory T cells. The effector T cells present in all tissues have a predominant Th1 phenotype. Only in CRSwNP, a significant fraction of T cells produced the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, while nasal polyps from CF patients were characterized by a higher CD4/CD8 T cell ratio and an increased number of Th17 cells. 24 h stimulation with SEB resulted in a significant induction of CD4(+ T cells producing IL-10 (Tr1 cells.T cell cytokine patterns in healthy and inflamed sinonasal mucosa revealed that Th2 cells (IL-4 and IL-5 producing cells are significantly increased in CRSwNP mucosal inflammation. Exposure to SEB stimulates Tr1 cells that may contribute to the Th2 bias in CRSwNP.

  12. BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 mutations in colorectal polyps and stool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Min Jin; Bao-Jie Li; Bo Qu; Ya-Ju Du

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the feasibility of using BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 genes as stool-based molecular markers for detection of colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps (HPs).METHODS: We applied PCR-SSCP and direct sequencing to detect BRAF mutations of polyps and paired stool samples. Primer-mediated restriction fragment lengthpolymorphism (RFLP) analysis and mutant-enriched PCR were used in detection of K-ras mutations of polyp tissues and paired stool samples respectively. BAT26, a microsatellite instability marker was examined by detection of small unstable alleles in a poly (A) repeat. RESULTS: No genetic alterations were detected in the 36 colonoscopically normal patients in either tissues or stools. BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 mutations were found in 4 (16%), 10 (40%) and 3 (12%) of 25 adenoma tissues and among them, 75%, 80% and 100% of patients were observed to contain the same mutations in their corresponding stool samples. In HPs, mutations of BRAF and K-fas were detected in the tumor DNA of 2 (11.1%) and 8 (33.3%) of 18 patients respectively, all of whom had identical alterations in their stools. Taken together, the three genetic markers detected 15 (60%) of 25 adenomas and 8 (44.4%) of 18 HPs. The sensitivity of stool detection was 80% for adenomas and 100% for HPs with an overall specificity of 92% for adenomas and 100% for HPs. CONCLUSION: BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 genes have the potential to be molecular markers for colorectal adenomas and HPs, and can be used as non-invasive screening markers for colorectal polyps.

  13. The effects of food and photoperiod on strobilation of Aurelia aurita polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Chambel

    2014-06-01

    After 30 days of experiment results showed 100 % survival independently of the treatment. In presence of food the strobilation increased (52.08 ± 4.11 % comparatively with the strobilation in polyps without food (33.33 ± 4.35% (pAurelia aurita. However face the necessity of the optimization of the culture jellyfish conditions for ornamental trade and as source of MNPs, more studies are necessary to turned profitable the mass production of this specie.

  14. A Rare Clinical Presentation of Giant Bilateral Labial Fibroepithelial Stromal Polyps in Patient with Psoriasis Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Filiz Avsar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs are rarely seen lesions of the lower female genital tract with polypoid proliferations of stroma. These tumors usually present in the vulvovaginal region of the reproductive aged women. In this presentation, we report a case of a psoriatic woman who developed unusual multiple polypoid lesions approximately 15 cm in size arising from both left and right labia minora and unique connection of FEPs with psoriasis disease.

  15. Microbiome analysis of stool samples from African Americans with colon polyps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Brim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonic polyps are common tumors occurring in ~50% of Western populations with ~10% risk of malignant progression. Dietary agents have been considered the primary environmental exposure to promote colorectal cancer (CRC development. However, the colonic mucosa is permanently in contact with the microbiota and its metabolic products including toxins that also have the potential to trigger oncogenic transformation. AIM: To analyze fecal DNA for microbiota composition and functional potential in African Americans with pre-neoplastic lesions. MATERIALS & METHODS: We analyzed the bacterial composition of stool samples from 6 healthy individuals and 6 patients with colon polyps using 16S ribosomal RNA-based phylogenetic microarray; the Human intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip and 16S rRNA gene barcoded 454 pyrosequencing. The functional potential was determined by sequence-based metagenomics using 454 pyrosequencing. RESULTS: Fecal microbiota profiling of samples from the healthy and polyp patients using both a phylogenetic microarraying (HITChip and barcoded 454 pyrosequencing generated similar results. A distinction between both sets of samples was only obtained when the analysis was performed at the sub-genus level. Most of the species leading to the dissociation were from the Bacteroides group. The metagenomic analysis did not reveal major differences in bacterial gene prevalence/abundances between the two groups even when the analysis and comparisons were restricted to available Bacteroides genomes. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that at the pre-neoplastic stages, there is a trend showing microbiota changes between healthy and colon polyp patients at the sub-genus level. These differences were not reflected at the genome/functions levels. Bacteria and associated functions within the Bacteroides group need to be further analyzed and dissected to pinpoint potential actors in the early colon oncogenic transformation in a large sample size.

  16. Intraosseous Hemangioma of the Middle Turbinate Misdiagnosed As a Nasal Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraosseous hemangiomas account for 1% of all bone tumors and primarily originate from the vertebral column and skull bones. However, intraosseous hemangiomas of the nasal cavity are extremely rare. Here, we report a case of intraosseous hemangioma with a cavernous pattern arising from the middle turbinate that was preoperatively misdiagnosed as chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps. Except for nasal obstruction, there were no specific rhinologic symptoms. The tumor was excised en bloc by the endoscopic endonasal approach without preoperative embolization.

  17. [Omeprazole: a new treatment for paranasal sinus polyps in Widal syndrome. Preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, J; Piñas, J; Arnaiz, J A; Quesada, P; Naches, S; Lorente, J; Carne, X

    1998-05-01

    A preliminary report is made of the potential therapeutic effect of omeprazol in reducing nasosinusal polyps. This study is based on the empirical observation of nasal airflow improvement in patients suffering from nasosinusal polyposis after administering omeprazol. Different phases of the study suggested that patients with Widal's syndrome benefited the most. Based on the results of this study, we have undertaken a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

  18. Sterile polystyrene culture dishes induce transformation of polyps into medusae in Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Klaus; Siefker, Barbara; Berking, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Polyps of Aurelia aurita produce medusae once a year. Under laboratory conditions this process, termed strobilation, can be induced by lowering the incubation temperature for about two weeks. Here we report a fast induction of strobilation by sterile polystyrene culture dishes. The effect is abolished when the culture dishes are washed twice with hot water prior to the experiment. We recommend that polystyrene cultureware should be pre-washed whenever there is an indication of unusual effects.

  19. Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Induced by a Model Vocal Fold Polyp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley C.; Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2012-11-01

    The fluid-structure energy exchange process for normal speech has been studied extensively, but it is not well understood for pathological conditions. Polyps and nodules, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, can disrupt vocal fold dynamics and thus can have devastating consequences on a patient's ability to communicate. A recent in-vitro investigation of a model polyp in a driven vocal fold apparatus demonstrated that such a geometric abnormality considerably disrupts the glottal jet behavior and that this flow field adjustment was a likely reason for the severe degradation of the vocal quality in patients. Understanding of the formation and propagation of vortical structures from a geometric protuberance, and their subsequent impact on the aerodynamic loadings that drive vocal fold dynamic, is a critical component in advancing the treatment of this pathological condition. The present investigation concerns the three-dimensional flow separation induced by a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, i.e. a model vocal fold polyp. Unsteady three-dimensional flow separation and its impact of the wall pressure loading are examined using skin friction line visualization and wall pressure measurements. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  20. Irsogladine maleate, a gastric mucosal protectant, suppresses intestinal polyp development in Apc-mutant mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Wakana; Tomono, Susumu; Miyamoto, Shinngo; Fujii, Gen; Hamoya, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Fukai, Fumio; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify gastric mucosal protectants that suppress intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model. We chose six gastric mucosal protectants (ecabet sodium hydrate, irsogladine maleate, rebamipide, sofalcone, teprenone and troxipide) and examined their effects on the activity of oxidative stress-related transcriptional factors, including AP-1, NF-jB, NRF2, p53 and STAT3, in Caco-2 cells using a luciferase reporter gene assay. Among the six protectants, irsogladine maleate clearly inhibited NF-jB and AP-1 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the chemopreventive property of irsogladine maleate was examined in a Min mouse model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Treatment with irsogladine maleate at doses of 5 and 50 ppm significantly reduced the number of intestinal polyps to 69% and 66% of the untreated control value, respectively. In these polyps, mRNA levels of the downstream targets of NF-jB, such as IL-1β and IL-6, were decreased by irsogladine maleate treatment. Moreover, the levels of oxidative stress-related markers, reactive carbonyl species, in the livers of Min mice were clearly decreased following the administration of irsogladine maleate. This study demonstrated that irsogladine maleate suppresses intestinal polyp formation in Min mice partly through the NF-jB signaling pathway, thus reducing oxidative stress. PMID:26840084

  1. Sinonasal Delivery of Resveratrol via Mucoadhesive Nanostructured Microparticles in a Nasal Polyp Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mingyu; Park, Chun Gwon; Huh, Beom Kang; Kim, Se-Na; Lee, Seung Ho; Khalmuratova, Roza; Park, Jong-Wan; Shin, Hyun-Woo; Choy, Young Bin

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to effectively suppress chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in a mouse model; however, when locally administered to the sinonasal cavity, bolus RSV is limited by low drug bioavailability owing to its low aqueous solubility and relatively rapid clearance from the administration site. To address this limitation, we propose mucoadhesive nanostructured microparticles (PLGA/PEG NM) as a potential carrier for the sinonasal delivery of RSV. In this study, PLGA/PEG NM released RSV in a sustained manner. Owing to the enlarged specific surface area of the nanostructures, PLGA/PEG NM had synergistically enhanced mucoadhesiveness and thus showed improved in vivo retention properties in the sinonasal cavity. Therefore, when tested in a mouse nasal polyp model, PLGA/PEG NM mitigated polyp formation and restored epithelial integrity better than the control treatments. The therapeutic effect was similar at half the dose of PLGA/PEG NM, suggesting improved local bioavailability of RSV in the sinonasal cavity. PMID:28071713

  2. Immunohistochemical localization of glutathione S-transferase-pi in human colorectal polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the distribution of the placental form of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in colon polyps in order to evaluate the role of GST-pi in these tissues. METHODS: Sixteen polyp tissues removed at colon- oscopy were examined. Tissues were investigated his- tologicaUy and ultrastructurally. GST-pi expression was also analysed immunohistochemically, using peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP) method and immunogold label- ling method, for light and electron microscope respec- tively. RESULTS: All polyp tissues examined were adenoma of low, mild and high- grade dysplasia as shown in the histopathological reports. Nevertheless, the examina- tion of the above specimens with electron microscope revealed that 3 of 9 adenoma of mild dysplasia had ultrastuctural features similar to high-grade dysplasia adenoma. GST-pi was variably expressed in adenoma, with the lowest relative levels occurring in low-grade adenoma and the highest levels found in high-grade adenoma. GST-pi was located mainly in undifferentiat- ed epithelial cells. GST-pi positive particles were found in the cytoplasm and especially in the nucleus adjacent to the nuclear membrane of these cells. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of GST-pi in mild- grade adenomas with significant subcellular changes and in the majority of high-grade dysplasia adenoma suggests that this might be related to the carcinogenetic proceeding. Immunohistochemical localization of GST-pi in combination with ultrastructural changes indicate that GST-pi might be a sensitive agent for the detection of preneoplastic transformations in adenoma.

  3. Live imaging of cysteine-cathepsin activity reveals dynamics of focal inflammation, angiogenesis, and polyp growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gounaris

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that up to 30% of detectable polyps in patients regress spontaneously. One major challenge in the evaluation of effective therapy of cancer is the readout for tumor regression and favorable biological response to therapy. Inducible near infra-red (NIR fluorescent probes were utilized to visualize intestinal polyps of mice hemizygous for a novel truncation of the Adenomatous Polyposis coli (APC gene. Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy in live mice allowed visualization of cathepsin activity in richly vascularized benign dysplastic lesions. Using biotinylated suicide inhibitors we quantified increased activities of the Cathepsin B & Z in the polyps. More than (3/4 of the probe signal was localized in CD11b(+Gr1(+ myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC and CD11b(+F4/80(+ macrophages infiltrating the lesions. Polyposis was attenuated through genetic ablation of cathepsin B, and suppressed by neutralization of TNFalpha in mice. In both cases, diminished probe signal was accounted for by loss of MDSC. Thus, in vivo NIR imaging of focal cathepsin activity reveals inflammatory reactions etiologically linked with cancer progression and is a suitable approach for monitoring response to therapy.

  4. Irsogladine maleate, a gastric mucosal protectant, suppresses intestinal polyp development in Apc-mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Wakana; Tomono, Susumu; Miyamoto, Shinngo; Fujii, Gen; Hamoya, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Fukai, Fumio; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2016-02-23

    This study aimed to identify gastric mucosal protectants that suppress intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model. We chose six gastric mucosal protectants (ecabet sodium hydrate, irsogladine maleate, rebamipide, sofalcone, teprenone and troxipide) and examined their effects on the activity of oxidative stress-related transcriptional factors, including AP-1, NF-jB, NRF2, p53 and STAT3, in Caco-2 cells using a luciferase reporter gene assay. Among the six protectants, irsogladine maleate clearly inhibited NF-jB and AP-1 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the chemopreventive property of irsogladine maleate was examined in a Min mouse model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Treatment with irsogladine maleate at doses of 5 and 50 ppm significantly reduced the number of intestinal polyps to 69% and 66% of the untreated control value, respectively. In these polyps, mRNA levels of the downstream targets of NF-jB, such as IL-1β and IL-6, were decreased by irsogladine maleate treatment. Moreover, the levels of oxidative stress-related markers, reactive carbonyl species, in the livers of Min mice were clearly decreased following the administration of irsogladine maleate. This study demonstrated that irsogladine maleate suppresses intestinal polyp formation in Min mice partly through the NF-jB signaling pathway, thus reducing oxidative stress.

  5. Targeting IL-25 as a novel therapy in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mingyu; Kim, Dae Woo; Shin, Hyun-Woo

    2017-02-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a heterogeneous inflammatory disorder with a poorly understood pathophysiology. Recent findings show that epithelial-derived cytokines, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-33, and IL-25, can exacerbate Th2 immune responses, ultimately leading to recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. Although IL-25 is increased in CRSwNP, the targeting of IL-25 as a therapeutic strategy remains largely unexplored. In this review, we outline the many recent advances in our understanding of the association between IL-25 and CRSwNP. Recently, we demonstrated that IL-25, produced primarily by sinonasal epithelial cells and infiltrating mast cells, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP in Asian patients. Furthermore, IL-25 and IL-25R are elevated in nasal polyps. This cytokine has roles in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP via modulating group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Similarly, ILC2 enrichment has been reported in CRSwNP patients, and a positive correlation has been shown between ILC2s and CRSwNP. Clinical trials blocking thymic stromal lymphopoietin and IL-33 pathways are ongoing using monoclonal antibodies, AMG157 and AMG282, against CRSwNP, respectively. Studies on the role played by IL-25 in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP are accumulating and suggest the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating CRSwNP.

  6. Oncogene Mutations in Colorectal Polyps Identified in the Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention (NORCCAP) Screening Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, Jon A.; Grzyb, Krzysztof; De Angelis, Paula M.; Hoff, Geir; Eide, Tor J.; Andresen, Per Arne

    2016-01-01

    Data are limited on oncogene mutation frequencies in polyps from principally asymptomatic participants of population-based colorectal cancer screening studies. In this study, DNA from 204 polyps, 5 mm or larger, were collected from 176 participants of the NORCCAP screening study and analyzed for mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA including the rarely studied KRAS exons 3 and 4 mutations. KRAS mutations were identified in 23.0% of the lesions and were significantly associated with tubulovillous adenomas and large size. A significantly higher frequency of KRAS mutations in females was associated with mutations in codon 12. The KRAS exon 3 and 4 mutations constituted 23.4% of the KRAS positive lesions, which is a larger proportion compared to previous observations in colorectal cancer. BRAF mutations were identified in 11.3% and were associated with serrated polyps. None of the individuals were diagnosed with de novo or recurrent colorectal cancer during the follow-up time (median 11.2 years). Revealing differences in mutation-spectra according to gender and stages in tumorigenesis might be important for optimal use of oncogenes as therapeutic targets and biomarkers. PMID:27656095

  7. Osteomeatal complex obstruction is not associated with adjacent sinus disease in chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Randy M; Kern, Robert C; Conley, David B; Tan, Bruce K; Chandra, Rakesh K

    2011-01-01

    It is universally accepted that osteomeatal complex (OMC) disease is linked to the subsequent development of chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNPs) via postobstructive mechanisms. The role of OMC obstruction in the pathogenesis of CRSwNPs is less clear. This study was designed to identify if there is an association between OMC obstruction and inflammation of the adjacent sinuses, when patients are stratified by polyp status. This is a follow-up and expanded series of a previous pilot study from our group. CT scans of 144 patients with CRSsNPs and 123 patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNPs) were evaluated for each sinus and OMC. Patients had no previous surgeries for NPs. CT scans were obtained after a trial of maximal medical therapy. Increasing OMC involvement was associated with increasing Lund-Mackay score for both CRSsNPs and CRSwNPs. In CRSsNP patients, OMC status significantly correlated with adjacent sinus status (p OMC status does not correlate with adjacent sinus status (p = 0.328). OMC obstruction in the setting of CRSwNP may be a barometer of the overall disease process, but in this scenario, paranasal sinus inflammation can not be classified as a postobstructive phenomenon. These findings question the role of minimally invasive procedures in the management of CRSwNPs.

  8. Evaluation of Usefulness of hs-CRP and Ferritin Assays in Patients with Nasal Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Partyka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic nature of the nasal polyps, tendency to recurrence, and lack of satisfying treatment need the diagnostic’s parameters which show early inflammatory state as ferritin and hs-CRP. The Aim of Study. Assessment of hs-CRP and ferritin blood levels in nasal polyps patients in evaluation of treatment efficacy. Methods. All 38 patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I included 19 patients with anti-inflammatory therapy 2 weeks after surgery. Group II included 19 patients without anti-inflammatory therapy 2 weeks after surgery. The levels of hs-CRP and ferritin have been assessed before and 2 and 6 weeks after surgical treatment. Results. Research showed statistically significant difference of ferritin’s concentration between examined groups 6 weeks after surgery (P<0.05 and statistically significant difference of hs-CRP concentration 2 and 6 weeks after surgery (P<0.05. Conclusion. (1 The analysis of serum ferritin and hs-CRP concentrations can be useful in early postoperative detection of inflammatory state in patients with nasal polyps and for the effectiveness of therapy. (2 Lack of correlation between mean ferritin and hs-CRP serum levels, at each diagnostic and monitoring stage, shows that they are independent and cannot be determined interchangeably.

  9. Clinical curative effect of endoscopic mucosal resection treatment of senile gastrointestinal polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu-Wei Chen; Zhong-Jing Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical curative effect of endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic electrocoagulation on flat gastrointestinal polyps. Methods:A total of 62 cases of patients with flat gastrointestinal polyps who received endoscopic diagnosis and treatment in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015 were selected as the research subjects and divided into experimental group who received endoscopic mucosal resection and control group who received endoscopic electrocoagulation with random number table method, and then red blood cell immune function and the levels of inflammation-related molecules in mucosa and serum of two groups were compared. Results:C3bRR and ICRRR as well as CD58, CD59 and LFA-3 expression levels in peripheral blood of experimental group were significantly higher than those of control group;HSP60, HSP70, TLR4 and NF-kB expression levels in mucosa as well as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 levels in serum of experimental group were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusion:Endoscopic mucosal resection treatment of senile gastrointestinal polyp causes less injury, postoperative red blood cell immune function was better, and inflammation was weaker.

  10. An aposymbiotic primary coral polyp counteracts acidification by active pH regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Iguchi, Akira; Shinzato, Chuya; Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Corals build their skeletons using extracellular calcifying fluid located in the tissue–skeleton interface. However, the mechanism by which corals control the transport of calcium and other ions from seawater and the mechanism of constant alkalization of calcifying fluid are largely unknown. To address these questions, we performed direct pH imaging at calcification sites (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM) to visualize active pH upregulation in live aposymbiotic primary coral polyps treated with HCl-acidified seawater. Active alkalization was observed in all individuals using vital staining method while the movement of HPTS and Alexa Fluor to SCM suggests that certain ions such as H+ could diffuse via a paracellular pathway to SCM. Among them, we discovered acid-induced oscillations in the pH of SCM (pHSCM), observed in 24% of polyps examined. In addition, we discovered acid-induced pH up-regulation waves in 21% of polyps examined, which propagated among SCMs after exposure to acidified seawater. Our results showed that corals can regulate pHSCM more dynamically than was previously believed. These observations will have important implications for determining how corals regulate pHSCM during calcification. We propose that corals can sense ambient seawater pH via their innate pH-sensitive systems and regulate pHSCM using several unknown pH-regulating ion transporters that coordinate with multicellular signaling occurring in coral tissue.

  11. Primary and Presidential Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at primary and presidential candidates in 2008 and 2012. Evidence suggests that voters are less influenced by candidates’ color, gender, or religious observation than previously. Conversely, markers of difference remain salient in the imaginations of pollsters and journalists...

  12. Quantitative radiology: automated measurement of polyp volume in computed tomography colonography using Hessian matrix-based shape extraction and volume growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Mark L.; Obara, Piotr R.; Chen, Yisong; Liu, Junchi; Zarshenas, Amin; Makkinejad, Nazanin; Dachman, Abraham H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current measurement of the single longest dimension of a polyp is subjective and has variations among radiologists. Our purpose was to develop a computerized measurement of polyp volume in computed tomography colonography (CTC). Methods We developed a 3D automated scheme for measuring polyp volume at CTC. Our scheme consisted of segmentation of colon wall to confine polyp segmentation to the colon wall, extraction of a highly polyp-like seed region based on the Hessian matrix, a 3D volume growing technique under the minimum surface expansion criterion for segmentation of polyps, and sub-voxel refinement and surface smoothing for obtaining a smooth polyp surface. Our database consisted of 30 polyp views (15 polyps) in CTC scans from 13 patients. Each patient was scanned in the supine and prone positions. Polyp sizes measured in optical colonoscopy (OC) ranged from 6-18 mm with a mean of 10 mm. A radiologist outlined polyps in each slice and calculated volumes by summation of volumes in each slice. The measurement study was repeated 3 times at least 1 week apart for minimizing a memory effect bias. We used the mean volume of the three studies as “gold standard”. Results Our measurement scheme yielded a mean polyp volume of 0.38 cc (range, 0.15-1.24 cc), whereas a mean “gold standard” manual volume was 0.40 cc (range, 0.15-1.08 cc). The “gold-standard” manual and computer volumetric reached excellent agreement (intra-class correlation coefficient =0.80), with no statistically significant difference [P (F≤f) =0.42]. Conclusions We developed an automated scheme for measuring polyp volume at CTC based on Hessian matrix-based shape extraction and volume growing. Polyp volumes obtained by our automated scheme agreed excellently with “gold standard” manual volumes. Our fully automated scheme can efficiently provide accurate polyp volumes for radiologists; thus, it would help radiologists improve the accuracy and efficiency of polyp volume

  13. Comparison between Capsule Endoscopy and Magnetic Resonance Enterography for the Detection of Polyps of the Small Intestine in Patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Akin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE compared with capsule endoscopy (CE for the detection of small-bowel polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP. Methods. Patients underwent MRE and CE. The polyps were classified according to size of polyp: 10 mm (large size. The location (jejunum or ileum and the number of polyps (1–5, 6–20, >20 detected by CE were also assessed. MRE findings were compared with the results of CE. Results. Small-bowel polyps, were detected by CE in 4 of the 6 (66% patients. Three patients had small-sized polyps and one patient had medium-sized polyps. CE detected polyps in four patients that, were not shown on MRE. Desmoid tumors were detected on anterior abdominal wall by MRE. Conclusion. In patients with FAP, CE can detect small-sized polyps in the small intestine not seen with MRE whereas MRE yields additional extraintestinal information.

  14. The Influence of Screening for Precancerous Lesions on Family-Based Genetic Association Tests: An Example of Colorectal Polyps and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie L; Figueiredo, Jane C; Cortessis, Victoria K; Thomas, Duncan C

    2015-10-15

    Unintended consequences of secondary prevention include potential introduction of bias into epidemiologic studies estimating genotype-disease associations. To better understand such bias, we simulated a family-based study of colorectal cancer (CRC), which can be prevented by resecting screen-detected polyps. We simulated genes related to CRC development through risk of polyps (G1), risk of CRC but not polyps (G2), and progression from polyp to CRC (G3). Then, we examined 4 analytical strategies for studying diseases subject to secondary prevention, comparing the following: 1) CRC cases with all controls, without adjusting for polyp history; 2) CRC cases with controls, adjusting for polyp history; 3) CRC cases with only polyp-free controls; and 4) cases with either CRC or polyps with controls having neither. Strategy 1 yielded estimates of association between CRC and each G that were not substantially biased. Strategies 2-4 yielded biased estimates varying in direction according to analysis strategy and gene type. Type I errors were correct, but strategy 1 provided greater power for estimating associations with G2 and G3. We also applied each strategy to case-control data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (1997-2007). Generally, the best analytical option balancing bias and power is to compare all CRC cases with all controls, ignoring polyps. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Intravenous, contrast-enhanced MR colonography using air as endoluminal contrast agent: Impact on colorectal polyp detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy and patient tolerance of MR colonography with intravenous contrast and luminal air (MRC) to conventional colonoscopy (CC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: IRB approval and written informed consent were obtained. Forty-six patients, both screening and symptomatic, underwent MRC followed by CC. The MRC technique employed 3D T1W spoiled gradient echo sequences performed after the administration of gadopenetate dimeglumine, with parallel imaging. The diagnostic accuracy and tolerance of patients for MRC was compared to CC. RESULTS: Twenty-four polyps were detected in eighteen patients with CC (5 polyps >\\/=10mm, 4 polyps 6-9mm, 15 polyps <\\/=5mm). MRC was 66.7% (12\\/18) sensitive and 96.4% (27\\/28) specific for polyp detection on a per-patient basis. When analyzed by polyp size, sensitivity and specificity of MRC was 100% (5\\/5) and 100% (19\\/19), respectively, for lesions greater than 10mm, 100% (4\\/4) and 100% (20\\/20) for lesions 6-9mm, and sensitivity of 20% (3\\/15) lesions less than 5mm. The sensitivity and specificity of MRC for detecting significant lesions (>6mm) was 100% (9\\/9) and 100% (15\\/15), respectively. Regarding tolerance of the exams, there were no significant differences between MRC and CC. Thirty-five percent (n=16) of patients preferred MRC as a future screening test compared to 33% (n=15) for CC. CONCLUSION: MRC using air as an intraluminal contrast agent is a feasible and well-tolerated technique for detecting colonic polyps >\\/=6mm in size. Further studies are warranted.

  16. Intravenous, contrast-enhanced MR colonography using air as endoluminal contrast agent: Impact on colorectal polyp detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2010-12-03

    PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy and patient tolerance of MR colonography with intravenous contrast and luminal air (MRC) to conventional colonoscopy (CC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: IRB approval and written informed consent were obtained. Forty-six patients, both screening and symptomatic, underwent MRC followed by CC. The MRC technique employed 3D T1W spoiled gradient echo sequences performed after the administration of gadopenetate dimeglumine, with parallel imaging. The diagnostic accuracy and tolerance of patients for MRC was compared to CC. RESULTS: Twenty-four polyps were detected in eighteen patients with CC (5 polyps ≥10mm, 4 polyps 6-9mm, 15 polyps ≤5mm). MRC was 66.7% (12\\/18) sensitive and 96.4% (27\\/28) specific for polyp detection on a per-patient basis. When analyzed by polyp size, sensitivity and specificity of MRC was 100% (5\\/5) and 100% (19\\/19), respectively, for lesions greater than 10mm, 100% (4\\/4) and 100% (20\\/20) for lesions 6-9mm, and sensitivity of 20% (3\\/15) lesions less than 5mm. The sensitivity and specificity of MRC for detecting significant lesions (>6mm) was 100% (9\\/9) and 100% (15\\/15), respectively. Regarding tolerance of the exams, there were no significant differences between MRC and CC. Thirty-five percent (n=16) of patients preferred MRC as a future screening test compared to 33% (n=15) for CC. CONCLUSION: MRC using air as an intraluminal contrast agent is a feasible and well-tolerated technique for detecting colonic polyps ≥6mm in size. Further studies are warranted.

  17. Pilot Candidate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    pilot selection system and to best support up-front track selection for SUPT? Assumptions The USAF Trainer Masterplan does not include a plan to...replace the T-41 with a new flight screening aircraft. In addition, the Masterplan states that candidates will be track selected prior to entry into primary...training. (3:10) While the Masterplan is not a static document and aircraft procurement plans and/or the timing of track selection are subject to

  18. Alcoholic beverages and adenomatous polyps of the sigmoid colon: a study of male self-defence officials in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, S; Ikeda, N; Yanai, F; Shinchi, K; Imanishi, K

    1990-12-01

    The drinking habits of 86 men with adenomatous polyps of the sigmoid colon were compared to those of 1184 men with normal colonoscopy among middle-aged male self-defence officials. After adjustment for rank, smoking history and rice consumption, total ethanol intake was positively associated with the risk of adenomatous polyps. The odds ratio (OR) was 2.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-5.5) for men consuming at least 60 ml of ethanol per day. Among five alcoholic beverages (shochu, beer, sake, whiskey and wine), both sake and beer showed a dose-response relationship with the risk of adenomatous polyps although the association with beer was less striking. Shochu was the largest source of ethanol intake in the study population, but there was virtually no association between shochu consumption and adenomatous polyps. Men drinking wine had a significantly increased risk, but these men were too few to examine the relation in detail. The findings suggest that the consumption of specific alcoholic beverages rather than ethanol itself is associated with an increased risk of adenomatous polyps of the sigmoid colon.

  19. Treatment of Women With an Endometrial Polyp and Heavy Menstrual Bleeding: A Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine Device or Hysteroscopic Polypectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Myrthe M; van Hanegem, Nehalennia; de Lange, Maria E; Timmermans, Anne

    2015-01-01

    We performed a literature review of reports comparing a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) with transcervical polyp resection (TCRP) as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Our second objective was to investigate the effectiveness of LNG-IUD and TCRP in reducing menstrual bleeding and the patient satisfaction with each technique. No previously reported studies have compared TCRP and LNG-IUD as treatment for HMB in premenopausal women with an endometrial polyp. Likewise, no studies are available on LNG-IUD as a treatment for HMB in the presence of an endometrial polyp. Several studies have found the LNG-IUD to be an effective treatment option for HMB, with high patient satisfaction rates. Evidence of the effectiveness of TCRP as treatment of HMB is scarce. Patient satisfaction is reported relatively good, although persistent or recurrent symptoms appear to be frequent. We conclude that no evidence is available on LNG-IUD as treatment for HMB in women with an endometrial polyp. We hypothesize that LNG-IUD could be a good alternative to TCRP for treating HMB in premenopausal women with a polyp; however, further evidence is needed, and a randomized controlled trial should be performed.

  20. PTT analysis of polyps from FAP patients reveals a great majority of APC truncating mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luijt, R.B. van der; Khan, P.M.; Tops, C.M.J. [Leiden Univ., (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Germline APC mutations are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal dominantly inherited predisposition to colorectal cancer, characterized by the development of numerous adenomatous polyps in the large intestine. In order to investigate whether somatic inactivation of the remaining APC allele is necessary for adenoma formation, we collected multiple adenomatous polyps from individual FAP patients and investigated the presence of somatic mutations in the APC gene. The analysis of somatic APC mutations in these tumor samples was performed using a rapid and sensitive assay, called the protein truncation test (PTT). Chain-terminating somatic APC mutations were detected in the great majority of the tumor samples investigated. As expected, these mutations were mainly located in the mutation cluster region (MCR) in exon 15. Our results confirm that somatic mutation of the second APC allele is required for adenoma formation in FAP. Interestingly, in the polyps investigated in our study, the second APC allele is somatically inactivated through point mutation leading to a stop codon rather than by loss of heterozygosity. The observation that somatic second hits in APC are required for tumor development in FAP is in apparent accordance with the Knudson hypothesis for classical tumor suppressor genes. However, it is yet unknown whether chain-terminating APC mutations lead to a truncated protein exerting a dominant-negative effect or whether these mutations result in a null allele. Further investigation of this important issue will hopefully provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the mutated APC alleles in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  1. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  2. Multiple endometrial polyps in patient undergoing long-term gestagen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamurović Milena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial polyps represent a limited focal, circumscribed overgrowth of the endometrium. Their aetiopathogenesis has not been completely explained yet. They are often found in perimenopausal women; during the reproductive period they are less common. We present the case of a 32-year-old patient, who came for a check-up to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic "Narodni Front" because of irregular bleeding. The patient was subjected to hormonal linestrenol therapy, which she had administered herself, without further consultations with her gynecologist, during the previous 10 years. Complete diagnostic examinations were performed. Contrast sonohysterography enabled the visualization of multiple polyps inside the uterine cavity, which were confirmed by histopathological analysis of material obtained via explorative curettage. Histopathological material contained over 30 endometrial polyps. A control check-up after one month, as well as subsequent quarterly check-ups, resulted in normal findings. Analysis of the described case has indicated that the loss of sensitivity of progesterone receptors in endometrial cells is possible if there is a continuous presence of progesterone agonists in circulation, as is true of linestrenol in this case. The loss of sensitivity of progesterone receptors upsets normal hormonal activity during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, leading to copious, irregular bleeding. These changes may, however, have even deeper effects. More recent research shows that, if the agent causing the loss of sensitivity of the receptors is present in circulation over a longer time period, changes may also appear at the DNA molecular level, i.e. in the cell genome itself. This, in turn, may lead to the beginning of the process of oncogenesis and the formation of timorous tissue.

  3. Therapeutic effects of intranasal cyclosporine for eosinophilic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Yeop; Joo, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Seong-Jae; Kim, Jin Hyun; Jung, Myeong Hee; Kim, Dae Woo; Jeon, Sea-Yuong; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a principally type 2 T helper cell (Th2)-mediated inflammatory disease. Systemic corticosteroids currently represent the most effective treatment for CRSwNP, but their long-term use is constrained due to their detrimental side effects. Long-term use of topical steroids is safe, but their efficacy is often limited. Topical cyclosporine has proven to be safe and effective for Th2-mediated diseases such as allergic conjunctivitis. It was hypothesized that topical cyclosporine would be an effective novel drug for the treatment of CRSwNP; its therapeutic efficacy was assessed using a previously established mouse model. After induction of eosinophilic CRSwNP in four-week-old BALB/c mice according to previous protocols, the therapeutic effects of intranasal cyclosporine were evaluated and compared with those of triamcinolone acetonide (TAC). Histopathologic changes were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin for polyp formation and Sirius red staining for eosinophilic infiltration. The production of cytokines in sinonasal tissues, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-17A, was measured using a cytometric bead array. The number of polyp-like lesions was reduced significantly only by systemic TAC, but the degree of eosinophilic infiltration was decreased significantly by topical cyclosporine, the potency of which was similar to that of topical or systemic TAC. Except for IFN-γ, the majority of measured cytokines were reduced significantly by topical cyclosporine, although their effects on IL-2 and IL-13 were less potent than those of systemic TAC. Topical cyclosporine might be an effective drug for the management of CRSwNP.

  4. Yellow nail syndrome, pincer nails, colon cancer and polyps in a 76 year-old-woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino Modesto dos Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The yellow nail syndrome is a scarcely described condition characterized by dystrophic yellowish nails, respiratory disturbances and lymphedema; while the pincer nail deformity is characterized by thickening and excessive transverse curvature of the nail plate. The objective of this case study is to report a 76-year-old Japanese descent woman with yellow nail syndrome and pincer nails, intestinal polyps, and sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma. Both the yellow nail syndrome and pincer nails may develop in association with malignancies, either by chance or by some etiopathogenic mechanism not well-known.

  5. Dysregulation of E-cadherin in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔维佳; 吴俊华; 王彦君; 乐建新; 张松; 俞艳萍

    2010-01-01

    E-cadherin is a key epithelial protein and adhesive molecule. This study detected the E-cadherin expression in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and controls, and analyzed its possible role in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP. The expression of E-cadherin was detected by using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in controls and patients with CRSwNP. Computed tomography (CT) scan findings were scored. The results showed that the E-cadherin expression was up-regulated in patients...

  6. Clinical Significance of Colonic Diverticulosis Associated with Bowel Symptoms and Colon Polyp

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang-Moon; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Chung, Woo Chul; Jung, Sung Hoon; Chang, U-Im; Yang, Jin Mo

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate prospectively the clinical significance of colonic diverticulosis. In the 1,030 consecutive outpatients undergoing colonoscopy, the information on the demographics, the patterns of bowel symptoms, and the prevalence of colon polyp were analyzed according to the presence of colonic diverticulosis. The mean age of 1,030 patients were 52.2 yr and 59.3% were male. The prevalence of diverticulosis was 19.7% (203/1,030). Of 203 diverticulosis patients 85.2% were in p...

  7. Adenomatous polyp with intestinal metaplasia of the esophagus (Barrett esophagus) in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C J; Parry, N M A; Jakowski, R M; Cooper, J

    2010-01-01

    Multiple endoscopic biopsy specimens of esophageal mucosa were received from a 13-year-old castrated male standard Poodle. The dog was presented for painful swallowing. Endoscopically, the distal aspect of the esophagus was inflamed with a polypoid mass that protruded into the esophageal lumen. Histologically, the stratified squamous epithelium overlying the mass and lining the adjacent esophageal mucosa was replaced by papillary projections covered by columnar epithelium with goblet cells supported by a fibrous stroma. This article reports a case of spontaneous esophageal adenomatous polyp with intestinal metaplasia (Barrett esophagus) and reviews the pathogenesis of esophageal metaplasia and adenocarcinoma.

  8. Metformin efficacy and safety for colorectal polyps: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higurashi Takuma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is one of the major neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Metformin, a biguanide, which is widely used for treating diabetes mellitus, has recently been suggestive to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In a previous study conducted in non-diabetic subjects, we showed that oral short-term low-dose metformin suppressed the development of colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF. ACF have been considered as a useful surrogate biomarker of CRC, although the biological significance of these lesions remains controversial. We devised a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of metformin against metachronous colorectal polyps and the safety of this drug in non-diabetic post-polypectomy patients. Methods/Design This study is a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in non-diabetic patients with a recent history of undergoing colorectal polypectomy. All adult patients visiting the Yokohama City University hospital or affiliated hospitals for polypectomy shall be recruited for the study. Eligible patients will then be allocated randomly into either one of two groups: the metformin group and the placebo group. Patients in the metformin group shall receive oral metformin at 250 mg per day, and those in the placebo group shall receive an oral placebo tablet. At the end of 1 year of administration of metformin/placebo, colonoscopy will be performed to evaluate the polyp formation. Discussion This is the first study proposed to explore the effect of metformin against colorectal polyp formation. Metformin activates AMPK, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway. The mTOR pathway plays an important role in the cellular protein translational machinery and cell proliferation. Patients with

  9. Benign Fibroepithelial Polyps: A Rare Cause of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Ezekiel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available FEPs are rare, benign mucosal growths that may cause urinary tract obstruction in both adults and children. We present the case of a ten year old Hispanic male with recurring urinary tract infections and hydronephrosis diagnosed with fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs. Despite multiple radiographic procedures, we were unable to accurately preoperatively diagnose FEPs. Here we demonstrate the difficulties in preoperative diagnosis and suggest that perhaps a combination of US and MRI in the setting of persistent urinary tract infections and flank pain may be the best approach for early diagnosis and conservative management, including less invasive treatment protocols.

  10. Association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure with the risk of colorectal polyps by histologic type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Wu, Huiyun; Chen, Zhi; Shyr, Yu; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2011-10-01

    The association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagens with colorectal tumor risk remains unclear. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Included in the study were 2,543 patients with polyp [(1,881 with adenomas and 622 with hyperplastic polyp (HPP)] and 3,764 polyp-free controls. Surveys obtained information about meat intake by cooking methods and doneness levels plus other suspected or known risk factors for colorectal tumors. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive ORs after adjusting for potential confounders. High intake of red meat and processed meat (P(trend) mutagen exposure in the development of colorectal tumor.

  11. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P; Owen, M J; Ophoff, R A; O'Donovan, M C; Corvin, A; Cichon, S; Sullivan, P F

    2015-05-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why historical candidate gene studies did not achieve their primary aims is inadequate statistical power. However, the considerable efforts embodied in these early studies unquestionably set the stage for current successes in genomic approaches to schizophrenia.

  12. Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with sessile serrated adenomas/polyps is the same magnitude or even higher than in patients with conventinal adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Baron, John A; Snover, Dale;

    2014-01-01

    Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with sessile serrated adenomas/polyps is the same magnitude or even higher than in patients with conventinal adenomas......Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with sessile serrated adenomas/polyps is the same magnitude or even higher than in patients with conventinal adenomas...

  13. Altered Th17/Treg Ratio in Nasal Polyps With Distinct Cytokine Profile: Association With Patterns of Inflammation and Mucosal Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dawei; Wang, Jianting; Zhang, Min

    2016-03-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified as eosinophilic or noneosinophilic. Nasal polyps can exhibit different types of mucosal inflammation and responses to treatment. Imbalanced ratios of T-helper 17(Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of nasal polyps.This study assessed the frequency of Th17 and Treg cells and related cytokines in patients with nasal polyps and tested for associations with mucosal remodeling.Surgical samples from 12 controls and 33 CRSwNP patients were analyzed histopathologically. The frequency of Th17 and Treg cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tissues were determined using flow cytometry. Th17 and Treg cells-related cytokines in plasma were measured by Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) multiplex assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).Eosinophilic CRSwNP (ECRSwNP) patients exhibited robust eosinophilia, whereas non-ECRSwNP patients were characterized by neutrophilia. Compared with non-ECRSwNP, an increased Th17/Treg ratio in ECRSwNP was associated with a less increased frequency of Th17 cells and a more striking reduction of Treg cells. An altered Th17/Treg cell ratio was positively correlated with eosinophilic and neutrophilic infiltration, submucosal basement membrane thickness, and the degree of subepithelial collagen deposition. Compared with non-ECRSwNP, ECRSwNP had higher levels of IL-17A and IL-4, and lower levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1, whereas non-ECRSwNP showed higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-6.Th17/Treg cell imbalance in nasal polyps (both in tissues and PBMCs) with distinct cytokine profile may contribute to different inflammatory patterns (eosinophilic versus neutrophilic inflammation) and corresponding features of mucosal remodeling. Effective strategies can be designed to target a Th17/Treg imbalance to restore immune homeostasis in nasal polyps.

  14. Race and prevalence of large bowel polyps among the low-income and uninsured in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Kristin; Brandt, Heather M.; Bearden, James D.; Blankenship, Bridgette F.; Caldwell, Renay; Dunn, James; Hegedus, Patricia; Hoffman, Brenda J.; Marsh, Courtney H.; Marsh, William H.; Melvin, Cathy L.; Seabrook, March E.; Sterba, Ronald E.; Stinson, Mary Lou; Thibault, Annie; Berger, Franklin G.; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared to whites, blacks have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates and are at greater risk for early onset disease. The reasons for this racial disparity are poorly understood, but one contributing factor could be differences in access to high quality screening and medical care. Aims The present study was carried out to assess whether a racial difference in prevalence of large bowel polyps persists within a poor and uninsured population (n=233, 124 blacks, 91 whites, 18 other) undergoing screening colonoscopy. Methods Eligible patients were uninsured, asymptomatic, had no personal history of colorectal neoplasia, and were between the ages 45–64 years (blacks) or 50–64 years (whites, other). We examined the prevalence of any adenoma (conventional, serrated) and then difference in adenoma/polyp type by race and age categories. Results Prevalence for ≥ 1 adenoma was 37% (95% CI 31%–43%) for all races combined and 36% in blacks < 50 years, 38% in blacks ≥ 50 years, 35% in whites. When stratified by race, blacks had a higher prevalence of large conventional proximal neoplasia (8%) compared to whites (2%) (p-value =0.06) but a lower prevalence of any serrated-like polyp (blacks 18%, whites 32%); p-value=0.02) and sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (blacks 2%, whites 8% chi-square p-value; p=0.05). Conclusions Within this uninsured population the overall prevalence of adenomas was high and nearly equal by race, but the racial differences observed between serrated and conventional polyp types emphasizes the importance of taking polyp type into account in future research on this topic. PMID:26386856

  15. Surviving but not thriving: inconsistent responses of zooxanthellate jellyfish polyps to ocean warming and future UV-B scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2016-07-01

    Complex changes to UV radiation at the Earth’s surface are occurring concurrently with ocean warming. Despite few empirical tests, jellyfish are hypothesised to be increasing in some parts of the world because they are robust to environmental stressors. Here we examine the effects of UV-B and ocean warming projections on zooxanthellate jellyfish polyps. We exposed Cassiopea sp. polyps to three levels of UV-B (future-low (1.43 Wm2), current (1.60 Wm2), future-high (1.77 Wm2)) and two levels of temperature (current-day (25 °C) and future (28 °C)) over 6 weeks. The intensity of UV-B was varied throughout the day to mimic diel variation in UV-B irradiance. Polyp survival, asexual reproduction and YII were measured. In the current and future-high UV-B treatments, more polyps were produced in 25 °C than 28 °C. This pattern, however, was reversed under future-low UV-B conditions, where more polyps were produced at 28 °C. YII was highest under current summer conditions and future conditions of low UV-B and increased temperature. YII, however, was reduced under high UV-B conditions but was further reduced with warming. Our results suggest that although Cassiopea polyps may survive elevated UV-B and warming conditions, they are unlikely to thrive. If, however, UV-B radiation decreases then ocean warming may facilitate increases in Cassiopea populations.

  16. Causative Role of Ureaplasma Urealyticum and other Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Urethral Meatus Polyp Development in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana S. Taranina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of the influence of ureaplasmal infection on the development of urethral meatus polyps in women. The article presents the results of the examination of women with chronic cystitis and urethritis over a 0.5- to 5-year duration, complicated by the presence of urethral meatus polyps and associated with concomitant Ureaplasma urealyticum and other sexually transmitted infections (STI. This was based on the culture analysis of the cervical and urethral content, and PCR-diagnostics of STI, as well as a complex pathomorphologic study of the resected polyps, including electron microscopy. In this study, 98 women between 45 and 60 years (52.5±4.9 years were examined, who had undergone radiowave resection of the polyps: 52 women were infected by STI, including Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis, while the remaining 46 women had been diagnosed as not having STI. According to the culture results in the women with STI, U. urealyticum was identified as a monoinfection in 69% of cases, while in the remaining 31% of cases it was evident in the form of mixed infections, mainly in association with Mycoplasma hominis (17.5% and Trichomonas vaginalis (13.5%. Pathomorphological examination of the urethral meatus polyps of the women with U. urealyticum and other STI demonstrated the proliferative character of the remodeling of the surface epithelium with hyperplasia, acanthosis, and keratinization of the stratified squamous epithelium and synchronous changes in the underlying connective tissue - impaired microcirculation and the diffuse inflammatory cell infiltrates with transepithelial leukopedesis. Using electron microscopy in the fibroblasts and plasma cells of the resected polyps the markers of U. urealyticum were detected in patients with negative results of the bacteriological diagnostic methods.

  17. Results of screening in Lublin Province, Poland, for colorectal cancer and neoplastic polyps - the role of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Cichoż-Lach

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective.[/b] Screening colonoscopy is a recommended tool, and the most sensitive and cost-effective method for reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC. [b]Objective.[/b] The purpose of the study was to present the results of a 5-year screening for early detection of CRC carried out among the population of the central-eastern regions of Poland, primarily in Lublin Province. [b]Materials and method. [/b]Screening colonoscopy was conducted in a group of 1,009 patients – 636 women and 373 men, aged 40–65 years. [b]Results.[/b] Neoplastic polyps were found in 275 patients, advanced adenomas in 49 patients and adenocarcinoma in 13. 70.55% of neoplastic polyps was located in the distal colon, 18.9% in the proximal part and 10.55% in both regions, advanced adenomas in 79.59%, 8.16% and 12.25%, respectively. Adenocarcinoma was located in the proximal colon in 2 cases and in the distal region in 11 cases. Neoplastic polyps and advanced adenomas occurred significantly more frequently in smokers than in non-smokers. Neoplastic polyps were found statistically more frequent in males than in females, among the overweight and obese patients, than in subjects with normal BMI, and more frequently in the group of urban, compared to rural patients. However, the frequency of advanced adenomas and CRC was not statistically different in those groups. The incidence of CRC was statistically more frequent in males than in females. Smoking and male gender were significant risk factors for developing neoplastic polyps. Male gender seemed to predispose to CRC. Obesity was found to favour advanced adenomas. [b]Conclusions.[/b] The results of screening found neoplastic polyps in every third person (mean who did not have any symptoms suggestive of colon pathology. Advanced adenomas were found in 5% of the examined and CRC was detected in 1.29% of participants. Smoking, male gender and overweight were significant risk factors for developing

  18. Clinical predictors of colorectal polyps and carcinoma in a low prevalence region:Results of a colonoscopy based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousef Bafandeh; Manoochehr Khoshbaten; Amir Taher Eftekhar Sadat; Sara Farhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To estimate the prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with long lasting colonic symptoms undergoing total colonoscopy;and to establish clinical features predicting its occurrence.METIHODS:This prospective study was carried out in Imam Hospital,Tabriz University of medical sciences,Iran.Continuous patients with long lasting lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms who had the criteria of a colonoscopy were included.The endoscopist visualized the caecum documented by a photo and/or a specimen from terminal ileum.RESULTS:Four hundred and eighty consecutive symptomatic patients [mean age (SD):42.73 (16.21)]were included.The prevalence of colorectal neoplasia was 15.3%(34 subjects) and 37.7% (181 subjects)had a completely normal colon.Adenomatous polyps were detected in 56 (11.7%) patients,in 12.3% of men and 10.9% of women.The mean age of the patients with a polyp was significantly higher than the others (49.53±14.16 vs 41.85±16.26,P=0.001).Most of the adenomatous polyps were left sided and tubular;only 22.5% of polyps were more than 10 mm.Cancer was detected in 16 (3.6%) of our study population,which was mostly right sided (57.2%).The mean age of patients with cancer was significantly higher than the others (60.25±8.26 vs 42.13±16.08,P<0.005) and higher than patients with polyps[60.25 (8.26) vs 49.53 (1.91) (P<0.0005)].None of the symptoms (diarrhea,abdominal pain,rectal bleeding,constipation,altering diarrhea and constipation,history of cancer,known irritable bowel disease,history of polyp and fissure or family history of cancer) were predictors for cancer or polyps,but the age of the patient and unexplained anemia independently predicted cancer.CONCLUSION:Less advanced patterns and smaller sizes of adenomas in Iran is compatible with other data from Asia and the Middle East,but in contrast to western countries.Prevalence of colonic neoplasia in our community seems to be lower than that in western population.Colonic symptoms are not predictors

  19. Pindborg Tumor Presenting as a Nasal Polyp: Immunohistology and Ultrastructural Features of a Rare Case, With Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Suvradeep; Kaur, Gurwinder; Nada, Ritambhra; Mohindra, Satyawati

    2016-09-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare benign odontogenic tumor. This tumor predominantly involves the mandible, though the maxilla can also be involved in some cases. The involvement of maxillary sinuses, however, has been previously reported in only 8 case reports English literature. These patients chiefly presented with nasal obstruction along with epistaxis or proptosis in rare cases. However, a primary presentation as nasal polyp is unheard of. We present a rare case of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor presenting as a nasal polyp, posing a diagnostic difficulty.

  20. Dark Matter Candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltz, E.

    2004-12-03

    It is now widely accepted that most of mass-energy in the universe is unobserved except by its gravitational effects. Baryons make only about 4% of the total, with ''dark matter'' making up about 23% and the ''dark energy'' responsible for the accelerated expansion of the universe making up the remainder. We focus on the dark matter, which is the primary constituent of galaxies. We outline the observed properties of this material, enumerating some candidates covering 90 orders of magnitude in mass. Finally, we argue that the weak scale (100 GeV) is relevant to new physics, including the dark matter problem.

  1. Release of uranium from candidate wasteforms

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, N.; Harrison, M.; Brogden, M,; Hanson, B

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of depleted natural and low-enriched uranium exist in the UK waste inventory. This work reports on initial investigations of the leaching performance of candidate glass and cement encapsulation matrices containing UO3 powder as well as that of uranium oxide powders. The surface areas of UO3 powder and the monolith samples of UO3 conditioned in the glass and cement matrices were very different making leaching comparisons difficult. The results showed that for both types of monoli...

  2. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Myofascial Pain: Association of Cancer, Colon Polyps, and Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Jane M; Dalessandri, Kathie M; Pope, Karl; Hernández, Germán T

    2017-08-01

    Myofascial pain that has been associated with cancer and increased risk of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients is intrinsically associated with low magnesium and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Therefore, this physical finding was used as a clinical diagnostic proxy. The objective of this study was to assess the association and prevalence of disease in individuals with myofascial pain and low 25(OH)D in a county with low magnesium in the drinking water. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of a chart review of 269 subjects to assess subjects presenting with myofascial pain (assessed by tender trigger points) and 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 ng/mL or a history of 25(OH)D deficiency compared to those without these exposures. The association between the exposure of low 25(OH)D levels and myofascial pain was compared to all cancers, colon polyps, and tendon ruptures. The odds of having cancer with the combined exposures was 10.14 times the odds of not having either exposure (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.08, 20.25, p D less than 30 ng/mL, 74 were tested for red blood cell (RBC) magnesium. Half of those subjects had RBC magnesium concentrations D deficiency showed a significant association with cancer, adenomatous colon polyps, and tendon rupture. Further studies to verify these results are needed, especially in areas where there is low magnesium in the drinking water.

  3. Demographic and Clinical Features of Endometrial Polyps in Patients with Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To compare the clinical features of endometrial polyps (EPs between patients with endometriosis (EM (EM group and without EM (non-EM group. Methods and Results. Seventy-six cases in the EM group and 133 cases in the non-EM group underwent laparotomy or hysteroscopy and laparoscopy; later, it was confirmed that the results by pathology from July 2002 to April 2008 in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. The recurrence of EPs was followed up after the surgery until 2013. The following parameters were assessed: age, gravidity, parity, infertility, and menstrual cycle changes, as well as polyps diameters, locations, number, association with the revised American Fertility Society (r-AFS classification, and their recurrence. On review, 76 EPs cases of EM group histologically resembled EPs but the majority of EPs with EM occurred in primary infertility cases and in fewer pregnancy rate women who had stable and smaller EPs without association with the AFS stage. The recurrence rate of EPs in EM group was higher than that in non-EM group. Conclusion. It is important to identify whether infertile patients with EM are also having EPs. Removing any coexisting EPs via hysteroscopy would be clinically helpful in treating endometriosis-related infertility in these patients.

  4. Systematic review of surgical innovation reporting in laparoendoscopic colonic polyp resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, A; Brigic, A; Blencowe, N S; Potter, S; Faiz, O D; Kennedy, R H; Blazeby, J M

    2015-01-01

    The IDEAL framework (Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term study) proposes a staged assessment of surgical innovation, but whether it can be used in practice is uncertain. This study aimed to review the reporting of a surgical innovation according to the IDEAL framework. Systematic literature searches identified articles reporting laparoendoscopic excision for benign colonic polyps. Using the IDEAL stage recommendations, data were collected on: patient selection, surgeon and unit expertise, description of the intervention and modifications, outcome reporting, and research governance. Studies were categorized by IDEAL stages: 0/1, simple technical preclinical/clinical reports; 2a, technique modifications with rationale and safety data; 2b, expanded patient selection and reporting of both innovation and standard care outcomes; 3, formal randomized controlled trials; and 4, long-term audit and registry studies. Each stage has specific requirements for reporting of surgeon expertise, governance details and outcome reporting. Of 615 abstracts screened, 16 papers reporting outcomes of 550 patients were included. Only two studies could be put into IDEAL categories. One animal study was classified as stage 0 and one clinical study as stage 2a through prospective ethical approval, protocol registration and data collection. Studies could not be classified according to IDEAL for insufficient reporting details of patient selection, relevant surgeon expertise, and how and why the technique was modified or adapted. The reporting of innovation in the context of laparoendoscopic colonic polyp excision would benefit from standardized methods. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Colon Polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whole grains. Reduce your fat intake. Limit alcohol consumption. Don't use tobacco. Stay physically active and maintain a healthy body weight. Talk to your doctor about calcium. Studies have shown that increasing your consumption of calcium may help prevent recurrence of colon ...

  6. Cervical polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 22. Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. SNPing away at candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchard, M A; Bailey, J N; Elashoff, D A; Sinsheimer, J S

    2001-01-01

    We develop regression methodology to identify subsets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes related to quantitative traits and apply our methods to the simulated Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 12 data set. In the data set we find 694 SNP loci with minimum allele frequencies of at least 0.01. We assume an additive casual model between these SNPs and all five quantitative traits. After initial screening using one-way analysis of variance, we employ a computationally efficient, simulated annealing algorithm to select among all possible subsets of SNP loci, using a generalization of Mallows' Cp as our optimality criterion. The simple transition kernel we develop evaluates new subsets in O(1), by requiring just three arithmetic operations to calculate the proposed RSS based on the Gauss-Jordan pivot. We identify an SNP loci located at 6-5782 related to traits 2 and 3 and several sites on gene 2 related to trait 5 using a subsample of 1,000 individuals and the full data set (n = 8,250) for comparison.

  8. Comparative Validation of Polyp Detection Methods in Video Colonoscopy: Results from the MICCAI 2015 Endoscopic Vision Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Jorge; Tajbakhsh, Nima; Sanchez, F Javier; Matuszewski, Bogdan J; Chen, Hao; Yu, Lequan; Angermann, Quentin; Romain, Olivier; Rustad, Bjorn; Balasingham, Ilangko; Pogorelov, Konstantin; Choi, Sungbin; Debard, Quentin; Maier-Hein, L; Speidel, Stefanie; Stoyanov, Danail; Brandao, Patrick; Cordova, Henry; Sanchez-Montes, Cristina; Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Fernandez-Esparrach, Gloria; Dray, Xavier; Liang, Jianming; Histace, Aymeric

    2017-02-02

    Colonoscopy is the gold standard for colon cancer screening though still some polyps are missed, thus preventing early disease detection and treatment. Several computational systems have been proposed to assist polyp detection during colonoscopy but so far without consistent evaluation. The lack of publicly available annotated databases has made it difficult to compare methods and to assess if they achieve performance levels acceptable for clinical use. The Automatic Polyp Detection subchallenge, conducted as part of the Endoscopic Vision Challenge (http://endovis.grand-challenge.org) at the international conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) in 2015, was an effort to address this need. In this paper, we report the results of this comparative evaluation of polyp detection methods, as well as describe additional experiments to further explore differences between methods. We define performance metrics and provide evaluation databases that allow comparison of multiple methodologies. Results show that convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are the state of the art. Nevertheless it is also demonstrated that combining different methodologies can lead to an improved overall performance.

  9. A child with colo-colonic intussusception due to a large colonic polyp: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colo-colonic intussusception (CI due to a colonic polyp is a rarely reported cause of intestinal obstruction in school-aged children. Hydrostatic reduction (HR and endoscopic polypectomy are minimally invasive and technically feasible for treating CI. We report a case of CI and review the literature, focusing on the diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of colorectal polyps in symptomatic and asymptomatic Iranian patients undergoing colonoscopy from 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, Shahrokh; Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Lashkari, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer in males and the second in females in Iran. Males are more likely to develop CRC than women and age is considered as a main risk factor for colorectal cancer. Prevalence of colorectal cancer has been increasing in Asian countries. The object of this study was to determine the clinical and pathology characteristics of colorectal polyps in Iranian patients and to investigate the variation between our populations with other populations. A total of 167 patients with colorectal polyps were included in our study. All underwent colonoscopy during 2009-2013 and specimens were taken through polypectomy and transferred to pathology. All data in patient files including pathology reports were collected and analyzed by SPSS 16 software. A two-tailed test was used and a P-value of prevalent type of lesion was adenomatous polyps detected in 78 (34.7%). Mixed hyperplastic adenomatous type observed in 70 (31.1%). This high prevalence of adenomatous polyps in Iranian patients implies the urgent need for screening plans to prevent further healthcare problems with colorectal cancer in the Iranian population.

  11. Ursodeoxycholic acid counteracts celecoxib in reduction of duodenal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis : a multicentre, randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heumen, Bjorn W. H.; Roelofs, Hennie M. J.; Vink-Borger, M. Elisa; Dekker, Evelien; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M. H.; Dees, Jan; Koornstra, Jan J.; Langers, Alexandra M. J.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Kampman, Ellen; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Nagengast, Fokko M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Due to prophylactic colectomy, mortality in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has changed, with duodenal cancer currently being the main cause of death. Although celecoxib reduces duodenal polyp density in patients with FAP, its long-term use may increase the risk of car

  12. Ursodeoxycholic acid counteracts celecoxib in reduction of duodenal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis: a multicentre, randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heumen, van B.W.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Vink-Börger, M.E.; Dekker, E.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.; Dees, J.; Koornstra, J.J.; Langers, A.M.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Kampman, E.; Peters, W.H.; Nagengast, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to prophylactic colectomy, mortality in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has changed, with duodenal cancer currently being the main cause of death. Although celecoxib reduces duodenal polyp density in patients with FAP, its long-term use may increase the risk of card

  13. Qualities of sessile serrated adenoma/polyp/lesion and its borderline variant in the context of synchronous colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Mahin; Kristensen, Michael Holmsgaard; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Although much data have accumulated on sessile serrated adenoma/polyp/lesion (SSA/P/L) in general, its characteristics in specified contexts are less well elucidated. This lack of knowledge is even more conspicuous concerning its borderline counterpart, referred to as BSSA/P/L. The previous histo...

  14. Expression of Wnt pathway genes in polyps and medusa-like structures of Ectopleura larynx (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Annalise M; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2013-01-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is conserved in its role in axial patterning throughout Metazoa. In some hydrozoans (Phylum Cnidaria), Wnt signaling is implicated in oral-aboral patterning of the different life cycle stages-the planula, polyp and medusa. Unlike most hydrozoans, members of Aplanulata lack a planula larva and the polyp instead develops directly from a brooded or encysted embryo. The Aplanulata species Ectopleura larynx broods such embryos within gonophores. These gonophores are truncated medusae that remain attached to the polyps from which they bud, and retain evolutionary remnants of medusa structures. In E. larynx, gonophores differ between males and females in their degree of medusa truncation, making them an ideal system for examining truncated medusa development. Using next-generation sequencing, we isolated genes from Wnt signaling pathways and examined their expression in E. larynx. Our data are consistent with the Wnt pathway being involved in axial patterning of the polyp and truncated medusa. Changes in the spatial expression of Wnt pathway genes are correlated with the development of different oral structures in male and female gonophores. The absence of expression of components of the Wnt pathway and presence of a Wnt pathway antagonist SFRP in the developing anterior end of the gonophore suggest that downregulation of the Wnt pathway could play a role in medusa reduction in E. larynx. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Giant esophageal fibrovascular polyp with clinical behaviour of inflammatory pseudotumor: A case report and the literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćuk Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Esophageal fibrovascular polyps are rare, benign, intraluminal, submucosal tumor-like lesions, characterized by pedunculated masses which can demonstrate enormous growth. The most frequent symptoms are dysphagia, vomiting and weight loss. Fibrovascular polyps with long stalks can regurgitate into the airways and cause asphyxia. Esophageal inflammatory pseudotumor is extremely rare lesion accompanied with various systemic manifestations as fever, anemia and thrombocytosis. Case report. We presented a 29-year-old man complaining of a long-lasting fever and dysphagia. He was found to have huge pedunculated submucosal tumor of esophagus, surgically completely resected. Histopathological examination showed that this giant tumor, 24 x 9 x 6 cm, was a fibrovascular polyp. The postoperative course was uneventful. The preoperative fever, anemia and thrombocytosis disappeared and did not recur in the postoperative course. Conclusion. We reported a patient with giant esophageal pedunculated tumor with clinical manifestations of inflammatory pseudotumor and histopathological picture of fibrovascular polyp, that we have not found described in the literature before.

  16. EPITHELIAL-CELL PROLIFERATION IN THE SIGMOID COLON OF PATIENTS WITH ADENOMATOUS POLYPS INCREASES DURING ORAL CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLEIBEUKER, JH; WELBERG, JWM; MULDER, NH; VANDERMEER, R; CATS, A; LIMBURG, AJ; KREUMER, WMT; HARDONK, MJ; DEVRIES, EGE

    1993-01-01

    To study the effect of oral supplemental calcium on colonic epithelial proliferation, 17 adenomatous polyp patients received 1.5 g Ca2+ as calcium carbonate daily during 12 weeks, while on a calcium constant diet, based on the patients' habitual diet. Seven subsequently continued calcium supplementa

  17. Excessive alcohol consumption favours high risk polyp or colorectal cancer occurrence among patients with adenomas: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Bardou, M; Montembault, S; Giraud, V.; Balian, A; Borotto, E; Houdayer, C.; Capron, F.; Chaput, J-C; Naveau, S

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor for developing colorectal adenomas. This study aimed to investigate the influence of excessive alcohol consumption on the occurrence of high risk polyps (adenoma ≥10 mm, villous component, high grade dysplasia) or colorectal cancer among patients with at least one colonic adenoma.

  18. Zileuton, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, acts as a chemopreventive agent in intestinal polyposis, by modulating polyp and systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gounaris

    Full Text Available Leukotrienes and prostaglandins, products of arachidonic acid metabolism, sustain both systemic and lesion-localized inflammation. Tumor-associated Inflammation can also contribute to the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD have increased risk of developing colon cancer. The levels of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO, the key enzyme for leukotrienes production, are increased in colon cancer specimens and colonic dysplastic lesions. Here we report that Zileuton, a specific 5-LO inhibitor, can prevent polyp formation by efficiently reducing the tumor-associated and systemic inflammation in APCΔ468 mice.In the current study, we inhibited 5-LO by dietary administration of Zileuton in the APCΔ468 mouse model of polyposis and analyzed the effect of in vivo 5-LO inhibition on tumor-associated and systemic inflammation.Zileuton-fed mice developed fewer polyps and displayed marked reduction in systemic and polyp-associated inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory innate and adaptive immunity cells were reduced both in the lesions and systemically. As part of tumor-associated inflammation Leukotriene B4 (LTB4, product of 5-LO activity, is increased focally in human dysplastic lesions. The 5-LO enzymatic activity was reduced in the serum of Zileuton treated polyposis mice.This study demonstrates that dietary administration of 5-LO specific inhibitor in the polyposis mouse model decreases polyp burden, and suggests that Zileuton may be a potential chemo-preventive agent in patients that are high-risk of developing colon cancer.

  19. Effects of cumene hydroperoxide on adenosine diphosphate ribosyl transferase in mononuclear leukocytes of patients with adenomatous polyps in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, M M; Johnson, D B; Pero, R W; Winawer, S J; Miller, D G

    1988-03-01

    We have studied the effects of plasma and of cumene hydroperoxide (CUM) on adenosine diphosphate ribosyl transferase (ADPRT) from mononuclear leukocytes (HML) of patients with colonic adenomatous polyps (n = 22), with colonic hyperplastic polyps (n = 5) and with neither type of polyp (controls) (n = 6). ADPRT was measured after incubation of HML with plasma alone (termed the plasma value), and with plasma plus CUM (50 microM) (the activated value); the difference elicited by CUM was termed the induced value. There was no significant difference in values between the control and hyperplastic polyp groups: these were combined for further analysis. The plasma (P = 0.038), activated (P = 0.009) and induced (P = 0.0024) values of the combined group all differed significantly from those of the adenoma group. At low exposures, CUM stimulated both ADPRT and unscheduled DNA synthesis and, at higher exposures, inactivated both. Pretreatment of HML with vitamin E protected against these effects of CUM, while pretreatment with diamide (which depletes GSH) accentuated the effects. This study demonstrates a differential reaction of ADPRT in patients harboring colonic adenomas and suggests that the origin of this difference may lie in cellular responses to oxidative stress.

  20. Helicobacter Pylori Associated Gastritis Increases Risk of Colorectal Polyps: a Hospital Based-Cross-Sectional Study in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal polyps are common in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. The present study aimed to determine any correlation between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and colorectal polyps in the Thai population. A total of 303 patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy with colonoscopy for investigation of chronic abdominal pain participated in this study from November 2014 to October 2015. A diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis was made if the bacteria were seen on histopathological examination and a rapid urease test was positive. Colorectal polyps were confirmed by histological examination of colorectal biopsies. Patient demographic data were analyzed for correlations. The prevalence of colorectal polyps was 77 (25.4%), lesions being found more frequently in Helicobacter pylori infected patients than non-infected subjects [38.4% vs. 12.5%; Odds Ratio (OR) (95% CI): 2.26 (1.32 - 3.86), p gastritis were at high risk of having adenomas featuring dysplasia [OR (95% CI): 1.15 (1.16 - 7.99); P = 0.02]. There was no varaition in location of polyps, age group, sex and gastric lesions with respect to Helicobacter pylori status. This study showed that Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis is associated with an increased risk of colorectal polyps, especially adenomas with dysplasia in the Thai population. Patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis may benefit from concurrent colonoscopy for diagnosis of colorectal polyps as a preventive and early treatment for colorectal cancer.

  1. Significance of CYCLOOXYGENASE-2(COX-2), PERIOSTIN (POSTN) and INTERLEUKIN-4(IL-4) gene expression in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłoński, Jarosław; Zielińska-Bliźniewska, Hanna; Przybyłowska, Karolina; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Korzycka-Zaborowska, Barbara; Majsterek, Ireneusz; Olszewski, Jurek

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the level of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Periostin (POSTN) and Interleukin-4(IL-4) gene expression in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, without polyps and with a nasal septum deviation. The tests were performed on 63 patients (24 women and 39 men) with chronic rhinosinusitis and polyps (CRSwP-study group I), with determination of the COX-2, POSTN and IL-4 gene expression; an allergy was diagnosed in 38 cases. The reference groups were patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps--CRS (n = 23, including 14 women and 9 men) and patients with nasal septum deviation--DSN (n = 18, including 9 women and 9 men). The expression level was determined in the polyp tissue and the mucosa of paranasal sinus collected during an FESS. The expression level of studied genes was also evaluated in the material. Immediately after being collected, the tissue fragments were placed in test tubes with 1 ml of RNAlater (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) preventing the degradation of RNA and frozen at -70 °C. The studies revealed an increased level of POSTN, IL-4 gene expression and a decreased level of COX-2 gene expression that may be associated with the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. An analysis of the expression level indicates the participation of POSTN and IL-4 in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in patients with atopy.

  2. Insights on Coral Adaptation from Polyp and Colony Morphology, Skeletal Density Banding and Carbonate Depositional Facies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlert, A. M.; Hill, C. A.; Piggot, A. M.; Fouke, B. W.

    2008-12-01

    As one of the core reservoirs of primary production in the world's oceans, tropical coral reefs support a complex ecosystem that directly impacts over ninety percent of marine organisms at some point in their life cycle. Corals themselves are highly complex organisms and exhibit a range of growth forms that range from branching to massive, foliaceous, columnar, encrusting, free living and laminar coralla. Fierce competition over scarce resources available to each individual coral species creates niche specialization. Throughout the Phanerozic geological record, this has driven speciation events and created distinct skeletal growth morphologies that have differential abilities in feeding strategy. In turn, this has presumably led to the development of niche specialization that can be quantitatively measured through hierarchical morphological differences from the micrometer to the meter scale. Porter (1976) observed significant differences in skeletal morphology between Caribbean coral species that reflects an adaptive geometry based on feeding strategy. Within the Montastraea species complex there are four major morphologies; columnar, bouldering, irregular mounding, and skirted. Each morphotype can be found forming high abundance along the bathymetric gradient of coral reefs that grow along the leeward coast of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. We have undertaken a study to determine the relative relationships amongst coral morphology, skeletal density and feeding strategy by comparing the morphometric measurements of individual polyps as well as the entire colony along spatial and bathymetric gradients. Polyp diameter, mouth size, interpolyp area, and interpolyp distance were measured from high-resolution images taken on a stereoscope, and evaluated with AxioVision image analysis software. These high-resolution optical analyses have also revealed new observations regarding folded tissue structures of the outer margin of polyps in the Montastrea complex. Skeletal

  3. Software for automated classification of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy videos of colorectal polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara André; Tom Vercauteren; Anna M Buchner; Murli Krishna; Nicholas Ayache; Michael B Wallace

    2012-01-01

    To support probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) diagnosis by designing software for the automated classification of colonic polyps.METHODS:Intravenous fluorescein pCLE imaging of colorectal lesions was performed on patients undergoing screening and surveillance colonoscopies,followed by polypectomies.All resected specimens were reviewed by a reference gastrointestinal pathologist blinded to pCLE information.Histopathology was used as the criterion standard for the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions.The pCLE video sequences,recorded for each polyp,were analyzed offline by 2 expert endoscopists who were blinded to the endoscopic characteristics and histopathology.These pCLE videos,along with their histopathology diagnosis,were used to train the automated classification software which is a content-based image retrieval technique followed by k-nearest neighbor classification.The performance of the off-line diagnosis of pCLE videos established by the 2 expert endoscopists was compared with that of automated pCLE software classification.All evaluations were performed using leave-one-patient-out cross-validation to avoid bias.RESULTS:Colorectal lesions (135) were imaged in 71 patients.Based on histopathology,93 of these 135lesions were neoplastic and 42 were non-neoplastic.The study found no statistical significance for the difference between the performance of automated pCLE software classification (accuracy 89.6%,sensitivity 92.5%,specificity 83.3%,using leave-one-patient-outcross-validation) and the performance of the off-line diagnosis of pCLE videos established by the 2 expert endoscopists (accuracy 89.6%,sensitivity 91.4%,specificity 85.7%).There was very low power (< 6%)to detect the observed differences.The 95% confidence intervals for equivalence testing were:-0.073 to 0.073 for accuracy,-0.068 to 0.089 for sensitivity and -0.18 to 0.13 for specificity.The classification software proposed in this study is

  4. Molecular Fluorescence Endoscopy Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A for Improved Colorectal Polyp Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalma, Jolien J; Garcia-Allende, P Beatriz; Hartmans, Elmire; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anton G; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Glatz, Jürgen; Koch, Maximilian; van Herwaarden, Yasmijn J; Bisseling, Tanya M; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Koornstra, Jan Jacob; Karrenbeld, Arend; Kleibeuker, Jan H; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Nagengast, Wouter B

    2016-03-01

    Small and flat adenomas are known to carry a high miss-rate during standard white-light endoscopy. Increased detection rate may be achieved by molecular fluorescence endoscopy with targeted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent tracers. The aim of this study was to validate vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted fluorescent tracers during ex vivo colonoscopy with an NIR endoscopy platform. VEGF-A and EGFR expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on a large subset of human colorectal tissue samples--48 sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, 70 sporadic high-grade dysplastic adenomas, and 19 hyperplastic polyps--and tissue derived from patients with Lynch syndrome--78 low-grade dysplastic adenomas, 57 high-grade dysplastic adenomas, and 31 colon cancer samples. To perform an ex vivo colonoscopy procedure, 14 mice with small intraperitoneal EGFR-positive HCT116(luc) tumors received intravenous bevacizumab-800CW (anti-VEGF-A), cetuximab-800CW (anti-EGFR), control tracer IgG-800CW, or sodium chloride. Three days later, 8 resected HCT116(luc) tumors (2-5 mm) were stitched into 1 freshly resected human colon specimen and followed by an ex vivo molecular fluorescence colonoscopy procedure. Immunohistochemistry showed high VEGF-A expression in 79%-96% and high EGFR expression in 51%-69% of the colorectal lesions. Both targets were significantly overexpressed in the colorectal lesions, compared with the adjacent normal colon crypts. During ex vivo molecular fluorescence endoscopy, all tumors could clearly be delineated for both bevacizumab-800CW and cetuximab-800CW tracers. Specific tumor uptake was confirmed with fluorescent microscopy showing, respectively, stromal and cell membrane fluorescence. VEGF-A is a promising target for molecular fluorescence endoscopy because it showed a high protein expression, especially in sessile serrated adenomas/polyps and Lynch syndrome. We demonstrated the feasibility to visualize

  5. Can supplementation of phytoestrogens/insoluble fibers help the management of duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Carlo; Rizzello, Fernando; Gionchetti, Paolo; Calafiore, Andrea; Pagano, Nico; De Fazio, Luigia; Valerii, Maria Chiara; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Poggioli, Gilberto; Campieri, Massimo; Spisni, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, and prophylactic colectomy has been shown to decrease the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Duodenal cancer and desmoids are now the leading causes of death in FAP. We evaluate whether 3 months of oral supplementation with a patented blend of phytoestrogens and indigestible insoluble fibers (ADI) help the management of FAP patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). In a prospective open label study, we enrolled 15 FAP patients with IPAA and duodenal polyps who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. The primary endpoint was the change in gene expression in polyp mucosa, whereas the secondary endpoint was the reduction in polyp number and size. After 3 months of ADI treatment, all patients showed a reduction in the number and size of duodenal polyps (P = 0.021). Analysis of the expression of CRC promoting/inhibiting genes in duodenal polyps biopsies demonstrated that different CRC-promoting genes (PCNA, MUC1 and COX-2) were significantly downregulated, whereas CRC-inhibiting genes (ER-β and MUC2) were significantly upregulated after ADI treatment. In conclusion, ADI proved to be safe and effective, and its long-term effects on FAP patients need further investigation. Judging from the results we observed on COX-2 and miR-101 expression, the short-term effects of ADI treatment could be comparable with those obtained using COX-2 inhibitors, with the advantage of being much more tolerable in chronic therapies and void of adverse events.

  6. A shift from distal to proximal neoplasia in the colon: a decade of polyps and CRC in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panzone Sergio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years a trend towards proximalization of colorectal carcinomas (CRC has been reported. This study aims to evaluate the distribution of CRC and adenomatous polyps (ADP to establish the presence of proximalization and to assess the potential predictors. Methods We retrieved histology reports of colonic specimens excised during colonoscopy, considering the exams performed between 1997 and 2006 at Cuneo Hospital, Italy. We compared the proportion of proximal lesions in the period 1997-2001 and in the period 2002-2006. Results Neoplastic lesions were detected in 3087 people. Proximal CRC moved from 25.9% (1997-2001 to 30.0% (2002-2006. Adjusting for sex and age, the difference was not significant (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 0,95-1,58. The proximal ADP proportion increased from 19.2% (1997-2001 to 26.0% (2002-2006 (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.17-1.89. The corresponding figures for advanced proximal ADP were 6.6% and 9.5% (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.02-2.17. Adjusting for gender, age, diagnostic period, symptoms and number of polyps the prevalence of proximal advanced ADP was increased among people ≥ 70 years compared to those aged 55-69 years (OR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.032.16. The main predictor of proximal advanced neoplasia was the number of polyps detected per exam (> 1 polyp versus 1 polyp: considering all ADP: OR 2.16; 95% CI: 1.59-2.93; considering advanced ADP OR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.08-2.46. Adjusting for these factors, the difference between the two periods was no longer significant. Conclusions CRC do not proximalize while a trend towards a proximal shift in adenomas was observed among people ≥ 70 years.

  7. HAIRY POLYP on the dorsum of the tongue – detection and comprehension of its possible dinamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puricelli Edela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of a Hairy Polyp on the dorsum of the tongue is a rare condition that may hinder vital functions such as swallowing and breathing due to mechanical obstruction. The authors present the situation on a child with an approach of significant academic value. Methods Imaging diagnostics with the application of a topical oral radiocontrastant was used to determine the extent of the tumor. Performed treatment was complete excision and diagnostics was confirmed with anatomopathological analysis. Results The patient was controlled for five months and, showing no signs of relapse, was considered free from the lesion. Conclusion Accurate diagnostics of such a lesion must be performed in depth so that proper surgical treatment may be performed. The imaging method proposed has permitted the visualization of the tumoral insertion and volume, as well as the comprehension of its threatening dynamics.

  8. Resectoscopic Surgery for Polyps and Myomas: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Andrew; Sasaki, Kirsten J; Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi

    2017-08-24

    Resectoscopic surgery is routinely performed to remove endometrial polyps and uterine myomas. A search of Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library was conducted through November 2016 for studies written in English, regardless of sample size or study type. The studies were then filtered by selecting those evaluating resectoscopic surgery. An analysis of peer-reviewed, published literature was performed to examine the clinical application of this treatment modality on patients requiring polypectomy and myomectomy. Different surgical techniques were also compared: hysteroscopy with scissors, forceps, or a cold loop; resectoscopy with radiofrequency energy; and mechanical resection. The literature finds that operative time during resectoscopic surgery is significantly longer than with mechanical resection. Resectoscopic myomectomy, however, may be necessary for removal of larger or more deeply embedded myomas. Ultimately, both techniques result in symptom resolution and a low recurrence rate. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in endometrium of patients with polyps, myoma, hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajović Snežana B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been proposed as a potential factors involved in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states, including carcinogenesis. In this study, we explored the lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in women diagnosed with different forms of gynecological diseases in order to evaluate the antioxidant status in endometrium of such patients. Methods Endometrial tissues of gynecological patients with different diagnoses were collected and subjected to assays for superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lipid hydroperoxides. Results Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased (50% in average in hyperplastic and adenocarcinoma patients. Activities of both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased 60% and 100% on average, in hyperplastic patients, while in adenocarcinoma patients only glutathione reductase activity was elevated 100%. Catalase activity was significantly decreased in adenocarcinoma patients (47%. Lipid hydroperoxides level was negatively correlated to superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and positively correlated to glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. Conclusions This study provided the first comparison of antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in endometrial tissues of patients with polyps, myoma, hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. The results showed that patients with premalignant (hyperplastic and malignant (adenocarcinoma lesions had enhanced lipid peroxidation and altered uterine antioxidant enzyme activities than patients with benign uterine diseases, polyps and myoma, although the extent of disturbance varied with the diagnosis. Further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed alterations and whether lipid hydroperoxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in uterus of gynecological patients

  10. The Value of Vocal Extent Measure (VEM) Assessing Phonomicrosurgical Outcomes in Vocal Fold Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, Tatjana; Ermakova, Tatiana; Möller, Andreas; Seipelt, Matthias; Weikert, Sebastian; Rummich, Julius; Gross, Manfred; Nawka, Tadeus; Caffier, Philipp P

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to present vocal extent measure (VEM), demonstrate its changes with phonomicrosurgical treatment in patients with vocal fold polyps (VFPs), and to compare its performance to that of established vocal parameters. This is an individual cohort study. Microlaryngoscopic ablation was executed in 61 patients with manifestation of VFP (28 male, 33 female; 45 ± 13 years [mean ± SD]). Analysis of treatment outcome was based on pre- and postoperative voice function diagnostics and videolaryngostroboscopy. Examination instruments were: auditory-perceptual voice assessment (roughness, breathiness, and overall hoarseness [RBH]-status), voice range profile (VRP), acoustic-aerodynamic analysis, and patients' self-assessment of voice using the voice handicap index. The VEM, a parameter not yet commonly established in phoniatric diagnostics, was calculated from area and shape of the VRP to be compared with the dysphonia severity index (DSI) concerning diagnostic suitability. All polyps were completely excised. Three months postoperatively, mucosal wave propagation had recovered. All subjective and most objective acoustic and aerodynamic parameters showed highly significant improvement. The VHI-9i-score decreased from 15 ± 8 to 6 ± 7 points. The average total vocal range extended by 4 ± 5 semitones, the mean speaking pitch decreased by 1 ± 2 semitones. The DSI increased on average from 2.6 ± 2.1 to 4.0 ± 2.2, VEM from 83 ± 28 to 107 ± 21 (P VRP evaluation. This positive measure of vocal function seems to be a compelling diagnostic addition for objective quantification of vocal performance. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. First record of Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester, 1880 (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae) in a natural freshwater lagoon of Uruguay, with notes on polyp stage in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siquier, M G Failla; Alanis, W S Serra; Debat, C Martinez

    2017-05-04

    The freshwater cnidarian Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester 1880, has invaded lakes and ponds as well as artificial water bodies throughout the world. The first record in Uruguay corresponding to the jellyfish was made in 1961 in two artificial fountains, with no mention of the polyp form. Although local reports of other related polyp species have been made, information on the benthic form of C. sowerbii is lacking. Here we report the finding of live frustules, solitary individuals, medusae and colonies from a natural lagoon in August 2010, allowing us to observe the morphology and behavior of the polyp stage in captivity. In addition, molecular identification and remarks on the potencial path of introduction are presented. This is the first record in Uruguay of both polyp and medusa stages of C. sowerbii in a natural water body, Del Medio Lagoon (Dpto. de Florida), Uruguay.

  12. Pre-exposure to simultaneous, but not individual, climate change stressors limits acclimation capacity of Irukandji jellyfish polyps to predicted climate scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Klein, Shannon G.

    2017-05-20

    Researchers have investigated the immediate effects of end-of-century climate change scenarios on many marine species, yet it remains unclear whether we can reliably predict how marine species may respond to future conditions because biota may become either more or less resistant over time. Here, we examined the role of pre-exposure to elevated temperature and reduced pH in mitigating the potential negative effects of future ocean conditions on polyps of a dangerous Irukandji jellyfish Alatina alata. We pre-exposed polyps to elevated temperature (28 °C) and reduced pH (7.6), in a full factorial experiment that ran for 14 d. We secondarily exposed original polyps and their daughter polyps to either current (pH 8.0, 25 °C) or future conditions (pH 7.6, 28 °C) for a further 34 d to assess potential phenotypic plastic responses and whether asexual offspring could benefit from parental pre-exposure. Polyp fitness was characterised as asexual reproduction, respiration, feeding, and protein concentrations. Pre-exposure to elevated temperature alone partially mitigated the negative effects of future conditions on polyp fitness, while pre-exposure to reduced pH in isolation completely mitigated the negative effects of future conditions on polyp fitness. Pre-exposure to the dual stressors, however, reduced fitness under future conditions relative to those in the control treatment. Under future conditions, polyps had higher respiration rates regardless of the conditions they were pre-exposed to, suggesting that metabolic rates will be higher under future conditions. Parent and daughter polyps responded similarly to the various treatments tested, demonstrating that parental pre-exposure did not confer any benefit to asexual offspring under future conditions. Importantly, we demonstrate that while pre-exposure to the stressors individually may allow Irukandji polyps to acclimate over short timescales, the stressors are unlikely to occur in isolation in the long term, and

  13. Pre-exposure to simultaneous, but not individual, climate change stressors limits acclimation capacity of Irukandji jellyfish polyps to predicted climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2017-09-01

    Researchers have investigated the immediate effects of end-of-century climate change scenarios on many marine species, yet it remains unclear whether we can reliably predict how marine species may respond to future conditions because biota may become either more or less resistant over time. Here, we examined the role of pre-exposure to elevated temperature and reduced pH in mitigating the potential negative effects of future ocean conditions on polyps of a dangerous Irukandji jellyfish Alatina alata. We pre-exposed polyps to elevated temperature (28 °C) and reduced pH (7.6), in a full factorial experiment that ran for 14 d. We secondarily exposed original polyps and their daughter polyps to either current (pH 8.0, 25 °C) or future conditions (pH 7.6, 28 °C) for a further 34 d to assess potential phenotypic plastic responses and whether asexual offspring could benefit from parental pre-exposure. Polyp fitness was characterised as asexual reproduction, respiration, feeding, and protein concentrations. Pre-exposure to elevated temperature alone partially mitigated the negative effects of future conditions on polyp fitness, while pre-exposure to reduced pH in isolation completely mitigated the negative effects of future conditions on polyp fitness. Pre-exposure to the dual stressors, however, reduced fitness under future conditions relative to those in the control treatment. Under future conditions, polyps had higher respiration rates regardless of the conditions they were pre-exposed to, suggesting that metabolic rates will be higher under future conditions. Parent and daughter polyps responded similarly to the various treatments tested, demonstrating that parental pre-exposure did not confer any benefit to asexual offspring under future conditions. Importantly, we demonstrate that while pre-exposure to the stressors individually may allow Irukandji polyps to acclimate over short timescales, the stressors are unlikely to occur in isolation in the long term, and

  14. Geoscience Training for NASA Astronaut Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Graff, T. G.; Zeigler, R.

    2017-01-01

    After being selected to the astronaut office, crewmembers go through an initial two year training flow, astronaut candidacy, where they learn the basic skills necessary for spaceflight. While the bulk of astronaut candidate training currently centers on the multiple subjects required for ISS operations (EVA skills, Russian language, ISS systems, etc.), training also includes geoscience training designed to train crewmembers in Earth observations, teach astronauts about other planetary systems, and provide field training designed to investigate field operations and boost team skills. This training goes back to Apollo training and has evolved to support ISS operations and future exploration missions.

  15. The activity of N-acetyl-β-d-hexosaminidase A and B and β-glucuronidase in nasal polyps and hypertrophic nasal concha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnowska, Sylwia; Minarowska, Alina; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Kępka, Alina; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Gościk, Elżbieta; Kowal, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Ewa; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia; Minarowski, Łukasz; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Nasal polyps and hypertrophic lower nasal conchae are common disorders of nasal cavity. The majority of etiopathogenetic theories indicate inflammatory background of polyps and hypertrophic concha. N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase and β-glucuronidase are lysosomal exoglycosidases revealing accelerated activity in inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the catabolism of glycoconjugates in nasal polyps and hypertrophic nasal concha basing on the activity of N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase (HEX) and β-glucuronidase (GLU). Material consisted of nasal polyps taken from 40 patients during polypectomy in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and hypertrophic lower nasal conchae taken from 20 patients during mucotomy. The activity of HEX, HEX A, HEX B and GLU in supernatant of homogenates of nasal polyps and hypertrophic lower nasal concha tissues has been estimated using colorimetric method. Statistically significant decrease has been observed in concentration of the activity (per 1mg of tissue) of HEX (p<0.05), HEX B (p<0.001) and specific activity (per 1mg of protein) of HEX B (p<0.001) in nasal polyps tissue in comparison to hypertrophic lower nasal conchae tissue. Decrease in the activity and specific activity concentration of the majority of examined lysosomal exoglycosidases (increasing in inflammations) in comparison to hypertrophic lower nasal conchae suggests electrolytes disorders and questions the inflammatory background of nasal polyps. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Can we ease the financial burden of colonoscopy? Using real-time endoscopic assessment of polyp histology to predict surveillance intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, S; Parker, F; Lontos, S; Vaughan, R; Efthymiou, M

    2015-12-01

    Polyps identified at colonoscopy are predominantly diminutive (1%) of high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma; however, the cost of histological assessment is substantial. The aim of this study was to determine whether prediction of colonoscopy surveillance intervals based on real-time endoscopic assessment of polyp histology is accurate and cost effective. A prospective cohort study was conducted across a tertiary care and private community hospital. Ninety-four patients underwent colonoscopy and polypectomy of diminutive (≤5 mm) polyps from October 2012 to July 2013, yielding a total of 159 polyps. Polyps were examined and classified according to the Sano-Emura classification system. The endoscopic assessment (optical diagnosis) of polyp histology was used to predict appropriate colonoscopy surveillance intervals. The main outcome measure was the accuracy of optical diagnosis of diminutive colonic polyps against the gold standard of histological assessment. Optical diagnosis was correct in 105/108 (97.2%) adenomas. This yielded a sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values (with 95%CI) of 97.2% (92.1-99.4%), 78.4% (64.7-88.7%), 90.5% (83.7-95.2%) and 93% (80.9-98.5%) respectively. Ninety-two (98%) patients were correctly triaged to their repeat surveillance colonoscopy. Based on these findings, a cut and discard approach would have resulted in a saving of $319.77 per patient. Endoscopists within a tertiary care setting can accurately predict diminutive polyp histology and confer an appropriate surveillance interval with an associated financial benefit to the healthcare system. However, limitations to its application in the community setting exist, which may improve with further training and high-definition colonoscopes. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  17. Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Lin, Kan; Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hongzhi; Huang, Qingwen; Ren, Jian-Lin; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Srivastava, Supriya; Wong, Benjamin; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal cancer can be prevented if detected early (e.g., precancerous polyps-adenoma). Endoscopic differential diagnosis of hyperplastic polyps (that have little or no risk of malignant transformation) and adenomas (that have prominent malignant latency) remains an unambiguous clinical challenge. Raman spectroscopy is an optical vibrational technique capable of probing biomolecular changes of tissue associated with neoplastic transformation. This work aims to apply a fiber-optic simultaneous fingerprint (FP) and high wavenumber (HW) Raman spectroscopy technique for real-time in vivo assessment of adenomatous polyps during clinical colonoscopy. We have developed a fiber-optic Raman endoscopic technique capable of simultaneously acquiring both the FP (i.e., 800-1800 cm(-1)) and HW (i.e., 2800-3600 cm(-1)) Raman spectra from colorectal tissue subsurface (Raman spectra were acquired from 50 patients with 17 colorectal polyps during clinical colonoscopy. Prominent Raman spectral differences (p Raman endoscopy provides a diagnostic sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 83.3% for differentiating adenoma from hyperplastic polyps, which is superior to either the FP or HW Raman technique alone. This study shows that simultaneous FP/HW Raman spectroscopy technique has the potential to be a clinically powerful tool for improving early diagnosis of adenomatous polyps in vivo during colonoscopic examination. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. CT colonography: effect of computer-aided detection of colonic polyps as a second and concurrent reader for general radiologists with moderate experience in CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mang, Thomas; Ringel, Helmut; Weber, Michael [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Bogoni, Luca; Anand, Vikram X.; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Raykar, Vikas; Salganicoff, Marcos; Wolf, Matthias [H IM SY US, Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA (United States); Chandra, Dass [Temple University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Curtin, Andrew J. [Tristate Imaging Consultants, Abington, PA (United States); Lev-Toaff, Anna S. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Noah, Ralph [Diagnostic Imaging Associates, Wilmington, DE (United States); Shaw, Robert [The Chester County Hospital, West Chester, PA (United States); Summerton, Susan [Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tappouni, Rafel F.R. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Obuchowski, Nancy A. [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2014-07-15

    To assess the effectiveness of computer-aided detection (CAD) as a second reader or concurrent reader in helping radiologists who are moderately experienced in computed tomographic colonography (CTC) to detect colorectal polyps. Seventy CTC datasets (34 patients: 66 polyps ≥6 mm; 36 patients: no abnormalities) were retrospectively reviewed by seven radiologists with moderate CTC experience. After primary unassisted evaluation, a CAD second read and, after a time interval of ≥4 weeks, a CAD concurrent read were performed. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), along with per-segment, per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities, and also reading times, were calculated for each reader with and without CAD. Of seven readers, 86 % and 71 % achieved a higher accuracy (segment-level AUC) when using CAD as second and concurrent reader respectively. Average segment-level AUCs with second and concurrent CAD (0.853 and 0.864) were significantly greater (p < 0.0001) than average AUC in the unaided evaluation (0.781). Per-segment, per-polyp, and per-patient sensitivities for polyps ≥6 mm were significantly higher in both CAD reading paradigms compared with unaided evaluation. Second-read CAD reduced readers' average segment and patient specificity by 0.007 and 0.036 (p = 0.005 and 0.011), respectively. CAD significantly improves the sensitivities of radiologists moderately experienced in CTC for polyp detection, both as second reader and concurrent reader. (orig.)

  19. Sessile serrated polyps of the colorectum are rare in patients with Lynch syndrome and in familial colorectal cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S H; Lykke, E; Folker, M B

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the generally accepted carcinogenesis pathway of the microsatellite instabile high (MSI-H) colorectal carcinoma (CRC) involves the traditional adenoma in patients with Lynch syndrome, a serrate pathway involving serrate adenomas (SA) and sessile serrate polyps (SSP) characterize the spora......Whereas the generally accepted carcinogenesis pathway of the microsatellite instabile high (MSI-H) colorectal carcinoma (CRC) involves the traditional adenoma in patients with Lynch syndrome, a serrate pathway involving serrate adenomas (SA) and sessile serrate polyps (SSP) characterize...... the FCF, were considered examples of probable SSP. None of the 41 cases coded as adenoma possessed a morphology that qualified as SSP. The prevalence of SSP was not increased as compared to the background population and thus, this serrated lesion does not appear to play a tumorigenic role in Lynch...

  20. High fat diet-induced obesity increases the formation of colon polyps induced by azoxymethane in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Obesity has been found to be associated with colon cancer. However, the mechanism of this relationship is unclear and thus a good animal model is required. Our previous research showed that some mice developed diet-induced obesity (DIO) whilst others were diet-resistant (DR) when fed a high-fat diet. In the present study, we have tested the effects of a high-fat diet on the formation of colon polyps induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in both DIO and DR mice. We found that the DIO mice have developed 2.5 times of polyps compared to the DR mice (Pobesity-related cancer risk factors and different gene expression from DR mice. DIO mice could be used as an appropriate model for studying obesity-associated colon cancer; however DR mice are not suitable because they don't show any significant weight gains to indicate obesity.

  1. Accuracy of double contrast barium enema and sigmoideoscopy in the detection of polyps in patients with diverticulosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefansson, T. (Depts. of Surgery and Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Bergman, A. (Depts. of Surgery and Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Ekbom, A. (Depts. of Surgery and Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Nyman, R. (Depts. of Surgery and Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Paahlman, L. (Depts. of Surgery and Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1994-09-01

    The sensitivity between double contrast barium enema (DCBE) and sigmoideoscopy in diagnosing neoplastic lesions in the sigmoid colon was compared in patients with diverticulosis. In 52 patients with severe diverticulosis ([>=] 15 diverticulas) the DCBE detected one out of 4 polyps found by sigmoideoscopy. In the remaining 54 patients with mild diverticulosis (< 15 diverticulas) DCBE detected 7 out of 10 polyps found by sigmoideoscopy. Successful bowel preparation did not influence the outcome of the DCBE. Sigmoideoscopy was incomplete in 17 (16%) of the patients; females were more difficult to examine than males (p=0.012), as were those with a previous pelvic operation (p=0.032). We conclude that neither DCBE nor sigmoideoscopy alone is sufficient to detect all neoplastic lesions in the sigmoid colon in patients with sigmoid diverticulosis of the colon. (orig.).

  2. Polyp detection rates using magnification with narrow bandimaging and white light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare the yield of adenomas betweennarrow band imaging and white light when using highdefinition/magnification.METHODS: This prospective, non-randomized comparativestudy was performed at the endoscopy unit ofveteran affairs medical center in Phoenix, Arizona.Consecutive patients undergoing first average riskcolorectal cancer screening colonoscopy were selected.Two experienced gastroenterologists performed all theprocedures that were blinded to each other's findings.Demographic details were recorded. Data are presentedas mean ± SEM. Proportional data were comparedusing the χ 2 test and means were compared using theStudent's t test. Tandem colonoscopy was performedin a sequential and segmental fashion using one of 3strategies: white light followed by narrow band imaging[Group A: white light (WL) → narrow band imaging(NBI)]; narrow band imaging followed by white light(Group B: NBI → WL) and, white light followed by whitelight (Group C: WL → WL). Detection rate of missedpolyps and adenomas were evaluated in all threegroups.RESULTS: Three hundred patients were studied(100 in each Group). Although the total time for thecolonoscopy was similar in the 3 groups (23.8 ± 0.7,22.2 ± 0.5 and 24.1 ± 0.7 min for Groups A, B and C,respectively), it reached statistical significance betweenGroups B and C (P 〈 0.05). The cecal intubation timein Groups B and C was longer than for Group A (6.5± 0.4 min and 6.5 ± 0.4 min vs 4.9 ± 0.3 min; P 〈0.05). The withdrawal time for Groups A and C waslonger than Group B (18.9 ± 0.7 min and 17.6 ± 0.6 min vs 15.7 ± 0.4 min; P 〈 0.05). Overall miss rate forpolyps and adenomas detected in three groups duringthe second look was 18% and 17%, respectively (P= NS). Detection rate for polyps and adenomas afterfirst look with white light was similar irrespective of thelight used during the second look (WL → WL: 13.7%for polyps, 12.6% for adenomas; WL → NBI: 14

  3. High-definition colonoscopy with i-Scan: Better diagnosis for small polyps and flat adenomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pier Alberto Testoni; Chiara Notaristefano; Cristian Vailati; Milena Di Leo; Edi Viale

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate if high-definition (HD) colonoscope with i-Scan gave a higher detection rate of mucosal lesions vs standard white-light instruments.METHODS:Data were collected from the computerized database of the endoscopy unit of our tertiary referral center.We retrospectively analyzed 1101 consecutive colonoscopies that were performed over 1 year with standard white-light (n =849) or HD+ with i-Scan (n =252) instruments by four endoscopists,in an outpatient setting.Colonoscopy records included patients' main details and family history for colorectal cancer,indication for colonoscopy (screening,diagnostic or surveillance),type of instrument used (standard white-light or HD+ plus i-Scan),name of endoscopist and bowel preparation.Records for each procedure included whether the cecum was reached or not and the reason for failure,complications during or immediately after the procedure,and number,size,location and characteristics of the lesions.Polyps or protruding lesions were defined as sessile or pedunculated,and nonprotruding lesions were defined according to Paris classification.For each lesion,histological diagnosis was recorded.RESULTS:Eight hundred and forty-nine colonoscopies were carried with the standard white-light video colonoscope and 252 with the HD+ plus i-Scan video colonoscope.The four endoscopists did 264,300,276 and 261 procedures,respectively; 21.6%,24.0%,21.7% and 24.1% of them with the HD+ plus i-Scan technique.There were no significant differences between the four endoscopists in either the number of procedures done or the proportions of each imaging technique used.Both techniques detected one or more mucosal lesions in 522/1101 procedures (47.4%).The overall number of lesions recognized was 1266; 645 in the right colon and 621 in the left.A significantly higher number of colonoscopies recognized lesions in the HD+ plus i-Scan mode (171/252 =67.9%) than with the standard white-light technique (408/849 =48.1%) (P < 0.0001).HD

  4. Distribution of individual components of basement membrane in human colon polyps and adenocarcinomas as revealed by monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Bartek, J; Couchman, J R

    1992-01-01

    -membrane components (laminin, entactin/nidogen, collagen type IV and large heparan sulfate proteoglycan), as well as to keratin 8. In all adenocarcinomas, including mucinous, basement membranes were altered more at the invasive front than in the parenchyma. The degree of this alteration was inversely correlated......-membrane components and to a specific keratin may constitute an adequate immunohistochemical test for the presence of invasion, and may be useful in the histologic analysis of polyps, especially in dubious cases....

  5. Migration and Differentiation of GFP-transplanted Bone Marrow-derived Cells into Experimentally Induced Periodontal Polyp in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUDA, SAEKA; Shoumura, Masahito; Osuga, Naoto; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Nakano, Keisuke; Okafuji, Norimasa; OCHIAI, TAKANAGA; HASEGAWA, HIROMASA; Kawakami, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Perforation of floor of the dental pulp is often encountered during root canal treatment in routine clinical practice of dental caries. If perforation were large, granulation tissue would grow to form periodontal polyp. Granulation tissue consists of proliferating cells however their origin is not clear. It was shown that the cells in granulation tissue are mainly from migration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells of the bone marrow. Hence, this study utilized GFP bone marrow transplantatio...

  6. Analysis of colorectal cancer and polyp for presence herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus DNA sequences by polymerase chain reaction

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    Sahar Mehrabani khasraghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, it was demonstrated that there is a clear association between the complicated course of colorectal cancer (CRC and the presence of herpes viruses. Despite a great number of published reports, the exact pathogenic role of herpes viruses remains unclear in these patients. The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV in patients with CRC and polyp in comparison with healthy subjects using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Methods: In this case-control study, 15 biopsies of patients with CRC and 20 colorectal polyp sample were selected. From each patient, two tissue samples were obtained: one sample from malignant tissue, and the other from normal colorectal tissue in an area located 15 cm away from the malignant tissue. Furthermore, 35 samples from healthy people as controls were selected. After DNA extraction, PCR was used to determine HSV and CMV genomes by specific primers. A statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. Results: Five CRC patients (33.3% had HSV DNA detected in both the malignant and the matched normal tissue. Five CRC patients (33.3% and seven polyp patients (35.0% had CMV DNA detected in both the malignant and the matched normal tissue. HSV DNA was found in 20% and CMV DNA in 37.1% of samples from healthy people as a control group. Thus, no significant association was observed between the prevalence of HSV and CMV, and an incidence of CRC and polyps according to the location of the samples as compared with the control group. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that there is no direct molecular evidence to support the association between HSV and CMV and human colorectal malignancies. However, the results from this study do not exclude a possible oncogenic role of these viruses in the neoplastic development of colon cells.

  7. Pólipos endometriais: aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e pesquisa de polimorfismos Endometrial polyps: clinical and epidemiological aspects and analysis of polymorphisms

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    Simone Madeira Nunes Miranda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as variáveis clínicas e epidemiológicas de risco para câncer de endométrio em mulheres com pólipos endometriais na pós-menopausa, bem como a presença do polimorfismo do receptor da progesterona (PROGINS. MÉTODOS: estudo caso-controle desenhado com 160 mulheres na pós-menopausa com pólipos endometriais, comparado a Grupo Controle de 400 mulheres na pós-menopausa. A genotipagem do polimorfismo PROGINS foi determinada pala reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. Aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos foram comparados entre as mulheres com pólipos endometriais benignos e 118 dos controles normais. Estas variáveis foram também comparadas entre mulheres com pólipos benignos e pólipos malignos. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre o grupo de pólipos benignos e o Grupo Controle mostrou diferença significativa (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological risk factors for endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps, as well as the genetic polymorphism of the progesterone receptor (PROGINS. METHODS: a case-control study was designed with 160 postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps, compared to a normal Control Group of 400 postmenopausal women. The genotyping of PROGINS polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction. Clinical and epidemiological data were compared between benign endometrial polyps and 118 of the control subjects. Variables were also compared with regard to benign and malignant endometrial polyps. RESULTS: comparison of the epidemiological variables between groups showed a significant difference for age, ethnicity, time since menopause, parity, tamoxifen use, hypertension and breast cancer, all of them more prevalent in the polyp group. After adjustment for age, statistical significance remained only for parity (OR=1.1, hypertension (OR=2.2 and breast cancer (OR=14.4. There were six cases of malignant polyps (3.7%. The frequency of bleeding was 23.4% for

  8. Uni- and bidirectional wide angle CT colonography: effect on missed areas, surface visualization, viewing time and polyp conspicuity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, James E.; Saunders, Brian P. [St. Mark' s Hospital, Wolfson Unit for Endoscopy, London (United Kingdom); Boone, Darren; Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College Hospital, Department of Specialist Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Burling, David [St. Mark' s Hospital, Department of Intestinal Imaging, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    The effect of field of view on mucosal visualisation and reader efficiency during three-dimensional endoluminal CT colonography (CTC) was investigated. Twenty CTC datasets were reviewed at standard 90-degree and ''wide'' 140-degree viewing angles using customised viewing software (V3D colon; Viatronix), which listed number and size of missed mucosal areas (''missed regions tool'') and percentage mucosal visualisation. We compared: (1) unidirectional and bidirectional flythrough using 140- versus 90-degree viewing angles; (2) reader analysis time comparing unidirectional 140-degree flythrough versus bidirectional 90-degree flythrough; (3) paired image snapshots of 12 polyps taken at each field of view were reviewed to assess conspicuity. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy. Bidirectional 140-degree review reduced the numbers of missed areas by between eight- and 40-fold depending on size category, including those >1,000 mm{sup 2}, compared with standard 90-degree bidirectional flythrough (P<0.001). Combined prone-supine unidirectional 140-degree flythrough and missed area review was 3.8 min faster than 90-degree bidirectional review (9.3 versus 5.5 min, P< 0.0001) for the same surface visualisation. When viewed as pairs, polyps were rated more conspicuous with a 90-degree field of view, P=0.03. Wide-angle (140-degree) CTC can reduce both numbers of missed areas and review times. However, this may be at the expense of polyp conspicuity. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of CO2 laser and conventional laryngomicrosurgery treatments of polyp and leukoplakia of the vocal fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Liang, Gengtian; Sun, Na; Guan, Linlin; Meng, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Liu, Li; Sun, Guangbin

    2015-01-01

    The efficacies of CO2 laser and conventional laryngeal microsurgery for vocal cord benign (vocal cord polyp) and precancerous (vocal cord leukoplakia) lesions were compared. Patients with bilateral vocal cord polyps (n = 60) and leukoplakia (n = 30) were divided randomly into two groups. One group was treated with throat microsurgical instruments and underwent routine lesion resection (conventional group) and the other with CO2 laser (laser group). For the subjective assessment, the tools GRABS and VHI were used. The objective assessment, A multi-dimensional voice program module for voice spectrum analysis was used. The laser group was slightly worse than the conventional group 1 week post-surgery by stroboscopic findings. The subjective and objective data of the two groups pre-and post-surgery showed that the voice recovery of the laser group was significantly better than that of the conventional group (P < 0.05). CO2 laser laryngeal microsurgery for vocal cord polyp and leukoplakia can improve significantly the vocal cord morphology and pronunciation quality. The procedure is especially more effective than conventional surgery in patients with vocal cord leukoplakia. PMID:26770428

  10. Influence of Chronic Sinusitis and Nasal Polyp on the Lower Airway of Subjects Without Lower Airway Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Yoon, Soon Ho; Song, Woo-Jung; Lee, So-Hee; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Sun-Sin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Upper and lower respiratory tract pathologies are believed to be interrelated; however, the impact of upper airway inflammation on lung function in subjects without lung disease has not been evaluated. This study investigated the association of CT finding suggesting chronic sinusitis and lung function in healthy subjects without lung disease. Methods This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data from 284 subjects who underwent a pulmonary function test, bronchial provocation test, rhinoscopy, and osteomeatal unit computed tomography offered as a private health check-up option. Results CT findings showed that the sinusitis group had a significantly lower FEV1/FVC ratio than subjects without sinusitis finding (78.62% vs 84.19%, P=0.019). Among the sinusitis group, subjects classified by CT findings as the extensive disease group had a slightly lower FEV1/FVC than those of the limited disease group (76.6% vs 79.5%, P=0.014) and the associations were independent of the presence of airway hyperresponsiveness. The subjects with nasal polyp had also lower FEV1 and FEV1/FVC than subjects without nasal polyp (FEV1: 100.0% vs 103.6%, P=0.045, FEV1/FVC: 77.4% vs 80.0%, P=0.005). Conclusions CT findings suggesting chronic sinusitis and nasal polyp were associated with subclinical lower airway flow limitation even in the absence of underlying lung disease. PMID:24991454

  11. Age dependent association of endometrial polyps with increased risk of cancer involvement

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    Martel Maritza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial polyps (EMPs are commonly encountered in routine surgical pathology practice, but opinions differ on whether they are intrinsically a marker for concurrent or subsequent malignancy. The objectives of the present study are 1 to investigate the age-group in which EMP are most commonly encountered 2 to document the age-group in which EMP are most commonly associated with malignancies 3 To investigate whether the age of diagnosis of the various carcinoma subtypes in EMPs is congruent with published data on similar malignancies arising in non-polypoid endometrium and 4 To investigate whether the histologic subtype distribution of malignancies associated with EMPs are similar or different from the distribution of malignancies arising from non-polypoid endometrium based on published data. Patients and methods All cases of EMPs were retrieved from the files of Yale-New Haven Hospital for the period 1986–1995. The patients were divided into 5 age groups: Each group was further subclassified based on an association (or lack thereof of EMPs with endometrial carcinoma. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of malignancy associated EMPs between the age groups. Results We identified 513 EMPs, of which 209 (41% were from biopsy specimens and 304 (59% from hysterectomy specimens. Sixty six (13% of all EMPs were malignant. The 66 malignant EMPs included 58 endometrioid, 6 serous, 1 carcinosarcoma, and 1 clear cell carcinoma. In age group >35, only 1(2.5% of 40 EMPs was associated with endometrial malignancy. In contrast, 37(32% of 115 EMPs were associated with malignancy in the age group > 65. The frequency of malignant EMPs increased with age and reached statistical significance in the age group >65 (p Conclusions EMPs show statistically significant age dependent association with malignant tumor involvement. Careful search for malignancy, particularly in women with multiple risk factors is advised in daily practice

  12. Age distribution, polyps and rectal cancer in the Egyptian population-based cancer registry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darlene Veruttipong; Amr S Soliman; Samuel F Gilbert; Taylor S Blachley; Ahmed Hablas; Mohamed Ramadan; Laura S Rozek; Ibrahim A Seifeldin

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To describe the clinical and epidemiologic profiles of the disease and to compare the findings with those generated from the previous hospital-based studies.METHODS:The Gharbiah cancer registry is the only population-based cancer registry in Egypt since 1998.We analyzed the data of all colorectal cancer patients included in the registry for the period of 1999-2007.All medical records of the 1364 patients diagnosed in Gharbiah during the study period were retrieved and the following information abstracted:age,residence,diagnosis date,grade,stage,topology,clinical characteristics,and histology variables.Egyptian census data for 1996 and 2006 were used to provide the general population's statistics on age,sex,residence and other related demographic factors.In addition to age-and sex-specific incidence rate analyses,we analyze the data to explore the incidence distribution by rural-urban differences among the 8 districts of the province.We also compared the incidence rates of Gharbiah to the rates of the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data of the United States.RESULTS:Over the 9 year-period,1364 colorectal cancer cases were included.The disease incidence under age 40 years was relatively high (1.3/105) while the incidence in the age groups 40 and over was very low (12.0/105,19.4/105 and 21.2/105 in the age groups 40-59 years,60-69 years and > 70 years,respectively).The vast majority of tumors (97.2%) had no polyps and 37.2% of the patients presented with primary lesions in the rectum.Colorectal cancer was more common in patients from urban (55%) than rural (45%) areas.Regional differences in colon and rectal cancer incidence in the 8 districts of the study province may refleet different etiologic patterns in this population.The registry data of Egypt shows a slightly higher incidence of colorectal cancer than the United States in subjects under age 40 years.The results also shows significantly lower incidence of colorectal cancer in

  13. The efficacy with self polyphonic vocal polyps soup for postoperative recovery of polyp of cord%自拟复音汤对声带息肉术后恢复的疗效探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽; 李琴; 韩思伟; 罗伟国

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨自拟复音汤对声带息肉术后恢复的临床效果。方法选择我科住院手术的声带息肉患者共80例,按照随机数字分为两组,每组40例,其中对照组术后予制酸、超声雾化、禁声等治疗,观察组则在对照组的基础上使用本研究自拟复音汤治疗,连续治疗7d后,比较两组患者治疗前后发音改善积分及临床效果。结果两组治疗前主观嗓音评价差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),治疗后观察组主观嗓音评价显著低于对照组(P<0.05),观察组痊愈率90.0%,显著高于对照组的62.5%(P<0.05)。结论自拟复音汤能更好地促进声带息肉患者术后恢复,提高临床治疗效果。%ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical effects of self polyphonic vocal polyps soup for postoperative recovery of polyp of cord.Methods 80 cases with polyp of cord were randomly divided into two groups according to the figures, 40 cases each, the control group were used acid, ultrasonic atomization, gag, the observation group were used the self polyphonic vocal polyps soup on the basis of the control group, continuous treatment for 7 days, then pronunciation improve integration and clinical, subjective voice evaluation in two groups were compared before and after treatment. ResultsSubjective voice before and after treatment had no difference (P>0.05), after treatment, the observation group with subjective voice was lower than control group (P<0.05), the observation group cure rate was 90%, it was higher than 62.5% of control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Self polyphony soup can better promote the recovery of postoperative recovery of polyp of cord, and it can improve clinical outcomes.

  14. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  15. ASGE Technology Committee systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the ASGE PIVI thresholds for adopting real-time endoscopic assessment of the histology of diminutive colorectal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Thosani, Nirav; Konda, Vani; Wallace, Michael B; Rex, Douglas K; Chauhan, Shailendra S; Hwang, Joo Ha; Komanduri, Sri; Manfredi, Michael; Maple, John T; Murad, Faris M; Siddiqui, Uzma D; Banerjee, Subhas

    2015-03-01

    In vivo real-time assessment of the histology of diminutive (≤5 mm) colorectal polyps detected at colonoscopy can be achieved by means of an "optical biopsy" by using currently available endoscopic technologies. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Technology Committee to specifically assess whether acceptable performance thresholds outlined by an ASGE Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable endoscopic Innovations (PIVI) document for clinical adoption of these technologies have been met. We conducted direct meta-analyses calculating the pooled negative predictive value (NPV) for narrow-band imaging (NBI), i-SCAN, and Fujinon Intelligent Color Enhancement (FICE)-assisted optical biopsy for predicting adenomatous polyp histology of small/diminutive colorectal polyps. We also calculated the pooled percentage agreement with histopathology when assigning postpolypectomy surveillance intervals based on combining real-time optical biopsy of colorectal polyps 5 mm or smaller with histopathologic assessment of polyps larger than 5 mm. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated by means of I(2) statistics. Our meta-analyses indicate that optical biopsy with NBI, exceeds the NPV threshold for adenomatous polyp histology, supporting a "diagnose-and-leave" strategy for diminutive predicted nonneoplastic polyps in the rectosigmoid colon. The pooled NPV of NBI for adenomatous polyp histology by using the random-effects model was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88-94). This finding was associated with a high degree of heterogeneity (I(2) = 89%). Subgroup analysis indicated that the pooled NPV was greater than 90% for academic medical centers (91.8%; 95% CI, 89-94), for experts (93%; 95% CI, 91-96), and when the optical biopsy assessment was made with high confidence (93%; 95% CI, 90-96). Our meta-analyses also indicate that the agreement in

  16. Efficacy of leflunomide for treatment of refractory inflammatory colorectal polyps in 15 Miniature Dachshunds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kenjiro; Eguchi, Nozomi; Ohno, Koichi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Masashi; Igarashi, Hirotaka; Ohmi, Aki; Nakashima, Ko; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory colorectal polyp (ICRP), common in miniature dachshunds, presents with hematochezia, tenesmus and mucoid feces. Although an 80% response rate has been reported when treated with prednisolone and cyclosporine, effective treatment is needed for the remaining 20% of ICRP dogs. Leflunomide is an immunosuppressive drug reported as effective in several immune-mediated diseases. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and adverse effects of leflunomide in 15 ICRP dogs that were refractory to treatment with prednisolone and cyclosporine. Treatment efficacy was assessed by endoscopy, clinical symptoms and rectal palpation. Adverse effects were determined by clinical symptoms and blood testing during follow-up. The leflunomide treatment response rate was 93.3%. The median dosage of leflunomide and the median response time were 3 mg/kg (range: 1.7-4.0 mg/kg) and 35 days (range: 20-119 days), respectively. Adverse effects observed included lethargy (3 dogs), anorexia (1 dog), respiratory symptoms (1 dog), leukocytopenia (2 dogs), thrombocytopenia (1 dog), anemia (1 dog) and liver enzyme elevation (8 dogs). Most of the adverse effects improved with symptomatic treatment and leflunomide discontinuation or dosage reduction. In conclusion, leflunomide treatment is effective in ICRP dogs refractory to treatment with prednisolone and cyclosporine. Because several adverse effects were observed, close monitoring is needed during leflunomide treatment follow-up.

  17. Myeloid sarcoma presenting as a colon polyp and harbinger of chronic myelogenous leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Rogers; Mark Ettel; Margaret Cho; Alexander Chan; Xiao-Jun Wu; Antonio G Neto

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma, also known as granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma is an unusual accumulation of malignant myeloid precursor cells in an extramedullary site, which disrupts the normal architecture of the involved tissue. It is known to occur more commonly in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and less commonly in those with myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasm, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia. The most common sites of involvement include bone, skin and lymph nodes. However, rare cases have been reported in the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, or breast. Most commonly, a neoplastic extramedullary proliferation of myeloid precursors in a patient would have systemic involvement of a myeloid neoplasm, including in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Infrequently, extramedullary disease may be the only site of involvement. It may also occur as a localized antecedent to more generalized disease or as a site of recurrence. Herein, we present the first case in the English literature of a patient presenting with an isolated site of myeloid sarcoma arising in the form of a colonic polyp which, after subsequent bone marrow biopsy, was found to be a harbinger of chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  18. COL11A1 in FAP polyps and in sporadic colorectal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselius Lennart

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that the α-1 chain of type 11 collagen (COL11A1, not normally expressed in the colon, was up-regulated in stromal fibroblasts in most sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Patients with germline mutations in the APC gene show, besides colonic polyposis, symptoms of stromal fibroblast involvement, which could be related to COL11A1 expression. Most colorectal carcinomas are suggested to be a result of an activated Wnt- pathway, most often involving an inactivation of the APC gene or activation of β-catenin. Methods We used normal and polyp tissue samples from one FAP patient and a set of 37 sporadic colorectal carcinomas to find out if the up-regulation of COL11A1 was associated with an active APC/β-catenin pathway. Results In this study we found a statistically significant difference in COL11A1 expression between normal tissue and adenomas from one FAP patient, and all adenomas gave evidence for an active APC/β-catenin pathway. An active Wnt pathway has been suggested to involve stromal expression of WISP-1. We found a strong correlation between WISP-1 and COL11A1 expression in sporadic carcinomas. Conclusions Our results suggest that expression of COL11A1 in colorectal tumors could be associated with the APC/β-catenin pathway in FAP and sporadic colorectal cancer.

  19. Is the Prevalence of Gallbladder Polyp Different between Vegetarians and General Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hee Bum; Lee, Jun Kyu; Choi, Min Young; Han, In Woong; Choi, Han Seok; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Jae Hak; Lim, Yun Jeong; Koh, Moon Soo; Lee, Jin Ho

    2015-11-01

    Gallbladder polyps (GBP) are a common clinical finding that can express malignant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vegetarianism protects against GBP, together with other putative risk factors. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted with subjects who received a health check-up from July 2005 to December 2011. Korean Buddhist priests, who are obligatory vegetarians by religious belief, were identified as vegetarians (vegetarian group) and compared with a non-vegetarian control group sampled from those coming for health check-ups at the same institution. Out of 18,483 subjects, GBP were found in 810 (4.4%). Al though GBP tended to be less common in the vegetarian group (23 [3.5%] out of 666) than in control group (787 [4.4%] out of 17,817), the difference was insignificant statistically (p=0.233). By logistic regression, old age (OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.1 9-2.26 for 30-39 years; OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.08-1.98 for 40-49 years), male gender (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.31-1.75), high BMI (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.00-1.39 for ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2) and risk factors of GBP. GBP was significantly associated with old age, male gender , high BMI and HBsAg positivity, but not with vegetarianism.

  20. Inflammatory fibroid polyp in the duodenum of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokouchi, Yusuke; Imaoka, Masako; Sayama, Ayako; Jindo, Toshimasa; Sanbuissho, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    A 32-month-old male common marmoset had a firm and white-colored mass in the duodenal wall. The cut surface was smooth and grayish white in color. Histologically, the mass consisted of a proliferation of spindle cells with an oval to spindle-shaped nucleus and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a loose myxoid or fibrotic background. Most of the lesion displayed no specific growth pattern whereas some of the cells concentrated around the vessels and created an onion-bulb structure. Additionally, marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, mainly eosinophils, was observed throughout the lesion. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells were positive for vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, fascin, and cyclin D1, and negative for S-100, factor VIII-related antigen, and c-kit. These histological and immunohistochemical features did not meet any differential diagnoses such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma, smooth muscle tumor, schwannoma, and hemangiosarcoma. Collectively, the authors diagnosed the mass as a lesion that corresponded to an inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) in humans. IFP is defined as a mesenchymal proliferation composed of spindle stromal cells, small blood vessels, and inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, and is currently classified as a nonneoplastic lesion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous IFP in nonhuman primates.

  1. Immunochemical Localization of GABAA Receptor Subunits in the Freshwater Polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concas, A; Imperatore, R; Santoru, F; Locci, A; Porcu, P; Cristino, L; Pierobon, P

    2016-11-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, responding to GABA positive allosteric modulators, are present in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), one of the most primitive metazoans to develop a nervous system. We examined the occurrence and distribution of GABAA receptor subunits in Hydra tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Antibodies against different GABAA receptor subunits were used in Hydra membrane preparations. Unique protein bands, inhibited by the specific peptide, appeared at 35, 60, ∼50 and ∼52 kDa in membranes incubated with α3, β1, γ3 or δ antibodies, respectively. Immunohistochemical screening of whole mount Hydra preparations revealed diffuse immunoreactivity to α3, β1 or γ3 antibodies in tentacles, hypostome, and upper part of the gastric region; immunoreactive fibers were also present in the lower peduncle. By contrast, δ antibodies revealed a strong labeling in the lower gastric region and peduncle, as well as in tentacles. Double labeling showed colocalization of α3/β1, α3/γ3 and α3/δ immunoreactivity in granules or cells in tentacles and gastric region. In the peduncle, colocalization of both α3/β1 and α3/γ3 immunoreactivity was found in fibers running horizontally above the foot. These data indicate that specific GABAA receptor subunits are present and differentially distributed in Hydra body regions. Subunit colocalization suggests that Hydra GABA receptors are heterologous multimers, possibly sub-serving different physiological activities.

  2. The Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Nasal Polyps that Require Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Meymane Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to obtain epidemiological data from the charts of 297 patients with nasal polyposis who were operated on in a referral hospital in Mashhad and to determine the frequency of the presenting symptoms of nasal polyps.  Materials and Methods: The variables recorded included age, gender, the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis, family history, and previous treatments. We studied the main symptoms of nasal polyposis (nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, anosmia, headache, epistaxis, snoring, and so on, as well as ear problems and facial deformity.  Results: Nasal polyposis affects men (60.3% more frequently, at a mean age of 39.5 years. The most frequent symptom was nasal blockage (81.1 % followed by rhinorrhea (37.7%. A total of 11.1% of the patients had a history of epistaxis. Asthma was found in 10.4% of patients with nasal polyposis and the ears were affected in 5.1% of patients. In all, 7.4% of patients had first-degree relatives who suffered from asthma or allergic rhinitis.  Conclusion: This study highlights the need for large-scale epidemiologic research exploring the prevalence and incidence of nasal polyposis in Iran.

  3. Synthesis and Properties of Poly[p-(2,5-dihydroxy- phenylenebenzobisoxazole] Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The novel polymer poly[p-(2,5-dihydroxy-phenylenebenzobisoxazole] (PBOH fiber was synthesized in the presence of 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalicacid (DHTA and 4,6-diamino-1,3-benzenediol in poly(phosphoric acid (PPA using typical polycondensation conditions. The crystalline solutions of liquid PBOH in PPA were spun into fibers using dry-jet wet spinning. Furthermore, the thermostability and mechanical properties of PBOH were compared with poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzoxazole (PBO in order to investigate the relationship between the chain structure and properties. The results indicated that the thermal degradation temperature of PBOH was above 750K and the tensile strength of the PBOH fiber was 3.1GPa, which were much lower than those of PBO fiber. The compressive strength of PBOH fiber was 331 M Pa, which was slightly higher than that of PBO fiber. In addition, molecular simulation was employed to explain why the compressive strength of PBOH fiber did not increase significantly compared to PBO fiber.

  4. Massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) for reduction of false positives in computer-aided detection of polyps: Suppression of rectal tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Näppi, Janne; Dachman, Abraham H

    2006-10-01

    One of the limitations of the current computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps in CT colonography (CTC) is a relatively large number of false-positive (FP) detections. Rectal tubes (RTs) are one of the typical sources of FPs because a portion of a RT, especially a portion of a bulbous tip, often exhibits a cap-like shape that closely mimics the appearance of a small polyp. Radiologists can easily recognize and dismiss RT-induced FPs; thus, they may lose their confidence in CAD as an effective tool if the CAD scheme generates such "obvious" FPs due to RTs consistently. In addition, RT-induced FPs may distract radiologists from less common true positives in the rectum. Therefore, removal RT-induced FPs as well as other types of FPs is desirable while maintaining a high sensitivity in the detection of polyps. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) for distinction between polyps and RTs in 3D CTC volumetric data. The 3D MTANN is a supervised volume-processing technique which is trained with input CTC volumes and the corresponding "teaching" volumes. The teaching volume for a polyp contains a 3D Gaussian distribution, and that for a RT contains zeros for enhancement of polyps and suppression of RTs, respectively. For distinction between polyps and nonpolyps including RTs, a 3D scoring method based on a 3D Gaussian weighting function is applied to the output of the trained 3D MTANN. Our database consisted of CTC examinations of 73 patients, scanned in both supine and prone positions (146 CTC data sets in total), with optical colonoscopy as a reference standard for the presence of polyps. Fifteen patients had 28 polyps, 15 of which were 5-9 mm and 13 were 10-25 mm in size. These CTC cases were subjected to our previously reported CAD scheme that included centerline-based segmentation of the colon, shape-based detection of polyps, and reduction of FPs by use of a Bayesian neural network based on geometric and texture

  5. Correlation between location, size and histologic type of colorectal polyps at the presence of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Beatriz Marion Valarini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma represents 96-98% of colorectal neoplasms, and neoplastic polyps (adenomas are their precursors. The aim of this study is to correlate size, location and histologic type of colorectal polyps at the presence of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Methods: Colonoscopies from January/2007 to December/2008 were retrospectively studied, in order to evaluate the characteristics of the polyps. Results and Discussion: Out of the 2,401 analyzed colonoscopies, 583 (24.3% presented polyps. Due to the lack of histopathologic data, 139 exams were excluded. Mean age of the patients was 58±12 years, and 60% were females. Polyps were prevalent in the left colon (38.5% and rectum (32.5%. Out of the 850 polyps which were histologically examined, 55.17% were tubular adenomas; 21.88%, hyperplastic; 17.05%, serrated; 5.4%, tubulovillous; and 0.47%, villous. As to polyps £1.0 cm, dysplasia was observed in 16.0% and adenocarcinoma in 1.9%. Those >1.0 cm, 72.0% (p1.0 cm were positively related to dysplasia and neoplasm.O adenocarcinoma representa 96-98% do câncer colorretal, sendo os pólipos neoplásicos (adenomas seus precursores. O objetivo desse estudo é correlacionar tamanho, localização e tipo histológico de pólipos colorretais com a presença de displasia e adenocarcinoma. Métodos: Estudou-se retrospectivamente colonoscopias realizadas entre janeiro/2007 e dezembro/2008, avaliando-se as características dos pólipos. Resultados e Discussão: Das 2401 colonoscopias analisadas, 583 (24,3% apresentaram pólipos. Por falta de dados histopatológicos, excluiu-se 139 exames. A média de idade foi 58±12 anos, sendo 60% mulheres. Houve predomínio no cólon esquerdo (38,5% e reto (32,5%. Quanto ao tamanho, 86,58% eram £1 cm. Dos 850 pólipos analisados histologicamente, 55,17% eram adenomas tubulares, 21,88% hiperplásicos, 17,05% serrilhados, 5,4% tubulovilosos e 0,47% vilosos. Dos pólipos £1,0 cm, 16,0% apresentaram displasia e 1

  6. Synchronous cecal adenocarcinoma and multiple colonic in situ carcinomas in hamartomatous polyps in a case of isolated Peutz–Jeghers syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia Z Gad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Yahia Z Gad1, Doaa H Bakr1, Mohammad G El-Ebeidy21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Mansoura Specialized Medical Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptBackground: Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and hamartomatous polyps of the entire gastrointestinal tract. A Peutz–Jeghers polyp (PJP in a patient without pigmentation or a family history of the disease is called an isolated or solitary PJP. Individuals with PJS carry a very high risk of developing gastrointestinal (GI as well as extra-GI malignancies. This case report documents lesion multiplicity and their malignant potential in a young patient with PJS presenting in a serious condition for the first time.Case report: An 18-year-old female Egyptian patient was admitted with hematochezia and remarkable anemia. After appropriate resuscitation and consent, colonoscopic evaluation revealed seven pedunculated colonic polyps at the ascending and the transverse colon, and numerous variable-sized sessile polyps were scattered all over the colon. To establish hemostasis, endoscopic polypectomy for pedunculated polyps and argon plasma photocoagulation for the bleeding sessile polyps were performed. Histopathological examination revealed cecal adenocarcinoma in one specimen and two simultaneous in situ carcinoma at the transverse and the sigmoid colon in the mucosae of the excised histologically proven hamartomatous polyps. Additionally, one focal in situ carcinoma in the resected colon was detected.Conclusions: When considering the family history, serious GI neoplastic lesions may be unmasked in young patients with PJS who present with hematochezia, even in the absence of its characteristic mucocutaneous pigmented lesions. GI endoscopic surveillance programs should be adopted for diagnosed cases of PJS and their families. Genetic prenatal screening for early detection is the best option for

  7. Lattice investigation of tetraquark candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Joshua; Wagner, Marc [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany); Abdel-Rehim, Abdou; Alexandrou, Constantia; Gravina, Mario; Koutsou, Giannis [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus); Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Dalla Brida, Mattia [School of Mathematics, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-07-01

    We present the status of an ongoing long-term lattice QCD project concerned with the study of light and heavy tetraquark candidates, using a variety of different creation operators. The computation of disconnected diagrams, which is technically challenging, is discussed in detail.

  8. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines...

  9. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-08

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/.

  10. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines...... the possibilities w.r.t. different numerical weather predictions actually available to the project....

  11. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  12. Development and Validation of a High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry Based Urine Metabolomic Test for the Detection of Colonic Adenomatous Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Deng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. The detection and removal of the precursors to colorectal cancer, adenomatous polyps, is the key for screening. The aim of this study was to develop a clinically scalable (high throughput, low cost, and high sensitivity mass spectrometry (MS-based urine metabolomic test for the detection of adenomatous polyps. Methods: Prospective urine and stool samples were collected from 685 participants enrolled in a colorectal cancer screening program to undergo colonoscopy examination. Statistical analysis was performed on 69 urine metabolites measured by one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify key metabolites. A targeted MS assay was then developed to quantify the key metabolites in urine. A MS-based urine metabolomic diagnostic test for adenomatous polyps was established using 67% samples (un-blinded training set and validated using the remaining 33% samples (blinded testing set. Results: The MS-based urine metabolomic test identifies patients with colonic adenomatous polyps with an AUC of 0.692, outperforming the NMR based predictor with an AUC of 0.670. Conclusion: Here we describe a clinically scalable MS-based urine metabolomic test that identifies patients with adenomatous polyps at a higher level of sensitivity (86% over current fecal-based tests (<18%.

  13. 结直肠息肉患者的临床和内镜特征研究%The Clinical and Endoscopic Characteristics of Patients with Colorectal Polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大洲

    2014-01-01

    观察结直肠息肉患者的临床症状表现以及内镜下的息肉分布情况,比较临床症状与息肉大小分布的差异性。方法:选取2011年1月至2013年6月期间在我院诊断治疗的结直肠息肉患者412例作为研究对象。结肠镜下诊断患者的临床症状、内镜下息肉发生部位以及息肉大小。结果:412例结直肠息肉患者临床症状腹痛腹胀的发生率为36.7%,大便性状改变的发生率为17.2%,便血的发生率为22.6%,腹泻的发生率为9.2%,便秘的发生率为8.5%,贫血消瘦的发生率为5.8%。息肉分布在直肠和乙状结肠的比例较高,分布在回盲肠的比例最低。息肉直径不超过0.5cm的占43.54%,直径在0.6-1.0cm的占35.24%,直径大于1.1cm的占21.22%。消瘦与不消瘦患者的息肉大小比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),便血与不便血患者的息肉大小比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。584枚息肉有359枚发生病变,均病变成腺瘤,病变率为61.6%。息肉发生腺瘤病变与息肉直径、数目与粘膜表面有关,与息肉分布位置无关。结论:结直肠息肉临床表现主要是便血、消瘦、便秘腹泻以及腹痛腹胀等,主要分布在直肠和乙状结肠,不同症状的患者息肉大小比例不同。%To observe clinical symptoms of patients with colorectal polyps and the distribu -tion of endoscopic polypectomy ,and to contrast the difference of clinical symptoms and polyp size .Mtehod:Choose 412 patients with colorectal polyps diagnosed and cured by our hospital from Jan .2011 to Jun.2013 as the research subject .Patients'clinical symptoms , endoscopic polyp location as well as polyp size would be diagnosed under colon endoscopic .Result:The incidence rate of abdominal pain and distension from clinical symptoms of 412 patients with colorectal polyps was 36.7%.The incidence rate of the change of

  14. Discovery of colorectal cancer biomarker candidates by membrane proteomic analysis and subsequent verification using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and tissue microarray (TMA) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Hideaki; Muraoka, Satoshi; Kuga, Takahisa; Adachi, Jun; Narumi, Ryohei; Watanabe, Shio; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Kodera, Yoshio; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Fukuoka, Junya; Masuda, Takeshi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Nomura, Fumio; Tomonaga, Takeshi

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in quantitative proteomic technology have enabled the large-scale validation of biomarkers. We here performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of membrane fractions from colorectal cancer tissue to discover biomarker candidates, and then extensively validated the candidate proteins identified. A total of 5566 proteins were identified in six tissue samples, each of which was obtained from polyps and cancer with and without metastasis. GO cellular component analysis predicted that 3087 of these proteins were membrane proteins, whereas TMHMM algorithm predicted that 1567 proteins had a transmembrane domain. Differences were observed in the expression of 159 membrane proteins and 55 extracellular proteins between polyps and cancer without metastasis, while the expression of 32 membrane proteins and 17 extracellular proteins differed between cancer with and without metastasis. A total of 105 of these biomarker candidates were quantitated using selected (or multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) with stable synthetic isotope-labeled peptides as an internal control. The results obtained revealed differences in the expression of 69 of these proteins, and this was subsequently verified in an independent set of patient samples (polyps (n = 10), cancer without metastasis (n = 10), cancer with metastasis (n = 10)). Significant differences were observed in the expression of 44 of these proteins, including ITGA5, GPRC5A, PDGFRB, and TFRC, which have already been shown to be overexpressed in colorectal cancer, as well as proteins with unknown function, such as C8orf55. The expression of C8orf55 was also shown to be high not only in colorectal cancer, but also in several cancer tissues using a multicancer tissue microarray, which included 1150 cores from 14 cancer tissues. This is the largest verification study of biomarker candidate membrane proteins to date; our methods for biomarker discovery and subsequent validation using SRM/MRM will contribute to the

  15. Clinical outcomes of gastric polyps and neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keiko; Nonaka, Satoru; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yachida, Tatsuo; Abe, Seiichiro; Sakamoto, Taku; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Oda, Ichiro; Matsuda, Takahisa; Sekine, Shigeki; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Katai, Hitoshi; Saito, Yutaka; Hirota, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, characterized by the presence of more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the colorectum. The upper gastrointestinal tract is an extracolonic site for malignancy in patients with FAP. The frequency of death in Japanese patients with FAP because of gastric cancer is 2.8 % and that because of colon cancer is 60.6 %. Few studies have reported upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients with FAP. In the present study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with FAP diagnosed with gastric neoplasms. Patients and methods We enrolled 80 patients with FAP who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy from October 1997 to December 2011. We investigated patient characteristics, endoscopic findings of gastric lesions, treatment outcomes, and long-term courses. Results Fundic gland polyposis was observed in 51 patients (64 %) and gastric neoplasms in 22 patients (28 %), including 20 with non-invasive and 2 with invasive neoplasm. Of the 26 neoplasms, 11 were treated by endoscopic resection (ER) and 4 by surgical resection. Metachronous gastric neoplasms were observed in 7 patients (15 lesions) and treated by ER, except for in 1 patient. No patients died of gastric lesions during a median follow-up period of 6.5 years (range, 0 – 14). Conclusion Because gastric lesions including gastric cancers in patients with FAP did not cause any deaths, they can be considered to have favorable prognoses. Early detection of gastric neoplasms through an appropriate follow-up interval may have contributed to these good outcomes. PMID:28271094

  16. Nasal polyps in patients with asthma: prevalence, impact, and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langdon C

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cristobal Langdon,1,2 Joaquim Mullol1–3 1Rhinology Unit and Smell Clinic, Otorhinolaryngology Department, Hospital Clínic, 2Clinical and Experimental Respiratory Immunoallergy (IRCE, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, 3Centre for Biomedical Research in Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES, Barcelona, Catalonia, SpainAbstract: Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP often have coexisting asthma under the concept of “United Airway Disease”, being the combination of both diseases, which is one of the most challenging phenotypes to treat. Although clinicians have recognized this difficult-to-treat phenotype for many years, it remained poorly characterized. There is increasing epidemiological evidence linking chronic rhinosinusitis and asthma, but a good understanding of the pathophysiology and the combined management is still lacking. Bronchial asthma is more prevalent in patients who suffer chronic rhinosinusitis, while asthmatic patients have a greater prevalence of CRSwNP than patients without asthma. The effect of CRSwNP treatment, whether medical or surgical, in asthma is today less controversial after some studies have shown improvement of asthma after medical and/or surgical treatment of CRSwNP. However, direct comparisons between surgical and medical treatments are limited. Further randomized clinical trials are, however, still needed to better understand the management when both asthma and CRSwNP occur together. This review aims at summarizing the prevalence, impact, and management challenges regarding both asthma and CRSwNP. Keywords: chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, united airways, rhinosinusitis, corticosteroids, sinus surgery

  17. Automatic Classification of Kepler Planetary Transit Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    McCauliff, Sean D.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Burke, Christopher J.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Seader, Shawn; Li, Jie; Cote, Miles

    2014-01-01

    In the first three years of operation the Kepler mission found 3,697 planet candidates from a set of 18,406 transit-like features detected on over 200,000 distinct stars. Vetting candidate signals manually by inspecting light curves and other diagnostic information is a labor intensive effort. Additionally, this classification methodology does not yield any information about the quality of planet candidates; all candidates are as credible as any other candidate. The torrent of exoplanet disco...

  18. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-06-06

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates.

  19. Enthalpy screen of drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2016-11-15

    The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding affinity of drug candidates have been acknowledged to be important determinants of the quality of a drug molecule. These quantities, usually summarized in the thermodynamic signature, provide a rapid assessment of the forces that drive the binding of a ligand. Having access to the thermodynamic signature in the early stages of the drug discovery process will provide critical information towards the selection of the best drug candidates for development. In this paper, the Enthalpy Screen technique is presented. The enthalpy screen allows fast and accurate determination of the binding enthalpy for hundreds of ligands. As such, it appears to be ideally suited to aid in the ranking of the hundreds of hits that are usually identified after standard high throughput screening.

  20. Candidate genes in panic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, A. S.; Buttenschön, Henriette N; Bani-Fatemi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of molecular genetics approaches in examination of panic disorder (PD) has implicated several variants as potential susceptibility factors for panicogenesis. However, the identification of robust PD susceptibility genes has been complicated by phenotypic diversity, underpowered...... association studies and ancestry-specific effects. In the present study, we performed a succinct review of case-control association studies published prior to April 2015. Meta-analyses were performed for candidate gene variants examined in at least three studies using the Cochrane Mantel-Haenszel fixed......-effect model. Secondary analyses were also performed to assess the influences of sex, agoraphobia co-morbidity and ancestry-specific effects on panicogenesis. Meta-analyses were performed on 23 variants in 20 PD candidate genes. Significant associations after correction for multiple testing were observed...

  1. The relationship of colorectal cancer with familial history of gastrointestinal cancers and personal history of colon polyps in Khorramabad(2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    korosh Ghanadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of familial history of gastrointestinal cancers and personal history of colon polyps with colorectal cancer incidence in khorramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 50 patients with definite diagnosis of colon cancer based on colonoscopy and pathology in 2012. The control group included 56 persons from outpatients without a history of gastrointestinal diseases admitted to the skin and eye clinics of shohada ashayer hospital, who were matched with the patients for age and gender. The two groups were studied in terms of familial history of gastrointestinal diseases in immediate relatives and personal history of colorectal polyps using a self-constructed questionnaire. Fisher exact test and odds ratio estimate was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 52.8±15.5 years old, and 56% were male. A significant relationship was found between familial history of gastric and colon cancers in immediate relatives and colorectal cancer incidence in the patients (p<0.05. The odds ratio estimate of colorectal cancer incidence in the individuals with a positive history of gastric cancer and colon cancers in immediate relatives were respectively 3.96(CI=1.44-6.61 and 6.75 (CI=2.4-11.1 times of the estimate in the control individuals. No significant relationship was found between a history of esophageal cancers in immediate relatives with colon cancer incidence in the patients (p=0.61. Moreover, a significant relationship was found between a history of colon polyps and colorectal cancer incidence (p=0.004. Conclusion: The results of the present study should be confirmed in the further studies with larger sample sizes, so that serious measures to control the cancer can be taken through developing comprehensive prevention programs based on screening.

  2. Toward organometallic antischistosomal drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jeannine; Keiser, Jennifer; Gasser, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of novel approaches for the treatment of parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis. Among the different approaches used, organometallic compounds were found to offer unique opportunities in the design of antiparasitic drug candidates. A ferrocenyl derivative, namely ferroquine, has even entered clinical trials as a novel antimalarial. In this short review, we report on the studies describing the use of organometallic compounds against schistosomiasis.

  3. Differential expression of the interleukin 5 receptor alpha isoforms in blood and tissue eosinophils of nasal polyp patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gevaert, Philippe; Hellman, C.; Lundblad, L.; J. Lundahl; Holtappels, Gabriële; Van Cauwenberge, Paul; Tavernier, Jan; Bachert, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Given the key role of interleukin-5 (IL-5) in eosinophil function, we investigated the regulated expression of the membrane-anchored (TM-IL-5R alpha) isoform, or a secreted (SOL IL-5R alpha) isoform, on both protein and transcript level in vitro and in vivo. A real-time PCR, FACS and ELISA were established to determine IL-5R alpha isoform expression in peripheral blood and nasal tissue from control subjects and nasal polyp (NP) patients with or without asthma. Human peripheral blood eosino...

  4. Gastric inverted hyperplasic polyp composed only of pyloric glands: a rare case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsun; Min, Kyueng-Whan; Ryu, Young-Joon

    2015-06-01

    Inverted hyperplastic polyp (IHP) in stomach is a rare benign gastric polypoid lesion, characterized by downward growth of hyperplastic mucosal glands into the submucosal layer. In most previous reported cases, gastric IHP showed mixtures of fundic-type gland, pyloric-type gland, and foveolar-type epithelium. Also, a case of IHP composed of only one type of gland is extremely rare. This report describes a case of a 70-year-old man with gastric IHP, composed only of pyloric-type gland. It was removed completely by endoscopic submucosal dissection, and patient showed no recurrence over 2 years after treatment.

  5. Look Out before Polypectomy in Patients with Diverticular Disease – A Case of a Large, Inverted Diverticulum of the Colon Resembling a Pedunculated Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omero Alessandro Paoluzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverticular disease of the colon may be responsible for abdominal symptoms requiring colonoscopy, which may reveal the presence of concomitant polyps. A polyp found during colonoscopy in patients with colonic diverticular disease may be removed by endoscopic polypectomy with electrosurgical snare, a procedure associated with an incidence of perforation of less than 0.05%. The risk of such a complication may be higher in the event of an inverted colonic diverticulum, which may be misinterpreted as a polypoid lesion at colonoscopy. To date, fewer than 20 cases of inverted colonic diverticula, diagnosed at colonoscopy or following air contrast barium enema, have been reported in the literature. The present report describes a 68-year-old woman who underwent a screening colonoscopy, which revealed a voluminous pedunculated polyp that was recognized to be an inverted giant colonic diverticulum before endoscopic polypectomy.

  6. The Peutz-Jeghers kinase LKB1 suppresses polyp growth from intestinal cells of a proglucagon-expressing lineage in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagen Zac-Varghese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Liver kinase B1 (LKB1; also known as STK11 is a serine/threonine kinase and tumour suppressor that is mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS, a premalignant syndrome associated with the development of gastrointestinal polyps. Proglucagon-expressing enteroendocrine cells are involved in the control of glucose homeostasis and the regulation of appetite through the secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY. To determine the role of LKB1 in these cells, we bred mice bearing floxed alleles of Lkb1 against animals carrying Cre recombinase under proglucagon promoter control. These mice (GluLKB1KO were viable and displayed near-normal growth rates and glucose homeostasis. However, they developed large polyps at the gastro-duodenal junction, and displayed premature mortality (death from 120 days of age. Histological analysis of the polyps demonstrated that they had a PJS-like appearance with an arborising smooth-muscle core. Circulating GLP-1 levels were normal in GluLKB1KO mice and the polyps expressed low levels of the peptide, similar to levels in the neighbouring duodenum. Lineage tracing using a Rosa26tdRFP transgene revealed, unexpectedly, that enterocytes within the polyps were derived from non-proglucagon-expressing precursors, whereas connective tissue was largely derived from proglucagon-expressing precursors. Developmental studies in wild-type mice suggested that a subpopulation of proglucagon-expressing cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT to become smooth-muscle-like cells. Thus, it is likely that polyps in the GluLKB1KO mice developed from a unique population of smooth-muscle-like cells derived from a proglucagon-expressing precursor. The loss of LKB1 within this subpopulation seems to be sufficient to drive tumorigenesis.

  7. CT colonography: effect of computer-aided detection of colonic polyps as a second and concurrent reader for general radiologists with moderate experience in CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Thomas; Bogoni, Luca; Anand, Vikram X; Chandra, Dass; Curtin, Andrew J; Lev-Toaff, Anna S; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Noah, Ralph; Raykar, Vikas; Salganicoff, Marcos; Shaw, Robert; Summerton, Susan; Tappouni, Rafel F R; Ringel, Helmut; Weber, Michael; Wolf, Matthias; Obuchowski, Nancy A

    2014-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of computer-aided detection (CAD) as a second reader or concurrent reader in helping radiologists who are moderately experienced in computed tomographic colonography (CTC) to detect colorectal polyps. Seventy CTC datasets (34 patients: 66 polyps ≥6 mm; 36 patients: no abnormalities) were retrospectively reviewed by seven radiologists with moderate CTC experience. After primary unassisted evaluation, a CAD second read and, after a time interval of ≥4 weeks, a CAD concurrent read were performed. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), along with per-segment, per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities, and also reading times, were calculated for each reader with and without CAD. Of seven readers, 86% and 71% achieved a higher accuracy (segment-level AUC) when using CAD as second and concurrent reader respectively. Average segment-level AUCs with second and concurrent CAD (0.853 and 0.864) were significantly greater (p readers' average segment and patient specificity by 0.007 and 0.036 (p = 0.005 and 0.011), respectively. CAD significantly improves the sensitivities of radiologists moderately experienced in CTC for polyp detection, both as second reader and concurrent reader. • CAD helps radiologists with moderate CTC experience to detect polyps ≥6 mm. • Second and concurrent read CAD increase the radiologist's sensitivity for detecting polyps ≥6 mm. • Second read CAD slightly decreases specificity compared with an unassisted read. • Concurrent read CAD is significantly more time-efficient than second read CAD.

  8. Efficacy of high frequency electrocoagulation for colorectal polyps under colonoscopy%大肠息肉125例内镜下治疗效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐惠明; 周明霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical efficacy and safety of high frequency electrocoagulation for colorectal polyps under colonoscopy. Methods One hundred and twenty-five patients treated by high frequency electrocoagulation under colonoscopy from May 2007 to May 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Results One hundred and twenty-five patients with 281 polyps were successfully treated, 98 polyps were cauterized by high frequency electrocoagulation, 91 polyps were removed by the high frequency snare, and 92 polyps were treated by argon plasma coagulation. The complications included 4 cases of hemorrhage and 1 case of perforation. The incidence of complications was 4. 0% . ConclusionHigh frequency electrocoagulation under colonoscope is an effective and safe method for colorectal polyps.%目的 探讨大肠息肉内镜下治疗的疗效及安全性.方法 对2007年5月~2011年5月施行肠镜下息肉高频电凝切除的125例病例进行回顾性分析.结果 本组125例患者,共281枚息肉均予高频电凝切除,治疗过程中98枚采用圈套电凝电切,91枚采用电凝烧灼,92枚采用氩离子凝固术.本组并发症中有4例并发出血,1例并发穿孔,并发症发生率为4.0%.结论 内镜下高频电凝切除大肠息肉是一种简便、安全和有效的方法.

  9. Freqüência de pólipos em doentes operados de câncer colorretal Frequency of adenomatous polyps after surgical resection of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pinho ROCHA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução - Estudos epidemiológicos e gênicos mostram que os pólipos colônicos do tipo adenoma são lesões pré-neoplásicas. O seguimento de um paciente com câncer colorretal visa principalmente o diagnóstico e retirada de pólipos adenomatosos. Objetivo - Estudar a freqüência do aparecimento de pólipos adenomatosos em doentes com câncer colorretal em acompanhamento clínico após ressecção tumoral. Casuística e Métodos - Foi estudada, retrospectivamente, a freqüência de pólipos do tipo adenoma em 68 pacientes com idade média de 59 anos, submetidos a cirurgia curativa para tratamento de câncer colorretal e a colonoscopia de controle. Resultados - A incidência de pólipos adenomatosos foi de 18%, sendo maior acima de 45 anos (20% e no cólon esquerdo (38%. Em relação ao tipo histológico, 61% eram tubulares, 22% vilosos e 17% túbulo-vilosos. Discussão - Assim como em outros relatos da literatura, a incidência de pólipos foi superior em indivíduos com mais de 45 anos, sendo em mais da metade do tipo tubular. A freqüência de pólipos foi maior nos dois primeiros anos de acompanhamento.Introduction - Epidemiologic and molecular biologic studies have already demonstrated that adenomatous colonic polyps are precancerous diseases. The main indication of the colonoscopy in the surveillance of colorectal cancer treated patients is the diagnosis and resection of adenomatous polyps. Aim - To study the frequency of adenomatous polyps after surgically resection of colorectal cancer. Material and Methods - Sixty eight patients, mean age 59 years old, with total resection of colorectal cancer, submitted to various colonoscopies during the follow up were studied retrospectively. The histological type and the characteristics of the polyp were described. Results - The frequency of polyps was 18%, being higher in the patients with more than 45 years (20%. The site of the polyps was in the left colon in 38% of the patients with

  10. Writing and Becoming [a Teacher]: Teacher Candidates' Literacy Narratives over Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Darlene Ciuffetelli

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores narrative inquiry practices in pre-service teacher education program. Written dialogue by teacher candidates provided deep and long term reflection during a 5-year initial teacher education program. This 4-year longitudinal study with 30 teacher candidate participants considers participants' knowledge formation in becoming…

  11. Serrated polyps of the colon and rectum: Endoscopicfeatures including image enhanced endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In this review, I outline the characteristic endoscopicfindings of serrated lesions of the colorectum based onimage enhanced endoscopy (IEE). Histopathologically,lesions with serrated structures are typically classifiedinto the following three types based hyperplasticpolyps (HPs), traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs),and sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps). Both HPand SSA/P often present as dark-green colors on autofluorescence imaging (AFI) colonoscopy that are similarto the normal surrounding mucosa. In contrast, TSAsoften have elevated shapes and present as magentacolors that are similar to the tubular adenomas. Thesuperficial type of TSA also includes many lesions thatpresent as magenta colors. When SSA/Ps are associatedwith cytological dysplasia, many lesions present withmagenta colors, whereas lesions that are not associatedwith cytological dysplasia present with dark-green colors.When observed via narrow band imaging (NBI), manySSA/P include lesions with strong mucous adhesions.Because these lesions are observed with reddish mucousadhesions, we refer to them as "red cap sign" andplace such signs among the typical findings of SSA/P.Because the dilatation of the pit in SSA/P is observed asa round/oval black dot on magnified observations, werefer to this finding as Ⅱ-dilatation pit (Ⅱ-D pit) andalso positioned it as a characteristic finding of SSA/P. Incontrast, dilatations of the capillary vessels surroundingthe glands, such as those that occur in tubular adenoma,are not considered to be useful for differentiating HPsfrom SSA/Ps. However, in cases in which SSA/P isassociated with cytological dysplasia, the dilatation ofcapillary vessels is observed in the same area. Whensubmucosal layer invasion occurs in the same area, theblood flow presents with irregularities that are similarto those of common colorectal cancer at an early stageand disappears as the invasion proceeds deeply. Thesurface pattern of invasive cancer that

  12. miRNA expression in colon polyps provides evidence for a multihit model of colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann L Oberg

    Full Text Available Changes in miRNA expression are a common feature in colon cancer. Those changes occurring in the transition from normal to adenoma and from adenoma to carcinoma, however, have not been well defined. Additionally, miRNA changes among tumor subgroups of colon cancer have also not been adequately evaluated. In this study, we examined the global miRNA expression in 315 samples that included 52 normal colonic mucosa, 41 tubulovillous adenomas, 158 adenocarcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair (pMMR selected for stage and age of onset, and 64 adenocarcinomas with defective DNA mismatch repair (dMMR selected for sporadic (n = 53 and inherited colon cancer (n = 11. Sporadic dMMR tumors all had MLH1 inactivation due to promoter hypermethylation. Unsupervised PCA and cluster analysis demonstrated that normal colon tissue, adenomas, pMMR carcinomas and dMMR carcinomas were all clearly discernable. The majority of miRNAs that were differentially expressed between normal and polyp were also differentially expressed with a similar magnitude in the comparison of normal to both the pMMR and dMMR tumor groups, suggesting a stepwise progression for transformation from normal colon to carcinoma. Among the miRNAs demonstrating the largest fold up- or down-regulated changes (≥4, four novel (miR-31, miR-1, miR-9 and miR-99a and two previously reported (miR-137 and miR-135b miRNAs were identified in the normal/adenoma comparison. All but one of these (miR-99a demonstrated similar expression differences in the two normal/carcinoma comparisons, suggesting that these early tumor changes are important in both the pMMR- and dMMR-derived cancers. The comparison between pMMR and dMMR tumors identified four miRNAs (miR-31, miR-552, miR-592 and miR-224 with statistically significant expression differences (≥2-fold change.

  13. Role of Interleukin-10 on Nasal Polypogenesis in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Han, Ruining; Kim, Dae Woo; Mo, Ji-Hun; Jin, Yongde; Rha, Ki-Sang; Kim, Yong Min

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. The dysregulation of IL-10 is associated with an enhanced immunopathologic response to infection, as well as with an increased risk for developing numerous autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated IL-10 expression in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and assessed the possible role of IL-10 in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP. Materials and Methods Thirty-five patients with CRSwNP, 12 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without NP (CRSsNP) and 10 control subjects were enrolled in this study. NP tissues and uncinated tissues (UT) were collected for analysis. Dispersed NP cells (DNPCs) were cultured in the presence or absence of IL-25 and IL-10, and a flow cytometric assay was performed to identify the constitutive cell populations of the DNPCs. Murine NP (n = 18) models were used for the in vivo experiments. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blotting analysis and ELISA were performed to measure the expression levels of the selected inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-associated molecules. Results The mRNA expression levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-17A, IL-25 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were significantly higher in the NP tissues than in the UT tissues. Strong positive correlations were observed between IL-10 and a variety of inflammatory cytokines (IL-5, IL-17A, IL-25, IFN-γ) and inflammation-associated molecules (B-cell activating factor; BAFF, CD19). Other than the IL-25 to IL-10 ratio, the expression ratios of the other measured inflammatory cytokines to IL-10 were significantly lower in the CRSwNP group than in the CRSsNP or control groups. Administrating IL-25 into the cultured DNPCs significantly increased the production of IL-10, but administrating IL-10 had no effect on the production of IL-25. Conclusion Increased expression of IL-10, IL-10 related inflammatory cytokine, and IL-10 related B cell activation indicated that IL-10, a potent

  14. Diagnostic value of endometrial thickness determined by transvaginal sonography in infertile women with endometrial polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong; SHEN Li-cong; HUANG Wei; LEI Hai-ke; WANG Qiu-shi; ZHU Hui-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Endometrial polyps (EPs) occur in approximately 34.9% of infertile women.Transvaginal sonography (TVS) is a routine,non-invasive component of fertility evaluation.Most ultrasonographic studies of EPs have focused on abnormal uterine bleeding; few have assessed EPs in infertile women.Furthermore,no studies have explored endometrial thickness and its correlation with EPs in infertile women.This study aimed to assess transvaginal sonographic assessment of endometrial thickness and its value in diagnosis and prediction of EPs in infertile women.Methods A retrospective study on 314 infertile women was conducted from June to December 2010.After TVS,endometrial biopsies were obtained by hysteroscopy.Pathologically confirmed EPs were taken as the gold standard.Results Based on recognized criteria,TVS had a sensitivity of 37.04%,specificity of 98.71%,positive predictive value of 90.91%,negative predictive value of 81.85%,and accuracy of 82.80% for diagnosing EPs.Mean endometrial thickness was significantly different in patients with and without EPs (P=0.0001).In women in the mid and late-proliferative phase,the endometrial thickness was significantly greater in those with EPs than in those without them (P=0.0001 and 0.024).Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that endometrial thickness had a sensitivity of 85.2% and specificity of 38% in the diagnosis of EPs,the area under the curve being 0.64.In the mid-proliferative phase,sensitivity was up to 90.9%,the area under the curve being 0.70.Conclusions rvs is poor at detecting EPs in infertile women; however,transvaginal sonographic measurement of endometrial thickness is helpful.It is suggested that the diagnostic value of TVS for EPs in infertile women could be improved by adding the measurement of endometrial thickness to the variables that are routinely assessed.

  15. miRNA expression in colon polyps provides evidence for a multihit model of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Ann L; French, Amy J; Sarver, Aaron L; Subramanian, Subbaya; Morlan, Bruce W; Riska, Shaun M; Borralho, Pedro M; Cunningham, Julie M; Boardman, Lisa A; Wang, Liang; Smyrk, Thomas C; Asmann, Yan; Steer, Clifford J; Thibodeau, Stephen N

    2011-01-01

    Changes in miRNA expression are a common feature in colon cancer. Those changes occurring in the transition from normal to adenoma and from adenoma to carcinoma, however, have not been well defined. Additionally, miRNA changes among tumor subgroups of colon cancer have also not been adequately evaluated. In this study, we examined the global miRNA expression in 315 samples that included 52 normal colonic mucosa, 41 tubulovillous adenomas, 158 adenocarcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair (pMMR) selected for stage and age of onset, and 64 adenocarcinomas with defective DNA mismatch repair (dMMR) selected for sporadic (n = 53) and inherited colon cancer (n = 11). Sporadic dMMR tumors all had MLH1 inactivation due to promoter hypermethylation. Unsupervised PCA and cluster analysis demonstrated that normal colon tissue, adenomas, pMMR carcinomas and dMMR carcinomas were all clearly discernable. The majority of miRNAs that were differentially expressed between normal and polyp were also differentially expressed with a similar magnitude in the comparison of normal to both the pMMR and dMMR tumor groups, suggesting a stepwise progression for transformation from normal colon to carcinoma. Among the miRNAs demonstrating the largest fold up- or down-regulated changes (≥4), four novel (miR-31, miR-1, miR-9 and miR-99a) and two previously reported (miR-137 and miR-135b) miRNAs were identified in the normal/adenoma comparison. All but one of these (miR-99a) demonstrated similar expression differences in the two normal/carcinoma comparisons, suggesting that these early tumor changes are important in both the pMMR- and dMMR-derived cancers. The comparison between pMMR and dMMR tumors identified four miRNAs (miR-31, miR-552, miR-592 and miR-224) with statistically significant expression differences (≥2-fold change).

  16. Clinical features of familial adenomas polyps in Chinese and establishment of its immortal lymphocyte cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhang Zhang; Shu Zheng

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To reserve the rare Chinese familial adenomas polyp (FAP) family resource and to investigate the clinical features of FAP in Chinese for its diagnosis.METHODS: Clinical features of patients with FAP were investigated. If there is any question, their medical records were verified. Blood sample was taken and lymphocyte immortal cell lines were established with modified EB-transformation methods. Congenital hypertrophy of retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) was checked by an experienced ophthalmologist.RESULTS: Twenty seven families including 21 classical FAP (CFAP) families, 3 attenuated FAP (AFAP) families,and 3 suspected AFAP families were investigated. A total of 116 lymphocyte immortal cell lines were established from 26 families. In all the FAP families, colorectal cancer occurred at the mean age of 42.84 years. Of the 16 families checked, 15 (93.75%) had CHRPE. The mean number of patients suffering from colorectal neoplasm was 3.14 in CFAP families and 2.0 in AFAP families (P < 0.01). The mean oldest age at diagnosis of FAP was 41.75 years in CFAP families, and 58.67 years in AFAP families, respectively (P < 0.01). Mean age of development of colorectal cancer was 42.23 in CFAP and 57.33 years old in AFAP (P < 0.01). Mean of the earliest age at diagnosis of FAP was 29.95 years in the FAP families with a positive family history and 46.80 years in the FAP families with a negative family history (P <0.01). The ratio of extra-intestinal tumors to colorectal neoplasms was different in the two kinds of families with positive and negative family history (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Additional use of ciclosporin will effectively improve to establish lymphocyte immortal cell lines with modified EB- transformation methods. In Chinese FAP, there was a high frequency of CHRPE, and a later age at diagnosis and a later age of development of colorectal cancer in AFAP. And earlier age at diagnosis in FAP with positive family history was also found that will help to

  17. Role of Interleukin-10 on Nasal Polypogenesis in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Han, Ruining; Kim, Dae Woo; Mo, Ji-Hun; Jin, Yongde; Rha, Ki-Sang; Kim, Yong Min

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. The dysregulation of IL-10 is associated with an enhanced immunopathologic response to infection, as well as with an increased risk for developing numerous autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated IL-10 expression in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and assessed the possible role of IL-10 in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP. Thirty-five patients with CRSwNP, 12 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without NP (CRSsNP) and 10 control subjects were enrolled in this study. NP tissues and uncinated tissues (UT) were collected for analysis. Dispersed NP cells (DNPCs) were cultured in the presence or absence of IL-25 and IL-10, and a flow cytometric assay was performed to identify the constitutive cell populations of the DNPCs. Murine NP (n = 18) models were used for the in vivo experiments. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blotting analysis and ELISA were performed to measure the expression levels of the selected inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-associated molecules. The mRNA expression levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-17A, IL-25 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were significantly higher in the NP tissues than in the UT tissues. Strong positive correlations were observed between IL-10 and a variety of inflammatory cytokines (IL-5, IL-17A, IL-25, IFN-γ) and inflammation-associated molecules (B-cell activating factor; BAFF, CD19). Other than the IL-25 to IL-10 ratio, the expression ratios of the other measured inflammatory cytokines to IL-10 were significantly lower in the CRSwNP group than in the CRSsNP or control groups. Administrating IL-25 into the cultured DNPCs significantly increased the production of IL-10, but administrating IL-10 had no effect on the production of IL-25. Increased expression of IL-10, IL-10 related inflammatory cytokine, and IL-10 related B cell activation indicated that IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis

  18. Heparin-bridging therapy is associated with a high risk of post-polypectomy bleeding regardless of polyp size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, Hideaki; Arai, Makoto; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Maruoka, Daisuke; Minemura, Shoko; Okimoto, Kenichiro; Kasamatsu, Shingo; Saito, Keiko; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding safety and efficacy of heparin-bridging therapy for colonoscopic polypectomy remains scarce. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of post-polypectomy bleeding (PPB) in patients receiving heparin-bridging therapy. We retrospectively reviewed the database of patients who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy with prophylactic clip closure between January 2007 and December 2014 at our institution. We evaluated patients receiving heparin-bridging therapy (HB group) compared with those who did not receive antithrombotic therapy (No-HB group). A total of 1421 polypectomies were carried out on 773 patients; 45 patients were in the HB group and 728 patients were in the No-HB group. The incidence of PPB per patient was significantly higher in the HB group (22.2% vs 1.9%, P PPB (OR 9.80, 95% CI 4.23-22.3, P group, the polyp size was not a risk factor for PPB (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.19-2.26, P = 0.55); the incidence of PPB in lesions of group (OR 4.71, 95% CI 1.41-21.3, P = 0.011). Activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio were in or under the therapeutic range in the HB group when PPB occurred. Heparin-bridging therapy is associated with a high risk of PPB regardless of polyp size. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  19. A pedunculated polyp-shaped small-bowel lymphangioma causing gastrointestinal bleeding and treated by double-balloon enteroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akihiko Kida; Koichiro Matsuda; Satoshi Hirai; Akiyoshi Shimatani; Yousuke Horita; Katsushi Hiramatsu; Mitsuru Matsuda

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of a small-bowel lymphangioma causing massive gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding that we successfully diagnosed and treated using double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE).An 81-year-old woman suffering from repeated GI bleeding of unknown origin underwent a capsule endoscopy at a previous hospital.She was suspected of having bleeding from the jejunum,and was referred to our department for diagnosis and treatment.An oral DBE revealed a 20 mmx 10 mm,regularly surfaced,white to yellowish,elongated,pedunculated jejunal polyp with small erosions at 10 cm distal to the ligament of Treiz.Since no other source of bleeding was identified by endoscopy in the deep jejunum,an endoscopic polypectomy (EP) was performed for this lesion.A subsequent histopathological examination of the resected polyp showed clusters of lymphatic vessels with marked cystic dilatation in the submucosa and the deep layer of the lamina propria mucosae.These characteristics are consistent with the typical features of small-bowel lymphangioma with erosions.Although clipping hemostasis was performed during EP,re-bleeding occurred.Finally,a complete hemostasis was achieved by performing an additional argon plasma coagulation.

  20. Rapid review: sinonasal surgery vs. medical therapy for asthma in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Rick Johan Matthies; Hage, Rene; van der Zaag-Loonen, Hester; van Benthem, Peter Paul Germain

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the effect of sinonasal surgery vs. medical treatment on asthma in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps. We executed a PRISMA guidelines-based systematic search of the following databases: PubMed, CENTRAL, Embase, Scopus and CINAHL. The search ran from database inception until 26 Feb 2014. We included controlled clinical trials comparing surgical intervention with medical intervention in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps. We included only English papers. We used a pre-defined data collection form. Two authors independently assessed study quality. We assessed directness of evidence and risk of bias using pre-defined criteria. Our search yielded 2004 original articles, six of which satisfied our inclusion criteria. One article was excluded from further review because no comparison could be made of the subgroup of operated asthmatic patients versus the non-surgical control group. Only one study used objective pulmonary function measurements in asthmatics undergoing sinonasal surgery and therefore had the highest directness of evidence. Also it had a low risk of bias. Patient characteristics, treatments and outcome measures varied across studies, as did the observed effect. Risk of bias was high in most studies. Patient characteristics, treatment and outcome measurement differed across studies, making a comparison of the effects difficult. There is a risk of publication language bias. There is insufficient evidence either for or against sinonasal surgery for asthma control as compared to medical treatment.

  1. Burden of waiting for surveillance CT colonography in patients with screen-detected 6-9 mm polyps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutein Nolthenius, Charlotte J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boellaard, Thierry N.; Nio, C.Y.; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haan, Margriet C. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Thomeer, Maarten G.J. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Montauban van Swijndregt, Alexander D. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise [University of Amsterdam, Public Health, Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuipers, Ernst J. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Internal medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dekker, Evelien [University of Amsterdam, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    We assessed the burden of waiting for surveillance CT colonography (CTC) performed in patients having 6-9 mm colorectal polyps on primary screening CTC. Additionally, we compared the burden of primary and surveillance CTC. In an invitational population-based CTC screening trial, 101 persons were diagnosed with <3 polyps 6-9 mm, for which surveillance CTC after 3 years was advised. Validated questionnaires regarding expected and perceived burden (5-point Likert scales) were completed before and after index and surveillance CTC, also including items on burden of waiting for surveillance CTC. McNemar's test was used for comparison after dichotomization. Seventy-eight (77 %) of 101 invitees underwent surveillance CTC, of which 66 (85 %) completed the expected and 62 (79 %) the perceived burden questionnaire. The majority of participants (73 %) reported the experience of waiting for surveillance CTC as 'never' or 'only sometimes' burdensome. There was almost no difference in expected and perceived burden between surveillance and index CTC. Waiting for the results after the procedure was significantly more burdensome for surveillance CTC than for index CTC (23 vs. 8 %; p = 0.012). Waiting for surveillance CTC after primary CTC screening caused little or no burden for surveillance participants. In general, the burden of surveillance and index CTC were comparable. (orig.)

  2. Gastric Smooth Muscle Hamartomas Mimicking Polyps in a Dog: A Case Description and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian A. Taulescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of two smooth muscle hamartomas of the stomach in a 10-year-old male Boxer. The clinical history of the animal was of chronic vomiting, weight loss, and intermittent gastric distension, and it died because of chronic and congestive heart failure. Gross, histology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC exams were performed. On necropsy, in the pyloric region of the stomach, two closely related polypoid growths between 10 and 15 mm in diameter were identified. On the cut sections, both polyps presented white to gray color, with homogenous architecture and well-defined limits. The thickness of the submucosal layer was seen to be increased to 1 cm. No other gastric alterations were identified by the necropsy exam. Histologically, both masses growth consisted of hyperplastic glands lined by foveolar epithelium, arranged in a papillary or branching pattern, and supported by a core of well-vascularised and marked smooth muscle tissue interspersed between glands. No dysplastic cells and mitotic figures were observed in these lesions. Immunohistochemistry revealed a strong cytoplasm labelling for smooth muscle actin of the bundles around the mucosal glands. To our knowledge, this is the first report of smooth muscle hamartomas mimicking multiple gastric polyps in dogs.

  3. Large-scale validation of a computer-aided polyp detection algorithm for CT colonography using cluster computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Ingmar; Brown, John E.; Brickman, Daniel; Summers, Ronald M.

    2004-04-01

    The presented method significantly reduces the time necessary to validate a computed tomographic colonography (CTC) computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm of colonic polyps applied to a large patient database. As the algorithm is being developed on Windows PCs and our target, a Beowulf cluster, is running on Linux PCs, we made the application dual platform compatible using a single source code tree. To maintain, share, and deploy source code, we used CVS (concurrent versions system) software. We built the libraries from their sources for each operating system. Next, we made the CTC CAD algorithm dual-platform compatible and validate that both Windows and Linux produced the same results. Eliminating system dependencies was mostly achieved using the Qt programming library, which encapsulates most of the system dependent functionality in order to present the same interface on either platform. Finally, we wrote scripts to execute the CTC CAD algorithm in parallel. Running hundreds of simultaneous copies of the CTC CAD algorithm on a Beowulf cluster computing network enables execution in less than four hours on our entire collection of over 2400 CT scans, as compared to a month a single PC. As a consequence, our complete patient database can be processed daily, boosting research productivity. Large scale validation of a computer aided polyp detection algorithm for CT colonography using cluster computing significantly improves the round trip time of algorithm improvement and revalidation.

  4. 不同年龄阶段结直肠息肉的临床表现探讨%Clinical manifestations of colorectal polyps in different age periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓治平; 谢丽华; 丁亚琼

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解不同年龄段结、直肠息肉患者的临床表现。方法选取2011年1月至2013年12月于忠县第二人民医院就诊的结、直肠息肉患者99例,回顾性分析患者的基本情况、临床表现及息肉生长情况等临床资料。结果结、直肠息肉男性患者多于女性,但各年龄段性别差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);以中老年患者居多,其中老年患者的住院时间最长。腹痛、腹部不适为最主要的临床表现,以中年患者多见;15岁及以下患者均为幼儿,临床表现以便血为主;各年龄组的临床表现差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。不同年龄组患者的息肉个数及息肉生长部位比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。但随着年龄的增长,腺瘤性息肉的发生率逐渐增高,炎性及增生性息肉的发生率逐渐下降。结论不同年龄结、直肠息肉患者在性别、临床表现等方面无明显差异,在出现相应的临床症状时应做结、直肠息肉检查,以避免疾病的发展。%Objective To understand the clinical manifestations of colorectal polyps in different age periods . Methods 99 patients with colorectal polyps in our hospital from Jan .2011 to Dec .2013 were selected .The clinical data of basic information ,clinical manifestations and polyp growth situation were retrospectively analyzed .Results The male patients with colorectal polyps were more than the female patients ,but the difference in genders among dif‐ferent age groups had no statistical significance(P>0 .05);the majority were middle age and elderly patients ,among them the elderly patients had the longest hospitalization duration .Abdominal pain and abdominal discomfort were the most common clinical manifestations ,which were dominated by the middle age patients ;the patients aged 15 years or below were young children ,their manifestation was dominated by bloody stool;the difference in the clinical manifesta

  5. Randomized comparative trial of cervical block protocols for pain management during hysteroscopic removal of polyps and myomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukes AS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrea S Lukes,1 Kelly H Roy,2 James B Presthus,3 Michael P Diamond,4 Jay M Berman,4 Kenneth A Konsker5 1Carolina Women’s Research and Wellness Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Phoenix Gynecology Consultants, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 3Minnesota Gynecology and Surgery, Edina, MN, USA; 4Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 5Florida Woman Care, Boca Raton, FL, USA Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of two cervical block protocols for pain management during hysteroscopic removal of intrauterine polyps and myomas using the MyoSure® device. Patients and methods: This was a randomized, comparative treatment trial conducted by five private Obstetrics and Gynecology practices in the USA. Forty premenopausal women aged 18 years and older were randomized to receive either a combination para/intracervical block protocol of 37 cc local anesthetic administered at six injections sites in association with the application of topic 1% lidocaine gel, or an intracervical block protocol of 22 cc local anesthetic administered at three injections sites without topical anesthetic, for pain management during hysteroscopic removal of intrauterine polyps and/or a single type 0 or type 1 submucosal myoma ≤3 cm. The main outcomes were a composite measure of procedure-related pain and pain during the postoperative recovery period, assessed by the Wong-Baker Faces Rating Scale (0= no pain to 10= maximum pain. The lesion characteristics, procedure time, and adverse events were summarized. Results: A total of 17 polyps and eight myomas were removed in the para/intracervical block group, with diameters of 1.3±0.5 cm and 1.8±0.8 cm, respectively. In the intracervical block group, 25 polyps with a mean diameter of 1.2±0.7 cm and 7 myomas with a mean dia-meter of 1.9±0.9 cm were removed. The mean tissue resection time was 1.2±2.0 minutes and 1.2±1.4 minutes for the para/intracervical and intracervical block groups, respectively. The mean composite procedure-related pain score was

  6. Gastric polyps: a retrospective analysis of 26,000 digestive endoscopies Pólipos gástricos: análise retrospectiva de 26 000 endoscopias digestivas

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    Drausio Jefferson Morais

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric polyps are small gastric lesions, asymptomatic in most cases and are generally discovered inadvertently during upper digestive endoscopy. AIM: To retrospectively review the characteristics and frequency of gastric polyps, derived from the gastric mucosal epithelium in a large series of endoscopies. METHODS: One hundred and fifty three patients in a series of 26,000 consecutive upper digestive endoscopies done over a 5-year period, being that each patient had only one examination were analyzed and their histological and Yamada classification, as well as their location, size, histopathological findings and treatment studied. All patients had at least one gastric polyp, as confirmed by histological examination. RESULTS: The polyps were classified as hyperplastic, adenomatous and fundic gland polyps. The most of them measure less than 1 cm (hyperplastic polyps - 60,5%; adenomatous polyps - 73,6%; fundic gland polyps - 72%. Hyperplastic polyps were the most frequent and accounted for 71.3% of the cases, whereas fundic gland polyps accounted for 16.3% and adenomatous polyps for 12.4%. Hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps were primarily single, whereas fundic gland polyps tended to be multiple. A carcinoma was detected in one hyperplastic polyp (0.9% and in two adenomatous polyps (10.5%. High grade dysplastic foci were found in four adenomatous polyps (21%. CONCLUSIONS: The digestive endoscopy is the safest and efficient method for the diagnosis of the gastric polyps, that in most of the patients does not show characteristic symptoms. The histopathological definition is not possible to the endoscopic glance being needed the pathologist's aid, once the conduct to be adopted will depend on the result of the biopsy.RACIONAL: Os pólipos gástricos são pequenas lesões gástricas, assintomáticos na maioria dos casos, e são diagnosticados por acaso durante a endoscopia digestiva alta. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar retrospectivamente as caracter

  7. Prevalence of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps in mismatch repair mutation carriers among CAPP2 participants: report by the colorectal adenoma/carcinoma prevention programme 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljegren, Annelie; Barker, Gail; Elliott, Faye;

    2008-01-01

    the chemoprevention study were the focus of this study. The number, histology, size, and location of polyps found at the participants' first ever colonoscopy were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients (10.6%) were found to have at least one adenoma at first colonoscopy, whereas 37 (5...

  8. The presence of B7-H4+ macrophages and CD25+CD4+ and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in the microenvironment of nasal polyps - a preliminary report.

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    P Strek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The nasal polyp (NP seems to represent the end-stage of longstanding inflammation in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. The aim of our study has been to evaluate the presence of two regulatory cell populations in the microenvironment of NP: CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ (Treg cells and B7-H4-expressing macrophages. Treg cells are actively able to inhibit T lymphocytes, while the population of B7-H4-expressing macrophages has recently been described as characterized by a regulatory function similar to that of Treg cells. For our study, we evaluated 14 NP tissue samples. The samples were divided into two main groups, eosinophilic (NP and lymphocytic (NP, according to the predominant type of immune cell infiltration. The presence of Treg cells and B7-H4 positive macrophages in the samples was analyzed by FACS. Treg cells and B7-H4-expressing macrophages were identified in all the examined nasal polyps. The percentages of both Treg cells and of B7H4 positive cells found in the eosinophilic nasal polyps were higher than those found in the lymphocytic nasal polyps. Treg cells and B7H4+ macrophage subpopulations were present in the NP microenvironment and the alterations in their percentages were related to a distinct pattern of immune cell infiltration.

  9. Impaired E Prostanoid2 Expression and Resistance to Prostaglandin E2 in Nasal Polyp Fibroblasts from Subjects with Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Katherine N; Raby, Benjamin A; Zhou, Xiaobo; Guo, Feng; Thibault, Derek; Baccarelli, Andreas; Byun, Hyang-Min; Bhattacharyya, Neil; Steinke, John W; Boyce, Joshua A; Laidlaw, Tanya M

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent, rapidly growing nasal polyps are hallmarks of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), although the mechanisms of polyp growth have not been identified. Fibroblasts are intimately involved in tissue remodeling, and the growth of fibroblasts is suppressed by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which elicits antiproliferative effects mediated through the E prostanoid (EP)2 receptor. We now report that cultured fibroblasts from the nasal polyps of subjects with AERD resist this antiproliferative effect. Fibroblasts from polyps of subjects with AERD resisted the antiproliferative actions of PGE2 and a selective EP2 agonist (P expression of the EP2 receptor protein was lower in fibroblasts from subjects with AERD than in fibroblasts from healthy control subjects and aspirin-tolerant subjects (P EP2 receptor mRNA in fibroblasts from AERD and aspirin-tolerant subjects but had no effect on cyclooxygenase-2, EP4, and microsomal PGE synthase 1 (mPGES-1) mRNA levels. Histone acetylation (H3K27ac) at the EP2 promoter correlated strongly with baseline EP2 mRNA (r = 0.80; P EP2 promotor is under epigenetic control, and one explanation for PGE2 resistance in AERD is an epigenetically mediated reduction of EP2 receptor expression, which could contribute to the refractory nasal polyposis typically observed in this syndrome.

  10. UreA and cagA genes of Helicobacter pylori in Egyptian patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and benign laryngeal polyps: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ghada; Nabiel, Yasmin; Ali, Omima; El-Nady, Ghada; Musaad, Ahmed; El-Sharkawy, Asser

    2016-10-01

    This work aims to estimate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori ureA gene and evaluate cagA gene-positive strains in both patients of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and those with benign laryngeal polyps. This study included 49 patients confirmed pathologically to have LSCC and 15 patients with benign laryngeal polyps over a period from June 2013 to March 2015. Samples of laryngeal tissue were collected during direct laryngoscope under general anesthesia to be pathologically evaluated followed by analysis for H. pylori detection. Each laryngeal tissue sample was divided into three parts; one for bacteriological examination, the second for pathological examination and the third for PCR to detect both ureA and cagA genes. Out of 49 LSCC samples, 31 (64.6 %) was positive for ureA by PCR. Out of them, 29 samples (93.5 %) were cagA positive. Only three cases (20 %) of the benign laryngeal polyp were ureA positive by PCR and one of them was cagA positive by PCR. By the bacteriological culture, only eight samples (25.8 %) gave growth. All of them were ureA positive and only seven of them were cagA positive. There was a significant association between presence of H. pylori and LSCC as compared to benign laryngeal polyp which may contribute in the pathogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma. These results should be confirmed by further studies over larger number of cases.

  11. A Retrospective Analysis of γδ T Cell Expression in Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Its Association with Recurrence of Nasal Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wenting; Chang, Lihong; Huang, Zizhen; Huang, Jiancong; Yang, Luoying; Wang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Gehua

    2017-09-01

    To examine whether γδ T cell is expressed in the nasal mucosa of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients and its potential association with recurrence of nasal polyps. Thirty-six patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and 25 patients with CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) were recruited. Twenty-six patients with other nasal diseases served as controls. The CRSwNP group was divided into the eosinophilic CRSwNP and noneosinophilic CRSwNP groups. The expression of γδ T cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of each subtype of γδ T cells was detected by using qRT-PCR. All patients underwent nasal endoscopy, and postoperative follow-up lasted over 12 months. CRS patients were evaluated by preoperative VAS scores of symptoms and nasal endoscopy Lund-Kennedy scores. The expression of γδ T cells in the CRSwNP groups was stronger than in the CRSsNP and the control group (p T cells in the eosinophilic CRSwNP group was higher than that in the CRSsNP group and the control group (p T cells was associated with high rate of recurrence, tissue eosinophil infiltration, worse symptom score of nasal obstruction, and higher Lund-Kennedy score (all p T cells in CRSwNP may be associated with recurrence of nasal polyps. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Massive-training support vector regression and Gaussian process for false-positive reduction in computer-aided detection of polyps in CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Wu; Suzuki, Kenji

    2011-04-01

    A massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) has been developed for the reduction of false positives (FPs) in computer-aided detection (CADe) of polyps in CT colonography (CTC). A major limitation of the MTANN is the long training time. To address this issue, the authors investigated the feasibility of two state-of-the-art regression models, namely, support vector regression (SVR) and Gaussian process regression (GPR) models, in the massive-training framework and developed massive-training SVR (MTSVR) and massive-training GPR (MTGPR) for the reduction of FPs in CADe of polyps. The authors applied SVR and GPR as volume-processing techniques in the distinction of polyps from FP detections in a CTC CADe scheme. Unlike artificial neural networks (ANNs), both SVR and GPR are memory-based methods that store a part of or the entire training data for testing. Therefore, their training is generally fast and they are able to improve the efficiency of the massive-training methodology. Rooted in a maximum margin property, SVR offers excellent generalization ability and robustness to outliers. On the other hand, GPR approaches nonlinear regression from a Bayesian perspective, which produces both the optimal estimated function and the covariance associated with the estimation. Therefore, both SVR and GPR, as the state-of-the-art nonlinear regression models, are able to offer a performance comparable or potentially superior to that of ANN, with highly efficient training. Both MTSVR and MTGPR were trained directly with voxel values from CTC images. A 3D scoring method based on a 3D Gaussian weighting function was applied to the outputs of MTSVR and MTGPR for distinction between polyps and nonpolyps. To test the performance of the proposed models, the authors compared them to the original MTANN in the distinction between actual polyps and various types of FPs in terms of training time reduction and FP reduction performance. The authors' CTC database consisted of 240 CTC

  13. Colonoscopic polyp detection rate is stable throughout the workday including evening colonoscopy sessions [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3cf

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    David Thurtle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Polyp detection rate (PDR is an accepted measure of colonoscopy quality. Several factors may influence PDR including time of procedure and order of colonoscopy within a session. Our unit provides evening colonoscopy lists (6-9 pm. We examined whether colonoscopy performance declines in the evening. Design: Data for all National Health Service (NHS outpatient colonoscopies performed at Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital in 2011 were examined. Timing, demographics, indication and colonoscopy findings were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate regression. Results: Data from 2576 colonoscopies were included: 1163 (45.1% in the morning, 1123 (43.6% in the afternoon and 290 (11.3% in the evening.  Overall PDR was 40.80%. Males, increasing age and successful caecal intubation were all significantly associated with higher polyp detection. The indications ‘faecal occult blood screening’ (p<0.001 and ‘polyp surveillance’ (p<0.001 were strongly positively associated and ‘anaemia’ (p=0.01 was negatively associated with PDR. Following adjustment for  covariates, there was no significant difference in PDR between sessions. With the morning as the reference value, the odds ratio for polyp detection in the afternoon and evening were 0.93 (95% CI = 0.72-1.18 and 1.15 (95%CI = 0.82-1.61 respectively. PDR was not affected by rank of colonoscopy within a list, sedation dose or trainee-involvement. Conclusions: Time of day did not affect polyp detection rate in clinical practice. Evening colonoscopy had equivalent efficacy and is an effective tool in meeting increasing demands for endoscopy. Standardisation was shown to have a considerable effect as demographics, indication and endoscopist varied substantially between sessions. Evening sessions were popular with a younger population

  14. Dynamic enhanced computed tomography imaging findings of an inflammatory fibroid polyp with massive fibrosis in the stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eun Jung; Ahn, Sung Eun; Lee, Dong Ho; Park, Seong Jin; Kim, Youn Wha

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a rare benign lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of computed tomography (CT) imaging finding of a gastric IFP with massive fibrosis. CT scans showed thickening of submucosal layer with overlying mucosal hyperenhancement in the gastric antrum. The submucosal layer showed increased enhancement on delayed phase imaging. An antrectomy with gastroduodenostomy was performed because gastric cancer was suspected, particularly signet ring cell carcinoma. The histopathological diagnosis was an IFP with massive fibrosis. The authors suggest that when the submucosal layer of the gastric wall is markedly thickened with delayed enhancement and preservation of the mucosal layer, an IFP with massive fibrosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:28373777

  15. Composite Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated B-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder and Tubular Adenoma in a Rectal Polyp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Amy A; Gao, Juehua; Rao, M Sambasivia; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Composite tumors are formed when there is intermingling between two components of separate tumors seen histologically. Cases demonstrating composite tubular adenoma with other types of tumors in the colon are rare. Composite tubular adenomas with nonlymphoid tumors including carcinoids, microcarcinoids, and small cell undifferentiated carcinoma have been reported in the literature. The occurrence of composite lymphoma and tubular adenoma within the colorectal tract is extremely rare. Only three cases have been reported and include one case of mantle cell lymphoma and two cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arising in composite tubular adenomas. We present the first case of composite Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder and tubular adenoma in a rectal polyp with a benign endoscopic appearance.

  16. Analysis of the depolarizing properties of normal and adenomatous polyps in colon mucosa for the early diagnosis of precancerous lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; de Cos-Pérez, Jesús; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Optical characterization of biological tissues by means of polarimetric techniques is an area of growing interest. Polarized light can be used for malignant neoplasms detection. To our knowledge, few studies have so far focused on lesions that are prone to result in cancer. In this work we present a polarimetric study of depolarization in prepathological tissues. Specifically, we will focus on premalignant lesions in human colon due to their clinical relevance. Colonic adenoma, the potential precursor of malignant adenocarcinoma, provokes significant structural modifications in colon mucosa that affect light depolarization. The depolarizing properties of normal and adenomatous polyps mucosa are compared. The average linear degree of polarization is shown to present a strong dependence with the precancerous state of the colonic tissue. This method has the potential to enable an early diagnosis of colon cancer.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of the double-contrast enema for colonic polyps in patients with or without diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosi, C; Ballardini, G; Pisani, P; Bellomi, M; Cozzi, G; Vidale, M; Spinelli, P; Severini, A

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of the double-contrast enema for the diagnosis of polypoid lesions in the presence or absence of diverticula was evaluated by retrospectively reviewing the medical records of 202 patients subjected to examination and endoscopy. Analysis of the data on 215 polypoid lesions showed that (a) the diagnostic accuracy of the examination is not affected significantly by the presence of diverticula; (b) the sensitivity of the examination is highly dependent on the size of the polyps (smaller or larger than 0.5 cm) but not on the form (sessile or pedunculated); and (c) the positive predictive value is higher in patients without diverticula. The double-contrast enema was confirmed to be a valid method for the diagnosis of polypoid lesions.

  18. European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012: Updates and highlights on diagnosis and treatment of rhinosinusitis

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    Ren-wu CHEN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhinosinusitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases worldwide. It has been associated with many diseases, including allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, asthma, nasal polyps, aspirin sensitivity, cystic fibrosis, immotile cilia syndrome, immunodeficiency, airway infection, otitis media and dental diseases. Due to the complexity in clinical manifestation and classification of rhinosinusitis, and their associated etiology and pathophysiology, evidence based consensus on diagnosis and treatment is important in order to enhance the effectiveness of available treatment and the quality of life of the patients. Since patients with rhinosinusitis may consult a wide range of clinicians, including otolaryngologists, allergists, pulmonologists and paediatricians, clinical guidelines or consensus with the evidence based diagnostic and treatment scheme for rhinosinusitis for different specialists are very important. The first European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP3OS was published in 2005 by the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology in the Journal of “Rhinology”, and the updated versions were published in 2007 and 2012 in the same journal. EP3OS 2007 had been endorsed by many international medical societies, including WHO (e.g., InterAirway document, and the full document was translated into more than 15 languages, and its contents have been widely endorsed, as some chapters were significantly enriched, as extensive up-to-date information on epidemiology, predisposing factors, pediatric aspects and randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled studies in the treatment of rhinosinusitis were added, and it encourages further clinical and basic research in this field in the future.

  19. Migration and Differentiation of GFP-transplanted Bone Marrow-derived Cells into Experimentally Induced Periodontal Polyp in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Saeka; Shoumura, Masahito; Osuga, Naoto; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Nakano, Keisuke; Okafuji, Norimasa; Ochiai, Takanaga; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Perforation of floor of the dental pulp is often encountered during root canal treatment in routine clinical practice of dental caries. If perforation were large, granulation tissue would grow to form periodontal polyp. Granulation tissue consists of proliferating cells however their origin is not clear. It was shown that the cells in granulation tissue are mainly from migration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells of the bone marrow. Hence, this study utilized GFP bone marrow transplantation mouse model. The floor of the pulp chamber in maxillary first molar was perforated using ½ dental round bur. Morphological assessment was carried out by micro CT and microscopy and GFP cell mechanism was further assessed by immunohistochemistry using double fluorescent staining with GFP-S100A4; GFP-Runx2 and GFP-CD31. Results of micro CT revealed alveolar bone resorption and widening of periodontal ligament. Histopathological examination showed proliferation of fibroblasts with some round cells and blood vessels in the granulation tissue. At 2 weeks, the outermost layer of the granulation tissue was lined by squamous cells with distinct intercellular bridges. At 4 weeks, the granulation tissue became larger than the perforation and the outermost layer was lined by relatively typical stratified squamous epithelium. Double immunofluorescent staining of GFP and Runx2 revealed that both proteins were expressed in spindle-shaped cells. Double immunofluorescent staining of GFP and CD31 revealed that both proteins were expressed in vascular endothelial cells in morphologically distinct vessels. The results suggest that fibroblasts, periodontal ligament fibroblasts and blood vessels in granulation tissue were derived from transplanted-bone marrow cells. Thus, essential growth of granulation tissue in periodontal polyp was caused by the migration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells derived from bone marrow, which differentiated into fibroblasts and later on differentiated into

  20. Teacher Candidates' Communication Skills and Communicator Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Cem ÇUHADAR; Özgür, Hasan; Akgün, Fatma; GÜNDÜZ, Şemseddin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the communication skills and the communicator styles of teacher candidates. This research was conducted among the senior class students, studying at Trakya University, Faculty of Education in the fall semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. 205 women and 110 men, in a total of 315 teacher candidates participated in the research. As a result, it has been observed that the teacher candidates bear animated/expressive features the...

  1. Endoscopic resection of large colorectal polyps Resección endoscópica de pólipos difíciles de colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pérez Roldán

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: endoscopic polypectomy is a common technique, but there are discrepancies over which treatment -surgical or endoscopic- to follow in case of polyps of 2 cm or larger. Objectives: to analyse the efficacy and complications of colonoscopic polypectomy of large colorectal polyps. Patients and methods: 147 polypectomies were performed on 142 patients over an eight-year period. The technique used was that of submucosal adrenaline 1:10000 or saline injection at the base of the polyp, followed by resection of the polyp using a diathermic snare in the smallest number of fragments. Remnant adenomatous tissue was fulgurated with an argon plasma coagulator. Lately, prophylactic hemoclips have been used for thick-pedicle polyps. Complete removal was defined as when a polyp was completely resected in one or more polypectomy sessions. Polypectomy failure was defined as when a polyp could not be completely resected or contained an invasive carcinoma. Results: the mean patient age was 67.9 years (range, 4-90 years, with 68 men and 79 women. There were 74 sessile polyps, and the most common location was the sigmoid colon. The most frequent histology was tubulovillous. Most of the polyps (96.6%, were resected and cured. This was not achieved in four cases of invasive carcinoma, and a villous polyp of the cecum. All pedunculated polyps were resected in one session, whereas the average number of colonoscopies for sessile polyps was 1.35 ± 0.6 (range, 1-4. The polypectomy was curative in all of the in situ carcinomata except one. As for complications, 2 colonic perforations (requiring surgery and 8 hemorrhages appeared, which were controlled via endoscopy. There was no associated mortality. Conclusions: endoscopic polypectomy of large polyps (≥ 2 cm is a safe, effective treatment, though it is not free from complications. Complete resection is achieved in a high percentage, and there are few relapses. It should be considered a technique of choice for

  2. Risk factors of gallbladder polyps becoming malignant: a meta - analysis%胆囊息肉样病变恶变危险因素的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐问津; 丁佑铭; 易佐慧子; 胡海涛; 宋湧

    2011-01-01

    Objective A Meta - analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors of gallbladder polyps which became malignant, and discuss the indications of prophylactic cholecystectomy. Methods According to the included criteria, fifteen case - control studies of this topic were enrolled in this analysis. The detail about the trial design, characters of the subjects and results of the studies were reviewed and analyzed by using RevMan S.O software after the quality of the included studies was assessed. Results The pooled OR of female, age over 50 yr, size over 10 mm, single polyp, sessile morphology, symptomatic polyp and associated stones were 1. 51,7. 27,54. 65,6. 34,15. 79,2. 37 and 2. 57 respectively. Conclusion The risk factors of malignant gallbladder polyps were female, age over 50 yr, size over 10 mm, single polyp, sessile morphology, symptomatic polyp and associated stones.%目的 通过Meta分析评价胆囊息肉样病变恶变的危险因素,探讨预防性胆囊切除术的手术指征.方法 根据纳入标准,摘录15篇病例对照研究文献中有关实验研究设计、研究对象特征、研究结果等内容,评价文献质量后,采用RevMan5.0软件进行分析.结果 女性、年龄>50岁、病变大小≥10 mm、单发病变、无蒂息肉、伴随临床症状的病变、合并胆囊结石7个研究因素的合并比值比(OR值)分别为1.51、7.27、54.65、6.34、15.79、2.37、2.57.结论 胆囊息肉样病变恶变的危险因素为(1)女性;(2)年龄>50岁;(3)病变大小≥10 mm;(4)单发病变;(5)无蒂息肉;(6)伴随临床症状的病变;(7)合并胆囊结石的病变.

  3. Survivin在鼻息肉组织中的表达及意义%The Expression and Significance of Survivin in Nasal Polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍毅; 肖旭平; 冯晓辉

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨凋亡抑制蛋白survivin在鼻息肉组织中的表达及意义.[方法]用免疫组化染色法检测鼻息肉组(40例)、钩突炎症黏膜组(20例)和正常下甲黏膜组(20例)中survivin的表达.[结果]①survivin在几乎所有的炎症细胞中均呈阳性表达,三组间无明显差异.②观察survivin在黏膜上皮和腺上皮中的表达,显示鼻息肉组的阳性表达明显高于其他两组,差异有显著性(P<0.01),而其他两组之间的阳性表达差异无显著性(P>0.05).[结论]survivin在正常鼻黏膜表达可能对维持鼻腔的结构功能具有一定的生物学意义,并且它介导的凋亡抑制现象对鼻息肉的发生发展可能也具有一定的作用.%[Objcctive]To investigate the expression of apoptosis inhibitor protein survivin in nasal polyps and explore its role in the pathogencsis of nasal polyps.[Methods]The expression of survivin was determined in nasal polyps group( n =40) , uncinate process mucous inflammation group( n =20) and normal inferior tur binate mucous group( n =20) by immunohistochemical staining.[Results]The positive expression of survivin was found in almost all inflammatory cells, and there was no obvious difference among 3 groups.The positive expression in epithelium mucosae and glandular epithelium in nasal polyps group were stronger than that in other two groups, and there was significant difference between nasal polyps group and other two groups( P < 0.01) , but there was no significant difference between other two groups( P >0.05).[Conclusion]The expression of survivin in normal nasal mucosa may have biological significance for maintaining the structure and function of nasal cavity.Survivin-mediated apoptosis inhibition may play an important role in the pathogencsis and development of nasal polyps.

  4. Home initiation of parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alyce F; DeLegge, Mark H

    2007-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been successfully initiated in the home since the early 1990s. The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Standards for Specialized Nutrition Support: Home Care Patients, Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition, and Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients do not contain specific information on the initiation of home PN (HPN). Peer-reviewed, published guidelines are necessary to provide safe and appropriate initiation of HPN. Certain patients should not have PN initiated in the home, such as those with organ failure, uncontrolled diabetes, or uncorrectable electrolyte abnormalities. Excellent candidates for initiation of HPN include patients who have failed enteral feedings, have gastrointestinal (GI) diseases without excessive GI losses, or those with an oncology diagnosis and inability to tube feed. One concern of initiation of HPN is the potential for refeeding syndrome. Refeeding syndrome can be prevented when patients are properly evaluated and managed before initiation of PN. Refeeding syndrome can be avoided by rehydration with fluid and electrolytes before initiation of HPN to normalize blood chemistry when necessary and by starting with a moderate-volume, low-carbohydrate HPN solution compounded with optimal potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium content, and slowly advanced to goal. The "start low and go slow" motto of nutrition support should continue to be followed, but more specific guidelines are needed to assist nutrition support clinicians with safe and appropriate initiation of HPN.

  5. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey II: Adaptive Optics Imaging of 969 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Schonhut, Jessica; Crepp, Justin

    2016-01-01

    We initiated the Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey in 2012 to observe each Kepler exoplanet candidate host star with high-angular-resolution visible-light laser-adaptive-optics imaging. Our goal is to find nearby stars lying in Kepler's photometric apertures that are responsible for the relatively high probability of false-positive exoplanet detections and that cause underestimates of the size of transit radii. Our comprehensive survey will also shed light on the effects of stellar multiplicity on exoplanet properties and will identify rare exoplanetary architectures. In this second part of our ongoing survey, we observed an additional 969 Kepler planet candidate hosts and we report blended stellar companions up to $\\Delta m \\approx 6$ that contribute to Kepler's measured light curves. We found 203 companions within $\\sim$4" of 181 of the Kepler stars, of which 141 are new discoveries. We measure the nearby-star probability for this sample of Kepler planet candidate host stars to be 10.6% $\\pm$ 1.1% a...

  6. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Congestion is a major problem in most cities and the problem is growing (Quiroga, 2000) (Faghri & Hamad, 2002). When the congestion level is increased the drivers notice this as delays in the traffic (Taylor, Woolley, & Zito, 2000), i.e., the travel time for the individual driver is simply...... increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  7. Planetary transit candidates in COROT-IRa01 field

    CERN Document Server

    Carpano, S; Alonso, R; Barge, P; Aigrain, S; Almenara, J -M; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Carone, L; Deeg, H J; De la Reza, R; Deleuil, M; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Fressin, F; Fridlund, M; Gondoin, P; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Magain, P; Moutou, C; Ofir, A; Ollivier, M; Pacheco, E J; Pátzold, M; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Régulo, C; Renner, S; Rouan, D; Samuel, B; Schneider, J; Wuchterl, G

    2009-01-01

    Context: CoRoT is a pioneering space mission devoted to the analysis of stellar variability and the photometric detection of extrasolar planets. Aims: We present the list of planetary transit candidates detected in the first field observed by CoRoT, IRa01, the initial run toward the Galactic anticenter, which lasted for 60 days. Methods: We analysed 3898 sources in the coloured bands and 5974 in the monochromatic band. Instrumental noise and stellar variability were taken into account using detrending tools before applying various transit search algorithms. Results: Fifty sources were classified as planetary transit candidates and the most reliable 40 detections were declared targets for follow-up ground-based observations. Two of these targets have so far been confirmed as planets, COROT-1b and COROT-4b, for which a complete characterization and specific studies were performed.

  8. Metastasis of a pleural mesothelioma to a hyperplastic stomach polyp: an increase of vimentin expression is seen during a gain in deciduoid morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Soltermann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Deciduoid mesothelioma is a rare variant of the epithelioid histotype spectrum, resembling decidua of gravid uterus. It is found in the peritoneum of young women, but also in the pleura of elderly people. Histotype plasticity from epithelioid to sarcomatoid mesothelioma may be considered as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. A full autopsy was performed and mesothelioma infiltrates were analysed by immunohistochemistry. The metastasis of an epithelioid pleural mesothelioma to a hyperplastic polyp of the stomach is presented in this autopsy case. Deciduoid morphology increased during tumour progression and metastasis. The increase in eosinophilic cytoplasm correlated with the upregulation of the intermediate filament vimentin. High expression of vimentin was found in both central and superficial periglandular regions of the polyp. High vimentin expression also can occur in epithelioid rather than sarcomatoid differentiation. Thus, although vimentin is considered to be the major EMT marker, additional pathways must regulate its expression.

  9. Needle knife-assisted endoscopic polypectomy for a large inflammatory fibroid colon polyp by making its stalk into an omega shape using an endoloop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Chang; Cheon, Jae Hee; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Won Ho

    2008-08-30

    Colonic inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is an uncommon benign polypoid lesion, which is composed of fibroblasts, numerous small vessels and edematous connective tissue with marked eosinophilic inflammatory cell infiltration. This condition is frequently detected in the stomach and small intestine, but uncommon in the colon. Although IFP is a benign lesion, surgical resections are performed in most colonic cases because the polyps are usually too large to resect endoscopically. Only three patients underwent endoscopic polypectomy in our literature reviews. Here, we present a case of IFP in the descending colon successful endoscopically resected using a novel technique of trapping its stalk with an endoloop, forming the stalk into an omega shape, and then dissecting the stalk with a needle knife.

  10. Intestinal intussusception and occlusion caused by small bowel polyps in the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Management by combined intraoperative enteroscopy and resection through minimal enterostomy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama-Rodrigues Joaquim J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a hereditary disease that requires frequent endoscopic and surgical intervention, leading to secondary complications such as short bowel syndrome. CASE REPORT: This paper reports on a 15-year-old male patient with a family history of the disease, who underwent surgery for treatment of an intestinal occlusion due to a small intestine intussusception. DISCUSSION: An intra-operative fiberscopic procedure was included for the detection and treatment of numerous polyps distributed along the small intestine. Enterotomy was performed to treat only the larger polyps, therefore limiting the intestinal resection to smaller segments. The postoperative follow-up was uneventful. CONCLUSION: We point out the importance of conservative treatment for patients with this syndrome, especially those who will undergo repeated surgical interventions because of clinical manifestation while they are still young.

  11. Blood test using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with colloidal silver nanoparticle substrate to detect polyps and colorectal cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Feng, Shangyuan; Tai, Isabella T.; Chen, Guannan; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and forth leading cause of cancer-related death. Early diagnosis is the key to long-term patient survival. Programmatic screening for the general population has shown to be cost-effective in reducing the incidence and mortality from CRC. Current CRC screening strategy relies on a broad range of test techniques such as fecal based tests and endoscopic exams. Occult blood tests like fecal immunochemical test is a cost effective way to detect CRC but have limited diagnostic values in detecting adenomatous polyp, the most treatable precursor to CRC. In the present work, we proposed the use of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with silver nanoparticles as substrate to analyze blood plasma for detecting both CRC and adenomatous polyps. Blood plasma samples collected from healthy subjects and patients diagnosed with adenomas and CRC were prepared with nanoparticles and measured using a real-time fiber optic probe based Raman system. The collected SERS spectra are analyzed with partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Classification of normal versus CRC plus adenomatous polyps achieved diagnostic sensitivity of 86.4% and specificity of 80%. This exploratory study suggests that blood plasma SERS analysis has potential to become a screening test for detecting both CRC and adenomas.

  12. IMPACT OF GENISTEIN AND PHYTIC ACID ON THE VIABILITY AND PROLIFERATION ACTIVITY OF NASAL POLYPS' CELLS IN AN IN VITRO MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frączek, Marcin; Kuśmierz, Dariusz; Rostkowska-Nadolska, Beata; Kręcicki, Tomasz; Latocha, Małgorzata T

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is one of the diseases that diminish patients' quality of life most significantly. Treatment of that often incurable disease is based on the steroids and surgery in patients who had failed thorough conservative management. It appears that the introduction of new treatment agents suppressing inflammation process and inhibiting cells' proliferation would be a valuable therapeutic option. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of genistein and phytic acid on the viability and growth rate of fibroblasts derived from nasal polyps. Cells were incubated with various concentrations of genistein (5-500 μM) and phytic acid (100-20,000 μM). After 72 h incubation, cells survivability and cells' growth rate were estimated by combination of WST-1 and LDH methods. QRT-PCR technique was used to determine the expression of histone H3, BCL-2, BAX and P53 genes. Caspase-8 and -9 expressions were evaluated by ELISA assay. Genistein and phytic acid significantly and in dose-specific manner decreased nasal polyps fibroblasts survivability and growth rate. Both agents in similar way decreased cell proliferation as measured by the expression of histone H3. They induce apoptotic machinery by modulating the expression of BCL-2, BAX and caspase-8 activity. Genistein and phytic acid have significant potential for a therapeutic role in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis.

  13. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey. II. Adaptive Optics Imaging of 969 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, Christoph; Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Schonhut, Jessica; Crepp, Justin

    2016-07-01

    We initiated the Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey in 2012 to observe each Kepler exoplanet candidate host star with high angular resolution, visible light, laser adaptive optics (AOs) imaging. Our goal is to find nearby stars lying in Kepler's photometric apertures that are responsible for the relatively high probability of false-positive exoplanet detections and that cause underestimates of the size of transit radii. Our comprehensive survey will also shed light on the effects of stellar multiplicity on exoplanet properties and will identify rare exoplanetary architectures. In this second part of our ongoing survey, we observed an additional 969 Kepler planet candidate hosts and we report blended stellar companions up to {{Δ }}m≈ 6 that contribute to Kepler's measured light curves. We found 203 companions within ˜4″ of 181 of the Kepler stars, of which 141 are new discoveries. We measure the nearby star probability for this sample of Kepler planet candidate host stars to be 10.6% ± 1.1% at angular separations up to 2.″5, significantly higher than the 7.4% ± 1.0% probability discovered in our initial sample of 715 stars; we find the probability increases to 17.6% ± 1.5% out to a separation of 4.″0. The median position of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) observed in this survey are 1.°1 closer to the galactic plane, which may account for some of the nearby star probability enhancement. We additionally detail 50 Keck AO images of Robo-AO observed KOIs in order to confirm 37 companions detected at a <5σ significance level and to obtain additional infrared photometry on higher significance detected companions.

  14. Undercover Stars Among Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    events by monitoring the brightness of a very large number of stars over extended time intervals. During the past years, it has also included a search for periodic, very shallow "dips" in the brightness of stars, caused by the regular transit of small orbiting objects (small stars, brown dwarfs [2] or Jupiter-size planets). The OGLE team has since announced 177 "planetary transit candidates" from their survey of several hundred thousand stars in three southern sky fields, one in the direction of the Galactic Centre, another within the Carina constellation and the third within the Centaurus/Musca constellations. The nature of the transiting object can however only be established by subsequent radial-velocity observations of the parent star. The size of the velocity variations (the amplitude) is directly related to the mass of the companion object and therefore allows discrimination between stars and planets as the cause of the observed brightness "dip". A Bonanza of Low-Mass Stars An international team of astronomers [3] has made use of the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope for this work. Profiting from the multiplex capacity of the FLAMES/UVES facility that permits to obtain high-resolution spectra of up to 8 objects simultaneously, they have looked at 60 OGLE transit candidate stars, measuring their radial velocities with an accuracy of about 50 m/s [4]. This ambitious programme has so far resulted in the discovery of five new transiting exoplanets (see, e.g., ESO PR 11/04 for the announcement of two of those). Most of the other transit candidates identified by OGLE have turned out to be eclipsing binaries, that is, in most cases common, small and low-mass stars passing in front of a solar-like star. This additional wealth of data on small and light stars is a real bonanza for the astronomers. Constraining the Relation Between Mass and Radius Low-mass stars are exceptionally interesting objects, also because the physical conditions in their interiors have much in common with

  15. Identification and Targeting of Candidate Pre-Existing Lurker Cells that Give Rise to Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    propagation. Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells can initiate and maintain murine intestinal adenomas (6, 7). In mouse models of skin cancer, hair follicle bulge...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0470 TITLE: Identification and Targeting of Candidate Pre... Targeting of Candidate Pre-Existing Lurker Cells that Give Rise to 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer 5b

  16. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  17. Exact Scale Invariance in Mixing of Binary Candidates in Voting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shintaro; Hisakado, Masato

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a voting model and discuss the scale invariance in the mixing of candidates. The Candidates are classified into two categories μ\\in \\{0,1\\} and are called as “binary” candidates. There are in total N=N0+N1 candidates, and voters vote for them one by one. The probability that a candidate gets a vote is proportional to the number of votes. The initial number of votes (“seed”) of a candidate μ is set to be sμ. After infinite counts of voting, the probability function of the share of votes of the candidate μ obeys gamma distributions with the shape exponent sμ in the thermodynamic limit Z0=N1s1+N0s0\\to ∞. Between the cumulative functions \\{xμ\\} of binary candidates, the power-law relation 1-x1 ˜ (1-x0)α with the critical exponent α=s1/s0 holds in the region 1-x0,1-x1≪ 1. In the double scaling limit (s1,s0)\\to (0,0) and Z0 \\to ∞ with s1/s0=α fixed, the relation 1-x1=(1-x0)α holds exactly over the entire range 0≤ x0,x1 ≤ 1. We study the data on horse races obtained from the Japan Racing Association for the period 1986 to 2006 and confirm scale invariance.

  18. Prevalence of germline PTEN, BMPR1A, SMAD4, STK11, and ENG mutations in patients with moderate-load colorectal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeow, Joanne; Heald, Brandie; Rybicki, Lisa A; Orloff, Mohammed S; Chen, Jin Lian; Liu, Xiuli; Yerian, Lisa; Willis, Joseph; Lehtonen, Heli J; Lehtonen, Rainer; Mester, Jessica L; Moline, Jessica; Burke, Carol A; Church, James; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Eng, Charis

    2013-06-01

    Gastrointestinal polyposis is a common clinical problem, yet there is no consensus on how to best manage patients with moderate-load polyposis. Identifying genetic features of this disorder could improve management and especially surveillance of these patients. We sought to determine the prevalence of hamartomatous polyposis-associated mutations in the susceptibility genes PTEN, BMPR1A, SMAD4, ENG, and STK11 in individuals with ≥5 gastrointestinal polyps, including at least 1 hamartomatous or hyperplastic/serrated polyp. We performed a prospective, referral-based study of 603 patients (median age: 51 years; range, 2-89 years) enrolled from June 2006 through January 2012. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral lymphocytes and analyzed for specific mutations and large rearrangements in PTEN, BMPR1A, SMAD4, and STK11, as well as mutations in ENG. Recursive partitioning analysis was used to determine cutoffs for continuous variables. The prevalence of mutations was compared using Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine univariate and multivariate risk factors. Of 603 patients, 119 (20%) had a personal history of colorectal cancer and most (n = 461 [76%]) had ENG (1.8%), 13 in PTEN (2.2%), 13 in STK11 (2.2%), 20 in BMPR1A (3.3%), and 21 in SMAD4 (3.5%). Univariate clinical predictors for risk of having these mutations included age at presentation younger than 40 years (19% vs 10%; P = .008), a polyp burden of ≥30 (19% vs 11%; P = .014), and male sex (16% vs 10%; P = .03). Patients who had ≥1 ganglioneuroma (29% vs 2%; P < .001) or presented with polyps of ≥3 histologic types (20% vs 2%; P = .003) were more likely to have germline mutations in PTEN. Age younger than 40 years, male sex, and specific polyp histologies are significantly associated with risk of germline mutations in hamartomatous-polyposis associated genes. These associations could guide clinical decision making and further investigations. Copyright © 2013 AGA

  19. New Zika Vaccine Candidate Provides Powerful Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163384.html New Zika Vaccine Candidate Provides Powerful Protection Made without live ... HealthDay News) -- A single dose of an experimental Zika vaccine protected mice and monkeys from the virus, ...

  20. Bioinformatics methods for identifying candidate disease genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Driel Marc A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the explosion in genomic and functional genomics information, methods for disease gene identification are rapidly evolving. Databases are now essential to the process of selecting candidate disease genes. Combining positional information with disease characteristics and functional information is the usual strategy by which candidate disease genes are selected. Enrichment for candidate disease genes, however, depends on the skills of the operating researcher. Over the past few years, a number of bioinformatics methods that enrich for the most likely candidate disease genes have been developed. Such in silico prioritisation methods may further improve by completion of datasets, by development of standardised ontologies across databases and species and, ultimately, by the integration of different strategies.

  1. Bioinformatics methods for identifying candidate disease genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, M.A. van; Brunner, H.G.

    2006-01-01

    With the explosion in genomic and functional genomics information, methods for disease gene identification are rapidly evolving. Databases are now essential to the process of selecting candidate disease genes. Combining positional information with disease characteristics and functional information i

  2. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-05-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates’ development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the achievement of their chemistry pedagogical aspirations. Two theoretical frameworks, both having their origins in the pioneering work of Kurt Lewin, are used to conceptualize how a complex amalgam of personal attribute and environmental factors and the interplay among these factors influence teacher candidate developmental trajectories. The tenets of both Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model and Learning Environment research provide insights into how the factors influencing teacher candidate development can be understood and systematically documented to provide a template for reflective consideration of the practicum experience for both teacher candidates and those involved in fostering the development of chemistry teacher candidates.

  3. Endoscopic resection of colorectal polyps in patients on antiplatelet therapy: an evidence-based guidance for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumé Gimeno, Gema; Bustamante-Balén, Marco; Satorres Paniagua, Carla; Díaz Jaime, Francia Carolina; Cejalvo Andújar, Maria José

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rising prevalence of coronary heart disease, endoscopists are more frequently performing a polypectomy in patients on antiplatelet therapy (APT) and dual antiplatelet therapy (DATP). Despite the availability of several guidelines with regard to the management of antiplatelet drugs during the periprocedure period, there is still variability in the current clinical practice. This may be influenced by the low quality of the evidence supporting recommendations, because most of the studies dealing with APT and polypectomy are observational and retrospective, and include mainly small (bleeding and thrombotic risk of the patient should be made in advance. In the case of DAPT the procedure should be postponed, at least until clopidogrel can be safely withheld. If possible, non-aspirin antiplatelet drugs should be withheld 5-7 days before the procedure. Polyp size is the main factor related with post-polypectomy bleeding and it is the factor that should drive clinical decisions regarding the resection method and the use of endoscopic prophylactic measures. Non-aspirin antiplatelet agents can be reintroduced 24-48 hours after the procedure. In conclusion, there is little data with regard to the management of DAPT in patients with a scheduled polypectomy. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to support clinical recommendations.

  4. Classification of chronic rhinosinusitis according to a nasal polyp and tissue eosinophilia: limitation of current classification system for Asian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Woo; Kim, Dae Woo; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Lee, Chul Hee

    2017-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) can be classified according to the presence of a nasal polyp (NP): CRS with NP (CRSwNP) and CRS without NP (CRSsNP). CRSwNP has characteristics with high infiltration of tissue eosinophilia with a burst of Th2 inflammatory cytokine. However recent findings in Eastern Asia countries suggest that CRSwNP can be divided according to the presence of tissue eosinophilia. Thus, CRSwNP can be classified into eosinophilic and noneosinophilic. Eosinophilic CRSwNP seems to have different immunological and clinical feature compared to noneosinophilic CRSwNP. From the same point of view, CRSsNP can also be divided according to tissue eosinophilia. However, the meaning of this dichotomous categorization in CRS seems to be not quite clear. This review focus on the limitations in current