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Sample records for initial follicular phase

  1. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation. I. Initial characterization of DNA damage, micronucleus formation, apoptosis, cell survival, and cell cycle phase redistribution

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    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Bant, A. M.; Kazarians, G.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Tran, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    The RBE of protons has been assumed to be equivalent to that of photons. The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced DNA and chromosome damage, apoptosis, cell killing and cell cycling in organized epithelial cells was influenced by radiation quality. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-dependent Fischer rat thyroid cells, established as follicles, were exposed to gamma rays or proton beams delivered acutely over a range of physical doses. Gamma-irradiated cells were able to repair DNA damage relatively rapidly so that by 1 h postirradiation they had approximately 20% fewer exposed 3' ends than their counterparts that had been irradiated with proton beams. The persistence of free ends of DNA in the samples irradiated with the proton beam implies that either more initial breaks or a quantitatively different type of damage had occurred. These results were further supported by an increased frequency of chromosomal damage as measured by the presence of micronuclei. Proton-beam irradiation induced micronuclei at a rate of 2.4% per gray, which at 12 Gy translated to 40% more micronuclei than in comparable gamma-irradiated cultures. The higher rate of micronucleus formation and the presence of larger micronuclei in proton-irradiated cells was further evidence that a qualitatively more severe class of damage had been induced than was induced by gamma rays. Differences in the type of damage produced were detected in the apoptosis assay, wherein a significant lag in the induction of apoptosis occurred after gamma irradiation that did not occur with protons. The more immediate expression of apoptotic cells in the cultures irradiated with the proton beam suggests that the damage inflicted was more severe. Alternatively, the cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms required for recovery from such damage might not have been invoked. Differences based on radiation quality were also evident in the alpha components of cell survival curves (0.05 Gy(-1) for gamma rays, 0

  2. OCT-4 expression in follicular and luteal phase endometrium: a pilot study

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    Huber Johannes C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stem cell marker Octamer-4 (OCT-4 is expressed in human endometrium. Menstrual cycle-dependency of OCT-4 expression has not been investigated to date. Methods In a prospective, single center cohort study of 98 women undergoing hysteroscopy during the follicular (n = 49 and the luteal (n = 40 phases of the menstrual cycle, we obtained endometrial samples. Specimens were investigated for OCT-4 expression on the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Expression of OCT-4 was correlated to menstrual cycle phase. Results Of 89 women sampled, 49 were in the follicular phase and 40 were in the luteal phase. OCT-4 mRNA was detected in all samples. Increased OCT-4 mRNA levels in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 35/49 (71% and 27/40 (68% of women, respectively (p = 0.9. Increased expression of OCT-4 protein was identified in 56/89 (63% samples. Increased expression of OCT-4 protein in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 33/49 (67% and 23/40 (58% of women, respectively (p = 0.5. Conclusions On the mRNA and protein levels, OCT-4 is not differentially expressed during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial OCT-4 is not involved in or modulated by hormone-induced cyclical changes of the endometrium.

  3. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

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    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  4. Cytological image of the endometrium in cows in follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle and in cows with follicular and luteal ovarian cysts

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    Brodzki Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48 were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75 were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26. When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11. In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71, and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium

  5. Cytokine production by natural killer lymphocytes in follicular and luteal phase of the ovarian cycle in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, A.; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; De Leij, LFMH; Faas, MM

    PROBLEM: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, during luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, as compared with follicular phase, the cytokine productive capacity of peripheral natural killer (NK)-lymphocytes in humans is shifted towards a "Th2-type"-like response. METHOD OF STUDY:

  6. The effects of serum concentration of androgens, LH and IGF1 in early follicular phase on follicular growth parameters and pregnancy rate

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    Zahra Raoofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many studies have showed the role of androgens on the follicular maturation. The present study investigated the effect of serum concentration of androgens, LH and IGF1 in the early follicular phase on the results of the ovulation induction (I/O and intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles. Materials and methods: This prospective observational cross-sectional study was carried out in the infertility department of a university hospital in Tehran, Iran. The case’s selection was based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and was nonrandomized. 59 patients under the age of 45 who were candidate for induction ovulation (I/O or intrauterine insemination were included. The inclusion criteria consist of infertility for at least one year and at least one open tube in HSG. Patients were excluded if they had polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis. The serum concentration of androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, LH and IGF1 was measured on the third day of menstruation. Clomiphene and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG were drugs of induction ovulation. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG was injected when there was at least one follicle with the size of (18 mm. IUI was done 36 h later for eligible patients and the relation of concentration of androgens, LH and IGF1 with follicular growth parameters and pregnancy rate was analyzed. Results: There was not any statistical significant link between the number and size of follicles with levels of free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, IGF1 and LH. There was not any statistical significant link between the number of follicles in the ovaries and levels of testosterone (P = 0.090 and r = 0.223, dehydroepiandrosterone (P = 0.642 and r = 0.062 and androstenedione (P = 0.526 and r = 0.084, IGF1 (P = 0.470 and r = 0.096 and LH (P = 0.446 and r = 0.102. There was not any statistical significant link between the mean follicular

  7. Enhanced response to ozone exposure during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, S.D.; Adams, W.C.; Brookes, K.A.; Lasley, B.L. (Univ. of Calfornia, Davis (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Exposure to ozone (O[sub 3]), a toxic component of photochemical smog, results in significant airway inflammation, respiratory discomfort, and pulmonary function impairment. These effects can be reduced via pretreatment with anti-inflammatory agents. Progesterone, a gonadal steroid, is known to reduce general inflammation in the uterine endometrium. However, it is not known whether fluctuation in blood levels of progesterone, which are experienced during the normal female menstrual cycle, could alter O[sub 3] inflammatory-induced pulmonary responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that young, adult females are more responsive to O[sub 3] inhalation with respect to pulmonary function impairment during their follicular (F) menstrual phase when progesterone levels are lowest that during their mid-luteal (ML) phase when progesterone levels are highest. Nine subjects with normal ovarian function were exposed in random order for 1 hour each to filtered air and to 0.30 ppm O[sub 3] in their F and ML menstrual phases. Ozone responsiveness was measured by percent change in pulmonary function from pre- to postexposure. Significant gas concentration effects (filtered air versus O[sub 3]) were observed for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1]), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF[sub 25-75]), showed a significant menstrual phase and gas concentration interaction effect, with larger decrements observed in the F menstrual phase when progesterone concentrations were significantly lower. We conclude that young, adult females appear to be more responsive to acute O[sub 3] exposure during the F phase than during the ML phase of their menstrual cycles. This difference in pulmonary function response could be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of increased progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase.

  8. Rituximab maintenance for 2 years in patients with high tumour burden follicular lymphoma responding to rituximab plus chemotherapy (PRIMA): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salles, Gilles; Seymour, John Francis; Offner, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Patients with follicular lymphoma can have long survival times, but disease progression typically occurs 3-5 years after initial treatment. We assessed the potential benefit of 2 years of rituximab maintenance after first-line treatment in patients with follicular lymphoma receiving a rituximab...... plus chemotherapy regimen....

  9. Proliferation in the normal FTE is a hallmark of the follicular phase, not BRCA mutation status.

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    George, Sophia H L; Milea, Anca; Shaw, Patricia A

    2012-11-15

    Women who have inherited germline mutations of BRCA1/BRCA2 are at increased risk of developing high-grade serous carcinoma, and many of these cancers arise in the distal fimbriated end of the fallopian tube. We have previously shown that the fallopian tube epithelia of BRCA1 mutation carriers (FTE-BRCA) have altered signaling pathways compared to nonmutation carriers. In this study, we sought to determine whether these differences result in a proliferative advantage to the epithelia in this high-risk patient population and to investigate whether the postovulation environment of the FTE-BRCA compared to FTE from nonmutation carriers experiences a differential abundance of immune cells. Immunohistochemistry for Ki67, CD3, CD8, CD20, and CD68 was performed on histologically normal tubal epithelium (ampulla, n = 83), fimbria (n = 18) with known ovarian cycle status and germline mutation status and for Ki67 on fimbrial epithelium from women (n = 144) with and without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) with concomitant cancer (n = 15) were also analyzed for presence of immune infiltrates. All slides were digitized and analyzed using automated image analysis software. There was no significant difference in the proliferative index in histologically normal FTE between BRCA1/BRCA2 and non-BRCA, in 144 fimbriae and 83 ampullae. The FTE-BRCA1 epithelia did not exhibit a differential presence of lymphocytes or macrophages, however more macrophages were present in the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase epithelia. In STICs macrophages were more abundant than lymphocytes with an incremental increase noted with disease progression. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers exhibited no significant increase in proliferation in the fallopian tube epithelial cells either in the ampulla or fimbriated ends of the tube. Rather, a significant proliferative increase was defined in the cases determined

  10. Analysis of human mammary fibroadenoma by Ki-67 index in the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle.

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    Rego, M F; Navarrete, M A L H; Facina, G; Falzoni, R; Silva, R; Baracat, E C; Nazario, A C P

    2009-04-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign mammary condition among women aged 35 or younger. Expression of Ki-67 antigen has been used to compare proliferative activity of mammary fibroadenoma epithelium in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Ninety eumenorrheic women were selected for tumour excision; they were assigned to either of the two groups, according to their phase of menstrual cycle. At the end of the study, 75 patients with 87 masses were evaluated by epithelial cell Ki-67 expression, blind (no information given concerning group to which any lesion belonged). Both groups were found to be homogeneous relative to age, menarche, body mass index, previous gestation, parity, breastfeeding, number of fibroadenomas, family history of breast cancer and tabagism. Median tumour size was 2.0 cm and no relationship between proliferative activity and nodule diameter was observed. No typical pattern was observed in the expression of Ki-67 in distinct nodules of the same patient. Average values for expression of Ki-67 (per 1000 epithelial cells) in follicular and luteal phases were 27.88 and 37.88, respectively (P = 0.116). Our findings revealed that proliferative activities in the mammary fibroadenoma epithelium did not present a statistically significant difference in the follicular and luteal phases. The present study contributes to clarifying that fibroadenoma is a neoplasm and does not undergo any change in the proliferative activity during the menstrual cycle.

  11. Follicular mucinosis

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    Marie Lewars

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular mucinosis is an uncommon inflammatory disorder that characteristically presents as follicular papules and/or indurated plaques. The face, neck, and scalp are the most frequently affected sites, although lesions may occur on any site of the body. Histologically, the disorder is characterized by mucin deposition in the follicular epithelium. The condition is frequently divided into primary and secondary forms, with the latter form frequently associated with mycosis fungoides. In this case report, we describe a child with follicular mucinosis of the back and trunk and discuss the clinical variants, histopathological pattern, and treatment options.

  12. The effects of menstrual phase on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement.

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    Long, H; Gao, M; Zhu, Y; Liu, H; Zhou, Y; Liao, L; Lai, W

    2017-04-01

    To explore the effects of menstrual cycle on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement. Female participants with regular menstrual cycles were recruited and assigned into follicular group or luteal group. Demographical and baseline variables were collected: age, education, menstrual duration, anxiety, oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14), and index of complexity outcome and need (ICON). Following initial archwire engagement, orthodontic pain was determined through visual analogue scale (VAS) on 1st day, 2nd day, and 3rd day. Demographical and baseline variables were compared between the two groups. Two-way repeated-measures anova was used to examine the effects of menstrual phase, time, and their interactions on orthodontic pain. Multivariate linear regression was employed to examine the independent effect of each variable on orthodontic pain. Finally, 37 and 39 were assigned to the follicular and luteal groups, respectively, with balanced demographical and baseline data. Orthodontic pain was significantly affected by menstrual phase and time (both P  0.05). Moreover, orthodontic pain was independently predicted by menstrual phase, OHIP, education level, and anxiety (all P < 0.05). We suggest that practitioners arrange female patients to receive initial archwire engagement during their follicular phases to relieve orthodontic pain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rituximab Maintenance Treatment of Relapsed/Resistant Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Long-Term Outcome of the EORTC 20981 Phase III Randomized Intergroup Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, Marinus H. J.; van Glabbeke, Martine; Giurgea, Livia; Klasa, Richard; Marcus, Robert E.; Wolf, Max; Kimby, Eva; van 't Veer, Mars; Vranovsky, Andrej; Holte, Harald; Hagenbeek, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In 2006, we published the results of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial EORTC 20981 on the role of rituximab in remission induction and maintenance treatment of relapsed/resistant follicular lymphoma (FL). At that time, the median follow-up for the

  14. Follicular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, D.H.; Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is considered as a disease of the elderly with a higher incidence in females as compared to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Some studies have reported its occurrence at an early age, which may be attributed to early diagnosis because of the availability of advanced techniques. The prognosis of the disease is considered poor as compared to that of PTC. The conclusions drawn in this review are based on 663 cases in whom adequate data was available for meaningful analysis followed for a mean period of 9.2 years, median, 7.8 years; range, 1-32 years

  15. Analysis of genes that influence sheep follicular development by different nutrition levels during the luteal phase using expression profiling.

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    Luo, F; Jia, R; Ying, S; Wang, Z; Wang, F

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is an important factor that regulates reproductive performance of sheep and affects follicle development. However, the correlation between nutrition and follicle development is poorly understood at the molecular level. To study its possible molecular mechanisms, we performed expression profiling of granulosa cells isolated from sheep that were fed different levels of nutrition levels during the luteal phase. To do this, ewes received a maintenance diet (M), and their estrus was synchronized by intravaginal progestogen sponges for 12 days. Ewes were randomly divided into the short-term dietary-restricted group (R; 0.5 × M) and the nutrient-supplemented group (S; 1.5 × M). RNA samples were extracted from granulosa cells. Transcriptome libraries from each group were constructed by Illumina sequencing. Among 18 468 detected genes, 170 genes were significantly differentially expressed, of which 140 genes were upregulated and 30 genes were downregulated in group S relative to group R. These genes could be candidates regulating follicular development in sheep. Gene Ontology, KEGG and clustering analyses were performed. Genes related to oocyte meiosis, such as ADCY7, were upregulated. We identified two important groups of related genes that were upregulated with improved nutrition: one group comprising the genes PTGS2, UCP2 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the other group comprising interleukin-1A and interleukin-1B. The genes within each group showed similar expression patterns. Additionally, all five genes are involved in the reproduction process. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate the results of expression profiling. These data in our study are an abundant genomic resource to expand the understanding of the molecular and cellular events underlying follicle development. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Bovine Granulosa Cells of Preovulatory Dominant and Subordinate Follicles during the Late Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

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    Samuel Gebremedhn

    Full Text Available In bovine, ovarian follicles grow in a wave-like fashion with commonly 2 or 3 follicular waves emerging per estrous cycle. The dominant follicle of the follicular wave which coincides with the LH-surge becomes ovulatory, leaving the subordinate follicles to undergo atresia. These physiological processes are controlled by timely and spatially expressed genes and gene products, which in turn are regulated by post-transcriptional regulators. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNA molecules, are one of the important posttranscriptional regulators of genes associated with various cellular processes. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles during the late follicular phase of bovine estrous cycle using Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. In addition to 11 putative novel miRNAs, a total of 315 and 323 known miRNAs were detected in preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles, respectively. Moreover, in comparison with the subordinate follicles, a total of 64 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in preovulatory dominant follicles, of which 34 miRNAs including the miR-132 and miR-183 clusters were significantly enriched, and 30 miRNAs including the miR-17-92 cluster, bta-miR-409a and bta-miR-378 were significantly down regulated in preovulatory dominant follicles. In-silico pathway analysis revealed that canonical pathways related to oncogenesis, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism were significantly enriched by the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay analysis showed that one of the differentially regulated miRNAs, the miR-183 cluster miRNAs, were validated to target the 3'-UTR of FOXO1 gene. Moreover FOXO1 was highly enriched in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles in comparison with the preovulatory dominant follicles demonstrating reciprocal expression pattern

  17. Women with dysmenorrhoea are hypersensitive to experimentally induced forearm ischaemia during painful menstruation and during the pain-free follicular phase.

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    Iacovides, S; Avidon, I; Baker, F C

    2015-07-01

    Monthly primary dysmenorrhoeic pain is associated with increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, particularly in deep tissue. We investigated whether women with dysmenorrhoea, compared with controls, have increased sensitivity to experimentally induced deep-tissue muscle ischaemia in a body area distant from that of referred menstrual pain. The sub-maximal effort tourniquet test was used to induce forearm ischaemia in 11 women with severe dysmenorrhoea and in nine control women both during menstruation and in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Von Frey hair assessments confirmed the presence of experimental ischaemia. Women rated the intensity of menstrual and ischaemic pain on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Women with dysmenorrhoea [mean (SD): 68 (20) mm] reported significantly greater menstrual pain compared with controls [mean (SD): 2 (6) mm; p = 0.0001] during the menstruation phase. They also rated their forearm ischaemic pain as significantly greater than the controls during the menstruation [dysmenorrhoeics vs. controls mean (SD): 58 (19) mm vs. 31 (21) mm, p menstruation phase and pain-free follicular phase. These findings suggest the presence of long-lasting changes in muscle pain sensitivity in women with dysmenorrhoea. Our findings that dysmenorrhoeic women are hyperalgesic to a clinically relevant, deep-muscle ischaemic pain in areas outside of referred menstrual pain confirm other studies showing long-lasting changes in pain sensitivity outside of the painful period during menstruation. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  18. Skeletal Muscle Metastasis as an Initial Presentation of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

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    Mutahir A. Tunio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC frequently metastasizes to the lungs and bones. However, metastasis to the skeletal muscles is an extremely rare manifestation of FTC. To date, only seven cases of FTC have been reported in the literature. Skeletal muscle metastases from FTC usually remain asymptomatic or manifest as swelling and are associated with dismal prognosis. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old Saudi woman presented with right buttock swelling since 8 months. Physical examination revealed right gluteal mass of size  cm and right thyroid lobe nodule. The rest of examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed  cm lobulated mass arising from the gluteus medius muscle, and tru-cut biopsy confirmed the metastatic papillary carcinoma of thyroid origin. The patient subsequently underwent palliative radiotherapy followed by total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation. At the time of publication, the patient was alive with partial response in gluteal mass. Conclusion. Skeletal muscles metastases are a rare manifestation of FTC, and searching for the primary focus in a patient with skeletal muscle metastasis, thyroid cancer should be considered as differential diagnosis.

  19. Pulsatile luteinizing hormone patterns in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea.

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    Burger, C W; Korsen, T; van Kessel, H; van Dop, P A; Caron, F J; Schoemaker, J

    1985-12-01

    To characterize the oscillations of plasma LH in normally cycling and amenorrheic women, three groups of women were studied: I, normal women during the follicular phase of the cycle (n = 9); II, women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD; n = 11); and III, women with non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea (n = 12). Blood samples were obtained at 10-min intervals for 6 h on 2 separate days. A pulse was defined as an increase in LH at least 20% over the preceding lowest value (nadir). Since LHRH release immediately follows the nadir of the LH levels, the nadir interval (NI) was used for analysis. For analysis, the results from 1 day were selected at random from each subject, and from each day, the same number of NIs also were randomly selected. When two NIs from each patient were selected, the median NI was 75 min in group I, 45 min in group II, and 45 min in group III. When three or four NIs were chosen, the median NI was 60 min in group I, 50 min in group II, and 40 min in group III. The differences between the groups were statistically significant. When three NIs were selected, the mean of the corresponding LH amplitudes was 2.8 U/liter in group I, 6.0 U/liter in group II, and 1.5 U/liter in group III. The differences between these groups were statistically significant. Thus, the NI in PCOD patients was shorter than that during the follicular phase of the cycle, but this short NI is not unique for PCOD, since the NI in non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea patients was even smaller. The LH amplitude was higher in PCOD and lower in non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea compared to that during the follicular phase of the cycle. The decrease in NI in PCOD and/or non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea vs. the NI of the follicular phase could be explained by either a higher frequency of LHRH pulses from the hypothalamus or an increased sensitivity of the pituitary leading to a greater response of the pituitary to LHRH pulses.

  20. Gentilly 2. Initial phase of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, B.; Region, M.; Dietrich, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    At the end of March 1983, the Gentilly 2 nuclear power station achieved full power for the first time. The power station then underwent its first week of stable operation at full power. This meant the end of the run up to full power testing period (Phase C). This period was to be followed by a planned shutdown of six weeks, devoted to maintenance and modification work. However, an inspection suggested that there was internal damage to the turbine, whose seriousness was confirmed during disassembly of one of the low-pressure stages. The repairs were completed in early September and five months after the shutdown had begun, the power station could be restarted. At this point, the on-power testing (phase D), the final stage in the commissioning of Gentilly 2, was begun. September 30, 1983 marked the start of commercial operation of the power station, which was to provide a large amount of energy to the grid during the 1983-1984 winter until the recent scheduled shutdown on April 22. In this paper, a list of problems encountered and analyze the experience acquired during the initial phase of operating the Gentilly 2 power station

  1. Initial phase wall conditioning in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Suk-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Kim, Sungwoo; Lee, Dong-Su; Kim, Kyung-Min; Lee, Kun-Su; Kim, Jong-Su; Park, Jae-Min; Kim, Woong-Chae; Kim, Hak-Kun; Park, Kap-Rai; Yang, Hyung-Lyeol; Sun, Jong-Ho; Woo, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Sang-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Park, Eun-Kyung; Park, Sang-Joon; Kim, Sun-Ho; Wang, Sun-Jung

    2011-01-01

    The initial phase wall conditioning in KSTAR is depicted. The KSTAR wall conditioning procedure consists of vessel baking, glow discharge cleaning (GDC), ICRH wall conditioning (ICWC) and boronization (Bz). Vessel baking is performed for the initial vacuum conditioning in order to remove various kinds of impurities including H 2 O, carbon and oxygen and for the plasma operation. The total outgassing rates after vessel baking in three successive KSTAR campaigns are compared. GDC is regularly performed as a standard wall cleaning procedure. Another cleaning technique is ICWC, which is useful for inter-shot wall conditioning under a strong magnetic field. In order to optimize the operation time and removal efficiency of ICWC, a parameter scan is performed. Bz is a standard technique to remove oxygen impurity from a vacuum vessel. KSTAR has used carborane powder which is a non-toxic boron-containing material. The KSTAR Bz has been successfully performed through two campaigns: water and oxygen levels in the vacuum vessel are reduced significantly. As a result, KSTAR has achieved its first L-H mode transition, although the input power was marginal for the L-H transition threshold. The characteristics of boron-containing thin films deposited for boronization are investigated.

  2. Phased Startup Initiative Phase 3 and 4 Test Procedure (OCRWM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    necessary. The fuel canisters to be processed shall be listed in the Fuel Campaign Letter and are identified in HNF-4898, ''Phased Startup Initiative Phases 3 and 4 Test Plan and Test Specifications (OCRWM)''

  3. Assessment of the proliferative, apoptotic and cellular renovation indices of the human mammary epithelium during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Maria Alicia H; Maier, Carolina M; Falzoni, Roberto; Quadros, Luiz Gerk de Azevedo; Lima, Geraldo R; Baracat, Edmund C; Nazário, Afonso CP

    2005-01-01

    During the menstrual cycle, the mammary gland goes through sequential waves of proliferation and apoptosis. In mammary epithelial cells, hormonal and non-hormonal factors regulate apoptosis. To determine the cyclical effects of gonadal steroids on breast homeostasis, we evaluated the apoptotic index (AI) determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in human mammary epithelial cells during the spontaneous menstrual cycle and correlated it with cellular proliferation as determined by the expression of Ki-67 during the same period. Normal breast tissue samples were obtained from 42 randomly selected patients in the proliferative (n = 21) and luteal (n = 21) phases. Menstrual cycle phase characterization was based on the date of the last and subsequent menses, and on progesterone serum levels obtained at the time of biopsy. The proliferation index (PI), defined as the number of Ki-67-positive nuclei per 1,000 epithelial cells, was significantly larger in the luteal phase (30.46) than in the follicular phase (13.45; P = 0.0033). The AI was defined as the number of TUNEL-positive cells per 1,000 epithelial cells. The average AI values in both phases of the menstrual cycle were not statistically significant (P = 0.21). However, the cell renewal index (CRI = PI/AI) was significantly higher in the luteal phase (P = 0.033). A significant cyclical variation of PI, AI and CRI was observed. PI and AI peaks occurred on about the 24th day of the menstrual cycle, whereas the CRI reached higher values on the 28th day. We conclude that proliferative activity is dependent mainly on hormonal fluctuations, whereas apoptotic activity is probably regulated by hormonal and non-hormonal factors

  4. Peripheral Inhibitor of AChE, Neostigmine, Prevents the Inflammatory Dependent Suppression of GnRH/LH Secretion during the Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej P. Herman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to test the hypothesis that the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity at the periphery by Neostigmine (0.5 mg/animal will be sufficient to prevent inflammatory dependent suppression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH/luteinising hormone (LH secretion in ewes in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, and this effect will be comparable with the systemic AChE inhibitor, Donepezil (2.5 mg/animal. An immune/inflammatory challenge was induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg. Peripheral treatment with Donepezil and Neostigmine prevented the LPS-induced decrease (P<0.05 in LHβ gene expression in the anterior pituitary gland (AP and in LH release. Moreover, Donepezil completely abolished (P<0.05 the suppressory effect of inflammation on GnRH synthesis in the preoptic area, when pretreatment with Neostigmine reduced (P<0.05 the decrease in GnRH content in this hypothalamic structure. Moreover, administration of both AChE inhibitors diminished (P<0.05 the inhibitory effect of LPS treatment on the expression of GnRH receptor in the AP. Our study shows that inflammatory dependent changes in the GnRH/LH secretion may be eliminated or reduced by AChE inhibitors suppressing inflammatory reaction only at the periphery such as Neostigmine, without the need for interfering in the central nervous system.

  5. National Aerospace Leadership Initiative - Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    BNB Manufacturing, HMR Associates, PWA, UTRC, Sikorsky Helicopter, TCI MRO, Schwerdtle, Unilever , University of Hartford. In several cases parts were...HMR Associates, PWA, UTRC, Sikorsky Helicopter, TCI MRO, Schwerdtle, Unilever , University of Hartford National Aerospace Leadership Initiative

  6. Influence of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Pokora

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular (F and luteal (L phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten subjects performed a graded bicycle exercise in a thermoneutral environment (23oC, 52-60% relative humidity. Women were tested after consuming, for 3 days, a control diet (C: 60% carbohydrates, 20% fat, 20% protein and after that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCHO: 50% fat, 35% protein and 5% carbohydrates, in each phase of the menstrual cycle. Tympanic temperature (Tty, mean skin temperature (Tsk, electrical skin resistance (ESR, oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR as well as blood β-hydroxybutyrate acid (β-HB, glucose (Glu and lactate (LA concentrations were measured. On the basis of ESR, dynamics of sweating was estimated. No differences in Tty and Tsk were found between the C and LCHO during exercise tests. However, Tty was significantly higher during L than F phase. Delay time for sweating was shorter after LCHO (F: 10.8 vs 9.4 min, P<0.05, L: 9.9 vs 9.3 N.S., but temperature threshold for this reaction was unchanged (L: 37.22 vs 37.37 and F: 36.91 vs 36.94 oC. Sweating sensitivity was greater after LCHO during both F and L. Resting blood Glu and LA concentrations were similar in women after C and LCHO diet. Before exercise β-HB level was F: 0.45, L: 0.35 mM after LCHO and F: 0.08, L: 0.09 mM after C diet (P<0.05, respectively. At rest and during exercise HR was significantly higher after LCHO diet in women during F phase. In submaximal exercise loads VO2 after LCHO diet were significantly higher than after C diet in all women. It was concluded that the low-carbohydrate diet ingested by young women in both phases of the menstrual cycle have no effect on body temperature, however, it affects heat dissipation mechanism during exercise.

  7. Ocular Adnexal Follicular Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    that involved 6 eye cancer centers from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2010. A total of 105 patients with follicular OAL were identified, of which 7 patients were excluded because of missing clinical data. The median follow-up time was 52 months (range, 13-118 months). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Overall...... in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma, and 10 (10%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The lacrimal gland (28%), conjunctiva (28%), and orbit (28%) were the most frequently involved sites. Of the 69 patients with primary follicular lymphoma, 38 (55%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma...

  8. Cell kinetic changes in the follicular epithelium of pig skin after irradiation with single and fractionated doses of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.M.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in cell kinetics of the follicular epithelium of the pig were studied after x-irradiation with single and fractionated doses (30 fractions/39 days) and compared with previous epidermal data. In the follicular epithelium there was an initial degenerative phase, when the rate of cell depletion was independent of radiation dose and mode of administration. Repopulation was seen between the 14th and 18th days after single doses (15 or 20 Gy) and by the 28th day after the start of irradiation with fractionated doses (52.3-80.0 Gy). The degree of cell depletion and subsequent rate of repopulation were independent of dose. The regenerative phase was characterized by an increased cell proliferation. Islands of cells with appearance similar to cells in the normal follicular epithelium, were seen 18 days after a single dose of 20 Gy and 42 days after the start of fractionated irradiation. Compared with the epidermis, the follicular epithelium exhibited considerably less evidence of damage after both single and fractionated doses. There was a lower incidence of degenerate cells and reduced levels of cell depletion in the follicular epithelium. (author)

  9. Follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, D.; Lee, J.C.; Devenney-Cakir, B.; Zaim, S.; Ounadjela, S.; Solal-Celigny, P.; Juweid, M.; Guermazi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a unique subtype of NHL, which is indolent, incurable with a high prevalence of residual mass after treatment, and may transform to more aggressive NHL. The aim of this review is to (1) describe the histological and flow cytometry characteristics of follicular NHL; (2) introduce the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index 2 (FLIPI-2), which allows better treatment selection and patient stratification for clinical trials; (3) illustrate the classic and atypical ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron-emission tomography (PET)/CT appearance of follicular NHL; and (4) characterize the appearance of nodal and extranodal follicular NHL with pathological correlation. Imaging is essential in every step of the management of patients with follicular lymphoma. Overall survival is improved with better predictive tools and new targeted biological therapies. Radiologists should be aware of possible active residual mass, indolent recurrence, transformation, and association with other primary cancers in patients treated for follicular lymphoma.

  10. [Recovery and light microscopic evaluation of follicular oocytes of swine and relationship between the degeneration rate of oocytes and the estrus phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurrbusch, U; Schmette, C; Elze, K

    1990-10-01

    Cumulus-oocyte complexes were recovered from 25 gilts by aspiration of follicular fluid or cutting of follicles from all Graafian follicles of greater than or equal to 3 mm in diameter during diestrus, proestrus or estrus. In 5 gilts the oocytes were collected post ovulation by flushing of oviducts. The recovery rate of follicular oocytes differed between 75.5% during the late diestrus (days 13-17) and 43.5% during the proestrus (days 18-21). During the proestrus and on day 1 of the estrus the recovery of oocytes was more difficult as a result of the higher viscosity of follicular fluid and the mucification of cumulus-oocyte complexes. The degeneration rate of oocytes was high during the diestrus with a peak at the time of regression of corpora lutea. From diestrus to the estrus the degeneration rate decreased. Following degeneration rates were found in the oocytes during the cycle: days 7-12: 38.8%, days 13-17: 50.0%, days 18-21: 29.6%, day 1 of the estrus: 10.8%, day 2 of the estrus ante ovulation: 11.8%, day 2 of the estrus post ovulation: 6.2%. Signs of degeneration were: Loss of cumulus cells (during diestrus and proestrus), damaged zona pellucida, enlargement of perivitelline space, deformation of oocyte, alteration of structure of the ooplasm, diameter of vitellus less than 100 microns. It was concluded that the selection of dominant follicles takes place in pigs during a long time of the cycle, especially during the diestrus. There were not any indications of a 2-wave hypothesis of follicular growth during the cycle in pig.

  11. Late follicular phase administration of levonorgestrel as an emergency contraceptive changes the secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marta; Seppala, Markku; Cravioto, Ma Del Carmen; Koistinen, Hannu; Koistinen, Riitta; González-Macedo, José; Larrea, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    This study examined serum glycodelin concentrations and endometrial expression during the luteal phase following oral administration of levonorgestrel (LNG) at different stages of the ovarian cycle. Thirty women were recruited and allocated into three groups. All groups were studied during two consecutive cycles, a control cycle and the treatment cycle. In the treatment cycle, each woman received two doses of 0.75 mg LNG taken 12 h apart on days 3-4 before the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (Group 1), at the time of LH rise (Group 2) and 48 h after the rise in LH was detected (Group 3). Serum progesterone (P) and glycodelin were measured daily during the luteal phase, and an endometrial biopsy was taken at day LH +9 for immunohistochemical glycodelin-A staining. In Group 1, serum P levels were significantly lower, serum glycodelin levels rose earlier and endometrial glycodelin-A expression was weaker than in Groups 2 and 3, in which no differences were found between control and treatment cycles. Levonorgestrel taken for emergency contraception (EC) prior to the LH surge alters the luteal phase secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium. Based on the potent gamete adhesion inhibitory activity of glycodelin-A, the results may account for the action of LNG in EC in those women who take LNG before the LH surge.

  12. Chaos crisis in coupled Duffing's systems with initial phase difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Qinsheng

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of coupled Duffing's oscillators with initial phase difference is investigated in this Letter. For the averaged equations, different equilibrium points can be observed, the number of which may vary with the parameters. The stable equilibrium points, corresponding to the periodic motion of the original coupled oscillators, may coexist with different patterns of dynamics, including chaos. Furthermore, two different chaotic attractors associated with different attracting basin coexist for certain parameter conditions, which may interact with each other to form an enlarged chaotic attractor. Several new dynamical phenomena such as boundary chaos crises have been predicted as the initial phase difference varies

  13. Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone and its antagonist on the gene expression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of follicular phase ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Łapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2011-01-01

    There is no information in the literature regarding the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on genes encoding gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus or on GnRHR gene expression in the pituitary gland in vivo. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in follicular phase ewes, the effects of prolonged, intermittent infusion of small doses of CRH or its antagonist (α-helical CRH 9-41; CRH-A) into the third cerebral ventricle on GnRH mRNA and GnRHR mRNA levels in the hypothalamo-pituitary unit and on LH secretion. Stimulation or inhibition of CRH receptors significantly decreased or increased GnRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, respectively, and led to different responses in GnRHR gene expression in discrete hypothalamic areas. For example, CRH increased GnRHR gene expression in the preoptic area, but decreased it in the hypothalamus/stalk median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, CRH decreased LH secretion. Blockade of CRH receptors had the opposite effect on GnRHR gene expression. The results suggest that activation of CRH receptors in the hypothalamus of follicular phase ewes can modulate the biosynthesis and release of GnRH through complex changes in the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamo-anterior pituitary unit. © CSIRO 2011 Open Access

  14. The initial phase of sudden releases of superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidli, J.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1994-01-01

    Series of experiments were conducted with refrigerants-114, -12, propane and butane to investigate the initial phase of sudden releases of superheated liquids due to the catastrophic failure of the vessel containing them. The experiments were initiated by shattering spherical flasks of 100 to 2000 ml containing the liquefied, pressurized gases. The variable parameters were the initial superheat, the filling level, the height of the flask above ground, and the relative humidity of the surrounding air. It was found that the initial flashing process is not determined by homogeneous nucleation, but rather by surface instabilities which lead to an evaporation wave traveling from the initial surface towards the center of the released mass. Cloud shape and expansion velocity could be determined from high speed recordings covering the initial stage of the release during which gravity has no influence. When the internal energy was sufficient, it was observed that the expanding droplet/vapor cloud initially propagated spherically with a constant expansion velocity, until Rayleigh-Taylor type instabilities appeared at its surface. Information about the pool which can be formed on the ground, the pressure decay within the flask, the droplet size, and the cloud temperature was collected. The experimental findings for the expansion velocity, as well as for the pool fraction, were the base for a nondimensional analysis leading to correlations which describe the initial phase of such releases and can be used to define the ''source term'' for turbulent dispersion models. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs

  15. Transformation of Follicular Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossos, Izidore S.; Gascoyne, Randy D.

    2011-01-01

    Histological transformation of follicular lymphoma (FL) to a more aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas is a pivotal event in the natural history of FL and is associated with poor outcome. While commonly observed in clinical practice and despite multiple studies designed to address its pathogenesis, the biology of this process represents an enigma. In this chapter we present a state of the art review summarizing the definition of histologic transformation, its incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcome. Furthermore, we specifically emphasize gaps in our knowledge that should be addressed in future studies. PMID:21658615

  16. The initial phase of sudden releases of superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidli, J.

    1994-04-01

    The catastrophic failure of a pressure vessel containing a liquefied substance, leading to an instantaneous release of its whole contents is considered as one of the major technological hazards. Due to the rapid depressurization caused by vessel failure, the fluid becomes superheated and unstable. Part of the fluid will evaporate using its internal energy and the two-phase mixture forming will be accelerated. This flashing process can be very violent, as experiments and incidents actually happened have shown. In the past, a number of dispersion models were developed to predict the history of an instantaneous release. In most of these models the source term is considered to be a gas volume at rest and not a rapidly expanding aerosol, as could be observed. Furthermore, it is usually assumed that all of the remaining fluid is entrained into the expanding cloud and nothing is deposited on the ground to form a pool. This work concentrates on the initial phase of the sudden release of superheated liquids with the aim to gain a better understanding of the flashing process and of the physical mechanisms involved, leading to a reliable prediction of the source term. Therefore, more than 400 experiments with propane, butane, refrigerant 12 and 114 were conducted. The experiments were initiated by shattering spherical glass flasks of different sizes. The main parameters varied were the liquid superheat and the filling level of the vessel. Using high-speed video and movie recordings and very fast responding measurement devices, it was possible to study the initial phase of such releases during which gravity plays no role. For sufficiently large released internal energy, the initial evolution of the release was always spherical with a constant radial expansion velocity during he first milliseconds until instabilities appeared at the surface of the droplet/vapor cloud that was formed. For all the experimental conditions, the fraction of the initial liquid falling on the ground

  17. Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, N.L.; Gordon, M.; Germann, E.; Robins, R.E.; McGregor, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned

  18. Phase Startup Initiative Phases 3 and 4 Test Plan and Test Specification (OCRWM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.; LANGEVIN, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Construction for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities is continuing per the Level III Baseline Schedule, and installation of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) and Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) in K West Basin is now complete. In order to accelerate the project, a phased start up strategy to initiate testing of the FRS and IWTS early in the overall project schedule was proposed (Williams 1999). Wilkinson (1999) expands the definition of the original proposal into four functional testing phases of the Phased Startup Initiative (PSI). Phases 1 and 2 are based on performing functional tests using dummy fuel. This test plan provides overall guidance for Phase 3 and 4 tests, which are performed using actual irradiated N fuel assemblies. The overall objective of the Phase 3 and 4 testing is to verify how the FRS and IWTS respond while processing actual fuel. Conducting these tests early in the project schedule will allow identification and resolution of equipment and process problems before they become activities on the start-up critical path. The specific objectives of this test plan are to: Define the Phase 3 and 4 test scope for the FRS and IWTS; Provide detailed test requirements that can be used to write the specific test procedures; Define data required and measurements to be taken. Where existing methods to obtain these do not exist, enough detail will be provided to define required additional equipment; and Define specific test objectives and acceptance criteria

  19. Phase Startup Initiative Phases 3 and 4 Test Plan and Test Specification ( OCRWM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.; LANGEVIN, M.J.

    2000-08-07

    Construction for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities is continuing per the Level III Baseline Schedule, and installation of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) and Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) in K West Basin is now complete. In order to accelerate the project, a phased start up strategy to initiate testing of the FRS and IWTS early in the overall project schedule was proposed (Williams 1999). Wilkinson (1999) expands the definition of the original proposal into four functional testing phases of the Phased Startup Initiative (PSI). Phases 1 and 2 are based on performing functional tests using dummy fuel. This test plan provides overall guidance for Phase 3 and 4 tests, which are performed using actual irradiated N fuel assemblies. The overall objective of the Phase 3 and 4 testing is to verify how the FRS and IWTS respond while processing actual fuel. Conducting these tests early in the project schedule will allow identification and resolution of equipment and process problems before they become activities on the start-up critical path. The specific objectives of this test plan are to: Define the Phase 3 and 4 test scope for the FRS and IWTS; Provide detailed test requirements that can be used to write the specific test procedures; Define data required and measurements to be taken. Where existing methods to obtain these do not exist, enough detail will be provided to define required additional equipment; and Define specific test objectives and acceptance criteria.

  20. Immunotherapy with rituximab in follicular lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguna, Carmen; Mut, Ileana Delia; Lupu, Anca Roxana; Tevet, Mihaela; Bumbea, Horia; Dragan, Cornel

    2011-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) represent a recent and fascinating domain of hemato-oncology, in which remarkable progress has been made. The conventional treatments of indolent lymphomas do not extend the survival rate, nor do they cure. Recent directions are centered on using several new drugs that are capable of overcoming the mechanisms that are resistant to recovery. The initiation of immunotherapy (Rituximab in 1997) seems to have changed the natural evolution of follicular lymphomas (FL). It is possible that resistance to healing in follicular lymphomas may be neutralized with Rituximab by suppressing STAT-1 positive macrophages that are present in the cellular microenvironment.Thereinafter, the re-evaluation of recent models of prognostic and therapeutic paradigmas that were used in FL became compulsory.The purpose of the paper is to compare the evolution of patients with follicular lymphoma and the period of response, according to the treatments. The study group consisted of the 71 patients diagnosed with follicular lymphoma, out of a total of 767 malignant lymphatic proliferations with B cells, for a period of 7 years (2002-2008), at the Hematology Department, Hospital Coltea, Bucharest and Hematology Department, Universitary Hospital, BucharestResults and conclusions: Combining chemotherapy with Rituximab had better results compared to the same chemotherapy, administered alone, both in induction and in case of relapse. The overall response rate in our study group was 74.7%, out of which 42.3% complete remissions. The overall response rate was 84.61% in the Rituximab group, compared to 68.88% in patients without Rituximab.

  1. Influence of initial conditions on rod behaviour during boiling crisis phase following a reactivity initiated accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgenthum, V.; Sugiyama, T.

    2010-01-01

    In the frame of their research programs on high burn-up fuel safety, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) performed a large set of tests devoted to the study of PWR fuel rod behavior during Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) respectively in the CABRI reactor and in the NSRR reactor. The reactor test conditions are different in terms of coolant nature, temperature and pressure. In the CABRI reactor, tests were performed until now with sodium coolant at 280 Celsius degrees and 3 bar. In the NSRR reactor most of the tests were performed with stagnant water at 20 C. degrees and atmospheric pressure but recently a new high temperature high pressure capsule has been developed which allows to performed tests at up to 280 Celsius degrees and 70 bar. The paper discusses the influence of test conditions on rod behaviour during boiling phase, based on tests results and SCANAIR code calculations. The study shows that when the boiling crisis is reached, the initial inner and outer rod pressure have an essential impact on the clad straining and possible ballooning. The analysis of the different test conditions makes it possible to discriminate the influence of initial conditions on the different phases of the transient and is useful for modelling and code development. (authors)

  2. Initial laboratory evaluation of color video cameras: Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, P.L.

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video cameras used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. The monochrome cameras were selected over color cameras because they have greater sensitivity and resolution. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color camera technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories has established an on-going program to evaluate the newest color solid-state cameras. Phase One of the Sandia program resulted in the SAND91-2579/1 report titled: Initial Laboratory Evaluation of Color Video Cameras. The report briefly discusses imager chips, color cameras, and monitors, describes the camera selection, details traditional test parameters and procedures, and gives the results reached by evaluating 12 cameras. Here, in Phase Two of the report, we tested 6 additional cameras using traditional methods. In addition, all 18 cameras were tested by newly developed methods. This Phase 2 report details those newly developed test parameters and procedures, and evaluates the results.

  3. Phased Startup Initiative Phases 3 and 4 Test Plan and Test Specification (OCRWM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITNER, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Construction for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities is continuing per the Level III Baseline Schedule, and installation of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) and Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) in K West Basin is now complete. In order to accelerate the project, a phased start up strategy to initiate testing of the FRS and IWTS early in the overall project schedule was proposed (Williams 1999). Wilkinson (1999) expands the definition of the original proposal into four functional testing phases of the Phased Startup Initiative (PSI). Phases 1 and 2 are based on performing functional tests using dummy fuel. These tests are described in separate planning documents. This test plan provides overall guidance for Phase 3 and 4 tests, which are performed using actual irradiated N fuel assemblies. The overall objective of the Phase 3 and 4 testing is to verify how the FRS and IWTS respond while processing actual fuel. Conducting these tests early in the project schedule will allow identification and resolution of equipment and process problems before they become activities on the start-up critical path. The specific objectives of this test plan are to: (1) Define the test scope for the FRS and IWTS; (2) Provide detailed test requirements that can be used to write the specific test procedures; (3) Define data required and measurements to be taken. Where existing methods to obtain these do not exist, enough detail will be provided to define required additional equipment; and (4) Define specific test objectives and acceptance criteria

  4. Determination and demarcation of fatigue crack initiation phase in rotating bending condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, R.A.; Rehman, K.; Shah, M.

    2012-01-01

    In engineering applications, components often experience cyclic loading and therefore, have crack initiation propagation phase. In this research work experimental demarcation of fatigue crack initiation has been investigated. Initiation phase of fatigue life of Aluminium was determined by using single and two step fatigue loading test on four point rotating bending fatigue testing machine. Experimental data is used to determine the distinction between the initiation and propagation phase. Initiation phase is determined at different stress levels. The obtained results demonstrate the effect of stress level on initiation phase and propagation phase. (author)

  5. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with follicular mucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular mucinosis occurring along with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils (ALHE has been described in a 54-year-old female. The patient presented with pruritic erythematous papules on the left frontoparietal scalp. Histopathological examination showed prominent blood vessels in the dermis lined by plump histiocytoid endothelial cells that were surrounded by a dense lymphoid infiltrate with numerous eosinophils; these findings are typical of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils. Features of follicular mucinosis were observed in the same section with several hyperplastic follicular infundibula containing pools of mucin in the infundibular epithelium. The concurrent occurrence of these two distinct histopathological patterns in the same biopsy specimen has been described in only three cases to date.

  6. Individualized management of follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Huang, Hui-Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent non-hodgkin lymphoma. Most patients with FL are diagnosed with advanced disease and are considered incurable. The classical prognostic index in FL is the FL international prognostic index (FLIPI). The management of FL is mainly determined by histologic grading, clinical stage, and tumor burden. For patients with stage I and II disease, an involved-site radiation therapy (ISRT) is recommended and may be potentially curative approach with 60% to 80% of 10-year overall survival (OS) rates, while patients with stage III and IV should be treated with systemic therapy. The watchful waiting is still an option for patients without symptoms or/and low tumor burden. Induction of immuno-chemotherapy combined with consolidation of rituximab maintenance (MR) is standard care for patients with symptomatic disease or with high tumor burden when treatment indicated. The major indication for systemic therapy is including candidate for clinical trials, threatened end organ function, cytopenia secondary to lymphoma bulky disease and steady progress etc. at present time. Routine baseline and regular hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) testing is strongly recommended for all patients before the initiation of immuno-chemotherapy in order to minimize the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation which has been observed approximately 20% to 50% of patients with positive HBsAg and 3% to 45% of patients with positive HBcAb. Prophylactic antiviral treatment in patients who are HBsAg-positive or HBcAb-positive is indicated before immuno-chemotherapy. The management for elderly patients should be carefully selected to avoid overtreatment and severe toxicities. Individualized dose adjustment for chemotherapy and an adequate supportive treatment are essential for this special population. Novel agents such as lenalidomide, ibrutinib and idelalisib are promising. In conclusion, individualized management

  7. Long-term safety and outcome of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone (FCM) regimen in previously untreated patients with advanced follicular lymphoma: 12 years follow-up of a phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Laura; Montoto, Silvia; González-Barca, Eva; Briones, Javier; Sancho, Juan Manuel; Muntañola, Ana; Salar, Antonio; Besalduch, Joan; Escoda, Lourdes; Moreno, Carol; Domingo-Domenech, Eva; Estany, Cristina; Oriol, Albert; Altés, Albert; Pedro, Carmen; Gardella, Santiago; Asensio, Antoni; Vivancos, Pilar; Fernández de Sevilla, Alberto; Ribera, Josep María; Colomer, Dolors; Campo, Elias; López-Guillermo, Armando

    2017-04-01

    Fludarabine combinations are very affective in follicular lymphoma (FL) with high rates of complete response and prolonged survival. However, late toxicities could be a concern. The aim of the present study was to analyze the long-term impact on survival, relapse and late toxicities of a trial of treatment with fludarabine, mitoxantrone and cyclophosphamide (FCM regimen) for untreated patients with advanced stage FL. One hundred and twenty patients enrolled in a phase 2 trial of treatment with FCM regimen between 2000 and 2003 were evaluated. After a median follow-up of 12 years, 52 patients eventually relapsed/progressed with 10 year progression-free survival (PFS) of 46 %. Ten patients showed histological transformation to aggressive lymphoma with a risk of transformation of 2 and 9 % at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Three patients developed therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML) and seven solid neoplasms with an overall risk of 3 and 8 % at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Twenty-six patients eventually died during the follow-up. Overall survival at 10 years was 83 %. In conclusion, FCM regimen allows excellent long-lasting response in previously untreated patients with FL. The incidence of late events including histological transformation and secondary neoplasia is low but not negligible.

  8. Housing decision making methods for initiation development phase process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah; Sarpin, Norliana; Wee, Seow Ta; Shamsudin, Zarina

    2017-10-01

    Late delivery and sick housing project problems were attributed to poor decision making. These problems are the string of housing developer that prefers to create their own approach based on their experiences and expertise with the simplest approach by just applying the obtainable standards and rules in decision making. This paper seeks to identify the decision making methods for housing development at the initiation phase in Malaysia. The research involved Delphi method by using questionnaire survey which involved 50 numbers of developers as samples for the primary stage of collect data. However, only 34 developers contributed to the second stage of the information gathering process. At the last stage, only 12 developers were left for the final data collection process. Finding affirms that Malaysian developers prefer to make their investment decisions based on simple interpolation of historical data and using simple statistical or mathematical techniques in producing the required reports. It was suggested that they seemed to skip several important decision-making functions at the primary development stage. These shortcomings were mainly due to time and financial constraints and the lack of statistical or mathematical expertise among the professional and management groups in the developer organisations.

  9. Follicular lymphoma international prognostic index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solal-Céligny, Philippe; Roy, Pascal; Colombat, Philippe; White, Josephine; Armitage, Jim O.; Arranz-Saez, Reyes; Au, Wing Y.; Bellei, Monica; Brice, Pauline; Caballero, Dolores; Coiffier, Bertrand; Conde-Garcia, Eulogio; Doyen, Chantal; Federico, Massimo; Fisher, Richard I.; Garcia-Conde, Javier F.; Guglielmi, Cesare; Hagenbeek, Anton; Haïoun, Corinne; LeBlanc, Michael; Lister, Andrew T.; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; McLaughlin, Peter; Milpied, Noël; Morel, Pierre; Mounier, Nicolas; Proctor, Stephen J.; Rohatiner, Ama; Smith, Paul; Soubeyran, Pierre; Tilly, Hervé; Vitolo, Umberto; Zinzani, Pier-Luigi; Zucca, Emanuele; Montserrat, Emili

    2004-01-01

    The prognosis of follicular lymphomas (FL) is heterogeneous and numerous treatments may be proposed. A validated prognostic index (PI) would help in evaluating and choosing these treatments. Characteristics at diagnosis were collected from 4167 patients with FL diagnosed between 1985 and 1992.

  10. Prognostic factors of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Ferri, Belén; Martínez-Barba, Enrique; Torregrosa, Núria M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    Most prognostic studies in differentiated carcinoma have included a high number of papillary carcinomas and few follicular carcinomas, and not all of their conclusions therefore apply to the latter. To analyze the prognostic factors of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Patients with histological diagnosis of follicular carcinoma who had undergone potentially curative surgery, had no disseminated disease at diagnosis, and had been followed up for at least 5 years. Tumor recurrence was defined as: 1) tumor lesions with cytological analysis suggesting malignancy and/or 2) patients with total thyroidectomy with thyroglobulin levels >2 ng/mL. Clinical, therapeutic, and histological parameters were analyzed to assess prognostic factors. Recurrence was found in 25 (38%) of the 66 study patients during a follow-up period of 99 ± 38 months. Most patients with recurrence (n=20) had increased Tg levels without anatomical location, and were initially treated with radioactive I131. In the remaining 5 cases, surgical excision of the lesion was performed, and three patients required surgery during the follow-up period. Two patients died due to the disease (3%), and two other patients (3%) currently have distant metastases. Mean disease-free interval was 154 ± 14 months, and rates of disease-free patients at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 71, 58, 58, and 58% respectively. Clinical factors influencing recurrence included 1) age (p=0.0035); 2) sex (p=0.0114); and 3) cervical pain (p=0.0026). Histological/surgical factors associated with recurrence included 1) infiltration into neighboring structures (p=0.0000); 2) type of carcinoma (p=0.0000); 3) size (p=0.0162); 4) vascular invasion (p=0.0085); and 5) adenopathies (p=0.046). In the multivariate study, cervical pain (p=0.018) and extrathyroid invasion (p=0.045) continued to be significant factors. In follicular carcinoma, rates of disease-free patients are 71% at 5 years and 58% at 10 years, and the main predictive factors are presence

  11. Preliminary findings suggest hidradenitis suppurativa may be due to defective follicular support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danby, F W; Jemec, G B E; Marsch, W Ch

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The initial pathology in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS)/acne inversa takes place in the folliculopilosebaceous unit (FPSU) and its surrounding tissue. The process involves follicular hyperkeratosis, inflammation and perifolliculitis. Identification of the exact origin of inflammation m...

  12. Hyperthyroidism with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.N.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Bower, B.F.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A 70-yr-old woman presented with hyperthyroidism and metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. The blood level of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSIg) was elevated. A total thyroidectomy was performed. One month later she remained hyperthyroid. Three weeks after therapy with 218 mCi of I-131 sodium iodide, the patient was euthyroid. Six months after the initial radioiodide therapy, she was again hyperthyroid and was given a second oral treatment dose of I-131 (220 mCi). Five months later, the patient had again become euthyroid. It is likely that initially the woman's metastases were producing sufficient hormone to render her hyperthyroid. After thyroidectomy and two large doses of radioiodide, she has remained euthyroid without having to take exogenous hormone

  13. FDG-PET in Follicular Lymphoma Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bodet-Milin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 18-Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerised tomography (FDG PET/CT is commonly used in the management of patients with lymphomas and is recommended for both initial staging and response assessment after treatment in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite the FDG avidity of follicular lymphoma (FL, FDG PET/CT is not yet applied in standard clinical practice for patients with FL. However, FDG PET/CT is more accurate than conventional imaging for initial staging, often prompting significant management change, and allows noninvasive characterization to guide assessment of high-grade transformation. For restaging, FDG PET/CT assists in distinguishing between scar tissue and viable tumors in residual masses and a positive PET after induction treatment would seem to predict a shorter progression-free survival.

  14. Small modular biopower initiative Phase 1 feasibility studies executive summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, R.

    2000-03-06

    The Phase 1 objective is a feasibility study that includes a market assessment, resource assessment, preliminary system design, and assessment of relevant environmental and safety considerations, and evaluation of financial and cost issues, and a preliminary business plan and commercialization strategy. Each participating company will share at least 20% of the cost of the first phase.

  15. Least Squares Estimate of the Initial Phases in STFT based Speech Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Krawczyk-Becker, Martin; Gerkmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider single-channel speech enhancement in the short time Fourier transform (STFT) domain. We suggest to improve an STFT phase estimate by estimating the initial phases. The method is based on the harmonic model and a model for the phase evolution over time. The initial phases...... are estimated by setting up a least squares problem between the noisy phase and the model for phase evolution. Simulations on synthetic and speech signals show a decreased error on the phase when an estimate of the initial phase is included compared to using the noisy phase as an initialisation. The error...... on the phase is decreased at input SNRs from -10 to 10 dB. Reconstructing the signal using the clean amplitude, the mean squared error is decreased and the PESQ score is increased....

  16. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on follicular recruitment, depletion of follicular reserve, and ovarian morphology in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter; Steckler, Teresa L; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess programs an array of adult reproductive disorders including luteinizing hormone excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, polycystic ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction, culminating in early reproductive failure. Polycystic ovarian morphology originates from enhanced follicular recruitment and follicular persistence. We tested to determine whether prenatal testosterone treatment, by its androgenic actions, enhances follicular recruitment, causes early depletion of follicular reserve, and disrupts the ovarian architecture. Pregnant sheep were given twice-weekly injections of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonaromatizable androgen, from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Ovaries were obtained from Day-90 and Day-140 fetuses, and from 10-mo-old females during a synchronized follicular phase (n = 5-9 per treatment). Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in ovarian follicle/germ cell populations. Results revealed no differences in numbers of oocytes and follicles between the three groups on Fetal Day 90. Greater numbers of early growing follicles were found in prenatal testosterone- and DHT-treated fetuses on Day 140. Increased numbers of growing follicles and reduced numbers of primordial follicles were found in 10-mo-old, prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not in those treated with DHT. Antral follicles of prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not those treated with DHT, manifested several abnormalities, which included the appearance of hemorrhagic and luteinized follicles and abnormal early antrum formation. Both treatment groups showed morphological differences in the rete ovarii. These findings suggest that increased follicular recruitment and morphologic changes in the rete ovarii of prenatal testosterone-treated females are facilitated by androgenic programming, but that postpubertal follicular growth, antral follicular disruptions, and follicular depletion largely

  17. Advances in the management of follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Till M; Hiddemann, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    Antibody-based therapy has revolutionized treatment strategies in follicular lymphoma. This review focuses on current standards and recent innovations in the management of the disease. Understanding the mechanism of action of antibodies led to the development of next generation CD20 antibodies, antibodies targeting other molecules and bispecific antibodies. With obinutuzumab, a promising next generation of CD20 antibodies has entered phase III of clinical trials. The bispecific T-cell engager blinatumomab combines targeted therapy with immunologic activation of T cells exerting cytotoxic activity on the target cells. Apart from antibodies, small molecules targeting key pathways in lymphoma have shown promising activity in vitro and are currently in clinical development. A wealth of new substances has entered various stages of clinical trials and has yet to show superiority over rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. Intelligent therapeutic regimens containing these drugs have to be developed. Large randomized trials comparing promising treatment options are urgently needed.

  18. Think Tank Initiative Phase 2: Strengthening Research Capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Public policies work best when local actors design and implement them. ... that can do the ongoing research and analysis needed to effect improvements over time. ... to enable think tanks to improve organizational performance, research quality, and ... New initiative to further global sustainable development goals in health.

  19. Manifestation of interplanetary medium parameters in development of a geomagnetic storm initial phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chkhetiya, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The role of solar wind plasma parameters in formation of a geomagnetic storm initial phase is refined. On the basis of statistical analysis an empirical formula relating the interplanetary medium parameters (components of interplanetary magnetic field, proton velocity and concentration) and D st -index during the geomagnetic storm initial phase is proposed

  20. Intraovarian markers of follicular and oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, A; Diamond, M P; DeCherney, A H; Naftolin, F

    1987-08-01

    The use of ovulation induction for multiple follicular growth in in vitro fertilization (IVF) has introduced the problem of follicular asynchrony. As a consequence of the asynchrony, the parameters most commonly used by IVF groups to assess follicular and oocyte quality within those follicles are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Thus, each follicle must be considered separately, and specific markers of follicular and/or oocyte maturation must be sought from within the follicle. In this review we analyze previous reports of potential markers of follicular and oocyte maturation. In regards to the follicular fluid constituents, the level of estradiol in follicular fluid correlates with fertilization and pregnancy in stimulated cycles. Other steroids are only helpful when specific stimulation protocols are used. The level of some follicular proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin and fibrinogen also correlates with fertilization and pregnancy outcome. Cyclic AMP levels in follicular fluid are significantly reduced in follicles leading to conception. Regulators of oocyte maturation, such as the Oocyte Maturation Inhibitor (OMI) or the Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) have also been correlated with IVF outcome, but their exact structure remains still unknown. In addition, other sophisticated parameters, such as chemotactic activity of human leukocytes, or simple methods, such as the presence of intrafollicular echoes, have also been used as successful markers in predicting IVF outcome.

  1. Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, R.; Rossing, M.; Henao, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The molecular pathways leading to thyroid follicular neoplasia are incompletely understood, and the diagnosis of follicular tumors is a clinical challenge. To provide leads to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the tumors, we examined the global transcriptome signatures of follicular thyroid...... a mechanism for cancer progression, which is why we exploited the results in order to generate a molecular classifier that could identify 95% of all carcinomas. Validation employing public domain and cross-platform data demonstrated that the signature was robust and could diagnose follicular nodules...... and robust genetic signature for the diagnosis of FA and FC. Endocrine-Related Cancer (2010) 17 691-708...

  2. The Significance Ultrasonography on the Evaluation of Ovarian Follicular Maturity and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kab Tae; Kim, Ok Keun; Lee, Seok Hong; Kim, Tae Seon; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Ovarian follicular diameter was measured using real time ultrasound in 21 hyperstimulated patients from April to September 1986. And we analyzed the relation between the size measured with ultrasonography and maturity observed under the phased microscopy, the correlation between aspirated dominant follicular volume and the dominant follicular volume calculated by the size measured with ultrasonography. Also we experienced the conditions which showed the ultrasonographic finding similar to that of follicle. The results were as follows: 1. The mean follicular diameter increased in a linear fashion from 7 days after LMP (9.4mm+2.8)to the one day before ovum pick up(18.2+2.8). 2. The mean diameter of the most appropriate dominant follicle was 19.08+1.23mm 3. The correlation between the dominant follicular volume measured with ultrasonography and aspirated follicular volume during ovum pick up was highly significant(r=0.94;0<0.001). 4. during follicular growth and maturity monitoring the conditions which misdiagnosed of follicle were simple ovarian cyst(1 case), hydrosalpinx (1 case), endometriosis(1 case), tubo-ovarian abscess(1 case), Hydatid of Morgagni(1 case)

  3. Steroid hormones content and proteomic analysis of canine follicular fluid during the preovulatory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaud Karine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicular fluid contains substances involved in follicle activity, cell differentiation and oocyte maturation. Studies of its components may contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms underlying follicular development and oocyte quality. The canine species is characterized by several ovarian activity features that are not extensively described such as preovulatory luteinization, oocyte ovulated at the GV stage (prophase 1 and poly-oocytic follicles. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that the preovulatory LH surge is associated with changes in steroid and protein content of canine follicular fluid prior to ovulation. Methods Follicular fluid samples were collected from canine ovaries during the preovulatory phase, before (pre-LH; n = 16 bitches and after (post-LH; n = 16 the LH surge. Blood was simultaneously collected. Steroids were assayed by radioimmunoassay and proteomic analyses were carried out by 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Results The concentrations of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone at the pre-LH stage were 737.2 +/- 43.5 ng/ml and 2630.1 +/- 287.2 ng/ml in follicular fluid vs. 53 +/- 4.1 pg/ml and 3.9 +/- 0.3 ng/ml in plasma, respectively. At that stage, significant positive correlations between follicular size and intra-follicular steroid concentrations were recorded. After the LH peak, the intrafollicular concentration of 17beta-estradiol decreased significantly (48.3 +/- 4.4 ng/ml; p Proteomic analysis of canine follicular fluid identified 38 protein spots, corresponding to 21 proteins, some of which are known to play roles in the ovarian physiology. The comparison of 2D-PAGE patterns of follicular fluids from the pre- and post-LH stages demonstrated 3 differentially stained single spot or groups of spots. One of them was identified as complement factor B. A comparison of follicular fluid and plasma protein patterns demonstrated a group of 4 spots that were more concentrated in plasma than

  4. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamma RN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rehab Nabil Shamma, Mona Hassan AburahmaDepartment of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Spironolactone (SL is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules for treatment of hair and scalp disorders using nanocolloidal lipid-based delivery systems to minimize unnecessary systemic side effects associated with oral drug administration. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to improve SL efficiency and safety in treating alopecia through the preparation of colloidal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs for follicular drug delivery. SL-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method using 23 full factorial design. All of the prepared formulations were spherical in shape with nanometric size range (215.6–834.3 nm and entrapment efficiency >74%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and X-ray diffractograms revealed that SL exists in amorphous form within the NLC matrices. The drug release behavior from the NLCs displayed an initial burst release phase followed by sustained release of SL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential of delivering the fluorolabeled NLCs within the follicles, suggesting the possibility of using SL-loaded NLCs for localized delivery of SL into the scalp hair follicles.Keywords: spironolactone, androgenic alopecia, nanostructured lipid carriers, follicular targeting, confocal laser scanning microscopy

  5. 25 CFR 1000.168 - Is it mandatory to go through the information phase before initiating the negotiation phase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is it mandatory to go through the information phase before initiating the negotiation phase? 1000.168 Section 1000.168 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN...

  6. Management of untreated advanced stage follicular lymphoma: Role of patient discernment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Jayadev Manikkam; Lunning, Mathew A

    2018-03-01

    Follicular lymphoma is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Advanced stage disease is common at diagnosis. The timing of treatment for follicular lymphoma is best approached by considering the combination of presence or absence of symptoms along with estimation of tumor burden. Upfront treatment strategies should take into initial presentation variables, pace of disease progression and goals of care after discussion with the patient. Treatment approaches remain diverse and patient discernment is paramount. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  8. The relationship of luteinizing hormone secretion to sleep in women during the early follicular phase: effects of sleep reversal and a prolonged three-hour sleep-wake schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapen, S; Boyar, R; Hellman, L; Weitzman, E D

    1976-06-01

    The relationship of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion to sleep in adult women was investigated in two ways: an acute 180 degrees sleep-wake cycle reversal in a group of six women and a schedule in which a young woman engaged in a three hour sleep-wake cycle (two hours awake, one hour allowed for sleep continuously for ten days--the study was carried out on the eighth day). Each subject in the reversal study had a baseline period during which plasma samples were collected every twenty minutes for twenty-four hours and nocturnal sleep was monitored electrophysiologically during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. During a succeeding cycle, the study was repeated after sleep-wake reversal. LH secretory patterns were analyzed by comparing the 24-hour mean plasma LH concentration with the hourly averages in percentage terms, using Stage 2 sleep onset as the zero point. LH secretion was depressed to approximately the same degree in both the baseline and reversal studies. The average hourly percentage difference from the 24-hour mean for the four-hour period following sleep onset was -13.4% and -13.1% for the baseline and reversal, respectively. These percentage deviations represented practically the entire negative deviation for the 24-hour period in both studies. The difference between the first four-hour period after sleep onset and the second was significant. The subject on a three-hour cycle had a baseline in which a large decrease in LH secretion occurred after sleep onset (-52.2% during the third hour). Her LH secretory pattern during the three-hour sleep-wake schedule was characterized by a fall during sleep periods, particularly when slow wave sleep (SWS) predominated. However, no correlation was found between specific sleep stages and LH secretion in the six women of the reversal study. These results confirm a relationship of LH secretion to sleep in adult women, one which is different from that described during puberty.

  9. Ultrasound cylindrical phased array for transoesophageal thermal therapy: initial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melodelima, David; Lafon, Cyril; Prat, Frederic; Birer, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of constructing a cylindrical phased array composed of 64 elements spread around the periphery (OD 10.6 mm) for transoesophageal ultrasound thermotherapy. The underlying operating principle of this applicator is to rotate a plane ultrasound beam electronically. For this purpose, eight adjacent transducers were successively excited with appropriate delay times so as to generate a plane wave. The exposure direction was changed by exciting a different set of eight elements. For these feasibility studies, we used a cylindrical prototype (OD 10.6 mm) composed of 16 elementary transducers distributed over a quarter of the cylinder, all operating at 4.55 MHz. The active part was mechanically reinforced by a rigid damper structure behind the transducers. It was shown that an ultrasound field similar to that emitted by a plane transducer could be generated. Ex vivo experiments on pig's liver demonstrated that the ultrasound beam could be accurately rotated to generate sector-based lesions to a suitable depth (up to 19 mm). Throughout these experiments, exposures lasting 20 s were delivered at an acoustic intensity of 17 W cm -2 . By varying the power from exposure to exposure, the depth of the lesion at different angles could be controlled

  10. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Rehab Nabil; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Spironolactone (SL) is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules for treatment of hair and scalp disorders using nanocolloidal lipid-based delivery systems to minimize unnecessary systemic side effects associated with oral drug administration. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to improve SL efficiency and safety in treating alopecia through the preparation of colloidal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for follicular drug delivery. SL-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method using 23 full factorial design. All of the prepared formulations were spherical in shape with nanometric size range (215.6-834.3 nm) and entrapment efficiency >74%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and X-ray diffractograms revealed that SL exists in amorphous form within the NLC matrices. The drug release behavior from the NLCs displayed an initial burst release phase followed by sustained release of SL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential of delivering the fluorolabeled NLCs within the follicles, suggesting the possibility of using SL-loaded NLCs for localized delivery of SL into the scalp hair follicles.

  11. Adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimena, P; Castilla, J A; Peran, F; Ramirez, J P; Vergara, F; Molina, R; Vergara, F; Herruzo, A

    1992-11-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones may affect gonadal function. To assess the role of some adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid and their relationship with the ability of the oocyte to be fertilized and then to cleave in vitro, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured in follicular fluid obtained at the time of oocyte recovery for in vitro fertilization from cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. Thirty-six follicular fluid containing mature oocyte-corona-cumulus complexes and free of visible blood contamination were included in this study. There was no significant difference in follicular fluid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration between follicles with oocytes which did or did not fertilize (5.1 +/- 1.1 vs 5.8 +/- 2.0 mumol/l). However, follicular fluid from follicles whose oocytes were not fertilized had levels of cortisol significantly higher than those in follicular fluid from follicles containing successfully fertilized oocytes (406.0 +/- 75.9 vs 339.2 +/- 37.0 nmol/l; p < 0.005). No significant correlations were found between rates of embryo cleavage and cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in follicular fluid. We conclude that cortisol levels in follicular fluid may provide an index of fertilization outcome, at least in stimulated cycles by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin.

  12. Energy status and ovarian follicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Li

    2016-01-01

    Female reproduction is tightly linked to body energy status and it has become increasingly clear that disturbed energy metabolism can negatively affect reproductive performance. Nevertheless, the way how a disturbed energy status affects ovarian follicular reserve as well as follicular

  13. Association between follicular tracheitis and gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Melanie; Meier, Jeremy; Asfour, Fadi; Jackson, Daniel; Grimmer, J Fredrik; Muntz, Harlan R; Park, Albert H

    2016-03-01

    Follicular tracheitis (also known as tracheal cobblestoning) is an entity that is poorly described and of unclear significance. The objective of this study was to better define follicular tracheitis and determine the association between the clinical finding of follicular tracheitis on bronchoscopy and objective evidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Retrospective chart review of children with recurrent croup having undergone a rigid bronchoscopy and an investigation for gastroesophageal reflux between 2001 and 2013. 117 children with recurrent croup children age 6-144 months were included in the study. Follicular tracheitis was noted on 41% of all bronchoscopies. Fifty-nine percent of all children who underwent bronchoscopy were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux on at least one investigation. Forty-nine of 117 children underwent a pH probe study, and 51% were found to have evidence of reflux on this study. Nine children were diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis. Three patients underwent a biopsy of the follicular tracheitis lesions, which revealed chronic inflammation. There was no evidence of an association between findings of follicular tracheitis and a positive test for gastroesophageal reflux (p=0.52) or a positive pH probe study (p=0.64). There was no association between follicular tracheitis and subglottic stenosis (p=0.33) or an history of asthma and/or atopy (p=0.19). In children with recurrent croup, follicular tracheitis remains an unspecific finding associated with an inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Small and medium power reactors: project initiation study, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    In conformity with the Agency's promotional role in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, IAEA has provided, over the past 20 years, assistance to Member States, particularly developing countries, in planning for the introduction of nuclear power plants in the Small and Medium range (SMPR). However these efforts did not produce any significant results in the market introduction of these reactors, due to various factors. In 1983 the Agency launched a new SMPR Project Initiation Study with the objective of surveying the available designs, examining the major factors influencing the decision-making processes in Developing Countries and thereby arriving at an estimate of the potential market. Two questionnaires were used to obtain information from possible suppliers and prospective buyers. The Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD assisted in making a study of the potential market in industrialized countries. The information gained during the study and discussed during a Technical Committee Meeting on SMPRs held in Vienna in March 1985, along with the contribution by OECD-NEA is embodied in the present report

  15. Effect of atomic initial phase difference on spontaneous emission of an atom embedded in photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing, Zhang; Xiu-Dong, Sun; Xiang-Qian, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of initial phase difference between the two excited states of a V-type three-level atom on its steady state behaviour of spontaneous emission. A modified density of modes is introduced to calculate the spontaneous emission spectra in photonic crystal. Spectra in free space are also shown to compare with that in photonic crystal with different relative positions of the excited levels from upper band-edge frequency. It is found that the initial phase difference plays an important role in the quantum interference property between the two decay channels. For a zero initial phase, destructive property is presented in the spectra. With the increase of initial phase difference, quantum interference between the two decay channels from upper levels to ground level turns to be constructive. Furthermore, we give an interpretation for the property of these spectra. (atomic and molecular physics)

  16. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Manning, David A. [Children' s Hospital of New Orleans, Department of Radiology, New Orleans, LA (United States); Liptzin, Deborah R. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Pulmonology, Aurora, CO (United States); Krausert, Amanda J. [New Orleans Forensic Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the HRCT findings of follicular bronchiolitis in children and correlate these imaging findings with histopathology. A 5-year retrospective review of all pathology-proven cases of follicular bronchiolitis was performed. Inclusion criteria were age <18 years and an HRCT within 6 months of lung biopsy. HRCTs were reviewed by three observers and scored using the system previously described by Brody et al. Six patients met the inclusion criteria with age range at HRCT of 7-82 months (median: 39.5 months). Pulmonary nodules (n=6) were the most common HRCT finding followed by focal consolidation (n=5), bronchiectasis (n=4) and lymphadenopathy (n=3). Tree and bud opacities and nodules on CT correlated with interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates and discrete lymphoid follicles on pathology. The salient HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis are bilateral, lower lung zone predominant pulmonary nodules and bronchiectasis with infantile onset of symptoms. These characteristic HRCT findings help differentiate follicular bronchiolitis from other forms of infantile onset ILD. (orig.)

  18. HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P.; Manning, David A.; Liptzin, Deborah R.; Krausert, Amanda J.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the HRCT findings of follicular bronchiolitis in children and correlate these imaging findings with histopathology. A 5-year retrospective review of all pathology-proven cases of follicular bronchiolitis was performed. Inclusion criteria were age <18 years and an HRCT within 6 months of lung biopsy. HRCTs were reviewed by three observers and scored using the system previously described by Brody et al. Six patients met the inclusion criteria with age range at HRCT of 7-82 months (median: 39.5 months). Pulmonary nodules (n=6) were the most common HRCT finding followed by focal consolidation (n=5), bronchiectasis (n=4) and lymphadenopathy (n=3). Tree and bud opacities and nodules on CT correlated with interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates and discrete lymphoid follicles on pathology. The salient HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis are bilateral, lower lung zone predominant pulmonary nodules and bronchiectasis with infantile onset of symptoms. These characteristic HRCT findings help differentiate follicular bronchiolitis from other forms of infantile onset ILD. (orig.)

  19. Estrus behavior, ovarian dynamics, and progesterone secretion in Criollo cattle during estrous cycles with two and three follicular waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada-Casasola, Andrés; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Ramírez-Godínez, José Alejandro; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo

    2014-04-01

    In beef and dairy cattle, the number of follicular waves affects endocrine, ovarian, and behavioral events during a normal estrous cycle. However, in Mexican-native Criollo cattle, a shortly and recently domesticated breed, the association between wave patterns and follicular development has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of number of follicular waves in an estrous cycle on development of anovulatory and ovulatory follicles, corpus luteum (CL) development and functionality, as well as estrual behavior in Criollo cows. Ovarian follicular activities of 22 cycling multiparous Criollo cows were recorded daily by transrectal ultrasound examinations during a complete estrous cycle. Additionally, blood samples were collected daily to determine serum progesterone concentrations. Only two- (n = 17, 77.3%) and three-wave follicular (n = 5, 22.7%) patterns were observed. Duration of estrus, length of estrous cycle, and length of follicular and luteal phases were similar (P > 0.05) between cycles of two and three waves. Two-wave cows ovulated earlier (P 0.05) by number of waves. Growth rate of first dominant follicle was higher (P 0.05) between two- and three-wave patterns. In conclusion, Criollo cows have two or three follicular waves per estrous cycle, which alters partially ovulatory follicle development and ovulation time after detection of estrus. Length of estrous cycle, as well as CL development and functionality, was not affected by number of follicular waves.

  20. An alternative phase-space distribution to sample initial conditions for classical dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vela, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new quantum-type phase-space distribution is proposed in order to sample initial conditions for classical trajectory simulations. The phase-space distribution is obtained as the modulus of a quantum phase-space state of the system, defined as the direct product of the coordinate and momentum representations of the quantum initial state. The distribution is tested by sampling initial conditions which reproduce the initial state of the Ar-HCl cluster prepared by ultraviolet excitation, and by simulating the photodissociation dynamics by classical trajectories. The results are compared with those of a wave packet calculation, and with a classical simulation using an initial phase-space distribution recently suggested. A better agreement is found between the classical and the quantum predictions with the present phase-space distribution, as compared with the previous one. This improvement is attributed to the fact that the phase-space distribution propagated classically in this work resembles more closely the shape of the wave packet propagated quantum mechanically

  1. Initiator of carcinogenesis selectively and stably inhibits stem cell differentiation: a concept that initiation of carcinogenesis involves multiple phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.E.; Maercklein, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    A concept of carcinogenesis was recently devised in our laboratory that suggests the development of defects in the control of cell differentiation is associated with an early phase of carcinogenesis. To test this proposal directly, the effects of an initiator of carcinogenesis (i.e., UV irradiation) on proadipocyte stem cell differentiation and proliferation was assayed. In this regard, 3T3 T proadipocytes represent a nontransformed mesenchymal stem cell line that possesses the ability to regulate its differentiation at a distinct state in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle as well as the ability to regulate its proliferation at two additional G 1 states. The results establish that a slow dosage of 254 nm UV irradiation selectivity and stably inhibits the differentiation of a high percentage of proadipocyte stem cells without significantly altering their ability to regulate cellular proliferation in growth factor-deficient or nutrient-deficient culture conditions. Differentiation-defect proadipocyte stem cells are demonstrated not to be completely transformed but to show an increased spontaneous transformation rate, as evidenced by the formation of type III foci in high density cell cultures. These data support the role of defects in the control of differentiation in the inhibition of carcinogenesis. These observations support a concept that the initiation of carcinogenesis involves multiple phases

  2. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  3. Primary conjunctival follicular lymphoma mimicking chronic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador Velandia, S; García Lagarto, E; Saornil, M A; García Álvarez, C; Cuello, R; Diezhandino, P

    2016-02-01

    The case is presented of a 43 year-old male patient with chronic follicular conjunctivitis, negative bacterial serology, and refractory to local treatment. The incisional biopsy performed showed to be consistent with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. A year later, a new incisional biopsy showed follicular lymphoma, with no systemic involvement, and he was treated with local radiotherapy. When a chronic follicular conjunctivitis is refractory to treatment, it is essential to perform an incisional biopsy to establish the histopathological diagnosis that can range from chronic inflammation, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia to lymphoma. Follicular lymphoma is rare among conjunctival lymphomas, and the staging is indispensable for the correct therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct hair transplantation: A modified follicular unit extraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sethi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hair transplantation, the survival rate of harvested grafts depends upon many factors like maintenance of hydration, cold temperature, reduced mechanical handling and asepsis. All these factors are favourably improved if time out of body is reduced significantly. We have tried a modification called direct hair transplantation in the existing follicular unit extraction technique, in which the follicular unit grafts are implanted as soon as they are harvested. In this article, we have described the detailed methodology and a series of 29 patients who underwent direct hair transplantation. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of direct hair transplantation. Subjects and Methods: The patients willing to undergo hair transplantation by the technique of follicular unit extraction were enrolled for the surgery. After administration of local anaesthesia, the recipient sites were created. Thereafter, the processes of scoring the skin with a motorized punch, graft extraction and implantation were performed simultaneously. These patients were followed up to look for the time period of initiation of hair growth, the growth achieved at the end of 6-8 months and any adverse events. The results of patients with noticeable improvement in the photographs and reduction in baldness grade were taken as ′good′, whereas, in other patients, it was classified as ′poor′. Results: All patients were males with age ranging from 21 to 66 years (median 30 years. Twenty-six patients had androgenetic alopecia, 1 patient had traction alopecia and 2 patients had scarring alopecia. Twenty-seven patients showed ′good′ results, whereas 2 patients showed ′poor′ results. Conclusion: Direct hair transplantation is a simple and feasible modification in the follicular unit extraction technique. It is an efficacious surgical treatment modality for baldness.

  5. A Rare Case of Retroperitoneal Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma Identified by 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Xiaoping; Xu, Junyan; Huang, Dan

    2018-05-31

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a very rare neoplasm, which is not lymphoma, but originates from a type of immune cells called follicular dendritic cells. We presented a 37-year-old woman who has suffered from obstructive jaundice, weight loss and right upper abdominal pain for 2 months. The contrast CT revealed masses located in the region of pancreatic head and lots of enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes, both of which were enhanced on the artery phase of CT images. Meanwhile, Tc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT revealed high activity in the corresponding lesions. After biopsy, the masses were pathologically confirmed as retroperitoneal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma.

  6. Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-García, Martín; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; del Carmen González-Ramírez, Imelda; Cano-Valdez, Ana María; Flores-Hernández, Lorena; Aguilar-Ponce, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid cancer presents as nodules. Thyroid nodules are frequent, but only 5-30% are malignant. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is useful for initial evaluation; nevertheless, malignancy is uncertain when follicular neoplasm is reported. Some factors can be associated with malignancy. Therefore, we analyzed our follicular neoplasms in order to identify those factors associated with a higher risk of malignancy. We analyzed the clinical files of consecutive patients with cytological diagnoses of follicular neoplasm. From 1,005 cases of thyroid nodules, 121 were follicular neoplasms according to cytology. Of these, 75 were surgically treated. Definitive report showed 45 benign (60%) and 30 malignant (40%) cases. Benign cases included 29 goiters, 11 follicular adenomas, and 5 cases of thyroiditis. Malignant cases were comprised of 12 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 3 papillary carcinomas-follicular variant, 1 lymphoma, 1 teratoma, 5 medullary carcinomas, 2 insular carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma and 1 metastatic breast carcinoma. Tumor size of benign lesions was 3.43 ± 2.04 cm, and 4.67 ± 2.78 (p = 0.049) for malignant lesions. Age was 46.95 ± 15.39 years for benign lesions and 48.67 ± 17.28 for malignant lesions (p = 0.66). Fifty percent of males showed malignancy vs. 37.7% of females (p < 0.005). Our results suggest that size and gender, but not age, are associated with cytological pattern. Ultrasonographic characteristics may be useful discriminating patients with a higher risk of malignancy. FNAB is a useful tool for initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, but clinical evaluation can enhance predictive value.

  7. Follicular dynamics around the recruitment of the first follicular wave in the cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Gadella, B.M.; Vos, P.; Mullaart, E.; Kruip, T.A.M.; Dieleman, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the generally accepted view that a follicular wave starts with follicles newly recruited from the population smaller than 3 mm, which later compete for dominance. According to this view, subordinate follicles are expected to be too atretic to join the next follicular

  8. Polymer depletion-driven cluster aggregation and initial phase separation in charged nanosized colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögelein, Christoph; Nägele, Gerhard; Buitenhuis, Johan; Tuinier, Remco; Dhont, Jan K. G.

    2009-05-01

    We study polymer depletion-driven cluster aggregation and initial phase separation in aqueous dispersions of charge-stabilized silica spheres, where the ionic strength and polymer (dextran) concentration are systematically varied, using dynamic light scattering and visual observation. Without polymers and for increasing salt and colloid content, the dispersions become increasingly unstable against irreversible cluster formation. By adding nonadsorbing polymers, a depletion-driven attraction is induced, which lowers the stabilizing Coulomb barrier and enhances the cluster growth rate. The initial growth rate increases with increasing polymer concentration and decreases with increasing polymer molar mass. These observations can be quantitatively understood by an irreversible dimer formation theory based on the classical Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek pair potential, with the depletion attraction modeled by the Asakura-Oosawa-Vrij potential. At low colloid concentration, we observe an exponential cluster growth rate for all polymer concentrations considered, indicating a reaction-limited aggregation mechanism. At sufficiently high polymer and colloid concentrations, and lower salt content, a gas-liquidlike demixing is observed initially. Later on, the system separates into a gel and fluidlike phase. The experimental time-dependent state diagram is compared to the theoretical equilibrium phase diagram obtained from a generalized free-volume theory and is discussed in terms of an initial reversible phase separation process in combination with irreversible aggregation at later times.

  9. 40 CFR 300.305 - Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action. 300.305 Section 300.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the OSC is informed of their activities in natural resource damage assessment that may affect response...

  10. Engineering Work Plan for the Development of Phased Startup Initiative (PSI) Phases 3 and 4 Test Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITNER, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    A number of tools and equipment pieces are required to facilitate planned test operations during Phases 3 and 4 of the Phased Startup Initiative (PSI). These items will be used in assessing residual canister sludge quantities on cleaned fuel assemblies, sorting coarse and fine scrap fuel pieces, assessing the size distribution of scrap pieces, loading scrap into a canister, and measuring the depth of the accumulated scrap in a canister. This work plan supercedes those previously issued for development of several of these test items. These items will be considered prototype equipment until testing has confirmed their suitability for use in K West Basin. The process described in AP-EN-6-032 will be used to qualify the equipment for facility use. These items are considered non-OCRWM for PSI Phase 3 applications. The safety classification of this equipment is General Service, with Quality Level 0 (for PSI Phase 3). Quality Control inspections shall be performed to verify basic dimensions and overall configurations of fabricated components, and any special quality control verifications specified in this work plan (Section 3.1.5). These inspections shall serve to approve the test equipment for use in K West Basin (Acceptance Tag). This equipment is for information gathering only during PSI Phases 3 and 4 activities, and will be discarded at the completion of PSI. For equipment needed to support actual production throughput, development/fabrication/testing activities would be more rigorously controlled

  11. Classification of cyclic initial states and geometric phase for the spin-j system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrynnikov, N.R.; Zhou, J.; Sanctuary, B.C. [Dept. of Chem., McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1994-09-21

    Quantum states which evolve cyclically in their projective Hilbert space give rise to a geometric (or Aharonov-Anandan) phase. An aspect of primary interest is stable cyclic behaviour as realized under a periodic Hamiltonian. The problem has been handled by use of time-dependent transformations treated along the lines of Floquet's theory as well as in terms of exponential operators with a goal to examine the variety of initial states exhibiting cyclic behaviour. A particular case of special cyclic initial states is described which is shown to be important for nuclear magnetic resonance experiments aimed at the study of the effects of the geometric phase. An example of arbitrary spin j in a precessing magnetic field and spin j=1 subject to both axially symmetric quadrupolar interaction and a precessing magnetic field are presented. The invariant (Kobe's) geometric phase is calculated for special cyclic states. (author)

  12. Cooperative Lamb shift and the cooperative decay rate for an initially detuned phased state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, Richard; Manassah, Jamal T.

    2010-01-01

    The cooperative Lamb shift (CLS) is hard to measure because in samples much larger than a resonant wavelength it is much smaller, for an initially prepared resonantly phased state, than the cooperative decay rate (CDR). We show, however, that if the phasing of the initial state is detuned so that the spatial wave vector is k 1 congruent with k 0 ±O((1/R)) (where k 0 =ω 0 /c is the resonant frequency), the CLS grows to 'giant' magnitudes making it comparable to the CDR. Moreover, for certain controlled values of detuning, the initial CDR becomes small so that the dynamical Lamb shift (DLS) can be measured over a considerable period of time.

  13. Follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Ralfkiaer, E.; Prause, J.U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the clinicopathological features of follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region. Methods Retrospective nation-based study of Danish patients with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma from January 1st 1980 through December 31st 2009. Results Twenty-four patients...... with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma were identified. Fourteen (58%) of the patients were females. The median age was 63 years (range: 42–96 years). Eleven (46%) of the patients had primary ocular adnexal lymphoma, seven (29%) had an ocular adnexal lesion in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma...... and six patients (25%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The most frequently affected sites were the lacrimal gland (38%) and the orbit (33%). Thirteen patients (54%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma, four (17%) had stage IIE, two patients (8%) stage IIIE, and five patients (21%) had...

  14. Follicular thyroid carcinoma masquerading as subacute thyroiditis diagnosis using ultrasonography and radionuclide thyroid angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, R.; Jayaram, G.

    1991-01-01

    The rare presentation of a follicular thyroid carcinoma mimicking the clinical and radionuclide features of subacute thyroiditis is described. Granulomatous thyroiditis was initially suspected on the clinical basis. Repeat fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of acinar proliferation with hyperfunction. Ultrasonography revealed a solid nodule with a peripheral sonolucent halo. Radionuclide angiography showed intense arterial flow of Tc-99m pertechnetate through the right lobe thyroid enlargement suggestive of malignant thyroid pathology. Surgical excision and histopathological examination revealed a follicular carcinoma involving the right lobe. 31 refs., 4 figs

  15. Direct phase selection of initial phases from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) for the improvement of electron density and ab initio structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chung-De; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Chiang, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-01-01

    A novel direct phase-selection method to select optimized phases from the ambiguous phases of a subset of reflections to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases has been developed. With the improved phases, the completeness of built residues of protein molecules is enhanced for efficient structure determination. Optimization of the initial phasing has been a decisive factor in the success of the subsequent electron-density modification, model building and structure determination of biological macromolecules using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. Two possible phase solutions (ϕ 1 and ϕ 2 ) generated from two symmetric phase triangles in the Harker construction for the SAD method cause the well known phase ambiguity. A novel direct phase-selection method utilizing the θ DS list as a criterion to select optimized phases ϕ am from ϕ 1 or ϕ 2 of a subset of reflections with a high percentage of correct phases to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases ϕ SAD has been developed. Based on this work, reflections with an angle θ DS in the range 35–145° are selected for an optimized improvement, where θ DS is the angle between the initial phase ϕ SAD and a preliminary density-modification (DM) phase ϕ DM NHL . The results show that utilizing the additional direct phase-selection step prior to simple solvent flattening without phase combination using existing DM programs, such as RESOLVE or DM from CCP4, significantly improves the final phases in terms of increased correlation coefficients of electron-density maps and diminished mean phase errors. With the improved phases and density maps from the direct phase-selection method, the completeness of residues of protein molecules built with main chains and side chains is enhanced for efficient structure determination

  16. Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFarquhar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during 9–10 October, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-h simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors' concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process

  17. Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sednev, I.; Menon, S.; McFarquhar, G.

    2009-07-01

    The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM) scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP) on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during 9-10 October, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-h simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors' concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity) against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process of ice phase initiation

  18. C-Peptide Decline in Type 1 Diabetes Has Two Phases: An Initial Exponential Fall and a Subsequent Stable Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Beverley M; McDonald, Timothy J; Oram, Richard; Hill, Anita; Hudson, Michelle; Leete, Pia; Pearson, Ewan R; Richardson, Sarah J; Morgan, Noel G; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2018-06-07

    The decline in C-peptide in the 5 years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes has been well studied, but little is known about the longer-term trajectory. We aimed to examine the association between log-transformed C-peptide levels and the duration of diabetes up to 40 years after diagnosis. We assessed the pattern of association between urinary C-peptide/creatinine ratio (UCPCR) and duration of diabetes in cross-sectional data from 1,549 individuals with type 1 diabetes using nonlinear regression approaches. Findings were replicated in longitudinal follow-up data for both UCPCR ( n = 161 individuals, 326 observations) and plasma C-peptide ( n = 93 individuals, 473 observations). We identified two clear phases of C-peptide decline: an initial exponential fall over 7 years (47% decrease/year [95% CI -51%, -43%]) followed by a stable period thereafter (+0.07%/year [-1.3, +1.5]). The two phases had similar durations and slopes in patients above and below the median age at diagnosis (10.8 years), although levels were lower in the younger patients irrespective of duration. Patterns were consistent in both longitudinal UCPCR ( n = 162; ≤7 years duration: -48%/year [-55%, -38%]; >7 years duration -0.1% [-4.1%, +3.9%]) and plasma C-peptide ( n = 93; >7 years duration only: -2.6% [-6.7%, +1.5%]). These data support two clear phases of C-peptide decline: an initial exponential fall over a 7-year period, followed by a prolonged stabilization where C-peptide levels no longer decline. Understanding the pathophysiological and immunological differences between these two phases will give crucial insights into understanding β-cell survival. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Initiation of a phase-I trial of neutron capture therapy at the MIT research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, O.K.; Bernard, J.A.; Yam, Chun-Shan

    1995-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the New England Medical Center (NEMC), and Boston University Medical Center (BUMC) initiated a phase-1 trial of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on September 6, 1994, at the 5-MW(thermal) MIT research reactor (MITR). A novel form of experimental cancer therapy, BNCT is being developed for certain types of highly malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma and melanoma. The results of the phase-1 trials on patients with tumors in the legs or feet are described

  20. Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase 1/2 Study of Tazemetostat (EZH2 Histone Methyl Transferase [HMT] Inhibitor) as a Single Agent in Subjects With Adv. Solid Tumors or With B-cell Lymphomas and Tazemetostat in Combination With Prednisolone in Subjects With DLBCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    B-cell Lymphomas (Phase 1); Advanced Solid Tumors (Phase 1); Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (Phase 2); Follicular Lymphoma (Phase 2); Transformed Follicular Lymphoma; Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  1. Follicular synchronization using transdermal estradiol patch and GnRH antagonists in the luteal phase; does it increase oocyte yield in poor responders to gonadotropin stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF)? A comparative study with microdose flare-up protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Baris; Zeng, Xing; Son, Weon Y; Holzer, Hananel; Tan, Seang L

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the oocyte yield with the luteal estradiol patch (LPA) - GnRH antagonist and microdose (MD) flare-up protocols in anticipated poor responders. Fifty-seven women who underwent IVF treatment following stimulation with LPA or MD protocols at McGill Reproductive Centre were matched for age and markers of ovarian reserve. Numbers of oocytes collected (6 vs 7), mature oocytes collected (5 vs 5), and oocyte maturation rates (72% vs 74%) were similar. The numbers of good quality embryos available (2 vs 1) and embryos transferred (3 vs 3) were likewise similar. Embryo implantation rate of 16.7% and clinical pregnancy rate of 38.9% achieved in the LPA group were almost 50% higher than the corresponding figures at 10.3% and 22.2% in the MD group; however, the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Although the results do not suggest an increased oocyte yield or follicular synchronization with the LPA protocol, the observed trend toward higher embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rates requires further research.

  2. Initiating a New Research Phase in the Field of International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coviello, Nicole; Tanev, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    In a recent publication, Nicole Coviello (2015) emphasized the need to re-think existing research on international entrepreneurship and, more specifically, research on born-global firms. She pointed out that the main value of a critical review lies in initiating a new research phase focusing on t...... be of relevance for new technology firms aiming at an international or global engagement from their very inception.......In a recent publication, Nicole Coviello (2015) emphasized the need to re-think existing research on international entrepreneurship and, more specifically, research on born-global firms. She pointed out that the main value of a critical review lies in initiating a new research phase focusing...

  3. Small liquid metal reactor for an initial phase of fast breeder reactor introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Nascimento, J.A. do.

    1985-01-01

    Safety and burnup characteristics of a 1000 MWth liquid metal reactor have been examined for various fuel types. With metallic Pu/Th fuel containing a small amount of zirconium hydride, low sodium-void reactivity, a high Doppler coefficient, and small burnup reactivity swings can be achieved. A conservative design is considered for an initial phase of fast breeder reactor development and possible modifications are discussed. (Author) [pt

  4. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'Initiative Think tank ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'Initiative Think tank : Economic Policy Research Centre. Ce financement contribuera à renforcer le rôle de l'Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC) en tant qu'organisme crédible de recherche sur les politiques publiques en Ouganda, en améliorant sa capacité à fournir des ...

  5. Antigen dynamics of follicular dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Stromal-derived follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a major depot for antigen that are essential for formation of germinal centers, the site where memory and effector B cells differentiate and high-affinity antibody production takes place. Historically, FDCs have been characterized as ‘accessory’

  6. Follicular vitiligo: A report of 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Emily Yiping; Cario-André, Muriel; Pain, Catherine; Goussot, Jean-Francois; Taïeb, Alain; Seneschal, Julien; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2016-06-01

    Follicular vitiligo, a recently proposed new subtype of vitiligo, has primary involvement of the hair follicle melanocytic reservoir. We sought to characterize follicular vitiligo through a case series of 8 patients. Patients with features of follicular vitiligo who were seen at the vitiligo clinic in the National Center for Rare Skin Disorders in Bordeaux, France, were recruited. A retrospective review of case records and clinical photographs was carried out. There were 8 male patients with a mean age of 48 years. All patients reported significant whitening of their body and, in some, scalp hairs before cutaneous depigmentation. Examination revealed classic generalized depigmented lesions of vitiligo and an impressive presence of leukotrichia, not only in the vitiliginous areas, but also in areas with clinically normal-appearing skin. Punch biopsy specimen of the leukotrichia and vitiligo lesions demonstrated loss of melanocytes and precursors in the basal epidermis and hair follicle. This was a cross-sectional study based on a single-center experience. Follicular vitiligo is a distinct entity within the spectrum of vitiligo. This entity may serve as the missing link between alopecia areata and vitiligo, with probable physiopathological similarities between these conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of the ovarian follicular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R J; Lavranos, T C; van Wezel, I L; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    1999-05-25

    A lot is known about the endocrine control of the development of ovarian follicles, but a key question now facing researchers is which molecular and cellular processes take part in control of follicular growth and development. The growth and development of ovarian follicles occurs postnatally and throughout adult life. In this review, we focus on the follicular epithelium (membrana granulosa) and its basal lamina. We discuss a model of how granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells and then enter different lineages before differentiation. The structure of the epithelium at the antral stage of development is presented, and the effects that follicle growth has on the behavior of the granulosa cells are discussed. Finally, we discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition. This would be expected if the behavior of the granulosa cells changes, or if the permeability of the basal lamina changes. It will be evident that the follicular epithelium has similarities to other epithelia in the body, but that it is more dynamic, as gross changes occur during the course of follicle development. This basic information will be important for the development of future reproductive technologies in both humans and animals, and possibly for understanding polycystic ovarian syndrome in women.

  8. Mutational burdens and evolutionary ages of thyroid follicular adenoma are comparable to those of follicular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Jung, Chan Kwon; Park, Hyun-Chun; Kim, So Youn; Liu, Jieying; Bae, Ja-Seong; Lee, Sung Hak; Kim, Tae-Min; Lee, Sug Hyung; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) precedes follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by definition with a favorable prognosis compared to FTC. However, the genetic mechanism of FTA to FTC progression remains unknown. For this, it is required to disclose FTA and FTC genomes in mutational and evolutionary perspectives. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of 14 FTAs and 13 FTCs, which exhibited previously-known gene mutations (NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, TSHR and EIF1AX) and copy number ...

  9. Initial Atomic Motion Immediately Following Femtosecond-Laser Excitation in Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, E; Okada, S; Ichitsubo, T; Kawaguchi, T; Hirata, A; Guan, P F; Tokuda, K; Tanimura, K; Matsunaga, T; Chen, M W; Yamada, N

    2016-09-23

    Despite the fact that phase-change materials are widely used for data storage, no consensus exists on the unique mechanism of their ultrafast phase change and its accompanied large and rapid optical change. By using the pump-probe observation method combining a femtosecond optical laser and an x-ray free-electron laser, we substantiate experimentally that, in both GeTe and Ge_{2}Sb_{2}Te_{5} crystals, rattling motion of mainly Ge atoms takes place with keeping the off-center position just after femtosecond-optical-laser irradiation, which eventually leads to a higher symmetry or disordered state. This very initial rattling motion in the undistorted lattice can be related to instantaneous optical change due to the loss of resonant bonding that characterizes GeTe-based phase change materials. Based on the amorphous structure derived by first-principles molecular dynamics simulation, we infer a plausible ultrafast amorphization mechanism via nonmelting.

  10. Transition zone cells reach G2 phase before initiating elongation in maize root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Victoria Alarcón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root elongation requires cell divisions in the meristematic zone and cell elongation in the elongation zone. The boundary between dividing and elongating cells is called the transition zone. In the meristem zone, initial cells are continuously dividing, but on the basal side of the meristem cells exit the meristem through the transition zone and enter in the elongation zone, where they stop division and rapidly elongate. Throughout this journey cells are accompanied by changes in cell cycle progression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that meristematic cells are in cycle, but exit when they enter the elongation zone. In addition, the percentage of cells in G2 phase (4C strongly increased from the meristem to the elongation zone. However, we did not observe remarkable changes in the percentage of cells in cell cycle phases along the entire elongation zone. These results suggest that meristematic cells in maize root apex stop the cell cycle in G2 phase after leaving the meristem.

  11. Effects of ocean initial perturbation on developing phase of ENSO in a coupled seasonal prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Kumar, Arun; Wang, Wanqiu

    2018-03-01

    Coupled prediction systems for seasonal and inter-annual variability in the tropical Pacific are initialized from ocean analyses. In ocean initial states, small scale perturbations are inevitably smoothed or distorted by the observational limits and data assimilation procedures, which tends to induce potential ocean initial errors for the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction. Here, the evolution and effects of ocean initial errors from the small scale perturbation on the developing phase of ENSO are investigated by an ensemble of coupled model predictions. Results show that the ocean initial errors at the thermocline in the western tropical Pacific grow rapidly to project on the first mode of equatorial Kelvin wave and propagate to the east along the thermocline. In boreal spring when the surface buoyancy flux weakens in the eastern tropical Pacific, the subsurface errors influence sea surface temperature variability and would account for the seasonal dependence of prediction skill in the NINO3 region. It is concluded that the ENSO prediction in the eastern tropical Pacific after boreal spring can be improved by increasing the observational accuracy of subsurface ocean initial states in the western tropical Pacific.

  12. Connexin 43 Communication Channels in Follicular Dendritic Cell Development and in Follicular Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnalka Rajnai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular dendritic cells (FDC show homo- and heterocellular metabolic coupling through connexin 43 (Cx43 gap junctions and support B cell selection and maturation in germinal centers. In follicular lymphomas B cells escape apoptosis while FDC develop abnormally. Here we tested Cx43 channels in reactive FDC development and follicular lymphomas. In culture, the treatment of FDC-B cell clusters (resembling to “ex vivo” germinal centers with Gap27 peptide, mimicking the 2nd extracellular loop of Cx43 protein, significantly impaired FDC-B cell cluster formation and cell survival. In untreated cultures of intact clusters, cell proliferation showed a moderate reduction. In tissues, Cx43 protein levels run parallel with the density of FDC both in reactive germinal centers and in malformed follicles of follicular lymphomas and showed strong upregulation in newly generated and/or degrading bi-/multinuclear FDC of rudimentary processes. However, the inverse correlation between Cx43 expression and B cell proliferation seen in reactive germinal centers was not detected in follicular lymphomas. Furthermore, Cx43 levels were not associated with either lymphoma grade or bone marrow involvement. Our results suggest that Cx43 channels are critical in FDC and “ex vivo” germinal center development and in the persistence of FDC in follicular lymphomas but do not affect tumor progression.

  13. Suppression of follicular rupture with meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: potential for emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesam, Cristián; Salvatierra, Ana María; Schwartz, Jill L; Croxatto, Horacio B

    2010-02-01

    There is evidence that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors can prevent or delay follicular rupture. COX-2 inhibitors, such as meloxicam, may offer advantages over emergency contraception with levonorgestrel, such as extending the therapeutic window for up to 24 h. We assessed the effect of meloxicam administered in the late follicular phase upon ovulation in women. This was a single center, double blind, crossover study designed to assess the effects in 27 eligible women (18-40 years old, surgically sterilized with regular menstrual cycles) of meloxicam, 15 or 30 mg/day, administered orally for five consecutive days during the late follicular phase, starting when the leading follicle reached 18 mm diameter. Volunteers underwent two treatment cycles separated by one resting cycle, with randomization to dose sequence. Main outcomes were follicular rupture; serum LH, progesterone and estradiol (E2) levels; and incidence of adverse events. Twenty-two volunteers completed the study. There were no differences between meloxicam doses in menstrual cycle length. Dysfunctional ovulation was observed in 11/22 (50%) cycles treated with 15 mg/day and 20/22 (90.9%) cycles with 30 mg/day (P = 0.0068). All women had normal luteal phase progesterone levels; mean maximal values +/- SEM were 42 +/- 4.1 and 46.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/l for 15 and 30 mg/day groups, respectively. There were no serious adverse events, and no changes in LH and E2 levels or in cycle length. Meloxicam 30 mg given for five consecutive days in the late follicular phase is safe, effective and may be an alternative form of emergency contraception.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Orbit Determination System during Initial Phase of INSAT-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, B.; Vighnesam, N. V.

    INSAT-3C is the second in the third generation of ISRO's INSAT series of satellites that was launched by ARIANE-SPACE on 23 January 2002 at 23 h 46 m 57 s (lift off time in U.T). The ARIANE-4 Flight Nr.147 took off from Kourou in French Guyana and injected the 2750-kg communications satellite in a geostationary transfer orbit of (571 X 35935) km with an inclination of 4.007 deg at 00 h 07 m 48 s U.T on 24 January 2002 (1252 s after lift off). The satellite was successfully guided into its intended geostationary position of 74 deg E longitude by 09 February 2002 after a series of four firings of its Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) and four station acquisition (STAQ) maneuvers. Six distinct phases of the mission were categorized based on the orbit characteristics of the INSAT- 3C mission, namely, the pre-launch phase, the launch phase, transfer orbit phase, intermediate orbit phase, drift orbit phase and synchronous orbit phase. The orbit with a perigee height of 571 km at injection of the satellite, was gradually raised to higher orbits with perigee height increasing to 9346 km after Apogee Motor Firing #1 (AMF #1), 18335 km after AMF #2, 32448 km after AMF #3 and 35493 km after AMF #4. The North and South solar panels and the reflectors were deployed at this stage of the mission and the attitude of the satellite with respect to the three axes was stabilized. The Orbit Determination System (ODS) that was used in the initial phase of the mission played a crucial role in realizing the objectives of the mission. This system which consisted of Tracking Data Pre-Processing (TDPP) software, Ephemeris Generation (EPHGEN) software and the Orbit Determination (OD) software, performed rigorously and its results were used for planning the AMF and STAQ strategies with a greater degree of accuracy. This paper reports the results of evaluation of the performance of the apogee-motor firings employed to place the satellite in its intended position where it is collocated with INSAT-1D

  15. Impact of obinutuzumab alone and in combination for follicular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarraf Yazdy M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Sarraf Yazdy, Bruce D Cheson Division of Hematology-Oncology, Georgetown University Hospital, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Although rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy prolongs the survival of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL, this disease is considered incurable in most patients. Thus, new therapies are needed not only for those in the relapsed/refractory setting, but also for initial treatment. Obinutuzumab (G, GA101 is a third-generation, fully humanized type II glycoengineered, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that results in increased direct cell death and antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity/phagocytosis compared to rituximab. Obinutuzumab has significant antitumor activity when used alone or in combinations in untreated or relapsed refractory FL patients. Studies have demonstrated its ability to prolong progression-free survival and, in some cases, overall survival, and to eliminate minimal residual disease. Several ongoing trials are investigating combinations with chemotherapy, immunomodulators, targeted drugs, and immunotherapy agents. G is generally well tolerated, with associated adverse effects including infusion-related reactions, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and reactivation of hepatitis B virus. Future studies with this antibody should focus on identifying predictive markers and developing chemotherapy-free combinations that will improve the outcome of patients with FL. Keywords: obinutuzumab, follicular lymphoma, MRD, monoclonal antibody

  16. Diagnostic and prognostic impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in follicular lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dortz, Ludovic; Garin, Etienne; Guibert, Sophie de; Houot, Roch; Bayat, Sahar; Cuggia, Marc; Devillers, Anne; Le Jeune, Florence; Bahri, Haifa; Barge, Marie-Luce; Rolland, Yan; Lamy, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in staging, prognosis evaluation and restaging of patients with follicular lymphoma. A retrospective study was performed on 45 patients with untreated biopsy-proven follicular lymphoma who underwent 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) and CT before and after chemoimmunotherapy induction treatment (rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone). PET/CT detected more nodal (+51%) and extranodal (+89%) lesions than CT. PET/CT modified Ann Arbor staging in eight patients (18%). Five patients (11%) initially considered as being early stage (I/II) were eventually treated as advanced stage (III/IV). In this study, an initial PET/CT prognostic score was significantly more accurate than the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score in identifying patients with poor prognosis (i.e. patients with incomplete therapeutic response or early relapse). The accuracy of PET/CT for therapeutic response assessment was higher than that of CT (0.97 vs 0.64), especially due to its ability to identify inactive residual masses. In addition, post-treatment PET/CT was able to predict patients' outcomes. The median progression-free survival was 48 months in the PET/CT-negative group as compared with 17.2 months for the group with residual uptake (p -4 ). FDG PET/CT is useful for staging and assessing the prognosis and therapeutic response of patients with follicular lymphoma. (orig.)

  17. Status of initial phase of site-specific seismic monitoring: Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the status of the initial phase of site-specific seismic monitoring work conducted under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. This work is currently organized under two main elements: (1) a portable array; and (2) a baseline data collection array. Progress toward the development of each array is discussed along with an interpretation of preliminary data obtained from the test of a borehole seismometer at potential repository depths. The text is supplemented by nine figures and one table. 9 figs., 1 tab

  18. The basic research on the CDA initiation phase for a metallic fuel FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Go; Hirakawa, Naohiro; Kawada, Ken-ichi; Niwa, Hazime

    1998-03-01

    A metallic fuel with novel design has received great deal of interest recently as an option of advanced fuel to be substituted MOX fuel, however, the behavior at the transient has not been studied in many aspects. Therefore, for the purpose to show the basic tendency of the behavior and released energy at CDA (core disruptive accident) for a metallic fuel FBR and to prepare the basic knowledge for consideration of the adoption of the advanced fuel, Tohoku University and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation have made a joint research entitled. (1) Target and Results of analysis: The accident initiator considered is a LOF accident with ATWS. The LOF analysis was performed for a metallic fuel 600 MWe homogeneous two region core at the beginning of cycle, both for an ordinary metallic fuel core and for a metallic fuel core with ZrH pins. It was necessary mainly to change the constants of input parameters to apply the code for the analysis of a metallic fueled reactor. These changes were made by assuming appropriate models. Basic LOF cases and all blackout case that assumed using electromagnetic pumps were analyzed. The results show that the basic LOF cases for a metallic fuel core and all the cases for a metallic fuel core with ZrH pins could be avoided to become prompt-critical, and mildly transfer to the transient phase. (2) Improvement of CDA initiation phase analysis code: At present, it is difficult for the code to adapt to the large material movement to in the core at the transient. Therefore, the nuclear calculation model in the code was improved by using the adiabatic space dependent kinetics. The results of a sample case, that is a metallic fueled core at the beginning of cycle, show this improvement is appropriate. (3) Conclusion: The behavior at CDA of a metallic fueled core of a fast reactor was analyzed using the CDA initiation phase analysis code and the knowledge of the important characteristics at the CDA initiation phase was obtained

  19. Soil radon pulses related to the initial phase of volcanic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Mena, M.

    1999-01-01

    Soil radon behaviour related to the initial phase of volcanic eruptions is analysed from reported values related to the explosivity of four American stratovolcaneos: El Chicon (1982) and Popocatepetl (1994) in Mexico, Poas (1987-1990) in Costa Rica and Cerro Negro (1982) in Nicaragua. The measurements in the field were performed with solid-state nuclear track detectors and electrets. The ratio between the magnitudes of the radon in soil peaks generated when the eruptive period started and the average radon values corresponding to quiescence periods indicate a dependence on the volcanic eruptive index for each one of the eruptive periods

  20. Influence of initial thermomechanical treatment on high temperature properties of laves phase strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talik, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design 17 wt%Cr Laves phase strengthened HiperFer (High performance Ferrite) steels and evaluate their properties. This class of steel is supposed to be used in Advanced Ultra Super Critical power plants. Such cycles exhibit higher efficiency and are environmentally friendly, but improved materials with high resistance to reside/steam oxidation and sufficient creep strength are required. The work focused on the characterization of creep properties of 17Cr2.5W0.5Nb0.25Si heat resistant steel. Small batches of steels with nominal compositions of 17Cr3W0.5Nb0.25Si and 17Cr3W0.9Nb0.25Si were used to analyze the influence of chemical composition on the precipitation behaviour in comparison to 17Cr2.5W0.5Nb0.25Si steel. Creep strength of HiperFer steels is ensured by ne dispersion of thermodynamically stable Laves phase particles, while maintaining high corrosion resistance by a relatively high chromium content. Design of HiperFer steels was accomplished by thermodynamic modeling (Thermocalc) with the main tasks of elimination of the unwelcome brittle (Fe,Cr)-σ phase and maximization of the content of the strengthening C14 Fe_2Nb type Laves phase particles. Long term annealing experiments of all HiperFer steels were performed at 650 C in order to evaluate the role of chemical composition and initial thermo-mechanical treatment state on precipitation behaviour. Laves phase particles formed quickly after few hours and the size of precipitates did not change significantly within 1,000 hours. The observed development of Laves phase particles was compared with thermodynamical calculations (TC-Prisma). The creep properties of 17Cr2.5W0.5Nb0.25Si steel in different initial thermo-mechanical treatment states were tested at 650 C. The influence of different cold rolling procedures, and heat treatments was investigated. Increased cold rolling deformation had a positive effect resulting not only from work hardening, but from the acceleration of Laves

  1. Influence of the initial conditions for the numerical simulation of two-phase slug flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachas Napa, Alex A.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M.; Medina, Cesar D. Perea

    2010-07-01

    Multiphase flows in pipelines commonly show several patterns depending on the flow rate, geometry and physical properties of the phases. In oil production, the slug flow pattern is the most common among the others. This flow pattern is characterized by an intermittent succession in space and time of an aerated liquid slug and an elongated gas bubble with a liquid film. Slug flow is studied through the slug tracking model described as one-dimensional and Lagrangian frame referenced. In the model, the mass and the momentum balance equations are applied in control volumes constituted by the gas bubble and the liquid slug. Initial conditions must be determined, which need to reproduce the intermittence of the flow pattern. These initial conditions are given by a sequence of flow properties for each unit cell. Properties of the unit cell in initial conditions should reflect the intermittence, for which they can be analyzed in statistical terms. Therefore, statistical distributions should be obtained for the slug flow variables. Distributions are complemented with the mass balance and the bubble design model. The objective of the present work is to obtain initial conditions for the slug tracking model that reproduce a better adjustment of the fluctuating properties for different pipe inclinations (horizontal, vertical or inclined). The numerical results are compared with experimental data obtained by PFG/FEM/UNICAMP for air-water flow at 0 deg, 45 deg and 90 deg and good agreement is observed. (author)

  2. Direct phase selection of initial phases from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) for the improvement of electron density and ab initio structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-De; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Chiang, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-09-01

    Optimization of the initial phasing has been a decisive factor in the success of the subsequent electron-density modification, model building and structure determination of biological macromolecules using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. Two possible phase solutions (φ1 and φ2) generated from two symmetric phase triangles in the Harker construction for the SAD method cause the well known phase ambiguity. A novel direct phase-selection method utilizing the θ(DS) list as a criterion to select optimized phases φ(am) from φ1 or φ2 of a subset of reflections with a high percentage of correct phases to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases φ(SAD) has been developed. Based on this work, reflections with an angle θ(DS) in the range 35-145° are selected for an optimized improvement, where θ(DS) is the angle between the initial phase φ(SAD) and a preliminary density-modification (DM) phase φ(DM)(NHL). The results show that utilizing the additional direct phase-selection step prior to simple solvent flattening without phase combination using existing DM programs, such as RESOLVE or DM from CCP4, significantly improves the final phases in terms of increased correlation coefficients of electron-density maps and diminished mean phase errors. With the improved phases and density maps from the direct phase-selection method, the completeness of residues of protein molecules built with main chains and side chains is enhanced for efficient structure determination.

  3. The role of steroids in follicular growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Ann E

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The steroidogenic pathway within the ovary gives rise to progestins, androgens and oestrogens, all of which act via specific nuclear receptors to regulate reproductive function and maintain fertility. The role of progestins in follicular growth and development is limited, its action confined largely to ovulation, although direct effects on granulosa cell function have been reported. Consistent with these findings, progesterone receptor knockout mice are infertile because they cannot ovulate. Androgens have been shown to promote early follicular growth, but also to impede follicular development by stimulating atresia and apoptosis. The inability of androgens to transduce a signal in mice lacking androgen receptors culminates in reduced fertility. Oestrogens are known to exert effects on granulosa cell growth and differentiation in association with gonadotrophins. Studies with oestrogen receptor knockouts and oestrogen depleted mice have shown us that oestrogen is essential for folliculogenesis beyond the antral stage and is necessary to maintain the female phenotype of ovarian somatic cells. In summary, the action of steroids within the ovary is based on the developmental status of the follicle. In the absence of any single sex steroid, ovarian function and subsequently fertility, are compromised.

  4. Metastatic thyroid follicular carcinoma of masticator space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Tae In; Heo, Min Suk; An, Chang Hyeon; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Choi, Mi

    2002-01-01

    Follicular carcinomas are the second most common form of thyroid cancer, accounting for 10 to 20% of all thyroid cancers. Follicular carcinomas have a propensity to metastasize via the bloodstream, spreading to bone, lungs, liver, and elsewhere. We described the case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with swelling of the left pre auricular area, which was a consequence of a metastatic follicular carcinoma of the masticator space. Plain films showed ill defined erosive bony changes from the left condylar head to the mandibular notch. Contrast-enhanced CT images showed a well circumscribed round mass with well enhancement within left masticator space. On MR images, the mass was heterogenously hyperintense to the muscle on T2-weighted images and isointense or hyperintense to the muscle on T1-weighted images, and showed good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Upon microscopic examination, the metastatic mass was found to be composed of fairly uniform cells forming small follicles containing colloid, showing capsular and vascular invasion.

  5. Protein synthesis during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response in Euglena gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, W.

    1990-01-01

    Growing cultures of photoheterotrophic Euglena gracilis experience an increase in chlorophyll accumulation during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response suggesting an increase in the synthesis of plastid components at the bleaching temperature of 33 degree C. A primary goal of this work was to establish whether an increase in the synthesis of plastid proteins accompanies the observed increase in chlorophyll accumulation. In vivo pulse-labeling experiments with [ 35 S]sodium sulfate were carried out with cells grown at room temperature or at 33 degree C. The synthesis of a number of plastid polypeptides of nucleocytoplasmic origin, including some presumably novel polypeptides, increased in cultures treated for 15 hours at 33 degree C. In contrast, while synthesis of thylakoid proteins by the plastid protein synthesis machinery decreased modestly, synthesis of the large subunit of the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase was strongly affected at the elevated temperature. Synthesis of novel plastid-encoded polypeptides was not induced at the bleaching temperature. It is concluded that protein synthesis in plastids declines during the initial phase of the temperature response in Euglena despite an overall increase in cellular protein synthesis and an increase in chlorophyll accumulation per cell

  6. Medical response in the initial phase of a radiological or nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, M.; Perez, M.R.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.; Malvicini, M.

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of radiological and nuclear accidents is low with relationship to another type of have an accident, but the use of radioactive sources has been increased in the finish decades. Additionally, a growing world concern exists by the eventual use of radioactive material with malevolent ends. These facts put in relevance the necessity to have an appropriate preparation for the medical answer in this type of emergencies. The medical answer consists of different phases: Initial: pre-hospital and in local general hospitals; Intermediate: in local general hospitals and central reference hospitals. Late: in central reference hospitals and the pursuit to long term. The presence of conventional injuries (radio combined injuries) modifies in substantial form the assignment in the priority of the attention, the prediction and the evolution. The establishment of an appropriate triage is outstanding in the initial phase. The present communication approaches the early medical answer, sustained in the anamnesis, the chronology and severity of the symptoms and prodromal signs besides the laboratory results and complementary exams arisen during the first ones 24 to 72 hours. (Author)

  7. Predicted Geology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Phase II Drilling Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (PM-OV) Phase II drilling will occur within an area that encompasses approximately 117 square kilometers (45 square miles) near the center of the Phase I PM-OV hydrostratigraphic framework model area. The majority of the investigation area lies within dissected volcanic terrain between Pahute Mesa on the north and Timber Mountain on the south. This area consists of a complex distribution of volcanic tuff and lava of generally rhyolitic composition erupted from nearby calderas and related vents. Several large buried volcanic structural features control the distribution of volcanic units in the investigation area. The Area 20 caldera, including its structural margin and associated caldera collapse collar, underlies the northeastern portion of the investigation area. The southern half of the investigation area lies within the northwestern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex, including portions of the caldera moat and resurgent dome. Another significant structural feature in the area is the west-northwest-trending Northern Timber Mountain moat structural zone, which bisects the northern portion of the investigation area and forms a structural bench. The proposed wells of the UGTA Phase II drilling initiative can be grouped into four generalized volcanic structural domains based on the stratigraphic distribution and structural position of the volcanic rocks in the upper 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) of the crust, a depth that represents the approximate planned total depths of the proposed wells

  8. Mutational burdens and evolutionary ages of thyroid follicular adenoma are comparable to those of follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Jung, Chan Kwon; Park, Hyun-Chun; Kim, So Youn; Liu, Jieying; Bae, Ja-Seong; Lee, Sung Hak; Kim, Tae-Min; Lee, Sug Hyung; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2016-10-25

    Follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) precedes follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by definition with a favorable prognosis compared to FTC. However, the genetic mechanism of FTA to FTC progression remains unknown. For this, it is required to disclose FTA and FTC genomes in mutational and evolutionary perspectives. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of 14 FTAs and 13 FTCs, which exhibited previously-known gene mutations (NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, TSHR and EIF1AX) and copy number alterations (CNAs) (22q loss and 1q gain) in follicular tumors. In addition, we found eleven potential cancer-related genes with mutations (EZH1, SPOP, NF1, TCF12, IGF2BP3, KMT2C, CNOT1, BRIP1, KDM5C, STAG2 and MAP4K3) that have not been reported in thyroid follicular tumors. Of note, FTA genomes showed comparable levels of mutations to FTC in terms of the number, sequence composition and functional consequences (potential driver mutations) of mutations. Analyses of evolutionary ages using somatic mutations as molecular clocks further identified that FTA genomes were as old as FTC genomes. Whole-transcriptome sequencing did not find any gene fusions with potential significance. Our data indicate that FTA genomes may be as old as FTC genomes, thus suggesting that follicular thyroid tumor genomes during the transition from FTA to FTC may stand stable at genomic levels in contrast to the discernable changes at pathologic and clinical levels. Also, the data suggest a possibility that the mutational profiles obtained from early biopsies may be useful for the molecular diagnosis and therapeutics of follicular tumor patients.

  9. Pediatric Type Follicular Lymphoma: A Rare Entity with Excellent Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-19

    YYYY) 12. REPORT TYPE 19/01/2018 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pediatric -Type Follicular Lymphoma: A Rare Entity with Excellent Prognosis 6. AUTHOR(S...lymphoma is common in older adults but rare in pediatric and young adult patients. Pediatric follicular lymphoma comprises a only 6.5% of childhood... Pediatric follicular lymphoma is defined by a localized high grade appearing lymphoma that lacks these gene rearrangements. Other diagnoses to rule out

  10. Effect of different hormonal combinations on follicular wave emergence and superovulatory response in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria Gonçalves; da Rosa, Rômulo Mendonça; Balaro, Mário Felipe Alvarez; Pinto, Pedro Henrique Nicolau; Dos Santos, Gustavo Bervian; Arashiro, Eduardo Kenji Nunes; da Fonseca, Jeferson Ferreira; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; Brandão, Felipe Zandonadi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare hormonal treatments to induce and synchronize follicular wave emergence to improve the results of superovulatory (SOV) treatments in ewes. In Experiment 1 (n = 66), ewes were treated with a progesterone intravaginal implant plus a PGF 2α analogue (group G P4 ), or with the same treatment plus estradiol benzoate (G P4+EB ), a GnRH agonist (G P4+GnRH ), or both, estradiol benzoate and a GnRH agonist (G P4+EB+GnRH ) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Follicular wave emergence was determined by ultrasound. Follicular wave did not emerge during the studied period in 10 females (one from G P4 , six from G P4+EB and three from G P4+EB+GnRH ). Follicular emergence was less synchronized (P = 0.007) when estradiol was administered (G P4+EB : 103.6 ± 22.0 h), without any interaction with GnRH treatment (G P4+EB+GnRH : 80.1 ± 21.4 h, G P4+GnRH : 52.5 ± 8.7 h, G P4 : 56.6 ± 10.4 h). Estradiol administration delayed the moment of follicular emergence (P = 0.007) and the follicular wave emergence moment in which follicular dominance was achieved (P = 0.009), without interactions between estradiol and GnRH in the moment of follicular wave emergence or dominance. In Experiment 2 (n = 22), two SOV protocols were compared: the best treatment of Experiment 1 (G P4 ) was used to synchronize follicular wave emergence, initiating the SOV treatment 2.5 days later; in the control treatment, SOV treatment started 80 h after a short-term protocol to synchronize ovulation (G control ). The number of corpora lutea (CL) and the evaluation of the collected embryos were performed six days after estrus. Blood samples were collected daily for plasma progesterone determination. Although the number of CL was similar in G control (7.1 ± 1.0) and G P4 (6.9 ± 5.1), the number of structures and viable embryos recovered were greater in G control (P synchronization of follicular wave emergence. When EB was used (alone or

  11. [Explore microcosmic connection between autophagy mechanism and follicular development based on "kidney governing reproduction" theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jun; Wu, Ke-Ming; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2018-03-01

    In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) that "kidney storing essence and governing reproduction", reproductive essence is an important part of the kidney essence and acts as the original material of offspring embryos. Sperm, oocyte and zygote should be all included in the range of reproductive essence. Ovum is the essence of reproduction from inborn. The follicles maturation depends on the quality of oocyte and the vigor of kidney essence. Meanwhile, discharge of mature ovum relies on the stimulation and promotion by kidney Qi. Autophagy almost exists in different cells stages and all various of mammalian cells. Many studies have found that autophagy not only participates in the formation of follicles, but also in every phase of the follicles development, and is involved in the occurrence and development of ovarian diseases. Recently, more and more scholars believe that autophagy is a new field to explore the microcosmic relationship between autophagy and TCM. Kidney-nourishing TCM could promote follicular growth and improve variety clinical symptoms by inhibiting the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells and reducing follicular atresia. Meanwhile, apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells is closely related to autophagy of ovarian granulosa cells. In order to provide some theoretical foundation for kidney-nourishing therapy's promoting effect on follicular growth and improving effect on ovarian function, also to further explore the molecular mechanism of kidney-nourishing medicine in promoting follicular development, this paper would explain the microcosmic relationship between autophagy and follicular development based on the theory of "kidney governing reproduction". All of these would be of great significance to prevent and intervene the diseases of reproductive system timely and effectively. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Study of internal transport barriers in the initial phase of Ohmic discharges in TUMAN-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askinazi, L G; Bulanin, V V; Vildjunas, M I; Golant, V E; Gorokhov, M V; Kornev, V A; Krikunov, S V; Lebedev, S V; Petrov, A V; Rozhdestvensky, V V; Tukachinsky, A S; Zhubr, N A

    2004-01-01

    A regime with electron heat confinement improvement was recently found in the initial phase of discharges in the TUMAN-3M tokamak. An internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in this regime was confirmed by Thomson scattering measurements and by transport modelling. Two possible reasons for the ITB formation are discussed in the paper: by reduction of turbulent transport in the presence of low magnetic shear or by plasma sheared rotation. It is demonstrated that low magnetic shear formation is possible in the current ramp-up phase of the Ohmic discharge. The low magnetic shear does not seem to be the only reason for the transport reduction. Results of Doppler reflectometry measurements of poloidal rotation of density fluctuations are presented. It is found that core confinement improvement correlates with the appearance of sheared rotation of the density fluctuations and with a burst of the MHD activity. The ITB formation in the regime seems to be a result of a combined action of reduced magnetic shear and plasma sheared rotation

  13. Phase transformations in a human tooth tissue at the initial stage of caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Seredin

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study phase transformations in solid tissues of the human teeth during the development of fissure caries by Raman and fluorescence microspectroscopy. The study of the areas with fissure caries confirmed the assumption of the formation of a weak interaction between phosphate apatite enamel and organic acids (products of microorganisms. The experimental results obtained with by Raman microspectroscopy showed the formation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate - CaHPO4-2H2O in the area of mural demineralization of carious fissure. A comparative analysis of structural and spectroscopic data for the intact and carious enamel shows that emergence of a more soluble phase - carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite - is typical for the initial stage of caries. It is shown that microareas of dental hard tissues in the carious fissure due to an emerging misorientation of apatite crystals have a higher fluorescence yield than the area of the intact enamel. These areas can be easily detected even prior to a deep demineralization (white spot stage for the case of irreversibly changed organomineral complex and intensive removal of the mineral component.

  14. Phase Transformations in a Human Tooth Tissue at the Initial Stage of Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prutskij, Tatiana; Ippolitov, Yury

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study phase transformations in solid tissues of the human teeth during the development of fissure caries by Raman and fluorescence microspectroscopy. The study of the areas with fissure caries confirmed the assumption of the formation of a weak interaction between phosphate apatite enamel and organic acids (products of microorganisms). The experimental results obtained with by Raman microspectroscopy showed the formation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate - CaHPO4-2H2O in the area of mural demineralization of carious fissure. A comparative analysis of structural and spectroscopic data for the intact and carious enamel shows that emergence of a more soluble phase - carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite - is typical for the initial stage of caries. It is shown that microareas of dental hard tissues in the carious fissure due to an emerging misorientation of apatite crystals have a higher fluorescence yield than the area of the intact enamel. These areas can be easily detected even prior to a deep demineralization (white spot stage) for the case of irreversibly changed organomineral complex and intensive removal of the mineral component. PMID:25901743

  15. Force systems in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment -- a comparison of different leveling arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuck, Lars-Michael; Drescher, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The determination of orthodontically-effective forces and moments places great demands on the technical equipment. Many patients report severe pain after fixed appliance insertion. Since it is assumed that pain from orthodontic appliances is associated with the force and moment levels applied to the teeth and since the occurrence of root resorption is a common therapeutic side effect, it would seem important to know the actual magnitudes of the components of the active orthodontic force systems. The aim of the present study was therefore to measure initial force systems produced by different leveling arch-wires in a complete multi-bracket appliance and to assess whether force and moment levels can be regarded as biologically acceptable or not. The actual bracket position in 42 patients was transferred onto a measurement model. Forces and moments produced by a super-elastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwire, a 6-strand stainless steel archwire, and a 7-strand super-elastic NiTi archwire were determined experimentally on different teeth. Average forces and moments produced by the super-elastic NiTi arch wires were found to be the highest. In spite if their larger diameter, the stranded arch wires' average force and moment levels were lower, especially that of the stranded super-elastic archwire. Nevertheless, maximum force levels sometimes exceeded recommended values in the literature and must be considered as too high. The measured arch wires' initial force systems differed significantly depending on the type of archwire and its material structure. Stranded arch wires produced lower force and moment levels, and we recommend their use in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment.

  16. Preoperative scintigraphic detection of lung metastases of a follicular thyroid carcinoma associated with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyi, A.; Oufroukhi, Y.; Doudouh, A.; Baizri, H.; El Quatni, M.; Al Bouzidi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Preoperative accumulation of radioiodine in metastases of thyroid carcinoma and its association with hyperthyroidism are uncommon. We report a case of 58-year-old woman with follicular thyroid carcinoma revealed by thyrotoxicosis caused by a hot nodule, and bilateral pulmonary uptake of I-131 before total thyroidectomy. Despite four ablative doses of I-131, bone metastases were identified and the patient died 42 month after the initial diagnosis. (authors)

  17. [A transportation vehicle for laparoscopically obtained follicular specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliess, F R; Sudik, R

    1984-01-01

    Structure, function and first results with a vehicle for transportation were described. This apparatus allows to store laparoscopic harvested follicular fluids for a while in constant temperature and in air condition with 5% CO2 in compressed air. Simultaneously the follicular fluids were transported in this vehicle from operating theatre to the laboratory.

  18. Ovarian follicular dynamics during the interovulatory interval in Najdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated the presence of either four (n = 2 estrus cycles) or five (n = 3 estrus cycles) waves of follicular growth during the interovulatory interval. Each wave was characterized by the development of at least 1 large follicle (dominant) and a variable number of small follicles (subordinate). The mean number of follicular ...

  19. Molecular genetics of follicular cell thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina D. Yakushina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine malignancy. In the most cases thyroid cancer arises from follicular cells. Diagnosis of the cancer is based on the cytological analysis of fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodes. But the accuracy of the cytological diagnosis is about 80% that leads to the false positive and false negative cases and wrong strategy of treatment. Identification of genetic and epigenetic markers in the biopsies will allow to improve diagnostic accuracy. This article describes mutations, aberrant DNA methylation and abnormal microRNA expression constituting the core of molecular genetics of follicular cell thyroid cancer. The mutations given in the article includes point mutations, fusions and copy number variation. Besides frequent and well described driver mutations in genes of МАРK, PI3K/Akt and Wnt signaling pathways, as well as TP53 and TERT genes, we introduce here less frequent mutations appeared in the literature during the past two years. In addition the article contains examples of diagnostic panels applying these markers.

  20. Estado nutricional e consumo alimentar de mulheres jovens na fase lútea e folicular do ciclo menstrual Nutritional status and food consumption of young women in the luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Almenara Silva dos Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional e a ingestão alimentar de mulheres adultas sadias durante o ciclo menstrual. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco voluntárias foram acompanhadas durante três meses. A avaliação do estado nutricional foi baseada no índice de massa corporal, porcentagem de gordura e água corporal. Foram aplicados seis registros alimentares para análise da ingestão dos grupos de alimentos, usando como base o guia alimentar da pirâmide. Para a observação do sintoma "desejos alimentares", foram utilizados três "mapas de sintomas diários". RESULTADOS: Os valores médios de índice de massa corporal e de porcentagem de gordura corporal apresentaram-se normais em ambas as fases, entretanto foi observado maior percentual de mulheres com água corporal acima do padrão na fase lútea (77%. O consumo de alimentos do grupo complementar foi maior na fase lútea. Todos os outros grupos de alimentos, com exceção do grupo de carnes, apresentaram consumo inferior às recomendações, em ambas as fases. A intensidade do sintoma "desejos alimentares" foi leve durante o ciclo menstrual, não sendo observada diferença significativa entre as fases. O sintoma "desejos alimentares" associou-se positivamente com o aumento da ingestão do grupo complementar na fase lútea. CONCLUSÃO: O ciclo menstrual influencia o comportamento alimentar e leva à retenção hídrica, na fase lútea, em mulheres adultas sadias.OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the nutritional status and food intake of healthy young women during the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Forty-five volunteers were followed for three months. Their nutritional status was determined by body mass index, body fat and total body water. Six food recall instruments were used to evaluate food group intake according to the food guide pyramid. Food cravings were detected by three daily symptom charts. RESULTS: The mean body mass index and body fat were normal in both phases; however, there was a higher

  1. Minimally Invasive Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma in Pediatric Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Alfredo; Diaz, Julio; Messa Oscar; Chinchilla, Sandra; Gomez, Constanza; Restrepo, Ligia

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid carcinomas are rare during childhood and adolescence. They have increased recently probably due to a higher frequency radiation over the head, neck and mediastinum. The papillary carcinoma is the most common and true follicular carcinoma is far less common. Follicular thyroid carcinoma is associated with endemic goiter, genetic disorders, and increased TSH levels. Its morphological characteristics are peculiar and have been recently redefined, thus helping the diagnosis. A minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma in 13 years old girl is described, presenting a hypocaptant thyroid nodule in the left lobe lower pole. The fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed a follicular cell lesion suspicious of malignancy. Thyroid lobectomy was performed reporting minimally invasive follicular carcinoma.

  2. MDCT of acute pancreatitis: Intraindividual comparison of single-phase versus dual-phase MDCT for initial assessment of acute pancreatitis using different CT scoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avanesov, Maxim, E-mail: m.avanesov@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Weinrich, Julius M.; Kraus, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Adam, Gerhard; Yamamura, Jin [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Karul, Murat [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Objectives: The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the additional value of dual-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocols over a single-phase protocol on initial MDCT in patients with acute pancreatitis using three CT-based pancreatitis severity scores with regard to radiation dose. Methods: In this retrospective, IRB approved study MDCT was performed in 102 consecutive patients (73 males; 55years, IQR48–64) with acute pancreatitis. Inclusion criteria were CT findings of interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IP) or necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) and a contrast-enhanced dual-phase (arterial phase and portal-venous phase) abdominal CT performed at ≥72 h after onset of symptoms. The severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes was independently assessed by 2 observers using 3 validated CT-based scoring systems (CTSI, mCTSI, EPIC). All scores were applied to arterial phase and portal venous phase scans and compared to score results of portal venous phase scans, assessed ≥14 days after initial evaluation. For effective dose estimation, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded in all examinations. Results: In neither of the CT severity scores a significant difference was observed after application of a dual-phase protocol compared with a single-phase protocol (IP: CTSI: 2.7 vs. 2.5, p = 0.25; mCTSI: 4.0 vs. 4.0, p = 0.10; EPIC: 2.0 vs. 2.0, p = 0.41; NP: CTSI: 8.0 vs. 7.0, p = 0.64; mCTSI: 8.0 vs. 8.0, p = 0.10; EPIC: 3.0 vs. 3.0, p = 0.06). The application of a single-phase CT protocol was associated with a median effective dose reduction of 36% (mean dose reduction 31%) compared to a dual-phase CT scan. Conclusions: An initial dual-phase abdominal CT after ≥72 h after onset of symptoms of acute pancreatitis was not superior to a single-phase protocol for evaluation of the severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes. However, the effective radiation dose may be reduced by 36% using a

  3. Silica-gel structural characterization during the initial phases of gelation and drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Max Passos

    1996-01-01

    For centuries, glasses and ceramics have been made via melting or solid state reactions at temperatures above 100 deg C. The sol-gel process offers new approaches to the synthesis of glasses and ceramics, combining control of composition and structure at the molecular level with the ability to shape materials in bulk, powder, fiber and thin-film forms. The growth of sol-gel technology research is due to the many unique features of that class of materials. Major applications include optical elements and integrated optical devices, ceramic filters, membranes, supercondutors, magnetic, catalytic and manostructured materials to antioxidant, anticorrosion coatings and composite and biomedical materials. In this work a variety of techniques like spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, light scattering nuclear magnetic resonance, X ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption have been employed to investigate the initial phase of the sol-gel transition of gamma ray irradiated tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) solutions and non-irradiated TMOS solution and to get information about the structure of the silica gels obtained under different gelation conditions. Typically the tetramethoxysilane solutions were prepared using a molar ratio of TMOS to demineralized water of 1 to 16. Some experiments were made under catalysed conditions. The mixing was carried out at room temperature. The turbidity and light scattering experiments on the polycondensation of tetramethoxysilane show that exists no drastic difference in the gelling time of a gamma ray irradiated and a non-irradiated TMOS+H 2 O (1+16 M) solution. In the absence of a catalyst, the gelling time for both reactions occurs in about 3.30 h. When HNO 3 (o.03 M) was used, the gelling time observed was 3 days. Raman and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy show no drastic difference during the initial phase at the sol-gel transition under ambient temperature/pressure and under gamma radiation. The gels heated

  4. Chemoimmunotherapy with ofatumumab in combination with CHOP in previously untreated follicular lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czuczman, Myron S; Hess, Georg; Gadeberg, Ole V

    2012-01-01

    An international, Phase II trial was conducted to assess two doses of ofatumumab, a human CD20 monoclonal antibody, combined with cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m(2) ), doxorubicin (50 mg/m(2) ), prednisone (100 mg days 3-7) and vincristine (1·4 mg/m(2) ) (O-CHOP), as frontline treatment for follicular...... lymphoma (FL). 59 patients with previously untreated FL were randomized to ofatumumab 500 mg (n = 29) or 1000 mg (n = 30) day 1, with CHOP on day 3 every 3 weeks for six cycles. Median duration of FL was 0·1 years for both dose groups; 34% and 38% of patients had high-risk Follicular Lymphoma International...

  5. Initial phase of the development of sunspot groups and their forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlyand, B.O.; Burov, V.A.; Stepanyan, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    Some characteristics of the initial phase of sunspot groups and their forecast have been considered. Experimental data on 340 sunspot groups were obtained in 1967-1969. It was found that oscillations of the magnetic flux in the groups indicate the possibility of the existence of typical periods (2 and 4 days) of the magnetic field development. Most of the groups appears in young plages. The probability of the protons injection from the young groups is very small. The typical time of the development of the proton centre is 10-30 days. The characteristics of the group on the first day of its existence are vaguely connected with the lifetime of the group. On the second and third days the magnetic characteristics (the summary magnetic flux and the number of the unipolar regions) have the highest correlation coefficient (approximately 70%) with the lifetime of the group. The problem of the group lifetime forecast was being solved with the pattern recognition technique. On the base of the second day observation of the existence of the group verification of the received forecast 14% exceeds the verification of the climatological forecast. The forecast of the Zurich class with the same technique is effective beginning with the fifth day of the group existence and the forecast of the flare activity of the group since the day of its appearance. The exceeding of the verification as compared with the climatological forecasts in these problems is 10% and 8% accordingly

  6. Synchronisation of the follicular wave with GnRH and PGF2α analogue for a timed breeding programme in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Pratap, N

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to develop a hormone protocol that precisely synchronises follicular development for a timed breeding (TB) programme in dromedary camels. To examine the effect of GnRH treatment at four known stages of follicular development, animals were treated with GnRH when the largest follicle of the wave was 4-7, 8-11, 12-17 and 18-27 mm in diameter. Transrectal ultrasonography was carried out daily up to 20 days after treatment. A hormone protocol (FWsynch) for the synchronisation of follicular wave and TB consisting of GnRH-1 (GnRH) on Day 0, PG-1 (PGF2α) on Day 7, GnRH-2 on Day 10 and PG-2 on Day 17 was initiated at four known stages of follicular development. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasonography. The FWsynch protocol was initiated at random stages of follicle development and animals were bred by natural mating at a fixed time at the research facility and in field. The pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography. GnRH treatment in animals with a dominant follicle (DF) of ≥ 11 mm in diameter resulted in synchronous new follicular wave emergence, whereas in animals with a DF ≤ 10 mm, the treatment did not alter the development of the existing follicular wave. The FWsynch protocol was effective in synchronising the follicular wave for TB irrespective of the stage of follicular development at the beginning of the protocol. TB using FWsynch protocol resulted in a pregnancy rate of 60.2% in a research facility and 53.6% and 45.6% in normal and infertile camels respectively under field conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in follicular lymphoma management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dortz, L.; Devillers, A.; Prigent, F.; Bahri, H.; Hervouet, T.; Garin, E.; Guibert, S. de.; Lamy, T.; Rolland, Y.; Bayat, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess the usefulness of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in staging, prognosis evaluation and re staging of patients with follicular lymphoma. Patients and methods a retrospective study was performed on 45 patients with untreated biopsy-proven follicular lymphoma who underwent F.D.G.-PET/CT and CT before and after chemo-immunotherapy induction treatment (rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone). Results PET/CT detected more nodal (+51%) and extra nodal (+89%) lesions than CT. PET/CT changed Ann Arbor stage in eight patients (18%). Five patients (11%) initially considered with early stage (I/II) were finally managed as advanced stage (III/IV). In this study, initial PET/CT was significantly more accurate to identify patients with poor prognosis than F.L.I.P.I.. Poor prognosis was defined as incomplete therapeutic response or early relapse. Accuracy of PET/CT for therapeutic response assessment was significantly higher than that of CT (0.97 vs 0.64), especially because of its ability to identify inactive residual masses. Beside, post-treatment PET/CT was able to predict patients outcome. The median progression free survival (P.F.S.) was 48 months in the PET/CT negative group as compared to 17.2 months for the group with residual uptake (P < 10-4). Conclusion F.D.G.-PET/CT is a very useful tool for staging, assessing prognosis and therapeutic response of patients with follicular lymphoma. (authors)

  8. The effect of laser pulse parameters and initial phase on the acceleration of electrons in a vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kunwar Pal; Gupta, Devki Nandan; Malik, Hitendra K

    2008-01-01

    Laser driven acceleration of electrons lying along the axis of the laser has been studied. We have considered a linearly polarized laser pulse. The quiver amplitude causes electrons to escape from the pulse. The energy gained by the electrons peaks for a suitable value of laser spot size. The value of a suitable laser spot size increases with laser intensity and initial electron energy. The energy gained by the electron depends upon its initial position with respect to the laser pulse. The electrons close to the pulse peak with initial phase π/2 are scattered least and gain higher energy. The electrons close to the leading edge of the pulse gain sufficient energy for a short laser pulse and the effect of initial phase is not important. A suitable value of laser spot size can be estimated from this study

  9. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent......Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...... for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections...

  10. Follicular thyroglobulin induces cathepsin H expression and activity in thyrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Kenzaburo; Luo, Yuqian; Yoshihara, Aya; Ishido, Yuko; Sekihata, Kengo

    2017-01-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) stored in thyroid follicles exerts a potent negative-feedback effect on each step of pre-hormone biosynthesis, including Tg gene transcription and iodine uptake and organification, by suppressing the expression of specific transcription factors that regulate these steps. Pre-hormones are stored in the follicular colloid before being reabsorbed. Following lysosomal proteolysis of its precursor, thyroid hormone (TH) is released from thyroid follicles. Although the suppressive effects of follicular Tg on each step of pre-hormone biosynthesis have been extensively characterized, whether follicular Tg accumulation also affects hormone reabsorption, proteolysis, and secretion is unclear. In this study we explored whether follicular Tg can regulate the expression and function of the lysosomal endopeptidases cathepsins. We found that in the rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5 follicular Tg induced cathepsin H mRNA and protein expression, as well as cathepsin H enzyme activity. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that Tg endocytosis promoted cathepsin H translocalization into lysosomes where it co-localized with internalized Tg. These results suggest that cathepsin H is an active participant in lysosome-mediated pre-hormone degradation, and that follicular Tg stimulates mobilization of pre-hormones by activating cathepsin H-associated proteolysis pathways. - Highlights: • Follicular Tg increases cathepsin H mRNA and protein levels in rat thyroid cells. • Follicular Tg increases cathepsin H enzyme activity in rat thyroid cells. • After Tg stimulation cathepsin H co-localizes to lysosomes with follicular Tg. • Cathepsin H promotes hormone secretion by lysosome-mediated mechanisms.

  11. The effect of the ceramic core initial phase composition on the Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 tapes critical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, A.D.; Shikov, A.K.; Khlebova, N.E.; Antipova, E.V.; Dontsova, E.V.; Kazakov, E.G.; Medvedev, M.I.; Kozlenkova, N.I.; Shishov, V.N.; Akimov, I.I.

    1993-01-01

    Ag - sheathed superconducting tapes were fabricated using ''powder-in-tube'' method with powders of Bi 1.6 Pb 0.4 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3.2 O x chemical composition prepared by the ''freeze-drying'' tecnique and taken as a core materials. The effect of ceramic core initial phase composition: the mixture of oxide non-superconducting phases - OP (typeI) and 50% OP + 50% OP ''2212''- phase (type II) on the critical current density was investigated as well as the ''annealing - cold pressing'' parameters. Multifilamentary superconducting tapes and the pancake coils were fabricated. (orig.)

  12. Follicular unit extraction as a therapeutic option for Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sacchidanand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is a surgical procedure, which can be used to transplant follicular units into vitiliginous areas. Such follicular unit transplant has been recently used to repigment stable vitiligo patches. FUE was done for a 12-year-old female with a stable vitiligo patch with leukotrichia on the eyebrow. Repigmentation was noted in 6 weeks and complete pigmentation seen at 12 weeks. Leukotrichia resolved over a period of 6 months. No recurrence was noted at the end of 6 months follow-up with excellent colour match. This case is presented to highlight the simplicity, safety and effectiveness of FUE in stable vitiligo patches with leukotrichia.

  13. Initial results of strand produced in Phase 2 of the SSCL Vendor Qualification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, M.; Capone, D. II; Coleman, S.; Jones, B.; Seuntjens, J.

    1993-05-01

    In 1991, the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) instituted a program to qualify specific superconductor manufacturers for production of cable acceptable for use in both Collider Dipole (CDM) and Quadrupole (CQM) magnets. The SSCL Vendor Qualification Program (VQP) was designed with two Phases. Phase 1 was divided into two additional phases, 1A and 1B, which ran concurrently. In Phase 1B, each vendor was directed to manufacture roughly 3000 kg of cable using a ''baseline'' process. The baseline process was agreed to by both the SSCL and the vendor at the beginning of the VQP. In this phase, process control was closely monitored with the use of statistical methods and each vendor was graded based on these results. Phase 1A, known as the R ampersand D phase, was developed to allow each vendor an opportunity to optimize and improve on their baseline process in terms of both cost and manufacturability. In this phase, multifilament billets were designed to explore several key variables such as alternate alloy sources, process modifications and improved billet designs. At the end of Phase 1, the results from both 1A and 1B were evaluated at a review between the SSCL and each vendor, and a final Phase 2 process was generated and fixed using the best results. In Phase 2, each vendor is required to manufacture roughly 6000 kg of superconducting cable under a firm fixed price contract which can then be used to create an accurate price estimate for competitive bidding on the full rate production CDM and CQM contracts. At the end of Phase 2, each vendor must meet the minimum requirements outlined in the contract to become a qualified superconducting cable supplier. For one requirement, critical process variables identified by the SSCL Conductor Department at the beginning of the VQP will be evaluated to determine the quality and uniformity of the material produced during Phase 2 of the program

  14. A model to determine the initial phase space of a clinical electron beam from measured beam data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.J.M.; Korevaar, E.W.; Battum, L.J. van; Storchi, P.R.; Huizenga, H.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced electron beam dose calculation models for radiation oncology require as input an initial phase space (IPS) that describes a clinical electron beam. The IPS is a distribution in position, energy and direction of electrons and photons in a plane in front of the patient. A method is presented

  15. 25 CFR 1000.173 - How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation phase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation phase? 1000.173 Section 1000.173 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATIO...

  16. Effect of Surface Tension Anisotropy and Welding Parameters on Initial Instability Dynamics During Solidification: A Phase-Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fengyi; Wei, Yanhong

    2018-05-01

    The effects of surface tension anisotropy and welding parameters on initial instability dynamics during gas tungsten arc welding of an Al-alloy are investigated by a quantitative phase-field model. The results show that the surface tension anisotropy and welding parameters affect the initial instability dynamics in different ways during welding. The surface tension anisotropy does not influence the solute diffusion process but does affect the stability of the solid/liquid interface during solidification. The welding parameters affect the initial instability dynamics by varying the growth rate and thermal gradient. The incubation time decreases, and the initial wavelength remains stable as the welding speed increases. When welding power increases, the incubation time increases and the initial wavelength slightly increases. Experiments were performed for the same set of welding parameters used in modeling, and the results of the experiments and simulations were in good agreement.

  17. Effect of Bushen yixue decoction on follicular development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    its possible mechanism of action. Hai-Ning ... Conclusion: BSY promotes follicular development of anovulatory rats via regulating INH-ACT-FS .... the National Institutes for Food and Drug Control .... Finally, the protein bands were detected by.

  18. Early ovarian follicular development in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, L; Velez, L M; Santos, B R; Tusset, C; Lecke, S B; Motta, A B; Spritzer, P M

    2016-08-01

    Androgens may directly modulate early ovarian follicular development in preantral stages and androgen excess before puberty may disrupt this physiological process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of follicular morphology and circulating androgen and estradiol levels in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens. Prepubertal female Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) intervention and eCG plus dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) intervention (eCG+DHEA). Serum DHEA, testosterone and estradiol levels were determined, and ovarian morphology and morphometry were assessed. The eCG+DHEA group presented increased serum estradiol and testosterone levels as compared with the control group (P<0.01), and higher serum DHEA concentration v. the eCG-only and control groups (P<0.01). In addition, the eCG+DHEA group had a higher number of, and larger-sized, primary and secondary follicles as compared with the control group (P<0.05). The eCG group presented intermediate values for number and size of primary and secondary follicles, without significant differences as compared with the other two groups. The number of antral follicles was higher in the eCG+DHEA and eCG groups v. controls (P<0.05). The number of primordial, atretic and cystic follicles were similar in all groups. In conclusion, the present experimental model using an acute eCG+DHEA intervention was useful to investigate events involved in initial follicular development under hyperandrogenic conditions, and could provide a reliable tool to study defective follicular development with possible deleterious reproductive consequences later in life.

  19. Thyrotoxicosis associated with distant metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, W.D.; Jones, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In a man with metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, thyrotoxicosis developed after total thyroidectomy and was successfully treated with antithyroid medications. Treatment with radioactive iodine decreased the size of the distant metastasis and eventually diminished thyroid hormone production. Follicular carcinoma complicated by hyperthyroidism requires vigorous control of the hypermetabolic state. Treatment with radioactive iodine can effectively reduce metabolic complications and tumor bulk, and yields a remission rate as high as 33%

  20. Follicular thyroid carcinoma mimicking meningioma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnalatha Buandasan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC is a well-differentiated tumor which resembles the normal microscopic pattern of the thyroid. Although intracranial metastasis to the brain is frequent in adults, metastasis from FTC is very rare. Dural metastases mimicking meningioma have been documented in the literature now and then. However, cases arising from a FTC are again very rare. We report the case of a middle-aged lady who presented with progressive, painless left eye proptosis. She was noted to have a non-axial proptosis with dystopia, compressive optic neuropathy and exposure keratitis. She also had a painless swelling over the occipital region. She was initially misdiagnosed to have multiple foci of meningioma based on magnetic resonance imaging findings. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed presence of FTC. She was euthyroid but was found to have multiple small thyroid nodules by ultrasonography. Hence, the definite diagnosis of all dural masses must be histological wherever possible and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary tumour in such presentations.

  1. Initial studies of synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoliang; Zhang Xi; Peng Yifeng; Li Beilei; Cheng Aiping; Zhu Peiping; Yuan Xiqing; Huang Wanxia

    2010-01-01

    Recently,research on using X-ray phase information in medicine has been growing remarkably fast. Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron radiation can reveal inner soft tissues such as tendons, cartilage, ligaments, adipose tissue, vessels and nerves without a contrast agent. We have visualized the liver, bile duct, lung, kidney, stomach and intestine, heart, blood vessel, bone and arthrosis, and tumor tissues using 'in-line' phase contrast imaging and diffraction-enhanced imaging. It is seen that the synchrotron radiation graphs show much higher resolution. This method is especially suitable for studying soft tissue structure and blood vessels. (authors)

  2. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  3. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'Initiative Think tank ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    À propos de l'Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research ... son rendement organisationnel et son interaction avec la sphère des politiques. ... moyen des services de vulgarisation reposant sur les TIC au Ghana (FCRSAI, phase II).

  4. Review of the Initial Phases of the LHC Power Converter Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Nisbet, D

    2008-01-01

    The LHC requires more than 1700 power converter systems that supply between 60A and 13kA of precisely regulated current to the superconducting magnets. For the first time at CERN these converters have been installed underground in close proximity to many other accelerator systems. In addition to the power converters themselves, many utilities such as air and water cooling, electrical power, communication networks and magnet safety systems needed to be installed and commissioned as a single system. Due to the complexity of installing and commissioning such a large infrastructure, with inevitable interaction between the different systems, a three phase test strategy was developed. The first phase comprised the manufacture, integration and reception tests of all converter sub-systems necessary for powering. The second phase covered the commissioning of all the power converters installed in their final environment with the utilities. The third phase will add the superconducting magnets and will not be covered by ...

  5. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation, San Diego air quality test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Air Quality Analysis for the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the San Diego Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ICM projects being...

  6. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation, Dallas air quality test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Air Quality Analysis for the United States : Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the Dallas U.S. 75 Integrated Corridor : Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ICM proje...

  7. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation - Dallas technical capability analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Technical Capability Analysis for the United States : Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the Dallas U.S. 75 Integrated Corridor : Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ...

  8. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation, San Diego technical capability analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Technical Capability Analysis for the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the San Diego Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ICM proje...

  9. Automatic Generation of Least-Possible-Impact Traffic Management Initiatives, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Weather accounts for 70% of the annual cost of air traffic delays and cancellations, of which about 60% are estimated to be avoidable. Traffic Management Initiatives...

  10. Model development of SAS4A and investigation on the initiating phase consequences in LMFRs related with material motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analytical aspect of the initiating phase scenario and consequences of postulated core disruptive accident in liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. An analytical code, SAS4A, has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, and introduced to PNC. Improvement and validation effort have been performed for the mixed-oxide version of SAS4A at PNC. This paper describes firstly recent development of SAS4A's material motion related models briefly. A fission gas mass transfer model and solid fuel chunk jamming model are developed and introduced to SAS4A, and validated using CABRI-2 E13 experimental data. Secondly, an investigation of the mechanism of energetics in the initiating phase of an unprotected loss-of-flow accident has identified major control parameters which are intimately related to core design parameters and material motion phenomena. (author)

  11. Equilibrium aluminium hydroxo-oxalate phases during initial clay formation; H +-Al 3+-oxalic acid-Na + system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Halka; Horvath, Laszlo; Ingri, Nils; Sjöberg, Staffan

    1986-09-01

    The conditions necessary for initial clay formation have been studied in different model systems comprising different organic acids besides Si and Al. In the present paper the solid phases and the precipitation boundary characterizing the subsystem H +-Al 3+-oxalic acid (H 2L) are discussed. pH and tyndallometric measurements were performed in an ionic medium of 0.6 M Na(Cl) at 25 °C. The two phases Al 3(OH) 7(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase I) and NaAl(OH) 2(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase II) determine the precipitation boundary. The following formation constants for the two phases were deduced: lgβ1 = lg([ Al3+] -3[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 9 = -21.87 ± 0.08 and lgβ11 = lg([ Al3+] -1[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 4 = -5.61 ± 0.06. Phase I exists in the range [ Al] tot≥ 10 -4.4moldm-3,[ H2C2O4] tot ≥ 10 -4.9moldm-3 and at pH oxalic-rich natural waters. The more soluble sodium phase is unlikely to exist in natural waters. The two phases are metastable relative to crystalline gibbsite and may be considered as the first precipitation step in the transition from aqueous Al oxalates down to stable Al hydroxide. Model calculations illustrating these competing hydrolysis-complexation reactions are discussed in terms of predominance and speciation diagrams. The solid phases have been characterized by X-ray analysis of powders, TGA and IR spectra, and tentative structures are proposed. Phase I seems to be an octahedral layer structure, in which 3/5 of the octahedral sites between two close packed oxygen sheets are occupied by Al 3+ and the oxalate ion acts as a bridge ligand between two aluminium atoms. Phase II forms a more open sheet structure and has ion exchange properties. Powder data for a phase crystallized from the studied solution after a year are also presented. This phase, Na 4Al 2(OH) 2(C 2O 4) 4 · 10H 2O, supports the results from the equilibrium analysis of recent solution data by SJöBERG and ÖHMAN (1985), who have found the dinuclear complex Al 2(OH) 2(C 2O 4) 44- to exist in a

  12. Initiating Heavy-atom Based Phasing by Multi-Dimensional Molecular Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Gourdon, Pontus; Liu, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    -based approaches, which however may fail when only poorly diffracting derivative crystals are available, as often the case for e.g. membrane proteins. Here we present an approach for heavy atom site identification based on a Molecular Replacement Parameter Matrix (MRPM) search. It involves an n-dimensional search...... to test a wide spectrum of molecular replacement parameters, such as clusters of different conformations. The result is scored by the ability to identify heavy-atom positions, from anomalous difference Fourier maps, that allow meaningful phases to be determined. The strategy was successfully applied...... but correct molecular replacement solutions with maximum contrast to prime experimental phasing efforts....

  13. Initial study on Z-phase strengthened 9-12% Cr steels by atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang; Andren, Hans-Olof [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2010-07-01

    The microstructure of two different types of Z-phase strengthened experimental steels, CrNbN-based or CrTaN-based, was investigated. Both steels underwent aging at 650 C for relatively short period of time, 24 hours or 1005 hours. Atom probe tomography was used to study the chemical composition of the matrix and precipitates, and the size and number density of the small precipitates. Both steels contain Laves phase at prior austenite grain boundaries and martensitic lath boundaries. The CrTaN-based steel was found more promising due to its finer and more densely distributed precipitates after 1005 hour aging. (orig.)

  14. Preparation and initial characterization of fluidized bed steam reforming pure-phase standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missimer, D. M.; Rutherford, R. L.

    2013-03-21

    Hanford is investigating the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process for their Low Activity Waste. The FBSR process offers a low-temperature continuous method by which liquid waste can be processed with the addition of clay into a sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is mainly comprised of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Anions such as perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup -}), pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), and iodine (I{sup -}) are expected to replace sulfate in the nosean structure and/or chloride in the sodalite mineral structure (atomically bonded inside the aluminosilicate cages that these mineral structures possess). In the FBSR waste form, each of these phases can exist in a variety of solid solutions that differ from the idealized forms observed in single crystals in nature. The lack of understanding of the durability of these stoichiometric or idealized mineral phases complicates the ability to deconvolute the durability of the mixed phase FBSR product since it is a combination of different NAS phases. To better understand the behavior, fabrication and testing of the individual phases of the FBSR product is required. Analytical Development (AD) of the Science and Technology directorate of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare the series of phase-pure standards, consisting of nepheline, nosean, and Cl, Re, and I sodalite. Once prepared, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to confirm the products were phase pure. These standards are being used for subsequent characterization studies consisting of the following: single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing, development of thermodynamic data, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) calibration curves. In addition to the above mentioned phase-pure standards, AD was tasked with fabricating a mixed Tc-Re sodalite.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy's regional carbon sequestration partnership initiative: Update on validation and development phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodosta, T.; Litynski, J.; Plasynski, S.; Spangler, L.; Finley, R.; Steadman, E.; Ball, D.; Gerald, H.; McPherson, B.; Burton, E.; Vikara, D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are the mechanism DOE utilizes to prove the technology and to develop human capital, stakeholder networks, information for regulatory policy, best practices documents and training to work toward the commercialization of carbon capture and storage (CCS). The RCSPs are tasked with determining the most suitable technologies, regulations, and infrastructure for carbon capture, transport, and storage in their respective geographic areas of responsibility. The seven partnerships include more than 400 state agencies, universities, national laboratories, private companies, and environmental organizations, spanning 43 states and four Canadian provinces. The Regional Partnerships Initiative is being implemented in three phases: Characterization, Validation, and Development. The initial Characterization Phase began in 2003 and was completed in 2005 and focused on characterization of CO2 storage potential within each region. It was followed by the Validation Phase, which began in 2005 and is nearing completion in 2011. The focus of the Validation Phase has been on small-scale field tests throughout the seven partnerships in various formation types such as saline, oil-bearing, and coal seams. The Validation Phase has characterized suitable CO2 storage reservoirs and identified the need for comprehensive legal and regulatory frameworks to enable commercial-scale CCS deployment. Finally, the Development Phase will consist of a series of large-scale, one-million-ton, injection tests throughout the United States and Canada. The objective of these large-scale tests is to identify the regulatory path or challenges in permitting CCS projects, to demonstrate the technology can inject CO2 safely, and to verify its permanence in geologic formations in preparation for the commercialization of geologic

  16. Cell of origin of transformed follicular lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridel, Robert; Mottok, Anja; Farinha, Pedro; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Ennishi, Daisuke; Zheng, Yvonne; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Shulha, Hennady P.; Tan, King; Chan, Fong Chun; Boyle, Merrill; Meissner, Barbara; Telenius, Adele; Sehn, Laurie H.; Marra, Marco A.; Shah, Sohrab P.; Steidl, Christian; Connors, Joseph M.; Scott, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent disease but transforms in 2% to 3% of patients per year into aggressive, large cell lymphoma, a critical event in the course of the disease associated with increased lymphoma-related mortality. Early transformation cannot be accurately predicted at the time of FL diagnosis and the biology of transformed FL (TFL) is poorly understood. Here, we assembled a cohort of 126 diagnostic FL specimens including 40 patients experiencing transformation (transformation for at least 5 years. In addition, we assembled an overlapping cohort of 155 TFL patients, including 114 cases for which paired samples were available, and assessed temporal changes of routinely available biomarkers, outcome after transformation, as well as molecular subtypes of TFL. We report that the expression of IRF4 is an independent predictor of early transformation (Hazard ratio, 13.3; P transformation predicts favorable prognosis. Moreover, applying the Lymph2Cx digital gene expression assay for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell-of-origin determination to 110 patients with DLBCL-like TFL, we demonstrate that TFL is of the germinal-center B-cell–like subtype in the majority of cases (80%) but that a significant proportion of cases is of the activated B-cell–like (ABC) subtype (16%). These latter cases are commonly negative for BCL2 translocation and arise preferentially from BCL2 translocation-negative and/or IRF4-expressing FLs. Our study demonstrates the existence of molecular heterogeneity in TFL as well as its relationship to the antecedent FL. PMID:26307535

  17. Phase-Specific Vocalizations of Male Mice at the Initial Encounter during the Courtship Sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yui K Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations featuring a variety of syllables. Vocalizations are observed during social interactions. In particular, males produce numerous syllables during courtship. Previous studies have shown that vocalizations change according to sexual behavior, suggesting that males vary their vocalizations depending on the phase of the courtship sequence. To examine this process, we recorded large sets of mouse vocalizations during male-female interactions and acoustically categorized these sounds into 12 vocal types. We found that males emitted predominantly short syllables during the first minute of interaction, more long syllables in the later phases, and mainly harmonic sounds during mounting. These context- and time-dependent changes in vocalization indicate that vocal communication during courtship in mice consists of at least three stages and imply that each vocalization type has a specific role in a phase of the courtship sequence. Our findings suggest that recording for a sufficiently long time and taking the phase of courtship into consideration could provide more insights into the role of vocalization in mouse courtship behavior in future study.

  18. Phase I feasibility study for the Canyon disposition initiative (221-U facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The objective of the Phase I Feasibility Study (FS) presented in this document is to provide decision makers sufficient information on the remedial alternatives specific to the disposition of the 221-U Canyon Building (221-U Facility) located at the Hanford Site, and to determine which alternatives are viable for further detailed analysis

  19. Motivation, Induction, and Challenge: Examining the Initial Phase of International Students' Educational Sojourn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Paul; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the initial higher education experiences of first-year international students in the United Kingdom. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were carried out with 20 new international students undertaking a business degree at a U.K. university. The students described the key motivating factors for studying abroad and the…

  20. Initial phases of design-based research into the educational potentials of NAO-robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Bertel, Lykke Brogaard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our initial research, using the humanoid robot NAO in primary and secondary schools. How does a programmable humanoid enrich teaching and how do we prepare the teachers? Ten school classes are using the robot for creative programming. So far we have experienced...... that the robot enriches the learning processes by combining the auditory, visual and kinaesthetic modalities....

  1. Concurrent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis in Boxer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Milene A; Demaula, Christopher D; Scott, Danny W; Miller, William H; Senter, David A; Myers, Sherry

    2003-06-01

    Recurrent or persistent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis are described in nine Boxers. Data on age, sex, seasonality of alopecia and histopathological features of the follicular dysplasia in these nine Boxers are comparable with those described in previous reports. The interface dermatitis was characterized by multifocal annular crusted lesions confined to the areas of follicular dysplasia. The inflammatory lesions were neither pruritic nor painful and affected dogs were otherwise healthy. Histopathologically the clinically inflammatory lesions were characterized as an interface dermatitis. Immunohistochemical studies failed to demonstrate immunoglobulins or complement at the basement membrane zone or within blood vessel walls. In dogs with recurrent or persistent disease, the follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis ran identical, concurrent courses of spontaneous remission and recurrence, or persistence, respectively. One dog with persistent disease was treated successfully with tetracycline and niacinamide for the interface dermatitis, and melatonin for the follicular dysplasia. Although the aetiopathogenesis of this newly described condition and the relationship between the two histological reaction patterns are not known, photoperiod and genetic predisposition appear to play a role.

  2. Estradiol and luteinizing hormone concentrations in the follicular aspirate during ovum pickup as predictors of in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaa Sarhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A relationship between ‘oocyte quality’ and follicular fluid hormones is expected, since its formation coincides with the ‘oocyte maturation’ phase. The aim of this study was to find a possible relation between oocyte quality with follicular luteinizing hormone (LH and estradiol (E2 as hormonal parameters of oocyte quality during ovum pickup for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Methods: Concentrations of LH and E2 in individual follicular fluid samples obtained during assisted reproduction treatment were related to oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization and embryo grading. E2 and LH differences between individual groups of oocytes and embryos were calculated using the paired Student’s t test and ANOVA test. Results: Follicular E2 levels showed a significant positive correlation with oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization and embryo grading being higher in follicles whose oocytes had matured nucleus (475 ± 142.9 ng/ml vs. 332 ± 76.4 ng/ml, P value <0.001, normally fertilized (502.5 ± 131.3 ng/ml vs. 339.8 ± 78.3 ng/ml, P value <0.001 and developed into good quality embryos (596.9 ± 72.4 ng/ml grade A vs. 511.7 ± 73 ng/ml grade B vs. 310.9 ± 57 ng/ml grade C, P value <0.001. However Follicular LH was only positively correlated with oocyte nuclear maturation. Conclusions: The local follicular environment may play a key role in the observed differences in oocyte quality. Our results suggest that the use follicular E2 may be of value in the assessment of oocyte quality. If there is a marker for oocyte quality, it would be possible to select oocytes rather than embryos, which may improve selection criteria of the best embryo to transfer, therefore increases success rate of ICSI.

  3. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'Initiative Think tank ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Il s'efforce d'améliorer la capacité des organismes financés à produire des recherches rigoureuses, susceptibles à la fois d'éclairer et d'influencer les politiques. La deuxième phase de l'ITT (2014-2019) permettra de financer 43 institutions. Cela les aidera à consolider leur rôle d'acteurs du développement crédibles dans ...

  4. UV irradiation-initiated MMA polymerization to prepare microcapsules containing phase change paraffin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Sude; Song, Guolin; Li, Wei; Fan, Pengfei; Tang, Guoyi [Institute of Advanced Materials, Graduated School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM), paraffin, with polymethylmethacrylate shell was prepared by introducing UV irradiation to an O/W emulsion polymerization for approximately 30 min under constant stirring. The results of differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicate that the latent heat and the content of paraffin of microcapsules are 101 J g{sup -1} and 61.2 wt%, respectively. The phase transition temperature of MEPCM ranges from 24 to 33 C. The MEPCM was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermal gravimetric analysis results show that the MEPCM is degraded into two distinguishable steps. Accelerated thermal cycling tests also indicate that the MEPCM displays a good thermal reliability. Gypsum boards composed of as-prepared MEPCM show a good temperature-regulated property. Based on all these results, it can be concluded that the microencapsulated paraffin as MEPCMs have good potential for thermal energy storage purposes such as phase change material slurries, solar space heating applications, textiles and building materials. (author)

  5. Memory T follicular helper CD4 T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott eHale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available T follicular helper (Tfh cells are the subset of CD4 T helper cells that are required for generation and maintenance of germinal center reactions and the generation of long-lived humoral immunity. This specialized T helper subset provides help to cognate B cells via their expression of CD40 ligand, IL-21, IL-4, and other molecules. Tfh cells are characterized by their expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR5, expression of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6, and their capacity to migrate to the follicle and promote germinal center B cell responses. Until recently, it remained unclear whether Tfh cells differentiated into memory cells and whether they maintain their Tfh commitment at the memory phase. This review will highlight several recent studies that support the idea of Tfh-committed CD4 T cells at the memory stage of the immune response. The implication of these findings is that memory Tfh cells retain their capacity to recall their Tfh-specific effector functions upon reactivation to provide help for B cell responses and play an important role in prime and boost vaccination or during recall responses to infection. The markers that are useful for distinguishing Tfh effector and memory cells, as well as the limitations of using these markers will be discussed. Tfh effector and memory generation, lineage maintenance, and plasticity relative to other T helper lineages (Th1, Th2, Th17, etc will also be discussed. Ongoing discoveries regarding the maintenance and lineage stability versus plasticity of memory Tfh cells will improve strategies that utilize CD4 T cell memory to modulate antibody responses during prime and boost vaccination.

  6. Response of thyroid follicular cells to accelerated iron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.M.; Bianski, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Suspension cultures of early and later passages thyroid follicular fisher rat thyroid cells (FRTL-5) were exposed to iron ions delivered over a dose range of 0-3 Gy and their comparative biological responses measured. Early passage FRTL-5 cultures are slow-growing, connexin32 competent whereas, later passage cultures are relatively rapidly growing and connexin32 defective. The iron-irradiated cells had sustained levels of incorporated dUTP into 3' strand breaks, reflecting DNA damage. There were no significant differences between early and later passage cultures except at 0.5 and 1 Gy, 48-hours (p 0.05). The presence of consistently medium-larger micronuclei was evidence that severe damage was introduced by exposure to iron ions. The levels of apoptosis were not linear with dose, nor was there a marked difference with time. In all cases the 3 Gy levels were less than or equal to the levels measured at 0.5 Gy. When survival characteristics were compared the most significant difference between early and later passage cultures were in the a-components of the survival curves (0.60 Gy -1 for early and 0.71 Gy-1 for the later passage cultures, p<0.014). When cell cycle phase redistribution was measured, both the early and later passage cultures displayed a significant shift toward G2 (p<0.001). In conclusion, these findings suggest that neither the presence of gap junctions, nor the differences in growth rate translated to significant differences in the biological response of thyroid follicles to iron ions

  7. Ovarian Follicular Atresia of Ewes during Spring Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Vlčková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of healthy and atretic follicles on the ovarian surface of improved Valachian ewes 17, 24, and 32 days postpartum is reported in this study. The number of healthy follicles was higher on day 24 postpartum and their mean diameter tended to increase to day 32 (P<0.05 with the greatest diameter of 5 mm. 78–81% of atretic follicles ≥3 mm in diameter was observed where apoptosis began in the follicular cells situated at the follicular cavity. The early atretic follicles are characterized by the presence of mitotic pictures. In one ewe 24 days postpartum, small regressive follicular cysts were observed. Contracting atresia is characterized by thickening of the theca interna even to 190 μm. Progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations were maintained at relatively low levels, but with no significant difference between the days postpartum.

  8. Mammalian follicular development and atresia: role of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, E; Xiao, C W; Wang, Y F; Tsang, B K

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of follicular development and atresia is a complex process and involves interactions between endocrine factors (gonadotropins) and intraovarian regulators (sex steroids, growth factors and cytokines) in the control of follicular cell fate (i.e. proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death). Granulosa and theca cells are key players in this fascinating process. As atresia is the fate of most follicles, understanding of how these physiological regulators participate in determining the destiny of the follicle (to degenerate or to ovulate) at cellular and subcellular levels is fundamental. This short review summarizes the role of intraovarian modulators of programmed cell death in the induction of atresia during follicular development. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Hyperfunctioning solid/trabecular follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  10. Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperthyroidism. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Neeta; Gupta, Ruchika; Jain, Shyama

    2004-01-01

    Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid in association with hyperthyroidism is rare. The malignant lesion may remain occult for a long time. Certain clinical and cytologic features may be helpful in raising the alarm. An elderly male with a history of occupational exposure to X rays, long-standing toxic multinodular goiter and clinical hyperthyroidism presented with a rapidly enlarging mass in the neck. Cytologic smears showed a prominent microfollicular pattern, scanty colloid, anisonucleosis and nuclear overlapping. The noteworthy feature was the presence of marginal vacuoles. The cytologic diagnosis of follicular neoplasm with highly suggestive malignancy was made. Subsequently, multiple pulmonary nodules provided radiologic evidence of possible metastatic spread. This case report demonstrates the rare association of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperthyroidism and analyzes certain high-risk clinical and cytologic features to be considered in the follow-up of long-standing hyperfunctioning multinodular goiter.

  11. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giovanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  12. Nuclear AP4A-binding activity of sea urchin embryos changes in relation to the initiation of S phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, M.; Shimada, H.

    1986-01-01

    The AP 4 A-binding activity of sea urchin embryos was studied using radioactively labelled diadenosine 5', 5'''-P 1 ,P 4 -tetraphosphate (Ap 4 A). Among various subcellular components that can bind [ 3 H]AP 4 A, nuclei alone showed the highly specific Ap 4 A-binding activity which was not influenced by the presence of AP 4 A, AP 5 A and GP 4 G. The addition of an excess amount of ATP only slightly reduced the binding of [ 3 H]AP 4 A to the nuclei. It was found that AP 4 A binds to the residual proteinaceous structure of nuclei which was resistant to the extraction with 2 M NaCl. The nuclear AP 4 A-binding activity fluctuated cyclically during each cell cycle, with at transient increase at the beginning of S phase followed by an abrupt-decrease within 10 min. When the initiation of S phase was blocked, the increase in the AP 4 A-binding activity was also prevented. It seems that the binding of AP 4 A to the nuclear structural protein is involved in the initiation of S phase

  13. Araçatuba Formation: palustrine deposits from the initial sedimentation phase of the Bauru Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Luiz A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous accumulated an essentially sandy continental sedimentary sequence. In a first desertic phase the basaltic substratum was covered by a widespread and homogeneous aeolian sand unit with minor loess intercalations. The substratum relief favored the formation of an endorheic drainage system under semi-arid climate, a process that started the development of the Araçatuba Paleoswamp. The palustrine deposits (Araçatuba Formation comprise siltstone and tipically greenish gray narrow tabular strata of sandstone cemented by carbonate. Moulds and gypsite and dolomite pseudomorphs were identified. The moulds seem to be genetically associated with desiccation cracks, root marks and climbing ripple lamination levels, that, on the whole, indicate calm shallow saline waters undergoing phases of subaerial exposition. At the boundaries of the study area, sand units may exhibit sigmoidal features and convolute bedding structure, which is characteristic of marginal deltaic deposits. The Araçatuba Formation is enclosed in and later overlaid by the aeolian deposits of the Vale do Rio do Peixe Formation.

  14. Identification and initial assessment of candidate BWR late-phase in-vessel accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    Work sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to identify and perform preliminary assessments of candidate BWR [boiling water reactor] in-vessel accident management strategies was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during fiscal year 1990. Mitigative strategies for containment events have been the subject of a companion study at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The focus of this Oak Ridge effort was the development of new strategies for mitigation of the late phase events, that is, the events that would occur in-vessel after the onset of significant core damage. The work began with an investigation of the current status of BWR in-vessel accident management procedures and proceeded through a preliminary evaluation of several candidate new strategies. The steps leading to the identification of the candidate strategies are described. The four new candidate late-phase (in-vessel) accident mitigation strategies identified by this study and discussed in the report are: (1) keep the reactor vessel depressurized; (2) restore injection in a controlled manner; (3) inject boron if control blade damage has occurred; and (4) containment flooding to maintain core and structural debris in-vessel. Additional assessments of these strategies are proposed

  15. Quasi-dynamic pressure and temperature initiated βδ solid phase transitions in HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaug, Joseph M.; Farber, Daniel L.; Craig, Ian M.; Blosch, Laura L.; Shuh, David K.; Hansen, Donald W.; Aracne-Ruddle, Chantel M.

    2000-04-01

    The phase transformation of β-HMX (>0.5% RDX) to δ phase has been studied for over twenty years and more recently with an high-contrast optical second harmonic generation technique. Shock studies of the plastic binder composites of HMX have indicated that the transition is perhaps irreversible, a result that concurs with the static pressure results published by F. Goetz et al. [1] in 1978. However, the stability field favors the β polymorph over δ as pressure is increased (up to 5.4 GPa) along any thermodynamically reasonable isotherm. In this experiment, strict control of pressure and temperature is maintained while x-ray and optical diagnostics are applied to monitor the conformational dynamics of HMX. Unlike the temperature induced β→δ transition, the pressure induced is heterogeneous in nature. The 1 bar 25 °C δ→β transition is not immediate, occuring over tens of hours. Transition points and kinetics are path dependent and consequently this paper describes our work in progress.

  16. Initiating heavy-atom-based phasing by multi-dimensional molecular replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Gourdon, Pontus; Liu, Xiangyu; Karlsen, Jesper Lykkegaard; Nissen, Poul

    2016-03-01

    To obtain an electron-density map from a macromolecular crystal the phase problem needs to be solved, which often involves the use of heavy-atom derivative crystals and concomitant heavy-atom substructure determination. This is typically performed by dual-space methods, direct methods or Patterson-based approaches, which however may fail when only poorly diffracting derivative crystals are available. This is often the case for, for example, membrane proteins. Here, an approach for heavy-atom site identification based on a molecular-replacement parameter matrix (MRPM) is presented. It involves an n-dimensional search to test a wide spectrum of molecular-replacement parameters, such as different data sets and search models with different conformations. Results are scored by the ability to identify heavy-atom positions from anomalous difference Fourier maps. The strategy was successfully applied in the determination of a membrane-protein structure, the copper-transporting P-type ATPase CopA, when other methods had failed to determine the heavy-atom substructure. MRPM is well suited to proteins undergoing large conformational changes where multiple search models should be considered, and it enables the identification of weak but correct molecular-replacement solutions with maximum contrast to prime experimental phasing efforts.

  17. Hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma in Pendred's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abs, R.; Verhelst, J.; Schoofs, E.; De Somer, E.

    1991-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with Pendred's syndrome underwent a partial thyroidectomy when she was 17 years old. At the age of 52 years, she had a second thyroid operation because of hyperthyroidism due to a toxic multinodular goiter with a mediastinal extension consisting of several separate nodules. Five years later a hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular carcinoma was diagnosed histologically. After treatment with radioactive iodine, the patient was well. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of a metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma in Pendred's syndrome and the first report of hyperthyroidism occurring after malignant degeneration of a dyshormonogenetic goiter

  18. Dynamics and mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion in women of fertile age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Andersen, Claus Yding; la Cour Freiesleben, Nina

    2010-01-01

    To study ovarian follicular dynamics during chemotherapy to understand the mechanisms behind chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion and to evaluate whether pretreatment levels of ovarian reserve markers were predictive of the posttreatment levels.......To study ovarian follicular dynamics during chemotherapy to understand the mechanisms behind chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion and to evaluate whether pretreatment levels of ovarian reserve markers were predictive of the posttreatment levels....

  19. Test and Approval Center for Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies: Phase I. Initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    already spent on these technologies also lead to commercial success. The project ‘Test and Approval Center for Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies: Phase I. Initiation’ was aiming at starting with the Establishment of such a center. The following report documents the achievements within the project...... of the fluctuating wind energy. As the fuel cell and hydrogen technologies come closer to commercialization, development of testing methodology, qualified testing and demonstration become increasingly important. Danish industrial players have expressed a strong need for support in the process to push fuel cell...... and hydrogen technologies from the research and development stage into the commercial domain. A Center to support industry with test, development, analysis, approval, certification, consultation, and training in the areas of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies was needed. Denmark has demonstrated leading...

  20. Onset of a pandemic: characterizing the initial phase of the swine flu (H1N1 epidemic in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendelson Ella

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The swine influenza H1N1 first identified in Mexico, spread rapidly across the globe and is considered the fastest moving pandemic in history. The early phase of an outbreak, in which data is relatively scarce, presents scientific challenges on key issues such as: scale, severity and immunity which are fundamental for establishing sound and rapid policy schemes. Our analysis of an Israeli dataset aims at understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of H1N1 in its initial phase. Methods We constructed and analyzed a unique dataset from Israel on all confirmed cases (between April 26 to July 7, 2009, representing most swine flu cases in this period. We estimated and characterized fundamental epidemiological features of the pandemic in Israel (e.g. effective reproductive number, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups, infections between sexes, and spatial dynamics. Contact data collected during this stage was used to estimate the generation time distribution of the pandemic. Results We found a low effective reproductive number (Re = 1.06, an age-class distribution of infected individuals (skewed towards ages 18-25, at-risk social groups (soldiers and ultra Orthodox Jews, and significant differences in infections between sexes (skewed towards males. In terms of spatial dynamics, the pandemic spread from the central coastal plain of Israel to other regions, with higher infection rates in more densely populated sub-districts with higher income households. Conclusions Analysis of high quality data holds much promise in reducing uncertainty regarding fundamental aspects of the initial phase of an outbreak (e.g. the effective reproductive number Re, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups. The formulation for determining the effective reproductive number Re used here has many advantages for studying the initial phase of the outbreak since it neither assumes exponential growth of infectives and is independent of the

  1. Applying Diagnostics to Enhance Cable System Reliability (Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative, Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, Rick [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hampton, Nigel [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Perkel, Josh [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hernandez, JC [Univ. de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Elledge, Stacy [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); del Valle, Yamille [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Grimaldo, Jose [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Deku, Kodzo [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-02-01

    The Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative (CDFI) played a significant and powerful role in clarifying the concerns and understanding the benefits of performing diagnostic tests on underground power cable systems. This project focused on the medium and high voltage cable systems used in utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. While many of the analysis techniques and interpretations are applicable to diagnostics and cable systems outside of T&D, areas such as generating stations (nuclear, coal, wind, etc.) and other industrial environments were not the focus. Many large utilities in North America now deploy diagnostics or have changed their diagnostic testing approach as a result of this project. Previous to the CDFI, different diagnostic technology providers individually promoted their approach as the “the best” or “the only” means of detecting cable system defects.

  2. Terrace Geochemistry at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site - WM2017-17232 Initial Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, Mark [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Ranalli, Tony [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dander, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-08

    The objective of this investigation was to identify and differentiate potential non- mill-related water inputs to a shallow terrace groundwater system through the use of aqueous chemical and isotopic tracers at a former uranium- and vanadium-ore processing facility. Terrace groundwater in the vicinity of the Shiprock, New Mexico, site is hypothesized to be largely anthropogenic because natural rates of recharge in the terrace are likely insufficient to sustain a continuous water table in the terrace alluvial system, as observed in several analogue terrace locations east of the site and in response to post-mill dewatering efforts across the site. The terrace is composed of alluvial sand and gravel and weathered and unweathered Mancos Shale. Terrace groundwater exists and flows in the alluvium and to a much less extent in the Mancos Shale. Historical data established that in both the terrace and floodplain below the terrace, mill-derived uranium and sulfate is found primarily in the alluvium and the upper portion of the weathered Mancos Shale. Groundwater extraction is being conducted in the vicinity of former mill operations and in washes and seeps to dewater the formation and remove contamination, thus eliminating these exposure pathways and minimizing movement to the floodplain. However, past and present contribution of non-mill anthropogenic water sources may be hindering the dewatering effort, resulting in reduced remedy effectiveness. Groundwater source signatures can be determined based on chemical and isotopic ratios and are used to help identify and delineate both mill and non-mill water contributions. Aqueous chemical and isotopic tracers, such as 234U/238U activity ratios and uranium concentrations, δ34S sulfate and sulfate concentrations, tritium concentrations, and δ2Hwater and δ18O water are being used in this Phase I study. The aqueous chemical and isotopic analysis has identified areas on the terrace where groundwater is derived from mill

  3. Melanins as biomarkers of ovarian follicular atresia in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: biochemical and histochemical characterization, seasonal variation and hormone effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Joy, Keerikkattil P

    2015-06-01

    Follicular atresia is a common feature of the vertebrate ovary that occurs at different stages of folliculogenesis and ovarian regression. It has physiological significance to maintain homeostasis and control fecundity, and ensure removal of post-ovulatory follicular remnants for preparing the ovary for the next cycle. Pigments appear late in the atretic process as indigestible waste formed out of the degradation of the oocytes, follicle wall and granulocytes. In the present study, pigment accumulation was demonstrated by Schmorl's and Perls' staining methods in the atretic ovarian follicles of Heteropneustes fossilis during follicular development and regression. Melanins were characterized spectrophotometrically for the first time in fish ovary. The predominant form is eumelanin, followed by pheomelanin and alkali-soluble melanin. Melanins showed significant seasonal variations with levels low in gonad resting phase, increasing to the peak in the post-spawning phase. The concentration of melanins increased time-dependently in post-ovulated ovary after human chorionic gonadotropin treatment. In the spawning phase, in vitro incubation of ovary slices with estradiol-17β or dexamethasone for 8 or 16 h decreased both eumelanin and pheomelanin levels time-dependently. The alkali-soluble melanin showed a significant decrease only in the dexamethasone group at 16 h. The results show that melanin assay can be used as a biomarker of follicular atresia in fish ovary, natural or induced by environmental toxicants.

  4. The breakdown and glow phases during the initiation of discharges for lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, L.C.; Peres, I.; Liland, K.B.; Boeuf, J.P.; Gielen, H.

    1997-01-01

    High intensity discharge (HID) lamps are often initiated by the application of one or more short, high-voltage, breakdown pulses superimposed on a 50 or 60 Hz generator voltage. A successful transition from the breakdown event to steady-state operating conditions in HID lamps requires that the lamp-circuit system be adequate to sustain the plasma created during breakdown until the electrodes are heated to thermionic temperatures. In this article, we use a one-dimensional (in the axial direction) transient discharge model to study the conditions needed to sustain the cold-cathode discharge after a breakdown event has occurred. While the application of our one-dimensional model to real lamps is approximate, we find that the model predictions are consistent with experimental results in HID lamps, a few of which are presented here. The main conclusion from this work is that, after breakdown, the voltage necessary to sustain a glow discharge is dependent on the source impedance, the gas composition, and on the plasma density created by the breakdown event. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. The initial phase of a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Savanna restoration: species establishment and community responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L.; Imm, Donald, W.

    2010-09-01

    AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a “matrix” species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous “non-matrix” species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 1–2 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 ×3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.

  6. Hanford tank initiative vehicle/based waste retrieval demonstration report phase II, track 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Using the versatile TracPUMpTm, Environmental Specialties Group, LLC (ES) performed a successful Phase 11 demonstration of a Vehicle- Based Waste Retrieval System (VWRS) for removal of waste material and residual liquid found in the Hanford Underground Storage Tanks (ousts). The purpose of this demonstration was to address issues pertaining to the use of a VWRS in OUSTS. The demonstration also revealed the waste removal capabilities of the TracPumpTm and the most effective techniques and equipment to safely and effectively remove waste simulants. ES successfully addressed the following primary issues: I . Dislodge and convey the waste forms present in the Hanford OUSTS; 2. Access the UST through tank openings as small as twenty-four inches in diameter; 3. Traverse a variety of terrains including slopes, sludges, rocks and hard, slippery surfaces without becoming mired; 4. Dislodge and convey waste within the confinement of the Decontamination Containment Capture Vessel (DCCV) and with minimal personnel exposure; 5. Decontaminate equipment to acceptable limits during retrieval from the UST; 6. Perform any required maintenance within the confinement of the DCCV; and 7. Maintain contaminate levels ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) within the DCCV due to its crevice and comer-free design. The following materials were used to simulate the physical characteristics of wastes found in Hanford's OUSTS: (1) Hardpan: a clay-type material that has high shear strength; (2) Saltcake: a fertilizer-based material that has high compressive strength; and (3) Wet Sludge.- a sticky, peanut- butter- like material with low shear strength. Four test beds were constructed of plywood and filled with a different simulant to a depth of eight to ten inches. Three of the test beds were of homogenous simulant material, while the fourth bed consisted of a mixture of all three simulant types

  7. Two-miRNA classifiers differentiate mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular thyroid adenomas in fine needle aspirations with high specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokowy, Tomasz; Wojtas, Bartosz; Jarzab, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of thyroid by fine needle aspiration is challenging for the "indeterminate" category and can be supported by molecular testing. We set out to identify miRNA markers that could be used in a diagnostic setting to improve the discrimination of mutation-negative indeterminate fine needle...... aspirations. miRNA high-throughput sequencing was performed for freshly frozen tissue samples of 19 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 23 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular adenomas. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative polymerase...... chain reaction in a set of 44 fine needle aspiration samples representing 24 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 20 follicular adenomas. Twenty-six miRNAs characterized by a significant differential expression between follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular adenomas were identified. Nevertheless...

  8. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Yak Follicular Fluid during Estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The breeding of yaks is highly seasonal, there are many crucial proteins involved in the reproduction control program, especially in follicular development. In order to isolate differential proteins between mature and immature follicular fluid (FF of yak, the FF from yak follicles with different sizes were sampled respectively, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE of the proteins was carried out. After silver staining, the Image Master 2D platinum software was used for protein analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS was performed for differential protein identification. The expression level of transferrin and enolase superfamily member 1 (ENOSF1 was determined by Western blotting for verification analysis. The results showed that 2-DE obtained an electrophoresis map of proteins from mature and immature yak FF with high resolution and repeatability. A comparison of protein profiles identified 12 differently expressed proteins, out of which 10 of them were upregulated while 2 were downregulated. Western blotting showed that the expression of transferrin and ENOSF1 was enhanced with follicular development. Both the obtained protein profiles and the differently expressed proteins identified in this study provided experimental data related to follicular development during yak breeding seasons. This study also laid the foundation for understanding the microenvironment during oocyte development.

  9. Novel antibodies against follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerten, Tom; Hagenbeek, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab has revolutionized the treatment of patients with follicular B-cell lymphoma. With the combination of chemotherapy and rituximab the overall survival rate has increased with approximately 30%. Unfortunately, there is resistance to rituximab with relapse of

  10. Follicular and percutaneous penetration pathways of topically applied minoxidil foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Massoudy, Lida; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietz, Ekkehart; Rasulev, Utkur; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2010-11-01

    In the past, it was assumed that the intercellular route was the only relevant penetration pathway for topically applied substances. Recent results on follicular penetration emphasize that the hair follicles represent a highly relevant and efficient penetration pathway and reservoir for topically applied substances. This study investigates a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo assessing interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of topical minoxidil foam in humans. In delimited skin area, single hair orifices or interfollicular skin were blocked with a microdrop of special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Minoxidil foam (5%) was topically applied, and transcutaneous absorption was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry technique in serum. Different settings (open, closed or none of both) enabled to clearly distinguish between interfollicular and follicular penetration of the topically applied minoxidil foam. Five minutes after topical application, minoxidil was detected in blood samples when follicles remained open, whereas with closed follicles 30 min were needed. Highest levels were found first when both pathways were open, followed by open follicles and subsequently by closed follicles. These results demonstrate the high importance of the follicular penetration pathway. Hair follicles are surrounded by a dense network of blood capillaries and dendritic cells and have stem cells in their immediate vicinity, making them ideal targets for drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical evolution of the Galaxy at the initial rapid-collapse phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caimmi, R [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1978-04-01

    Equations for the chemical evolution of the Galaxy are derived, accounting for (i) the dynamical evolution of the Galaxy (i.e. the collapse of the proto-galaxy) and (ii) either a variable mass-spectrum in the birth-rate stellar function of the type B(m,t) = psi(t)phi(m,t), or a constant mass-spectrum with variable lower mass limit for star birth: msub(mf) = msub(mf)(Z). Simple equations are adopted for the collapse of the proto-galaxy, accounting for the experimental data (i.e. axial ratio and major semi-axis) relative to the halo and to the disk, and best fitted for a rapid collapse; gas density is assumed to be always uniform. Numerical computations of several cases show that there is qualitative agreement with the experimental data relative to the Z(t) function when: (i) the mass-spectrum is nearly constant in time: phi(m,t) approximately phi(m) = msup(-2.35); (ii) the efficiency phi(t) proportional to rhosup(..cap alpha..) is sufficiently high; moreover, the super metallic effect (SME) takes place for ..cap alpha.. greater than a given value (..cap alpha.. > approximately 1.5); (iii) the shorter the collapse time Tsub(c), the more rapid is the initial increase of metallicity, the asymptotic value being left nearly unaltered. The theoretical results are not in complete agreement with the observed data bearing on the Nsub(n)(Z) function (Nsub(n) is the number of stars whose Main-Sequence lifetime is not less than the age of the Galaxy), while a hypothesis of star formation with different efficiencies in different zones of the Galaxy, and successive stellar mixing from zone to zone, is not inconsistent with such data.

  12. Chemical evolution of the Galaxy at the initial rapid-collapse phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caimmi, R.

    1978-01-01

    Equations for the chemical evolution of the Galaxy are derived, accounting for (i) the dynamical evolution of the Galaxy (i.e. the collapse of the proto-galaxy) and (ii) either a variable mass-spectrum in the birth-rate stellar function of the type B(m,t) = psi(t)phi(m,t), or a constant mass-spectrum with variable lower mass limit for star birth: msub(mf) = msub(mf)(Z). Simple equations are adopted for the collapse of the proto-galaxy, accounting for the experimental data (i.e. axial ratio and major semi-axis) relative to the halo and to the disk, and best fitted for a rapid collapse; gas density is assumed to be always uniform. Numerical computations of several cases show that there is qualitative agreement with the experimental data relative to the Z(t) function when: (i) the mass-spectrum is nearly constant in time: phi(m,t) approximately phi(m) = msup(-2.35); (ii) the efficiency phi(t) proportional to rhosup(α) is sufficiently high; moreover, the super metallic effect (SME) takes place for α greater than a given value (α > approximately 1.5); (iii) the shorter the collapse time Tsub(c), the more rapid is the initial increase of metallicity, the asymptotic value being left nearly unaltered. The theoretical results are not in complete agreement with the observed data bearing on the Nsub(n)(Z) function (Nsub(n) is the number of stars whose Main-Sequence lifetime is not less than the age of the Galaxy), while a hypothesis of star formation with different efficiencies in different zones of the Galaxy, and successive stellar mixing from zone to zone, is not inconsistent with such data. (Auth.)

  13. Formation of polycrystalline MgB2 synthesized by powder in sealed tube method with different initial boron phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudanto, Sigit Dwi; Imaduddin, Agung; Kurniawan, Budhy; Manaf, Azwar

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium diboride, MgB2 is a new high critical temperature superconductor that discovered in the beginning of the 21st century. The MgB2 has a simple crystal structure and a high critical temperature, which can be manufactured in several forms like thin films, tapes, wires including bulk in the large scale. For that reason, the MgB2 has good prospects for various applications in the field of electronic devices. In the current work, we have explored the synthesis of MgB2 polycrystalline using powder in a sealed tube method. Different initial boron phase for the synthesized of MgB2 polycrystalline were used. These were, in addition to magnesium powders, crystalline boron, amorphous boron and combination both of them were respectively fitted in the synthesis. The raw materials were mixed in a stoichiometric ratio of Mg: B=1:2, ground using agate mortar, packed into stainless steel SS304. The pack was then sintered at temperature of 800°C for 2 hours in air atmosphere. Phase formation of MgB2 polycrystalline in difference of initial boron phase was characterized using XRD and SEM. Referring to the diffraction pattern and microstructure observation, MgB2 polycrystalline was formed, and the formation was effective when using the crystalline Mg and fully amorphous B as the raw materials. The critical temperature of the specimen was evaluated by the cryogenic magnet. The transition temperature of the MgB2 specimen synthesized using crystalline magnesium and full amorphous boron is 42.678 K (ΔTc = 0.877 K).

  14. Response of rice plants to heat stress during initiation of panicle primordia or grain-filling phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Restrepo-Diaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf photosynthesis, a major determinant for yield sustainability in rice, is greatly conditioned by high temperature stress during growth. The effect of short-term high temperatures on leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, Fv/Fm, SPAD readings and yield characteristics was studied in two Colombian rice cultivars. Two genotypes, cv. Fedearroz 50 (F50 and cv. Fedearroz 733 (F733 were used in pot experiments with heat stress treatment (Plants were exposed to 40°C for two and half hours for five consecutive days and natural temperature (control treatment. Heat treatments were carried out at the initiation of panicle primordial (IP or grain-filling (GF phases. The results showed that short-term high temperature stress produced a reduction on the photosynthesis rate in both cultivars either IP or GF phases. Similar trends were found on stomatal conductance in all cases due to high temperatures. Although Fv/Fm and SPAD readings were not affected by high temperatures, these variables diminished significantly among phenological phases. 'F733' rice plants showed higher number spikelet sterility due to heat stress treatments. These results seem to indicate that heat-tolerant cultivars of rice is associated with high levels of photosynthesis rate in leaves.

  15. Artificial neural network model to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma on fine needle aspiration of thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savala, Rajiv; Dey, Pranab; Gupta, Nalini

    2018-03-01

    To distinguish follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular carcinoma (FC) of thyroid in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a challenging problem. In this article, we attempted to build an artificial neural network (ANN) model from the cytological and morphometric features of the FNAC smears of thyroid to distinguish FA from FC. The cytological features and morphometric analysis were done on the FNAC smears of histology proven cases of FA (26) and FC (31). The cytological features were analysed semi-quantitatively by two independent observers (RS and PD). These data were used to make an ANN model to differentiate FA versus FC on FNAC material. The performance of this ANN model was assessed by analysing the confusion matrix and receiving operator curve. There were 39 cases in training set, 9 cases each in validation and test sets. In the test group, ANN model successfully distinguished all cases (9/9) of FA and FC. The area under receiver operating curve was 1. The present ANN model is efficient to diagnose follicular adenoma and carcinoma cases on cytology smears without any error. In future, this ANN model will be able to diagnose follicular adenoma and carcinoma cases on thyroid aspirate. This study has immense potential in future. This is an open ended ANN model and more parameters and more cases can be included to make the model much stronger. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Thick tumor capsule is a valuable risk factor for distant metastasis in follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbashi, Wataru; Sugitani, Iwao; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Toda, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Keiko; Sato, Yukiko

    2018-02-01

    While the biological behavior of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) has been studied in great detail using clinical experience, few studies have investigated pre- or intraoperative factors related to the risk of distant metastasis (DM) among patients with FTC. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of FTC with DM. This study retrospectively investigated 102 patients with FTC who underwent surgery between 1988 and 2013. We compared clinicopathological characteristics between FTC with and without DM. Univariate analysis revealed nodal metastasis (p=0.045), serum thyroglobulin (Tg) at initial operation (≥1000ng/ml; pthick tumor capsule (≥1mm; pthick tumor capsule (≥1mm), serum Tg at initial operation (≥1000ng/ml), and macroscopically widely invasive appearance as risk factors independently associated with development of DM. Patients with these risk factors should undergo total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Emotional stress as a clinical model to study the pathogenesis of the initial phase of the general adaptation syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikhovskaya, I A; Dvoenosov, V G; Zhdanov, R I; Koubatiev, A A; Mayskiy, I A; Markelova, M M; Meshkov, M V; Oparina, O N; Salakhov, I M; Yakovlev, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    General adaptation syndrome (GAS), the basis of the development of which is stress phenomenon, is an essential component of the pathogenesis of many diseases and syndromes. However, the patho genesis of GAS hitherto is considered exclusively from the endocrinological viewpoint. This relates primarily to the initial phase of the GAS, a clinical model for the study of which may be psycho-emotional stress (PES), which we studied using three groups of volunteers. The first one consists of 25 students who were waiting for unaccustomed physical activity (17 men) and play debut on the stage (8 women). The second group consists of 48 children (2-14 years) who expected for "planned" surgery. The third group of volunteers is made up of 80 students (41 women and 39 men) during the first exam. The concentration of cortisol, endotoxin (ET), the activity of antiendotoxin immunity (AEI) and the haemostatic system parameters were determined in the blood serum of volunteers in various combinations. We found laboratory evidence for PES at 92% of students of the first group, 58% of children of the second one and in 21% of students of the third group of volunteers (mostly women). The concentration of ET increased at 13 (52%) volunteers of the first group with a significant increase of average indicators in the whole group (from 0.84 ± 0.06 to 1.19 ± 0.04 EU/ml). At children of the second group, the average concentration of ET increased even more significantly (from 0.42 ± 0.02 to 1.63 ± 0.11 EU/ml), which was accompanied by the activation of the hemostasis system. A degree of the activation was directly dependent on the level of ET in the general circulation and on an activity of AEI. Examination stress in the third group of volunteers is accompanied by activation of plasma hemostasis (increased initial thrombosis rate and reduced the time it starts, lag-period) in 26% of female students and 15% of male students. We suggest that it is possible to use the PES as a clinical model

  18. Fractionation, solid-phase immobilization and chemical degradation of long pectin oligogalacturonides. Initial steps towards sequencing of oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl; Mutenda, K.E.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents the optimized separation of pectin oligomers, their analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), their subsequent immobilization to supports, and our initial steps towards solid-support assisted sequencing. The ambient...... were produced in excellent purity (> 95%). Elution of OGAs followed by direct analysis of the peak fractions by MALDI-TOF MS. Purified OGAs (DP 5-7) were chemoselectively immobilized onto aminooxy-terminated polyethylene glycol polyacrylamide (PEGA) supports. Solid-phase anchoring took place...... at the reducing end of the oligosaccharide and resulted in the formation of an oxime linkage. The very high coupling yields confirmed the general suitability of aminooxy-PEGA resins for the immobilization of OGAs of different lengths. The OGA-functionalized PEGA supports were subsequently treated with aq TFA...

  19. Initial stages of ion beam-induced phase transformations in Gd2O3 and Lu2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Tracy, Cameron L.; Wang, Chenxu; Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2018-02-01

    The atomic-scale evolution of lanthanide sesquioxides Gd2O3 and Lu2O3 irradiated with 1 MeV Kr ions at room temperature and 120 K, up to fluences of 1 × 1016 ions/cm2 (˜20 dpa), has been characterized by in situ transmission electron microscopy. At room temperature, both oxides exhibited high radiation tolerance. Irradiation did not cause any observable structural change in either material, likely due to the mobility of irradiation-induced point defects, causing efficient defect annihilation. For Gd2O3, having the larger cation ionic radius of the two materials, an irradiation-induced stacking fault structure appeared at low fluences in the low temperature irradiation. As compared with the cubic-to-monoclinic phase transformations known to result from higher energy (˜GeV) ion irradiation, Kr ions of lower energies (˜MeV) yield much lower rates of damage accumulation and thus less extensive structural modification. At a fluence of 2.5 × 1015 ions/cm2, only the initial stages of the cubic-to-monoclinic (C to B) phase transformation process, consisting of the formation and aggregation of defects, have been observed.

  20. Dopamine in human follicular fluid is associated with cellular uptake and metabolism-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in granulosa cells: implications for physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, S; Kunz, L; Berg, D; Berg, U; Lara, H; Urra, J; Hecht, S; Pavlik, R; Thaler, C J; Mayerhofer, A

    2014-03-01

    periovulatory follicular phase. The full functional importance of DA-induced ROS in small follicles and other compartments of the ovary, especially in PCOS samples, remains to be shown. The results identify DA as a factor in the human ovary, which, via ROS generation, could play a role in ovarian physiology and pathology. The results obtained in samples from women with PCOS suggest the involvement of DA, acting via ROS, in this condition. This work was supported by a grant from DFG MA1080/17-3 and in part MA1080/19-1. There are no competing interests.

  1. How biological crusts are stabilizing the soil surface? The devolpment of organo-mineral interactions in the initial phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Veste, M.; Wiehe, W.; Lange, P.

    2009-04-01

    First colonizers of new land surfaces are cryptogames which often form biological soil crusts (BSC) covering the first millimetre of the top soil in many ecosystems from polar to desert ecosystems. These BSC are assemblages of cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi and/or lichens. The development of soil surface crusts plays a major role for the further vegetation pattern through changes to the physico-chemical conditions and influencing various ecosystem processes. We studied the development of BSC on quaternary substrate of an initial artificial water catchment in Lusatia, Germany. Due to lack of organic matter in the geological substrate, photoautotrophic organisms like green algae and cyanobacteria dominated the initial phases of ecosystem development and, hence, of organo-mineral ineractions. We combined SEM/EDX and FTIR microscopy to study the contact zone of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of green algae and cyanobacteria with quartz, spars and mica on a >40 µm scale in undisturbed biological soil crusts, which had a maximum thickness of approx. 2 mm. SEM/EDX microscopy was used to determine the spatial distribution of S, Ca, Fe, Al, Si and K in the profiles, organic compounds were identified using FTIR microscopy. Exudates of crust organisms served as cementing material between sand particles. The crust could be subdivided into two horizontal layers. The upper layer, which had a thickness of approx. 200 µm, is characterized by accumulation of Al and K, but absence of Fe in microbial derived organic matter, indicating capture of weathering products of feldspars and mica by microbial exudates. The pore space between mineral particles was entirely filled with organic matter here. The underlying layer can be characterized by empty pores and organo-mineral bridges between the sand particles. Contrarily to the upper layer of the crust, Fe, Al and Si were associated with organic matter here but K was absent. Highest similarity of the FTIR

  2. Inverted follicular keratosis: dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengot-Carbo, M; Abrego, A; Gonzalez, T; Alarcon, I; Alos, L; Carrera, C; Malvehy, J; Puig, S

    2013-01-01

    Inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) is a rare benign tumor which usually appears as a firm papule on the face. The diagnosis is generally made by histopathology because the clinical appearance is difficult to differentiate from other lesions. Dermoscopic features of IFK have not been established to date. Herein we describe the dermoscopic findings of 4 cases of IFK. Radial peripheral hairpin vessels surrounded by a whitish halo arranged around a central white-yellowish amorphous area were observed in 3 cases, and glomerular vessels were present in the central area of one of them. The fourth case also presented a central white amorphous area but showed arborizing vessels. Reflectance confocal microscopy (available in 1 case) revealed a broadened honeycomb pattern, epidermal projections and hairpin and glomerular vessels. To our knowledge this is the first case series describing the dermoscopic features of inverted follicular keratosis and the first confocal microscopy description of this entity.

  3. [Cranial metastasis of thyroid follicular carcinoma. Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; González-Schaffinni, M A; Farías-García, R; Rey-Laborde, R

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid follicular carcinoma is able to produce metastatic lesions before the vanishing of the primary lesion. We present a case of a woman with a lytic, solitary, asymptomatic parietal bone lesion of 2 years of evolution. Autopsy revealed a thyroid gland with two small cystic areas and renal metastasis. Thyroid carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of lytic bone lesions with long evolution in patients 60 years of age or older.

  4. Prespecified candidate biomarkers identify follicular lymphoma patients who achieved longer progression-free survival with bortezomib-rituximab versus rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiffier, Bertrand; Li, Weimin; Henitz, Erin D; Karkera, Jayaprakash D; Favis, Reyna; Gaffney, Dana; Shapiro, Alice; Theocharous, Panteli; Elsayed, Yusri A; van de Velde, Helgi; Schaffer, Michael E; Osmanov, Evgenii A; Hong, Xiaonan; Scheliga, Adriana; Mayer, Jiri; Offner, Fritz; Rule, Simon; Teixeira, Adriana; Romejko-Jarosinska, Joanna; de Vos, Sven; Crump, Michael; Shpilberg, Ofer; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Cakana, Andrew; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; Mulligan, George; Ricci, Deborah

    2013-05-01

    Identify subgroups of patients with relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma deriving substantial progression-free survival (PFS) benefit with bortezomib-rituximab versus rituximab in the phase III LYM-3001 study. A total of 676 patients were randomized to five 5-week cycles of bortezomib-rituximab or rituximab. The primary end point was PFS; this prespecified analysis of candidate protein biomarkers and genes was an exploratory objective. Archived tumor tissue and whole blood samples were collected at baseline. Immunohistochemistry and genetic analyses were completed for 4 proteins and 8 genes. In initial pairwise analyses, using individual single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes, one biomarker pair (PSMB1 P11A C/G heterozygote, low CD68 expression) was associated with a significant PFS benefit with bortezomib-rituximab versus rituximab, controlling for multiple comparison corrections. The pair was analyzed under dominant, recessive, and additive genetic models, with significant association with PFS seen under the dominant model (G/G+C/G). In patients carrying this biomarker pair [PSMB1 P11A G allele, low CD68 expression (≤50 CD68-positive cells), population frequency: 43.6%], median PFS was 14.2 months with bortezomib-rituximab versus 9.1 months with rituximab (HR 0.47, P < 0.0001), and there was a significant overall survival benefit (HR 0.49, P = 0.0461). Response rates were higher and time to next antilymphoma therapy was longer in the bortezomib-rituximab group. In biomarker-negative patients, no significant efficacy differences were seen between treatment groups. Similar proportions of patients had high-risk features in the biomarker-positive and biomarker-negative subsets. Patients with PSMB1 P11A (G allele) and low CD68 expression seemed to have significantly longer PFS and greater clinical benefit with bortezomib-rituximab versus rituximab. ©2013 AACR.

  5. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharpf, Joseph; Kamani, Dipti; Sadow, Peter M; Randolph, Gregory W

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a new terminology proposed for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC). Recently, thyroid cancer incidence has increased dramatically, without affecting related mortality rate. This increase is widely attributed to the intensified surveillance leading to a substantial increase in the diagnosis of small classic papillary thyroid cancers and EFVPTCs. Recent studies emphasize the indolent behavior of the EFVPTC. Recently, there has been a reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity. The financial and emotional burden of 'cancer' diagnosis and treatment can be significant. This review recapitulates the literature supporting the reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity, and reviews standardized diagnostic criteria for EFVPTC. The information highlighted in this review will affect surgical decision making and may promote the offering of hemithyroidectomy over a total thyroidectomy to some patients with 'indeterminate' cytopathological category; postoperative radioiodine ablation will not be required for NIFTP patients.

  6. Immunohistochemical study of jejunal graft mucosa cell populations during the initial adaptation phase in the host body in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Stefan; Jonecová, Zuzana; Varga, Ján; Staško, Pavel; Kovalčinová, Barbora; Maretta, Milan; Leško, Dušan; Veselá, Jarmila

    2013-10-01

    The character of the changes in cell populations within the jejunal graft mucosa during the initial adaptation phase in the host body was investigated. 24 adult male Wistar rats underwent intestinal heterotopic allotransplantation. Aorto-aortal and porto-caval anastomoses were performed using the end-to-side microsurgery technique. Graft tissues were compared to the intestinal tissues of the recipients. This study demonstrates that: (1) Distinct injury to the graft mucosa 1h after transplantation was accompanied by significant reduction in numbers of epithelial secretory cell populations. The injury was more intense in the mesenteric portion. Six hours after transplantation the graft mucosa was covered by a continuous epithelium, but the number of goblet and Paneth cells was found to be less than 30% of that in the recipient epithelium. (2) In comparison with recipients, myeloperoxidase-positive cell numbers increased significantly in the graft mucosa 1 h after transplantation. In the epithelial layer, denudation and destruction of villi was associated with a significant reduction in intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers. A significant decrease in mucosal mast cell numbers was detected 6 h after transplantation. They attained only 10% of the number found in the recipients. (3) Time-dependent changes in the graft mucosa revealed that CD163-positive cells increased significantly in the graft mucosa during 6 h after transplantation and reached the level found in the recipients. In contrast, the myeloperoxidase-positive cell population significantly decreased in the graft mucosa within the initial 6 h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes of optical, dielectric, and structural properties of Si15Sb85 phase change memory thin films under different initializing laser power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Zhang Lei; Wang Yang; Han Xiaodong; Wu Yiqun; Zhang Ze; Gan Fuxi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study the optical, dielectric, and structural characteristics of Si 15 Sb 85 phase change memory thin films under a moving continuous-wave laser initialization. → The optical and dielectric constants, absorption coefficient of Si 15 Sb 85 change regularly with the increasing laser power. → The optical band gaps of Si 15 Sb 85 irradiated upon different power lasers were calculated. → HRTEM images of the samples were observed and the changes of optical and dielectric constants are determined by crystalline structures changes of the films. - Abstract: The optical, dielectric, and structural characteristics of Si 15 Sb 85 phase change memory thin films under a moving continuous-wave laser initialization are studied by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The dependence of complex refractive index, dielectric functions, absorption coefficient, and optical band gap of the films on its crystallization extents formed by the different initialization laser power are analyzed in detail. The structural change from as-deposited amorphous phase to distorted rhombohedra-Sb-like crystalline structure with the increase of initialization laser power is clearly observed with sub-nanometer resolution. The optical and dielectric constants, the relationship between them, and the local atomic arrangements of this new phase change material can help explain the phase change mechanism and design the practical phase change memory devices.

  8. [Treatment and follow up protocol in differentiated thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando; Limbert, Edward; Marques, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana Paula; Lopes, Carlos; Rodrigues, Elizabete; Borges, Fátima; Carrilho, Francisco; Castro, João Jácome de; Neto, João; Salgado, Lucília; Oliveira, Maria João

    2005-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma of follicular origin (DTCFO), although not very frequent, has registered a raising incidence in the last decades. In the majority of the cases, DTCFO is a curable disease when treated and monitored by experienced, multidisciplinary teams. These factors contribute to an increasing number of DTCFO survivors requiring life-long monitoring, due to the possibility of occurrence of recurrences many years after the initial treatment. Several aspects of the treatment and management of these patients are still controversial. The present protocol represents the consensus of the members of the Grupo de Estudo da Tiróide of the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo. It aims to define guidelines, in agreement with the current state of the art and contemplating the necessary adaptations to local constrains, that ensure decreased mortality and protection of patients' quality of life, avoiding unnecessarily aggressive or ineffective treatments, optimizing the use of the available resources.

  9. Organic Contaminants Associated with the Extraction of Unconventional Gas. Risk Analysis in the Initial Phases of the Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L.; Hurtado, A.; Recreo, F.; Eguilior, S.

    2015-01-01

    The latest technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling are promoting a commercial scale extraction of unconventional fossil fuels in several regions of the world. Although there is still no commercial scale extraction in the Member States of the EU, potential stocks in some of them, as in the case of Spain, stimulate the need to carry out precautionary previous studies. These, based on the experience in the USA, will allow to define the characteristics that a priori should include a project of unconventional gas extraction, so that their safety is maximized by minimizing the likelihood of adverse effects on the environment. In unconventional gas production a fracturing fluid, typically water, with different types of additives is injected into the reservoir at very high pressure in order to create fractures to increase the porosity and permeability of the rock. In this scenario the flowback and produced water (water brought to the surface during the extraction of gas or oil) is usually a mixture of fluids injected and brines present in the repository. The quality of the flowback and produced water is variable. Its salinity varies from similar to drinking water to several times more saline than seawater. Furthermore, different compounds other than salt can be present in various amounts in the flowback and produced water: oil and other organic compounds, solids in suspension, bacteria, naturally occurring radioactive elements (NORM), and any of the elements injected with the hydraulic fracturing fluid. Due to the high variability of contaminants in the flowback and produced water as well as potentially large volumes involved, composition of flowback and produced water and the analysis of the risks associated with them is an important aspect to consider from the initial phases of project development of unconventional gas extraction. This report covers the risk analysis of an unconventional gas extraction project, the initial assessment of the

  10. Exchange reaction between hydrogen and deuterium. II - Proposal for an heterogeneous initiation mechanism of gaseous phase reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marteau, Chantal; Gaillard-Cusin, Francoise; James, Henri [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Centre de Recherches sur la Chimie de Combustion et des Hautes Temperatures

    1978-05-01

    Investigation of experimental data related to evolution period exhibited by H/sub 2/-D/sub 2/ exchange process requires to take into account the variation against time of every atomic species -adsorbed or not- implied in the reaction mechanism. The formation of first chain carriers involves: - chemisorption of either gaseous reactant on the surface active centres (..sigma..), e.g.: ..sigma.. + 1/2 H/sub 2/ reversible ..sigma..H; - consecutive generation of atomic species through hetero-homogeneous transfer between chemisorbed species (..sigma..H) and gaseous molecules: ..sigma..H+H/sub 2/..--> sigma..+H/sub 2/+H/sup 0/, ..sigma..H+D/sub 2/..--> sigma..+HD+D/sup 0/. Therefore, it can be shown that the heterogeneous initiation process of a gas phase reaction identifies to a chain linear mechanism. Such an heterogeneous sequence conditions the further proceeding of the homogeneous chain reaction; both evolutions being kinematically connected. Rate constant of hydrogen adsorption on silica glass: ksub(a1) approximately 10/sup 14/ exp(-47/RT)Isup(0,5).molesup(-0,5).S/sup -1/ has been evaluated.

  11. Melt Fragmentation Characteristics of Metal Fuel with Melt Injection Mass during Initiating Phase of SFR Severe Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Hyo; Lee, Min Ho; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The PGSFR has adopted the metal fuel for its inherent safety under severe accident conditions. However, this fuel type is not demonstrated clearly yet under the such severe accident conditions. Additional experiments for examining these issues should be performed to support its licensing activities. Under initiating phase of hypothetic core disruptive accident (HCDA) conditions, the molten metal could be better dispersed and fragmented into the coolant channel than in the case of using oxide fuel. This safety strategy provides negative reactivity driven by a good dispersion of melt. If the coolant channel does not sufficient coolability, the severe recriticality would occur within the core region. Thus, it is important to examine the extent of melt fragmentation. The fragmentation behaviors of melt are closely related to a formation of debris shape. Once the debris shape is formed through the fragmentation process, its coolability is determined by the porosity or thermal conductivity of the melt. There were very limited studies for transient irradiation experiments of the metal fuel. These studies were performed by Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) M series tests in U.S. The TREAT M series tests provided basic information of metal fuel performance under transient conditions. The effect of melt injection mass was evaluated in terms of the fragmentation behaviors of melt. These behaviors seemed to be similar between single-pin and multi-pins failure condition. However, the more melt was agglomerated in case of multi-pins failure.

  12. Follicular lymphoma in the palate with clinical appearance similar to salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marina de Deus Moura; Artico, Gabriela; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Martins, Marília Trierveiler; Alves, Fabio Abreu

    2010-09-01

    Intraoral presentation of follicular lymphoma is rare, and only three cases in the palate have been reported to date. The present case report describes an uncommon case of follicular lymphoma affecting the palate. The clinical aspect was similar to salivary gland neoplasm, and an incisional biopsy was important to establish the correct diagnosis and consequently to plan the treatment. Also discussed is the differential diagnosis among follicular lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and follicular lymphoid hyperplasia with regard to the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features.

  13. Experimental investigation of void distribution in Suppression Pool during the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident using air–water two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassame, Somboon; Griffiths, Matthew; Yang, Jun; Lee, Doo Yong; Ju, Peng; Choi, Sung Won; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Basic understanding of the venting phenomena in the SP during a LOCA was obtained. • A series of experiment is carried out using the PUMA-E test facility. • Two phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. • The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. - Abstract: During the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the non-condensable gas initially contained in the BWR containment is discharged to the pressure suppression chamber through the blowdown pipes. The performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) can be degraded due to the released gas ingestion into the suction intakes of the ECCS pumps. The understanding of the relevant phenomena in the pressure suppression chamber is important in analyzing potential gas intrusion into the suction intakes of ECCS pumps. To obtain the basic understanding of the relevant phenomena and the generic data of void distribution in the pressure suppression chamber during the initial blowdown period of a LOCA, tests with various blowdown conditions were conducted using the existing Suppression Pool (SP) tank of the integral test facility, called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility, a scaled downcomer pipe installed in the PUMA-E SP, and air discharge pipe system. Two different diameter sizes of air injection pipe (0.076 and 0.102 m), a range of air volumetric flux (7.9–24.7 m/s), initial void conditions in an air injection pipe (fully void, partially void, and fully filled with water) and different air velocity ramp rates (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s) are used to investigate the impact of the blowdown conditions to the void distribution in the SP. Two distinct phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. The quasi-steady phase provided less void

  14. Spatio-Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during In Vivo Early Ovarian Folliculogenesis: Integrated Transcriptomic Study and Molecular Signature of Early Follicular Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Bonnet

    Full Text Available The successful achievement of early ovarian folliculogenesis is important for fertility and reproductive life span. This complex biological process requires the appropriate expression of numerous genes at each developmental stage, in each follicular compartment. Relatively little is known at present about the molecular mechanisms that drive this process, and most gene expression studies have been performed in rodents and without considering the different follicular compartments.We used RNA-seq technology to explore the sheep transcriptome during early ovarian follicular development in the two main compartments: oocytes and granulosa cells. We documented the differential expression of 3,015 genes during this phase and described the gene expression dynamic specific to these compartments. We showed that important steps occurred during primary/secondary transition in sheep. We also described the in vivo molecular course of a number of pathways. In oocytes, these pathways documented the chronology of the acquisition of meiotic competence, migration and cellular organization, while in granulosa cells they concerned adhesion, the formation of cytoplasmic projections and steroid synthesis. This study proposes the involvement in this process of several members of the integrin and BMP families. The expression of genes such as Kruppel-like factor 9 (KLF9 and BMP binding endothelial regulator (BMPER was highlighted for the first time during early follicular development, and their proteins were also predicted to be involved in gene regulation. Finally, we selected a data set of 24 biomarkers that enabled the discrimination of early follicular stages and thus offer a molecular signature of early follicular growth. This set of biomarkers includes known genes such as SPO11 meiotic protein covalently bound to DSB (SPO11, bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and WEE1 homolog 2 (S. pombe(WEE2 which play critical roles in follicular development but other biomarkers

  15. Follicular thyroid carcinoma invades venous rather than lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC tends to metastasize to remote organs rather than local lymph nodes. Separation of FTC from follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA relies on detection of vascular and/or capsular invasion. We investigated which vascular markers, CD31, CD34 and D2-40 (lymphatic vessel marker, can best evaluate vascular invasion and why FTC tends to metastasize via blood stream to remote organs. Thirty two FTCs and 34 FTAs were retrieved for evaluation. The average age of patients with FTA was 8 years younger than FTC (p = 0.02. The female to male ratio for follicular neoplasm was 25:8. The average size of FTC was larger than FTA (p = 0.003. Fourteen of 32 (44% FTCs showed venous invasion and none showed lymphatic invasion, with positive CD31 and CD34 staining and negative D2-40 staining of the involved vessels. The average number of involved vessels was 0.88 ± 1.29 with a range from 0 to 5, and the average diameter of involved vessels was 0.068 ± 0.027 mm. None of the 34 FTAs showed vascular invasion. CD31 staining demonstrated more specific staining of vascular endothelial cells than CD34, with less background staining. We recommended using CD31 rather than CD34 and/or D2-40 in confirming/excluding vascular invasion in difficult cases. All identified FTCs with vascular invasions showed involvement of venous channels, rather than lymphatic spaces, suggesting that FTCs prefer to metastasize via veins to distant organs, instead of lymphatic vessels to local lymph nodes, which correlates with previous clinical observations.

  16. Do alterations in follicular fluid proteases contribute to human infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookingham, Lisa Marii; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Ascoli, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are known to play critical roles in follicular rupture, ovulation, and fertility in mice. Similar studies in humans are limited; however, both are known to increase during the periovulatory period. No studies have examined either protease in the follicular fluid of women with unexplained infertility or infertility related to advanced maternal age (AMA). We sought to determine if alterations in cathepsin L and/or ADAMTS-1 existed in these infertile populations. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) for unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility were prospectively recruited for the study; patients with tubal or male factor infertility were recruited as controls. Follicular fluid was collected to determine gene expression (via quantitative polymerase chain reaction), enzyme concentrations (via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), and enzymatic activities (via fluorogenic enzyme cleavage assay or Western blot analysis) of cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1. The analysis included a total of 42 patients (14 per group). We found no statistically significant difference in gene expression, enzyme concentration, or enzymatic activity of cathepsin L or ADAMTS-1 in unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility as compared to controls. We also found no statistically significant difference in expression or concentration with advancing age. Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are not altered in women with unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility undergoing IVF, and they do not decline with advancing age. It is possible that differences exist in natural cycles, contributing to infertility; however, our findings do not support a role for protease alterations as a common cause of infertility.

  17. Assessment of myeloperoxidase activity at different force levels in gingival crevicular fluid during initial phase of orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honey Gurbaxani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic movements promote remodeling of the alveolar bone, which is mediated by inflammatory reactions such as characterized by vascular changes and infiltration of leukocytes. Changes in the periodontium occur, depending on the magnitude, duration, and direction of applied force. These changes are often seen in the saliva and gingival fluids through the various substances secreted in them. Aim: The present study aimed to assess myeloperoxidase (MPO activity at different force levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF during the initial phase of orthodontic tooth movement by varying the effective force levels to 50, 75, 100, and 150 g. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty participants between the age groups of 18–25 years requiring upper first premolar extractions were included in the study. They were divided into three groups (I, II, and III of ten individuals each, again subdivided into two Subgroups A and B depending on the amount of force applied to the canine. Subgroup A of all the three groups used 150 g, whereas Subgroup B used 50, 75, and 100 g of force, respectively. GCF was collected at 2 h, 7 days, and 14 days of force application. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and ANOVA test were used to provide the descriptive statistics of mean optical density to detect the presence of MPO in GCF. Results and Conclusion: There was a highly significant increase in the MPO levels in the GCF at 14th day after force application which can be correlated to the onset of inflammatory reactions in the periodontium.

  18. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Giovanella; Fabrizio Fasolini; Sergio Suriano; Luca Mazzucchelli

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 9 9 m T c -pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissu...

  19. Effect of a relative phase of waves constituting the initial perturbation and the wave interference on the dynamics of strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Arun; Stellingwerf, Robert F.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2017-07-01

    While it is a common wisdom that initial conditions influence the evolution of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI), the research in this area is focused primarily on the effects of the wavelength and amplitude of the interface perturbation. The information has hitherto largely ignored the influences on RMI dynamics of the relative phase of waves constituting a multiwave initial perturbation and the interference of the perturbation waves. In this work we systematically study the influence of the relative phase and the interference of waves constituting a multiwave initial perturbation on a strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable interface separating ideal fluids with contrast densities. We apply group theory analysis and smoothed particle hydrodynamics numerical simulations. For verification and validation of the simulations, qualitative and quantitative comparisons are performed with rigorous zeroth-order, linear, and nonlinear theories as well as with gas dynamics experiments achieving good agreement. For a sample case of a two-wave (two-mode) initial perturbation we select the first-wave amplitude enabling the maximum initial growth rate of the RMI and we vary the second-wave amplitude from 1% to 100% of the first-wave amplitude. We also vary the relative phase of the first and second waves and consider the in-phase, the antiphase and the random-phase cases. We find that the relative phase and the interference of waves are important factors of RMI dynamics influencing qualitatively and quantitatively the symmetry, morphology, and growth rate of the Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable interface, as well as the order and disorder in strong-shock-driven RMI.

  20. Preconception folic acid use modulates estradiol and follicular responses to ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigt, John M; Hammiche, Fatima; Sinclair, Kevin D; Beckers, Nicole G; Visser, Jenny A; Lindemans, Jan; de Jong, Frank H; Laven, Joop S E; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P

    2011-02-01

    Folate is a methyl donor. Availability of folate affects DNA methylation profiles and thereby gene expression profiles. We investigated the effects of low-dose folic acid use (0.4 mg/d) on the ovarian response to mild and conventional ovarian stimulation in women. In a randomized trial among subfertile women, 24 and 26 subjects received conventional and mild ovarian stimulation, respectively. Blood samples were taken during the early follicular phase of the cycle prior to treatment and on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration for determination of serum total homocysteine, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), estradiol, and folate. Folic acid use was validated by questionnaire and serum folate levels. Preovulatory follicles were visualized, counted, and diameters recorded using transvaginal ultrasound. The relation between folic acid use and ovarian response was assessed using linear regression analysis. Folic acid use modified the ovarian response to ovarian stimulation treatment. The estradiol response was higher in nonfolic acid users receiving conventional treatment [β(interaction) = 0.52 (0.07-0.97); P = 0.03], and this effect was independent of serum AMH levels and the preovulatory follicle count. In the conventional treatment, the mean follicle number was also greater in nonusers compared with the users group (14.1 vs. 8.9, P = 0.03). Low-dose folic acid use attenuates follicular and endocrine responses to conventional stimulation, independent of AMH and follicle count. The nature of this observation suggests that the effect of folic acid is most prominent during early follicle development, affecting immature follicles. Deleterious effects of folate deficiency, like DNA hypomethylation and oxidative stress, can help to explain our observations.

  1. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Follicular Lymphoma, or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-23

    Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3b Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma

  2. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  3. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  4. Discovery and validation of protein abundance differences between follicular thyroid neoplasms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea-Maier, R.T.; Hunsucker, S.W.; Hoevenaars, B.M.; Helmke, S.M.; Slootweg, P.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Haugen, B.R.; Duncan, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Distinguishing between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by cytologic features alone is not possible. Molecular markers may aid distinguishing FTA from FTC in patients with indeterminate cytology. The aim of this study is to define protein

  5. Improving the luteal phase after ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Vilbour Andersen, K

    2014-01-01

    The human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger used for final follicular maturation in connection with assisted reproduction treatment combines ovulation induction and early luteal-phase stimulation of the corpora lutea. The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) for final...... follicular maturation has, however, for the first time allowed a separation of the ovulatory signal from the early luteal-phase support. This has generated new information that may improve the currently employed luteal-phase support. Thus, combined results from a number of randomized controlled trials using...

  6. Histopathologic Evaluation of Follicular Tissues Associated with Impacted Third Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorasani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to histopathologically evaluate follicular tissues of third molars with pericoronal radiolucenciesof less than 2 millimeters.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytic study, 100 impacted third molars with normal follicular spaces were removed and their pericoronaltissues submitted for histopathologic examination. Different characteristicsof the epithelium and connective tissue were evaluated in all cases. Statisti-cal analysis was performed using chi square and Mann-Whitney tests.Results: In our study sample, 74% of the patients were female and 26% were male, ranging in age from 13 to 54 years (mean, 25.3 years. Lining epithelium was observed in 69% of the specimens of which 31%, 23% and 14% was cuboidal, squamous and columnar, respectively. A significant re-lationship was found between the presence of squamous epithelium and pa-tient age (P<0.05. Nonspecific chronic inflammation was the only patho-logic finding observed in 44% of the specimens. Inflammation was signifi-cantly associated with age and squamous metaplasia (P<0.05.Conclusion: Considering that pathologic lesions were not observed in anyof the studied cases, unerupted third molars should not be removed unless there is a clinical indication to do so, or in case the impacted molar shows evidence of pathological changes. Follow-up is suggested for asympto-matic impacted third molars.

  7. Surgical Management of Bulky Mediastinal Metastases in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Adwin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma are very common. Benign and malignant lesions are usually indistinguishable from cytology alone and often require confirmatory resection. The spread of follicular carcinoma is usually hematogenous and is treated with surgery and adjuvant radioactive iodine. Very rarely, metastases occur in the mediastinum. Patients usually present with severe compressive symptoms. With proper treatment and follow-up, the prognosis for these type of thyroid malignancies is excellent. In the case presented here, our patient presented to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center with a progressively enlarging anterior neck swelling. The swelling had started 10 years before his presentation. We diagnosed him with an advanced thyroid malignancy with bulky mediastinal metastases. After extensive investigations and counseling, we chose to treat the patient with tumor excision and mediastinal metastases resection. Typically, mediastinal resection involves the removal of the sternum and use of an acrylic implant to recreate the sternum. In this case, the sternum and ribs were removed with subsequent myocutaneous flap coverage for the wound defect. Our experience represents an alternative treatment option in cases where implant use is unsuitable.

  8. Dermoscopy of inverted follicular keratosis: study of 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llambrich, A; Zaballos, P; Taberner, R; Terrasa, F; Bañuls, J; Pizarro, A; Malvehy, J; Puig, S

    2016-07-01

    Inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) is an uncommon benign tumour of the follicular infundibulum, which is often misdiagnosed clinically as other keratinizing tumours, and commonly diagnosed correctly by histopathology. There are few reports about the dermoscopic findings of this lesion. To evaluate the dermoscopic features of IFK. The dermoscopic structures and patterns in digital dermoscopic images of 12 histopathologically confirmed cases of IFK collected from 5 hospitals in Spain were evaluated. A keratoacanthoma (KA)-like pattern composed of central keratin surrounded by hairpin vessels in a radial arrangement was the most common pattern in IFK (58.3%). The second most common pattern was composed of a yellowish-white amorphous central area surrounded by vascular structures in a radial arrangement (33.3%). The remaining case showed a pattern composed of a yellowish-white amorphous central area with milky red globules. Vascular structures were present in all cases, with a monomorphic pattern in seven cases and a polymorphic pattern in five, mainly with radial arrangement. Arborizing vessels, linear irregular vessels, corkscrew vessels and milky red globules were present in some cases. We describe the two main patterns of IFK. Lesions with a KA-like pattern are clinically and dermoscopically undistinguishable from KA and squamous cell carcinoma. Cases with a polymorphic vascular pattern could be confused with malignant tumours, including basal cell carcinoma and amelanotic melanoma. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Transcriptomes of bovine ovarian follicular and luteal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Romereim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Affymetrix Bovine GeneChip® Gene 1.0 ST Array RNA expression analysis was performed on four somatic ovarian cell types: the granulosa cells (GCs and theca cells (TCs of the dominant follicle and the large luteal cells (LLCs and small luteal cells (SLCs of the corpus luteum. The normalized linear microarray data was deposited to the NCBI GEO repository (GSE83524. Subsequent ANOVA determined genes that were enriched (≥2 fold more or decreased (≤−2 fold less in one cell type compared to all three other cell types, and these analyzed and filtered datasets are presented as tables. Genes that were shared in enriched expression in both follicular cell types (GCs and TCs or in both luteal cells types (LLCs and SLCs are also reported in tables. The standard deviation of the analyzed array data in relation to the log of the expression values is shown as a figure. These data have been further analyzed and interpreted in the companion article “Gene expression profiling of ovarian follicular and luteal cells provides insight into cellular identities and functions” (Romereim et al., 2017 [1].

  10. Brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodonawa, Masahiko; Tanaka, Sohkichi; Kohno, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Zenichiro; Tamura, Masaru; Ohye, Chihiro.

    1987-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman had been operated on for a tumor of the thyroid gland in December of 1976, and was admitted to Saku Central Hospital in April of 1983 because of pulmonary and ovarian metastases. She underwent surgical removal of the metastatic ovarian tumor and chemotherapy, but developed headaches in June of 1983. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a well-defined, homogeneously enhanced mass in the right occipital region. Angiography showed a homogeneous, well-defined tumor stain supplied by the right posterior cerebral artery, the posterior branch of the middle meningeal artery, and the meningeal branch of the occipital artery. The tumor was removed in July of 1983. It was situated in the right occipital lobe and was supplied by numerous small meningeal vessels. Histologically, it was composed of small, oval-shaped cells, some with mitotic figures, and giant cells, occasionally forming a follicular structure. Three months later, the headaches reappeared, and a recurrence of brain metastasis was demonstrated by CT. In October of 1983, the second metastatic brain tumor and the dural bed were removed and local radiation therapy was administered. In this case, meningioma-like features were demonstrated by CT scan and angiography, and these findings may be characteristic of brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

  11. Primary Follicular Lymphoma of the Common Bile Duct Mimicking Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Youssef Elbanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of the common bile duct is extremely rare. We present a case with history of inflammatory bowel disease and clinical manifestations of obstructive jaundice. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP was done and demonstrated tight stricture at the middle part of common bile duct, and radiological findings were supportive of extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Whipple′s procedure was performed and the case was histopathologically proven to be non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of follicular subtype involving the common bile duct. Lymphoma of the hepatobiliary system is usually present as secondary manifestation of systemic malignant lymphoma. However, primary malignant lymphomas arising from the hepatobiliary tree are extremely rare. The radiological appearance of common bile duct lymphoma is very similar to cholangiocarcinoma, making preoperative diagnosis very difficult, as in our present case. We also compare the imaging findings of our case to those seen in reported cases of follicular lymphoma of the common bile duct.

  12. A patient presenting with spinal cord compression who had two distinct follicular cell type thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, E; Sokmensuer, C; Yildiz, B O; Engin, H; Bozkurt, M F; Aras, T; Barista, I; Gurlek, A

    2004-06-01

    A 61-yr-old woman presented with complaints of weakness and pain in her legs. A magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3 x 5.6 x 7.8 cm mass lesion destructing the T1 and T2 vertebral bodies and compressing the spinal cord. The mass was excised surgically. It was follicular carcinoma metastasis of the cervicodorsal region. Then, she underwent a total thyroidectomy. Pathological examination showed two different types of carcinomas in two different focuses; follicular carcinoma in the left lobe and follicular variant papillary carcinoma in the isthmic lobe. After the operation she was given 100 mCi 131I. This is the first report of a patient who had both metastatic follicular carcinoma and follicular variant papillary carcinoma together.

  13. Reasons for ineligibility in phase 1 and 2A HIV vaccine clinical trials at Kenya AIDS vaccine initiative (KAVI, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria S Omosa-Manyonyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the persistent challenges towards controlling the HIV epidemic, there is an ongoing need for research into HIV vaccines and drugs. Sub-Saharan African countries--worst affected by the HIV pandemic--have participated in the conduct of clinical trials for HIV vaccines. In Kenya, the Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI at the University of Nairobi has conducted HIV vaccine clinical trials since 2001.Participants were recruited after an extensive informed consent process followed by screening to determine eligibility. Screening included an assessment of risk behavior, medical history and physical examination, and if clinically healthy, laboratory testing. In the absence of locally derived laboratory reference ranges, the ranges used in these trials were derived from populations in the West.Two hundred eighty-one participants were screened between 2003 and 2006 for two clinical trials. Of these, 167 (59.4% met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Overall, laboratory abnormalities based on the non-indigenous laboratory references used were the most frequent reasons (61.4% for ineligibility. Medical abnormalities contributed 30.7% of the total reasons for ineligibility. Based on the laboratory reference intervals now developed from East and Southern Africa, those ineligible due to laboratory abnormalities would have been 46.3%. Of the eligible participants, 18.6% declined enrollment.Participant recruitment for HIV vaccine clinical trials is a rigorous and time-consuming exercise. Over 61% of the screening exclusions in clinically healthy people were due to laboratory abnormalities. It is essential that laboratory reference ranges generated from local populations for laboratory values be used in the conduct of clinical trials to avoid unnecessary exclusion of willing participants and to avoid over-reporting of adverse events for enrolled participants.Protocol IAVI VRC V001 [1]. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00124007 Protocol IAVI 010 [2](registration with

  14. File list: Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells mm9 Input control Blood Follicular helpe...r T cells SRX1158862,SRX1143928,SRX1143927,SRX1143929 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. Role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differentiating between malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma and benign follicular thyroid adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Le; Zhu, Xiao-Yun; Jiang, Rong; Xu, Man; Wang, Ni; Chen, George G; Liu, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    It is extremely difficult to discriminate between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) before surgery, because the morphologies of carcinoma cells and adenoma cells obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are similar. Molecular markers may be helpful on this issue. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA. GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 mRNA expression levels were examined in 15 FTCs and 10 FTAs using real-time RT-PCR. FTC showed to have significantly increased mRNA levels of the three molecules compared to FTA (P FTA, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 protein expression were correlated with one another in FTC and concomitant high expression of the three molecules had stronger correlation with the occurrence of FTC than did each alone. The positive predictive values (PPV) for concomitant high expression of the three molecules for discriminating between FTC and FTA were 91.0% for GPER1/EGFR, 93.8% for GPER1/CXCR1, 92.3% for EGFR/CXCR1 and 98.2% for GPER1/EGFR/CXCR1, respectively. These results indicated that the evaluation of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 concomitant high expression may be helpful in differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA. PMID:26617848

  3. Indiana Humanities Council Request for the Indianapolis Energy Conversion Inst. For Phase I of the Indianapolis Energy Conservation Res Initiative also called the smartDESKTOP Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, John B.

    2007-12-06

    The smartDESKTOP Initiative at the Indiana Humanities Council received critical support in building and delivering a digital desktop for Indiana educators through the Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-06ER64282. During the project period September 2006 through October of 2007, the number of Indiana educators with accounts on the smartDESKTOP more than tripled from under 2,000 to more than 7,000 accounts. An external review of the project conducted for the purposes of understanding the impact of the service in Indiana schools revealed that the majority of respondents felt that using the smartDESKTOP did reduce the time they spent managing paper. The same study revealed the challenges of implementing a digital desktop meant to help teachers leverage technology to improve their teaching and ultimately student learning. The most significant outcome of this project is that the Indiana Department of Education expressed interest in assuming responsibility for sustaining this project. The transition of the smartDESKTOP to the Indiana Department of Education was effective on November 1, 2007.

  4. Inhibin-B secretion and FSH isoform distribution may play an integral part of follicular selection in the natural menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C. Yding

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to expand the concept on how follicular selection takes place in the follicular phase of the natural menstrual cycle. It is suggested that inhibin-B exerts a more intimate role in this process than previously understood. Inhibin-B shows a peak in the circulation...... around cycle day 7, simultaneous with selection of the dominant follicle, whereas levels of estradiol and inhibin-A only start to increase a few days later suggesting that inhibin-B is mainly responsible for downregulating pituitary FSH release. New data now demonstrate that the circulatory peak...... of inhibin-B is reflected by peak production of inhibin-B, in contrast to inhibin-A, in the selected follicle with a diameter of 10-12 mm, where concentrations are one thousand times higher than in the circulation. This high inhibin-B concentration also exerts paracrine effects, stimulating theca cell...

  5. TERT promoter mutation as an early genetic event activating telomerase in follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and atypical FTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Liu, Tiantian; Sofiadis, Anastasios; Juhlin, C Christofer; Zedenius, Jan; Höög, Anders; Larsson, Catharina; Xu, Dawei

    2014-10-01

    The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations C228T and C250T have been found in many malignancies, including in thyroid carcinomas. However, it is unclear how early these mutations occur in thyroid tumorigenesis. The study included primary tumors from 58 patients initially diagnosed with follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), a benign entity, 18 with atypical FTA (AFTA) having an uncertain malignant potential, and 52 with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). Sanger sequencing was used to investigate the mutational status of the TERT promoter. Telomere length and TERT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Telomerase activity was assessed using a Telomerase PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The C228T mutation was identified in 1 of 58 FTA (2%) and 3 of 18 AFTA (17%) samples. These 4 tumors all expressed TERT mRNA and telomerase activity, whereas the majority of C228T-negative adenomas lacked TERT expression (C228T versus wild-type, P = .008). The C228T mutation was associated with NRAS gene mutations (P = .016). The patient with C228T-mutated FTA later developed a scar recurrence and died of FTC, whereas none of the remaining 57 patients with FTA had recurrence. No recurrence occurred in 3 patients with AFTA who carried C228T during the follow-up period (36-285 months). Nine of the 52 FTCs (17%) exhibited the TERT mutation (8 of 9 C228T and 1 of 9 C250T), and the presence of the mutation was associated with shorter patient survival. TERT promoter mutations may occur as an early genetic event in thyroid follicular tumors that have not developed malignant features on routine histopathological workup. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  6. Comparison of follicular dynamics, superovulatory response, and embryo recovery between estradiol based and conventional superstimulation protocol in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the follicular dynamics, superovulatory response, and embryo recovery following superstimulatory treatment initiated at estradiol-17β induced follicular wave emergence and its comparison with conventional superstimulatory protocol in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Six normal cycling pluriparous buffaloes, lactating, 90-180 days post-partum, and weighing between 500 and 660 kg were superstimulated twice with a withdrawal period of 35 days in between two treatments. In superstimulation protocol-1 (estradiol group buffaloes were administered estradiol-17β (2 mg, i.m. and eazibreed controlled internal drug release (CIDR was inserted intravaginally (day=0 at the random stage of the estrous cycle. On the day 4, buffaloes were superstimulated using follicle stimulating hormone (FSH 400 mg, divided into 10 tapering doses given at 12 hourly intervals. Prostaglandin F2α analogs (PGF2α was administered at day 7.5 and day 8, and CIDR was removed with the second PGF2α injection. In superstimulation protocol - 2 (conventional group buffaloes were superstimulated on the 10th day of the estrous cycle with same FSH dose regimen and similar timings for PGF2α injections. In both groups, half of the buffaloes were treated with luteinizing hormone (LH 25 mg and other half with 100 ug buserelin; gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH analog at 12 h after the end of FSH treatment. All buffaloes in both protocols were inseminated twice at 12 and 24 h of LH/GnRH treatment. Daily ultrasonography was performed to record the size and number of follicles and superovulatory response. Results: Significantly higher number of small follicles (8 mm, corpora lutea, and transferable embryos was higher in buffaloes superstimulated at estradiol-induced follicular wave compared to the conventional protocol: Further the percentage of transferable embryos was significantly higher in buffaloes administered with LH compared to GnRH.

  7. Contribution of the supplementary motor area and the cerebellum to the anticipatory postural adjustments and execution phases of human gait initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Aliénor; Van Hamme, Angèle; Drevelle, Xavier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Meunier, Sabine; Welter, Marie-Laure

    2017-09-01

    Several brain structures including the brainstem, the cerebellum and the frontal cortico-basal ganglia network, with the primary and premotor areas have been shown to participate in the functional organization of gait initiation and postural control in humans, but their respective roles remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to better understand the role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and posterior cerebellum in the gait initiation process. Gait initiation parameters were recorded in 22 controls both before and after continuous theta burst transcranial stimulation (cTBS) of the SMA and cerebellum, and were compared to sham stimulation, using a randomized double-blind design study. The two phases of gait initiation process were analyzed: anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and execution, with recordings of soleus and tibialis anterior muscles. Functional inhibition of the SMA led to a shortened APA phase duration with advanced and increased muscle activity; during execution, it also advanced muscle co-activation and decreased the duration of stance soleus activity. Cerebellar functional inhibition did not influence the APA phase duration and amplitude but increased muscle co-activation, it decreased execution duration and showed a trend to increase velocity, with increased swing soleus muscle duration and activity. The results suggest that the SMA contributes to both the timing and amplitude of the APAs with no influence on step execution and the posterior cerebellum in the coupling between the APAs and execution phases and leg muscle activity pattern during gait initiation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Consequences of different dietary energy sources during follicular development on subsequent fertility of cyclic gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F R C L; Machado, G S; Borges, A L C C; Rosa, B O; Fontes, D O

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (Penergy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (Penergy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.

  9. Prognostic factors in follicular lymphoma: new tools to personalize risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casulo, Carla

    2016-12-02

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent lymphoma, and it has a long median overall survival (OS). However, the recent discovery of clinical and biological prognostic biomarkers in FL is shedding light on FL heterogeneity and the need for a precise and risk-stratified individual approach at diagnosis and relapse. Many FL patients who are asymptomatic with indolent disease can be vulnerable to the toxicity, emotional distress, and financial burden of overtreatment. Yet a subset of FL patients develop chemoresistance to standard chemoimmunotherapy, experience transformation to aggressive lymphoma and rapid progression, and represent the population most in need of novel therapies and curative approaches. Novel biomarkers that incorporate both clinical and genetic determinants of poor risk are being developed with the hope of identifying high-risk patients at diagnosis in order to offer biologically rational targeted therapies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  10. Intralesional rituximab in primary conjunctival follicular lymphoma relapsed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Villa, S; Ruiz Rodríguez, M J; Vargas Pabón, M

    2017-07-01

    A 49-year-old woman experienced a local relapse of a primary follicular lymphoma (FL) of the conjunctiva. She received 4 weekly intra-lesional injections followed by 6 monthly injections of rituximab (6mg/ml). A clinical response was achieved after first injection. No adverse ocular event or signs of lymphoma relapse were seen after 10 months of follow-up. Intralesional administration of rituximab for treating primary FL of the conjunctiva was an effective and safe therapeutic option; therefore it could be an alternative to other conventional treatments, such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Research progress of follicular cytotoxic T cells in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ming

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new type of CD8+ T-cell subset, namely, the chemokine (C-X-C motif receptor 5 (CXCR5+ cluster of differentiation (CD8+ T-cell subset (also called the follicular cytotoxic T-cell (TFC subgroup, has been discovered around B-cell follicles. The discovery has aroused widespread interest. However, the processes and mechanisms of TFCs taking part in the immune response of the germinal center and their specific roles must still be clearly identified. This article reviews domestic and foreign studies on factors regulating the phenotype, physiological functions, maturity, and differentiation of TFCs and roles and clinical significance of these cells in HIV infection. This review has shown good application prospects for TFCs. The author believes that further studies on TFCs can provide another tool for cytotherapy to control or cure chronic viral infections or tumors.

  12. Peritoneal and mediastinal highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, Kathleen; Jain, Manoj; Krishna, Murli; Accurso, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old female patient presented to her primary care doctor with persistent elevated alkaline phosphatase of suspected metastatic etiology. Computed tomography demonstrated epicardial and peritoneal nodules. Biopsy of one of the peritoneal nodules revealed thyroid tissue and extraovarian struma ovarii was considered. The patient had a history of remote total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 31 years prior for endometriosis with no available pathology from that surgery. The patient recalls being told that she had a left ovarian cyst. A thyroid ultrasound was performed that demonstrated multiple nodules without concerning features; however, due to high clinical suspicion, a total thyroidectomy was performed. Upon full histological evaluation a 0.5 cm papillary microcarcinoma was found. Given the rarity of metastatic papillary cancer to the peritoneum and the small size and grade of the tumor, a diagnosis of highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin was favored. The patient was subsequently treated with radioiodine therapy

  13. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  14. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs. RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01 and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01 suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of the Follicular Fluid of Tianzhu White Yak during Diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong Tao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the follicular fluid of Tianzhu white yak during diestrus. Follicles obtained from female yak were divided into four groups according to their diameter: 0–2, 2–4, 4–6 mm, and greater than 6 mm. The follicular fluid was directly aspirated from the follicles and mixed according to follicular size, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was carried out on the crude follicular fluid samples. Thirty-four differentially expressed spots were generated from these four sizes of follicles. Fourteen of these spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and identified as: AS3MT, VDP, ANKRD6, C10orf107 protein, MRP4, MAPKAP1, AGO3, profilin-β-actin, SPT2 homolog, AGP, AR, RNF20, obscurin-like-1, and one unnamed protein. These proteins were first reported in follicular fluid, in addition to VDP and AGP. Based on existing knowledge of their function and patterns of expression, we hypothesize that most of these differentially expressed proteins play a role in ovarian follicular growth and development, dominant follicle selection, or follicular atresia and development of oocytes; however, the function of the other differentially expressed proteins in reproduction remains ambiguous.

  16. Androgens as double-edged swords: Induction and suppression of follicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie-Xue; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Ke, Zhang-Hong; Wang, Fang-Fang; Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Qu, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Androgens, which are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR), play important roles in normal follicular development and female fertility. However, just like a double-edged sword, besides the positive effects of androgen on follicular development, abnormal androgen levels, especially as in hyperandrogenism, seriously suppress normal follicular development. A crucial balance exists between the importance of androgens in follicular development and their negative effects when in excess. As the first meiotic division and epigenetic reprogramming are two critical events in oogenesis, abnormal androgen levels or deficiency in androgen/AR signaling in the ovary may affect these vital events. Oocytes have a tendency to develop genomic instability, thus resulting in an increasing incidence of unpredictable adult diseases. Although many studies have explored the effects of androgens and AR on follicular development, the conclusions are controversial and there has been no thorough review of this topic. This review focuses on the roles of androgens in the physiological process of follicular development, summarizes new insights into the roles of androgens in the arrested development of follicles, and discusses the potential risk of adult diseases originating from abnormal follicular androgen levels or androgen receptor signals, which may determine areas for future studies.

  17. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Márcia; Capinha, Liliana; Simões-Pereira, Joana; Bugalho, Maria João; Silva, Ana Luísa

    2016-01-01

    RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs). RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01) and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01) suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions. PMID:27127508

  18. Origin of estradiol fatty acid esters in human ovarian follicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, S L; Kim, A H; Lee, G; Hochberg, R B

    1995-03-01

    The estradiol fatty acid esters are the most potent of the naturally occurring steroidal estrogens. These esters are present predominantly in fat, where they are sequestered until they are hydrolyzed by esterases. Thus they act as a preformed reservoir of estradiol. We have previously shown that ovarian follicular fluid from patients undergoing gonadotropin stimulation contains very high amounts of estradiol fatty acid esters (approximately 10(-7) M). The source of these esters is unknown. They can be formed by esterification of estradiol in the follicular fluid by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), or in the ovary by an acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase. In order to determine which of these enzymatic processes is the source of the estradiol esters in the follicular fluid, we incubated [3H]estradiol with follicular fluid and cells isolated from human ovarian follicular fluid and characterized the fatty acid composition of the [3H]estradiol esters biosynthesized in each. In addition, we characterized the endogenous estradiol fatty acid esters in the follicular fluid and compared them to the biosynthetic esters. The fatty acid composition of the endogenous esters was different than those synthesized by the cellular acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase, and the same as the esters synthesized by LCAT, demonstrating that the esters are produced in situ in the follicular fluid. Although the role of these estradiol esters in the ovary is not known, given their remarkable estrogenic potency it is highly probable that they have an important physiological role.

  19. Histomorphological changes in follicular apparatus of ewe ovaries following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halagan, J.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.; Stanikova, A.

    1985-01-01

    Histological changes in primary follicles of ewes after a five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays were studied by qualitative and micrometric methods. The experiment was carried out in the anoestrous period with 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed, divided into three groups. The first control group (five ewes) was not irradiated. The second and third groups (each included eight ewes) were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays for a period of five days to the total dose of 4.8 Gy. All ewes including the control ones were given Ampicillin Spofa 250 mg per head/day during the period of ten days after irradiation. The third group was administered apart from this a mixture of vitamins, Roboran H, at the dose of 10 g per head/day. The animals were slaughtered on the fifth day of irradiation and on the tenth day after the end of irradiation. The ovaries processed by a routine histological method were cut in 7 μm slices in a series of 70 μm and stained with hematoxylin-eosine. By qualitative histomorphological analysis of the oocytes of primary follicles, chromatin aggregation, pycnosis of nuclei, pronounced acidophilia of oocyte cytoplasm, their shrinking and disintegration were determined. In intact primary follicles, mitotic division of follicular cells stopped and the proportion of follicular cells with pycnotic nuclei increased after irradiation. The results show that the five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays to the total dose of 4.8 Gy caused pronounced degenerative changes in the anoestrous period. Administration of antibiotics or vitamins had no significant effect on the stated histomorphological changes. (author)

  20. Social media use in B2B. A study on how social media is used in the initial phase of building relationships.

    OpenAIRE

    Kvick-Nastaj, Nicole; Poblete, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    There has been scarce research into the topic of B2B in the context of social media. Due to this, the aim of this study was to explore how social media is used within B2B in the initial phase of building relationships. The research questions regarded; attracting new customers, which channels that were used and potential drawbacks of using social media. An analytical framework was presented with the factors reputation, familiarity, similarity and knowledge of alternatives from literature withi...

  1. Neutronics and thermal-hydraulics coupling: some contributions toward an improved methodology to simulate the initiating phase of a severe accident in a sodium fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    This project is dedicated to the analysis and the quantification of bias corresponding to the computational methodology for simulating the initiating phase of severe accidents on Sodium Fast Reactors. A deterministic approach is carried out to assess the consequences of a severe accident by adopting best estimate design evaluations. An objective of this deterministic approach is to provide guidance to mitigate severe accident developments and re-criticalities through the implementation of adequate design measures. These studies are generally based on modern simulation techniques to test and verify a given design. The new approach developed in this project aims to improve the safety assessment of Sodium Fast Reactors by decreasing the bias related to the deterministic analysis of severe accident scenarios. During the initiating phase, the subassembly wrapper tubes keep their mechanical integrity. Material disruption and dispersal is primarily one-dimensional. For this reason, evaluation methodology for the initiating phase relies on a multiple-channel approach. Typically a channel represents an average pin in a subassembly or a group of similar subassemblies. In the multiple-channel approach, the core thermal-hydraulics model is composed of 1 or 2 D channels. The thermal-hydraulics model is coupled to a neutronics module to provide an estimate of the reactor power level. In this project, a new computational model has been developed to extend the initiating phase modeling. This new model is based on a multi-physics coupling. This model has been applied to obtain information unavailable up to now in regards to neutronics and thermal-hydraulics models and their coupling. (author) [fr

  2. Cardiovascular response to short-term fasting in menstrual phases in young women: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kumiko; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2015-08-28

    Menstrual cycle-related symptoms are an important health issue for many women, and some may affect cardiac autonomic regulation. In the present study, we evaluated the cardiovascular and physiological stress response to 12-h short-term fasting in the menstrual phases of healthy young women. We performed a randomized crossover study. Subjects were seven female university students (age: 22.3 ± 1.0 years). The experiments comprised four sessions: meal intake in the follicular phase, meal intake in the luteal phase, fasting in the follicular phase, and fasting in the luteal phase. All subjects participated in a total of four experimental sessions during two successive phases (follicular and luteal phase in the same menstrual cycle, or luteal phase and follicular phase in the next menstrual cycle) according to a randomized crossover design. R-R intervals were continuously recorded before and after meals, and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed. Other physiological data were obtained before and 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after meal intake or after the corresponding time point of meal intake (fasting in the follicular or luteal phase). Heart rate decreased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. High frequency power increased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. In addition, salivary cortisol concentrations decreased during fasting in the luteal phase. In the present study, short-term fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and lower cortisol levels in the luteal phase in these young women. These results indicate a possibility to produce an anti-stress effect in the luteal phase, which may reduce menstrual symptoms.

  3. Clusterin in human gut-associated lymphoid tissue, tonsils, and adenoids: localization to M cells and follicular dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Phebe; Kujala, Pekka; Waelput, Wim; Peters, Peter J; Cuvelier, Claude A

    2008-03-01

    The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying the follicles of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is a key player in the initiation of mucosal immune responses. We recently reported strong clusterin expression in the FAE of murine Peyer's patches. In this study, we examined the expression of clusterin in the human gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and Waldeyer's ring. Immunohistochemistry for clusterin in human Peyer's patches, appendix and colon lymphoid follicles revealed expression in M cells and in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Using cryo-immunogold electron microscopy in Peyer's patches, we observed cytosolic immunoreactivity in M cells and labeling in the ER/Golgi biosynthetic pathway in FDCs. In palatine tonsils and adenoids, we demonstrated clusterin expression in germinal centers and in the lymphoepithelium in the crypts where M cells are localized. In conclusion, clusterin is expressed in M cells and follicular dendritic cells at inductive sites of human mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue suggesting a role for this protein in innate immune responses. Moreover, the use of clusterin as a human M cell marker could prove to be a valuable tool in future M cell research.

  4. In-line phase-contrast stereoscopic X-ray imaging for radiological purposes: An initial experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegbahn, E.A.; Coan, P.; Zhou, S.-A.; Bravin, A.; Brahme, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report results from a pilot study in which the in-line propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technique is combined with the stereoscopic method. Two phantoms were imaged at several sample-detector distances using monochromatic, 30 keV, X-rays. High contrast- and spatial-resolution phase-contrast stereoscopic pairs of X-ray images were constructed using the anaglyph approach and a vivid stereoscopic effect was demonstrated. On the other hand, images of the same phantoms obtained with a shorter sample-to-detector distance, but otherwise the same experimental conditions (i.e. the same X-ray energy and absorbed radiation dose), corresponding to the conventional attenuation-based imaging mode, hardly revealed stereoscopic effects because of the lower image contrast produced. These results have confirmed our hypothesis that stereoscopic X-ray images of samples with objects composed of low-atomic-number elements are considerably improved if phase-contrast imaging is used. It is our belief that the high-resolution phase-contrast stereoscopic method will be a valuable new medical imaging tool for radiologists and that it will be of help to enhance the diagnostic capability in the examination of patients in future clinical practice, even though further efforts will be needed to optimize the system performance.

  5. Podoplanin (D2-40): A New Immunohistochemical Marker for Reactive Follicular Dendritic Cells and Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingmei; Chen, Lugen; Fu, Kai; Harter, Josephine; Young, Ken H; Sunkara, Jaya; Novak, Deborah; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza; Ratech, Howard

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma can be challenging because of its morphologic overlaps with many other spindle cell neoplasms and, therefore, new phenotypic markers will be helpful in its differential diagnosis. Podoplanin is a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein that has recently been detected in reactive FDCs. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of podoplanin using a new mouse monoclonal antibody D2-40, and compared them with CD21, a well-established FDC marker, in a comprehensive panel of cases. The panel included 4 FDC sarcomas, 38 spindle cell neoplasms of other types, 25 reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and 117 lymphoid and 5 myeloid malignant hematopoietic neoplasms. Our study revealed that D2-40 strongly stained 3 of 4 FDC sarcomas. In contrast, D2-40 stained only 2/38 other spindle cell neoplasms tested. Furthermore, we observed that D2-40 highlighted more FDC meshworks than CD21 in Castleman's disease, follicular lymphoma, nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin lymphoma, and residual reactive germinal centers in a variety of lymphoma types. D2-40 and CD21 stained an equal number of cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, progressively transformed germinal centers and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. No expression of podoplanin was detected in normal or neoplastic lymphoid and myeloid cells. We conclude that podoplanin (D2-40) is a sensitive and specific FDC marker, which is superior or equal to CD21 in evaluating both reactive and neoplastic FDCs. In addition, our results suggest that podoplanin (D2-40) can be used to support the diagnosis of FDC sarcoma. PMID:18784810

  6. Trefoil factor 3 is required for differentiation of thyroid follicular cells and acts as a context-dependent tumor suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abols, A; Ducena, K; Andrejeva, D; Sadovska, L; Zandberga, E; Vilmanis, J; Narbuts, Z; Tars, J; Eglitis, J; Pirags, V; Line, A

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is overexpressed in a variety of solid epithelial cancers, where it has been shown to promote migration, invasion, proliferation, survival and angiogenesis. On the contrary, in the majority of thyroid tumors, it is downregulated, yet its role in the development of thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here we show that TFF3 exhibits strong cytoplasmic staining of normal thyroid follicular cells and colloid and the staining is increased in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, while it is decreased in all thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin. By meta-analysis of gene expression datasets, we found that in the thyroid cancer, conversely to the breast cancer, the expression of TFF3 mRNA was downregulated by estrogen signaling and confirmed this by treating thyroid cancer cells with estradiol. Forced expression of TFF3 in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells resulted in decreased cell proliferation, clonal spheroid formation and entry into the S phase. Furthermore, it induced acquisition of epithelial-like cell morphology and expression of the differentiation markers of thyroid follicular cells and transcription factors implicated in the thyroid morphogenesis and function. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence that TFF3 may act as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene depending on the cellular context.

  7. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone treatment leads to follicular persistence/luteal defects; partial restoration of ovarian function by cyclic progesterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Steckler, Teresa L; Welch, Kathleen B; Inskeep, E Keith; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess during midgestation leads to estrous cycle defects and polycystic ovaries in sheep. We hypothesized that follicular persistence causes polycystic ovaries and that cyclic progesterone (P) treatment would overcome follicular persistence and restore cyclicity. Twice-weekly blood samples for P measurements were taken from control (C; n = 16) and prenatally T-treated (T60; n = 14; 100 mg T, im, twice weekly from d 30-90 of gestation) Suffolk sheep starting before the onset of puberty and continuing through the second breeding season. A subset of C and T60 sheep were treated cyclically with a modified controlled internal drug-releasing device for 13-14 d every 17 d during the first anestrus (CP, 7; TP, 6). Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed for 8 d in the first and 21 d in the second breeding season. Prenatal T excess reduced the number, but increased the duration of progestogenic cycles, reduced the proportion of ewes with normal cycles, increased the proportion of ewes with subluteal cycles, decreased the proportion of ewes with ovulatory cycles, induced the occurrence of persistent follicles, and reduced the number of corpora lutea in those that cycled. Cyclic P treatment in anestrus, which produced one third the P concentration seen during luteal phase of cycle, did not reduce the number of persistent follicles, but increased the number of progestogenic cycles while reducing their duration. These findings suggested that follicular persistence might contribute to the polycystic ovarian morphology. Cyclic P treatment was able to only partially restore follicular dynamics, but this may be related to the low replacement concentrations of P achieved.

  8. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  9. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Pizzolante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM by meat and bone meal (MBM in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  10. Follicular flushing during oocyte retrieval: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the literature and identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in order to answer if performing follicular flushing during the oocyte retrieval may improve the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) outcomes. An exhaustive electronic search was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Only RCTs comparing follicular flushing to aspiration only during ART, were included. We included 5 trials, with a total of 482 patients randomized, with median ages ranging from 30.5 to 37.1. The data analyses did not show significant differences regarding live birth rate, clinical pregnancies rates, and the number of oocytes retrieved. The duration of oocyte retrieval was significantly increased in the follicular flushing group. The results from this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that there is no advantage to use of routine follicular flushing during OR in an unselected group of patients.

  11. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of TGF-ß Isoforms in Cases with Ovarian Endometriosis and Follicular Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmuttalip Şentaş

    2007-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Ovarian tissue TGF-ß1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in endometriosis cases when compared with follicular cyst. There are needed further studies to elucidate the importance of this finding in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

  12. Initial development of ponderomotive filaments in plasma from intense hot spots produced by a random phase plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.A.; DuBois, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Local intensity peaks, hot spots, in laser beams may initiate self-focusing, in lieu of linear instabilities. If the hot spot power, P, contains several times the critical power, P c , and if the plasma density, n, is small compared to the critical density, n c , then on a time scale less than an acoustic transit time across the hot spot radius, τ ia , the hot spot collapses, capturing order unity of the initial hot spot power. The collapse time is determined as a universal function of P/P c and τ ia . The focal region moves towards the laser with an initially supersonic speed, and decelerates as it propagates. The power of this back propagating focus decreases monotonically until the critical power is reached. This limiting, shallowest, focus develops on a time scale long compared to τ ia and corresponds to the focus obtained in a model with adiabatically responding ions. For low-density plasma nonlinear ion effects terminate collapse and a bound on the transient intensity amplification is obtained as a universal function of the optics f/number, F, and n/n c . The boundary between thermal and ponderomotive regimes depends upon F and not the laser intensity

  13. CARBOHYDRATES OF CHANGES DURING THE FOLLICULAR DEVELOPMENT IN THE OVARY OF THE MOUSE DEER, TRAGULUS JAVANICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamny -

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The data available on the female reproductive organ of mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus is still very limited. A study was therefore conducted to investigate the distribution and the concentration of carbohydrate residues during the development of ovary follicles. An ovary at luteal phase was used in this study. Thin sections of the ovary were prepared occording to the standard methods and they were then histochemically stained with flourecnece-labelled lectins such as peanut agglutinin (PNA, Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, Concanavalin A (Con A, Winged bean agglutinin (WGA and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA. The result showed that changes in the distribution and the concentration of carbohydrate occured during the development of the follicle. During the preantral stage, the cytoplasm of oosit contained carbohydrate with the residues of glucosa dan mannosa. Zona pelusida contained carbohydrates with residues of glucosa, mannosa, galactosa dan N-asetylgalactosamine, whereas extracellular matrix contained carbohydrate with the residues of glucosa dan mannosa. In the antral follicle, the cyitoplasm of oocytes contained carbohydarte with the residues of galactosa dan N-asetylgalactosamine, whereas its zona pelusida, extracellular matrix and follicular fluid contained carbohydarte with the residues of fucosa, N-asetylglucosamin and cyalic acid. Diffrences in the types and the distribution pattern of carbohydrates were observed in this study, both in preantral and antral follicles.

  14. The relations between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake and oxidative stress in follicular fluid and ART outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) in the follicular environment may affect on oocyte competence and antioxidant vitamins may modify its effects. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary intake of vitamin A, C and E on OS in follicular environment and assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this obsevationalprospective study, the intake levels of vitamin A, C, and E were matured by validated food frequency questionnaire and ...

  15. Therapeutic iodine 125 for hyperthyroidism: evidence for a special radiobiological effect on the follicular cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.W.; Greig, W.R.; Gillespie, F.C.; Western Regional Hospital Board, Glasgow

    1982-01-01

    An IV perchlorate test was used qualitatively to detect a functional abnormality of the colloid-follicular cell interface in patients given 131 I or 125 I for hyperthyroidism. Radiation damage, manifest as abnormal iodide organification, was more prolonged after 125 I and more often accompanied by unremitting hyperthyroidism than after 131 I. These results conform with theoretical and laboratory data which predict a gradient of deposited radiation across the human follicular cell after therapeutic 125 I. (author)

  16. Transformation of follicular lymphoma - Why does it happen and can it be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Brian K

    2018-03-01

    Follicular lymphoma is a clinical disease with a multitude of presentations and behaviors. Although infrequent, transformation of follicular lymphoma to a more aggressive behaving subtype - prototypically diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - confers a substantially adverse prognosis. There is no consensus for optimal management after transformation is recognized. Historically considered a distinct clinical event, this review highlights the multiple subclinical transformational events that either variably or cumulatively result in clinical recognition of transformed follicular lymphoma. Known and suspected events include genetic and epigenetic perturbations, metabolomic changes, and alterations in the microenvironment. This diverse spectrum of pathways leads to heterogeneous clinical presentations and outcomes of transformed follicular lymphoma. Current options for prevention of transformation are limited to known strategies of managing follicular lymphoma before the transformation is recognized. Although most retrospectively analyzed studies suggest an association of lower transformation rates with early systemic therapy, specific components of therapy such as anti-CD20 antibodies, anthracyclines, or purine analogues are less strongly associated with "preventative' value. Thus, the goal of preventing transformation is of limited value among all factors that go into decisions on early management of follicular lymphoma. Future opportunities to prevent clinical evidence of transformation will benefit from early detection of markers of subclinical transformation and development of therapies to specifically target the biology implied by those markers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Decoding the Proteome of In-Vitro Fertilization Ovarian Follicular Fluid for Women Over 35 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sabry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study of follicular fluid using proteomic techniques could provide a useful tool for understanding follicular fluid components and their effect on pregnancy outcome. The aim of the study is to identify and catalog follicular fluid proteins in women 35 years of age or older. Material and Method: Follicular fluid was collected from 21 couples, of which 11 couples achieved successful pregnancy and 10 couples failed to get pregnant. Samples were analyzed by multidimensional chromatography coupled with in-line nano-spray ionization mass spectrometry on an LTQ XL ion trap mass spectrometer. We used the Biomarker Analysis Program from PDQuest software to identify protein constituents in pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Results: In total, 1024 protein specimens were identified. The proteins identified were consistent throughout the experiment and within each of the analyzed specimens. Discussion: A compiled listing of follicular fluid proteins could be a potential starting point for the identification and evaluation of important proteins involved in the development of oocytes; the results of our study may fill a noticeable knowledge-gap in the understanding of follicular fluid proteome.

  18. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma manifesting as follicular isthmus cysts in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Layne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was examined for swelling of the right upper lip. The cat had been receiving oral ciclosporin A for eosinophilic plaques. The swelling appeared clinically and cytologically consistent with an abscess; exudate was cultured and treatment consisted of antibiotic therapy and surgical curettage. Five months of antibiotic therapy with three separate surgical treatments resulted in minimal improvement; three separate biopsy samples demonstrated epithelial cysts with severe dermal inflammation. Swelling and drainage of purulent material from the affected lip persisted and progressed to involve the left upper lip. Euthanasia was elected 13 months after initial examination due to disease progression. On necropsy, histopathology demonstrated multiple isthmus cysts intermixed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Relevance and novel information The clinical and histopathologic features were unusual for feline cutaneous SCC. The cystic nature and lack of epidermal involvement suggest the tumor arose from non-epidermal squamous cells such as follicular isthmus or ductal epithelium. There is a pattern of SCC recognized in human renal transplant patients with features of epidermal inclusion cysts. These features have not been previously reported in SCC from a cat.

  19. Secreted single‐stranded DNA is involved in the initial phase of biofilm formation by Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zweig, Maria; Schork, Sabine; Koerdt, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    plays an important role in biofilm formation. Many clinical isolates contain a gonococcal genetic island that encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS). The T4SS of N. gonorrhoeae strain MS11 secretes ssDNA directly into the medium. Biofilm formation, studied in continuous flow‐chamber systems...... was developed in which thermostable fluorescently labelled ssDNA‐ and ss/dsDNA‐binding proteins were used to visualize ssDNA and total DNA in biofilms and planktonic cultures. Remarkably, mainly dsDNA was detected in biofilms of the ssDNA secreting strain. We conclude that the secreted ssDNA facilitates initial...

  20. Paralogous SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes differentially regulate leaf initiation and reproductive phase change in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jill C; Jorgensen, Stacy A; Orozco, Rebecca; Hileman, Lena C

    2016-02-01

    Duplicated petunia clade-VI SPL genes differentially promote the timing of inflorescence and flower development, and leaf initiation rate. The timing of plant reproduction relative to favorable environmental conditions is a critical component of plant fitness, and is often associated with variation in plant architecture and habit. Recent studies have shown that overexpression of the microRNA miR156 in distantly related annual species results in plants with perennial characteristics, including late flowering, weak apical dominance, and abundant leaf production. These phenotypes are largely mediated through the negative regulation of a subset of genes belonging to the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) family of transcription factors. In order to determine how and to what extent paralogous SPL genes have partitioned their roles in plant growth and development, we functionally characterized petunia clade-VI SPL genes under different environmental conditions. Our results demonstrate that PhSBP1and PhSBP2 differentially promote discrete stages of the reproductive transition, and that PhSBP1, and possibly PhCNR, accelerates leaf initiation rate. In contrast to the closest homologs in annual Arabidopsis thaliana and Mimulus guttatus, PhSBP1 and PhSBP2 transcription is not mediated by the gibberellic acid pathway, but is positively correlated with photoperiod and developmental age. The developmental functions of clade-VI SPL genes have, thus, evolved following both gene duplication and speciation within the core eudicots, likely through differential regulation and incomplete sub-functionalization.

  1. Effect of size of alpha phases on cyclic deformation and fatigue crack initiation during fatigue of an alpha-beta titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qiaoyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha phase exhibits equiaxed or lamellar morphologies with size from submicron to microns in an alpha-beta titanium alloy. Cyclic deformation, slip characteristics and crack nucleation during fatigue in different microstructures of TC21 alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-3Mo-1Cr-2Nb-0.1Si were systematically investigated and analyzed. During low-cycle fatigue, equiaxed microstructure (EM in TC21 alloy exhibits higher strength, ductility and longer low-cycle fatigue life than those of the lamellar microstructure (LM. There are more voids in the single lamellar alpha than the equiaxed alpha grains. As a result, voids more easily link up to form crack in the lamellar alpha phase than the equiaxed alpha phase. However, during high-cycle fatigue, the fine lamellar microstructure (FLM shows higher fatigue limit than bimodal microstructure (BM. The localized plastic deformation can be induced during high-cycle fatigue. The slip bands or twins are observed in the equiaxed and lamellar alpha phases(>1micron, which tends to form strain concentration and initiate fatigue crack. The localized slip within nanoscale alpha plates is seldom observed and extrusion/intrusion dispersedly distributed on the sample surface in FLM. This indicates that FLM show super resistance to fatigue crack which bring about higher fatigue limit than BM.

  2. Experimental study of the positive leader velocity as a function of the current in the initial and final-jump phases of a spark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A. G.; Bazelyan, E. M.; Bulatov, M. U.; Kuzhekin, I. P.; Makalsky, L. M.; Sukharevskij, D. I.; Syssoev, V. S.

    2008-01-01

    A positive leader in air at gap lengths of up to 8 m was studied experimentally on an open experimental stand. The voltage source was a 6-MV pulsed voltage generator or an artificial charged aerosol cloud. The dependence of the leader velocity on the current in the range 0.2-8 A was determined by simultaneously recording the optical picture and electric parameters of the discharge. Particular attention was paid to the final-jump phase of the discharge, when the gap was completely bridged by the streamer zone of the leader. It is shown that the character of the dependence of the leader velocity on the current in this phase remains unchanged; hence, the final-jump phase can be used in experiments in which the current has to be varied within a wide range. For this purpose, one can use a damping resistance, which is inefficient in the initial phase. The parameters of the power-law dependence of the leader velocity on the current at currents of a few amperes are established reliably. It is found that the power-law dependence with constant parameters is inapplicable to calculate the leader velocity at currents of about 0.1 A, which correspond to the lower limit of the leader viability.

  3. Follicular adenoma in ectopic thyroid. A case-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalvo, Vincenzo; Barbieri, Gerarda; Rossetti, Amalia Rosaria Rita; Romano, Mafalda; Contieri, Rosaria; Tramontano, Salvatore; Rescigno, Carmela; Infranzi, Massimo; Lombardi, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    The term ectopic thyroid refers to the presence of thyroid tissue located far from its usual anatomic placement and with no vascular connection to the main gland. The presence of swelling in atypical locations is diagnostically differentiated from other pathologies like pleomorphic adenoma or carcinoma, inflammatory lesions like sialadenitis, neurogenic tumors, paraganglioma, fibrolipoma and lymphadenopaties of diverse etiologies. Here we present the case of a submandibular ectopic thyroid in a 67year old woman. She came to our attention for a left submandibular swelling. The anamnesis did not show related pathologies, as well as blood tests. Diagnostic image studies and a FNAC were performed. The mass was surgically removed and histopatology showed a follicular adenoma in the contest of the capsulated lesion. It is important to not underestimate these types of lesions and procede with hematochemical, instrumental tests and above all surgery that can eliminate any diagnostic uncertainty and on the whole be therapeutic. It should not be forgotten that ectopic thyroid tissue can be a site for adenoma or papillary carcinoma and thus any watch and wait strategy should be avoided. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Follicular lymphomas and their transformation: Past and current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Miriam; Torrente, Maria; Provencio, Mariano

    2017-06-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Histological transformation (HT) refers to the evolution of a clinically indolent NHL to a clinically aggressive one, defined as those lymphomas in which survival is limited to a few months when untreated. Areas covered: HT is associated with rapid progression of lymphadenopathy, infiltration of extranodal sites, development of systemic symptoms, and elevated serum level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). It is frequently related to a poor prognosis, and the median survival after transformation is less than 2 years. Transformation to diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in patients with FL occurs at an annual rate of approximately 3% for the first 15 years, after which the risk of HT falls for reasons that remain unclear. Expert commentary: Although it has long been assumed that transformation reflects the emergence of an aggressive subclone of cells from the primary FL, recent studies suggest that FL transformation might also arise by divergent evolution from a more immature common progenitor cell. Studies on genomic changes and DNA sequencing have shed some light onto the process of transformation. Nowadays, we know that HT is a complex process where several molecular pathways are involved.

  5. Can histologic transformation of follicular lymphoma be predicted and prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridel, Robert; Sehn, Laurie H; Gascoyne, Randy D

    2017-07-20

    Transformation to aggressive lymphoma is a critical event in the clinical course of follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. Yet, it is a challenge to reliably predict transformation at the time of diagnosis. Understanding the risk of transformation would be useful for guiding and monitoring patients, as well as for evaluating novel treatment strategies that could potentially prevent transformation. Herein, we review the contribution of clinical, pathological, and genetic risk factors to transformation. Patients with multiple clinical high-risk factors are at elevated risk of transformation but we are currently lacking a prognostic index that would specifically address transformation rather than disease progression or overall survival. From the biological standpoint, multiple studies have correlated individual biomarkers with transformation. However, accurate prediction of this event is currently hampered by our limited knowledge of the evolutionary pathways leading to transformation, as well as the scarcity of comprehensive, large-scale studies that assess both the genomic landscape of alterations within tumor cells and the composition of the microenvironment. Liquid biopsies hold great promise for achieving precision medicine. Indeed, mutations detected within circulating tumor DNA may be a better reflection of the inherent intratumoral heterogeneity than the biopsy of a single site. Last, we will assess whether evidence exists in the literature that transformation might be prevented altogether, based on the choice of therapy for FL. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. Breast systemic follicular lymphoma in a man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Mantia Elvira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma is particularly rare in men. We describe the case of a patient with a rapidly growing, painless gynecomastia-like nodule in the left breast. On ultrasonography, the nodule was suspicious for breast carcinoma. Case presentation A breast biopsy from a 54-year-old Caucasian man showed the morphoimmunophenotypical features of grade 3 follicular lymphoma. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed a t(14,18 translocation suggesting breast involvement by a systemic lymphoma rather than a primary breast lymphoma. The histological diagnosis was subsequently confirmed after nodule excision. Mediastinal and abdominal node involvement was then identified on computed tomography and positron emission tomography scans during staging examinations. Our patient was treated with chemotherapy. After three years our patient experienced a right retro-areolar relapse. He then received two further cycles of chemotherapy but developed a myeloid acute leukemia and, as a result of this, he subsequently died. Conclusions The rarity of breast lymphomas, especially in men, and the problems related to the therapeutic choices with these tumors require molecular techniques in association with classical histological diagnosis.

  7. Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplantation with Micromotor: Eight Years Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ors, Safvet; Ozkose, Mehmet; Ors, Sevgi

    2015-08-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) has been performed for over a decade. Our experience in the patients who underwent hair transplantation using only the FUE method was included in this study. A total of 1000 patients had hair transplantation using the FUE method between 2005 and 2014 in our clinic. Manual punch was used in 32 and micromotor was used in 968 patients for graft harvesting. During the time that manual punch was used for graft harvesting, 1000-2000 grafts were transplanted in one session in 6-8 h. Following micromotor use, the average graft count was increased to 2500 and the operation time remained unchanged. Graft take was difficult in 11.1 %, easy in 52.2 %, and very easy in 36.7 % of our patients. The main purpose of hair transplantation is to restore the hair loss. During the process, obtaining a natural appearance and adequate hair intensity is important. In the FUE method, grafts can be taken without changing their natural structure, there is no need for magnification, and the grafts can be transplanted directly without using any other processes. Because there is no suture in the FUE method, patients do not experience these incision site problems and scar formation. The FUE method enables us to achieve a natural appearance with less morbidity.

  8. X-ray and radioiodine dose to thyroid follicular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faw, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation doses to the epithelial cells of thyroid follicles have been calculated for internal exposure by radionuclides of iodine and by secondary radiations created as a result of interactions of externally administered x rays with iodine naturally occurring in the thyroid. Calculations were performed for the thyroids of subjects ranging from the newborn to the adult male. Results for internal radionuclides are reported as the dose rate to follicular-cell nuclei per unit specific activity of the radionuclide in the thyroid as a whole, i.e., as the specific ''S value'' as used in the MIRD method for internal dosimetry. Results for x rays are reported as the response function, i.e., the absorbed dose per unit fluence of primary x rays. Dose rates are subdivided into internal and external components, the former from radiations emitted within the colloid volume of any one follicle, and the latter from radiations emitted throughout the thyroid in follicles surrounding that one follicle. 37 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Ovarian Follicular Dynamics around Estrus in Beetal and Teddy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Riaz, Nasim Ahmad* and Muhammad Rizwan Yousuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher fecundity rate over Beetal goats, it is assumed that Teddy goats have higher ovarian activity. Therefore, the current study tested the hypothesis that ovarian follicular population i.e. number of small (2-4 mm, medium (>4-6 mm and large follicles (>6 mm, size of the ovulatory follicle, and ovulation rate (No. of CL/No of ovulated goats, using transrectal ultrasonography are different between Beetal and Teddy goats of Pakistani origin. Beetal (n=6 and Teddy (n=8 does were synchronized using double PGF2a injections 10 d apart and were scanned on Days -2, 0 (estrus and +2. The onset of estrus was assessed by aproned bucks. Mean number of small follicles were higher (P<0.05 in Beetal goats, compared to Teddy goats, on days -2, estrus and +2. The ovulatory follicle diameter, and ovulation rate were found non-significant between Beetal and Teddy goats. It is concluded that Beetal goats have greater population of small follicles around estrus compared to Teddy goats. Future studies can be based on the follicle recruitment and atretic factors in Beetal goats to enhance the production.

  10. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Santin Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P<0.0001; 2.39 times, P=0.01; 1.58 times, P=0.0003; and 1.87 times, P<0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P<0.0001; 1.75 times, P=0.037; and 1.95 times, P<0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P=0.069. These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth.

  11. Follicular helper T cell in immunity and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mesquita Jr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept that effector T helper (Th responses are mediated by Th1/Th2 cell subtypes has been broadened by the recent demonstration of two new effector T helper cells, the IL-17 producing cells (Th17 and the follicular helper T cells (Tfh. These new subsets have many features in common, such as the ability to produce IL-21 and to express the IL-23 receptor (IL23R, the inducible co-stimulatory molecule ICOS, and the transcription factor c-Maf, all of them essential for expansion and establishment of the final pool of both subsets. Tfh cells differ from Th17 by their ability to home to B cell areas in secondary lymphoid tissue through interactions mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13. These CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells are considered an effector T cell type specialized in B cell help, with a transcriptional profile distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. The role of Tfh cells and its primary product, IL-21, on B-cell activation and differentiation is essential for humoral immunity against infectious agents. However, when deregulated, Tfh cells could represent an important mechanism contributing to exacerbated humoral response and autoantibody production in autoimmune diseases. This review highlights the importance of Tfh cells by focusing on their biology and differentiation processes in the context of normal immune response to infectious microorganisms and their role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  12. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  13. DNA Replication Control During Drosophila Development: Insights into the Onset of S Phase, Replication Initiation, and Fork Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Brian L.; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2017-01-01

    Proper control of DNA replication is critical to ensure genomic integrity during cell proliferation. In addition, differential regulation of the DNA replication program during development can change gene copy number to influence cell size and gene expression. Drosophila melanogaster serves as a powerful organism to study the developmental control of DNA replication in various cell cycle contexts in a variety of differentiated cell and tissue types. Additionally, Drosophila has provided several developmentally regulated replication models to dissect the molecular mechanisms that underlie replication-based copy number changes in the genome, which include differential underreplication and gene amplification. Here, we review key findings and our current understanding of the developmental control of DNA replication in the contexts of the archetypal replication program as well as of underreplication and differential gene amplification. We focus on the use of these latter two replication systems to delineate many of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the developmental control of replication initiation and fork elongation. PMID:28874453

  14. Effect of Lactation Yield on First Follicular Wave Surge After Calving of Crossbred Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A Berber

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed  to evaluate the effect of lactation on first follicular wave surge of crossbred (Gir x Holstein dairy cattle.  Nine multiparous crossbred dairy cattle were divided according to daily milk production (Group 1 = milk production higher than average, n = 5; Group 2 = milk  production  lower  than  average,  n  =  4.  From  calving  (Day  0  until  divergence  of  first follicular wave, ovaries  was monitored daily by ultrasound exams to observed the follicular emergence,  growth  rate,  maximum  follicular  diameter,  day  of  follicular  divergence  and ovulation. The mean of milk production was 17.4 + 6.4 L/day (n= 9. Group 1 had higher daily milk production than Group 2 (21.8 + 3.8 L/day vs. 11.9 + 3.9 L/day, P< 0.001. Data of follicular emergence were similar in both groups (P >0.05. The growth  rate of first follicular surge was higher  in  Group  2  than  Group  1  (2.0  + 0.0  mm/day  vs  1.2  + 0.6  mm/day,  P<  0.05.  The maximum follicular diameter was 11.6  + 0.9 mm (Group 1 and 13.5  + 1.7 mm (Group 2; P< 0.05. The follicular divergence occurred earlier  in Group 1 than Group 2 (12.2  + 0.8 days vs 13.7 + 0.6 days; P< 0.05. One animal of Group 2 ovulated. In conclusion, data suggested that milk production had influence on ovarian follicular dynamic after calving.Keywords: Follicle, post-partum, lactation, dairy cattle

  15. Isolated orbital mass as the primary presentation of a triple-hit lymphoma transformed from a systemic follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao Yi; Lu, Xinyan; Raparia, Kirtee; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2018-06-01

    Triple-hit lymphoma is a highly aggressive B-cell lymphoma. We report a case of triple-hit lymphoma transformed from systemic follicular lymphoma (FL) after 9-year remission and presented primarily as an isolated orbital mass without systemic symptoms or lymphadenopathy. A 58-year-old female presented with intermittent vertical binocular diplopia, left upper eyelid swelling and pain and was found to have a 2.9 cm orbital mass. Histological section revealed a CD10-positive large B-cell lymphoma, consistent with transformation of FL. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis demonstrated rearrangements involving C-MYC, BCL-2 and BCL-6 genes, indicating a high grade, triple-hit lymphoma. Triple-hit lymphoma transformed from a low-grade lymphoma may initially present as an isolated orbital mass without systemic evidence of transformation. Early recognition of double or triple-hit lymphomas is important since these patients require aggressive chemotherapy.

  16. Appendix I3-1 to Wind HUI Initiative 1: AWST-WindNET-Phase 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Zack

    2012-07-15

    This report is an appendix to the Hawaii WindHUI efforts to develop and operationalize short-term wind forecasting and wind ramp event forecasting capabilities. The report summarizes the WindNET Phase 1 efforts on the Big Island of Hawaii and includes descriptions of modeling methodologies, use of field validation data, results and recommendations. The objective of the WindNET project was to investigate the improvement that could be obtained in short-term wind power forecasting for wind generation facilities operating on the island grids operated by Hawaiian Electric Companies through the use of atmospheric sensors deployed at targeted locations. WindNET is envisioned as a multiphase project that will address the short-term wind forecasting issues of all of the wind generation facilities on the all of the Hawaiian Electric Companies' island grid systems. The first phase of the WindNET effort (referred to as WindNET-1) was focused on the wind generation facilities on the Big Island of Hawaii. With complex terrain and marine environment, emphasis was on improving the 0 to 6 hour forecasts of wind power ramps and periods of wind variability, with a particular interest in the intra-hour (0-1 hour) look-ahead period. The WindNET project was built upon a foundation that was constructed with the results from a previously completed observation targeting study for the Big Island that was conducted as part of a project supported by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and interactions with the western utilities. The observational targeting study provided guidance on which variables to measure and at what locations to get the most improvement in forecast performance at a target forecast site. The recommendations of the observation targeting study were based on the application two techniques: (1) an objective method called ensemble sensitivity analysis (ESA) (Ancell and Hakim, 2007; Torn and Hakim, 2008; Zack et al, 2010); and (2) a subjective method based on a

  17. Measurement of dew droplets in initial deposition at dew point by using a phase-shift interference microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki; Toyooka, Satoru; Hoshino, Mitsuo

    2002-09-01

    In order to measure the total mass per unit area of dew droplets deposited on a metal plate in the dew-point hygrometer, the shape of a dew droplet deposited on a copper plate was measured accurately by using an interference microscope that employed a phase-shift technique. The microscope was constructed by adding a piezoelectric transducer to an usual interference microscope. A simple method that uses a conventional speaker horn and an optical fiber cable was introduced to depress speckle noise. The shape of a dew droplet deposited on the copper plate surface with 0.1 μm in average roughness was measured with an accuracy of +/-3nm. The mass of a dew droplet could be calculated numerically from the volume of its shape and was of the order of 10-9 g. The total mass of dew droplets deposited per unit area and the deposition velocity were obtained under a gentle wind. The total mass was the order of 10-5 g/cm2 at the beginning of deposition and the deposition velocity was ranged from 2x10-6 to 6x10-5 g/cm2.min.

  18. Dissecting Molecular Events in Thyroid Neoplasia Provides Evidence for Distinct Evolution of Follicular Thyroid Adenoma and Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Kerstin; Prawitt, Susanne; Eszlinger, Markus; Ihling, Christian; Sinz, Andrea; Schierle, Katrin; Gimm, Oliver; Dralle, Henning; Steinert, Frank; Sheu, Sien-Yi; Schmid, Kurt W.; Fuhrer, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Benign hypofunctional cold thyroid nodules (CTNs) are a frequent scintiscan finding and need to be distinguished from thyroid carcinomas. The origin of CTNs with follicular morphologic features is unresolved. The DNA damage response might act as a physiologic barrier, inhibiting the progression of preneoplastic lesions to neoplasia. We investigated the following in hypofunctional follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC): i) the mutation rate of frequently activated oncogene...

  19. Dietary-Induced Chronic Hypothyroidism Negatively Affects Rat Follicular Development and Ovulation Rate and Is Associated with Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; van der Stelt, Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-04-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results show that continuous hypothyroidism results in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were significantly increased while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in the expression of peroxiredoxin 3 ( ITALIC! Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 ( ITALIC! Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 ( ITALIC! Ucp2) and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 ( ITALIC! Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 ( ITALIC! Gstm2) expression. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal/neonatal period results in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  20. Follicular aspiration versus coasting for ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaqer, Nayla J.; Dayoub, Nawal M.; AlHattali, Khalsa K.; Ayyoub, Hisham A.; AlFaraj, Samaher S.; Hassan, Samar N.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To compare follicular reduction prior to human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) trigger and coasting in terms of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS) reduction, pregnancy, and cancellation rates in in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles. Methods: This study was designed as a prospective study. The setting was the IVF unit at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 39 patients undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles, who were at risk of OHSS, 20 were put into a coasting group and 19 had follicular reduction instead. This occurred between October 2010 and January 2011. Our main outcome was OHSS reduction. Results: Six (30%) women developed OHSS in the coasting group and 2 (10.5%) women developed OHSS in the follicular group (p-value=0.235). The pregnancy rates in the cycles were similar for both groups: 4/20 (20%) in the coasting group and 3/19 (15.8%) in the follicular group (p-value=1.000). The cancellation rate of the cycles was similar for both groups, 6/20 (30%) in the coasting group and 1/19 (5.3%) in the follicular group (p-value=0.09). The median number of punctured follicles was significantly lower in the follicular group (16 follicles, interquartile range (IQR)=21-12) compared to the coasting group (29 follicles, IQR=37.8-19.8, p-value=0.001). The retrieved, fertilized, and cleaved oocytes, as well as the number of embryos transferred, were similar amongst both groups. Conclusion: There was no difference between follicular reduction prior to HCG and coasting, in terms of OHSS reduction, pregnancy, and cancellation rates in both the IVF and ICSI cycles. PMID:29543308

  1. Medical response in the initial phase of a radiological or nuclear emergency; Respuesta medica en la fase inicial de una emergencia radiologica o nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, M; Perez, M R; Dubner, D; Michelin, S; Malvicini, M [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Gobierno Autonomo de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    The frequency of radiological and nuclear accidents is low with relationship to another type of have an accident, but the use of radioactive sources has been increased in the finish decades. Additionally, a growing world concern exists by the eventual use of radioactive material with malevolent ends. These facts put in relevance the necessity to have an appropriate preparation for the medical answer in this type of emergencies. The medical answer consists of different phases: Initial: pre-hospital and in local general hospitals; Intermediate: in local general hospitals and central reference hospitals. Late: in central reference hospitals and the pursuit to long term. The presence of conventional injuries (radio combined injuries) modifies in substantial form the assignment in the priority of the attention, the prediction and the evolution. The establishment of an appropriate triage is outstanding in the initial phase. The present communication approaches the early medical answer, sustained in the anamnesis, the chronology and severity of the symptoms and prodromal signs besides the laboratory results and complementary exams arisen during the first ones 24 to 72 hours. (Author)

  2. Design and initial results of a multi-phase randomized trial of ceftriaxone in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Berry

    Full Text Available Ceftriaxone increases expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter, EAAT2, which might protect from glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. A trial using a novel three stage nonstop design, incorporating Phases I-III, tested ceftriaxone in ALS. Stage 1 determined the cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in subjects with ALS. Stage 2 evaluated safety and tolerability for 20-weeks. Analysis of the pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and safety was used to determine the ceftriaxone dosage for Stage 3 efficacy testing.In Stage 1, 66 subjects at ten clinical sites were enrolled and randomized equally into three study groups receiving intravenous placebo, ceftriaxone 2 grams daily or ceftriaxone 4 grams daily divided BID. Participants provided serum and cerebrospinal fluid for pharmacokinetic analysis on study day 7. Participants continued their assigned treatment in Stage 2. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB reviewed the data after the last participants completed 20 weeks on study drug.Stage 1 analysis revealed linear pharmacokinetics, and CSF trough levels for both dosage levels exceeding the pre-specified target trough level of 1 µM (0.55 µg/mL. Tolerability (Stages 1 and 2 results showed that ceftriaxone at dosages up to 4 grams/day was well tolerated at 20 weeks. Biliary adverse events were more common with ceftriaxone but not dose-dependent and improved with ursodeoxycholic (ursodiol therapy.The goals of Stages 1 and 2 of the ceftriaxone trial were successfully achieved. Based on the pre-specified decision rules, the DSMB recommended the use of ceftriaxone 4 g/d (divided BID for Stage 3, which recently closed.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00349622.

  3. Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Yasmin L; Yoon, Michelle; Manini, Alex F; Hernandez, Stephanie; Olmedo, Ruben; Ostman, Maria; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2015-10-01

    Multiple cannabinoids derived from the marijuana plant have potential therapeutic benefits but most have not been well investigated, despite the widespread legalization of medical marijuana in the USA and other countries. Therapeutic indications will depend on determinations as to which of the multiple cannabinoids, and other biologically active chemicals that are present in the marijuana plant, can be developed to treat specific symptoms and/or diseases. Such insights are particularly critical for addiction disorders, where different phytocannabinoids appear to induce opposing actions that can confound the development of treatment interventions. Whereas Δ(9)-tetracannabinol has been well documented to be rewarding and to enhance sensitivity to other drugs, cannabidiol (CBD), in contrast, appears to have low reinforcing properties with limited abuse potential and to inhibit drug-seeking behavior. Other considerations such as CBD's anxiolytic properties and minimal adverse side effects also support its potential viability as a treatment option for a variety of symptoms associated with drug addiction. However, significant research is still needed as CBD investigations published to date primarily relate to its effects on opioid drugs, and CBD's efficacy at different phases of the abuse cycle for different classes of addictive substances remain largely understudied. Our paper provides an overview of preclinical animal and human clinical investigations, and presents preliminary clinical data that collectively sets a strong foundation in support of the further exploration of CBD as a therapeutic intervention against opioid relapse. As the legal landscape for medical marijuana unfolds, it is important to distinguish it from "medical CBD" and other specific cannabinoids, that can more appropriately be used to maximize the medicinal potential of the marijuana plant.

  4. Searching for an alternative oral contrast agent for GI tract MR imaging; in vitro phase, initial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okla, W.; Szeszkowski, W.; Cieszanowski, A.; Golebiowski, M.

    2002-01-01

    MR has been recently considered to be suitable method for detection GI tract pathologies. A few substances (some of a natural origin) seem to act as an efficient oral MR contrast agents. The aim of this study is to find an alternative substance, which can be administrated orally to patients in order to enhance signal intensity (SI). The ideal agent should have a biphase pattern (high SI in T1 and low in T2), and should be nontoxic and cost effective. Phantom experiments were conducted with 1.5 T MR scanner. T1W and T2W sequences were used for initial estimation. Number of different agents such as: water, Gd-DTPA, barium sulfate, green tea, blueberry juice, cranberry juice, blackcurrant juice, and some more were evaluated. Signal intensity was measured by using elliptical region of interest (ROI). MR imaging in one patient with stomach cancer was also performed. In T1W-FFE sequence cranberry juice reached satisfactorily high signal (SI=1760.14). In T2W-TSE sequence this substance reduced signal intensity (SI=23.10) almost to background level. Blueberry juice appear to be the next substance capable to generate high signal (SI=1558.31) in T1W sequence (T1-TSE). MR examination of a patient with stomach adenocarcinoma (using blueberry juice as an oral contrast agent) satisfactorily depicted and delineated tumor mass on both: T1W and T2W images. Cranberry juice and blueberry juice seemed to act effectively as oral contrast agents for gastrointestinal MR imaging. Thus they need further exploration and trials. (author)

  5. Final Report For The Initial Solid Phase Characterization Of The 2011 Grab Samples And Composite For The C-109 Hard Heel Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, J.S.; Cooke, G.A.; Pestovich, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    On May 3, 2011, solid phase characterization subsamples were taken from six of the eight grab samples that had been collected from tank 241-C-109 in April, 2011 and delivered to the 222-S Laboratory. These subsamples were characterized in order to guide the creation of the composite for the C-109 hard heel study. Visual observation showed that there was a large variability in the physical characteristics of the eight individual grab samples. Several of the grab samples consisted of 'stone-like' cobbles (several > 25 mm in diameter) while the other grab samples were of a finer granular composition referred to as 'bulk material'. Half of the six subsamples taken for this initial SPC were of crushed cobbles and half were of the bulk material. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on all six subsamples, and X-ray diffraction was performed on all three of the 'bulk material' samples and one of the crushed cobble samples. The crushed cobbles were found to be composed primarily of gibbsite (Al(OHh) 3 ). Analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated gibbsite to be the only crystalline phase detected, and scanning electron microscopy showed the crushed cobbles to consist primarily of aggregates of euhedral to subhedral gibbsite crystals that were 20 to 100 μm in size. The aggregates, having a moderate amount of pore space, were cemented primarily by recrystallized gibbsite making them resistant to crushing. The bulk material consisted of coarse to fine-grained pebble-sized (2 to 20 mm) particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed them to be a mixture of natrophosphate (Na 7 (PO 4 ) 2 F·19(H 2 O)) and gibbsite crystals in varying amounts in each of the three subsamples (i.e., some grab samples were primarily natrophosphate while others were mixed with gibbsite). The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the bulk material showed the crystals to be euhedral to anhedral (rounded) in shape. Trace phases, too minor to be detected by XRD, were observed in the SEM analysis

  6. An assessment of core wide coherency effects in the multichannel modeling of the initiating phase of a severe accident in a sodium fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, M.; Gubernatis, P.; Suteau, C.; Le Tellier, R.; Lecerf, J.

    2014-01-01

    To consolidate the safety assessment for liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) sequences have been extensively studied over the past decades. Numerous analyses of the so called initiating phase (or primary phase) of a HCDA have been made with the safety analysis system code SAS4A. The SAS4A accident analysis code requires that subassemblies or groups of subassemblies be represented together as independent channels. For simulating a severe accident sequence, a subassembly-to-channel assignment procedure has to be implemented to produce the consistent SAS4A input decks. Generally, one uses imposed criteria over relevant reactor parameters to determine the subassembly to- channel arrangement. The multiple-assembly-per-channel approach introduces core wide coherency effects, which can affect the reactivity balance and therefore the overall accident development. In this paper, a subassembly-to channel assignment procedure based on the subassembly power-to-flow ratio is presented and implemented to generate the SAS4A input decks over a range of parameter values. The corresponding SAS4A calculations have been performed on a large LMFBR. The purpose of the present series of calculations is to investigate the magnitude of errors encountered in the analysis of the initiating phase related to the subassembly-to-channel arrangement selection, by comparison with a one-subassembly-per-channel reference solution. It appears that a refinement in the channel arrangement substantially reduces core wide coherency effects. Analysis of the calculations also suggests that an accurate representation of the scenario requires the number of channels to be on approximately the same order of magnitude as the total number of subassemblies. Numerical results are examined to provide the reader with quantitative measurements of bias related to subassembly to- channel arrangement. (authors)

  7. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J M; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J

    2017-03-16

    There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The objective of the present study is to examine the consequences of chronic hypothyroidism, induced in adulthood, for the size of the ovarian follicle pool. In order to investigate this, adult female rats were provided either a control or an iodide deficient diet in combination with perchlorate supplementation to inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid. Sixteen weeks later animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected for hormone analyses and ovaries were evaluated histologically. At the time of sacrifice, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were 20- to 40-fold increased, thyroxine concentrations were negligible while tri-iothyronin concentrations were decreased by 40% in the hypothyroid group, confirming that the animals were hypothyroid. Primordial, primary and preantral follicle numbers were significantly lower in the hypothyroid ovaries compared to the euthyroid controls, while a downward trend in antral follicle and corpora lutea numbers was observed. Surprisingly the percentage of atretic follicles was not significantly different between the two groups, suggesting that the reduced preantral and antral follicle numbers were presumably not the consequence of increased degeneration of these follicle types in the hypothyroid group. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels showed a significant correlation with the growing follicle population represented by the total ovarian number of primary, preantral and antral follicles, suggesting that also under hypothyroid conditions AMH can serve as a surrogate marker to assess the growing ovarian follicle population. The induction of a chronic hypothyroid condition in adult female rats negatively affects the ovarian follicular

  8. Flow cytometry of human primary epidermal and follicular keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragnani, Alfredo; Ipolito, Michelle Zampieri; Sobral, Christiane S; Brunialti, Milena Karina Coló; Salomão, Reinaldo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2008-02-19

    The aim of this study was to characterize using flow cytometry cultured human primary keratinocytes isolated from the epidermis and hair follicles by different methods. Human keratinocytes derived from discarded fragments of total skin and scalp hair follicles from patients who underwent plastic surgery in the Plastic Surgery Division at UNIFESP were used. The epidermal keratinocytes were isolated by using 3 different methods: the standard method, upon exposure to trypsin for 30 minutes; the second, by treatment with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes; and the third, by treatment with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 30 minutes. Follicular keratinocytes were isolated using the standard method. On comparing the group treated with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes with the group treated with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 30 minutes, it was observed that the first group presented the largest number of viable cells, the smallest number of cells in late apoptosis and necrosis with statistical significance, and no difference in apoptosis. When we compared the group treated with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes with the group treated with trypsin, the first group presented the largest number of viable cells, the smallest number of cells in apoptosis with statistical significance, and no difference in late apoptosis and necrosis. When we compared the results of the group treated with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes with the results for follical isolation, there was a statistical difference in apoptosis and viable cells. The isolation method of treatment with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes produced the largest number of viable cells and the smallest number of cells in apoptosis/necrosis.

  9. THE ROLE OF FOLLICULAR UNIT GRAFTING IN TREATMENT ALOPECIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duhita Ayuningtyas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Alopecia is usually treatable and self-limited, but it may be permanent. Careful diagnosis of the type of hair loss will aid in selecting effective treatment. Many drugs used to treat alopecia, but in many people not satisfied with the result. One of the treatment currently used to treat alopecia is hair transplantation with follicular unit grafting (FUG. The advantages of hair transplantation is to create a natural appearance, one that mimics natural hair growth both in terms of numbers and pattern /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  10. Timing differences in the generation of ground reaction forces between the initial and secondary landing phases of the drop vertical jump ☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid impulse loads imparted on the lower extremity from ground contact when landing from a jump may contribute to ACL injury prevalence in female athletes. The drop jump and drop landing tasks enacted in the first and second landings of drop vertical jumps, respectively, have been shown to elicit separate neuromechanical responses. We examined the first and second landings of a drop vertical jump for differences in landing phase duration, time to peak force, and rate of force development. Methods 239 adolescent female basketball players completed drop vertical jumps from an initial height of 31 cm. In-ground force platforms and a three dimensional motion capture system recorded force and positional data for each trial. Findings Between the first and second landing, rate of force development experienced no change (P > 0.62), landing phase duration decreased (P = 0.01), and time to peak ground reaction force increased (P 0.12). Interpretation The current results have important implications for the future assessment of ACL injury risk behaviors. Rate of force development remained unchanged between first and second landings from equivalent fall height, while time to peak reaction force increased during the second landing. Neither factor was dependent on the total time duration of landing phase, which decreased during the second landing. Shorter time to peak force may increase ligament strain and better represent the abrupt joint loading that is associated with ACL injury risk. PMID:23899938

  11. Timing differences in the generation of ground reaction forces between the initial and secondary landing phases of the drop vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2013-08-01

    Rapid impulse loads imparted on the lower extremity from ground contact when landing from a jump may contribute to ACL injury prevalence in female athletes. The drop jump and drop landing tasks enacted in the first and second landings of drop vertical jumps, respectively, have been shown to elicit separate neuromechanical responses. We examined the first and second landings of a drop vertical jump for differences in landing phase duration, time to peak force, and rate of force development. 239 adolescent female basketball players completed drop vertical jumps from an initial height of 31cm. In-ground force platforms and a three dimensional motion capture system recorded force and positional data for each trial. Between the first and second landing, rate of force development experienced no change (P>0.62), landing phase duration decreased (P=0.01), and time to peak ground reaction force increased (P0.12). The current results have important implications for the future assessment of ACL injury risk behaviors. Rate of force development remained unchanged between first and second landings from equivalent fall height, while time to peak reaction force increased during the second landing. Neither factor was dependent on the total time duration of landing phase, which decreased during the second landing. Shorter time to peak force may increase ligament strain and better represent the abrupt joint loading that is associated with ACL injury risk. © 2013.

  12. Comparison of high-accuracy numerical simulations of black-hole binaries with stationary-phase post-Newtonian template waveforms for initial and advanced LIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, Michael; Brown, Duncan A; Pekowsky, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of stationary-phase approximated post-Newtonian waveforms currently used by ground-based gravitational-wave detectors to search for the coalescence of binary black holes by comparing them to an accurate waveform obtained from numerical simulation of an equal-mass non-spinning binary black hole inspiral, merger and ringdown. We perform this study for the initial- and advanced-LIGO detectors. We find that overlaps between the templates and signal can be improved by integrating the match filter to higher frequencies than used currently. We propose simple analytic frequency cutoffs for both initial and advanced LIGO, which achieve nearly optimal matches, and can easily be extended to unequal-mass, spinning systems. We also find that templates that include terms in the phase evolution up to 3.5 post-Newtonian (pN) order are nearly always better, and rarely significantly worse, than 2.0 pN templates currently in use. For initial LIGO we recommend a strategy using templates that include a recently introduced pseudo-4.0 pN term in the low-mass (M ≤ 35 M o-dot ) region, and 3.5 pN templates allowing unphysical values of the symmetric reduced mass η above this. This strategy always achieves overlaps within 0.3% of the optimum, for the data used here. For advanced LIGO we recommend a strategy using 3.5 pN templates up to M = 12 M o-dot , 2.0 pN templates up to M = 21 M o-dot , pseudo-4.0 pN templates up to 65 M o-dot , and 3.5 pN templates with unphysical η for higher masses. This strategy always achieves overlaps within 0.7% of the optimum for advanced LIGO.

  13. Do We Need to Clamp the Renal Hilum Liberally during the Initial Phase of the Learning Curve of Robot-Assisted Nephron-Sparing Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to compare the results of our initial robot-assisted nephron-sparing surgeries (RANSS performed with or without hilar clamping. Material and Method. Charts of the initial RANSSs (n=44, which were performed by a single surgeon, were retrospectively reviewed. R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry system, modified Clavien classification, and M.D.R.D. equation were used to record tumoral complexity, complications, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, respectively. Outcomes of the clamped (group 1, n=14 versus off-clamp (group 2, n=30 RANSSs were compared. Results. The difference between the two groups was insignificant regarding mean patient age, mean tumor size, and mean R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score. Mean operative time, mean estimated blood loss amount, and mean length of hospitalization were similar between groups. A total of 4 patients in each group suffered 11 Clavien grade ≥2 complications early postoperatively. Open conversion rates were similar. The difference between the 2 groups in terms of the mean postoperative change in eGFR was insignificant. We did not encounter any local recurrence after a mean follow-up of 18.9 months. Conclusions. Creating warm-ischemic conditions during RANSS should not be a liberal decision, even in the initial phases of the learning curve for a highly experienced open surgeon.

  14. The determination of the local conditions for void initiation in front of a crack tip for materials with second-phase particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabirov, I. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)]. E-mail: sabirov@unileoben.ac.at; Duschlbauer, D. [Institute of Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Pettermann, H.E. [Institute of Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Kolednik, O. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2005-02-25

    A procedure is proposed to determine, for second-phase particles near a crack tip, the maximum particle stresses at the moment of void initiation by either particle fracture or particle/matrix interface separation. A digital image analysis system is applied to perform a quantitative analysis of corresponding fracture surface regions from stereo image pairs taken in the scanning electron microscope. The fracture surface analysis is used to measure, for individual particles, the crack tip opening displacement at the moment of void initiation and the particle location with respect to the crack tip. From these data, the stress tensor at the moment of void initiation is calculated from the Hutchinson-Rice-Rosengren (HRR) field theory. The corresponding average local stresses within the particle are evaluated by a non-linear Mori-Tanaka-type approach. These stresses are compared to estimates according to the models by Argon et al. [A.S. Argon, J. Im, R. Safoglu, Metall. Trans. 6 (1975) 825] and Beremin [F.M. Beremin, Metall. Trans. 12 (1981) 723]. The procedure is demonstrated on an Al6061-10% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal matrix composite.

  15. Influence of follicular fluid GDF9 and BMP15 on embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gode, Funda; Gulekli, Bulent; Dogan, Erbil; Korhan, Peyda; Dogan, Seda; Bige, Ozgur; Cimrin, Dilek; Atabey, Nese

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the association between follicular fluid levels of propeptide and mature forms of growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 with subsequent oocyte and embryo quality. Prospective clinical study. University hospital. Eighty-one infertile patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The expression levels of the propeptide and mature forms of follicular fluid GDF9 and BMP15 were determined by western blot analysis. The levels of follicular fluid hormones (FSH, E2, and P) were measured with automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays. The relationships between the levels of GDF9 and BMP15, hormones, oocyte maturation, and embryo quality. Mature GDF9 levels were significantly correlated with the nuclear maturation of oocytes. The mean mature GDF9 level was 4.87±0.60 in the high-embryo-quality group and 1.45±0.81 in the low-embryo-quality group. There were no statistically significant differences in embryo quality among the patients regarding propeptide GDF9 and BMP15 expression status. There was a negative correlation between follicular fluid levels of P and the mature form of GDF9. Higher mature GDF9 levels in the follicular fluid were significantly correlated with oocyte nuclear maturation and embryo quality. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Keratosis Pilaris Revisited: Is It More Than Just a Follicular Keratosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary; Khopkar, Uday Sharadchandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Keratosis pilaris (KP) is characterized by keratinous plugs in the follicular orifices and varying degrees of perifollicular erythema. The most accepted theory of its pathogenesis proposes defective keratinization of the follicular epithelium resulting in a keratotic infundibular plug. We decided to test this hypothesis by doing dermoscopy of patients diagnosed clinically as keratosis pilaris. Materials and Methods: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of KP seen between September 2011 and December 2011 were included in the study. A clinical history was obtained and examination and dermoscopic evaluation were performed on the lesions of KP. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 6-38 years. Sixteen patients had history of atopy. Nine had concomitant ichthyosis vulgaris. All the 25 patients were found to have coiled hair shafts within the affected follicular infundibula. The hair shafts were extracted with the help of a sterile needle and were found to retain their coiled nature. Perifollicular erythema was seen in 11 patients; perifollicular scaling in 9. Conclusion: Based on our observations and previously documented histological data of KP, we infer that KP may not be a disorder of keratinization, but caused by the circular hair shaft which ruptures the follicular epithelium leading to inflammation and abnormal follicular keratinization. PMID:23766609

  17. MicroRNAs: New Insight in Modulating Follicular Atresia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Worku

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in follicular atresia is limited; however, an important development has been made in understanding the biological regulatory networks responsible for mediating follicular atresia. MicroRNAs have come to be seen as a key regulatory actor in determining cell fate in a wide range of tissues in normal and pathological processes. Profiling studies of miRNAs during follicular atresia and development have identified several putative miRNAs enriched in apoptosis signaling pathways. Subsequent in vitro and/or in vivo studies of granulosa cells have elucidated the functional role of some miRNAs along with their molecular pathways. In particular, the regulatory roles of some miRNAs have been consistently observed during studies of follicular cellular apoptosis. Continued work should gradually lead to better understanding of the role of miRNAs in this field. Ultimately, we expect this understanding will have substantial benefits for fertility management at both the in vivo or/and in vitro levels. The stable nature of miRNA holds remarkable promise in clinical use as a diagnostic tool and in reproductive medicine to solve the ever-increasing fertility problem. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the involvement of miRNAs in follicular atresia, discuss the challenges for further work and pinpoint areas for future research.

  18. Microrna-199a-5p Functions as a Tumor Suppressor via Suppressing Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Han, Shen; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Weihai; Zhang, Zhijun; Qu, Jianjun

    2016-04-11

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to explore the role of miR-199a-5p in the development of thyroid cancer, including its anti-proliferation effect and downstream signaling pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted qRT-PCR analysis to detect the expressions of several microRNAs in 42 follicular thyroid carcinoma patients and 42 controls. We identified CTGF as target of miR-491, and viability and cell cycle status were determined in FTC-133 cells transfected with CTGF siRNA, miR-199a mimics, or inhibitors. RESULTS We identified an underexpression of miR-199a-5p in follicular thyroid carcinoma tissue samples compared with controls. Then we confirmed CTGF as a target of miR-199a-5p thyroid cells by using informatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay. Additionally, we found that mRNA and protein expression levels of CTGF were both clearly higher in malignant tissues than in benign tissues. miR-199a-5p mimics and CTGF siRNA similarly downregulated the expression of CTGF, and reduced the viability of FTC-133 cells by arresting the cell cycle in G0 phase. Transfection of miR-199a-5p inhibitors increased the expression of CTGF and promoted the viability of the cells by increasing the fraction of cells in G2/M and S phases. CONCLUSIONS Our study proves that the CTGF gene is a target of miR-199a-5p, demonstrating the negatively related association between CTGF and miR-199a. These findings suggest that miR-199a-5p might be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Preoperative scintigraphic detection of lung metastases of a follicular thyroid carcinoma associated with hyperthyroidism; Detection scintigraphique preoperatoire de metastases pulmonaires d'un carcinome vesiculaire de la thyroide associe a une hyperthyroidie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyi, A.; Oufroukhi, Y.; Doudouh, A. [Hopital Militaire d' Instruction Mohammed V, Rabat Instituts, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rabat (Morocco); Baizri, H.; El Quatni, M. [Hopital Militaire d' Instruction Mohammed V, Service d' Endocrinologie, Rabat (Morocco); Al Bouzidi, A. [Hopital Militaire d' Instruction Mohammed V, Service d' Anatomie Pathologique, Rabat (Morocco)

    2009-10-15

    Preoperative accumulation of radioiodine in metastases of thyroid carcinoma and its association with hyperthyroidism are uncommon. We report a case of 58-year-old woman with follicular thyroid carcinoma revealed by thyrotoxicosis caused by a hot nodule, and bilateral pulmonary uptake of I-131 before total thyroidectomy. Despite four ablative doses of I-131, bone metastases were identified and the patient died 42 month after the initial diagnosis. (authors)

  20. Influence of caffeine and/or coffee consumption on the initiation and promotion phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary gland tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, C W; DeHoog, J V; O'Connor, D H

    1988-04-15

    The effect of caffeine and/or coffee consumption (via the drinking water) during the initiation phase and promotion phase of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a commercial laboratory animal chow was examined. In the initiation studies, DMBA was administered once at 53-55 days of age; caffeine (100-860 mg/liter of drinking water) and/or coffee (moderate or high dose, sole source of drinking water) treatments were for 32 consecutive days, commencing 29 days prior to DMBA treatment and terminating 3 days after DMBA treatment. In the promotion studies, DMBA was administered once at 54-55 days of age; caffeine and/or coffee treatments were daily from 57-58 days of age to termination of experiments (12-21 weeks after carcinogen treatment). In the initiation studies, either moderate (100-400 mg) or high (860 mg) dose levels of caffeine or moderate to high dose levels of caffeinated coffee significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced mammary carcinoma multiplicity (number of tumors/rat). Consumption of high or moderate dose levels of decaffeinated coffee did not significantly alter mammary carcinoma multiplicity. The addition of caffeine to the moderate dose level of decaffeinated coffee resulted in a significant (P less than 0.05) reduction in mammary carcinoma multiplicity. In the promotion studies, prolonged consumption of moderated dose levels of caffeine or moderate or high dose levels of caffeinated coffee or decaffeinated coffee did not significantly effect mammary carcinoma multiplicity. In the early stages of promotion, however, a significant (p less than 0.05) stimulatory effect of caffeine on mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed; an effect that was temperate and transitory. In both the initiation and promotion studies caffeine and/or coffee consumption did not significantly affect the incidence of mammary carcinomas (percentage of rats bearing mammary carcinomas) or the mean latency

  1. Expansion of murine gammaherpesvirus latently infected B cells requires T follicular help.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Collins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available X linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is an inherited immunodeficiency resulting from mutations in the gene encoding the slam associated protein (SAP. One of the defining characteristics of XLP is extreme susceptibility to infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, a gammaherpesvirus belonging to the genus Lymphocryptovirus, often resulting in fatal infectious mononucleosis (FIM. However, infection of SAP deficient mice with the related Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Rhadinovirus, does not recapitulate XLP. Here we show that MHV68 inefficiently establishes latency in B cells in SAP deficient mice due to insufficient CD4 T cell help during the germinal center response. Although MHV68 infected B cells can be found in SAP-deficient mice, significantly fewer of these cells had a germinal center phenotype compared to SAP-sufficient mice. Furthermore, we show that infected germinal center B cells in SAP-deficient mice fail to proliferate. This failure to proliferate resulted in significantly lower viral loads, and likely accounts for the inability of MHV68 to induce a FIM-like syndrome. Finally, inhibiting differentiation of T follicular helper (TFH cells in SAP-sufficient C57Bl/6 mice resulted in decreased B cell latency, and the magnitude of the TFH response directly correlated with the level of infection in B cells. This requirement for CD4 T cell help during the germinal center reaction by MHV68 is in contrast with EBV, which is thought to be capable of bypassing this requirement by expressing viral proteins that mimic signals provided by TFH cells. In conclusion, the outcome of MHV68 infection in mice in the setting of loss of SAP function is distinct from that observed in SAP-deficient patients infected with EBV, and may identify a fundamental difference between the strategies employed by the rhadinoviruses and lymphocryptoviruses to expand B cell latency during the early phase of infection.

  2. Interest of PET with F.D.G. in the follicular lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarghach, N.; Cornec, D.; Querellou, S.; Berthou, C.; Renaudineau, Y.; Pradier, O.; Cheze-Lerest, C.; Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D.

    2009-01-01

    For the follicular lymphomas, the PET is not in the systematic medical evaluation when it cannot be ignored in the evaluation of high grade non hodgkin lymphomas because it allows to make a complete extension evaluation and especially to help to define the target volume when the radiotherapy is indicated. The fixation of F.D.G. in follicular lymphomas was studied. We showed that the follicular lymphomas present in PET under the form of hypermetabolic injuries. It seems possible to consider the use of PET to help at the definition of target volumes when the radiotherapy is indicated. The intensity of fixation seems to have a predictive value for the therapy response in case of immunotherapy. The measurement of the active tumoral volume seems to have a predictive value for the response to the treatment that is worth being specified on a more important population. (N.C.)

  3. Correlation between scintillographic-and morphologic findings in 78 follicular adenomas of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.E.; Silva, W.; Andreghetti, C.R.; Kiy, Y.; Franco, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Correlation between Scintilographic and morphologic findings was investigated in 78 follicular adenomas of thyroid found in 249 thyroidectomies carried out at the University Hospital of the Botucatu Medical School from 1973 to 1978. Most patients were female ranging from 20 to 59 yaars of age. There was agreement between Scintilography and morphology in 75% of the 48 cold nodules: low 131 I - uptake and cystic of histologically non - non functioning adenomas (embrionary, fetal or macrofollicular types). Among the 12 warm nodules there was Scintilographic - morphological agreement in 50% of the cases (normal 135 I - uptake and simple adenoma) and disagreement in 50% (normal 135 I - uptake and cystic or histologically non-functioning adenomas). Most of the 18 hot adenomas showed hyperplastic follicular histology goth in the toxic and non-toxic nodules. In the thyroid surrounding the adenomas, histological foci of follicular hyperplasia in 8.9% and of lymphocitic thyroiditis in 33.3% of the cases were found. (Author) [pt

  4. A rear case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia; Radiologic and histopathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Cha, Eun Jung [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Multilocular thymic cysts are rare and acquired lesions induced by an inflammatory arising within the thymus. We report a rare case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia in a 59-year-old female. Chest CT and MRI revealed a large multilocular cystic mass, which contains thick septa and nodules in the thymus. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed almost no FDG uptake of the multilocular cystic mass but moderate FDG uptake of the solid nodules. Extended total thymectomy was performed. Histopathological findings revealed follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of thymic tissue but no neoplastic lesion. Based on these findings, diagnosis of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia was made. This is a rare case that preoperatively was difficult to diagnose.

  5. Effect of resistivity profile on current decay time of initial phase of current quench in neon-gas-puff inducing disruptions of JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, S.; Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Shibata, Y.; Isayama, A.; Kawano, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Watanabe, K. Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Takizuka, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Okamoto, M. [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    According to an early work [Y. Shibata et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 025015 (2010)] on the behavior of the plasma current decay in the JT-60U disruptive discharges caused by the radiative collapse with a massive neon-gas-puff, the increase of the internal inductance mainly determined the current decay time of plasma current during the initial phase of current quench. To investigate what determines the increase of the internal inductance, we focus attention on the relationship between the electron temperature (or the resistivity) profile and the time evolution of the current density profile and carry out numerical calculations. As a result, we find the reason of the increase of the internal inductance: The current density profile at the start of the current quench is broader than an expected current density profile in the steady state, which is determined by the temperature (or resistivity) profile. The current density profile evolves into peaked one and the internal inductance is increasing.

  6. Disruption of in vivo chronic lymphocytic leukemia tumor-microenvironment interactions by ibrutinib - findings from an investigator initiated phase 2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Carsten U; Herman, Sarah E M; Maric, Irina

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells depend on microenvironmental interactions for proliferation and survival that are at least partially mediated through B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, disrupts BCR signaling and leads to the egress...... of tumor cells from the microenvironment. While the on-target effects on CLL cells are well defined, the impact on the microenvironment is less well studied. We therefore sought to characterize the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on the tumor microenvironment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients received single...... agent ibrutinib on an investigator-initiated phase 2 trial. Serial blood and tissue samples were collected pre-treatment and during treatment. Changes in cytokine levels, cellular subsets and microenvironmental interactions were assessed. RESULTS: Serum levels of key chemokines and inflammatory...

  7. Ovarian follicular development in the hawksbill turtle (Cheloniidae: Eretmochelys imbricata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bermúdez, Emir; Ruiz-Urquiola, Ariel; Lee-González, Idania; Petric, Benjamin; Almaguer-Cuenca, Nilda; Sanz-Ochotorena, Ana; Espinosa-López, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    Ovarian follicular development is an essential process in the determination of maturation stages associated with size. This association acquires importance when managing populations of threatened species. We histologically processed 11 prepubescent ovaries, four pubescent ovaries, and one breeding adult ovary with vitellogenic follicles using specific staining techniques to identify the follicular stages of Eretmochelys imbricata. Follicular stages were compared with maturation stages [including straight carapace length (SCL)]. The ovary presented several germinal beds and a lacunar system less histochemically and morphologically heterogeneous than that of crocodiles. During previtellogenesis (four stages), the oocyte grows rapidly due to the strong transcriptional activity of lampbrush chromosomes and numerous nucleoli, and the strong metabolism associated with lipid synthesis. The Stage III ooplasm showed a Sudan positive band. This stage was the most frequent in all ovarian sections and it was independent of maximal follicular stage. Stage IV, more frequent in pubescent and adult ovaries, presented a lipid vacuole-rich ooplasm and a broadening of the zona pellucida and the theca. The vitellogenesis begins with the penetration and accumulation of spherical glycoprotein yolk platelets and chemically neutral lipid droplets which are observed to be mixed, but spatially and chemically segregated. Both the yolk platelets and lipid droplets increase in size, density, and proximity to the periphery of the oocyte due to their coalescence. The SCL of the immature females did not determine the maximal follicular stage nor its frequency in the ovaries. Straight carapace length turned out to be an imprecise measure in identifying the presence of follicular stages in females larger than the minimum legal size limit in Cuba. Consequently, for a national conservation program to be successful, it must emphasize the critically endangered status of E. imbricata, as well as the

  8. Differing strategies of patterning of follicular cells in higher and lower brachycerans (Diptera: Brachycera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworzydlo, Waclaw; Jablonska, Anna; Kisiel, Elzbieta; Bilinski, Szczepan M

    2005-10-01

    In all higher dipterans (Brachycera), including the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, each egg chamber (ovarian follicle) consists of a group (clone) of germ cells (one oocyte and 15 accompanying nurse cells) that is surrounded by a layer of somatic mesodermal follicular cells (FCs). As oogenesis progresses the initially uniform FCs diversify into several morphologically and functionally distinct subpopulations. In D. melanogaster some of these subpopulations, e.g., border, centripetal, and dorsolateral cells, undertake coordinated migration or rearrangement over the surface of the germ cells. During the final stages of oogenesis these subpopulations participate in the formation of a complex, regionally specialized eggshell. In representatives of lower brachycerans (Orthorrhapha), only FCs that undertake active, directed migration are the border cells. These cells originate at the anterior pole of the ovarian follicle and migrate between the nurse cells to the anterior pole of the oocyte. Reduced motility of FCs in lower brachycerans results in the absence of certain FC subpopulations in their egg chambers and subsequent simplicity of their eggshells. We found that the lack of some FC subpopulations coincided with the appearance of lamellipodium-like protrusions of the oocyte. These protrusions penetrated between the apposing membranes of nurse and FCs and partially enveloped the nurse cell compartment. Analysis of whole-mount preparations stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin revealed that the protrusions contained microfilaments and that their tips were equipped with actin-rich filopodium-like processes. We also found that in some lower brachycerans (representatives of the family Rhagionidae), the FCs located at the posterior pole of the oocyte, became enlarged and morphologically similar to the anterior border cells. These findings indicate that in higher dipterans the processes leading to the formation of a functional egg are variable and often markedly

  9. Scrapie affects the maturation cycle and immune complex trapping by follicular dendritic cells in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are infectious neurological disorders of man and animals, characterised by abnormal disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d accumulations in the brain and lymphoreticular system (LRS. Prior to neuroinvasion, TSE agents often accumulate to high levels within the LRS, apparently without affecting immune function. However, our analysis of scrapie-affected sheep shows that PrP(d accumulations within the LRS are associated with morphological changes to follicular dendritic cells (FDCs and tingible body macrophages (TBMs. Here we examined FDCs and TBMs in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs of scrapie-affected mice by light and electron microscopy. In MLNs from uninfected mice, FDCs could be morphologically categorised into immature, mature and regressing forms. However, in scrapie-affected MLNs this maturation cycle was adversely affected. FDCs characteristically trap and retain immune complexes on their surfaces, which they display to B-lymphocytes. In scrapie-affected MLNs, some FDCs were found where areas of normal and abnormal immune complex retention occurred side by side. The latter co-localised with PrP(d plasmalemmal accumulations. Our data suggest this previously unrecognised morphology represents the initial stage of an abnormal FDC maturation cycle. Alterations to the FDCs included PrP(d accumulation, abnormal cell membrane ubiquitin and excess immunoglobulin accumulation. Regressing FDCs, in contrast, appeared to lose their membrane-attached PrP(d. Together, these data suggest that TSE infection adversely affects the maturation and regression cycle of FDCs, and that PrP(d accumulation is causally linked to the abnormal pathology observed. We therefore support the hypothesis that TSEs cause an abnormality in immune function.

  10. Relationship of antral follicular blood flow velocity to superovulatory responses in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M E F; Bartlewski, P M; Jankowski, N; Padilha-Nakaghi, L C; Oliveira, L G; Bicudo, S D; Fonseca, J F; Vicente, W R R

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between antral follicular blood flow velocity and the response of ewes to hormonal ovarian superstimulation. Ten Santa Inês ewes were subjected to a short- (7days; Group 1) or long-term (13days; Group 2) progesterone (CIDR ® ; InterAg, Hamilton, New Zealand) priming, and a superovulatory treatment with porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH; Folltropin ® -V; Bioniche Animal Health, Belleville, ON, Canada), given twice daily for four consecutive days in decreasing doses and initiated four or ten days after CIDR insertion, respectively. Embryos were recovered surgically seven days after the last pFSH dose. From one day prior to until the end of the pFSH regimen (Days -1 to 3), all ewes underwent daily transrectal ultrasonography of ovaries. The number of high-velocity pixels (HVPs; 0.055-0.11m/s or upper 50% of recordable velocities) on Day 1 correlated directly with the number of corpora lutea (CL; r=0.92, P=0.0002) and of viable embryos (r=0.77, P=0.01). Correlations were also recorded between the number of HVPs on Day 3 and the recovery rate (r=-0.69, P=0.03), viability rate (r=-0.64, P=0.05), and percentage of degenerated embryos (r=0.65, P=0.04). The percentage of HVPs relative to the total area of ovarian cross section on Day 1 was correlated with the number of CL (r=0.95, Pflow has the makings of a useful non-invasive method to predict the outcome of the superovulatory treatment in ewes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of MMP-14 and MMP-2, and MMP-2 activity during human ovarian follicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.C.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Last, J.T.; Boed, E.A. de; Smeenk, J.M.J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of MMP-14 and MMP-2 during human ovarian follicular development using immunohistochemistry, and the activity of MMP-2 in follicular fluid using zymography. METHODS: Ovarian tissue collected from the archives of the Department of

  12. Presence of bile acids in human follicular fluid and their relation with embryo development in modified natural cycle IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, R. A.; van Montfoort, A. P. A.; Dikkers, A.; van Echten-Arends, J.; Homminga, I.; Land, J. A.; Hoek, A.; Tietge, U. J. F.

    STUDY QUESTION: Are bile acids (BA) and their respective subspecies present in human follicular fluid (FF) and do they relate to embryo quality in modified natural cycle IVF (MNC-IVF)? SUMMARY ANSWER: BAconcentrations are 2-fold higher in follicular fluid than in serum and ursodeoxycholic acid

  13. Use of MR imaging in following follicular and endometrial development during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janus, C.L.; Gendal, E.S.; Wyczyk, H.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Laufer, N.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging in monitoring follicular and endometrial development during the menstrual cycle. MR images, US scans, and hormonal levels of estradiol and progesterone were obtained in six ovulatory volunteers on six designated days of the cycle. As illustrated in this exhibit, MR imaging demonstrated more secondary smaller follicles and better follicular detail than US and surpassed US in demonstrating endometrial and myometrial changes. The finer details observed on MR imaging during the normal cycle have practical implications for women undergoing stimulated cycles and in vitro fertilization

  14. Classification of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer by global RNA profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide and thyroid nodules are a frequent clinical finding. Diagnosing follicular cell-derived cancers is, however, challenging both histopathologically and especially cytopathologically. The advent of high-throughput molecular technologies has...... profiling of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers....... prompted many researchers to explore the transcriptome and, in recent years, also the miRNome in order to generate new molecular classifiers capable of classifying thyroid tumours more accurately than by conventional cytopathological and histopathological methods. This has led to a number of molecular...

  15. Hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma in Pendred's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abs, R.; Verhelst, J.; Schoofs, E.; De Somer, E. (University Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium))

    1991-04-15

    A 66-year-old woman with Pendred's syndrome underwent a partial thyroidectomy when she was 17 years old. At the age of 52 years, she had a second thyroid operation because of hyperthyroidism due to a toxic multinodular goiter with a mediastinal extension consisting of several separate nodules. Five years later a hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular carcinoma was diagnosed histologically. After treatment with radioactive iodine, the patient was well. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of a metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma in Pendred's syndrome and the first report of hyperthyroidism occurring after malignant degeneration of a dyshormonogenetic goiter.

  16. Conventional CD11chigh Dendritic Cells Are Important for T Cell Priming during the Initial Phase of Plasmodium yoelii Infection, but Are Dispensable at Later Time Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueffing, Kristina; Abberger, Hanna; Westendorf, Astrid M; Matuschewski, Kai; Buer, Jan; Hansen, Wiebke

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate adaptive immune responses to pathogens. During malaria infection pro- and anti-inflammatory T cell responses have to be tightly balanced to ensure parasite clearance without induction of severe immune pathologies. However, the precise role of CD11c high DCs in this process is still discussed controversially. Here, we demonstrate that long-term depletion of conventional CD11c high DCs in Plasmodium yoelii ( P. yoelii )-infected diphtheria toxin (DT)-treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre mice interferes with the activation of CD8 + and CD4 + T cells as well as CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells at early time points during infection. Moreover, systemic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α were decreased in P. yoelii -infected mice deficient for CD11c high DCs compared to infected RosaiDTR controls. To further elucidate the importance of CD11c high DCs during the later phase of infection, we treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre and control mice with DT only from day 4 of P. yoelii infection onward. Strikingly, this approach had no impact on the activation and IFN-γ production of CD4 + and CD8 + effector T cells. These results indicate that CD11c high DCs play a crucial role in eliciting effector T cell responses during the initial phase, but are dispensable during ongoing infection with P. yoelii .

  17. Case of possible multiple system atrophy with a characteristic imaging finding of open bladder neck during storage phase as an initial sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Haga, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Soichiro; Matsuoka, Kanako; Koguchi, Tomoyuki; Akaihata, Hidenori; Hata, Junya; Kataoka, Masao; Ishibashi, Kei; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2017-11-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a neurodegenerative disease that affects autonomic and motor systems. Patients with multiple system atrophy usually experience lower urinary tract symptoms, which sometimes appear as an initial symptom before the emergence of the generalized symptoms. An open bladder neck during the filling phase on video urodynamic study is one characteristic imaging finding after the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, but has not previously been reported at an early phase of the disease. We report a case in which an open bladder neck was observed on several imaging modalities before generalized symptoms emerged. Because occult neurogenic bladder might exist in patients whose lower urinary tract symptoms are resistant to pharmacotherapy, we report this case to raise awareness of the importance of sufficient imaging evaluations. An open bladder neck might be an important imaging finding for diagnosing multiple system atrophy, irrespective of the presence of generalized symptoms. This finding could help avoid false diagnosis and unnecessary treatment. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. Conventional CD11chigh Dendritic Cells Are Important for T Cell Priming during the Initial Phase of Plasmodium yoelii Infection, but Are Dispensable at Later Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ueffing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate adaptive immune responses to pathogens. During malaria infection pro- and anti-inflammatory T cell responses have to be tightly balanced to ensure parasite clearance without induction of severe immune pathologies. However, the precise role of CD11chigh DCs in this process is still discussed controversially. Here, we demonstrate that long-term depletion of conventional CD11chigh DCs in Plasmodium yoelii (P. yoelii-infected diphtheria toxin (DT-treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre mice interferes with the activation of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells as well as CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells at early time points during infection. Moreover, systemic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α were decreased in P. yoelii-infected mice deficient for CD11chigh DCs compared to infected RosaiDTR controls. To further elucidate the importance of CD11chigh DCs during the later phase of infection, we treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre and control mice with DT only from day 4 of P. yoelii infection onward. Strikingly, this approach had no impact on the activation and IFN-γ production of CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells. These results indicate that CD11chigh DCs play a crucial role in eliciting effector T cell responses during the initial phase, but are dispensable during ongoing infection with P. yoelii.

  19. Photothermal waves for two temperature with a semiconducting medium under using a dual-phase-lag model and hydrostatic initial stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Kh.

    2017-07-01

    The dual-phase-lag (DPL) model with two different time translations and Lord-Shulman (LS) theory with one relaxation time are applied to study the effect of hydrostatic initial stress on medium under the influence of two temperature parameter(a new model will be introduced using two temperature theory) and photothermal theory. We solved the thermal loading at the free surface in the semi-infinite semiconducting medium-coupled plasma waves with the effect of mechanical force during a photothermal process. The exact expressions of the considered variables are obtained using normal mode analysis also the two temperature coefficient ratios were obtained analytically. Numerical results for the field quantities are given in the physical domain and illustrated graphically under the effects of several parameters. Comparisons are made between the results of the two different models with and without two temperature parameter, and for two different values of the hydrostatic initial stress. A comparison is carried out between the considered variables as calculated from the generalized thermoelasticity based on the DPL model and the LS theory in the absence and presence of the thermoelastic and thermoelectric coupling parameters.

  20. Theoretical perspectives on the mechanism and kinetics of the OH radical-initiated gas-phase oxidation of PCB126 in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Juan; Shi, Xiangli; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) primarily exist in the gas phase in air and may undergo atmospheric oxidation degradations, particularly the oxidation reaction initiated by OH radicals. In this work, the mechanism of the OH radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation of the most toxic PCB congener 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) was investigated by using quantum chemistry methods. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were estimated by the Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) theory. The oxidation products of the reaction of PCB126 with OH radicals include 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl-ols, chlorophenols, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, 2,3,4,6,7-pentachlorodibenzofuran, dialdehydes, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachloro-5′-nitro-biphenyl, and 4,5-dichloro-2-nitrophenol. Particularly, the formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the atmospheric oxidation of PCBs is revealed for the first time. The overall rate constant of the OH addition reaction is 2.52 × 10 −13 cm 3 molecule −1 s −1 at 298 K and 1 atm. The atmospheric lifetime of PCB126 determined by OH radicals is about 47.08 days which indicates that PCB126 can be transported long distances from local to global scales. - Highlights: • A comprehensive mechanism of OH-initiated oxidation of PCB126 was investigated. • The formation of PCDFs from the oxidation of PCBs is determined for the first time. • The rate constants for key elementary reactions were estimated by the RRKM theory. • The atmospheric lifetime of PCB126 determined by OH radicals is about 47.08 days

  1. Phase II of a Six sigma Initiative to Study DWPF SME Analytical Turnaround Times: SRNL's Evaluation of Carbonate-Based Dissolution Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) and the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are participating in a Six Sigma initiative to improve the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory. The Six Sigma initiative has focused on reducing the analytical turnaround time of samples from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) by developing streamlined sampling and analytical methods [1]. The objective of Phase I was to evaluate the sub-sampling of a larger sample bottle and the performance of a cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 ) digestion method. Successful implementation of the Cs 2 CO 3 fusion method in the DWPF would have important time savings and convenience benefits because this single digestion would replace the dual digestion scheme now used. A single digestion scheme would result in more efficient operations in both the DWPF shielded cells and the inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) laboratory. By taking a small aliquot of SME slurry from a large sample bottle and dissolving the vitrified SME sample with carbonate fusion methods, an analytical turnaround time reduction from 27 hours to 9 hours could be realized in the DWPF. This analytical scheme has the potential for not only dramatically reducing turnaround times, but also streamlining operations to minimize wear and tear on critical shielded cell components that are prone to fail, including the Hydragard(trademark) sampling valves and manipulators. Favorable results from the Phase I tests [2] led to the recommendation for a Phase II effort as outlined in the DWPF Technical Task Request (TTR) [3]. There were three major tasks outlined in the TTR, and SRNL issued a Task Technical and QA Plan [4] with a corresponding set of three major task activities: (1) Compare weight percent (wt%) total solids measurements of large volume samples versus peanut vial samples. (2) Evaluate Cs 2 CO 3 and K 2 CO 3 fusion methods using DWPF simulated

  2. Characterization of OAZ1 and its potential functions in goose follicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kang

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The goose OAZ1 structure confirms that OAZ1 plays an important role in ornithine decarboxylase-mediated regulation of polyamine homeostasis. Our findings provide an evidence for a potential function of OAZ1 in follicular development, ovulation and regression.

  3. Altered distribution of NK and NKT cells in follicular fluid is associated with IVF outcome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křižan, Jiří; Cuchalová, Lucie; Šíma, Petr; Králíčková, M.; Madar, J.; Větvička, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2009), s. 84-88 ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nk * nkt * follicular fluid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2009

  4. Histomorphometric comparative study of blood vessels and their pattern in follicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, and ameloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Safora; Feizi, Farideh; Khafri, Thoraya; Aram, Mehrdad

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed at assessment and histomorphometric analysis of intratumoral and peritumoral (cystic) blood vessels in odontogenic lesions and their pattern on their clinical behavior by immunohistochemistry and morphometry. In a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study, 45 paraffin blocks of ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, and follicular cyst were selected and stained immunohistochemically for CD34. In each slide, images of 3 microscopic fields with the highest microvessel density in intratumoral and peritumoral (cystic) areas were captured at 40× magnification with attached camera system. Inner vascular diameter (IVD) and outer vascular diameter (OVD), cross-sectional area (CSA), and the wall thickness (WT) of the vessels were measured with Motic Plus 2 software. The vascular pattern in odontogenic lesions was analyzed. Outer vascular diameter, IVD, and CSA of the vessels in peritumoral (cystic) areas were greater in ameloblastoma than keratocyst (P = 0.001) and follicular cyst (P keratocyst and follicular cyst. Morphometric specifications of blood vessels (IVD, OVD, CSA) and their pattern in peritumoral (cystic) areas may influence the aggressive clinical behavior of ameloblastoma in comparison with keratocyst and follicular cyst.

  5. Dissecting the gray zone between follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma using morphological and genetic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, Oscar; Gonzalez, Patricia; Ponz, Olga Balague; Roemer, Margaretha G. M.; Slot, Stefanie; Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Bot, Freek; van Groningen, Krijn; Beijert, Max; Ylstra, Bauke; de Jongi, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Nodal marginal zone lymphoma is a poorly defined entity in the World Health Organization classification, based largely on criteria of exclusion and the diagnosis often remains subjective. Follicular lymphoma lacking t(14;18) has similar characteristics which results in a major potential diagnostic

  6. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Five Susceptibility Loci for Follicular Lymphoma outside the HLA Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibola, Christine F.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Vijai, Joseph; Conde, Lucia; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Foo, Jia-Nee; Bracci, Paige M.; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Slager, Susan L.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Wang, Sophia S.; Linet, Martha S.; Salles, Gilles; Lan, Qing; Severi, Gianluca; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Lightfoot, Tracy; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Ghesquieres, Herve; Link, Brian K.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Alex; Tinker, Lesley F.; Teras, Lauren R.; Kricker, Anne; Becker, Nikolaus; Purdue, Mark P.; Spinelli, John J.; Zhang, Yawei; Giles, Graham G.; Vineis, Paolo; Monnereau, Alain; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Gabbas, Attilio; Chung, Charles C.; Burdett, Laurie; Hutchinson, Amy; Lawrence, Charles; Montalvan, Rebecca; Liang, Liming; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Liu, Jianjun; Adami, Hans-Olov; Glimelius, Bengt; Ye, Yuanqing; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S.; Dogan, Ahmet; Thompson, Carrie A.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Novak, Anne J.; Liebow, Mark; Witzig, Thomas E.; Weiner, George J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Hartge, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cozen, Wendy; Zhi, Degui; Akers, Nicholas K.; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T.; Lacher, Mortimer; Villano, Danylo J.; Maria, Ann; Roman, Eve; Kane, Eleanor; Jackson, Rebecca D.; North, Kari E.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Jenny; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; McKay, James; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Chamosa, Saioa; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kelly, Rachel S.; Ohlsson, Bodil; Travis, Ruth C.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Clave, Jacqueline; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Virtamo, Jarmo; Mazza, Patrizio; Cocco, Pierluigi; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Chiu, Brian C. H.; Fraumeni, Joseph R.; Nieters, Alexandra; Offit, Kenneth; Wu, Xifeng; Cerhan, James R.; Smedby, Karin E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European

  7. MYC expression and translocation analyses in low-grade and transformed follicular lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, Sietse M.; van Pel, Roel; Nagel, Inga; Bens, Susanne; Siebert, Reiner; Rosati, Stefano; van den Berg, Eva; Bosga-Bouwer, Anneke G.; Kibbelaar, Robby E.; Hoogendoorn, Mels; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Kluin, Philip M.; Nijland, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    AimsLow-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) (grade 1/2, FL1/2) has an annual risk of transformation of approximate to 3%, which is associated with aberrations in CDKN2A/B, TP53, and MYC. As in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, high MYC expression in transformed FL (tFL) might predict a MYC breakpoint.

  8. Common Effects on Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells Exerted by Simulated Microgravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejgaard, Benjamin; Grimm, Daniela; Corydon, Thomas Juhl

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on gravity-sensitive proteins of two human follicular cancer cell lines (ML-1; RO82-W-1), which were exposed to simulated microgravity (s-μg) on two different machines. Changes in protein cytoskeletal structure, growth patterns and protein expression in response to s-μg were...

  9. The protective effect of follicular fluid against the emerging mycotoxins alternariol and beauvericin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, R. R.; Schoevers, E. J.; Wu, X.; Roelen, B. A. J.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2015-01-01

    Porcine granulosa cells were cultured in the absence or presence of 10% porcine follicular fluid (FF) at different concentrations (0-20 mu M) of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and beauvericin (BEA). The analyses were performed after exposure to these mycotoxins in a medium supplemented or not with

  10. Evaluation of Follicular Synchronization Caused by Estrogen Administration and Its Reproductive Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bi; Shi, Yan; Gong, Xia; Yu, Lin; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Jian; Sun, Zhaogui

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate multiple follicular development synchronization after estrogen stimulation in prepubertal mice, follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin superovulation, the prospective reproductive potential and ovarian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like symptoms at adulthood, prepubertal mice were intraperitoneally injected with estrogen to establish an animal model with solvent as control. When synchronized tertiary follicles in ovaries, in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, blastocyst formation rate, developmental potential into offspring by embryo transfer, adult fertility and PCOS-like symptoms, and involved molecular mechanisms were focused, it was found that estrogen stimulation (10μg/gBW) leads to follicular development synchronization at the early tertiary stage in prepubertal mice; reproduction from oocytes to offspring could be realized by means of the artificial reproductive technology though the model mice lost their natural fertility when they were reared to adulthood; and typical symptoms of PCOS, except changes in inflammatory pathways, were not remained up to adulthood. So in conclusion, estrogen can lead to synchronization in follicular development in prepubertal mice, but does not affect reproductive outcome of oocytes, and no typical symptoms of PCOS remained at adulthood despite changes related to inflammation. PMID:26010950

  11. HRCT features in a 5-year-old child with follicular bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reittner, P.; Fotter, R.; Lindbichler, F.; Tillich, M.; Varga, E.M.; Zach, M.; Popper, H.

    1997-01-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) is the most sensitive radiographic method to image small airways disease. We discuss the HRCT features of follicular bronchiolitis in a 5-year-old boy and correlate them with the histopathological findings. The changes described include centrilobular nodules, bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis, branching opacities and areas of reduced lung attenuation. (orig.)

  12. HRCT features in a 5-year-old child with follicular bronchiolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reittner, P.; Fotter, R.; Lindbichler, F.; Tillich, M. [Department of Radiology, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, A-8036 Graz (Austria); Varga, E.M.; Zach, M. [Department of Pediatrics, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Graz (Austria); Popper, H. [Department of Pathology, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Graz (Austria)

    1997-11-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) is the most sensitive radiographic method to image small airways disease. We discuss the HRCT features of follicular bronchiolitis in a 5-year-old boy and correlate them with the histopathological findings. The changes described include centrilobular nodules, bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis, branching opacities and areas of reduced lung attenuation. (orig.) With 2 figs., 5 refs.

  13. Evaluation of follicular synchronization caused by estrogen administration and its reproductive outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Wu

    Full Text Available To evaluate multiple follicular development synchronization after estrogen stimulation in prepubertal mice, follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin superovulation, the prospective reproductive potential and ovarian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS-like symptoms at adulthood, prepubertal mice were intraperitoneally injected with estrogen to establish an animal model with solvent as control. When synchronized tertiary follicles in ovaries, in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, blastocyst formation rate, developmental potential into offspring by embryo transfer, adult fertility and PCOS-like symptoms, and involved molecular mechanisms were focused, it was found that estrogen stimulation (10 μg/gBW leads to follicular development synchronization at the early tertiary stage in prepubertal mice; reproduction from oocytes to offspring could be realized by means of the artificial reproductive technology though the model mice lost their natural fertility when they were reared to adulthood; and typical symptoms of PCOS, except changes in inflammatory pathways, were not remained up to adulthood. So in conclusion, estrogen can lead to synchronization in follicular development in prepubertal mice, but does not affect reproductive outcome of oocytes, and no typical symptoms of PCOS remained at adulthood despite changes related to inflammation.

  14. Acute paraparesis as presentation of an occult follicular thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Baião

    Full Text Available Introduction: Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the second most frequent type of well differentiated thyroid tumours. It is usually confined to the thyroid gland, however it can metastasize in a later stage of the disease. Signs and symptoms associated with bone metastasis are rare as first clinical manifestations. Case report: An 84-year-old female complained with acute paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extensive intraosseous infiltrating lesion compatible with a bone metastasis from an occult tumour. Biopsy samples were compatible with bone metastasis from a follicular thyroid carcinoma. The patient was submitted to total thyroidectomy followed by iodine ablative therapy. Discussion: Follicular thyroid carcinoma presentation with symptoms related to bone metastasis is rare. Patients with bone lesions, such as pathological fractures or compressive symptoms should be studied since they may have clinically unapparent lesions from an unknown tumour. Patients with FTC should be submitted to total thyroidectomy. Bone lesions may be addressed to improve quality of life however this decision depends on disease extent. Conclusion: Acute paraparesis is a rare form of presentation of thyroid carcinoma. These neoplasms must be taken into account when investigating metastasis to the bone from unknown neoplasms. Keywords: Acute paraparesis, Follicular thyroid carcinoma, Bone metastasis, Case report

  15. Silica-gel structural characterization during the initial phases of gelation and drying; Caracterizacao estrutural de geis de silica durante as etapas iniciais de gelacao e secagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Max Passos

    1997-12-31

    For centuries, glasses and ceramics have been made via melting or solid state reactions at temperatures above 100 deg C. The sol-gel process offers new approaches to the synthesis of glasses and ceramics, combining control of composition and structure at the molecular level with the ability to shape materials in bulk, powder, fiber and thin-film forms. The growth of sol-gel technology research is due to the many unique features of that class of materials. Major applications include optical elements and integrated optical devices, ceramic filters, membranes, supercondutors, magnetic, catalytic and manostructured materials to antioxidant, anticorrosion coatings and composite and biomedical materials. In this work a variety of techniques like spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, light scattering nuclear magnetic resonance, X ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption have been employed to investigate the initial phase of the sol-gel transition of gamma ray irradiated tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) solutions and non-irradiated TMOS solution and to get information about the structure of the silica gels obtained under different gelation conditions. Typically the tetramethoxysilane solutions were prepared using a molar ratio of TMOS to demineralized water of 1 to 16. Some experiments were made under catalysed conditions. The mixing was carried out at room temperature. The turbidity and light scattering experiments on the polycondensation of tetramethoxysilane show that exists no drastic difference in the gelling time of a gamma ray irradiated and a non-irradiated TMOS+H{sub 2}O (1+16 M) solution. In the absence of a catalyst, the gelling time for both reactions occurs in about 3.30 h. When HNO{sub 3} (o.03 M) was used, the gelling time observed was 3 days. Raman and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy show no drastic difference during the initial phase at the sol-gel transition under ambient temperature/pressure and under gamma radiation. The gels

  16. Silica-gel structural characterization during the initial phases of gelation and drying; Caracterizacao estrutural de geis de silica durante as etapas iniciais de gelacao e secagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Max Passos

    1996-12-31

    For centuries, glasses and ceramics have been made via melting or solid state reactions at temperatures above 100 deg C. The sol-gel process offers new approaches to the synthesis of glasses and ceramics, combining control of composition and structure at the molecular level with the ability to shape materials in bulk, powder, fiber and thin-film forms. The growth of sol-gel technology research is due to the many unique features of that class of materials. Major applications include optical elements and integrated optical devices, ceramic filters, membranes, supercondutors, magnetic, catalytic and manostructured materials to antioxidant, anticorrosion coatings and composite and biomedical materials. In this work a variety of techniques like spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, light scattering nuclear magnetic resonance, X ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption have been employed to investigate the initial phase of the sol-gel transition of gamma ray irradiated tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) solutions and non-irradiated TMOS solution and to get information about the structure of the silica gels obtained under different gelation conditions. Typically the tetramethoxysilane solutions were prepared using a molar ratio of TMOS to demineralized water of 1 to 16. Some experiments were made under catalysed conditions. The mixing was carried out at room temperature. The turbidity and light scattering experiments on the polycondensation of tetramethoxysilane show that exists no drastic difference in the gelling time of a gamma ray irradiated and a non-irradiated TMOS+H{sub 2}O (1+16 M) solution. In the absence of a catalyst, the gelling time for both reactions occurs in about 3.30 h. When HNO{sub 3} (o.03 M) was used, the gelling time observed was 3 days. Raman and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy show no drastic difference during the initial phase at the sol-gel transition under ambient temperature/pressure and under gamma radiation. The gels

  17. Initiating the Validation of CCIM Processability for Multi-phase all Ceramic (SYNROC) HLW Form: Plan for Test BFY14CCIM-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Vince [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This plan covers test BFY14CCIM-C which will be a first–of–its-kind demonstration for the complete non-radioactive surrogate production of multi-phase ceramic (SYNROC) High Level Waste Forms (HLW) using Cold Crucible Induction Melting (CCIM) Technology. The test will occur in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) CCIM Pilot Plant and is tentatively scheduled for the week of September 15, 2014. The purpose of the test is to begin collecting qualitative data for validating the ceramic HLW form processability advantages using CCIM technology- as opposed to existing ceramic–lined Joule Heated Melters (JHM) currently producing BSG HLW forms. The major objectives of BFY14CCIM-C are to complete crystalline melt initiation with a new joule-heated resistive starter ring, sustain inductive melting at temperatures between 1600 to 1700°C for two different relatively high conductive materials representative of the SYNROC ceramic formation inclusive of a HLW surrogate, complete melter tapping and pouring of molten ceramic material in to a preheated 4 inch graphite canister and a similar canister at room temperature. Other goals include assessing the performance of a new crucible specially designed to accommodate the tapping and pouring of pure crystalline forms in contrast to less recalcitrant amorphous glass, assessing the overall operational effectiveness of melt initiation using a resistive starter ring with a dedicated power source, and observing the tapped molten flow and subsequent relatively quick crystallization behavior in pans with areas identical to standard HLW disposal canisters. Surrogate waste compositions with ceramic SYNROC forming additives and their measured properties for inductive melting, testing parameters, pre-test conditions and modifications, data collection requirements, and sampling/post-demonstration analysis requirements for the produced forms are provided and defined.

  18. Diagnosis of initial changes in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. A comparison between low-field magnetic resonance imaging, 3-phase bone scintigraphy and conventional X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoepfner, S.; Dresel, S.; Weiss, M.; Hahn, K.; Treitl, M.; Krolak, C.; Becker-Gaab, C.; Schattenkirchner, M.

    2002-01-01

    Besides conventional X-rays, in the diagnostic work up of initial changes in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 3-phase bone scintigraphy (3P-Sz) is as well established as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of the newly developed low field MRI with the proven methods X-rays and 3P-Sz. Methods: 65 patients (47f, 18m; 20-86 yrs) were studied on a one day protocol with 3P-Sz (550 MBq Tc-99m DPD), MRI and X-rays of the hands. Images were visually analysed by two blinded nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists and classified as a) RA-typical, b) inflammatory, non-RA-typical and c) non inflammatory changes. All methods were compared to 3P-Sz as golden standard. Results: In comparison to 3P-Sz, low field MRI presents with almost equal sensitivity and specificity in rheumatoid-typical and inflammatory changes. Conventional X-rays revealed in arthritis-typical changes as well as in inflammatory changes a significantly lower sensitivity and also a lower negative predictive value while specificity equals the one of MRI. Quantitative analysis of 3P-Sz using ROI-technique unveiled significantly higher values in patients with rheumatoid arthritis than in those with no inflammatory changes. Conclusion: MRI represents an equally sensitive method in the initial diagnosis of rheumatoid-typical and inflammatory changes in the region of the hands as compared to the 3P-Sz. Besides the basic diagnosis with conventional X-rays, 3P-Sz is still the recommended method of choice to evaluate the whole body when RA is suspected. Additionally, quantitative analysis of the 3P-Sz using the ROI technique in the region of the hands reveals statistically significant results and should therefore be taken into account in the assessment of inflammatory changes. (orig.) [de

  19. Evolution Dynamics of Relief and Sediment Structures During the Initial Phase of Ecosystem Evolution Within an Experimentally Constructed Catchment Landscape and Their Influence on the Shallow Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerkamp, K.; Voelkel, J.; Leopold, M.; Roeder, J.; Winkelbauer, J.

    2008-12-01

    The studies are integrated in a project of the Collaborative Research Center of the German Research Foundation (DFG SFB-TRR 38) 'Structures and processes of the initial ecosystem development phase in an artificial water catchment'. The experimental catchment 'Hühnerwasser' is built up by mechanically deposited sediments reconstructing an initially emerged landscape. In order to monitor its geomorphological as well as ecofunctional evolution with time it is essential to incorporate comprehensive geophysical applications dealing with geomorphology and sedimentology of both surface as well as shallow subsurface. Digital terrain modelling on meso- to microscale is employed to reflect and analyze superficial processes and evolution trends as well as their influence on the abiotic and biotic structures and processes of the succeeding ecosystem. Especially in the case of the portrayal and analysis of subsurface characteristics, strategy needs to adapt to the special requirements of the SFB-project as the catchment system should only underlie 'natural' conditions and therefore not be altered by any implementations in the course of field investigation. Consequently, intrusive methods such as drillings or profiles are to be omitted. Methods of geophysical prospection hence constitute an indispensable tool in investigation of subsurface composition. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electric resistivity tomography (ERT) are applied with adequate resolution to detect the primary deposition structures within the technogenically bedded sediment. By means of this evaluation subsurface structures can be interpreted with regards to their relevance in controlling soil water movement, slope hydrology, redox interactions, root distribution etc. Furthermore, alterations of these primary structures resulting from bio- and pedoturbation processes can be monitored.

  20. Association between expression of cumulus expansion markers and real-time proliferation of porcine follicular granulosa cells in a primary cell culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesiółka, S; Budna, J; Bryja, A; Kranc, W; Chachuła, A; Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, M; Piotrowska, H; Bukowska, D; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Brüssow, K P; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2016-01-01

    Folliculogenesis is a compound process that involves both ovarian follicle growth and oocyte development, which is tightly attached to the follicular wall. During this process, cells that form the follicle structure undergo substantial morphological and molecular modifications that finally lead to differentiation and specialization of ovarian follicular cells. The differentiation of ovarian cells encompasses formation of follicle, which is composed of theca (TCs), mural granulosa (GCs), and cumulus cells (CCs). It was previously hypothesized that GCs and CCs represent undifferentiated and highly specialized follicular cells, respectively, which may have similar primordial cell origins. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of cumulus expansion markers such as COX2, HAS2, PTX3, and TSG6 in porcine GCs during short-term, in vitro culture. We hypothesized that these genes may display an important function in GCs in relation to cellular real-time proliferation. The expression pattern of COX2, HAS2, PTX3, and TSG6 was evaluated after using RT-qPCR in relation to confocal microscopy observations of protein expression and distribution during real-time proliferation of porcine follicular GCs. The COX2 and HAS2 mRNAs were highly expressed after 120 h of in vitro culture (IVC), whereas PTX3 and TSG6 mRNAs were increased during the first 24-48 h of IVC (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.01). Conversely, all of the encoded proteins were highly expressed after 144-168 h of IVC as compared to other culture periods (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.01). When analyzing the realtime proliferation of GCs in vitro, we observed a logarithmic increase of cell proliferation between 0 h and 120 h of IVC. However, after 120-168 h of IVC, the cells reached the lag phase of proliferation. Since it is well accepted that porcine GCs undergo luteinization shortly after 24-48 h of IVC, the expression pattern of investigated genes indicated that Cox2 and Has2 are independent from

  1. Decreased levels of sRAGE in follicular fluid from patients with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, BiJun; Li, Jing; Yang, QingLing; Zhang, FuLi; Hao, MengMeng; Guo, YiHong

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) levels in follicular fluid and the number of oocytes retrieved and to evaluate the effect of sRAGE on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in granulosa cells in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Two sets of experiments were performed in this study. In part one, sRAGE and VEGF protein levels in follicular fluid samples from 39 patients with PCOS and 35 non-PCOS patients were measured by ELISA. In part two, ovarian granulosa cells were isolated from an additional 10 patients with PCOS and cultured. VEGF and SP1 mRNA and protein levels, as well as pAKT levels, were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting after cultured cells were treated with different concentrations of sRAGE. Compared with the non-PCOS patients, patients with PCOS had lower sRAGE levels in follicular fluid. Multi-adjusted regression analysis showed that high sRAGE levels in follicular fluid predicted a lower Gn dose, more oocytes retrieved, and a better IVF outcome in the non-PCOS group. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher sRAGE levels predicted favorably IVF outcomes in the non-PCOS group. Multi-adjusted regression analysis also showed that high sRAGE levels in follicular fluid predicted a lower Gn dose in the PCOS group. Treating granulosa cells isolated from patients with PCOS with recombinant sRAGE decreased VEGF and SP1 mRNA and protein expression and pAKT levels in a dose-dependent manner. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  2. Periovulatory follicular fluid levels of estradiol trigger inflammatory and DNA damage responses in oviduct epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Palma-Vera

    Full Text Available Ovarian steroid hormones (mainly E2 and P4 regulate oviduct physiology. Serum-E2 acts on the oviduct epithelium from the basolateral cell compartment. Upon ovulation, the apical compartment of the oviduct epithelium is temporarily exposed to follicular fluid, which contains much higher levels of E2 than serum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of human periovulatory follicular fluid levels of E2 on oviduct epithelial cells using two porcine in vitro models.A cell line derived from the porcine oviductal epithelium (CCLV-RIE270 was characterized (lineage markers, proliferation characteristics and transformation status. Primary porcine oviduct epithelial cells (POEC were cultured in air-liquid interface and differentiation was assessed histologically. Both cultures were exposed to E2 (10 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. Proliferation of CCLV-RIE270 and POEC was determined by real-time impedance monitoring and immunohistochemical detection of Ki67. Furthermore, marker gene expression for DNA damage response (DDR and inflammation was quantified.CCLV-RIE270 was not transformed and exhibited properties of secretory oviduct epithelial cells. Periovulatory follicular fluid levels of E2 (200 ng/ml upregulated the expression of inflammatory genes in CCLV-RIE270 but not in POEC (except for IL8. Expression of DDR genes was elevated in both models. A significant increase in cell proliferation could not be detected in response to E2.CCLV-RIE270 and POEC are complementary models to evaluate the consequences of oviduct exposure to follicular fluid components. Single administration of periovulatory follicular fluid E2 levels trigger inflammatory and DNA damage responses, but not proliferation in oviduct epithelial cells.

  3. Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: genome-wide appraisal of a controversial entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wreesmann, Volkert B; Ghossein, Ronald A; Hezel, Michael; Banerjee, Debenranrath; Shaha, Ashok R; Tuttle, R Michael; Shah, Jatin P; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2004-08-01

    The majority of thyroid tumors are classified as papillary (papillary thyroid carcinomas; PTCs) or follicular neoplasms (follicular thyroid adenomas and carcinomas; FTA/FTC) based on nuclear features and the cellular growth pattern. However, classification of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) remains an issue of debate. These tumors contain a predominantly follicular growth pattern but display nuclear features and overall clinical behavior consistent with PTC. In this study, we used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to compare the global chromosomal aberrations in FVPTC to the PTC of classical variant (classical PTC) and FTA/FTC. In addition, we assessed the presence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) alteration, a genetic event specific to FTA/FTC, using Southern blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. In sharp contrast to the findings in classical PTC (4% of cases), CGH analysis demonstrated that both FVPTC (59% of cases) and FTA/FTC (36% of cases) were commonly characterized by aneuploidy (P = 0.0002). Moreover, the pattern of chromosomal aberrations (gains at chromosome arms 2q, 4q, 5q, 6q, 8q, and 13q and deletions at 1p, 9q, 16q, 17q, 19q, and 22q) in the follicular variant of PTC closely resembled that of FTA/FTC. Aberrations in PPARG were uniquely detected in FVPTC and FTA/FTC. Our findings suggest a stronger relationship between the FVPTC and FTA/FTC than previously appreciated and support further consideration of the current classification of thyroid neoplasms. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B.; Ye, W.; Padmanabhan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics

  5. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  6. Demonstration of an initial screening phase for site selection for low level radioactive waste burial - an evaluation of relevant IAEA guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    Low level radioactive wastes, arising from the use of radioisotopes in medicine and industry are accumulating throughout Australia. The rate of accumulation has not been large and storage of these wastes close to the point of use has proved practicable to date, but consideration must now be given to a central repository or repositories for these low level wastes. This report considers the question of selecting a site suitable for disposal of wastes by shallow ground burial. It attempts to asses the practicability of using factors suggested by the IAEA for the initial phase of site screening. The screening process described has essentially two stages. In the first, New South Wales was divided into broad structural units and these ranked in order of suitability. In the second stage, survey sites in which thick clay beds outcropped were delineated in the five highest ranking structural units. These survey sites were ranked on the basis of various geomorphological properties which largely described the hydrogeology of the site

  7. Towards energy-neutral offices. The UKP-NESK office buildings in the initiation phase; Naar energieneutrale kantoren. De UKP-NESK kantoren in de initiatiefase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendergast, E.; Schuller, Y. [MoBius consult, Driebergen-Rijsenburg (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    This publication contains information and analysis from the initiation phase of the 7 NESK offices. NESK represents the tender scheme 'Towards zero energy schools and offices' in which 15 projects (8 schools and 7 offices) participate. The project addressed the people and their ambition, the process, technology, financing and judicial agreements. The 7 office projects were granted with a financial contribution because they stood out in terms of: CO2 emission reduction; Indoor environment quality; Innovation, quality and other sustainability issues; Cooperation and success rate; and The potential for upscaling and repetition. [Dutch] Deze publicatie bevat de informatie en analyse uit de initiatieffase van de 7 NESK-kantoren. NESK staat voor de tenderregeling 'Naar energieneutrale scholen en kantoren' waaraan 15 projecten (8 scholen en 7 kantoren) deelnemen. In het project is aandacht besteed de mensen en hun ambitie, het proces, de techniek, de financien en de juridische afspraken. De 7 kantorenprojecten zijn met een financiele bijdrage gehonoreerd omdat ze als beste uit de bus kwamen waar het gaat om: CO2-emissiereductie; Kwaliteit binnenklimaat; Innovatie, andere duurzaamheidaspecten en kwaliteitsborging; Samenwerking en slaagkans; en Herhalings- en opschalingspotentieel.

  8. FORMATION OF THE INITIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLASMA COMPONENTS ON THE PHASE PLANE OF LARGE PARTICLES METHOD IN ELECTRIC ARC SYNTHESIS CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Abramov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the modeling of charged particles in a multicomponent plasma of electric arc discharge with binary collisions in the synthesis of carbon nanostructures (CNS. One of the common methods of obtaining the quality of fullerenes and nanotubes is arc synthesis under inert gas (helium. The determination of the necessary conditions and the mechanism of formation of carbon clusters in the plasma forming set CNS will more effectively and efficiently manage this process. Feature of the problem is that in a plasma arc discharge is a large number of particle interactions and on the cathode surface. Due to the high temperatures and high energy concentration in plasma detailed experimental investigation difficult to carry out. With the aim of avoiding difficult and costly physical experiments developed numerical methods for the analysis of plasma processes. In this article to solve a system of equations of Maxwell - Boltzmann basis for the authors had taken the method of large particles, which reduces the amount of computation and reduce the demands on computing resources. The authors cites the general design scheme of the large particles, and the algorithm of particle distribution of a multicomponent plasma in the phase plane at the initial time. In conclusion, the author argues that the results in the future will define the zone satisfies the energy conditions, the probability of formation of a plasma cluster groups of carbon involved in the synthesis of the CNS.

  9. AC Initiation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ac initiation system is described which uses three ac transmission signals interlocked for safety by frequency, phase, and power discrimination...The ac initiation system is pre-armed by the application of two ac signals have the proper phases, and activates a load when an ac power signal of the proper frequency and power level is applied. (Author)

  10. miR-26b promotes granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting ATM during follicular atresia in porcine ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    Full Text Available More than 99% of ovarian follicles undergo atresia in mammals, but the mechanism of follicular atresia remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored microRNA (miRNA regulation of follicular atresia in porcine ovary. A miRNA expression profile was constructed for healthy, early atretic, and progressively atretic follicles, and the differentially expressed miRNAs were selected and analyzed. We found that miR-26b, which was upregulated during follicular atresia, increased the number of DNA breaks and promoted granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene directly in vitro.

  11. Presence of bile acids in human follicular fluid and their relation with embryo development in modified natural cycle IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R A; van Montfoort, A P A; Dikkers, A; van Echten-Arends, J; Homminga, I; Land, J A; Hoek, A; Tietge, U J F

    2015-05-01

    Are bile acids (BA) and their respective subspecies present in human follicular fluid (FF) and do they relate to embryo quality in modified natural cycle IVF (MNC-IVF)? BA concentrations are 2-fold higher in follicular fluid than in serum and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) derivatives were associated with development of top quality embryos on Day 3 after fertilization. Granulosa cells are capable of synthesizing BA, but a potential correlation with oocyte and embryo quality as well as information on the presence and role of BA subspecies in follicular fluid have yet to be investigated. Between January 2001 and June 2004, follicular fluid and serum samples were collected from 303 patients treated in a single academic centre that was involved in a multicentre cohort study on the effectiveness of MNC-IVF. Material from patients who underwent a first cycle of MNC-IVF was used. Serum was not stored from all patients, and the available material comprised 156 follicular fluid and 116 matching serum samples. Total BA and BA subspecies were measured in follicular fluid and in matching serum by enzymatic fluorimetric assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. The association of BA in follicular fluid with oocyte and embryo quality parameters, such as fertilization rate and cell number, presence of multinucleated blastomeres and percentage of fragmentation on Day 3, was analysed. Embryos with eight cells on Day 3 after oocyte retrieval were more likely to originate from follicles with a higher level of UDCA derivatives than those with fewer than eight cells (P IVF were used, which resulted in 14 samples only from women with an ongoing pregnancy, therefore further prospective studies are required to confirm the association of UDCA with IVF pregnancy outcomes. The inter-cycle variability of BA levels in follicular fluid within individuals has yet to be investigated. We checked for macroscopic signs of contamination of follicular fluid by blood but the

  12. Core I gene is overexpressed in Hürthle and non-Hürthle cell microfollicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Máximo, Valdemar; Preto, Ana; Crespo, Ana; Rocha, Ana Sofia; Machado, José Carlos; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Most of the steps involved in the initiation and progression of Hürthle (oncocytic, oxyphilic) cell carcinomas of the thyroid remain unknown. Using differential display and semiquantitative RT-PCR we found, among other alterations, overexpression of the gene encoding the Core I subunit of the complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in a follicular carcinoma composed of Hürthle cells. Similar high levels of Core I gene expression were detected in nine follicular carcinomas (seven with Hürthle cell features), in seven microfollicular adenomas (one with Hürthle cell features) and in one micro/macrofollicular adenoma, in contrast to a lower/normal expression in nine papillary carcinomas (three with Hürthle cell features) and five macrofollicular adenomas (one of which displaying Hürthle cell features). No significative correlation was found between Core I overexpression and the proliferative activity of the lesions. We conclude that Core I overexpression in thyroid tumours is not associated with malignancy, Hürthle cells or proliferative activity. The pathogenetic mechanism linking Core I overexpression to the microfollicular pattern of growth of thyroid tumours remains to be clarified

  13. The mediation effect of menstrual phase on negative emotion processing: evidence from N2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Chen, Chunping; Cheng, Dazhi; Yang, Suyong; Huang, Ruiwang; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown a 'negativity bias' in emotion processing and effect of menstrual phase on emotion processing. Most of these results, however, did not match the arousal of different types of stimuli. The present study examined the time course of negative emotion processing across different menstrual phases (e.g., late luteal/premenstrual phase and follicular phase) when the arousal level of negative and neutral stimuli was equal. Following previous studies, an oddball paradigm was utilized in present study. Participants viewed neutral and negative (highly (HN) and moderately negative (MN)) stimuli with matched arousal and were asked to make deviant vs. standard judgments. The behavioral results showed a higher accuracy for HN stimuli than neutral stimuli, and the other comparisons were not significant. The major event-related potential (ERP) finding was that N2 amplitude was larger for MN than neutral in the late luteal phase, whereas such difference was absent during the follicular phase. Moreover, The N2 for HN stimuli was larger in late luteal phase than in follicular phase. Therefore, female may be with higher sensitivity to MN stimuli during late luteal phase than during follicular phase when the arousal of stimuli was well controlled. These results provide additional insight to premenstrual affective syndrome and affective disorder.

  14. Productive performance and digestibility in the initial growth phase of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum fed diets with different carbohydrate and lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.G. Sandre

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary protein can be optimized by increasing diet energy, which can be achieved by adding non-protein nutrients such as carbohydrates and lipids. If incorporated in suitable amounts, these items can promote the protein sparing effect, reducing nitrogen excretion and improving the quality of fish farming effluents. The study assessed productive performance, body composition, nutrient and energy retention efficiency and digestibility of the omnivorous fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum fed diets with three carbohydrate (410, 460 and 510 g kg−1 and two lipid levels (40 and 80 g kg−1 in the initial growth phase (juvenile weighing between 10 and 250 g. The experiment was completely randomized, with six treatments and four replicas arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial design. The 1080 tambaqui tested (10.88 ± 0.13 g body weight were randomly distributed into 24 tanks (500 L; 45 fish/tank and fed the test diets for 120 days. The highest carbohydrate inclusion (510 g kg−1 reduced food intake and fish growth. A protein sparing effect was observed in the growth of tambaqui fed 460 g kg−1 carbohydrates since they showed higher weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive value and crude protein participation in weight gain. The increase in lipid levels from 40 g kg−1 to 80 g kg−1 increased body fat deposition and decreased the digestibility coefficients of diet nutrients and diet energy. The results demonstrate that the ideal balanced diet to grow juvenile tambaqui is 460 g kg−1 carbohydrates and 40 g kg−1 lipids.

  15. Disruption of in vivo Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Tumor-Microenvironment Interactions by Ibrutinib--Findings from an Investigator-Initiated Phase II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Carsten U; Herman, Sarah E M; Maric, Irina; Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; Biancotto, Angelique; Chang, Betty Y; Martyr, Sabrina; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Yuan, Constance M; Calvo, Katherine R; Braylan, Raul C; Valdez, Janet; Lee, Yuh Shan; Wong, Deanna H; Jones, Jade; Sun, Clare; Marti, Gerald E; Farooqui, Mohammed Z H; Wiestner, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells depend on microenvironmental interactions for proliferation and survival that are at least partially mediated through B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, disrupts BCR signaling and leads to the egress of tumor cells from the microenvironment. Although the on-target effects on CLL cells are well defined, the impact on the microenvironment is less well studied. We therefore sought to characterize the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on the tumor microenvironment. Patients received single-agent ibrutinib on an investigator-initiated phase II trial. Serial blood and tissue samples were collected pretreatment and during treatment. Changes in cytokine levels, cellular subsets, and microenvironmental interactions were assessed. Serum levels of key chemokines and inflammatory cytokines decreased significantly in patients on ibrutinib. Furthermore, ibrutinib treatment decreased circulating tumor cells and overall T-cell numbers. Most notably, a reduced frequency of the Th17 subset of CD4(+)T cells was observed concurrent with reduced expression of activation markers and PD-1 on T cells. Consistent with direct inhibition of T cells, ibrutinib inhibited Th17 differentiation of murine CD4(+)T cells in vitro Finally, in the bone marrow microenvironment, we found that ibrutinib disaggregated the interactions of macrophages and CLL cells, inhibited secretion of CXCL13, and decreased the chemoattraction of CLL cells. In conjunction with inhibition of BCR signaling, these changes in the tumor microenvironment likely contribute to the antitumor activity of ibrutinib and may impact the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies in patients with CLL. See related commentary by Bachireddy and Wu, p. 1547. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Disruption of in vivo chronic lymphocytic leukemia tumor-microenvironment interactions by ibrutinib – findings from an investigator initiated phase 2 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Carsten U.; Herman, Sarah E. M.; Maric, Irina; Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; Biancotto, Angelique; Chang, Betty Y.; Martyr, Sabrina; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Yuan, Constance; Calvo, Katherine R.; Braylan, Raul C.; Valdez, Janet; Lee, Yuh Shan; Wong, Deanna H.; Jones, Jade; Sun, Clare C. L.; Marti, Gerald E.; Farooqui, Mohammed Z.; Wiestner, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells depend on microenvironmental interactions for proliferation and survival that are at least partially mediated through B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Ibrutinib, a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor, disrupts BCR signaling and leads to the egress of tumor cells from the microenvironment. While the on-target effects on CLL cells are well defined, the impact on the microenvironment is less well studied. We therefore sought to characterize the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on the tumor microenvironment. Experimental Design Patients received single agent ibrutinib on an investigator-initiated phase 2 trial. Serial blood and tissue samples were collected pre-treatment and during treatment. Changes in cytokine levels, cellular subsets and microenvironmental interactions were assessed. Results Serum levels of key chemokines and inflammatory cytokines decreased significantly in patients on ibrutinib. Further, ibrutinib treatment decreased circulating tumor cells and overall T cell numbers. Most notably, a reduced frequency of the Th17 subset of CD4+ T cells was observed concurrent with reduced activation markers and expression of PD-1 on T cells. Consistent with direct inhibition of T cells, ibrutinib inhibited Th17 differentiation of murine CD4+ T cells in vitro. Lastly, in the bone marrow microenvironment, we found that ibrutinib disaggregated the interactions of macrophages and CLL cells, inhibited secretion of CXCL13 and decreased the chemoattraction of CLL cells. Conclusions In conjunction with inhibition of BCR signaling, these changes in the tumor microenvironment likely contribute to the anti-tumor activity of ibrutinib and may impact the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies in patients with CLL. PMID:26660519

  17. Effects of In Vivo Testosterone Manipulation on Ovarian Morphology, Follicular Development, and Follicle Yolk Testosterone in the Homing Pigeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Vivian C.; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the function of testosterone in female reproductive physiology is only marginal although there are indications that testosterone is involved in modulating follicular recruitment, growth, atresia, and ovulation. Studies elevating testosterone in breeding female birds

  18. Concentrations of AMH and inhibin-B in relation to follicular diameter in normal human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the intrafollicular concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-B and steroids in normal human small antral follicles and to relate them to follicular size....

  19. Effect of the time in administration of clomiphene on follicular growth, endometrium and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Zeinalzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clomiphene citrate is very successful in inducing ovulation; there is usually a discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rate. If treatment is started early in the cycle this negative effect is reduced. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the time of administration of clomiphene citrate on follicular growth, endometrial thickness and ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Methods: This randomized controlled trial study was performed on 115 PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome women in Fateme Zahra Fertility and Infertility Research Health Center in April 2012. Patients randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the early group (No. 55 received 100 milligrams of clomiphene citrate tablet daily starting the next day after finishing medroxyprogesterone acetate tablet for 5 day, whereas the patient in the late group (No. 60 received 100 milligrams of clomiphene citrate tablet daily for 5 day starting on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. Then on follicular growth, endometrial thickness and ovulation and pregnancy rates by SPSS software, version 16 (Armonk, NY, USA were compared in two groups. Results: 36.4% of patients of early administration of clomiphene and 60% of patients in the later administration of Clomiphene were able to build dominant follicle. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.011. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on age, body mass index, duration of infertility. Findings showed that in the early group 14 (63.6% and in the late groups 8 (36.4% women who made dominant follicle, were pregnant. There was significant difference between these two groups (P<0.001. But, in the number of follicles, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate, there were no significant difference. In the early administration of clomiphene, the pregnancy rate was 25.5%. However in the later administration of clomiphene it was 13.3% (P=0

  20. Predicting debris-flow initiation and run-out with a depth-averaged two-phase model and adaptive numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. L.; Iverson, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Numerically simulating debris-flow motion presents many challenges due to the complicated physics of flowing granular-fluid mixtures, the diversity of spatial scales (ranging from a characteristic particle size to the extent of the debris flow deposit), and the unpredictability of the flow domain prior to a simulation. Accurately predicting debris-flows requires models that are complex enough to represent the dominant effects of granular-fluid interaction, while remaining mathematically and computationally tractable. We have developed a two-phase depth-averaged mathematical model for debris-flow initiation and subsequent motion. Additionally, we have developed software that numerically solves the model equations efficiently on large domains. A unique feature of the mathematical model is that it includes the feedback between pore-fluid pressure and the evolution of the solid grain volume fraction, a process that regulates flow resistance. This feature endows the model with the ability to represent the transition from a stationary mass to a dynamic flow. With traditional approaches, slope stability analysis and flow simulation are treated separately, and the latter models are often initialized with force balances that are unrealistically far from equilibrium. Additionally, our new model relies on relatively few dimensionless parameters that are functions of well-known material properties constrained by physical data (eg. hydraulic permeability, pore-fluid viscosity, debris compressibility, Coulomb friction coefficient, etc.). We have developed numerical methods and software for accurately solving the model equations. By employing adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), the software can efficiently resolve an evolving debris flow as it advances through irregular topography, without needing terrain-fit computational meshes. The AMR algorithms utilize multiple levels of grid resolutions, so that computationally inexpensive coarse grids can be used where the flow is absent, and

  1. Successful treatment of follicular lymphoma with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors administered for coexisting chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Shirato, Yuya; Ikeda, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Shin-Ichiro; Toda, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Ochi, Shin-Ichi; Nagayama, Takashi; Mashima, Kiyomi; Umino, Kento; Minakata, Daisuke; Nakano, Hirofumi; Morita, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sugimoto, Miyuki; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Sato, Kazuya; Oh, Iekuni; Ohmine, Ken; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2018-06-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are standard therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, the effects of these agents on mature B cell lymphoma are not well known. We describe a 50-year-old man who was diagnosed with CML in the chronic phase and treated with imatinib. After 3 years of imatinib therapy that achieved a complete cytogenetic response of CML, he developed Philadelphia-negative follicular lymphoma (FL). Rituximab monotherapy induced a partial response of FL, and he subsequently achieved a major molecular response (MMR) of CML. Three years later, however, the MMR was lost, followed by the progression of FL. Imatinib was switched to nilotinib for the treatment of CML, while we chose watchful waiting for FL. He achieved MMR again under treatment with nilotinib for 8 months including one month of substitutional use of dasatinib due to adverse events, but thereafter nilotinib was switched to bosutinib due to hyperbilirubinemia. With the administration of second-generation TKIs (2G-TKIs) for a total of 18 months, he achieved a complete response to FL without antilymphoma treatment. This is the first report to suggest that 2G-TKIs may have direct or indirect effects on FL.

  2. Menstrual phase-related differences in the pulsatility index on the central retinal artery suggest an oestrogen vasodilatation effect that antagonizes with progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luiz Carlos; Faria, Marcos; Pettersen, Heverton; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2011-03-01

    The actual effect of steroid hormones on cerebral microcirculation is still controversial. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate vascular flow variations in the central retinal artery that may exist during the ovulatory menstrual cycle. A total of 34 healthy women were included in this observational, longitudinal, and prospective study. All participants were submitted to dopplerfluxometric evaluation of the eyes in order to study the pulsatility index (PI) of the central retinal arteries, during four phases of the menstrual cycle: early follicular, mid follicular, periovulatory, and mid luteal phases. Subjects' ages ranged from 14 to 47 years old (mean: 29.7 ± 10.1) and PI did not differ among age groups. The PI of the central retinal artery was different among the four phases of the menstrual cycle. PI showed a significant decrease from early follicular phase (1.72) to mid follicular phase (1.57) (p = 0.037), and was similar during periovulatory phase (1.56) and significantly increased in mid luteal phase (1.70). After that it returned to the values observed in the early follicular phase. Our results suggest the existence of an oestrogen vasodilatation effect on the central retinal artery that is menstrual phase-related and antagonized by progesterone.

  3. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heizmann, Beate; Sellars, MacLean; Macias-Garcia, Alejandra; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  4. Encapsulated Follicular Variant of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma - Case Report and Differential Diagnosis Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Enciu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Papillary carcinoma is the most common type of epithelial thyroid cancer in women, especially in the reproductive period, accounting for about 75-80% of well-differentiated cancers at this level. One of its variants, follicular encapsulated thyroid carcinoma, is a well-differentiated malignant tumor with good prognosis which, despite the presence of vascular and capsular invasion, rarely causes metastasis, if fully resected. We present the case of a young patient who presented with dysphagia and a painless cystic nodular lesion of the thyroid, and underwent thyroidectomy. The histopathological diagnosis of the lesion was a challenge, being based on the correlation of clear criteria, given the existence of numerous lesions with follicular pattern in the thyroid.

  5. MR imaging in following follicular and endometrial development during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janus, C.L.; Gendal, E.S.; Wiczyk, H.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Laufer, N.

    1987-01-01

    The authors assessed the usefulness of MR imaging in monitoring follicular and endometrial development during the menstrual cycle. MR images, sonograms, and hormonal levels of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) obtained from five ovulatory volunteers were evaluated in approximately days 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 of the cycle. MR imaging surpassed US in demonstrating endometrial and myometrial changes. Follicular growth and development seen on MR images correlated well with US appearance and hormonal levels, with MR imaging demonstrating more secondary smaller follicles than US. Information about the normal cycle obtained with MR imaging is described and may have practical implications for women in infertility programs undergoing stimulated cycles and in vitro fertilization

  6. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heizmann, Beate [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Sellars, MacLean [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Macias-Garcia, Alejandra [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Institute for Medical Engineering and Science at MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chan, Susan, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Kastner, Philippe, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2016-02-12

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  7. The influence of chronic gamma-irradiation on the structure of follicular system of animal ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banetskaya, N.B.; Amvros'ev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of a chronic gamma - irradiation in a low doze (0.5 Gy, capacity of a doze 1.8 * 10 -7 Gy / s) on follicular apparatus of ovary of young white female rats was investigated. Quantity of the follicles on the all stages of development was calculated. It is detected that the chronic irradiation by a low doze of young rats causes to morphological changes in ovaries. At once after an irradiation is marked the ovulation stimulation, it can be connected with change of the hormone balance in a body of the animals. In one month after an irradiation quantity of follicles on the all stages of development is reduced and number of atretic bodies is increased. The similar disorders can be connected as with direct influence of ionizing radiation on oocytes and them follicular cells, and also with action through change in bodies of the endocrine system. 14 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Bethlem myopathy: An autosomal dominant myopathy with flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroja, Aralikatte Onkarappa; Naik, Karkal Ravishankar; Nalini, Atcharayam; Gayathri, Narayanappa

    2013-10-01

    Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy form a spectrum of collagenopathies caused by genetic mutations encoding for any of the three subunits of collagen VI. Bethlem phenotype is relatively benign and is characterized by proximal dominant myopathy, keloids, contractures, distal hyperextensibility, and follicular hyperkeratosis. Three patients from a single family were diagnosed to have Bethlem myopathy based on European Neuromuscular Centre Bethlem Consortium criteria. Affected father and his both sons had slowly progressive proximal dominant weakness and recurrent falls from the first decade. Both children aged 18 and 20 years were ambulant at presentation. All had flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis without muscle hypertrophy. Creatinine kinase was mildly elevated and electromyography revealed myopathic features. Muscle imaging revealed severe involvement of glutei and vasti with "central shadow" in rectus femoris. Muscle biopsy in the father showed dystrophic changes with normal immmunostaining for collagen VI, sarcoglycans, and dysferlin.

  9. Bethlem myopathy: An autosomal dominant myopathy with flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aralikatte Onkarappa Saroja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy form a spectrum of collagenopathies caused by genetic mutations encoding for any of the three subunits of collagen VI. Bethlem phenotype is relatively benign and is characterized by proximal dominant myopathy, keloids, contractures, distal hyperextensibility, and follicular hyperkeratosis. Three patients from a single family were diagnosed to have Bethlem myopathy based on European Neuromuscular Centre Bethlem Consortium criteria. Affected father and his both sons had slowly progressive proximal dominant weakness and recurrent falls from the first decade. Both children aged 18 and 20 years were ambulant at presentation. All had flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis without muscle hypertrophy. Creatinine kinase was mildly elevated and electromyography revealed myopathic features. Muscle imaging revealed severe involvement of glutei and vasti with "central shadow" in rectus femoris. Muscle biopsy in the father showed dystrophic changes with normal immmunostaining for collagen VI, sarcoglycans, and dysferlin.

  10. Iontophoresis of minoxidil sulphate loaded microparticles, a strategy for follicular drug targeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Barros, M Angélica de Oliveira; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H; Lopez, Renata F V

    2015-10-01

    The feasibility of targeting drugs to hair follicles by a combination of microencapsulation and iontophoresis has been evaluated. Minoxidil sulphate (MXS), which is used in the treatment of alopecia, was selected as a relevant drug with respect to follicular penetration. The skin permeation and disposition of MXS encapsulated in chitosan microparticles (MXS-MP) was evaluated in vitro after passive and iontophoretic delivery. Uptake of MXS was quantified at different exposure times in the stratum corneum (SC) and hair follicles. Microencapsulation resulted in increased (6-fold) drug accumulation in the hair follicles relative to delivery from a simple MXS solution. Application of iontophoresis enhanced follicular delivery for both the solution and the microparticle formulations. It appears, therefore, that microencapsulation and iontophoresis can act synergistically to enhance topical drug targeting to hair follicles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of stage of follicular growth during superovulation on developmental competence of bovine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humblot, P; Holm, Peter; Lonergan, P

    2005-01-01

    . Follicular characteristics were measured and oocyte quality was assessed by morphology, mRNA expression of eight marker genes or developmental ability after in vitro/in vivo maturation and subsequent in vitro fertilization and culture. Approaching ovulation, expected increases in follicular size and cumulus...... expansion suggested progression of oocyte maturation. No differences were found in the expression patterns of analyzed genes, except for heat-shock-protein (Hsp) that was lower in in vivo matured oocytes collected shortly before ovulation. Oocytes collected at this time also had higher developmental ability...... measured as blastocyst rates (57.6 after in vitro production while no differences were found between oocytes recovered earlier at the first three time points (39.3-41.5. We conclude that oocytes recovered late in the preovulatory period are more developmentally competent than oocytes recovered at the pre...

  12. Sciatica as a presenting feature of thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma in a 79-year-old woman.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe an unusual case of metastatic thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma presenting with sciatica in a 79-year-old woman. The primary thyroid tumour was undiagnosed until this clinical presentation. The patient gave a short history of back pain and right-sided sciatica, which was progressive and nocturnal in nature. Neuroimaging revealed an enhancing intradural mass lesion, which was completely excised through a right L1-L3 hemilaminectomy. Histopathological examination of the excised tissue revealed a follicular thyroid carcinoma. Subsequent metastatic investigation revealed a heterogeneously attenuating mixed solid cystic mass in a retrosternal thyroid gland, with multiple solid pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastatic disease. She opted for palliative radiotherapy for the primary thyroid cancer and made remarkable postoperative improvement. The authors conclude that surgical treatment of solitary metastatic lesion may produce good symptomatic relief irrespective of patient\\'s age and primary pathology, while emphasising the need for detailed clinical evaluation of patients with \\'red flag\\' symptoms.

  13. In situ follicular neoplasia/lymphoma: Three illustrative cases exemplifying unique disease presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sakhadeo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report three elderly patients with follicular lymphoma in situ (FLIS each highlighting a unique pattern of disease presentation and progression. The first patient had incidentally detected FLIS with peripheral blood spill and yet had an 11-year uneventful follow up. The second patient with an overt follicular lymphoma (FL developed high-grade transformation in jejunum with FLIS extensively involving the Payers patches. The third patient had a FLIS but that qualified as higher grade and was treated in spite of lack of overt FL mainly because of higher grade and patient subsequently did develop overt FL. The first case of typical FLIS confirms that peripheral blood spill does not connote poor prognosis in FLIS, the second case illustrates that FLIS may colonize mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue as part of homing in process of a disseminated FL and the third case validates the aggressive nature of high-grade FLIS.

  14. Clinical presentation and outcome in patients treated for papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid : patterns in Johannesburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vangu, M.D.T.H.W.; Perumal, N.S.; Hersmen, G.; Botha, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: To look at the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and those with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in our institution. Methods: The records of all patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma seen at our institution were retrieved. Patients were excluded from this study if they underwent thyroid surgery outside a teaching hospital or presented to us more than 6 months post surgery, had deep external beam therapy (DXT) following surgery or a follow up of less than 3 years. This left clinical data and treatment outcomes of 140 patients available for a retrospective review. Results: One hundred and seventeen patients were females and 23 were males (5.1:1) with a median follow up of 10,5 years. The differences noted were as follow: there was a higher incidence of PTC than FTC (2.9:1); patients with PTC were younger at presentation (mean age 40 vs 49); more patients with PTC had metastases (60% vs 40%) and were much younger at presentation as compared to those with FTC (mean age 38 vs 63); at presentation eighty percent of FTC metastases were localized in bones whereas 60% of PTC metastases went to the lungs and 36% were confined to local lymph nodes. Similar pattern was found in those who developed metastases later. A significant percentage of ablation failure (41% vs 59% success rate) after the first high dose (2.96-3.7 GBq) of radioactive iodine (RAI) was noted. The total success rate increased to 80% after the second dose of RAI (3.7- 7.4 GBq). The majority of the patients ablated by the second dose had PTC and most had inadequate initial surgery ranging from unilateral lobectomy (10 patients), subtotal thyroidectomy (10 patients), and bilateral lobar resection (1 ). Conclusion: The predominance of PTC over FCT may indicate the conversion to an iodine repletion state in the country as a whole. Similar studies in other regions seem necessary to support this statement. The high

  15. Ovarian Follicular Dynamics During the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Muraco, Holley; Clough, Pat; Teets, Valerie; Arn, Dennis; Muraco, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the relationship between ovarian follicular dynamics and the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) requires detailed daily monitoring due to the transitory nature of LH and ovulation. Utilizing conditioned dolphins and non-invasive sampling techniques, such as urine collection and trans-abdominal ultrasound exams, provides the means to accurately monitor these fleeting processes. Urine samples and ultrasound exams used in this study were ...

  16. Organochlorine pesticides in follicular fluid of women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies from central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yindi; Huang, Bo; Li, Qing X.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Female infertility rates have increased by approximately 4% since the 1980s. There is evidence of adverse effects on female fertility in relation to exposure of chemical pollution in recent years. Follicular fluid samples were collected from 127 woman patients (aged 20–35) who underwent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and had no records indicating occupational exposure to OCPs. Seventeen OCPs were analyzed in this study. The results showed that methoxychlor was dominant, accounted for 13.4% of total OCPs with a mean concentration of 167.9 ± 33.9 ng/g lipid weight (lw), followed by heptachlor-epoxide, hexachlorocyclohexanes, endrin and DDT. The concentrations of OCPs in the follicular fluid samples in the present study were moderate in comparison with those reported from developed or industrialized countries. All these pollutants can accumulate in different tissues of human body through diet, drinking water and respiration. No correlation between patient age and OCP concentrations was observed in this study. - Highlights: • 17 OCPs in follicular fluid samples from 127 woman patients were analyzed. • Methoxychlor was the most dominant, constituting 13.4% of total OCPs with a mean concentration of 168 ng/g lw. • The concentrations of DDT and HCHs were lower than those in human breast milk from Russia and Iran and blood from India. • DDTs and HCHs in the samples would be mainly from historical usage. • The correlation between patient ages and concentrations of OCPs was weak. - OCPs at median concentrations of 460.0–2927.2 ng/g lipid weight in follicular fluids of central China have physiological effects.

  17. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal testosterone treatment and postnatal obesity on ovarian follicular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, V; Smith, P; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep with obesity exaggerating such defects. Developmental studies found ovarian reserve is similar in control and prenatal T sheep at fetal day 140, with prenatal T females showing increased follicular recruitment and persistence at 10 months of age (postpubertal). This study tested if prenatal T sheep show accelerated depletion prepubertally and if depletion of ovarian reserve would explain loss of cyclicity in prenatal...

  18. Follicular Adenoma with Extensive Extracellular Mucin Deposition: Report on Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Rae Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of follicular adenoma of the thyroid with extensive extracellular mucin deposition. Fine needle aspiration in Case 1 showed singly discohesive polygonal cells in a granular mucinous background. They contained abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, nuclear irregularities, and frequent nuclear inclusions with occasional bizarre mitoses. A right lobectomy was done. In Case 2, a 47-year-old Caucasian woman with multinodular goiter had total thyroidectomy and a yellow-tan nodule was found within the right lobe. Both tumors were well-encapsulated masses with thick capsules. Each was characterized by microfollicles without papillae in a mucinous stroma. Tumor cells were positive for thyroglobulin and negative for calcitonin, CEA, galectin-3, HBME-1, and CK19. The extracellular mucin stained with Alcian-blue and colloidal iron but not with mucicarmine and D-PAS. No BRAF gene mutation was detected. Because there were neither capsular nor vascular invasions, both cases were diagnosed as follicular adenomas of the thyroid with extensive extracellular mucin deposition, which as proposed by the WHO classification can be categorized as a mucinous variant of follicular adenoma. Retrospectively, frequent nuclear inclusions and the absence of nuclear grooves in the mucin-containing background of cytologic smears and histologic sections were shared by those of mucin-producing papillary carcinoma. It is unclear whether it belongs to an existing category of thyroid neoplasm with mucin production or whether it is truly a new tumor variant. Furthermore, pathologists should pay attention to avoid misdiagnosis of this variant of follicular neoplasm that shows an overlapping cytology with that of papillary carcinoma.

  19. Increased circulating follicular helper T cells with decreased programmed death-1 in chronic renal allograft rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jian; Luo, Fengbao; Shi, Qianqian; Xu, Xianlin; He, Xiaozhou; Xia, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic antibody-mediated rejection is a major issue that affects long-term renal allograft survival. Since follicular helper T (Tfh) cells promote the development of antigen-specific B cells in alloimmune responses, we investigated the potential roles of Tfh cells, B cells and their alloimmune-regulating molecules in the pathogenesis of chronic renal allograft rejection in this study. Methods The frequency of Tfh, B cells and the levels of their alloimmune-regulating molecules inc...

  20. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: Characteristics of preoperative ultrasonography and cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to validate the ultrasonography (US) and cytopathological features that are used in the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and to characterize the role of BRAFV600E mutation analysis in the diagnosis of FVPTC. From May 2012 to February 2014, 40 thyroid nodules from 40 patients (mean age, 56.2 years; range, 26 to 81 years) diagnosed with FVPTC were included in this study. The US features of the nodules were analyzed and the nodules were classified as probably benign or suspicious for malignancy. Twenty-three thyroid nodules (57.5%) underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis. Clinical information and histopathologic results were obtained by reviewing the medical records of the patients. Thirty nodules (75.0%) were classified as suspicious for malignancy, while 10 (25.0%) were classified as probably benign. Seven of the eight nodules (87.5%) with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) cytology showed suspicious US features, while one of the two nodules (50.0%) with follicular neoplasm cytology presented suspicious US features. Five of the 23 nodules (21.7%) that underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis had positive results, all of which were diagnosed as suspicious for malignancy or malignant based on cytology. None of the nodules with benign, AUS/FLUS, or follicular neoplasm cytology were positive for the BRAFV600E mutation. US features allow nodules to be classified as suspicious for malignancy, and the presence of suspicious US features in nodules with ambiguous cytology may aid in the diagnosis of FVPTC. BRAFV600E mutation analysis is of limited value in the diagnosis of FVPTC

  1. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: Characteristics of preoperative ultrasonography and cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this study was to validate the ultrasonography (US) and cytopathological features that are used in the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and to characterize the role of BRAFV600E mutation analysis in the diagnosis of FVPTC. From May 2012 to February 2014, 40 thyroid nodules from 40 patients (mean age, 56.2 years; range, 26 to 81 years) diagnosed with FVPTC were included in this study. The US features of the nodules were analyzed and the nodules were classified as probably benign or suspicious for malignancy. Twenty-three thyroid nodules (57.5%) underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis. Clinical information and histopathologic results were obtained by reviewing the medical records of the patients. Thirty nodules (75.0%) were classified as suspicious for malignancy, while 10 (25.0%) were classified as probably benign. Seven of the eight nodules (87.5%) with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) cytology showed suspicious US features, while one of the two nodules (50.0%) with follicular neoplasm cytology presented suspicious US features. Five of the 23 nodules (21.7%) that underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis had positive results, all of which were diagnosed as suspicious for malignancy or malignant based on cytology. None of the nodules with benign, AUS/FLUS, or follicular neoplasm cytology were positive for the BRAFV600E mutation. US features allow nodules to be classified as suspicious for malignancy, and the presence of suspicious US features in nodules with ambiguous cytology may aid in the diagnosis of FVPTC. BRAFV600E mutation analysis is of limited value in the diagnosis of FVPTC.

  2. Collision tumor of the thyroid: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kane Subhadra V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collision tumors of the thyroid gland are a rare entity. We present a case of a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma in the thyroid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a collision tumor with a papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma within the thyroid gland. The clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical profile are reported. The theories of origin, epidemiology and management are discussed with a literature review. Case presentation A 65 year old woman presented with a large thyroid swelling of 10 years duration and with swellings on the back and scalp which were diagnosed to be a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis. Clinical examination, radiology and endoscopy ruled out any other abnormality of the upper aerodigestive tract. The patient was treated surgically with a total thyroidectomy with central compartment clearance and bilateral selective neck dissections. The histopathology revealed a collision tumor with components of both a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the independent origin of these two primary tumors. Adjuvant radio iodine therapy directed toward the follicular derived component of the thyroid tumor and external beam radiotherapy for the squamous component was planned. Conclusion Collision tumors of the thyroid gland pose a diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenge. Metastasis from distant organs and contiguous primary tumors should be excluded. The origins of squamous cancer in the thyroid gland must be established to support the true evolution of a collision tumor and to plan treatment. Treatment for collision tumors depends upon the combination of primary tumors involved and each component of the combination should be treated like an independent primary. The reporting of similar cases with longer follow-up will help define the

  3. Surgical, Orthodontic and Prosthodontic Rehabilitation of a Patient with Follicular Ameloblastoma: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Herman F.; Tarawneh, Fadi; Fourkas, Panagiotis; Antoniades, Dimitrios Z.; Athanasiou, Athanasios E.

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the combined surgical, orthodontic and prosthodontic rehabilitation of an adult female patient with a previous history of follicular ameloblastoma, which was treated through partial mandibulectomy and an immediate replacement of missing bone with an autologous calvarial bone graft. Orthodontic treatment was undertaken in order to restore occlusal disturbances and obtain sufficient space for two dental implants and an optimum prosthodontic rehabilitation. PMID:20396452

  4. Relationship between Energy Expenditure Related Factors and Oxidative Stress in Follicular Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz Nejat; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI), total calorie intake and physical activity (PA) as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS) in follicular fluid (FF). Materials and Methods This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients’ BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additional...

  5. The science and art of eyebrow transplantation by follicular unit extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyebrows constitute a very important and prominent feature of the face. With growing information, eyebrow transplant has become a popular procedure. However, though it is a small area it requires a lot of precision and knowledge regarding anatomy, designing of brows, extraction and implantation technique. This article gives a comprehensive view regarding eyebrow transplant with special emphasis on follicular unit extraction technique, which has become the most popular technique.

  6. The Science and Art of Eyebrow Transplantation by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti; Kumar, Amrendra; Chouhan, Kavish; Ariganesh, C; Nandal, Vinay

    2017-01-01

    Eyebrows constitute a very important and prominent feature of the face. With growing information, eyebrow transplant has become a popular procedure. However, though it is a small area it requires a lot of precision and knowledge regarding anatomy, designing of brows, extraction and implantation technique. This article gives a comprehensive view regarding eyebrow transplant with special emphasis on follicular unit extraction technique, which has become the most popular technique. PMID:28852290

  7. A case of a combination of Crocker - Adamson follicular spinulosa, lichen acuminatus and Little - Lassueur syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Slesarenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a clinical case of a combination of Crocker-Adamson follicular spinulosa, lichen acuminatus and Little-Lassueur syndrome in a young man aged 17. The patient had the onset of atopic manifestations at an early age (atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis along with disorders related to the process of keratosis. The article provides current data on the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of these diseases.

  8. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Shamma, Rehab Nabil; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Rehab Nabil Shamma, Mona Hassan AburahmaDepartment of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Spironolactone (SL) is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules...

  9. Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, P M

    1998-01-01

    Of 240 pesticides screened for carcinogenicity by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs, at least 24 (10%) produce thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents. Thirteen of the thyroid carcinogens also induce liver tumors, mainly in mice, and 9 chemicals produce tumors at other sites. Some mutagenic data are available on all 24 pesticides producing thyroid tumors. Mutagenicity does not seem to be a major determinant in thyroid carcinogenicity, except for possibly ...

  10. Correlation between follicular fluid 25-OH vitamin D and assisted reproductive outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Farzadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D in complex with its receptor by regulating gene expression, endometrium immune response and stimulation of endometrium decidualization can be involved in implantation. So, it seems that the amount of vitamin D in follicular fluids (FF may have an association with ART success. Objective: First, we intended to investigate the possible association between levels of follicular fluids 25-OH vitamin D with assisted reproductive outcomes. Second, we examined relationship between 25-OH vitamin D levels with number and quality of oocytes. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, 80 infertile female candidates for IVF/ICSI were enrolled. Blood samples (on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration and follicular fluids were taken, and then levels of serum estradiol and follicular fluids 25-OH vitamin D were measured. Also clinical characteristics of patients (duration of infertility, causes of infertility, menstrual status, number and quality of oocytes, number of fertilized oocytes, estradiol levels, and clinical pregnancy were evaluated. Results: Concentration of FF 25-OH vitamin D in pregnant women was significantly higher than non-pregnant women (p=0.007 but there were no significant differences in age, body mass index (BMI, duration of infertility, menstrual status, number of oocytes, oocytes quality, number of fertilized oocytes, and serum estradiol levels between the two groups. Statistically positive correlation was found between 25-OH vitamin D levels with patient age and implantation rate (r=0.264, p=0.018 and r=0.301, p=0.007 respectively. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that vitamin D without affecting the number and quality of oocytes can independently improve implantation rate and IVF outcome.

  11. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in reactivity-initiated accident fuel modeling: synthesis of organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD/nuclear energy agency (NEA benchmark on reactivity-initiated accident codes phase-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Marchand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of OECD/NEA Working Group on Fuel Safety, a RIA fuel-rod-code Benchmark Phase I was organized in 2010–2013. It consisted of four experiments on highly irradiated fuel rodlets tested under different experimental conditions. This benchmark revealed the need to better understand the basic models incorporated in each code for realistic simulation of the complicated integral RIA tests with high burnup fuel rods. A second phase of the benchmark (Phase II was thus launched early in 2014, which has been organized in two complementary activities: (1 comparison of the results of different simulations on simplified cases in order to provide additional bases for understanding the differences in modelling of the concerned phenomena; (2 assessment of the uncertainty of the results. The present paper provides a summary and conclusions of the second activity of the Benchmark Phase II, which is based on the input uncertainty propagation methodology. The main conclusion is that uncertainties cannot fully explain the difference between the code predictions. Finally, based on the RIA benchmark Phase-I and Phase-II conclusions, some recommendations are made. Keywords: RIA, Codes Benchmarking, Fuel Modelling, OECD

  12. Isolated orbital mass as the primary presentation of a triple-hit lymphoma transformed from a systemic follicular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yi Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Triple-hit lymphoma is a highly aggressive B-cell lymphoma. We report a case of triple-hit lymphoma transformed from systemic follicular lymphoma (FL after 9-year remission and presented primarily as an isolated orbital mass without systemic symptoms or lymphadenopathy. Observations: A 58-year-old female presented with intermittent vertical binocular diplopia, left upper eyelid swelling and pain and was found to have a 2.9 cm orbital mass. Histological section revealed a CD10-positive large B-cell lymphoma, consistent with transformation of FL. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH analysis demonstrated rearrangements involving C-MYC, BCL-2 and BCL-6 genes, indicating a high grade, triple-hit lymphoma. Conclusions and importance: Triple-hit lymphoma transformed from a low-grade lymphoma may initially present as an isolated orbital mass without systemic evidence of transformation. Early recognition of double or triple-hit lymphomas is important since these patients require aggressive chemotherapy. Keywords: Lymphoma, Triple-hit lymphoma, Orbital mass

  13. Thyroid Follicular Carcinoma in a Fourteen-year-old Girl with Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima-Ishii, Kanako; Ihara, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Matsuo, Terumichi; Toda, Naoko; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kono, Shinji; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-04-01

    Here we present the case of a 14-yr-old girl who developed thyroid follicular carcinoma accompanied by Graves' disease. She was diagnosed with Graves' disease at 10 yr of age and soon achieved a euthyroid state after starting treatment. When she was 13 yr of age, her hyperthyroidism and goiter worsened despite medical therapy. Multiple nodules were found in her enlarged thyroid gland by ultrasonography. Her serum Tg level seemed within the normal range. She underwent near-total thyroidectomy for control of thyroid function. Histopathological study demonstrated that multiple oxyphilic follicular neoplasms were surrounded by the thyroid tissue compatible with Graves' disease. Capsular invasion was identified in one of the nodules, and thus the histological diagnosis was minimally invasive follicular carcinoma. She did not have signs suggesting metastasis, and has had no relapse for 18 mo after the operation. Although some previous studies showed a high prevalence of thyroid cancer with an aggressive nature in adult patients with Graves' disease, few reports about thyroid cancer accompanied by Graves' disease are available in children. The present case, however, suggests that careful investigation is needed when we detect thyroid nodules or progressive thyroid enlargement, especially in children with Graves' disease.

  14. Follicular dermal papilla structures by organization of epithelial and mesenchymal cells in interfacial polyelectrolyte complex fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tze Chiun; Leong, Meng Fatt; Lu, Hongfang; Du, Chan; Gao, Shujun; Wan, Andrew C A; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-09-01

    The hair follicle is a regenerating organ that produces a new hair shaft during each growth cycle. Development and cycling of the hair follicle is governed by interactions between the epithelial and mesenchymal components. Therefore, development of an engineered 3D hair follicle would be useful for studying these interactions to identify strategies for treatment of hair loss. We have developed a technique suitable for assembly of different cell types in close proximity in fibrous hydrogel scaffolds with resolutions of ∼50 μm. By assembly of dermal papilla (DP) and keratinocytes, structures similar to the native hair bulb arrangement are formed. Gene expression of these constructs showed up-regulation of molecules involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions of the hair follicle. Implantation of the follicular structures in SCID mice led to the formation of hair follicle-like structures, thus demonstrating their hair inductive ability. The transparency of the fiber matrix and the small dimensions of the follicular structures allowed the direct quantitation of DP cell proliferation by confocal microscopy, clearly illustrating the promoting or inhibitory effects of hair growth regulating agents. Collectively, our results suggested a promising application of these 3D engineered follicular structures for in vitro screening and testing of drugs for hair growth therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Iontophoresis-targeted, follicular delivery of minoxidil sulfate for the treatment of alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Tais; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H; Vianna Lopez, Renata Fonseca

    2013-05-01

    Although minoxidil (MX) is a drug known to stimulate hair growth, the treatment of androgenic alopecia could be improved by delivery strategies that would favor drug accumulation into the hair follicles. This work investigated in vitro the potential of iontophoresis to achieve this objective using MX sulfate (MXS), a more water-soluble derivative of MX. Passive delivery of MXS was first determined from an ethanol-water solution and from a thermosensitive gel. The latter formulation resulted in greater accumulation of MXS in the stratum corneum (skin's outermost layer) and hair follicles and an overall decrease in absorption through the skin. Anodal iontophoresis of MXS from the same gel formulation was then investigated at pH 3.5 and pH 5.5. Compared with passive delivery, iontophoresis increased the amount of drug reaching the follicular infundibula from 120 to 600 ng per follicle. In addition, drug recovery from follicular casts was threefold higher following iontophoresis at pH 5.5 compared with that at pH 3.5. Preliminary in vivo experiments in rats confirmed that iontophoretic delivery of MXS facilitated drug accumulation in hair follicles. Overall, therefore, iontophoresis successfully and significantly enhanced follicular delivery of MX suggesting a useful opportunity for the improved treatment of alopecia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Modeling intercontinental transport of ozone in North America with CAMx for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Liu, Zhen; Stoeckenius, Till; Yarwood, Greg

    2017-08-01

    Intercontinental ozone (O3) transport extends the geographic range of O3 air pollution impacts and makes local air pollution management more difficult. Phase 3 of the Air Quality Modeling Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-3) is examining the contribution of intercontinental transport to regional air quality by applying regional-scale atmospheric models jointly with global models. We investigate methods for tracing O3 from global models within regional models. The CAMx photochemical grid model was used to track contributions from boundary condition (BC) O3 over a North American modeling domain for calendar year 2010 using a built-in tracer module called RTCMC. RTCMC can track BC contributions using chemically reactive tracers and also using inert tracers in which deposition is the only sink for O3. Lack of O3 destruction chemistry in the inert tracer approach leads to overestimation biases that can exceed 10 ppb. The flexibility of RTCMC also allows tracking O3 contributions made by groups of vertical BC layers. The largest BC contributions to seasonal average daily maximum 8 h averages (MDA8) of O3 over the US are found to be from the mid-troposphere (over 40 ppb) with small contributions (a few ppb) from the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere. Contributions from the lower troposphere are shown to not penetrate very far inland. Higher contributions in the western than the eastern US, reaching an average of 57 ppb in Denver for the 30 days with highest MDA8 O3 in 2010, present a significant challenge to air quality management approaches based solely on local or US-wide emission reductions. The substantial BC contribution to MDA8 O3 in the Intermountain West means regional models are particularly sensitive to any biases and errors in the BCs. A sensitivity simulation with reduced BC O3 in response to 20 % lower emissions in Asia found a near-linear relationship between the BC O3 changes and surface O3 changes in the western US in all seasons and across

  17. Modeling intercontinental transport of ozone in North America with CAMx for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII Phase 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Nopmongcol

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intercontinental ozone (O3 transport extends the geographic range of O3 air pollution impacts and makes local air pollution management more difficult. Phase 3 of the Air Quality Modeling Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-3 is examining the contribution of intercontinental transport to regional air quality by applying regional-scale atmospheric models jointly with global models. We investigate methods for tracing O3 from global models within regional models. The CAMx photochemical grid model was used to track contributions from boundary condition (BC O3 over a North American modeling domain for calendar year 2010 using a built-in tracer module called RTCMC. RTCMC can track BC contributions using chemically reactive tracers and also using inert tracers in which deposition is the only sink for O3. Lack of O3 destruction chemistry in the inert tracer approach leads to overestimation biases that can exceed 10 ppb. The flexibility of RTCMC also allows tracking O3 contributions made by groups of vertical BC layers. The largest BC contributions to seasonal average daily maximum 8 h averages (MDA8 of O3 over the US are found to be from the mid-troposphere (over 40 ppb with small contributions (a few ppb from the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere. Contributions from the lower troposphere are shown to not penetrate very far inland. Higher contributions in the western than the eastern US, reaching an average of 57 ppb in Denver for the 30 days with highest MDA8 O3 in 2010, present a significant challenge to air quality management approaches based solely on local or US-wide emission reductions. The substantial BC contribution to MDA8 O3 in the Intermountain West means regional models are particularly sensitive to any biases and errors in the BCs. A sensitivity simulation with reduced BC O3 in response to 20 % lower emissions in Asia found a near-linear relationship between the BC O3 changes and surface O3 changes in the

  18. Modeling precipitation thermodynamics and kinetics in type 316 austenitic stainless steels with varying composition as an initial step toward predicting phase stability during irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Jae-Hyeok, E-mail: jhshim@kist.re.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Povoden-Karadeniz, Erwin [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Early Stages of Precipitation, Vienna University of Technology, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Kozeschnik, Ernst [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Wirth, Brian D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We model the precipitation kinetics in irradiated 316 austenitic stainless steels. • Radiation-induced phases are predicted to form at over 10 dpa segregation conditions. • The Si content is the most critical for the formation of radiation-induced phases. - Abstract: The long-term evolution of precipitates in type 316 austenitic stainless steels at 400 °C has been simulated using a numerical model based on classical nucleation theory and the thermodynamic extremum principle. Particular attention has been paid to the precipitation of radiation-induced phases such as γ′ and G phases. In addition to the original compositions, the compositions for radiation-induced segregation at a dose level of 5, 10 or 20 dpa have been used in the simulation. In a 316 austenitic stainless steel, γ′ appears as the main precipitate with a small amount of G phase forming at 10 and 20 dpa. On the other hand, G phase becomes relatively dominant over γ′ at the same dose levels in a Ti-stabilized 316 austenitic stainless steel, which tends to suppress the formation of γ′. Among the segregated alloying elements, the concentration of Si seems to be the most critical for the formation of radiation-induced phases. An increase in dislocation density as well as increased diffusivity of Mn and Si significantly enhances the precipitation kinetics of the radiation-induced phases within this model.

  19. Anti-ICOS Monoclonal Antibody MEDI-570 in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Follicular Variant or Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-09

    Follicular T-Cell Lymphoma; Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mature T- and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides; Recurrent Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IB Mycosis Fungoides AJCC v7; Stage II Mycosis Fungoides AJCC v7; Stage III Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Mycosis Fungoides AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Mycosis Fungoides AJCC v7

  20. Effect of first line cancer treatment on the ovarian reserve and follicular density in girls under the age of 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Issaoui, Meryam; Giorgione, Veronica; Mamsen, Linn S

    2016-01-01

    the age of 18 years who underwent OTC before (group 1: 31 patients) and after (group 2: 32 patients) their initial cancer treatment. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Follicular densities (follicles/mm(3)) measured from an ovarian cortical biopsy before OTC. The ovarian volume (mL) of entire...... to have little effect on the follicle pool. This information will improve counseling of young female cancer patients in deciding whether to undergo fertility preservation treatment.......OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of first-line antineoplastic treatment on ovarian reserve in young girls returning for ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) in connection with a relapse. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: University hospitals. PATIENT(S): Sixty-three girls under...

  1. Ovulatory Follicular Dynamics After Estrus Synchronization using Prostaglandin F2a in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabowo Purwono Putro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to follow development of ovulatory follicular dynamics as well as plasma progesterone profile after estrus synchronization using PGF2 and GnRH.   A total of 15 non-pregnant dairy cows, 4-5 years of age, healthy and reproductively sound were used in the present study.     Treatment 1, given intramuscular injection of PGF2 25 mg (PGF2, treatment 2 PGF2 25 mg and GnRH 250 g 2 days later (PGF2-GnRH, and treatment 3 with GnRH 250 g (7 days prior to injection of PGF2, PGF2 25 mg and GnRH 250 g (2 days after injection of PGF2  (GnRH-PGF2a-GnRH (the Ovsynch method.   Transrectal ultrasonographic examination using real time, B-mode, with 7.5 MHz tranducer was performed everyday for 12 days to follow ovulatory follicular and luteal dynamics.   Blood plasma was taken every day for progesterone determination using EIA technique.   Data of follicular, luteal development and progesterone levels were tested using analysis of variance and correlation analysis.   The animals showed estrus within 70.70 + 01.90 hours following PGF2 injection.   Prostaglandin F2 induced corpus luteum regression, decreased  in progesterone plasma levels, followed by ovulatory follicular development and eventually underwent ovulation.   Administration of first GnRH increased corpus luteum size, enhanced its regression and decreased plasma progesterone levels, while  the second administration induce  better ovulatory follicular development.   Rate of the corpus luteum regression, progesterone decrease and ovulatory follicular development following PGF2 injection for respective treatments 1, 2 and 3 were 2.53 + 0.24a, 2.73 + 0.36a and 3.53 + 0.28b mm/day; 1.39 + 0.14a,  1.35 + 0.18a dan 1.57 + 0.12b ng/ml/day; and 1.33 + 0.15a,  1.63 + 0.19b and 1.67 + 0.23b mm/day, respectively (P < 0.05.   It can be concluded that PGF2 induced corpus luteum regression, decreased in  progesterone plasma

  2. The incidence of biopsy-proven transformation in follicular lymphoma in the rituximab era. A retrospective analysis from the Czech Lymphoma Study Group (CLSG) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikova, Andrea; Bortlicek, Zbynek; Campr, Vit; Kopalova, Natasa; Benesova, Katerina; Hamouzova, Michaela; Belada, David; Prochazka, Vit; Pytlik, Robert; Vokurka, Samuel; Pirnos, Jan; Duras, Juraj; Mocikova, Heidi; Mayer, Jiri; Trneny, Marek

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of biopsy-proven transformation in follicular lymphoma (FL) patients in the rituximab era. Transformation was analyzed in 1233 patients with initially diagnosed FL grades 1-3A, identified between 2002 and 2012 in the prospectively maintained Czech Lymphoma Study Group database. Only patients with histologically proven transformation (HT) were included. HT occurred in 58 cases at a median of 3.0 years from the initial FL diagnosis; the HT rate was 4% at 5 years. Transformation occurred most frequently at the first relapse (84% patients). Median OS from the HT was 2.5 years (95% CI 0.4-4.6) and 6-year OS with HT was shorter compared to all FLs (60 vs. 83.9%; 95% CI). A bulky tumor (≥ 10 cm), increased lactate dehydrogenase, age ≥ 60 years, and International Prognostic Index (intermediate/high risk), but not Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index, were associated with transformation (p transformation rate at 5 years of 4.23% (95% CI 2.52-5.93); subsequent rituximab maintenance (n = 276) vs. observation (n = 153) was associated with a lower transformation rate (p.033; HR 3.29; CI 1.10-9.82). The transformation rate seems to be lower than in previous series, which may be influenced by broad use of rituximab, but prognosis of HT developed during therapy continues to be poor.

  3. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Beckett, EM; Abi Salloum, B; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess hormonal preovulatory changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. PMID:24923655

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Technology Initiative Program (NTIP). Delivery Order 0032: MAUS Implementation for Corrosion/Crack Detection in Wing Structure - Phase III

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, Donald

    2003-01-01

    ... current inspection process currently used to support B-52 programmed depot maintenance. At the conclusion of this phase, one MAUS IV system located at Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center was upgraded with the "MAUS-Wing" enhancement package...

  5. Follicular Lymphoma Tregs Have a Distinct Transcription Profile Impacting Their Migration and Retention in the Malignant Lymph Node.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Nedelkovska

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs infiltrating follicular lymphoma lymph nodes are quantitatively and qualitatively different than those infiltrating normal and reactive nodes. To gain insight into how such Treg populations differ, we performed RNA sequence (RNAseq analyses on flow sorted Tregs from all three sources. We identify several molecules that could contribute to the observed increased suppressive capacity of follicular lymphoma nodal tregs, including upregulation of CTLA-4, IL-10, and GITR, all confirmed by protein expression. In addition, we identify, and confirm functionally, a novel mechanism by which Tregs target to and accumulate within a human tumor microenvironment, through the down regulation of S1PR1, SELL (L-selectin and CCR7, potentially resulting in greater lymph node retention. In addition we identify and confirm functionally the upregulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR5 as well as the secretion of the chemokines CXCL13 and IL-16 demonstrating the unique ability of the follicular derived Tregs to localize and accumulate within not only the malignant lymph node, but also localize and accumulate within the malignant B cell follicle itself. Such findings offer significant new insights into how follicular lymphoma nodal Tregs may contribute to the biology of follicular lymphoma and identify several novel therapeutic targets.

  6. Ex-vivo measurement of scalp follicular infundibulum delivery of zinc pyrithione and climbazole from an anti-dandruff shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Ji, Chengdong; Miao, Miao; Yang, Kang; Luo, Yajun; Hoptroff, Michael; Collins, Luisa Z; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2017-09-05

    Efficient delivery of anti-dandruff (AD) actives into the scalp follicular infundibulum as well as onto the scalp surface is critical for the efficacy of AD shampoos. A method involving scalp cyanoacrylate (CA) biopsy sampling, a tailor made cutting device, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement and Raman imaging has been developed for the measurement of delivery of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and climbazole (CBZ) from an AD shampoo into the scalp follicular infundibulum. Scalp CA biopsy enables the sampling of ZPT and CBZ delivered into the scalp follicular infundibula as well as onto the scalp surface. Raman imaging of scalp CA biopsy samples allows the visualization of the spatial distribution of ZPT and CBZ deposited on the scalp. A tailor made cutting device enables the separation of the scalp follicular infundibulum sample (20μm below the scalp surface) from the scalp surface samples (including top 20μm of infundibula). UHPLC-MS/MS was used as a sensitive and specific methodology enabling the quantification of ZPT and CBZ without interference. Using this method, both ZPT and CBZ were successfully quantified and spacially visualized within the scalp follicular infundibulum, after scalp was washed with an AD shampoo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Low Iodine in the Follicular Lumen Caused by Cytoplasm Mis-localization of Sodium Iodide Symporter may Induce Nodular Goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huibin; Shi, Yaxiong; Liang, Bo; Cai, Huiyao; Cai, Qingyan

    2017-10-01

    Iodine is a key ingredient in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and also a major factor in the regulation of thyroid function. A local reduction of iodine content in follicular lumen leads to overexpression of local thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHr), which in turn excessively stimulates the regional thyroid tissue, and result in the formation of nodular goiter. In this study, we investigated the relationship between iodine content and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression by using the clinical specimens from patients with nodular goiter and explored the pathogenesis triggered by iodine deficiency in nodular goiter. In total, 28 patients were clinically histopathologically confirmed to have nodular goiter and the corresponding adjacent normal thyroid specimens were harvested simultaneously. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed to assay NIS expression and localization in thyrocytes of both nodular goiter and adjacent normal thyroid tissues. NIS expression mediated by iodine in follicular lumen was confirmed by follicular model in vitro. Meanwhile, radioscan with iodine-131were conducted on both nodular goiter and adjacent normal thyroid. Our data showed that NIS expression in nodular goiter was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues, which was associated with low iodine in the follicular lumen. Abnormal localization of NIS and lower amount of radioactive iodine-131 were also found in nodular goiter. Our data implied that low iodine in the follicular lumen caused by cytoplasm mis-localization of NIS may induce nodular goiter.

  8. [Investigation of follicular development and oocyte maturation after cryopreservation and xenograft of newborn mouse ovaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bo-Lin; Chen, Xue-Jin; Shi, Zhen-Dan; Li, Wan-Li; Tian, Yun-Bo

    2006-02-25

    In order to explore the feasibility of cryopreserving primordial follicles in attaining their developmental competence following freezing and thawing, ovaries from newborn mice were cryopreserved and the thawed ovaries were xenografted into kidney capsules of adult female mice. Ovaries were isolated from newborn B6C2F(1) female mice, infiltrated by Leibovitz 15 (L-15) medium containing 10% (V/V) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1.5 mol/L dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and then packed into 0.25 ml plastic straws. The ovaries contained in straws were frozen under nitrogen vapour at -40 degrees C in Cryocell 1200 programmable freezer, and stored in liquid nitrogen for periods ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Upon thawing, the straws were dipped into room temperature water for 10~20 s, after which the ovaries were collected and washed in L-15 buffer containing 10% (V/V) FBS without DMSO to remove cryoprotectant. The thawed ovaries were transplanted into kidney capsules of 8~12-week old adult B6C2F(1) female recipient mice by two protocols, with either 1 or 2 ovaries in each capsule. Upon withdrawal after at least 14 d of transplantation, only 45.00% (72/160) of the ovaries were recovered from 40 recipients transplanted with 2 ovaries in each capsule, compared to 82.50% (33/40) in 20 recipients with only 1 ovary in each capsule. The grafted ovaries exhibited similar follicular developmental progression to that of natural ovaries. There were antral follicles present in the transplanted ovaries on day 14, whose number increased more substantially on day 19 after transplantation. Following stimulation of the recipient mice with 10 IU PMSG on day 19 after xenografting, follicles further developed to preovulatory stage with appearance of cumulus oocytes and enlarged antrum. Oocytes from these fully grown antral follicles were collected and matured in vitro in modified essential medium-alpha (MEMalpha). After 16~17 h of culture, 40.90% of the oocytes exhibited germinal vesicle

  9. The Ratio of Blood T Follicular Regulatory Cells to T Follicular Helper Cells Marks Ectopic Lymphoid Structure Formation While Activated Follicular Helper T Cells Indicate Disease Activity in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Valter R; Romão, Vasco C; Agua-Doce, Ana; Santos, Mara; López-Presa, Dolores; Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Fonseca, João Eurico; Graca, Luis

    2018-05-01

    To investigate whether the balance of blood follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells can provide information about ectopic lymphoid neogenesis and disease activity in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We prospectively recruited 56 patients clinically suspected of having SS. Sixteen of these patients subsequently fulfilled the American-European Consensus Group criteria for SS and were compared to 16 patients with non-SS sicca syndrome. Paired blood and minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsy samples were analyzed to study Tfr cells and subsets of Tfh cells in both compartments. Patients with primary SS had normal Tfh cell counts in peripheral blood; however, activated programmed death 1-positive (PD-1+) inducible costimulator-positive (ICOS+) Tfh cells in peripheral blood were strongly associated with disease activity assessed by the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (r = 0.8547, P = 0.0008). Conversely, the blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio indicated ectopic lymphoid structure formation in MSGs, being strongly associated with B cell, CD4+ T cell, and PD-1+ICOS+ T cell infiltration in MSGs, and was especially increased in patients with focal sialadenitis. Further analysis showed that the blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio allowed discrimination between SS patients and healthy donors with excellent accuracy and was a strong predictor of SS diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 12.96, P = 0.028) and the presence of focal sialadenitis (OR 10, P = 0.022) in patients investigated for sicca symptoms, thus highlighting the potential clinical value of this marker. The blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio and PD-1+ICOS+ Tfh cells constitute potential novel biomarkers for different features of primary SS. While the blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio is associated with ectopic lymphoid neogenesis, activated Tfh cells indicate disease activity. © 2018, American College of Rheumatology.

  10. The Role of Follicular Fluid Thiol/Disulphide Homeostasis in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tola, Esra Nur; Köroğlu, Nadiye; Ergin, Merve; Oral, Hilmi Baha; Turgut, Abdülkadir; Erel, Özcan

    2018-04-04

    Oxidative stress is suggested as a potential triggering factor in the etiopathogenesis of Polycystic ovary syndrome related infertility. Thiol/disulphide homeostasis, a recently oxidative stress marker, is one of the antioxidant mechanism in human which have critical roles in folliculogenesis and ovulation. The aim of our study is to investigate follicular fluid thiol/disulphide homeostasis in the etiopathogenesis of Polycystic ovary syndrome and to determine its' association with in vitro fertilization outcome. The study procedures were approved by local ethic committee. Cross sectional design Methods: Follicular fluid of twenty-two Polycystic ovary syndrome women and twenty ovulatory controls undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were recruited. Thiol/disulphide homeostasis was analyzed via a novel spectrophotometric method. Follicular native thiol levels were found to be lower in Polycystic ovary syndrome group than non- Polycystic ovary syndrome group (p=0.041) as well as native thiol/total thiol ratio (pPolycystic ovary syndrome group (pPolycystic ovary syndrome patients was found. A positive predictive effect of native thiol on fertilization rate among Polycystic ovary syndrome group was also found (p=0.03, β=0.45, 95% CI=0.031-0.643). Deterioration in thiol/disulphide homeostasis, especially elevated disulphide levels could be one of the etiopathogenetic mechanism in Polycystic ovary syndrome. Increased native thiol levels is related to fertilization rate among Polycystic ovary syndrome patients and also positive predictor marker of fertilization rate among Polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Improvement of thiol/disulphide homeostasis could be of importance in the treatment of Polycystic ovary syndrome to increase in vitro fertilization success in Polycystic ovary syndrome.

  11. Effect of stratum corneum heterogeneity, anisotropy, asymmetry and follicular pathway on transdermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2017-08-28

    The impact of the complex structure of the stratum corneum on transdermal penetration is not yet fully described by existing models. A quantitative and thorough study of skin permeation is essential for chemical exposure assessment and transdermal delivery of drugs. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of heterogeneity, anisotropy, asymmetry, follicular diffusion, and location of the main barrier of diffusion on percutaneous permeation. In the current study, the solution of the transient diffusion through a two-dimensional-anisotropic brick-and-mortar geometry of the stratum corneum is obtained using the commercial finite element program COMSOL Multiphysics. First, analytical solutions of an equivalent multilayer geometry are used to determine whether the lipids or corneocytes constitute the main permeation barrier. Also these analytical solutions are applied for validations of the finite element solutions. Three illustrative compounds are analyzed in these sections: diethyl phthalate, caffeine and nicotine. Then, asymmetry with depth and follicular diffusion are studied using caffeine as an illustrative compound. The following findings are drawn from this study: the main permeation barrier is located in the lipid layers; the flux and lag time of diffusion through a brick-and-mortar geometry are almost identical to the values corresponding to a multilayer geometry; the flux and lag time are affected when the lipid transbilayer diffusivity or the partition coefficients vary with depth, but are not affected by depth-dependent corneocyte diffusivity; and the follicular contribution has significance for low transbilayer lipid diffusivity, especially when flux between the follicle and the surrounding stratum corneum is involved. This study demonstrates that the diffusion is primarily transcellular and the main barrier is located in the lipid layers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Bovine ovarian follicular growth and development correlate with lysophosphatidic acid expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinderewicz, Emilia; Grycmacher, Katarzyna; Boruszewska, Dorota; Kowalczyk-Zięba, Ilona; Staszkiewicz, Joanna; Ślężak, Tomasz; Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela

    2018-01-15

    The basis of successful reproduction is proper ovarian follicular growth and development. In addition to prostaglandins and vascular endothelial growth factor, a number of novel factors are suggested as important regulators of follicular growth and development: PGES, TFG, CD36, RABGAP1, DBI and BTC. This study focuses on examining the expression of these factors in granulosa and thecal cells that originate from different ovarian follicle types and their link with the expression of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), known local regulator of reproductive functions in the cow. Ovarian follicles were divided into healthy, transitional, and atretic categories. The mRNA expression levels for PGES, TFG, CD36, RABGAP1, DBI and BTC in granulosa and thecal cells in different follicle types were measured by real-time PCR. The correlations among expression of enzymes synthesizing LPA (autotaxin, phospholipase A2), receptors for LPA and examined factors were measured. Immunolocalization of PGES, TFG, CD36, RABGAP1, DBI and BTC was examined by immunohistochemistry. We investigated follicle-type dependent mRNA expression of factors potentially involved in ovarian follicular growth and development, both in granulosa and thecal cells of bovine ovarian follicles. Strong correlations among receptors for LPA, enzymes synthesizing LPA, and the examined factors in healthy and transitional follicles were observed, with its strongest interconnection with TFG, DBI and RABGAP1 in granulosa cells, and TFG in thecal cells; whereas no correlations in atretic follicles were detected. A greater number of correlations were found in thecal cells than in granulosa cells as well as in healthy follicles than in transitional follicles. These data indicate the role of LPA in the growth, development and physiology of the bovine ovarian follicle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of sebum excretion from the follicular reservoir by a dichlorophenyl-imidazoldioxolan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, G E; Cauwenbergh, G

    1996-10-01

    Synopsis The dichlorophenyl-imidazoldioxolan elubiol is used for skin and hair care in subjects with oily skin or dandruff. A study was conducted in 14 men to evaluate by non-invasive methods the effect of long-term use of elubiol on the sebum output at the skin surface. Measures were made using the Sebumeter SM810 and Sebutapes. Data show a progressive decrease in skin oiliness at the forehead site treated by elubiol compared to the contralateral control site. The function of the follicular reservoir appears to be affected without significant primary change in the sebaceous gland activity.

  14. Down-regulation of microRNAs controlling tumourigenic factors in follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Borup; Henao Giraldo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    pattern in distinguishing malignant from benign nodules we employed a supervised learning algorithm and leave-one-out-cross-validation. By this procedure, FA and FC were identified with a negative predicted value (NPV) of 83% (data generated by microarray platform) and of 92% (data generated by q......RT-PCR platform). We conclude that follicular neoplasia is associated by major changes in miRNA expression that may promote malignant transformation by increasing the expression of transcripts encoding tumourigenic factors. Moreover, miRNA profiling may facilitate the diagnosis of carcinoma vs. adenoma....

  15. An unusual metastasis of a papillary thyroidian carcinoma with follicular pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coconu, M; Berdan, G; Roşculescu, I; Herlea, V

    1998-01-01

    The case of a 67-year-old man is presented. He was admitted for the presence of a left parietal tumour with progressive growing, without any other objective or subjective symptomatology. CT-scan detects a left parietal osteolytic area. The histopathological aspect suggested an adenocarcinomatous metastasis with papillary pattern, moderately differentiated. With the purpose of diagnosing the original tumour, immunnohistochemical techniques were performed, which led to a diagnosis of a thyroidian carcinoma. At the histological examination of the surgical extirpated thyroid, it was proved to be a papillary carcinoma (Chan, 1990, Hay, 1990), the follicular pattern.

  16. Sites of extranodal involvement are prognostic in patients with stage 1 follicular lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Aditi; Janakiram, Murali; Mantzaris, Ioannis; Yu, Yiting; Londono, Jaime S.; Verma, Amit K.; Barta, Stefan K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent B cell lymphoma in the United States and a quarter of patients present with stage I disease. The objective of this study was to examine if primary site of disease influences survival in early stage lymphoma. Results The most common extranodal primary sites were the integumentary system (8%), followed by the GI tract (6.4%) and head & neck (5.6%). We stratified patients into a pre-rituximab era (1983-1998) and the rituximab era (1...

  17. Follicular thyroid cancer avid on C-11 Methionine PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Jochumsen, Mads Ryø; Iversen, Peter; Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine

    2018-01-01

    Summary A case of follicular thyroid cancer with intense focal Methionine uptake on 11C-Methionine PET/CT is reported here. The use of 11C-Methionine PET in differentiated thyroid cancer is currently being investigated as a surrogate tracer compared to the more widely used 18F-FDG PET. This case illustrates the potential incremental value of this modality, not only in the localizing of parathyroid adenoma, but also indicating that 11C-Methionine PET might have a potential of increasing the pr...

  18. Follicular thyroid cancer avid on C-11 Methionine PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Ryø Jochumsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of follicular thyroid cancer with intense focal Methionine uptake on 11C-Methionine PET/CT is reported here. The use of 11C-Methionine PET in differentiated thyroid cancer is currently being investigated as a surrogate tracer compared to the more widely used 18F-FDG PET. This case illustrates the potential incremental value of this modality, not only in the localizing of parathyroid adenoma, but also indicating that 11C-Methionine PET might have a potential of increasing the pretest likelihood of thyroid malignancy in a cold nodule with highly increased Sestamibi uptake.

  19. Salvage central lymphatic irradiation in follicular lymphomas following failure of chemotherapy: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Chul S.; Tucker, Susan L.; Blanco, Angel I.; Cabanillas, Fernando; Cox, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Management of follicular lymphoma after chemotherapy failure has been controversial and has ranged from watchful waiting to high-dose chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy with bone marrow reconstitution may produce clinical and molecular complete responses at the risk of serious morbidity and mortality. It has been previously reported that central lymphatic irradiation (CLI) can achieve long-term relapse-free survival in patients with Stage I, II, or III follicular lymphoma. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of treating patients in whom front-line chemotherapy failed with salvage CLI instead of instituting more intensive chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Salvage CLI with curative intent for patients with follicular lymphoma was started at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in 1992. Eleven patients whose disease showed poor response to or relapsed after chemotherapy were managed with this approach. The median age of the patients was 61 years. Criteria for exclusion included bone marrow involvement or other evidence of Ann Arbor Stage IV disease at any time during the course of the disease. Overall survival and relapse-free survival were calculated from the first day of CLI. Results: Ten patients were alive at a median follow-up of 25 months (range 9-73 months). The treatment was well tolerated in general. Two patients could not complete CLI: one 75-year-old patient owing to prolonged platelet count depression and deterioration in general medical condition, and a 66-year-old patient because of exacerbation of preexisting pancytopenia and worsening of heart disease. Everyone who completed CLI remains in remission at the time of this report, except for one patient who had a relapse in the right lacrimal gland at 32 months. This patient was treated with local radiation therapy and is free of disease. Eventual recovery of the blood counts was observed for the patients who completed CLI. Conclusion: These results demonstrate for the

  20. Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder with luteal phase dosing of sertraline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbreich, Uriel; Kahn, Linda S

    2003-11-01

    Sertraline (Zoloft, Pfizer Inc.) is a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) which has been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMDD is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) which affects at least 5 - 8% of women of reproductive age. It is characterised by cyclic appearance at the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and disappearance following the beginning of menses, with no symptoms during at least 1 week of the cycle - usually during the mid-follicular phase. Due to the cyclic luteal occurrence of PMDD, luteal phase dosing of SSRIs has been suggested and proven effective for sertraline as well as several other SSRIs. The clinical response of sertraline is reported to be within several days following initiation of treatment. Despite repeated cyclic discontinuation, no significant discontinuation adverse effects have been reported. In addition to its proven clinical efficacy, luteal-phase dosing may offer the advantages of minimising adverse effects of SSRIs while reducing the personal and economic burden of taking a prescription medication continuously for long periods and thus increasing compliance.

  1. Níveis de energia metabolizável para codornas japonesas na fase inicial de postura Metabolizable energy levels for Japanese quails in the initial laying phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz de Toledo Barreto

    2007-02-01

    and egg quality of quails was evaluated in this experiment. Two hundred and fifty laying Japanese female quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica, with 56 days of age, were assigned to a complete randomized design, with five treatments (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal of ME/kg, five replications and ten birds per experimental unit. The corn, soybean meal-based diets were formulated to contain 20% of CP, 2.5% of Ca, 1.17% of lysine and 0.802% of methionine+cystine. Feed intake (g/bird/day, energy intake (kcal ME/bird/day, total egg production (%/bird/day, commercial egg production (%/bird/day, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion (kg/kg of egg and kg/egg dozen, body weight gain (g, energy efficiency utilization (kcal ME/egg dozen and kcal ME/egg mass, weights of yolk (g, albumen (g and shell (g and yolk cholesterol concentration mg/g were analyzed. Increasing dietary ME levels resulted in linear decreased on feed intake and weights of egg and yolk and quadratic effect on weights of albumen, shell and egg mass. The 2,650 kcal of ME/kg level increased 12.6, 3.9, 15.7, 7.5, and 6.8% respectively the variables above, compared to the 3,050 kcal of ME/kg level. Feed:egg dozen ratio increased as the dietary ME levels increased. No treatment effect on the other studied variables was observed. Diets of Japanese quails in the initial laying phase (from 56 to 112 days of age must contain 2,650 kcal of ME/kg, corresponding to a daily intake of 61.5 kcal of ME/bird or 6.24 kcal of ME/g of egg to obtain good results of egg weight and feed:egg mass ratio, besides greater egg production in absolute value.

  2. p16 expression in follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: a potential mimicker of human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingxin; Yang, Chen; Lewis, James S; El-Mofty, Samir K; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2017-08-01

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly occurs in cervical lymph nodes. It has histologic and clinical overlap with the much more common p16-positive human papillomavirus (HPV)-related squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, which characteristically has nonkeratinizing morphology and often presents as an isolated neck mass. Not surprisingly, follicular dendritic cell sarcomas are commonly misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry is helpful in separating the 2 entities. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma expresses dendritic markers such as CD21 and CD23 and is almost always cytokeratin negative. However, in many cases of HPV-related oropharyngeal carcinoma, only p16 immunohistochemistry as a prognostic and surrogate marker for HPV is performed. p16 expression in follicular dendritic cell sarcoma has not been characterized. Here, we investigate the expression of p16 in follicular dendritic cell sarcoma and correlate it with retinoblastoma protein expression. A pilot study of dendritic marker expression in HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was also performed. We found that 4 of 8 sarcomas expressed p16 with strong and diffuse staining in 2 cases. In 2 of the 4 cases, p16 expression corresponded to loss of retinoblastoma protein expression. Dendritic marker expression (CD21 and CD23) was not found in HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. As such, positive p16 immunohistochemistry cannot be used as supportive evidence for the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma as strong and diffuse p16 expression may also occur in follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Cytokeratins and dendritic markers are critical in separating the two tumor types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System features of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma: a single-center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Won; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong Hyun; Baek, Jin Wook; Lee, Yoo Jin; Baek, Hye Jin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) features for distinguishing follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). From January 2013 to July 2016, 46 follicular neoplasms in 45 patients who underwent preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (US) and thyroid surgery were included. The US features of each thyroid nodule were retrospectively evaluated by a single radiologist using a picture archiving and communication system. The diagnostic indices of K-TIRADS for follicular neoplasms were calculated according to whether K-TIRADS category 4 lesions were excluded or classified as benign or malignant. Of the 46 follicular neoplasms (mean size, 3.1±1.6 cm), 37 were FTAs (mean size, 3.1±1.7 cm) and nine were FTCs (mean size, 3.0±1.5 cm). A statistically significant difference was found between FTAs and FTCs regarding the margin (P=0.035), while no significant differences were observed in the composition, echogenicity, shape, orientation, calcification, or vascularity of the lesions (P<0.05). The FTAs belonged to K-TIRADS categories 3 (n=22) and 4 (n=15), while the FTCs belonged to K-TIRADS categories 3 (n=4), 4 (n=4), and 5 (n=1). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of K-TIRADS categories between FTAs and FTCs (P=0.184).K-TIRADS features were not helpful for distinguishing FTA from FTC, although follicular neoplasms showed a high prevalence of K-TIRADS categories 3 and 4

  4. Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is a negative regulator of DHT-induced rat preantral follicular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kai; Liu, Jia-yin; Murphy, Bruce D; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member1 (NR4A1), an orphan nuclear receptor, is involved in the transcriptional regulation of thecal cell androgen biosynthesis and paracrine factor insulin-like 3 (INSL3) expression. Androgens are known to play an important regulatory role in ovarian follicle growth. Using a chronically androgenized rat model, a preantral follicle culture model and virus-mediated gene delivery, we examined the role and regulation of NR4A1 in the androgenic control of preantral follicular growth. In the present study, Ki67 staining was increased in preantral follicles on ovarian sections from 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated rats. Preantral follicles from DHT-treated rats cultured for 4 d exhibited increased growth and up-regulation of mRNA abundance of G(1)/S-specific cyclin-D2 (Ccnd2) and FSH receptor (Fshr). Similarly, DHT (1 μm) increased preantral follicular growth and Ccnd2 and Fshr mRNA abundance in vitro. The NR4A1 expression was high in theca cells and was down-regulated by DHT in vivo and in vitro. Forced expression of NR4A1 augmented preantral follicular growth, androstenedione production, and Insl3 expression in vitro. Inhibiting the action of androgen (with androgen receptor antagonist flutamide) or INSL3 (with INSL3 receptor antagonist INSL3 B-chain) reduced NR4A1-induced preantral follicular growth. Furthermore, NR4A1 overexpression enhanced DHT-induced preantral follicular growth, a response attenuated by inhibiting INSL3. In conclusion, DHT promotes preantral follicular growth and attenuates thecal NR4A1 expression in vivo and in vitro. Our findings are consistent with the notion that NR4A1 serves as an important point of negative feedback to minimize the excessive preantral follicle growth in hyperandrogenism.

  5. Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System features of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma: a single-center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Won; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong Hyun; Baek, Jin Wook; Lee, Yoo Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Hye Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) features for distinguishing follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). From January 2013 to July 2016, 46 follicular neoplasms in 45 patients who underwent preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (US) and thyroid surgery were included. The US features of each thyroid nodule were retrospectively evaluated by a single radiologist using a picture archiving and communication system. The diagnostic indices of K-TIRADS for follicular neoplasms were calculated according to whether K-TIRADS category 4 lesions were excluded or classified as benign or malignant. Of the 46 follicular neoplasms (mean size, 3.1±1.6 cm), 37 were FTAs (mean size, 3.1±1.7 cm) and nine were FTCs (mean size, 3.0±1.5 cm). A statistically significant difference was found between FTAs and FTCs regarding the margin (P=0.035), while no significant differences were observed in the composition, echogenicity, shape, orientation, calcification, or vascularity of the lesions (P<0.05). The FTAs belonged to K-TIRADS categories 3 (n=22) and 4 (n=15), while the FTCs belonged to K-TIRADS categories 3 (n=4), 4 (n=4), and 5 (n=1). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of K-TIRADS categories between FTAs and FTCs (P=0.184).K-TIRADS features were not helpful for distinguishing FTA from FTC, although follicular neoplasms showed a high prevalence of K-TIRADS categories 3 and 4.

  6. Phase B: Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL): A spacelab mission payload. Final review (DR-MA-03)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, O. W.

    1976-01-01

    Systems design for an initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory to study microphysical processes in zero gravity is presented. Included are descriptions of the fluid, thermal, mechanical, control and data, and electrical distribution interfaces with Spacelab. Schedule and cost analysis are discussed.

  7. Teacher Career Advancement Initiatives: Lessons Learned from Eight Case Studies. Phase II of Creating Sustainable Teacher Career Pathways: A 21st Century Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Catherine Fisk; Gaddis, Lynn; Bassett, Katherine; McKnight, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe what the authors learned from studying eight teacher career advancement initiatives implemented across a variety of contexts, including urban, suburban, and rural districts; high poverty and affluent districts; and in schools/districts both with and without strong union presence. They describe key…

  8. At the base of colinear Hox gene expression : cis-features and trans-factors orchestrating the initial phase of Hox cluster activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijts, Roel; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Hox genes are crucial players in the generation and pattering of the vertebrate trunk and posterior body during embryogenesis. Their initial expression takes place shortly after the establishment of the primitive streak, in the posterior-most part of the mouse embryo and is a determinant step for

  9. A kinetics and mechanistic study of the OH and NO2 initiated oxidation of cyclohexa-1,3-diene in the gas phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkin, M. E.; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Hurley, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics and products of the OH and NO2-initiated oxidation of cyclohexa-1,3-diene have been investigated at 296 K and 700 Torr using long path FTIR spectroscopy. Relative rate methods were employed using the photolysis of cyclohexa-1,3-diene/CH3ONO/NO/air mixtures to measure k(OH + cyclohexa...

  10. Developing a framework for assessing adaptability of citizen-focused e-Government initiatives in developing countries : The Case of Tanzania; Exploratory Phase Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yonazi, J.; Boonstra, A.; Sol, H.G.; Remenyi, D

    2008-01-01

    Citizens' adoption of e-government initiatives is a key element towards successful implementation of e-government projects. Understanding the factors that may potentially influence citizens' adoption of e-government plays a key role when developing government electronic services for the public. Such

  11. Has the time to come leave the "watch-and-wait" strategy in newly diagnosed asymptomatic follicular lymphoma patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Antonio; Casanova, María; Redondo, Maximino; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Medina-Pérez, Angeles

    2012-05-31

    Historically, the median overall survival for follicular lymphoma (FL) has been considered to be 9-10 years, and no treatment had ever prolonged this time period. Studies conducted more than 20 years ago demonstrated that treating patients with asymptomatic FL at the onset of the disease did not increase their survival, and that almost 20% of these patients did not need any treatment in the first 10 years of follow-up. Based on these facts, most clinical practice guidelines recommend active surveillance policies for patients with asymptomatic FL. The introduction of antiCD-20 monoclonal antibodies, over the last 15 years, has significantly increased the median survival rate to above 14 years. This improvement was achieved before the combination of rituximab and chemotherapy regimens became extensively used in patients with symptomatic disease. Therefore, this increase in survival may currently be more significant. At present, several clinical trials have evaluated low-toxicity therapies that prolong progression-free periods, among which rituximab monotherapy, radioimmunotherapy or the combination of rituximab with bendamustine are the most relevant. Unfortunately, these clinical trials have included only patients with symptomatic FL. The results of a recently reported clinical trial show that treatment with single-agent rituximab prolongs progression-free survival rates, time to new treatment and the quality of life of asymptomatic patients, as compared with the active surveillance strategy. Longer follow-up of these results and data regarding overall survival are awaited before this treatment can be recommended as the standard initial therapy. There are different therapeutic possibilities for asymptomatic FL patients, but no data are currently available to indicate which option is the best. Patients need to understand the risks and benefits of observation versus treatment before a final decision can be made. For patients who want active treatment the

  12. Has the time to come leave the “watch-and-wait” strategy in newly diagnosed asymptomatic follicular lymphoma patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, the median overall survival for follicular lymphoma (FL has been considered to be 9-10 years, and no treatment had ever prolonged this time period. Studies conducted more than 20 years ago demonstrated that treating patients with asymptomatic FL at the onset of the disease did not increase their survival, and that almost 20% of these patients did not need any treatment in the first 10 years of follow-up. Based on these facts, most clinical practice guidelines recommend active surveillance policies for patients with asymptomatic FL. Discussion The introduction of antiCD-20 monoclonal antibodies, over the last 15 years, has significantly increased the median survival rate to above 14 years. This improvement was achieved before the combination of rituximab and chemotherapy regimens became extensively used in patients with symptomatic disease. Therefore, this increase in survival may currently be more significant. At present, several clinical trials have evaluated low-toxicity therapies that prolong progression-free periods, among which rituximab monotherapy, radioimmunotherapy or the combination of rituximab with bendamustine are the most relevant. Unfortunately, these clinical trials have included only patients with symptomatic FL. The results of a recently reported clinical trial show that treatment with single-agent rituximab prolongs progression-free survival rates, time to new treatment and the quality of life of asymptomatic patients, as compared with the active surveillance strategy. Longer follow-up of these results and data regarding overall survival are awaited before this treatment can be recommended as the standard initial therapy. Summary There are different therapeutic possibilities for asymptomatic FL patients, but no data are currently available to indicate which option is the best. Patients need to understand the risks and benefits of observation versus treatment before a final decision

  13. Has the time to come leave the “watch-and-wait” strategy in newly diagnosed asymptomatic follicular lymphoma patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, Antonio; Casanova, María; Redondo, Maximino; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Medina-Pérez, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the median overall survival for follicular lymphoma (FL) has been considered to be 9-10 years, and no treatment had ever prolonged this time period. Studies conducted more than 20 years ago demonstrated that treating patients with asymptomatic FL at the onset of the disease did not increase their survival, and that almost 20% of these patients did not need any treatment in the first 10 years of follow-up. Based on these facts, most clinical practice guidelines recommend active surveillance policies for patients with asymptomatic FL. The introduction of antiCD-20 monoclonal antibodies, over the last 15 years, has significantly increased the median survival rate to above 14 years. This improvement was achieved before the combination of rituximab and chemotherapy regimens became extensively used in patients with symptomatic disease. Therefore, this increase in survival may currently be more significant. At present, several clinical trials have evaluated low-toxicity therapies that prolong progression-free periods, among which rituximab monotherapy, radioimmunotherapy or the combination of rituximab with bendamustine are the most relevant. Unfortunately, these clinical trials have included only patients with symptomatic FL. The results of a recently reported clinical trial show that treatment with single-agent rituximab prolongs progression-free survival rates, time to new treatment and the quality of life of asymptomatic patients, as compared with the active surveillance strategy. Longer follow-up of these results and data regarding overall survival are awaited before this treatment can be recommended as the standard initial therapy. There are different therapeutic possibilities for asymptomatic FL patients, but no data are currently available to indicate which option is the best. Patients need to understand the risks and benefits of observation versus treatment before a final decision can be made. For patients who want active treatment the

  14. Immunoregulation of follicular renewal, selection, POF, and menopause in vivo, vs. neo-oogenesis in vitro, POF and ovarian infertility treatment, and a clinical trial

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukovský, Antonín; Caudle, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, Nov 23 (2012), č. článku 97. ISSN 1477-7827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Fetal neo-oogenesis * Follicular selection * Follicular renewal in mammals Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2012

  15. Higher World Health Organization grades of follicular lymphoma correlate with better outcome in two Nordic Lymphoma Group trials of rituximab without chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlin, Björn Engelbrekt; Sundström, Christer; Sander, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A common treatment for follicular lymphoma is rituximab monotherapy. To identify patients for whom this regimen is adequate as first-line therapy, we applied the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for grading follicular lymphoma in a prospective central pathology review...... increased with the malignant cell size (p useful tool for personalized therapy....

  16. Opioid Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) use during the Initial Experience with the IMPROVE PCA Trial: A Phase III Analgesic Trial for Hospitalized Sickle Cell Patients with Painful Episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Dampier, Carlton D.; Smith, Wally R.; Kim, Hae-Young; Wager, Carrie Greene; Bell, Margaret C.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Keefer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Lewis; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Mack, A. Kyle; McClish, Donna; McKinlay, Sonja M.; Miller, Scott T.; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa; Seaman, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Opioid analgesics administered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) are frequently used for pain relief in children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) hospitalized for persistent vaso-occlusive pain, but optimum opioid dosing is not known. To better define PCA dosing recommendations, a multi-center phase III clinical trial was conducted comparing two alternative opioid PCA dosing strategies (HDLI-higher demand dose with low constant infusion or LDHI- lower demand dose and higher const...

  17. Combination of Ibrutinib and ABT-199 in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Follicular Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsu-Ping; Ezell, Scott A; Schweighofer, Karl J; Cheung, Leo W K; Hsieh, Sidney; Apatira, Mutiah; Sirisawad, Mint; Eckert, Karl; Hsu, Ssucheng J; Chen, Chun-Te; Beaupre, Darrin M; Versele, Matthias; Chang, Betty Y

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma are the most prevalent B-lymphocyte neoplasms in which abnormal activation of the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK)-mediated B-cell receptor signaling pathway contributes to pathogenesis. Ibrutinib is an oral covalent BTK inhibitor that has shown some efficacy in both indications. To improve ibrutinib efficacy through combination therapy, we first investigated differential gene expression in parental and ibrutinib-resistant cell lines to better understand the mechanisms of resistance. Ibrutinib-resistant TMD8 cells had higher BCL2 gene expression and increased sensitivity to ABT-199, a BCL-2 inhibitor. Consistently, clinical samples from ABC-DLBCL patients who experienced poorer response to ibrutinib had higher BCL2 gene expression. We further demonstrated synergistic growth suppression by ibrutinib and ABT-199 in multiple ABC-DLBCL, GCB-DLBCL, and follicular lymphoma cell lines. The combination of both drugs also reduced colony formation, increased apoptosis, and inhibited tumor growth in a TMD8 xenograft model. A synergistic combination effect was also found in ibrutinib-resistant cells generated by either genetic mutation or drug treatment. Together, these findings suggest a potential clinical benefit from ibrutinib and ABT-199 combination therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(7); 1246-56. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Estradiol decreases iodide uptake by rat thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlanetto T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has well-known indirect effects on the thyroid. A direct effect of estradiol on thyroid follicular cells, increasing cell growth and reducing the expression of the sodium-iodide symporter gene, has been recently reported. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of estradiol on iodide uptake by thyroid follicular cells, using FRTL-5 cells as a model. Estradiol decreased basal iodide uptake by FRTL-5 cells from control levels of 2.490 ± 0.370 to 2.085 ± 0.364 pmol I-/µg DNA at 1 ng/ml (P<0.02, to 1.970 ± 0.302 pmol I-/µg DNA at 10 ng/ml (P<0.003, and to 2.038 ± 0.389 pmol I-/µg DNA at 100 ng/ml (P<0.02. In addition, 4 ng/ml estradiol decreased iodide uptake induced by 0.02 mIU/ml thyrotropin from 8.678 ± 0.408 to 7.312 ± 0.506 pmol I-/µg DNA (P<0.02. A decrease in iodide uptake by thyroid cells caused by estradiol has not been described previously and may have a role in goiter pathogenesis.

  19. Lipidomics analysis of follicular fluid by ESI-MS reveals potential biomarkers for ovarian endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Fernanda Bertuccez; Cataldi, Thais Regiani; Perkel, Kayla Jane; do Vale Teixeira da Costa, Lívia; Rochetti, Raquel Cellin; Stevanato, Juliana; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Zylbersztejn, Daniel Suslik; Cedenho, Agnaldo Pereira; Turco, Edson Guimarães Lo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the lipid profile of follicular fluid from patients with endometriosis and endometrioma who underwent in vitro fertilization treatment (IVF). The control group (n = 10) was composed of women with tubal factor or minimal male factor infertility who had positive pregnancy outcomes after IVF. The endometriosis group consisted of women with endometriosis diagnosed by videolaparoscopy (n = 10), and from the same patients, the endometriomas fluids were collected, which composed the endometrioma group (n = 10). From the follicular fluid and endometriomas, lipids were extracted by the Bligh and Dyer method, and the samples were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. We observed phosphatidylglycerol phosphate, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylnositol bisphosphate in the control group. In the endometriosis group, sphingolipids and phosphatidylcholines were more abundant, while in the endometrioma group, sphingolipids and phosphatidylcholines with different m/z from the endometriosis group were found in high abundance. This analysis demonstrated that there is a differential representation of these lipids according to their respective groups. In addition, the lipids found are involved in important mechanisms related to endometriosis progress in the ovary. Thus, the metabolomic approach for the study of lipids may be helpful in potential biomarker discovery.

  20. A case of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma complicated with Graves' disease after total thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Mariko; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Tsuboi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Tangoku, Akira

    2017-12-28

    Thyroid cancer and Graves' disease may present simultaneously in one patient. The incidence of the development of hyperthyroidism from metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma is rare. We herein report a case of metastatic follicular carcinoma complicated with Graves' disease after total thyroidectomy. A 57-year-old woman underwent right hemithyroidectomy for follicular carcinoma. Metastatic lesions appeared in the lungs and skull two years after the first surgery, and remnant thyroidectomy was performed for radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) therapy, during which the TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) was found to be negative. The patient was treated with RAI therapy four times for four years and was receiving levothyroxine suppressive therapy. Although radioiodine uptake was observed in the lesions after the fourth course of RAI therapy, metastatic lesions had progressed. Four years after the second surgery, she had heart palpitations and tremors. Laboratory data revealed hyperthyroidism and positive TRAb. She was diagnosed with Graves' disease and received a fifth course of RAI therapy. 131I scintigraphy after RAI therapy showed strong radioiodine uptake in the metastatic lesions. As a result, the sizes and numbers of metastatic lesions decreased, and thyroid function improved. Metastatic lesions produced thyroid hormone and caused hyperthyroidism. RAI therapy was effective for Graves' disease and thyroid carcinoma.