Acoustic multivariate condition monitoring - AMCM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenhave, P.E. [Vestfold College, Maritime Dept., Toensberg (Norway)
1997-12-31
In Norway, Vestfold College, Maritime Department presents new opportunities for non-invasive, on- or off-line acoustic monitoring of rotating machinery such as off-shore pumps and diesel engines. New developments within acoustic sensor technology coupled with chemometric data analysis of complex signals now allow condition monitoring of hitherto unavailable flexibility and diagnostic specificity. Chemometrics paired with existing knowledge yields a new and powerful tool for condition monitoring. By the use of multivariate techniques and acoustics it is possible to quantify wear and tear as well as predict the performance of working components in complex machinery. This presentation describes the AMCM method and one result of a feasibility study conducted onboard the LPG/C `Norgas Mariner` owned by Norwegian Gas Carriers as (NGC), Oslo. (orig.) 6 refs.
Initial conditions for inflation
Dimopoulos, Konstantinos
2016-01-01
A novel proposal is presented, which manages to overcome the initial conditions problem of inflation with a plateau. An earlier period of proto-inflation, beginning at Planck scale, accounts for the Universe expansion and arranges the required initial conditions for inflation on the plateu to commence. We show that, if proto-inflation is power-law, it does not suffer from any eternal inflationary stage. A simple model realisation is constructed in the context of $\\alpha$-attractors, which can both generate the inflationary plateau and the exponential slopes around it, necessary for the two inflation stages. Our mechanism allows to assume chaotic initial conditions at the Planck scale for proto-inflation, it is generic and it is shown to work without fine-tunings.
On the Conditional Distribution of the Multivariate $t$ Distribution
Ding, Peng
2016-01-01
As alternatives to the normal distributions, $t$ distributions are widely applied in robust analysis for data with outliers or heavy tails. The properties of the multivariate $t$ distribution are well documented in Kotz and Nadarajah's book, which, however, states a wrong conclusion about the conditional distribution of the multivariate $t$ distribution. Previous literature has recognized that the conditional distribution of the multivariate $t$ distribution also follows the multivariate $t$ ...
Initial conditions for inflation
Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Artymowski, Michał
2017-09-01
Within the α-attractors framework we investigate scalar potentials with the same pole as the one featured in the kinetic term. We show that, in field space, this leads to directions without a plateau. Using this, we present a proposal, which manages to overcome the initial conditions problem of inflation with a plateau. An earlier period of proto-inflation, beginning at Planck scale, accounts for the Universe expansion and arranges the required initial conditions for inflation on the plateau to commence. We show that, if proto-inflation is power-law, it does not suffer from a sub-Planckian eternal inflationary stage, which would otherwise be a problem. A simple model realisation is constructed in the context of α-attractors, which can both generate the inflationary plateau and the exponential slopes around it, necessary for the two inflation stages. Our mechanism allows to assume chaotic initial conditions at the Planck scale for proto-inflation, it is generic and it is shown to work without fine-tuning.
Iterative initial condition reconstruction
Schmittfull, Marcel; Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2017-07-01
Motivated by recent developments in perturbative calculations of the nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure, we present an iterative algorithm to reconstruct the initial conditions in a given volume starting from the dark matter distribution in real space. In our algorithm, objects are first moved back iteratively along estimated potential gradients, with a progressively reduced smoothing scale, until a nearly uniform catalog is obtained. The linear initial density is then estimated as the divergence of the cumulative displacement, with an optional second-order correction. This algorithm should undo nonlinear effects up to one-loop order, including the higher-order infrared resummation piece. We test the method using dark matter simulations in real space. At redshift z =0 , we find that after eight iterations the reconstructed density is more than 95% correlated with the initial density at k ≤0.35 h Mpc-1 . The reconstruction also reduces the power in the difference between reconstructed and initial fields by more than 2 orders of magnitude at k ≤0.2 h Mpc-1 , and it extends the range of scales where the full broadband shape of the power spectrum matches linear theory by a factor of 2-3. As a specific application, we consider measurements of the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale that can be improved by reducing the degradation effects of large-scale flows. In our idealized dark matter simulations, the method improves the BAO signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.7 at z =0 and by a factor of 2.5 at z =0.6 , improving standard BAO reconstruction by 70% at z =0 and 30% at z =0.6 , and matching the optimal BAO signal and signal-to-noise ratio of the linear density in the same volume. For BAO, the iterative nature of the reconstruction is the most important aspect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
E. Siegmann
2000-08-22
The purpose of this analysis is to describe the condition of commercial Zircaloy clad fuel as it is received at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site. Most commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. This analysis is developed to describe cladding degradation from the expected failure modes. This includes reactor operation impacts including incipient failures, potential degradation after reactor operation during spent fuel storage in pool and dry storage and impacts due to transportation. Degradation modes include cladding creep, and delayed hydride cracking during dry storage and transportation. Mechanical stresses from fuel handling and transportation vibrations are also included. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) does not address any potential damage to assemblies that might occur at the YMP surface facilities. Ranges and uncertainties have been defined. This analysis will be the initial boundary condition for the analysis of cladding degradation inside the repository. In accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning'', a work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000c) was developed, issued, and utilized in the preparation of this document. There are constraints, caveats and limitations to this analysis. This cladding degradation analysis is based on commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel with Zircaloy cladding but is applicable to Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel. Reactor operating experience for both PWRs and BWRs is used to establish fuel reliability from reactor operation. It is limited to fuel exposed to normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences (i.e. events which are anticipated to occur within a reactor lifetime), and not to fuel that has been exposed to severe accidents. Fuel burnup projections have been limited to the current commercial reactor licensing environment with restrictions on fuel enrichment, oxide coating thickness and rod plenum pressures. The information provided in this analysis
Multivariate saddlepoint approximations in tail probability and conditional inference
Kolassa, John; 10.3150/09-BEJ237
2010-01-01
We extend known saddlepoint tail probability approximations to multivariate cases, including multivariate conditional cases. Our approximation applies to both continuous and lattice variables, and requires the existence of a cumulant generating function. The method is applied to some examples, including a real data set from a case-control study of endometrial cancer. The method contains less terms and is easier to implement than existing methods, while showing an accuracy comparable to those methods.
Causal Information Approach to Partial Conditioning in Multivariate Data Sets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Marinazzo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available When evaluating causal influence from one time series to another in a multivariate data set it is necessary to take into account the conditioning effect of the other variables. In the presence of many variables and possibly of a reduced number of samples, full conditioning can lead to computational and numerical problems. In this paper, we address the problem of partial conditioning to a limited subset of variables, in the framework of information theory. The proposed approach is tested on simulated data sets and on an example of intracranial EEG recording from an epileptic subject. We show that, in many instances, conditioning on a small number of variables, chosen as the most informative ones for the driver node, leads to results very close to those obtained with a fully multivariate analysis and even better in the presence of a small number of samples. This is particularly relevant when the pattern of causalities is sparse.
Quantum Measurement and Initial Conditions
Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel
2016-03-01
Quantum measurement finds the observed system in a collapsed state, rather than in the state predicted by the Schrödinger equation. Yet there is a relatively spread opinion that the wavefunction collapse can be explained by unitary evolution (for instance in the decoherence approach, if we take into account the environment). In this article it is proven a mathematical result which severely restricts the initial conditions for which measurements have definite outcomes, if pure unitary evolution is assumed. This no-go theorem remains true even if we take the environment into account. The result does not forbid a unitary description of the measurement process, it only shows that such a description is possible only for very restricted initial conditions. The existence of such restrictions of the initial conditions can be understood in the four-dimensional block universe perspective, as a requirement of global self-consistency of the solutions of the Schrödinger equation.
Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations
Ashtekar, Abhay
2016-01-01
Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose's hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose's hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime \\emph{as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations}.
Hydrodynamics from Landau initial conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sen, Abhisek [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gerhard, Jochen [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Germany; Torrieri, Giorgio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física " Gleb Wataghin" (IFGW), Sao Paulo, Brazil; Read jr, Kenneth F. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL
2015-01-01
We investigate ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, both in a semi-analytical 1+1D approach and in a numerical code incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. The object of the calculation is to test how fast would a Landau initial condition transition to a commonly used boost-invariant expansion. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of O (20 - 30%) expected at freezeout for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost-invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, 2+1 dimensional hydrodynamics is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. Based on [1, 2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo
In this paper we propose a multivariate GARCH model with a time-varying conditional correlation structure. The new Double Smooth Transition Conditional Correlation GARCH model extends the Smooth Transition Conditional Correlation GARCH model of Silvennoinen and Ter¨asvirta (2005) by including...... another variable according to which the correlations change smoothly between states of constant correlations. A Lagrange multiplier test is derived to test the constancy of correlations against the DSTCC-GARCH model, and another one to test for another transition in the STCC-GARCH framework. In addition......, other specification tests, with the aim of aiding the model building procedure, are considered. Analytical expressions for the test statistics and the required derivatives are provided. The model is applied to a selection of world stock indices, and it is found that time is an important factor affecting...
Atmospheric conditions, lunar phases, and childbirth: a multivariate analysis
Ochiai, Angela Megumi; Gonçalves, Fabio Luiz Teixeira; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Florentino, Lucia Cristina; Wei, Chang Yi; Soares, Alda Valeria Neves; De Araujo, Natalucia Matos; Gualda, Dulce Maria Rosa
2012-07-01
Our objective was to assess extrinsic influences upon childbirth. In a cohort of 1,826 days containing 17,417 childbirths among them 13,252 spontaneous labor admissions, we studied the influence of environment upon the high incidence of labor (defined by 75th percentile or higher), analyzed by logistic regression. The predictors of high labor admission included increases in outdoor temperature (odds ratio: 1.742, P = 0.045, 95%CI: 1.011 to 3.001), and decreases in atmospheric pressure (odds ratio: 1.269, P = 0.029, 95%CI: 1.055 to 1.483). In contrast, increases in tidal range were associated with a lower probability of high admission (odds ratio: 0.762, P = 0.030, 95%CI: 0.515 to 0.999). Lunar phase was not a predictor of high labor admission ( P = 0.339). Using multivariate analysis, increases in temperature and decreases in atmospheric pressure predicted high labor admission, and increases of tidal range, as a measurement of the lunar gravitational force, predicted a lower probability of high admission.
An Asymmetric Block Dynamic Conditional Correlation Multivariate GARCH Model
Vargas, Gregorio A.
2006-01-01
The Block DCC model for determining dynamic correlations within and between groups of financial asset returns is extended to account for asymmetric effects. Simulation results show that the Asymmetric Block DCC model is competitive in in-sample forecasting and performs better than alternative DCC models in out-of-sample forecasting of conditional correlation in the presence of asymmetric effect between blocks of asset returns. Empirical results demonstrate that the model is able to capture ...
Initial Conditions for Large Cosmological Simulations
Prunet, S; Aubert, D; Pogosyan, D; Teyssier, R; Gottlöber, S
2008-01-01
This technical paper describes a software package that was designed to produce initial conditions for large cosmological simulations in the context of the Horizon collaboration. These tools generalize E. Bertschinger's Grafic1 software to distributed parallel architectures and offer a flexible alternative to the Grafic2 software for ``zoom'' initial conditions, at the price of large cumulated cpu and memory usage. The codes have been validated up to resolutions of 4096^3 and were used to generate the initial conditions of large hydrodynamical and dark matter simulations. They also provide means to generate constrained realisations for the purpose of generating initial conditions compatible with, e.g. the local group, or the SDSS catalog.
Higgs Inflation and General Initial Conditions
Zeynizadeh, Sarang
2015-01-01
Higgs field of particle physics can play the role of the inflaton in the early universe, if it is non-minimally coupled to gravity. The Higgs inflation scenario predicts a small tensor to scalar ratio: $r\\simeq 0.003$. Although this value is consistent with the upper bound $r < 0.12$ given by BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck data, but it is not at their maximum likelihood point: $r\\simeq 0.05$. Inflationary observables depend not only on the inflationary models, but also depend on the initial conditions of inflation. Changing initial state of inflation can improve the value of $r$. In this work, we study the Higgs inflation model under general initial conditions and show that there is a subset of these general initial conditions which leads to enhancement of $r$. Then we show that this region of parameter space is consistent with non-Gaussianity bound.
Novel quantum initial conditions for inflation
Handley, W J; Hobson, M P
2016-01-01
We present a novel approach for setting initial conditions on the mode functions of the Mukhanov Sazaki equation. These conditions are motivated by minimisation of the renormalised stress-energy tensor, and are valid for setting a vacuum state even in a context where the spacetime is changing rapidly. Moreover, these alternative conditions are potentially observationally distinguishable. We apply this to the kinetically dominated universe, and compare with the more traditional approach.
Initial conditions for the Galileon dark energy
Germani, Cristiano
2017-03-01
Galileon models are among the most appealing candidates for Dark Energy. The reason is twofold: classically, they provide a tracking solution leading to an almost DeSitter space starting from very generic initial conditions in the deep radiation era. The second reason is the standard lore that Galileons are quantum mechanically stable. The latter property is certainly true in flat space-time, thanks to the non-renormalisation theorems of Galilean coupling constants. However, in a cosmological background, we show that quantum effects might dominate the classical trajectory. Assuming the radiation era to last at least up to the electroweak phase transition, the trajectory with initial conditions sitting on the tracker is ruled out. On the other hand, it is always possible to find a sub-space of initial conditions such that the dark energy solution approaches stably the tracker at late times. Fixing the value of initial conditions that best fit current data, and assuming that the Galileon effective theory is valid up to the beginning of the radiation epoch, we found that the reheating temperature of the universe cannot be larger than 108 GeV. Reversing the argument, if dark energy will turn out to be in form of Galileons, the bounds by EUCLID on the initial conditions for these models will also be a bound on the reheating temperature of our Universe.
Tubular initial conditions and ridge formation
Borysova, M S; Karpenko, Iu A; Shapoval, V M; Sinyukov, Yu M
2013-01-01
The 2D azimuth & rapidity structure of the two-particle correlations in relativistic A+A collisions is altered significantly by the presence of sharp inhomogeneities in superdense matter formed in such processes. The causality constraints enforce one to associate the long-range longitudinal correlations observed in a narrow angular interval, the so-called (soft) ridge, with peculiarities of the initial conditions of collision process. This study's objective is to analyze whether multiform initial tubular structures, undergoing the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution and gradual decoupling, can form the soft ridges. Motivated by the flux-tube scenarios, the initial energy density distribution contains the different numbers of high density tube-like boost-invariant inclusions that form a bumpy structure in the transverse plane. The influence of various structures of such initial conditions in the most central A+A events on the collective evolution of matter, resulting spectra, angular particle correlations an...
A Scheme for Initial Exploratory Data Analysis of Multivariate Image Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus
2001-01-01
A new scheme is proposed for handling initial exploratory analyses of multivariate image data. The method is invariant to linear transformations of the original data and is useful for data fusion of multisource measurements. The scheme includes dimensionality reduction followed by unsupervised...... clustering of the data. A transformation is proposed which maximizes autocorrelation by projection onto subspaces with signal-to-noise ratio dependent variance. We apply the traditional fuzzy c-means algorithm and introduce two additional memberships enhancing the textural awareness of the algorithm. Cluster...
Decaying magnetohydrodynamics: effects of initial conditions
Basu
2000-02-01
We study the effects of homogenous and isotropic initial conditions on decaying magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We show that for an initial distribution of velocity and magnetic-field fluctuations, appropriately defined structure functions decay as a power law in time. We also show that for a suitable choice of initial cross correlations between velocity and magnetic fields even-order structure functions acquire anomalous scaling in time where as scaling exponents of the odd-order structure functions remain unchanged. We discuss our results in the context of fully developed MHD turbulence.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ørregård Nielsen, Morten
2015-01-01
This article proves consistency and asymptotic normality for the conditional-sum-of-squares estimator, which is equivalent to the conditional maximum likelihood estimator, in multivariate fractional time-series models. The model is parametric and quite general and, in particular, encompasses...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ørregård Nielsen, Morten
This paper proves consistency and asymptotic normality for the conditional-sum-of-squares estimator, which is equivalent to the conditional maximum likelihood estimator, in multivariate fractional time series models. The model is parametric and quite general, and, in particular, encompasses...
Initial conditions for the Galileon dark energy
Germani, Cristiano
2016-01-01
Galileon models are among the most appealing candidates for Dark Energy. The reason is twofold: classically, they provide a tracking solution leading to an almost DeSitter space starting from very generic initial conditions in the deep radiation era. The second reason is the standard lore that Galileons are quantum mechanically stable. The latter property is certainly true in flat space-time, thanks to the non-renormalization theorems of galilean coupling constants. However, in a cosmological background, we show that quantum effects might dominate the classical trajectory. Assuming the radiation era to last at least up to the electroweak phase transition, the trajectory with initial conditions sitting on the tracker is ruled out. On the other hand, it is always possible to find a sub-space of initial conditions such that the dark energy solution approaches stably the tracker at late times. Fixing the value of initial conditions that best fit current data, and assuming that the galileon effective theory is val...
Initial conditions for turbulent mixing simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Kaman
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the context of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamical instability, we examine the much debated question of models for initial conditions and the possible influence of unrecorded long wave length contributions to the instability growth rate α.
Modelling population processes with random initial conditions.
Pollett, P K; Dooley, A H; Ross, J V
2010-02-01
Population dynamics are almost inevitably associated with two predominant sources of variation: the first, demographic variability, a consequence of chance in progenitive and deleterious events; the second, initial state uncertainty, a consequence of partial observability and reporting delays and errors. Here we outline a general method for incorporating random initial conditions in population models where a deterministic model is sufficient to describe the dynamics of the population. Additionally, we show that for a large class of stochastic models the overall variation is the sum of variation due to random initial conditions and variation due to random dynamics, and thus we are able to quantify the variation not accounted for when random dynamics are ignored. Our results are illustrated with reference to both simulated and real data.
Chan, Chia-Hua; Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Yen-Tyng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Wei J
2015-04-01
This study aimed to investigate the relations of adolescent sexual experiences (particularly early initiation) to a spectrum of emotional/behavioral problems and to probe possible gender difference in such relationships. The 10th (N = 8,842) and 12th (N = 10,083) grade students, aged 16-19 years, participating in national surveys in 2005 and 2006 in Taiwan were included for this study. A self-administered web-based questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual experience, substance use, and the Youth Self-Report Form. For the sexually experienced adolescents, their sexual initiation was classified as early initiation (initiation (16-19 years). Gender-specific multivariate response profile regression was used to examine the relationship between sexual experience and the behavioral syndromes. Externalizing problems, including Rule-breaking Behavior and Aggressive Behavior, were strongly associated with sexual initiation in adolescence; the magnitude of the association increased for earlier sexual initiation, especially for females. As to internalizing problems, the connection was rather heterogeneous. The scores on some syndromes, such as Somatic Complaints and Anxious/Depressed, were higher only for females with early or non-early sexual initiation whereas the score on Withdrawn, along with Social Problems that is neither internalizing nor externalizing, was lower for the sexually experienced adolescents than for the sexually inexperienced ones. We concluded that earlier sexual initiation was associated with a wider range of behavioral problems in adolescents for both genders, yet the increased risk with emotional problems was predominately found in females.
Cosmic initial conditions for a habitable universe
Rahvar, Sohrab
2017-09-01
Within the framework of an eternal inflationary scenario, a natural question regarding the production of eternal bubbles is the essential conditions required to have a universe capable of generating life. In either an open or a closed universe, we find an anthropic lower bound on the amount of e-folding in the order of 60 for the inflationary epoch, which results in the formation of large-scale structures in both linear and non-linear regimes. We extend the question of the initial condition of the universe to the sufficient condition in which we have enough initial dark matter and baryonic matter asymmetry in the early universe for the formation of galactic halos, stars, planets and consequently life. We show that the probability of a habitable universe is proportional to the asymmetry of dark and baryonic matter, while the cosmic budget of baryonic matter is limited by astrophysical constraints.
Causality, initial conditions and inflationary magnetogenesis
Tsagas, Christos G
2016-01-01
The post-inflationary evolution of inflation-produced magnetic fields, conventional or not, can change dramatically when two fundamental issues are accounted for. The first is causality, which demands that local physical processes can never affect superhorizon perturbations. The second is the nature of the transition from inflation to reheating and then to the radiation era, which determine the initial conditions at the start of these epochs. Technically, the latter issue can be addressed by appealing to Israel's junction conditions. Causality implies that inflationary magnetic fields dot not freeze into the matter until they have re-entered the causal horizon. The nature of cosmological transitions and the associated initial conditions, on the other hand, determine the large-scale magnetic evolution after inflation. Put together, the two can slow down the adiabatic decay of superhorizon-sized magnetic fields throughout their post-inflationary life and thus lead to considerably stronger residual strengths. Th...
Cosmic Initial Condition for a Habitable Universe
Rahvar, Sohrab
2016-01-01
Within the framework of chaotic inflationary scenario, a natural question regarding the eternal bubble production is that what is the essential condition to have a universe being habitable ? In this work we investigate the minimum amount of e-folding for the inflationary area that results in the large scale structure formation at least in the linear regime. We extended this question to the sufficient condition of having enough initial baryonic asymmetry for the formation of the stars, planets and consequently life in the universe.
Initial conditions of radiative shock experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Krauland, C. M.; Marion, D. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Rutter, E.; Torralva, B.; Holloway, J. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, University of Michigan, Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics, 2455 Hayward Dr., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Bingham, D.; Goh, J. [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6 (Canada); Boehly, T. R.; Sorce, A. T. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2013-05-15
We performed experiments at the Omega Laser Facility to characterize the initial, laser-driven state of a radiative shock experiment. These experiments aimed to measure the shock breakout time from a thin, laser-irradiated Be disk. The data are then used to inform a range of valid model parameters, such as electron flux limiter and polytropic γ, used when simulating radiative shock experiments using radiation hydrodynamics codes. The characterization experiment and the radiative shock experiment use a laser irradiance of ∼7 × 10{sup 14} W cm{sup −2} to launch a shock in the Be disk. A velocity interferometer and a streaked optical pyrometer were used to infer the amount of time for the shock to move through the Be disk. The experimental results were compared with simulation results from the Hyades code, which can be used to model the initial conditions of a radiative shock system using the CRASH code.
Magnetized initial conditions for CMB anisotropies
Giovannini, Massimo
2004-12-01
This paper introduces a systematic treatment of the linear theory of scalar gravitational perturbations in the presence of a fully inhomogeneous magnetic field. The analysis is conducted both in the synchronous and in the conformally Newtonian gauges. The cosmological plasma is assumed to be composed of cold dark matter, baryons, photons, neutrinos. The problem of superhorizon initial conditions for the fluid variables of the various species and for the coupled system of Boltzmann-Einstein equations is discussed in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The tight-coupling approximation for the Boltzmann hierarchy is extended to the case where gravitating magnetic fields are included.
Initial conditions in the neural field model
Valdes-Hernandez, Pedro A
2016-01-01
In spite of the large amount of existing neural models in the literature, there is a lack of a systematic review of the possible effect of choosing different initial conditions on the dynamic evolution of neural systems. In this short review we intend to give insights into this topic by discussing some published examples. First, we briefly introduce the different ingredients of a neural dynamical model. Secondly, we introduce some concepts used to describe the dynamic behavior of neural models, namely phase space and its portraits, time series, spectra, multistability and bifurcations. We end with an analysis of the irreversibility of processes and its implications on the functioning of normal and pathological brains.
MUSIC: MUlti-Scale Initial Conditions
Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom
2013-11-01
MUSIC generates multi-scale initial conditions with multiple levels of refinements for cosmological ‘zoom-in’ simulations. The code uses an adaptive convolution of Gaussian white noise with a real-space transfer function kernel together with an adaptive multi-grid Poisson solver to generate displacements and velocities following first- (1LPT) or second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT). MUSIC achieves rms relative errors of the order of 10-4 for displacements and velocities in the refinement region and thus improves in terms of errors by about two orders of magnitude over previous approaches. In addition, errors are localized at coarse-fine boundaries and do not suffer from Fourier space-induced interference ringing.
Initial conditions from the shadowed Glauber model
Chatterjee, Sandeep; Ghosh, Snigdha; Hasanujjaman, Md; Alam, Jane; Sarkar, Sourav
2015-01-01
The two component Monte-Carlo Glauber model predicts a knee-like structure in the centrality dependence of elliptic flow $v_2$ in Uranium+Uranium collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=193$ GeV. It also produces a strong anti-correlation between $v_2$ and $dN_{ch}/dy$ in the case of top ZDC events. However, none of these features have been observed in data. We address these discrepancies by including the effect of nucleon shadowing to the two component Monte-Carlo Glauber model. Apart from addressing successfully the above issues, we find that the nucleon shadow suppresses the event by event fluctuation of various quantities, e.g. $\\varepsilon_2$ which is in accordance with expectation from the dynamical models of initial condition based on gluon saturation physics.
Linking multimetric and multivariate approaches to assess the ecological condition of streams.
Collier, Kevin J
2009-10-01
Few attempts have been made to combine multimetric and multivariate analyses for bioassessment despite recognition that an integrated method could yield powerful tools for bioassessment. An approach is described that integrates eight macroinvertebrate community metrics into a Principal Components Analysis to develop a Multivariate Condition Score (MCS) from a calibration dataset of 511 samples. The MCS is compared to an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) derived using the same metrics based on the ratio to the reference site mean. Both approaches were highly correlated although the MCS appeared to offer greater potential for discriminating a wider range of impaired conditions. Both the MCS and IBI displayed low temporal variability within reference sites, and were able to distinguish between reference conditions and low levels of catchment modification and local habitat degradation, although neither discriminated among three levels of low impact. Pseudosamples developed to test the response of the metric aggregation approaches to organic enrichment, urban, mining, pastoral and logging stressor scenarios ranked pressures in the same order, but the MCS provided a lower score for the urban scenario and a higher score for the pastoral scenario. The MCS was calculated for an independent test dataset of urban and reference sites, and yielded similar results to the IBI. Although both methods performed comparably, the MCS approach may have some advantages because it removes the subjectivity of assigning thresholds for scoring biological condition, and it appears to discriminate a wider range of degraded conditions.
Transients from Initial Conditions A Perturbative Analysis
Scoccimarro, R
1998-01-01
The standard procedure to generate initial conditions (IC) in numerical simulations is to use the Zel'dovich approximation (ZA). Although the ZA correctly reproduces the linear growing modes of density and velocity perturbations, non-linear growth is inaccurately represented because of the ZA failure to conserve momentum. This implies that it takes time for the actual dynamics to establish the correct statistical properties of density and velocity fields. We extend perturbation theory (PT) to include transients as non-linear excitations of decaying modes caused by the IC. We focus on higher-order statistics of the density contrast and velocity divergence, characterized by the S_p and T_p parameters. We find that the time-scale of transients is determined, at a given order p, by the spectral index n. The skewness factor S_3 (T_3) attains 10% accuracy only after a=6 (a=15) for n=0, whereas higher (lower) n demands more (less) expansion away from the IC. These requirements become much more stringent as p increas...
Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak, Anna
2013-07-01
This paper deals with the diagnostics of planetary gearboxes under nonstationary operating conditions. In most diagnostics applications, energy of vibration signals (calculated directly from time series or extracted from spectral representation of signal) is used. Unfortunately energy based features are sensitive to load conditions and it makes diagnostics difficult. In this paper we used energy based 15D data vectors (namely spectral amplitudes of planetary mesh frequency and its harmonics) in order to investigate if it is possible to improve diagnostics efficiency in comparison to previous, one dimensional, approaches proposed for the same problem. Two multivariate methods, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA), were used as techniques for data analysis. We used these techniques in order to investigate dimensionality of the data and to visualize data in 3D and 2D spaces in order to understand data behavior and assess classification ability. As a case study the data from two planetary gearboxes used in complex mining machines (one in bad condition and the other in good condition) were analyzed. For these two machines more than 2000 15D vectors were acquired. It should be noted that due to non-stationarity of loading conditions, previous diagnostics results obtained using other techniques were moderately good (ca. 80% recognition efficiency); however there is still some need to improve diagnostics classification ability. After application of the proposed approaches it was found that the entire data could be reduced to 2 dimensions whereby data instances became visible and a good discriminant function (characterized by a misclassification rate of .0023, i.e. only 5 erroneous classifications for a total of 2183 instances) could be derived. This paper suggests a novel way for condition monitoring of planetary gearboxes based on multivariate statistics. The emphasis is put on the algebraic and geometric interpretations of the PCA
Can multivariate models based on MOAKS predict OA knee pain? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative
Luna-Gómez, Carlos D.; Zanella-Calzada, Laura A.; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Galván-Tejada, Carlos E.; Celaya-Padilla, José M.
2017-03-01
Osteoarthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in the world. Knee pain is the most disabling symptom in the disease, the prediction of pain is one of the targets in preventive medicine, this can be applied to new therapies or treatments. Using the magnetic resonance imaging and the grading scales, a multivariate model based on genetic algorithms is presented. Using a predictive model can be useful to associate minor structure changes in the joint with the future knee pain. Results suggest that multivariate models can be predictive with future knee chronic pain. All models; T0, T1 and T2, were statistically significant, all p values were 0.60.
Estimating the impact of environmental conditions on hatching results using multivariable analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
IA Nääs
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Hatching results are directly related to environmental and biological surroundings. This research study aimed at evaluating the influence of incubation environmental conditions on hatchability and one-day-old chickling quality of five production flocks using multivariable analysis tool. The experiment was carried out in a commercial hatchery located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Environmental variables such as dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, and number of colony forming units of fungi were recorded inside a broiler multi-stage setter, a hatcher after eggs transference, and a chick-processing room. The homogeneity of parameter distribution among quadrants inside the setter, the hatcher, and the chick room was tested using the non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis, and the fit analysis was applied. The multivariate analysis was applied using the Main Component Technique in order to identify possible correlations between environmental and production parameters. Three different groups were identified: the first group is represented by temperature, which was positively correlated both with good hatchability and good chick quality; the second group indicates that poor chick quality was positively correlated with air velocity and relative humidity increase. The third group, represented by carbon dioxide concentration and fungi colonies forming units, presented strong positive association with embryo mortality increase.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Fei; ZHU Jiang
2010-01-01
The initial ensemble perturbations for an ensemble data assimilation system are expected to reasonably sample model uncertainty at the time of analysis to further reduce analysis uncertainty.Therefore,the careful choice of an initial ensemble perturbation method that dynamically cycles ensemble perturbations is required for the optimal performance of the system.Based on the multivariate empirical onhogonal function(MEOF)method,a new ensemble initialization scheme is developed to generate balanced initial perturbations for the ensemble Kalman filter(EnKF)data assimilation,with a reasonable consideration of the physical relationships between different model variables.The scheme is applied in assimilation experiments with a global spectral atmospheric model and with real observations.The proposed perturbation method is compared to the commonly used method of spatially-correlated random perturbations.The comparisons show that the model uncertainties prior to the first analysis time,which are forecasted from the balanced ensemble initial fields,maintain a much more reasonable spread and a more accurate forecast error covariance than those from the randomly perturbed initial fields.The analysis results are further improved by the balanced ensemble initialization scheme due to more accurate background information.Also,a 20-day continuous assimilation experiment shows that the ensemble spreads for each model variable are still retained in reasonable ranges without considering additional perturbations or inflations during the assimilation cycles,while the ensemble spreads from the randomly perturbed initialization scheme decrease and collapse rapidly.
Multi-Vacuum Initial Conditions and the Arrow of Time
Bousso, Raphael
2012-01-01
Depending on the type and arrangement of metastable vacua in the theory, initial conditions in a de Sitter vacuum with arbitrarily large entropy can be compatible with the observed arrow of time, if the causal patch or related measures are used to regulate divergences. An important condition, however, is that the initial vacuum cannot produce observers from rare fluctuations (Boltzmann brains). Here we consider more general initial conditions where multiple vacua have nonzero initial probability. We examine whether the prediction of an arrow of time is destroyed by a small initial admixture of vacua that can produce Boltzmann brains. We identify general criteria and apply them to two nontrivial examples of such initial probability distributions. The Hartle-Hawking state is superexponentially dominated by the vacuum with smallest positive cosmological constant, so one might expect that other initial vacua can be neglected; but in fact, their inclusion drastically narrows the range of theory parameters for whic...
HYCOM Initial and Boundary Conditions for Coupled COAMPS/NCOM
2016-06-07
conditions (BCs and ICs) into globally- relocatable coupled COAMPS/NCOM, (2) quantitatively evaluate HYCOM sources of ICs and BCs against other...HYCOM Initial and Boundary Conditions for Coupled COAMPS/NCOM Julie Pullen Naval Research Laboratory 7 Grace Hopper Ave. Stop 2 Monterey, CA...long-term goal of this effort is to evaluate HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) initial and boundary conditions supplied to the air-ocean coupled
Consistent Initial Conditions for the DNS of Compressible Turbulence
Ristorcelli, J. R.; Blaisdell, G. A.
1996-01-01
Relationships between diverse thermodynamic quantities appropriate to weakly compressible turbulence are derived. It is shown that for turbulence of a finite turbulent Mach number there is a finite element of compressibility. A methodology for generating initial conditions for the fluctuating pressure, density and dilatational velocity is given which is consistent with finite Mach number effects. Use of these initial conditions gives rise to a smooth development of the flow, in contrast to cases in which these fields are specified arbitrarily or set to zero. Comparisons of the effect of different types of initial conditions are made using direct numerical simulation of decaying isotropic turbulence.
A new equilibrium torus solution and GRMHD initial conditions
Penna, Robert F; Narayan, Ramesh
2013-01-01
General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations are providing influential models for black hole spin measurements, gamma ray bursts, and supermassive black hole feedback. Many of these simulations use the same initial condition: a rotating torus of fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium. A persistent concern is that simulation results sometimes depend on arbitrary features of the initial torus. For example, the Bernoulli parameter (which is related to outflows), appears to be controlled by the Bernoulli parameter of the initial torus. In this paper, we give a new equilibrium torus solution and describe two applications for the future. First, it can be used as a more physical initial condition for GRMHD simulations than earlier torus solutions. Second, it can be used in conjunction with earlier torus solutions to isolate the simulation results that depend on initial conditions. We assume axisymmetry, an ideal gas equation of state, constant entropy, and ignore self-gravity. We fix an angular momentum di...
Sensitivity of a Simulated Derecho Event to Model Initial Conditions
Wang, Wei
2014-05-01
Since 2003, the MMM division at NCAR has been experimenting cloud-permitting scale weather forecasting using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Over the years, we've tested different model physics, and tried different initial and boundary conditions. Not surprisingly, we found that the model's forecasts are more sensitive to the initial conditions than model physics. In 2012 real-time experiment, WRF-DART (Data Assimilation Research Testbed) at 15 km was employed to produce initial conditions for twice-a-day forecast at 3 km. On June 29, this forecast system captured one of the most destructive derecho event on record. In this presentation, we will examine forecast sensitivity to different model initial conditions, and try to understand the important features that may contribute to the success of the forecast.
Persistence of Initial Conditions in Continental Scale Air Quality Simulations
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the data used in Figures 1 – 6 and Table 2 of the technical note "Persistence of Initial Conditions in Continental Scale Air Quality...
Hydrodynamics: Fluctuating initial conditions and two-particle correlations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, R.P.G.; Grassi, F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hama, Y., E-mail: hama@fma.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Qian, W.-L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2011-03-15
Event-by-event hydrodynamics (or hydrodynamics with fluctuating initial conditions) has been developed in the past few years. Here we discuss how it may help to understand the various structures observed in two-particle correlations.
New Initial Conditions for Quantum Field Simulations after a Quench
Salle, M; Vink, Jeroen C
2002-01-01
We investigate a new way of using the quantum fluctuations in the vacuum as initial conditions for subsequent classical field dynamics. This method avoids problems with renormalization and leads to better thermalization.
Initial Conditions in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation
O'Connell, Ross
2011-01-01
Many different models of inflation give rise to the same effective field theory of the inflaton. While effective field theories in flat space provide little information about UV physics, we propose that in inflationary backgrounds a large amount of information can be encoded by the initial conditions of the effective theory. We identify conditions under which this information would remain available at late times, e.g. through observation of non-gaussianities. We also study the power spectrum of a simple set of initial conditions, and find that it is constrained by the WMAP7 results.
Critical Initiation Conditions for Gaseous Diverging Spherical Detonations
Desbordes, D.
1995-01-01
The diverging spherical detonation wave in gaseous explosives is obtained either with a point source of explosion of energy E or through the transmission of a plane detonation from a cylindrical tube of diameter d into a large volume. The mechanism of detonation initiation in both cases is based on the shock to detonation transition. The experimental critical conditions lead to an initiation criterion for detonation resulting from the competition between the expansion behind the leading shock...
Time domain system identification of unknown initial conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUNGWen-pei; MATZENVernonC.; SHIHMing-hsiang
2004-01-01
System identification is a method for using measured data to create or improve a mathematical model of the object being tested. From the measured data however, noise is noticed at the beginning of the response. One solution to avoid this noise problem is to skip the noisy data and then use the initial conditions as active parameters, to be found by using the system identification process. This paper describes the development of the equations for setting up the initial conditions as active parameters. The simulated data and response data from actual shear buildings were used to prove the accuracy of both the algorithm and the computer program, which include the initial conditions as active parameters. The numerical and experimental model analysis showed that the value of mass, stiffness and frequency were very reasonable and that the computed acceleration and measured acceleration matched very well.
On specification of initial conditions in turbulence models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rollin, Bertrand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Andrews, Malcolm J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-12-01
Recent research has shown that initial conditions have a significant influence on the evolution of a flow towards turbulence. This important finding offers a unique opportunity for turbulence control, but also raises the question of how to properly specify initial conditions in turbulence models. We study this problem in the context of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is an interfacial fluid instability that leads to turbulence and turbulent mixing. It occurs when a light fluid is accelerated in to a heavy fluid because of misalignment between density and pressure gradients. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability plays a key role in a wide variety of natural and man-made flows ranging from supernovae to the implosion phase of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Our approach consists of providing the turbulence models with a predicted profile of its key variables at the appropriate time in accordance to the initial conditions of the problem.
Initial condition strategies for multiple-time partial differential equations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coffey, Todd Stirling
2005-02-01
Many highly oscillatory circuits have a wide separation of time scales between the underlying oscillation and the behavior of interest. This is particularly true of communication circuits. Multiple-time Partial Differential Equation (MPDE) methods offer substantial speed-up for these circuits by introducing a periodic artificial time variable that represents the highly oscillatory behavior. This leaves just the slowly changing behavior of interest, which can be integrated with much larger steps. One problem of particular interest is the larger initial condition that must be specified for this periodic artificial time variable. One possible solution is to formulate an optimization problem in the hopes of increasing the step sizes taken in the slow time direction. This talk will discuss one possible unconstrained optimization problem for determining this initial condition. Numerical results and comparisons to several other initial condition strategies will be presented in addition to MPDE background research and implementation issues.
New initial condition of the new agegraphic dark energy model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Yun-He; Zhang Jing-Fei; Zhang Xin
2013-01-01
The initial condition Ωde (zini) =n2(1 + Zini)-2/4 at Zini =2000,widely used to solve the differential equation of the density of the new agegraphic dark energy (NADE) Ωde,makes the NADE model a single-parameter dark-energy cosmological model.However,we find that this initial condition is only applicable in a fiat universe with only dark energy and pressureless matter.In fact,in order to obtain more information from current observational data,such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO),we need to consider the contribution of radiation.For this situation,the initial condition mentioned above becomes invalid.To overcome this shortcoming,we investigate the evolutions of dark energy in matter-dominated and radiation-dominated epochs,and obtain a new initial condition Ωde(Zini) =n2(1 + zini)-2(1+ √F(Zini))2/4 at zini =2000,where F(z) ≡ Ωr0(1+z)/[Ωm0 + Ωr0(1 +z)] with Ωr0 and Ωm0 being the current density parameters of radiation and pressureless matter,respectively.This revised initial condition is applicable for the differential equation of Ωde obtained in the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe with dark energy,pressureless matter,radiation,and even spatial curvature,and can still keep the NADE model as a single-parameter model.With the revised initial condition and the observational data of type Ia supernova (SNIa),CMB,and BAO,we finally constrain the NADE model.The results show that the single free parameter n of the NADE model can be constrained tightly.
Wave packets and initial conditions in quantum cosmology
Gousheh, S S
2000-01-01
We discuss the construction of wave packets resulting from the solutions of a class of Wheeler-DeWitt equations in Robertson-Walker type cosmologies. We present an ansatz for the initial conditions which leads to a unique determination of the expansion coefficients in the construction of the wave packets with probability distributions which, in an interesting contrast to some of the earlier works, agree well with all possible classical paths. The possible relationship between these initial conditions and signature transition in the context of classical cosmology is also discussed.
Star formation in mergers with comologically motivated initial conditions
Karman, Wouter; Macciò, Andrea V.; Kannan, Rahul; Moster, Benjamin P.; Somerville, Rachel S.
2015-01-01
We use semi-analytic models and cosmological merger trees to provide the initial conditions for multimerger numerical hydrodynamic simulations, and exploit these simulations to explore the effect of galaxy interaction and merging on star formation (SF). We compute numerical realizations of 12 merger
Star formation in mergers with cosmologically motivated initial conditions
Karman, Wouter; Macciò, Andrea V.; Kannan, Rahul; Moster, Benjamin P.; Somerville, Rachel S.
2015-01-01
We use semi-analytic models and cosmological merger trees to provide the initial conditions for multimerger numerical hydrodynamic simulations, and exploit these simulations to explore the effect of galaxy interaction and merging on star formation (SF). We compute numerical realizations of 12 merger
On initial condition of the new agegraphic dark energy model
Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Xin
2012-01-01
The initial condition $\\Omega_{\\rm de}(z_{\\rm ini})=n^2(1+z_{\\rm ini})^{-2}/4$ at $z_{\\rm ini}=2000$ widely used to solve the differential equation of $\\Omega_{\\rm de}$, the density of the new agegraphic dark energy (NADE), makes the NADE model be a single-parameter dark-energy cosmological model. However, this initial condition, we find, is only applicable in a flat universe with only dark energy and pressureless matter. In fact, in order to obtain more information from current observational data, such as cosmic microwave background (CMB) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), it often needs us to consider the contribution of radiation. For this situation, the initial condition mentioned above becomes invalid. To overcome this shortage, we deeply investigate the evolution of NADE in the matter-dominated and radiation-dominated epochs, and obtain a new initial condition $\\Omega_{\\rm de}(z_{\\rm ini}) = \\frac{n^2(1+z_{\\rm ini})^{-2}}{4} (1+\\sqrt{F(z_{\\rm ini})})^2$ at $z_{\\rm ini}=2000$. Here $F(z)\\equiv\\frac{...
Linear stochastic differential equations with anticipating initial conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khalifa, Narjess; Kuo, Hui-Hsiung; Ouerdiane, Habib
In this paper we use the new stochastic integral introduced by Ayed and Kuo (2008) and the results obtained by Kuo et al. (2012b) to find a solution to a drift-free linear stochastic differential equation with anticipating initial condition. Our solution is based on well-known results from...
Classical and quantum initial conditions for Higgs inflation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto Salvio
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We investigate whether Higgs inflation can occur in the Standard Model starting from natural initial conditions or not. The Higgs has a non-minimal coupling to the Ricci scalar. We confine our attention to the regime where quantum Einstein gravity effects are small in order to have results that are independent of the ultraviolet completion of gravity. At the classical level we find no tuning is required to have successful Higgs inflation, provided the initial homogeneity condition is satisfied. On the other hand, at the quantum level we obtain that the renormalization for large non-minimal coupling requires an additional degree of freedom, unless a tuning of the initial values of the running parameters is made. In order to see that this effect may change the predictions we finally include such degree of freedom in the field content and show that Starobinsky's R2 inflation dominates over Higgs inflation.
Polya conditions for multivariate Birkhoff interpolation: from general to rectangular sets of nodes
Crainic, M.; Crainic, N.
2010-01-01
Polya conditions are certain algebraic inequalities that regular Birkhoff interpolation schemes must satisfy, and they are useful in deciding if a given scheme is regular or not. Here we review the classical Polya condition and then we show how it can be strengthened in the case of rectangular
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Johnstone
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent Alzheimer's disease (AD research has focused on finding biomarkers to identify disease at the pre-clinical stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, allowing treatment to be initiated before irreversible damage occurs. Many studies have examined brain imaging or cerebrospinal fluid but there is also growing interest in blood biomarkers. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI has generated data on 190 plasma analytes in 566 individuals with MCI, AD or normal cognition. We conducted independent analyses of this dataset to identify plasma protein signatures predicting pre-clinical AD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We focused on identifying signatures that discriminate cognitively normal controls (n = 54 from individuals with MCI who subsequently progress to AD (n = 163. Based on p value, apolipoprotein E (APOE showed the strongest difference between these groups (p = 2.3 × 10(-13. We applied a multivariate approach based on combinatorial optimization ((α,β-k Feature Set Selection, which retains information about individual participants and maintains the context of interrelationships between different analytes, to identify the optimal set of analytes (signature to discriminate these two groups. We identified 11-analyte signatures achieving values of sensitivity and specificity between 65% and 86% for both MCI and AD groups, depending on whether APOE was included and other factors. Classification accuracy was improved by considering "meta-features," representing the difference in relative abundance of two analytes, with an 8-meta-feature signature consistently achieving sensitivity and specificity both over 85%. Generating signatures based on longitudinal rather than cross-sectional data further improved classification accuracy, returning sensitivities and specificities of approximately 90%. CONCLUSIONS: Applying these novel analysis approaches to the powerful and well-characterized ADNI dataset has identified sets of
Accurate initial conditions in mixed Dark Matter--Baryon simulations
Valkenburg, Wessel
2016-01-01
We quantify the error in the results of mixed baryon--dark-matter hydrodynamic simulations, stemming from outdated approximations for the generation of initial conditions. The error at redshift 0 in contemporary large simulations, is of the order of few to ten percent in the power spectra of baryons and dark matter, and their combined total-matter power spectrum. After describing how to properly assign initial displacements and peculiar velocities to multiple species, we review several approximations: (1) {using the total-matter power spectrum to compute displacements and peculiar velocities of both fluids}, (2) scaling the linear redshift-zero power spectrum back to the initial power spectrum using the Newtonian growth factor ignoring homogeneous radiation, (3) using longitudinal-gauge velocities with synchronous-gauge densities, and (4) ignoring the phase-difference in the Fourier modes for the offset baryon grid, relative to the dark-matter grid. Three of these approximations do not take into account that ...
Bayesian recovery of the initial condition for the heat equation
Knapik, B T; van Zanten, J H
2011-01-01
We study a Bayesian approach to recovering the initial condition for the heat equation from noisy observations of the solution at a later time. We consider a class of prior distributions indexed by a parameter quantifying "smoothness" and show that the corresponding posterior distributions contract around the true parameter at a rate that depends on the smoothness of the true initial condition and the smoothness and scale of the prior. Correct combinations of these characteristics lead to the optimal minimax rate. One type of priors leads to a rate-adaptive Bayesian procedure. The frequentist coverage of credible sets is shown to depend on the combination of the prior and true parameter as well, with smoother priors leading to zero coverage and rougher priors to (extremely) conservative results. In the latter case credible sets are much larger than frequentist confidence sets, in that the ratio of diameters diverges to infinity. The results are numerically illustrated by a simulated data example.
Initial Conditions and Modeling for Shock Driven Turbulence
Grinstein, Fernando
2016-11-01
We focus on the simulation of shock-driven material mixing driven by flow instabilities and initial conditions. Beyond complex multi-scale resolution of shocks and variable density turbulence, me must address the equally difficult problem of predicting flow transition promoted by energy deposited at the material interfacial layer during the shock interface interactions. Transition involves unsteady large-scale coherent-structure dynamics which can be captured by LES, but not by URANS based on equilibrium turbulence assumptions and single-point-closure modeling. Such URANS is frequently preferred on the engineering end of computation capabilities for full-scale configurations - and with reduced 1D/2D dimensionality being also a common aspect. With suitable initialization around each transition - e.g., reshock, URANS can be used to simulate the subsequent near-equilibrium weakly turbulent flow. We demonstrate 3D state-of-the-art URANS performance in one such flow regime. We simulate the CEA planar shock-tube experiments by Poggi et al. (1998) with an ILES strategy. Laboratory turbulence and mixing data are used to benchmark ILES. In turn, the ILES generated data is used to initialize and as reference to assess state-of-the-art 3D URANS. We find that by prescribing physics-based 3D initial conditions and allowing for 3D flow convection with just enough resolution, the additionally computed dissipation in 3D URANS effectively blends with the modeled dissipation to yield significantly improved statistical predictions.
Persistence of initial conditions in continental scale air quality ...
This study investigates the effect of initial conditions (IC) for pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere and soil on simulated air quality for two continental-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model applications. One of these applications was performed for springtime and the second for summertime. Results show that a spin-up period of ten days commonly used in regional-scale applications may not be sufficient to reduce the effects of initial conditions to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged surface ozone concentrations everywhere while 20 days were found to be sufficient for the entire domain for the spring case and almost the entire domain for the summer case. For the summer case, differences were found to persist longer aloft due to circulation of air masses and even a spin-up period of 30 days was not sufficient to reduce the effects of ICs to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged layer 34 ozone concentrations over the southwestern portion of the modeling domain. Analysis of the effect of soil initial conditions for the CMAQ bidirectional NH3 exchange model shows that during springtime they can have an important effect on simulated inorganic aerosols concentrations for time periods of one month or longer. The effects are less pronounced during other seasons. The results, while specific to the modeling domain and time periods simulated here, suggest that modeling protocols need to be scrutinized for a given application and that it cannot be assum
On the Initial Conditions of the Nice Model
Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, M. E.
2009-09-01
In the recent years, the "Nice” model of solar system formation has attained an unprecedented level of success in reproducing much of the observed orbital architecture of the Kuiper belt, while evolving the planets to their current locations from a more compact configuration (Tsiaganis et al 2005; Levison et al 2007). Within the context of this model, the formation of the classical Kuiper Belt requires a phase during which the ice giants have a high eccentricity. An outstanding question of this model is the initial condition from which the Solar System started out. Recent work (Morbidelli et al 2007) has shown that multi-resonant initial conditions can serve as good candidates, as they naturally prevent vigorous type-II migration. We performed a large number of self-consisted numerical N-body simulations with an eye towards identification of multi-resonant initial conditions which result in an eccentric phase of the ice giants. The results should prove useful in further development of a comprehensive model for solar system formation.
Persistence of initial conditions in continental scale air quality simulations
Hogrefe, Christian; Roselle, Shawn J.; Bash, Jesse O.
2017-07-01
This study investigates the effect of initial conditions (IC) for pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere and soil on simulated air quality for two continental-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model applications. One of these applications was performed for springtime and the second for summertime. Results show that a spin-up period of ten days commonly used in regional-scale applications may not be sufficient to reduce the effects of initial conditions to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged surface ozone concentrations everywhere while 20 days were found to be sufficient for the entire domain for the spring case and almost the entire domain for the summer case. For the summer case, differences were found to persist longer aloft due to circulation of air masses and even a spin-up period of 30 days was not sufficient to reduce the effects of ICs to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged layer 34 ozone concentrations over the southwestern portion of the modeling domain. Analysis of the effect of soil initial conditions for the CMAQ bidirectional NH3 exchange model shows that during springtime they can have an important effect on simulated inorganic aerosols concentrations for time periods of one month or longer. The effects are less pronounced during other seasons. The results, while specific to the modeling domain and time periods simulated here, suggest that modeling protocols need to be scrutinized for a given application and that it cannot be assumed that commonly-used spin-up periods are necessarily sufficient to reduce the effects of initial conditions on model results to an acceptable level. What constitutes an acceptable level of difference cannot be generalized and will depend on the particular application, time period and species of interest. Moreover, as the application of air quality models is being expanded to cover larger geographical domains and as these models are increasingly being coupled with other modeling systems to better represent
Elliptic Flow from Nonequilibrium Color Glass Condensate Initial Conditions
Ruggieri, M; Plumari, S; Greco, V
2013-01-01
A current goal of relativistic heavy ion collisions experiments is the search for a Color Glass Condensate as the limiting state of QCD matter at very high density. In viscous hydrodynamics simulations, a standard Glauber initial condition leads to estimate $4\\pi \\eta/s \\sim 1$, while a Color Glass Condensate modeling leads to at least a factor of 2 larger $\\eta/s$. Within a kinetic theory approach based on a relativistic Boltzmann-like transport simulation, we point out that the out-of-equilibrium initial distribution proper of a Color Glass Condensate reduces the efficiency in building-up the elliptic flow. Our main result at RHIC energy is that the available data on $v_2$ are in agreement with a $4\\pi \\eta/s \\sim 1$ also for Color Glass Condensate initial conditions, opening the possibility to describe self-consistently also higher order flow, otherwise significantly underestimated, and to pursue further the search for signatures of the Color Glass Condensate.
The NIF Shear Experiment: Emergent Coherent Structures and Initial Conditions
Flippo, K. A.; Doss, F. W.; Merritt, E. C.; di Stefano, C. A.; Devolder, B. G.; Kurien, S.; Kot, L.; Loomis, E. N.; Murphy, T. J.; Perry, T. S.; Kline, J. L.; Huntington, C. M.; Nagel, S. R.; MacLaren, S. A.; Schmidt, D. W.
2016-10-01
The NIF Shear experiments are designed to stress turbulence models at high Atwood numbers, high convective Mach number, and in a highly compressible regime. The NIF laser system is used to drive two hohlraums on either end of the experiment, which convert the laser drive into a bath of soft x-rays, 250eV in temperature. The counter-propagating shocks and flow, pressure balance the shear layer, such that it can grow due to the KH instability in the center of the experiment for 20 ns. These experiments are the first High Energy Density (HED) hydro-instability studies to show emergent coherent Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) structures arising from random broadband seeds, and the first to control the phenomenological evolution of the tracer layer by controlling the initial surface roughness conditions. The change in initial conditions forces the system evolution on a different path that does not appear to reach a universal nor self-similar state by the end of the experiment. The experiment was modeled using the multi-physics hydrodynamic code RAGE with the BHR turbulence model. The initial scale-length of the model is modified to match the data. When the model is turned off, the pure hydrodynamics do not capture the behavior of the mixing layer and cannot match the data.
Can the baryon asymmetry arise from initial conditions?
Krnjaic, Gordan
2017-08-01
In this paper, we quantify the challenge of explaining the baryon asymmetry using initial conditions in a universe that undergoes inflation. Contrary to lore, we find that such an explanation is possible if net B -L number is stored in a light bosonic field with hyper-Planckian initial displacement and a delicately chosen field velocity prior to inflation. However, such a construction may require extremely tuned coupling constants to ensure that this asymmetry is viably communicated to the Standard Model after reheating; the large field displacement required to overcome inflationary dilution must not induce masses for Standard Model particles or generate dangerous washout processes. While these features are inelegant, this counterexample nonetheless shows that there is no theorem against such an explanation. We also comment on potential observables in the double β -decay spectrum and on model variations that may allow for more natural realizations.
Can the Baryon Asymmetry Arise From Initial Conditions?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krnjaic, Gordan [Fermilab
2016-06-16
In this letter, we quantify the challenge of explaining the baryon asymmetry using initial conditions in a universe that undergoes inflation. Contrary to lore, we find that such an explanation is possible if net $B-L$ number is stored in a light bosonic field with hyper-Planckian initial displacement and a delicately chosen field velocity prior to inflation. However, such a construction may require extremely tuned coupling constants to ensure that this asymmetry is viably communicated to the Standard Model after reheating; the large field displacement required to overcome inflationary dilution must not induce masses for Standard Model particles or generate dangerous washout processes. While these features are inelegant, this counterexample nonetheless shows that there is no theorem against such an explanation. We also comment on potential observables in the double $\\beta$-decay spectrum and on model variations that may allow for more natural realizations.
Can the Baryon Asymmetry Arise From Initial Conditions?
Krnjaic, Gordan
2016-01-01
In this letter, we quantify the challenge of explaining the baryon asymmetry using initial conditions in a universe that undergoes inflation. Contrary to lore, we find that such an explanation is possible if net $B-L$ number is stored in a light bosonic field with hyper-Planckian initial displacement and a delicately chosen field velocity prior to inflation. However, such a construction may require extremely tuned coupling constants to ensure that this asymmetry is viably communicated to the Standard Model after reheating; the large field displacement required to overcome inflationary dilution must not induce masses for Standard Model particles or generate dangerous washout processes. While these features are inelegant, this counterexample nonetheless shows that there is no theorem against such an explanation. We also comment on potential observables in the double $\\beta$-decay spectrum and on model variations that may allow for more natural realizations.
Parat, Sylvie; Perdrix, Alain; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Saude, Isabelle; Grillot, Renee; Baconnier, Pierre
Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) may be responsible for the production and spread of airborne microorganisms in office buildings. In order to compare airborne microbiological flora in an air-conditioned building with that in a naturally ventilated building, eight sets of measurements were made over a 1-year period. Concurrently with other environmental measurements, air samples were collected in each building, from three offices and from the outdoor air, using the Andersen single-stage sampler. Three different media were used to culture fungi, staphylococci and mesophilic bacteria. Multivariate analysis revealed a group of offices more contaminated than others, and a marked seasonal variation in fungal concentrations. A comparison of mean levels of microorganisms measured in the two buildings showed that the air microbial content was significantly higher and more variable in the naturally ventilated building than in the air-conditioned building. Moreover, in the naturally ventilated building, the interior fungal content was strongly dependent on the outdoor content, while in the air-conditioned building fungal concentrations remained constant despite significant variations measured outside. This was confirmed by a statistical comparison of the correlation coefficients between indoor and outdoor concentrations. No difference was observed regarding gaseous pollutants and temperature, but relative humidity was significantly higher in the air-conditioned building. The effect of HVAC was to prevent the intake of outdoor particles and to dilute the indoor concentrations. These results are consistent with the presence of high-efficiency filters and a steam humidifier in the HVAC system under study.
Bootstrapping from inflationary magnetogenesis to CMB initial conditions
Giovannini, Massimo
2013-01-01
The temperature and polarization anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background are analyzed under the hypothesis that the same inflationary seed accounting for protogalactic magnetism also affects the Einstein-Boltzmann hierarchy whose initial conditions are assigned for typical correlation scales larger than the Hubble radius after matter-radiation equality but before decoupling. Since the primordial gauge spectrum depends on a combination of pivotal parameters of the concordance model, the angular power spectra of the temperature and of the polarization are computed, for the first time, in the presence of a putative large-scale magnetic field of inflationary origin and without supplementary hypotheses.
Generating optimal initial conditions for smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockefeller, Gabriel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We present a new optimal method to set up initial conditions for Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations, which may also be of interest for N-body simulations. This new method is based on weighted Voronoi tesselations (WVTs) and can meet arbitrarily complex spatial resolution requirements. We conduct a comprehensive review of existing SPH setup methods, and outline their advantages, limitations and drawbacks. A serial version of our WVT setup method is publicly available and we give detailed instruction on how to easily implement the new method on top of an existing parallel SPH code.
The initial physical conditions of Kepler-36 b & c
Owen, James E
2015-01-01
The Kepler-36 planetary system consists of two exoplanets at similar separations (0.115 & 0.128 AU), which have dramatically different densities. The inner planet has a density consistent with an Earth-like composition, while the outer planet is extremely low-density, such that it must contain a voluminous H/He envelope. Such a density difference would pose a problem for any formation mechanism if their current densities were representative of their composition at formation. However, both planets are at close enough separations to have undergone significant evaporation in the past. We constrain the core mass, core composition, initial envelope mass, and initial cooling time of each planet using evaporation models conditioned on their present-day masses and radii, as inferred from Kepler photometry and transit timing analysis. The inner planet is consistent with being an evaporatively stripped core, while the outer planet has retained some of its initial envelope due to its higher core mass. Therefore, bot...
Accurate initial conditions in mixed dark matter-baryon simulations
Valkenburg, Wessel; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco
2017-06-01
We quantify the error in the results of mixed baryon-dark-matter hydrodynamic simulations, stemming from outdated approximations for the generation of initial conditions. The error at redshift 0 in contemporary large simulations is of the order of few to 10 per cent in the power spectra of baryons and dark matter, and their combined total-matter power spectrum. After describing how to properly assign initial displacements and peculiar velocities to multiple species, we review several approximations: (1) using the total-matter power spectrum to compute displacements and peculiar velocities of both fluids, (2) scaling the linear redshift-zero power spectrum back to the initial power spectrum using the Newtonian growth factor ignoring homogeneous radiation, (3) using a mix of general-relativistic gauges so as to approximate Newtonian gravity, namely longitudinal-gauge velocities with synchronous-gauge densities and (4) ignoring the phase-difference in the Fourier modes for the offset baryon grid, relative to the dark-matter grid. Three of these approximations do not take into account that dark matter and baryons experience a scale-dependent growth after photon decoupling, which results in directions of velocity that are not the same as their direction of displacement. We compare the outcome of hydrodynamic simulations with these four approximations to our reference simulation, all setup with the same random seed and simulated using gadget-III.
Analysis of optimal initial glide conditions for hypersonic glide vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Xiaodong
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Hypersonic glide vehicles (HGVs are launched by a solid booster and glide through the atmosphere at high speeds. HGVs will be important means for rapid long-range delivery in the future. Given that the glide is unpowered, the initial glide conditions (IGCs are crucial for flight. This paper aims to find the optimal IGCs to improve the maneuverability and decrease the constraints of HGVs. By considering the IGCs as experiment factors, we design an orthogonal table with three factors that have five levels each by using the orthogonal experimental design method. Thereafter, we apply the Gauss pseudospectral method to perform glide trajectory optimization by using each test of the orthogonal table as the initial condition. Based on the analytic hierarchy process, an integrated indicator is established to evaluate the IGCs, which synthesizes the indexes of the maneuverability and constraints. The integrated indicator is calculated from the trajectory optimization results. Finally, optimal IGCs and valuable conclusions are obtained by using range analysis, variance analysis, and regression analysis on the integrated indicator.
Improving Initial Conditions for Cosmological $N$-Body Simulations
Garrison, Lehman H; Ferrer, Douglas; Metchnik, Marc V; Pinto, Philip A
2016-01-01
In cosmological $N$-body simulations, the representation of dark matter as discrete "macroparticles" suppresses the growth of structure. This effect occurs even on scales many times larger than the particle spacing; for example, modes above $k_{\\rm Nyquist}/4$ inherit a 1 to 3% error in the matter power spectrum at $z=1$. Particle linear theory (PLT) (Marcos et al. 2006) analytically describes this effect for particle lattices and reveals that the continuum growing modes are not the proper lattice growing modes, which excites transient power. We develop initial conditions with the correct growing modes and additionally rescale these modes to account for growth suppression. We also introduce a scheme for computing second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) from direct force calculations without using Fourier transforms. We test rescaling and our 2LPT by comparing the $z=1$ haloes and power spectra with those of an oversampled reference simulation. The combination of rescaling and 2LPT achieves 1% accur...
Cosmics cosmological initial conditions and microwave anisotropy codes
Bertschinger, E
1995-01-01
COSMICS is a package of fortran programs useful for computing transfer functions and microwave background anisotropy for cosmological models, and for generating gaussian random initial conditions for nonlinear structure formation simulations of such models. Four programs are provided: {\\bf linger\\_con} and {\\bf linger\\_syn} integrate the linearized equations of general relativity, matter, and radiation in conformal Newtonian and synchronous gauge, respectively; {\\bf deltat} integrates the photon transfer functions computed by the linger codes to produce photon anisotropy power spectra; and {\\bf grafic} tabulates normalized matter power spectra and produces constrained or unconstrained samples of the matter density field. Version 1.0 of COSMICS is available at http://arcturus.mit.edu/cosmics/ . The current release gives fortran-77 programs that run on workstations and vectorized supercomputers. Unix makefiles are included that make it simple to build and test the package. A future release will include portable...
Does Inflation Provide Natural Initial Conditions for the Universe?
Carroll, S M; Carroll, Sean M.; Chen, Jennifer
2005-01-01
If our universe underwent inflation, its entropy during the inflationary phase was substantially lower than it is today. Because a low-entropy state is less likely to be chosen randomly than a high-entropy one, inflation is unlikely to arise through randomly-chosen initial conditions. To resolve this puzzle, we examine the notion of a natural state for the universe, and argue that it is a nearly-empty spacetime. If empty space has a small vacuum energy, however, inflation can begin spontaneously in this background. This scenario explains why a universe like ours is likely to have begun via a period of inflation, and also provides an origin for the cosmological arrow of time.
THE SIGNATURE OF INITIAL CONDITIONS ON MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dallas, V.; Alexakis, A., E-mail: vdallas@lps.ens.fr, E-mail: alexakis@lps.ens.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, École Normale Supérieure, Université Pierre et Marié Curie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France)
2014-06-20
We demonstrate that the initial correlation between velocity and current density fluctuations can lead to the formation of enormous current sheets in freely evolving magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. These coherent structures are observed at the peak of the energy dissipation rate and are the carriers of long-range correlations despite all of the nonlinear interactions during the formation of turbulence. The size of these structures spans our computational domain, dominating the scaling of the energy spectrum, which follows a E∝k {sup –2} power law. As the Reynolds number increases, the curling of the current sheets due to Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instabilities and reconnection modifies the scaling of the energy spectrum from k {sup –2} toward k {sup –5/3}. This transition occurs due to the decorrelation of the velocity and the current density which is proportional to Re{sub λ}{sup −3/2}. Finite Reynolds number behavior is observed without reaching a finite asymptote for the energy dissipation rate even for a simulation of Re{sub λ} ≅ 440 with 2048{sup 3} grid points. This behavior demonstrates that even state-of-the-art numerical simulations of the highest Reynolds numbers can be influenced by the choice of initial conditions and consequently they are inadequate to deduce unequivocally the fate of universality in MHD turbulence. Implications for astrophysical observations are discussed.
Quantifying the role of ocean initial conditions in decadal prediction
Matei, D.; Pohlmann, H.; Müller, W.; Haak, H.; Jungclaus, J.; Marotzke, J.
2009-04-01
The forecast skill of decadal climate predictions is investigated using two different initialization strategies. First we apply an assimilation of ocean synthesis data provided by the GECCO project (Köhl and Stammer 2008) as initial conditions for the coupled model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. The results show promising skill up to decadal time scales particularly over the North Atlantic (see also Pohlmann et al. 2009). However, mismatches between the ocean climates of GECCO and the MPI-OM model may lead to inconsistencies in the representation of water masses. Therefore, we pursue an alternative approach to the representation of the observed North Atlantic climate for the period 1948-2007. Using the same MPI-OM ocean model as in the coupled system, we perform an ensemble of four NCEP integrations. The ensemble mean temperature and salinity anomalies are then nudged into the coupled model, followed by hindcast/forecast experiments. The model gives dynamically consistent three-dimensional temperature and salinity fields, thereby avoiding the problems of model drift that were encountered when the assimilation experiment was only driven by reconstructed SSTs (Keenlyside et al. 2008, Pohlmann et al. 2009). Differences between the two assimilation approaches are discussed by comparing them with the observational data in key regions and processes, such as North Atlantic and Tropical Pacific climate, MOC variability, Subpolar Gyre variability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheila Regina Oro
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A review of the concrete dam’s structural performance is a complex issue comprised of many dimensions. This article proposes a method to assist in monitoring the displacements of structures and foundations of dams, considering the action of environmental conditions. Multivariate techniques are used to analyze the data pendulums, extensometer bases and multiple rods extensometer, along with environmental variables of the concrete surface temperature, ambient temperature and the reservoir water level. Specifically applies to Canonical Correlation Analysis to evaluate the influence of environmental variables in the displacement of structures and foundations. Factor Analysis identifies the factors inherent to the variability of the data. This technique makes it possible to order the variables considering the action of factors. This applies also to Cluster Analysis on the data of dates of measurements, according to the similarities present in the observations. Then, Discriminant Analysis evaluates the formed groups for uniformity. The results demonstrate that the method can distinguish the dam responses and identify the effects of variations in environmental conditions over the displacements of structures and foundations.
Building up the Population III initial mass function from cosmological initial conditions
Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker; Lee, Aaron T.
2016-10-01
We simulate the growth of a Population III stellar system, starting from cosmological initial conditions at z = 100. We follow the formation of a minihalo and the subsequent collapse of its central gas to high densities, resolving scales as small as ˜ 1 au. Using sink particles to represent the growing protostars, we model the growth of the photodissociating and ionizing region around the first sink, continuing the simulation for ˜5000 yr after initial protostar formation. Along with the first-forming sink, several tens of secondary sinks form before an ionization front develops around the most massive star. The resulting cluster has high rates of sink formation, ejections from the stellar disc, and sink mergers during the first ˜ 2000 yr, before the onset of radiative feedback. By this time, a warm ˜5000 K phase of neutral gas has expanded to roughly the disc radius of 2000 au, slowing mass flow on to the disc and sinks. By 5000 yr the most massive star grows to 20 M⊙, while the total stellar mass approaches 75 M⊙. Out of the ˜ 40 sinks, approximately 30 are low mass (M* Pop III cluster before an ionization front emerges. Throughout the simulation, the majority of stellar mass is contained within the most massive stars, further implying that the Pop III initial mass function is top-heavy.
Modeling the initial conditions of interacting galaxy pairs using Identikit
Mortazavi, S. Alireza; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Barnes, Joshua E.; Snyder, Gregory F.
2016-01-01
We develop and test an automated technique to model the dynamics of interacting galaxy pairs. We use Identikit as a tool for modelling and matching the morphology and kinematics of the interacting pairs of equal-mass galaxies. In order to reduce the effect of subjective human judgement, we automate the selection of phase space regions used to match simulations to data, and we explore how selection of these regions affects the random uncertainties of parameters in the best-fitting model. In this work, we use an independent set of GADGET SPH simulations as input data to determine the systematic bias in the measured encounter parameters based on the known initial conditions of these simulations. We test both cold gas and young stellar components in the GADGET simulations to explore the effect of choosing H I versus H α as the line-of-sight velocity tracer. We find that we can group the results into tests with good, fair, and poor convergence based on the distribution of parameters of models close to the best-fitting model. For tests with good and fair convergence, we rule out large fractions of parameter space and recover merger stage, eccentricity, pericentric distance, viewing angle, and initial disc orientations within 3σ of the correct value. All of tests on prograde-prograde systems have either good or fair convergence. The results of tests on edge-on discs are less biased than face-on tests. Retrograde and polar systems do not converge and may require constraints from regions other than the tidal tails and bridges.
Hydrometeorological threshold conditions for debris flow initiation in Norway
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. K. Meyer
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Debris flows, triggered by extreme precipitation events and rapid snow melt, cause considerable damage to the Norwegian infrastructure every year. To define intensity-duration (ID thresholds for debris flow initiation critical water supply conditions arising from intensive rainfall or snow melt were assessed on the basis of daily hydro-meteorological information for 502 documented debris flow events. Two threshold types were computed: one based on absolute ID relationships and one using ID relationships normalized by the local precipitation day normal (PDN. For each threshold type, minimum, medium and maximum threshold values were defined by fitting power law curves along the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the data population. Depending on the duration of the event, the absolute threshold intensities needed for debris flow initiation vary between 15 and 107 mm day^{−1}. Since the PDN changes locally, the normalized thresholds show spatial variations. Depending on location, duration and threshold level, the normalized threshold intensities vary between 6 and 250 mm day^{−1}. The thresholds obtained were used for a frequency analysis of over-threshold events giving an estimation of the exceedance probability and thus potential for debris flow events in different parts of Norway. The absolute thresholds are most often exceeded along the west coast, while the normalized thresholds are most frequently exceeded on the west-facing slopes of the Norwegian mountain ranges. The minimum thresholds derived in this study are in the range of other thresholds obtained for regions with a climate comparable to Norway. Statistics reveal that the normalized threshold is more reliable than the absolute threshold as the former shows no spatial clustering of debris flows related to water supply events captured by the threshold.
Multi-Scale Initial Conditions For Cosmological Simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hahn, Oliver; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ZAH, Heidelberg /HITS, Heidelberg
2011-11-04
We discuss a new algorithm to generate multi-scale initial conditions with multiple levels of refinements for cosmological 'zoom-in' simulations. The method uses an adaptive convolution of Gaussian white noise with a real-space transfer function kernel together with an adaptive multi-grid Poisson solver to generate displacements and velocities following first- (1LPT) or second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT). The new algorithm achieves rms relative errors of the order of 10{sup -4} for displacements and velocities in the refinement region and thus improves in terms of errors by about two orders of magnitude over previous approaches. In addition, errors are localized at coarse-fine boundaries and do not suffer from Fourier-space-induced interference ringing. An optional hybrid multi-grid and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based scheme is introduced which has identical Fourier-space behaviour as traditional approaches. Using a suite of re-simulations of a galaxy cluster halo our real-space-based approach is found to reproduce correlation functions, density profiles, key halo properties and subhalo abundances with per cent level accuracy. Finally, we generalize our approach for two-component baryon and dark-matter simulations and demonstrate that the power spectrum evolution is in excellent agreement with linear perturbation theory. For initial baryon density fields, it is suggested to use the local Lagrangian approximation in order to generate a density field for mesh-based codes that is consistent with the Lagrangian perturbation theory instead of the current practice of using the Eulerian linearly scaled densities.
De Simone, Andrea; Riotto, Antonio
2011-01-01
The excursion set theory, where density perturbations evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale, provides a method for computing the dark matter halo mass function. The computation of the mass function is mapped into the so-called first-passage time problem in the presence of a moving barrier. The excursion set theory is also a powerful formalism to study other properties of dark matter halos such as halo bias, accretion rate, formation time, merging rate and the formation history of halos. This is achieved by computing conditional probabilities with non-trivial initial conditions, and the conditional two-barrier first-crossing rate. In this paper we use the recently-developed path integral formulation of the excursion set theory to calculate analytically these conditional probabilities in the presence of a generic moving barrier, including the one describing the ellipsoidal collapse, and for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian initial conditions. The non-Markovianity of the random walks induced by non-Gaussi...
Caneca, Arnobio Roberto; Pimentel, M Fernanda; Galvão, Roberto Kawakami Harrop; da Matta, Cláudia Eliane; de Carvalho, Florival Rodrigues; Raimundo, Ivo M; Pasquini, Celio; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R
2006-09-15
This paper presents two methodologies for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils on the basis of infrared spectra. In the first approach, oils samples are discriminated into three groups, each one associated to a given wear stage. An algorithm is proposed to select spectral variables with good discriminant power and small collinearity for the purpose of discriminant analysis classification. As a result, a classification accuracy of 93% was obtained both in the middle (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) ranges. The second approach employs multivariate calibration methods to predict the viscosity of the lubricant. In this case, the use of absorbance measurements in the NIR spectral range was not successful, because of experimental difficulties associated to the presence of particulate matter. Such a problem was circumvented by the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) measurements in the MIR spectral range, in which an RMSEP of 3.8cSt and a relative average error of 3.2% were attained.
Star formation in mergers with cosmologically motivated initial conditions
Karman, Wouter; Kannan, Rahul; Moster, Benjamin P; Somerville, Rachel S
2015-01-01
We use semi-analytic models and cosmological merger trees to provide the initial conditions for multi-merger numerical hydrodynamic simulations, and exploit these simulations to explore the effect of galaxy interaction and merging on star formation (SF). We compute numerical realisations of twelve merger trees from z=1.5 to z=0. We include the effects of the large hot gaseous halo around all galaxies, following recent obervations and predictions of galaxy formation models. We find that including the hot gaseous halo has a number of important effects. Firstly, as expected, the star formation rate on long timescales is increased due to cooling of the hot halo and refuelling of the cold gas reservoir. Secondly, we find that interactions do not always increase the SF in the long term. This is partially due to the orbiting galaxies transferring gravitational energy to the hot gaseous haloes and raising their temperature. Finally we find that the relative size of the starburst, when including the hot halo, is much ...
On initial conditions for the Hot Big Bang
Bezrukov, F; Shaposhnikov, M
2008-01-01
We analyse the process of reheating the Universe in the electroweak theory where the Higgs field plays a role of the inflaton. We estimate the maximal temperature of the Universe and fix the initial conditions for radiation-dominated phase of the Universe expansion in the framework of the nuMSM--the minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) by three right-handed singlet fermions. We show that the inflationary epoch is followed by a matter dominated stage related to the Higgs field oscillations. We investigate the energy transfer from higgs-inflaton to the SM particles and show that the radiation dominated phase of the Universe expansion starts at temperature T_r ~ (3-8)*10^{13} GeV. We estimate the production rate of singlet fermions at preheating and find that their concentrations at T_r are negligibly small. This suggests that the sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) production and baryogenesis in the nuMSM with higgs driven inflation are low energy phenomena, having nothing to do with inflation. We study t...
Improving initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations
Garrison, Lehman H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ferrer, Douglas; Metchnik, Marc V.; Pinto, Philip A.
2016-10-01
In cosmological N-body simulations, the representation of dark matter as discrete `macroparticles' suppresses the growth of structure, such that simulations no longer reproduce linear theory on small scales near kNyquist. Marcos et al. demonstrate that this is due to sparse sampling of modes near kNyquist and that the often-assumed continuum growing modes are not proper growing modes of the particle system. We develop initial conditions (ICs) that respect the particle linear theory growing modes and then rescale the mode amplitudes to account for growth suppression. These ICs also allow us to take advantage of our very accurate N-body code ABACUS to implement second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) in configuration space. The combination of 2LPT and rescaling improves the accuracy of the late-time power spectra, halo mass functions, and halo clustering. In particular, we achieve 1 per cent accuracy in the power spectrum down to kNyquist, versus kNyquist/4 without rescaling or kNyquist/13 without 2LPT, relative to an oversampled reference simulation. We anticipate that our 2LPT will be useful for large simulations where fast Fourier transforms are expensive and that rescaling will be useful for suites of medium-resolution simulations used in cosmic emulators and galaxy survey mock catalogues. Code to generate ICs is available at https://github.com/lgarrison/zeldovich-PLT.
Modeling the Initial Conditions of Interacting Galaxy Pairs Using Identikit
Mortazavi, S Alireza; Barnes, Joshua E
2014-01-01
We develop and test an automated technique to model the dynamics of interacting galaxy pairs. We use Identikit (Barnes & Hibbard 2009; Barnes 2011) as a tool for modeling and matching the morphology and kinematics of the interacting pairs of equal-mass galaxies. In order to reduce the effect of subjective human judgement, we automate the selection of phase-space regions used to match simulations to data, and we explore how selection of these regions affects the random uncertainties of parameters in the best-fit model. In this work, we used an independent set of GADGET SPH simulations as input data, to determine the systematic bias in the measured encounter parameters based on the known initial conditions of these simulations. We tested both cold gas and young stellar components in the GADGET simulations to explore the effect of choosing HI vs. H$\\alpha$ as the line of sight velocity tracer. We found that we can group the results into tests with good, fair, and poor convergence based on the distribution of...
Building up the Population III initial mass function from cosmological initial conditions
Stacy, Athena; Lee, Aaron T
2016-01-01
We perform simulations of the growth of a Population III stellar system, starting from cosmological initial conditions at z=100. We self-consistently follow the formation of a minihalo and the subsequent collapse of its central gas to high densities, resolving scales as small as ~ 1 AU. Using sink particles to represent the growing protostars, we model the growth of the photodissociating and ionizing region around the first sink, continuing the simulation for ~ 5000 years after initial protostar formation. In addition to the first-forming sink, several tens of secondary sinks form before an ionization front develops around the most massive star. The resulting cluster has high rates of sink formation, ejections from the stellar disk, and sink mergers during the first ~ 2000 yr, before the onset of radiative feedback. By this time a warm ~ 5000 K phase of neutral gas has expanded to roughly the disk radius of 2000 AU, slowing mass flow onto the disk and sinks. By the end of the simulation, the most massive star...
Inflation with general initial conditions for scalar perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kundu, Sandipan, E-mail: sandyk@physics.utexas.edu [Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
2012-02-01
We explore the possibility of a single field quasi-de Sitter inflationary model with general initial state for primordial fluctuations. In this paper, first we compute the power spectrum and the bispectrum of scalar perturbations with coherent state as the initial state. We find that a large class of coherent states are indistinguishable from the Bunch-Davies vacuum state and hence consistent with the current observations. In case of a more general initial state built over Bunch-Davies vacuum state, we show that the constraints on the initial state from observed power spectrum and local bispectrum are relatively weak and for quasi-de Sitter inflation a large number of initial states are consistent with the current observations. However, renormalizability of the energy-momentum tensor of the fluctuations constraints the initial state further.
New solutions of initial conditions in general relativity
Tafel, J
2013-01-01
We find new classes of exact solutions of the initial momentum constraint for vacuum Einstein's equations. They are either axially symmetric or the exterior curvature tensor has a simple algebraic structure. In general the mean curvature $H$ is non-constant and initial metric is not conformally flat. Solutions depend on several free functions. The conformal method of Lichnerowicz, Choquet-Bruhat and York is used to prove solvability of the Hamiltonian constraint if $H$ vanishes. The existence of marginally trapped surfaces in initial manifold is discussed.
Fractional differential equation with the fuzzy initial condition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadia Arshad
2011-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study the existence and uniqueness of the solution for a class of fractional differential equation with fuzzy initial value. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Riemann-Liouville sense.
Parametric initial conditions for core-collapse supernova simulations
Suwa, Yudai
2016-01-01
We investigate a method to construct parametrized progenitor models for core-collapse supernova simulations. Different from all modern core-collapse supernova studies, which rely on progenitor models from stellar evolution calculations, we follow the methodology of Baron & Cooperstein (1990) to construct initial models. Choosing parametrized spatial distributions of entropy and electron fraction as a function of mass coordinate and solving the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium, we obtain the initial density structures of our progenitor models. First, we calculate structures with parameters fitting broadly the evolutionary model s11.2 of Woosley et al. (2002). We then demonstrate the reliability of our method by performing general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in spherical symmetry with the isotropic diffusion source approximation to solve the neutrino transport. Our comprehensive parameter study shows that initial models with a small central entropy ($\\lesssim 0.4\\,k_B$ nucleon$^{-1}$) can explo...
Multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic Model%多维广义自回归条件异方差模型
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
史宁中; 刘继春
2001-01-01
In this paper, by making use of the Hadamard product of matrices, a natural and reasonable generalization of the univariate GARCH (Generalized Autoregressive Conditional heteroscedastic) process introduced by Bollerslev (J. Econometrics 31(1986), 307-327) to the multivariate case is proposed. The conditions for the existence of strictly stationary and ergodic solutions and the existence of higherorder moments for this class of parametric models are derived.
Initial conditions in AA and pA collisions
Lappi, T
2016-01-01
A full understanding of the spacetime evolution of the QCD matter created in a heavy ion collision requires understanding the properties of the initial stages. In the weak coupling picture these are dominated by classical gluon fields, whose properties can also be studied via the scattering of dilute probes off a high energy hadron or nucleus. A particular challenge is understanding small systems, where LHC data is also showing signs of collective behavior. We discuss some recent results of on the initial matter production and thermalization in heavy ion collisions, in particular in the gluon saturation framework.
Numerical Black Hole Interiors and String Cosmology Initial Conditions
Madden, R
2001-01-01
Recent work has proposed the principle of `asymptotic past triviality' to characterize the initial state in the pre-big bang scenario of string cosmology, that it is a generic perturbative solution of the low-energy effective action. Among the more generic sets of solutions which is simple enough to investigate thoroughly, yet complex enough to exhibit interesting behavior, is the gravity-dilaton system in spherical symmetry. Since, in the Einstein frame, this system reduces to a massless minimally coupled scalar, which has been target of a large body of previous investigation, we will draw on this and interpret it in the cosmological context. Since this scenario necessarily involves the transition from weak field initial data into the strong field regime, gravitational collapse, we have made numerical computations to answer some of the questions raised on the road to the proposal that `the pre-big bang is as generic as gravitational collapse'.
Parametric initial conditions for core-collapse supernova simulations
Suwa, Yudai; Müller, Ewald
2016-08-01
We investigate a method to construct parametrized progenitor models for core-collapse supernova simulations. Different from all modern core-collapse supernova studies, which rely on progenitor models from stellar evolution calculations, we follow the methodology of Baron & Cooperstein to construct initial models. Choosing parametrized spatial distributions of entropy and electron fraction as a function of mass coordinate and solving the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium, we obtain the initial density structures of our progenitor models. First, we calculate structures with parameters fitting broadly the evolutionary model s11.2 of Woosley et al. (2002). We then demonstrate the reliability of our method by performing general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in spherical symmetry with the isotropic diffusion source approximation to solve the neutrino transport. Our comprehensive parameter study shows that initial models with a small central entropy (≲0.4 kB nucleon-1) can explode even in spherically symmetric simulations. Models with a large entropy (≳6 kB nucleon-1) in the Si/O layer have a rather large explosion energy (˜4 × 1050 erg) at the end of the simulations, which is still rapidly increasing.
Liberman, M A; Kiverin, A D; Ivanov, M F
2012-05-01
Regimes of chemical reaction wave propagation initiated by initial temperature nonuniformity in gaseous mixtures, whose chemistry is governed by chain-branching kinetics, are studied using a multispecies transport model and a detailed chemical model. Possible regimes of reaction wave propagation are identified for stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen and hydrogen-air mixtures in a wide range of initial pressures and temperature levels, depending on the initial non-uniformity steepness. The limits of the regimes of reaction wave propagation depend upon the values of the spontaneous wave speed and the characteristic velocities of the problem. It is shown that one-step kinetics cannot reproduce either quantitative neither qualitative features of the ignition process in real gaseous mixtures because the difference between the induction time and the time when the exothermic reaction begins significantly affects the ignition, evolution, and coupling of the spontaneous reaction wave and the pressure wave, especially at lower temperatures. We show that all the regimes initiated by the temperature gradient occur for much shallower temperature gradients than predicted by a one-step model. The difference is very large for lower initial pressures and for slowly reacting mixtures. In this way the paper provides an answer to questions, important in practice, about the ignition energy, its distribution, and the scale of the initial nonuniformity required for ignition in one or another regime of combustion wave propagation.
Identifying Initial Condition in Degenerate Parabolic Equation with Singular Potential
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Atifi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A hybrid algorithm and regularization method are proposed, for the first time, to solve the one-dimensional degenerate inverse heat conduction problem to estimate the initial temperature distribution from point measurements. The evolution of the heat is given by a degenerate parabolic equation with singular potential. This problem can be formulated in a least-squares framework, an iterative procedure which minimizes the difference between the given measurements and the value at sensor locations of a reconstructed field. The mathematical model leads to a nonconvex minimization problem. To solve it, we prove the existence of at least one solution of problem and we propose two approaches: the first is based on a Tikhonov regularization, while the second approach is based on a hybrid genetic algorithm (married genetic with descent method type gradient. Some numerical experiments are given.
Windows-Yule, C.R.K.; Rosato, A.D.; Rivas Abud, N.A.; Parker, D.J.
2014-01-01
n this paper, we compare the behaviours of two vibrofluidized granular systems, identical in terms of their composition, geometry and driving parameters, differing only in their initial conditions. It is found that, by increasing the strength with which a system is initially excited, considerable di
Spin-up behavior and effects of initial conditions for an integrated hydrologic model
Seck, Alimatou; Welty, Claire; Maxwell, Reed M.
2015-04-01
Initial conditions have been shown to have a strong effect on outputs of surface water models, but their impact on integrated hydrologic models is not well documented. We investigated the effects of initial conditions on an integrated hydrologic model of a 5632 km2 domain in the northeastern U.S. Simulations were run for the year 1980 using four initial conditions spanning a range of average depth to water table, including 1 m ("wet"), 3m, 5m, and 7 m ("dry") below land surface. Model outputs showed significant effects of initial conditions on basin-averaged variables such as subsurface storage, surface storage, and surface runoff, with the greatest impact observed on surface storage and runoff. Effects of initial conditions were related to meteorological conditions, with precipitation reducing the effects of initial conditions on surface storage and runoff. Additionally, feedbacks between soil moisture and land-energy fluxes affected the impacts of initial conditions: higher temperatures magnified the differences in storage, recharge, and discharge among the four initial-condition scenarios. Ten year recursive runs were conducted for the wet and dry scenarios. Spin-up times varied by model components and were considerably smaller for land-surface states and fluxes. Spin-up for dry initial conditions was slower than for wet initial conditions, indicating longer system memory for dry initial conditions. These variations in persistence of initial conditions should be taken into consideration when designing model initialization approaches. More broadly, this behavior is indicative of increased persistence of the effects of dry years as opposed to wet years in hydrologic systems.
On the Initial Conditions for Star Formation and the IMF
Elmegreen, Bruce G
2011-01-01
Density probability distribution functions (PDFs) for turbulent self-gravitating clouds should be convolutions of the local log-normal PDF, which depends on the local average density rho-ave and Mach number M, and the probability distribution functions for rho-ave and M, which depend on the overall cloud structure. When self-gravity drives a cloud to increased central density, the total PDF develops an extended tail. If there is a critical density or column density for star formation, then the fraction of the local mass exceeding this threshold becomes higher near the cloud center. These elements of cloud structure should be in place before significant star formation begins. Then the efficiency is high so that bound clusters form rapidly, and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) has an imprint in the gas before destructive radiation from young stars can erase it. The IMF could arise from a power-law distribution of mass for cloud structure. These structures should form stars down to the thermal Jeans mass ...
Self-propulsion and crossing statistics under random initial conditions
Hubert, M.; Labousse, M.; Perrard, S.
2017-06-01
We investigate the crossing of an energy barrier by a self-propelled particle described by a Rayleigh friction term. We reveal the existence of a sharp transition in the external force field whereby the amplitude dramatically increases. This corresponds to a saddle point transition in the velocity flow phase space, as would be expected for any type of repulsive force field. We use this approach to rationalize the results obtained by Eddi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240401 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.240401] who studied the interaction between a drop propelled by its accompanying wave field and a submarine obstacle. This wave particle entity can overcome potential barrier, suggesting the existence of a "macroscopic tunneling effect." We show that the effect of self-propulsion is sufficiently strong to generate crossing of the high-energy barrier. By assuming a random distribution of initial angles, we define a probability distribution to cross the potential barrier that matches with the data of Eddi et al. This probability is similar to the one encountered in statistical physics for Hamiltonian systems, i.e., a Boltzmann exponential law.
Cold Dark Clouds: The Initial Conditions for Star Formation
Bergin, Edwin A
2007-01-01
Cold dark clouds are nearby members of the densest and coldest phase in the galactic interstellar medium, and represent the most accessible sites where stars like our Sun are currently being born. In this review we discuss recent progress in their study, including the newly discovered infrared dark clouds that are likely precursors to stellar clusters. At large scales, dark clouds present filamentary mass distributions with motions dominated by supersonic turbulence. At small, sub-parsec scales, a population of subsonic starless cores provides a unique glimpse of the conditions prior to stellar birth. Recent studies of starless cores reveal a combination of simple physical properties together with a complex chemical structure dominated by the freeze-out of molecules onto cold dust grains. Elucidating this combined structure is both an observational and theoretical challenge whose solution will bring us closer to understanding how molecular gas condenses to form stars.
Wallace, Jack; Champagne, Pascale; Hall, Geof
2016-06-01
The wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) at a wastewater treatment facility in eastern Ontario, Canada, have experienced excessive algae growth and high pH levels in the summer months. A full range of parameters were sampled from the system and the chemical dynamics in the three WSPs were assessed through multivariate statistical analysis. The study presents a novel approach for exploratory analysis of a comprehensive water chemistry dataset, incorporating principal components analysis (PCA) and principal components (PC) and partial least squares (PLS) regressions. The analyses showed strong correlations between chl-a and sunlight, temperature, organic matter, and nutrients, and weak and negative correlations between chl-a and pH and chl-a and DO. PCA reduced the data from 19 to 8 variables, with a good fit to the original data matrix (similarity measure of 0.73). Multivariate regressions to model system pH in terms of these key parameters were performed on the reduced variable set and the PCs generated, for which strong fits (R(2) > 0.79 with all data) were observed. The methodologies presented in this study are applicable to a wide range of natural and engineered systems where a large number of water chemistry parameters are monitored resulting in the generation of large data sets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yamamoto, Motohisa; Nojima, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Yoshihiro; Ishigami, Keisuke; Yajima, Hidetaka; Shimizu, Yui; Tabeya, Tetsuya; Matsui, Mikiko; Suzuki, Chisako; Naishiro, Yasuyoshi; Takano, Ken-ichi; Himi, Tetsuo; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa
2015-01-01
Inducting clinical remission by glucocorticoid treatment is relatively easy in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), but relapse also occurs easily with tapering of the steroid dose. The present study tried to analyse the cases to extract predictors of relapse present at the diagnosis of IgG4-RD. Subjects comprised 79 patients with IgG4-related dacryoadenitis and sialadenitis, known as Mikulicz's disease, who were diagnosed between April 1997 and October 2013 and followed-up for >2 years from the initial induction treatment. They were applied to Cox proportional hazard modelling, based on the outcome of interval to relapse. We performed multivariate analysis for the clinical factors of these cases and identified predictors of relapse. Identified factors were male sex and younger onset in cases without organ involvement at diagnosis and low levels of serum IgG4 in cases with organ dysfunction at diagnosis. Complication with autoimmune pancreatitis and low steroid dose at initial treatment also tended to be associated with recurrence. Follow-up is important in cases with recognized risk factors for relapse, including male sex and younger onset in cases without organ damage. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Cl atom initiated oxidation of 1-alkenes under atmospheric conditions
Walavalkar, M.; Sharma, A.; Alwe, H. D.; Pushpa, K. K.; Dhanya, S.; Naik, P. D.; Bajaj, P. N.
2013-03-01
In view of the importance of the oxidation pathways of alkenes in the troposphere, and the significance of Cl atom as an oxidant in marine boundary layer (MBL) and polluted industrial atmosphere, the reactions of four 1-alkenes (C6-C9) with Cl atoms are investigated. The rate coefficients at 298 K are measured to be (4.0 ± 0.5), (4.4 ± 0.7), (5.5 ± 0.9) and (5.9 ± 1.7) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for 1-hexene, 1-heptene, 1-octene and 1-nonene, respectively. The quoted errors include the experimental 2σ, along with the error in the reference rate coefficients. From the systematic increase in the rate coefficients with the number of carbon atoms, an approximate value for the average rate coefficient for hydrogen abstraction per CH2 group in alkenes is estimated to be (4.9 ± 0.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Based on these rate coefficients, the contribution of Cl atom reactions towards the degradation of these molecules is found to be comparable to that of OH radical reactions, under MBL conditions. The products identified in gas phase indicate that Cl atom addition occurs mainly at the terminal carbon, leading to the formation of 1-chloro-2-ketones and 1-chloro-2-ols. The major gas phase products from the alkenyl radicals (formed by H atom abstraction) are different positional isomers of long chain enols and enones. A preference for dissociation leading to an allyl radical, resulting in aldehydes, lower by three carbon atoms, is indicated. The observed relative yields suggest that in general, the increased contribution of the reactions of Cl atoms towards degradation of 1-alkenes in NOx free air does not result in an increase in the generation of small aldehydes (carbon number < 4), including chloroethanal, as compared to that in the reaction of 1-butene.
Poore, G. M.; Kieffer, S. W.
2008-12-01
Initial conditions affect river network scaling and geomorphic properties, but the effect has not been systematically studied. Previous numerical and experimental studies have found that initial conditions affect river network drainage patterns, determining whether patterns are more parallel or more dendritic. They have also found that some network properties depend on initial conditions. We investigated the effect of initial conditions in the context of numerical models, using simulations of a stream power law. A common initial condition consists of a flat or sloping surface combined with random fluctuations in elevation. We used these initial conditions and focused on the effect of the magnitude of initial slope and the magnitude of initial randomness on standard network scaling and geomorphic properties, such as the Hack exponent, sinuosity, and hypsometry. Preliminary results indicate that some of the scaling and geomorphic properties show a strong dependence on initial conditions, while others exhibit little or no dependence. The strength of dependence can be sensitive to the statistical methods employed. Our results are relevant to numerical and analog modeling methodologies. The results suggest that initial conditions deserve greater consideration in attempts to understand the emergence of scaling in river networks.
Numerical simulation of shock initiation in multivariate explosive charge%多元炸药装药冲击起爆的数值模拟
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
浣石; 陶为俊; 蒋国平
2012-01-01
The shock initiation of multivariate explosive charges is investigated by numerical simulation. The time-histories of pressure are obtained through changing the installation order of charges. It seems from the anal- ysis that ： when the process of shock initiation goes from the high-speed explosive to the low, the pressure wave- form transition is smooth, and when the low-speed explosive reaches its C-J point there will be the short over- pressure detonation, when the process of shock initiation goes from the low-speed explosive to the high, the reto- nation phenomenon will appear, the pressure waveform has two peaks, and that is valuable to the twice-loading of the charge system.%对多元炸药装药的冲击起爆过程进行了数值模拟研究，得到了改变炸药装药层叠顺序后的压力时程曲线．通过分析比较发现：当起爆过程从高爆速炸药传入低爆速炸药时，压力波形过渡平稳，在低爆速炸药到达CJ点时会出现短暂的超压爆轰现象；当起爆过程从低爆速炸药传入高爆速炸药时，会出现回爆现象，压力波形出现双峰，这对于被驱动系统的二次加载是有价值的．
Dependence on Initial Conditions in a Numerical Model of River Network Formation
Poore, Geoffrey; Kieffer, Susan
2009-03-01
We investigated the effect of initial conditions on river network formation, using a simple model of erosional dynamics. Previous research suggests that river network scaling and geomorphic properties may be sensitive to initial conditions, but this has not been systematically studied. We used simulations of a stream power law, with initial conditions consisting of a flat or sloping surface combined with random fluctuations in elevation, and considered dependence of steady-state solutions on initial slope and randomness. The sinuosity exponent and the sinuosity are sensitive to these initial conditions, while the Hack exponent and hypsometry show little or no sensitivity. The results suggest that initial conditions deserve greater consideration in attempts to understand the emergence of scaling in river networks.
Churchill, Laura; Malian, Samuel J; Chesworth, Bert M; Bryant, Dianne; MacDonald, Steven J; Marsh, Jacquelyn D; Giffin, J Robert
2016-12-01
In previous studies, 50%-70% of patients referred to orthopedic surgeons for total knee replacement (TKR) were not surgical candidates at the time of initial assessment. The purpose of our study was to identify and cross-validate patient self-reported predictors of suitability for TKR and to determine the clinical utility of a predictive model to guide the timing and appropriateness of referral to a surgeon. We assessed pre-consultation patient data as well as the surgeon's findings and post-consultation recommendations. We used multivariate logistic regression to detect self-reported items that could identify suitable surgical candidates. Patients' willingness to undergo surgery, higher rating of pain, greater physical function, previous intra-articular injections and patient age were the factors predictive of patients being offered and electing to undergo TKR. The application of the model developed in our study would effectively reduce the proportion of nonsurgical referrals by 25%, while identifying the vast majority of surgical candidates (> 90%). Using patient-reported information, we can correctly predict the outcome of specialist consultation for TKR in 70% of cases. To reduce long waits for first consultation with a surgeon, it may be possible to use these items to educate and guide referring clinicians and patients to understand when specialist consultation is the next step in managing the patient with severe osteoarthritis of the knee.
The role of boundary and initial conditions for dynamical seasonal predictability
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T. J. Reichler
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The importance of initial state and boundary forcing for atmospheric predictability is explored on global to regional spatial scales and on daily to seasonal time scales. A general circulation model is used to conduct predictability experiments with different combinations of initial and boundary conditions. The experiments are verified under perfect model assumptions as well as against observational data. From initial conditions alone, there is significant instantaneous forecast skill out to 2 months. Different initial conditions show different predictability using the same kind of boundary forcing. Even on seasonal time scales, using observed atmospheric initial conditions leads to a substantial increase in overall skill, especially during periods with weak tropical forcing. The impact of boundary forcing on predictability is detectable after 10 days and leads to measurable instantaneous forecast skill at very long lead times. Over the Northern Hemisphere, it takes roughly 4 weeks for boundary conditions to reach the same effect on predictability as initial conditions. During events with strong tropical forcing, these time scales are somewhat shorter. Over the Southern Hemisphere, there is a strongly enhanced influence of initial conditions during summer. We conclude that the long term memory of initial conditions is important for seasonal forecasting.
Influence of changes in initial conditions for the simulation of dynamic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kotyrba, Martin [Department of Informatics and Computers, University of Ostrava, 30 dubna 22, Ostrava (Czech Republic)
2015-03-10
Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including meteorology, sociology, physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy. Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions—a paradigm popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Small differences in initial conditions field widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems, rendering long-term prediction impossible in general. This happens even though these systems are deterministic, meaning that their future behavior is fully determined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved. In this paperinfluence of changes in initial conditions will be presented for the simulation of Lorenz system.
Terrestrial planet formation in low-mass disks: dependence with initial conditions
Ronco, María Paula; Guilera, Octavio Miguel
2014-01-01
In general, most of the studies of terrestrial-type planet formation typically use ad hoc initial conditions. In this work we improved the initial conditions described in Ronco & de El\\'ia (2014) starting with a semi-analytical model wich simulates the evolution of the protoplanetary disk during the gas phase. The results of the semi-analytical model are then used as initial conditions for the N-body simulations. We show that the planetary systems considered are not sensitive to the particular initial distribution of embryos and planetesimals and thus, the results are globally similar to those found in the previous work.
Analysis of the Conformally Flat Approximation for Binary Neutron Star Initial Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
In-Saeng Suh
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The spatially conformally flat approximation (CFA is a viable method to deduce initial conditions for the subsequent evolution of binary neutron stars employing the full Einstein equations. Here we analyze the viability of the CFA for the general relativistic hydrodynamic initial conditions of binary neutron stars. We illustrate the stability of the conformally flat condition on the hydrodynamics by numerically evolving ~100 quasicircular orbits. We illustrate the use of this approximation for orbiting neutron stars in the quasicircular orbit approximation to demonstrate the equation of state dependence of these initial conditions and how they might affect the emergent gravitational wave frequency as the stars approach the innermost stable circular orbit.
Discussions about Calculation of Conditional Extreme of Multivariate Function%多元函数条件极值的求法探究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方倩珊; 吴全荣
2014-01-01
Combined with examples, this paper first discussed six methods about calculation of conditional extreme of multivariate function: the substitution elimination method, the Lagrange multiplier method, the geometrical model method, the parametric equation method, the gradient inner product method, inequality method. And then it analyzed applicable condition of various calculation methods and pointed out the non-precise aspects in some textbooks about calculation of conditional extreme of multivariate function in order to help students choose the appropriate method when solving such problems.%结合具体实例，分别从代入消元法、拉格朗日乘数法、几何模型法、参数方程法、梯度内积法、不等式法等六个角度探讨了多元函数条件极值的多种求法，比较了各种求法适用的条件，并指出某些教材中多元函数条件极值求法的不严谨性。旨在帮助学生在求解此类问题时选择适当的方法，把握正确的解题方向。
Influence of thermalization on the initial condition for heavy ion collisions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO AMeng; SUN WeiMin; ZONG HongShi
2014-01-01
In this paper,we discuss the important role of the thermalization process in the initial distribution of QGP.We find that the negligible heat conduction inside QGP can be expressed as an effective Fourier law and we further analyse qualitatively the results caused by a thermalized initial condition.Based on this arguments,we construct a simple phenomenological model and work with the hydro code,and then we compare our results with the experimental data and the results of the standard initial model.It is found that,as we have argued,a thermalized initial condition suppresses the value of the elliptic flow.
Effects of the initial conditions on cosmological $N$-body simulations
L'Huillier, Benjamin; Kim, Juhan
2014-01-01
Cosmology is entering an era of percent level precision due to current large observational surveys. This precision in observation is now demanding more accuracy from numerical methods and cosmological simulations. In this paper, we study the accuracy of $N$-body numerical simulations and their dependence on changes in the initial conditions and in the simulation algorithms. For this purpose, we use a series of cosmological $N$-body simulations with varying initial conditions. We test the influence of the initial conditions, namely the pre-initial configuration (preIC), the order of the Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT), and the initial redshift, on the statistics associated with the large scale structures of the universe such as the halo mass function, the density power spectrum, and the maximal extent of the large scale structures. We find that glass or grid pre-initial conditions give similar results at $z\\lesssim 2$. However, the initial excess of power in the glass initial conditions yields a subtle di...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Hae-Yong; Park, Moon-Ghu [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
In most existing evaluation methodologies, which follow a conservative approach, the most conservative initial conditions are searched for each transient scenario through tremendous assessment for wide operating windows or limiting conditions for operation (LCO) allowed by the operating guidelines. In this procedure, a user effect could be involved and a remarkable time and human resources are consumed. In the present study, we investigated a more effective statistical method for the selection of the most conservative initial condition by the use of random sampling of operating parameters affecting the initial conditions. A method for the determination of initial conditions based on random sampling of plant design parameters is proposed. This method is expected to be applied for the selection of the most conservative initial plant conditions in the safety analysis using a conservative evaluation methodology. In the method, it is suggested that the initial conditions of reactor coolant flow rate, pressurizer level, pressurizer pressure, and SG level are adjusted by controlling the pump rated flow, setpoints of PLCS, PPCS, and FWCS, respectively. The proposed technique is expected to contribute to eliminate the human factors introduced in the conventional safety analysis procedure and also to reduce the human resources invested in the safety evaluation of nuclear power plants.
Kaczmarek, Łukasz; Dobak, Paweł
2015-12-01
Localised landslide activity has been observed in the area of the plateau slope analysed, in the vicinity of the planned Warsaw Southern Ring Road. Using calculation models quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the impact of natural and anthropogenic load factors on slope stability (and hence, safety) are made. The present paper defines six stages of slope stability analysis, leading to an indication of optimum slope design in relation to the development planned. The proposed procedure produces a ranking of factors that affect slope stability. In the engineering geological conditions under consideration, the greatest factors impacting degradation and failure of slope stability are changes in soil strength due to local, periodic yielding and the presence of dynamic loads generated by intensification of road traffic. Calculation models were used to assess the impact of destabilisation factors and to obtain mutual equivalence with 3D-visualisation relations. Based on this methodology, various scenarios dedicated to specific engineering geological conditions can be developed and rapid stability evaluations of changing slope loads can be performed.
Silent initial conditions for cosmological perturbations with a change of space-time signature
Mielczarek, Jakub; Barrau, Aurelien
2014-01-01
Recent calculations in loop quantum cosmology suggest that a transition from a Lorentzian to an Euclidean space-time might take place in the very early Universe. The transition point leads to a state of silence, characterized by a vanishing speed of light. This behavior can be interpreted as a decoupling of different space points, similar to the one characterizing the BKL phase. In this study, we address the issue of imposing initial conditions for the cosmological perturbations at the transition point between the Lorentzian and Euclidean phases. Motivated by the decoupling of space points, initial conditions characterized by a lack of correlations are investigated. We show that the "white noise" initial conditions are supported by the analysis of the vacuum state in the Euclidean regime adjacent to the state of silence. Furthermore, the possibility of imposing the silent initial conditions at the trans-Planckian surface, characterized by a vanishing speed for the propagation of modes with wavelengths of the ...
Solutions to Fractional Differential Equations with Nonlocal Initial Condition in Banach Spaces
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Liang Jin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A new existence and uniqueness theorem is given for solutions to differential equations involving the Caputo fractional derivative with nonlocal initial condition in Banach spaces. An application is also given.
Oglesby, Robert J.; Marshall, Susan; Roads, John O.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We constructed and analyzed wet and dry soil moisture composites for the mid-latitude GCIP region of the central US using long climate model simulations made with the NCAR CCM3 and reanalysis products from NCEP. Using the diagnostic composites as a guide, we have completed a series of predictability experiments in which we imposed soil water initial conditions in CCM3 for the GCIP region for June 1 from anomalously wet and dry years, with atmospheric initial conditions taken from June 1 of a year with 'near-normal' soil water, and initial soil water from the near-normal year and atmospheric initial conditions from the wet and dry years. Preliminary results indicate that the initial state of the atmosphere is more important than the initial state of soil water determining the subsequent late spring and summer evolution of sod water over the GCIP region. Surprisingly, neither the composites or the predictability experiments yielded a strong influence of soil moisture on the atmosphere. To explore this further, we have made runs with extreme dry soil moisture initial anomalies imposed over the GCIP region (the soil close to being completely dry). These runs did yield a very strong effect on the atmosphere that persisted for at least three months. We conclude that the magnitude of the initial soil moisture anomaly is crucial, at least in CCM3, and are currently investigating whether a threshold exists, below which little impact is seen. In a complementary study, we compared the impact of the initial condition of snow cover versus the initial atmospheric state over the western US (corresponding to the westward extension of the GAPP program follow-on to GCIP). In this case, the initial prescription of snow cover is far more important than the initial atmospheric state in determining the subsequent evolution of snow cover. We are currently working to understand the very different soil water and snow cover results.
Are turbulent spheres suitable initial conditions for star-forming clouds?
2014-01-01
To date, most numerical simulations of molecular clouds, and star formation within them, assume a uniform density sphere or box with an imposed turbulent velocity field. In this work, we select molecular clouds from galactic scale simulations as initial conditions, increase their resolution, and re-simulate them using the SPH code Gadget2. Our approach provides clouds with morphologies, internal structures, and kinematics that constitute more consistent and realistic initial conditions for si...
Mueller, Alexander; Jungen, Hilke; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie; Raduenz, Lars; Lezius, Susanne; Andresen-Streichert, Hilke
2017-02-01
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol, is used as a direct alcohol biomarker for the prolonged detection of ethanol consumption. Hair testing for EtG offers retrospective, long-term detection of ethanol exposition for several months and has gained practical importance in forensic and clinical toxicology. Since quantitative results of EtG hair testings are included in interpretations, a rugged quantitation of EtG in hair matrix is important. As generally known, sample preparation is critical in hair testing, and the scope of this study was on extraction of EtG from hair matrix. The influence of extraction solvent, ultrasonication, incubation temperature, incubation time, solvent amount and hair particle size on quantitative results was investigated by a multifactorial experimental design using a validated analytical method and twelve different batches of authentic human hair material. Eight series of extraction experiments in a Plackett-Burman setup were carried out on each hair material with the studied factors at high or low levels. The effect of pulverization was further studied by two additional experimental series. Five independent samplings were performed for each run, resulting in a total number of 600 determinations. Considerable differences in quantitative EtG results were observed, concentrations above and below interpretative cut-offs were obtained from the same hair materials using different extraction conditions. Statistical analysis revealed extraction solvent and temperature as the most important experimental factors with significant influence on quantitative results. The impact of pulverization depended on other experimental factors and the different hair matrices themselves proved to be important predictors of extraction efficiency. A standardization of extraction procedures should be discussed, since it will probably reduce interlaboratory variabilities and improve the quality and acceptance of hair EtG analysis. Copyright © 2016
Smith, Kelly M.; Gay, Robert S.; Stachowiak, Susan J.
2013-01-01
In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter to improve altitude knowledge. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the parachute deployment sequence based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this backup trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to semi-automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a statistical classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers improved performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles.
Smith, Kelly; Gay, Robert; Stachowiak, Susan
2013-01-01
In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter to improve altitude knowledge. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the parachute deployment sequence based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this backup trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to semi-automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a statistical classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers improved performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcela Lascsáková
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In the paper the numerical model based on the exponential approximation of commodity stock exchanges was derived. The price prognoses of aluminium on the London Metal Exchange were determined as numerical solution of the Cauchy initial problem for the 1st order ordinary differential equation. To make the numerical model more accurate the idea of the modification of the initial condition value by the stock exchange was realized. By having analyzed the forecasting success of the chosen initial condition drift types, the initial condition drift providing the most accurate prognoses for the commodity price movements was determined. The suggested modification of the original model made the commodity price prognoses more accurate.
The impact of initial conditions in N-body simulations of debris discs
Thilliez, E
2015-01-01
Numerical simulations are a crucial tool to understand the relationship between debris discs and planetary companions. However, simulations throughout the literature have been conducted with various initial conditions often with little or no justification. In this paper, we aim to study the dependence on the initial conditions of N-body simulations modelling the interaction between a massive and eccentric planet on an exterior debris disc. To achieve this, we first classify three broad approaches used in the literature and provide some physical context for when each category should be used. We then run a series of N-body simulations, that include radiation forces acting on small grains, with varying initial conditions across the three categories. We test the influence of the initial parent body belt width, eccentricity, and alignment with the planet on the resulting debris disc structure and compare the final peak emission location, disc width and offset of synthetic disc images produced with a radiative tran...
Dynamical fine-tuning of initial conditions for small field inflations
Iso, Satoshi; Shimada, Kengo
2015-01-01
Small-field inflation (SFI) is widely considered to be unnatural because an extreme fine-tuning of the initial condition is necessary for sufficiently large e-folding. In this paper, we show that the unnaturally-looking initial condition can be dynamically realised without any fine-tuning if the SFI occurs after rapid oscillations of the inflaton field and particle creations by preheating. In fact, if the inflaton field $\\phi$ is coupled to another scalar field $\\chi$ through the interaction $g^2 \\chi^2 \\phi^2$ and the vacuum energy during the small field inflation is given by $\\lambda M^4$, the initial value can be dynamically set at $(\\sqrt{\\lambda}/g) M^2/M_{\\rm pl}$, which is much smaller than the typical scale of the potential $M.$ This solves the initial condition problem in the new inflation model or some classes of the hilltop inflation models.
A no hair theorem and the problem of initial conditions. [in cosmological model
Jensen, Lars Gerhard; Stein-Schabes, Jaime A.
1987-01-01
It is shown that under very general conditions, any inhomogeneous cosmological model with a positive cosmological constant that can be described in a synchronous reference system will tend asymptotically in time towards the de Sitter solution. This renders the problem of initial conditions less severe.
Inner boundary conditions for black hole initial data derived from isolated horizons
Jaramillo, José Luis; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Marugán, Guillermo A.
2004-12-01
We present a set of boundary conditions for solving the elliptic equations in the initial data problem for space-times containing a black hole, together with a number of constraints to be satisfied by the otherwise freely specifiable standard parameters of the conformal thin sandwich formulation. These conditions altogether are sufficient for the construction of a horizon that is instantaneously in equilibrium in the sense of the isolated horizons formalism. We then investigate the application of these conditions to the initial data problem of binary black holes and discuss the relation of our analysis with other proposals that exist in the literature.
Inner boundary conditions for black hole Initial Data derived from Isolated Horizons
Jaramillo, J L; Mena-Marugán, G A
2004-01-01
We present a set of boundary conditions for solving the elliptic equations in the Initial Data problem for space-times containing a black hole, together with a number of constraints to be satisfied by the freely specifiable standard parameters of the Conformal Thin Sandwich formulation. These conditions altogether are sufficient for the construction of a horizon that is instantaneously in equilibrium in the sense of the Isolated Horizons formalism. We then investigate the application of these conditions to the Initial Data problem of binary black holes and discuss the relation of our analysis with other proposals that exist in the literature.
Analysis of the Conformally Flat Approximation for Binary Neutron Star Initial Conditions
Suh, In-Saeng; Mathews, Grant J.; Haywood, J. Reese; Lan, N. Q.
The spatially conformally flat approximation (CFA) is a viable method to deduce initial conditions for the subsequent evolution of binary neutron stars employing the full Einstein equations. Here we review the status of the original formulation of the CFA for the general relativistic hydrodynamic initial conditions of binary neutron stars. We illustrate the stability of the conformally flat condition on the hydrodynamics by numerically evolving ~100 quasi-circular orbits. We illustrate the use of this approximation for orbiting neutron stars in the quasi-circular orbit approximation to demonstrate the equation of state dependence of these initial conditions and how they might affect the emergent gravitational wave frequency as the stars approach the innermost stable circular orbit.
On the Impact of Uncertainty in Initial Conditions of Hydrologic Models on Prediction
Razavi, S.; Sheikholeslami, R.
2015-12-01
Determining the initial conditions for predictive models remains a challenge due to the uncertainty in measurement/identification of the state variables at the scale of interest. However, the characterization of uncertainty in initial conditions has arguably attracted less attention compared with other sources of uncertainty in hydrologic modelling (e.g, parameter, data, and structural uncertainty). This is perhaps because it is commonly believed that: (1) hydrologic systems (relatively rapidly) forget their initial conditions over time, and (2) other sources of uncertainty (e.g., in data) are dominant. This presentation revisits the basic principles of the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems in the context of hydrologic systems. Through simple example case studies, we demonstrate how and under what circumstances different hydrologic processes represent a range of attracting limit sets in their evolution trajectory in state space over time, including fixed points, limit cycles (periodic behaviour), torus (quasi-periodic behaviour), and strange attractors (chaotic behaviour). Furthermore, the propagation (or dissipation) of uncertainty in initial conditions of several hydrologic models through time, under any of the possible attracting limit sets, is investigated. This study highlights that there are definite situations in hydrology where uncertainty in initial conditions remains of significance. The results and insights gained have important implications for hydrologic modelling under non-stationarity in climate and environment.
Dynamical ejections of massive stars from young star clusters under diverse initial conditions
Oh, Seungkyung
2016-01-01
We study the effects of initial conditions of star clusters and their massive star population on dynamical ejections of stars from star clusters up to an age of 3 Myr, particularly focusing on massive systems, using a large set of direct N-body calculations for moderately massive star clusters (Mecl=$10^{3.5}$ Msun). We vary the initial conditions of the calculations such as the initial half-mass radius of the clusters, initial binary populations for massive stars and initial mass segregation. We find that the initial density is the most influential parameter for the ejection fraction of the massive systems. The clusters with an initial half-mass radius of 0.1 (0.3) pc can eject up to 50% (30)% of their O-star systems on average. Most of the models show that the average ejection fraction decreases with decreasing stellar mass. For clusters efficient at ejecting O stars, the mass function of the ejected stars is top-heavy compared to the given initial mass function (IMF), while the mass function of stars remai...
Effect of Initial Hydraulic Conditions on Capillary Rise in a Porous Medium: Pore-Network Modeling
Joekar-Niasar, V.
2012-01-01
The dynamics of capillary rise in a porous medium have been mostly studied in initially dry systems. As initial saturation and initial hydraulic conditions in many natural and industrial porous media can be variable, it is important to investigate the influence of initial conditions on the dynamics of the process. In this study, using dynamic pore-network modeling, we simulated capillary rise in a porous medium for different initial saturations (and consequently initial capillary pressures). Furthermore, the effect of hydraulic connectivity of the wetting phase in corners on the height and velocity of the wetting front was studied. Our simulation results show that there is a trade-off between capillary forces and trapping due to snap-off, which leads to a nonlinear dependence of wetting front velocity on initial saturation at the pore scale. This analysis may provide a possible answer to the experimental observations in the literature showing a non-monotonic dependency between initial saturation and the macroscopic front velocity. © Soil Science Society of America.
A Novel Method for the Initial-Condition Estimation of a Tent Map
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Xi; GAG Yong; YANG Yuan
2009-01-01
Based on the connection between the tent map and the saw tooth map or Bernoulli map, a novel method for the initial-condition estimation of the tent map is presented. In the method, firstly the symbolic sequence generated from the tent map is converted to the forms obtained from the saw tooth map and Bernoulli map, and then the relationship between the symbolic sequence and the initial condition of the tent map can be obtained from the initial-condition estimation equations, which can be easily obtained, hence the estimation of the tent map can be achieved finally. The method is computationally simple and the error of the estimator is less than 1/2N. The method is verified by software simulation.
A new way of setting the phases for cosmological multi-scale Gaussian initial conditions
Jenkins, Adrian
2013-01-01
We describe how to define an extremely large discrete realisation of a Gaussian white noise field that has a hierarchical structure and the property that the value of any part of the field can be computed quickly. Tiny subregions of such a field can be used to set the phase information for Gaussian initial conditions for individual cosmological simulations of structure formation. This approach has several attractive features: (i) the hierarchical structure based on an octree is particular well suited for generating follow up resimulation or zoom initial conditions; (ii) the phases are defined for all relevant physical scales in advance so that resimulation initial conditions are, by construction, consistent both with their parent simulation and with each other; (iii) the field can easily be made public by releasing a code to compute it - once public, phase information can be shared or published by specifying a spatial location within the realisation. In this paper we describe the principles behind creating su...
An Investigation of the Influence of Initial Conditions on Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueschke, Nicholas J. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
2004-12-01
Experiments and direct numerical simulations (DNS) have been performed to examine the effects of initial conditions on the dynamics of a Rayleigh-Taylor unstable mixing layer. Experiments were performed on a water channel facility to measure the interfacial and velocity perturbations initially present at the two-fluid interface in a small Atwood number mixing layer. The experimental measurements have been parameterized for use in numerical simulations of the experiment. Two- and three-dimensional DNS of the experiment have been performed using the parameterized initial conditions. It is shown that simulations implemented with initial velocity and density perturbations, rather than density perturbations alone, are required to match experimentally-measured statistics and spectra. Data acquired from both the experiment and numerical simulations are used to examine the role of initial conditions on the evolution of integral-scale, turbulence, and mixing statistics. Early-time turbulence and mixing statistics are shown to be strongly-dependent upon the early-time transition of the initial perturbation from a weakly-nonlinear to a strongly-nonlinear flow.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Jing-hua(闫敬华); Detlev Majewski
2003-01-01
Based on the real case of a frontal precipitation process affecting South China, 27 controlled numerical experiments was made for the effects of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic effects, different driving models, combinations of initial/boundary conditions, updates of lateral values and initial time levels of forecast, on model predictions. Features about the impact of initial/boundary conditions on mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model are analyzed and discussed in detail. Some theoretically and practically valuable conclusions aredrawn. It is found that the overall tendency of mesoscale NWP models is governed by its driving model, with the initial conditions showing remarkable impacts on mesoscale models for the first 10 hours of the predictions while leaving lateral boundary conditions to take care the period beyond; the latter affect the inner area of mesoscale predictions mainly through the propagation and movement of weather signals (waves) of different time scales; initial values of external model parameters such as soil moisture content may affect predictions of more longer time validity, while fast signals may be filtered away and only information with time scale 4 times as large as or more than the updated period of boundary values may be introduced, through lateral boundary, to mesoscale models, etc. Someresults may be taken as important guidance on mesoscale model and its data assimilation developments of the future.
3-D simulations to investigate initial condition effects on the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrews, Malcolm J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
The effect of initial conditions on the growth rate of turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing has been studied using carefully formulated numerical simulations. An integrated large-eddy simulation (ILES) that uses a finite-volume technique was employed to solve the three-dimensional incompressible Euler equations with numerical dissipation. The initial conditions were chosen to test the dependence of the RT growth parameters ({alpha}{sub b}, {alpha}{sub s}) on variations in (a) the spectral bandwidth, (b) the spectral shape, and (c) discrete banded spectra. Our findings support the notion that the overall growth of the RT mixing is strongly dependent on initial conditions. Variation in spectral shapes and bandwidths are found to have a complex effect of the late time development of the RT mixing layer, and raise the question of whether we can design RT transition and turbulence based on our choice of initial conditions. In addition, our results provide a useful database for the initialization and development of closures describing RT transition and turbulence.
ICBC Version 3. 1: TMI-2 (Three Mile Island) Initial and Boundary Conditions data base
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brower, R W; Fackrell, L J; Golden, D W; Harris, M L; Olaveson, C L
1988-01-01
The TMI-2 initial and boundary conditions data base is a micro computer data base which provides the required initial and boundary conditions to simulate the TMI-2 accident. Additionally, other time series plant measurements related to the accident are included in the data base. Major features of the data base are the ability to plot, manipulate and list data as well as to enter user supplied data (e.g. results of simulations). The user guide provides the instructions for installation and operation of the data base. 10 refs., 21 figs.
Bayesian inference of the initial conditions from large-scale structure surveys
Leclercq, Florent
2016-10-01
Analysis of three-dimensional cosmological surveys has the potential to answer outstanding questions on the initial conditions from which structure appeared, and therefore on the very high energy physics at play in the early Universe. We report on recently proposed statistical data analysis methods designed to study the primordial large-scale structure via physical inference of the initial conditions in a fully Bayesian framework, and applications to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7. We illustrate how this approach led to a detailed characterization of the dynamic cosmic web underlying the observed galaxy distribution, based on the tidal environment.
Rao, Pooja; She, Dan; Lim, Hyunkyung; Glimm, James
2015-11-01
The qualitative and quantitative effect of initial conditions (linear and non-linear) and high Mach number (1.3 and 1.45) is studied on the turbulent mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in idealized ICF conditions. The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability seeds Rayleigh-taylor instabilities in ICF experiments and is one of the factors that contributes to reduced performance of ICF experiments. Its also found in collapsing cores of stars and supersonic combustion. We use the Stony Brook University code, FronTier, which is verified via a code comparison study against the AMR multiphysics code FLASH, and validated against vertical shock tube experiments done by the LANL Extreme Fluids Team. These simulations are designed as a step towards simulating more realistic ICF conditions and quantifying the detrimental effects of mixing on the yield.
A new way of setting the phases for cosmological multiscale Gaussian initial conditions
Jenkins, Adrian
2013-09-01
We describe how to define an extremely large discrete realization of a Gaussian white noise field that has a hierarchical structure and the property that the value of any part of the field can be computed quickly. Tiny subregions of such a field can be used to set the phase information for Gaussian initial conditions for individual cosmological simulations of structure formation. This approach has several attractive features: (i) the hierarchical structure based on an octree is particularly well suited for generating follow-up resimulation or zoom initial conditions; (ii) the phases are defined for all relevant physical scales in advance so that resimulation initial conditions are, by construction, consistent both with their parent simulation and with each other; (iii) the field can easily be made public by releasing a code to compute it - once public, phase information can be shared or published by specifying a spatial location within the realization. In this paper, we describe the principles behind creating such realizations. We define an example called Panphasia and in a companion paper by Jenkins and Booth (2013) make public a code to compute it. With 50 octree levels Panphasia spans a factor of more than 1015 in linear scale - a range that significantly exceeds the ratio of the current Hubble radius to the putative cold dark matter free-streaming scale. We show how to modify a code used for making cosmological and resimulation initial conditions so that it can take the phase information from Panphasia and, using this code, we demonstrate that it is possible to make good quality resimulation initial conditions. We define a convention for publishing phase information from Panphasia and publish the initial phases for several of the Virgo Consortium's most recent cosmological simulations including the 303 billion particle MXXL simulation. Finally, for reference, we give the locations and properties of several dark matter haloes that can be resimulated within these
Candogan Yossef, N.; Winsemius, H.C.; Weerts, A.; Van Beek, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.
2013-01-01
We investigate the relative contributions of initial conditions (ICs) and meteorological forcing (MF) to the skill of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World, using the global hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance. Potential improvement in forecasting skill through be
42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.
2010-10-01
... comprehensive assessment of the patient. 418.54 Section 418.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Participation: Patient Care § 418.54 Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient. The hospice must conduct and document in writing a patient-specific comprehensive assessment...
Waalkens, H.; Burbanks, A.; Wiggins, S.
2005-01-01
We present the formal proof of a procedure to compute the phase-space volume of initial conditions for trajectories that, for a constant energy, escape or ‘react’ from a multi-dimensional potential well with one or several exit/entrance channels. The procedure relies on a phase-space formulation of
On a Class of Multitime Evolution Equations with Nonlocal Initial Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Zouyed
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The existence and uniqueness of the strong solution for a multitime evolution equation with nonlocal initial conditions are proved. The proof is essentially based on a priori estimates and on the density of the range of the operator generated by the considered problem.
The initial conditions of observed star clusters - I. Method description and validation
Pijloo, J T; Alexander, P E R; Gieles, M; Larsen, S S; Groot, P J; Devecchi, B
2015-01-01
We have coupled a fast, parametrized star cluster evolution code to a Markov Chain Monte Carlo code to determine the distribution of probable initial conditions of observed star clusters, which may serve as a starting point for future $N$-body calculations. In this paper we validate our method by applying it to a set of star clusters which have been studied in detail numerically with $N$-body simulations and Monte Carlo methods: the Galactic globular clusters M4, 47 Tucanae, NGC 6397, M22, $\\omega$ Centauri, Palomar 14 and Palomar 4, the Galactic open cluster M67, and the M31 globular cluster G1. For each cluster we derive a distribution of initial conditions that, after evolution up to the cluster's current age, evolves to the currently observed conditions. We find that there is a connection between the morphology of the distribution of initial conditions and the dynamical age of a cluster and that a degeneracy in the initial half-mass radius towards small radii is present for clusters which have undergone a...
How non-zero initial conditions affect the minimality of linear discrete-time systems
Willigenburg, van L.G.; Koning, de W.L.
2008-01-01
From the state-space approach to linear systems, promoted by Kalman, we learned that minimality is equivalent with reachability together with observability. Our past research on optimal reduced-order LQG controller synthesis revealed that if the initial conditions are non-zero, minimality is no long
Candogan Yossef, N.; Winsemius, H.C.; Weerts, A.; Van Beek, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.
2013-01-01
We investigate the relative contributions of initial conditions (ICs) and meteorological forcing (MF) to the skill of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World, using the global hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance. Potential improvement in forecasting skill through be
Prescribing Transient and Asymptotic Behaviour of LTI Systems with Stochastic Initial Conditions
Dresscher, Martijn; Jayawardhana, Bayu
2017-01-01
This paper considers two different control problems for deterministic systems with stochastic initial conditions where, in addition to the usual asymptotic behavior requirement, we are interested in the transient behavior of the state distribution evolution. For the first one, we study control desig
Understanding the impact of initial condition on low Atwood number Rayleigh-Taylor driven flows
Kuchibhatla, Sarat Chandra; Ranjan, Devesh
2012-11-01
Experimental investigation of the effects of initial conditions on Rayleigh-Taylor instability was performed using the Water Channel facility at Texas A&M University. Hot and cold water (with a temperature difference of ~7-8 degrees C) selected as working fluids were unstably stratified using a splitter plate resulting in a low Atwood number of ~0.0015. Using a servo controlled flapper system the effect of initial conditions is studied using different diagnostics such as optical imaging, thermocouples and hot-wire anemometry. A parametric study comprising of up to 10 modes of the initial condition was performed by varying the number of modes as well as modal composition (i . e . ratio of wavenumbers and phase differences). Variation of density, temperature and velocity field in the linear and non-linear stages of RT growth was recorded and analyzed. At non-dimensional time, t* = t (At g /H)0.5= 1.3, where t is the time, H is the width of the Channel, and g is the acceleration due to gravity, power spectra of the non-dimensional density showed fine-scale components that are dependent upon the initial condition. Plots of scalar dissipation and mixing rate indicate greater dissipation rate at early times that tends to asymptote to the order of kinematic viscosity at late times.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anastassiou George A.
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Here we present very general fractional representation formulae for a function in terms of the fractional Riemann-Liouville integrals of different orders of the function and its ordinary derivatives under initial conditions. Based on these, we derive general fractional Ostrowski type inequalities with respect to all basic norms.
Influence of the initial conditions for the numerical simulation of two-phase slug flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pachas Napa, Alex A.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M.; Medina, Cesar D. Perea
2010-07-01
Multiphase flows in pipelines commonly show several patterns depending on the flow rate, geometry and physical properties of the phases. In oil production, the slug flow pattern is the most common among the others. This flow pattern is characterized by an intermittent succession in space and time of an aerated liquid slug and an elongated gas bubble with a liquid film. Slug flow is studied through the slug tracking model described as one-dimensional and Lagrangian frame referenced. In the model, the mass and the momentum balance equations are applied in control volumes constituted by the gas bubble and the liquid slug. Initial conditions must be determined, which need to reproduce the intermittence of the flow pattern. These initial conditions are given by a sequence of flow properties for each unit cell. Properties of the unit cell in initial conditions should reflect the intermittence, for which they can be analyzed in statistical terms. Therefore, statistical distributions should be obtained for the slug flow variables. Distributions are complemented with the mass balance and the bubble design model. The objective of the present work is to obtain initial conditions for the slug tracking model that reproduce a better adjustment of the fluctuating properties for different pipe inclinations (horizontal, vertical or inclined). The numerical results are compared with experimental data obtained by PFG/FEM/UNICAMP for air-water flow at 0 deg, 45 deg and 90 deg and good agreement is observed. (author)
Dolfsma, W.A.; van Driel, H.
2009-01-01
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to disentangle and elaborate on the constitutive elements of the concept of path dependence (initial conditions and lock-in) for a concerted and in-depth application to the study of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach - The approach takes the for
Waalkens, H.; Burbanks, A.; Wiggins, S.
2005-01-01
We present the formal proof of a procedure to compute the phase-space volume of initial conditions for trajectories that, for a constant energy, escape or ‘react’ from a multi-dimensional potential well with one or several exit/entrance channels. The procedure relies on a phase-space formulation of
Candogan Yossef, N.; Winsemius, H.C.; Weerts, A.; Van Beek, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.
2013-01-01
We investigate the relative contributions of initial conditions (ICs) and meteorological forcing (MF) to the skill of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World, using the global hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance. Potential improvement in forecasting skill through
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
熊岳山; 韦永康
2001-01-01
The sediment reaction and diffusion equation with generalized initial and boundary condition is studied. By using Laplace transform and Jordan lemma , an analytical solution is got, which is an extension of analytical solution provided by Cheng Kwokming James ( only diffusion was considered in analytical solution of Cheng ). Some problems arisen in the computation of analytical solution formula are also analysed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sun Li-Sha; Kang Xiao-Yun; Lin Lan-Xin
2010-01-01
A novel approach to the inverse problem of diffusively coupled map lattices is systematically investigated by utilizing the symbolic vector dynamics. The relationship between the performance of initial condition estimation and the structural feature of dynamical system is proved theoretically. It is found that any point in a spatiotemporal coupled system is not necessary to converge to its initial value with respect to sufficient backward iteration, which is directly relevant to the coupling strength and local mapping function. When the convergence is met, the error bound in estimating the initial condition is proposed in a noiseless environment, which is determined by the dimension of attractors and metric entropy of the system. Simulation results further confirm the theoretic analysis, and prove that the presented method provides the important theory and experimental results for better analysing and characterizing the spatiotemporal complex behaviours in an actual system.
Cosmological Simulations with Scale-Free Initial Conditions; 1, Adiabatic Hydrodynamics
Owen, J M; Evrard, A E; Hernquist, L E; Katz, N; Weinberg, David H.; Evrard, August E.; Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal
1997-01-01
We analyze hierarchical structure formation based on scale-free initial conditions in an Einstein-de Sitter universe, including a baryonic component. We present three independent, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, performed with two different SPH codes (TreeSPH and P3MSPH) at two resolutions. Each simulation is based upon identical initial conditions, which consist of Gaussian distributed initial density fluctuations that have an n=-1 power spectrum. The baryonic material is modeled as an ideal gas subject only to shock heating and adiabatic heating and cooling. The evolution is expected to be self-similar in time, and under certain restrictions we identify the expected scalings for many properties of the distribution of collapsed objects in all three realizations. The distributions of dark matter masses, baryon masses, and mass and emission weighted temperatures scale quite reliably. However, the density estimates in the central regions of these structures are determined by the degree of num...
Multivariate Modelling via Matrix Subordination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nicolato, Elisa
stochastic volatility via time-change is quite ineffective when applied to the multivariate setting. In this work we propose a new class of models, which is obtained by conditioning a multivariate Brownian Motion to a so-called matrix subordinator. The obtained model-class encompasses the vast majority...
Initial conditions, Discreteness and non-linear structure formation in cosmology
Sylos-Labini, F; Gabrielli, A; Joyce, M; Labini, Francesco Sylos; Baertschiger, Thierry; Gabrielli, Andrea; Joyce, Michael
2002-01-01
In this lecture we address three different but related aspects of the initial continuous fluctuation field in standard cosmological models. Firstly we discuss the properties of the so-called Harrison-Zeldovich like spectra. This power spectrum is a fundamental feature of all current standard cosmological models. In a simple classification of all stationary stochastic processes into three categories, we highlight with the name ``super-homogeneous'' the properties of the class to which models like this, with $P(0)=0$, belong. In statistical physics language they are well described as glass-like. Secondly, the initial continuous density field with such small amplitude correlated Gaussian fluctuations must be discretised in order to set up the initial particle distribution used in gravitational N-body simulations. We discuss the main issues related to the effects of discretisation, particularly concerning the effect of particle induced fluctuations on the statistical properties of the initial conditions and on th...
Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro
2016-12-01
Disc formation in strongly magnetized cloud cores is investigated using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation with a focus on the effects of the initial cloud stability and the mass accretion rate. The initial cloud stability greatly alters the disc formation process even for prestellar clouds with the same mass-to-flux ratio. A high mass accretion rate on to the disc-forming region is realized in initially unstable clouds, and a large angular momentum is introduced into the circumstellar region in a short time. The region around the protostar has both a thin infalling envelope and a weak magnetic field, which both weaken the effect of magnetic braking. The growth of the rotation-supported disc is promoted in such unstable clouds. Conversely, clouds in an initially near-equilibrium state show lower accretion rates of mass and angular momentum. The angular momentum is transported to the outer envelope before protostar formation. After protostar formation, the circumstellar region has a thick infalling envelope and a strong magnetic field that effectively brakes the disc. As a result, disc formation is suppressed when the initial cloud is in a nearly stable state. The density distribution of the initial cloud also affects the disc formation process. Disc growth strongly depends on the initial conditions when the prestellar cloud has a uniform density, whereas there is no significant difference in the disc formation process in prestellar clouds with non-uniform densities.
Mayer, Lucio
2007-01-01
We review recent results of SPH simulations of gravitational instability in gaseous protoplanetary disks,emphasizing the role of thermodynamics in both isolated and binary systems. Contradictory results appeared in the literature regarding disk fragmentation at tens of AU from the central star are likely due to the different treatment of radiation physics as well as reflecting different initial conditions. Further progress on the subject requires extensive comparisons between different codes with the requirement that the same initial conditions are adopted. It is discussed how the local conditions of the disks undergoing fragmentation at $R < 25$ AU in recent SPH simulations are in rough agreement with the prediction of analytical models, with small differences being likely related to the inability of analytical models to account for the dynamics and thermodynamics of three-dimensional spiral shocks. We report that radically different adaptive hydrodynamical codes, SPH and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), y...
Dark energy with non-adiabatic sound speed: initial conditions and detectability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184, Rome (Italy); Lesgourgues, Julien, E-mail: ballesteros@pd.infn.it, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2010-10-01
Assuming that the universe contains a dark energy fluid with a constant linear equation of state and a constant sound speed, we study the prospects of detecting dark energy perturbations using CMB data from Planck, cross-correlated with galaxy distribution maps from a survey like LSST. We update previous estimates by carrying a full exploration of the mock data likelihood for key fiducial models. We find that it will only be possible to exclude values of the sound speed very close to zero, while Planck data alone is not powerful enough for achieving any detection, even with lensing extraction. We also discuss the issue of initial conditions for dark energy perturbations in the radiation and matter epochs, generalizing the usual adiabatic conditions to include the sound speed effect. However, for most purposes, the existence of attractor solutions renders the perturbation evolution nearly independent of these initial conditions.
Effects of Initial Conditions on Compressible Mixing in Supernova-Relevant Laboratory Experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miles, A R; Edwards, M; Greenough, J
2004-04-30
In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this paper, we summarize recent results from our computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. For planar multimode systems, compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self-similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. Initial conditions predicted by some recent stellar calculations are incompatible with self-similarity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. M. DeChant
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Within the National Weather Service River Forecast System, water supply forecasting is performed through Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP. ESP relies both on the estimation of initial conditions and historically resampled forcing data to produce seasonal volumetric forecasts. In the western US, the accuracy of initial condition estimation is particularly important due to the large quantities of water stored in mountain snowpack. In order to improve the estimation of snow quantities, this study explores the use of ensemble data assimilation. Rather than relying entirely on the model to create single deterministic initial snow water storage, as currently implemented in operational forecasting, this study incorporates SNOTEL data along with model predictions to create an ensemble based probabilistic estimation of snow water storage. This creates a framework to account for initial condition uncertainty in addition to forcing uncertainty. The results presented in this study suggest that data assimilation has the potential to improve ESP for probabilistic volumetric forecasts but is limited by the available observations.
Ferguson, Kevin; Sewell, Everest; Krivets, Vitaliy; Greenough, Jeffrey; Jacobs, Jeffrey
2016-11-01
Initial conditions for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) are measured in three dimensions in the University of Arizona Vertical Shock Tube using a moving magnet galvanometer system. The resulting volumetric data is used as initial conditions for the simulation of the RMI using ARES at Lawrence-Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The heavy gas is sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and the light gas is air. The perturbations are generated by harmonically oscillating the gasses vertically using two loudspeakers mounted to the shock tube which cause Faraday resonance, producing a random short wavelength perturbation on the interface. Planar Mie scattering is used to illuminate the flow field through the addition of propylene glycol particles seeded in the heavy gas. An M=1.2 shock impulsively accelerates the interface, initiating instability growth. Images of the initial condition and instability growth are captured at a rate of 6 kHz using high speed cameras. Comparisons between experimental and simulation results, mixing diagnostics, and mixing zone growth are presented.
Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Renkuan; Yin, Haisong; Bai, Xiaolei; Chang, Yangang; Xia, Menglei; Wang, Min
2017-08-02
Initial acetic acid can improve the ethanol oxidation rate of acetic acid bacteria for acetic acid fermentation. In this work, Acetobacter pasteurianus was cultured in ethanol-free medium, and energy production was found to increase by 150% through glucose consumption induced by initial acetic acid. However, oxidation of ethanol, instead of glucose, became the main energy production pathway when upon culturing ethanol containing medium. Proteome assay was used to analyze the metabolism change induced by initial acetic acid, which provided insight into carbon metabolic and energy regulation of A. pasteurianus to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions. Results were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In summary, decreased intracellular ATP as a result of initial acetic acid inhibition improved the energy metabolism to produce more energy and thus adapt to the acetic acid fermentation conditions. A. pasteurianus upregulated the expression of enzymes related to TCA and ethanol oxidation to improve the energy metabolism pathway upon the addition of initial acetic acid. However, enzymes involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, the main pathway of glucose metabolism, were downregulated to induce a change in carbon metabolism. Additionally, the enhancement of alcohol dehydrogenase expression promoted ethanol oxidation and strengthened the acetification rate, thereby producing a strong proton motive force that was necessary for energy production and cell tolerance to acetic acid.
Optimal initial condition of passive tracers for their maximal mixing in finite time
Farazmand, Mohammad
2016-01-01
The efficiency of a fluid mixing device is often limited by fundamental laws and/or design constraints, such that a perfectly homogeneous mixture cannot be obtained in finite time. Here, we address the natural corollary question: Given the best available mixer, what is the optimal initial tracer pattern that leads to the most homogeneous mixture after a prescribed finite time? For ideal passive tracers, we show that this optimal initial condition coincides with the right singular vector (corresponding to the smallest singular value) of a suitably truncated Koopman operator. The truncation of the Koopman operator is made under the assumption that there is a small length-scale threshold $\\ell_\
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王宗润; 汪武超; 王小丁; 周艳菊
2012-01-01
本文构建了基于条件概率积分变换的Copula函数选择方法,通过对条件概率积分变换下Anderson-Darling( AD)、Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS)、Cramér-von Mises (CM)这三种统计量的比较,讨论在不同样本容量和变量维数下其对多种Copula函数的拟合效果.利用GSPTSE、INMEX.MX和NDX三大股指样本,将基于条件概率积分变换的Copula函数选择方法与核密度估计和极大似然估计选择法的效果进行系统比较.结果表明,基于条件概率积分变换的检验法可以有效解决多元Copula函数的选择问题,其拟舍优度检验更精确、更稳定；核密度估计检验在大样本下比较稳定,而小样本下稳定性较差；相比之下,极大似然值检验法则不稳定.%The dependence structure among multivariate financial assets is a critical factor for achieving accuracy in the integrated risk measurement. Copula function is a very useful tool to describe the dependence structure between risk factors and plays an important role in the field of financial risk management. When using the Copula model, the most important thing is to judge which Copula is more suitable to describe the data dependence structure. Therefore, it is very important to do research on the selection criteria of multivariate Copula models and the goodness-of-fit test methods. However, in the field of financial risk management, most of the research has focused on bivariate cases. There is very little research on the goodness-of-fit and empirical analysis on the multivariate cases. There is still no effective solutions for the selection and goodness-of-fit test of multivariate Copula functions. Therefore, this paper proposes a selection criterion for Copula's goodness-of-fit based on the method of conditional probability integral transformation. We analyze and compare the Anderson-Darling ( AD) , Kolmogorov-Smirnov ( KS) and Cram6r-von Mises (CM) test statistics under the CPIT method with various sample sizes and
The shear-free condition and constant-mean-curvature hyperboloidal initial data
Allen, Paul T; Lee, John M; Allen, Iva Stavrov
2015-01-01
We use the conformal method to construct and parametrize constant mean curvature hyperboloidal initial data sets of various regularity classes. These sets satisfy the Einstein-Maxwell-fluid constraint equations, and satisfy the shear-free boundary condition as well, so long as this condition is defined for the regularity class under consideration. We work primarily with initial data sets that are weakly asymptotically hyperbolic as defined in [arXiv:1506.03399]. For the least regular sets of weakly asymptotically hyperbolic data--those sets for which the metric extensions are merely Lipschitz continuous--the shear-free condition is not defined. For weakly asymptotically hyperbolic initial data sets with more regularity imposed, including those with polyhomogeneous expansions at the boundary, the shear-free condition is well defined; for these we use the conformally covariant traceless Hessian introduced in [arXiv:1506.03399], which is well adapted to the use of the conformal method in constructing shear-free ...
Dynamical ejections of massive stars from young star clusters under diverse initial conditions
Oh, Seungkyung; Kroupa, Pavel
2016-05-01
We study the effects that initial conditions of star clusters and their massive star population have on dynamical ejections of massive stars from star clusters up to an age of 3 Myr. We use a large set of direct N-body calculations for moderately massive star clusters (Mecl ≈ 103.5 M⊙). We vary the initial conditions of the calculations, such as the initial half-mass radius of the clusters, initial binary populations for massive stars and initial mass segregation. We find that the initial density is the most influential parameter for the ejection fraction of the massive systems. The clusters with an initial half-mass radius rh(0) of 0.1 (0.3) pc can eject up to 50% (30)% of their O-star systems on average, while initially larger (rh(0) = 0.8 pc) clusters, that is, lower density clusters, eject hardly any OB stars (at most ≈ 4.5%). When the binaries are composed of two stars of similar mass, the ejections are most effective. Most of the models show that the average ejection fraction decreases with decreasing stellar mass. For clusters that are efficient at ejecting O stars, the mass function of the ejected stars is top-heavy compared to the given initial mass function (IMF), while the mass function of stars that remain in the cluster becomes slightly steeper (top-light) than the IMF. The top-light mass functions of stars in 3 Myr old clusters in our N-body models agree well with the mean mass function of young intermediate-mass clusters in M 31, as reported previously. This implies that the IMF of the observed young clusters is the canonical IMF. We show that the multiplicity fraction of the ejected massive stars can be as high as ≈ 60%, that massive high-order multiple systems can be dynamically ejected, and that high-order multiples become common especially in the cluster. We also discuss binary populations of the ejected massive systems. Clusters that are initially not mass-segregated begin ejecting massive stars after a time delay that is caused by mass
Modeling Multivariate Volatility Processes: Theory and Evidence
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Jelena Z. Minovic
2009-05-01
Full Text Available This article presents theoretical and empirical methodology for estimation and modeling of multivariate volatility processes. It surveys the model specifications and the estimation methods. Multivariate GARCH models covered are VEC (initially due to Bollerslev, Engle and Wooldridge, 1988, diagonal VEC (DVEC, BEKK (named after Baba, Engle, Kraft and Kroner, 1995, Constant Conditional Correlation Model (CCC, Bollerslev, 1990, Dynamic Conditional Correlation Model (DCC models of Tse and Tsui, 2002, and Engle, 2002. I illustrate approach by applying it to daily data from the Belgrade stock exchange, I examine two pairs of daily log returns for stocks and index, report the results obtained, and compare them with the restricted version of BEKK, DVEC and CCC representations. The methods for estimation parameters used are maximum log-likehood (in BEKK and DVEC models and twostep approach (in CCC model.
Initial conditions for accurate N-body simulations of massive neutrino cosmologies
Zennaro, M.; Bel, J.; Villaescusa-Navarro, F.; Carbone, C.; Sefusatti, E.; Guzzo, L.
2017-04-01
The set-up of the initial conditions in cosmological N-body simulations is usually implemented by rescaling the desired low-redshift linear power spectrum to the required starting redshift consistently with the Newtonian evolution of the simulation. The implementation of this practical solution requires more care in the context of massive neutrino cosmologies, mainly because of the non-trivial scale-dependence of the linear growth that characterizes these models. In this work, we consider a simple two-fluid, Newtonian approximation for cold dark matter and massive neutrinos perturbations that can reproduce the cold matter linear evolution predicted by Boltzmann codes such as CAMB or CLASS with a 0.1 per cent accuracy or below for all redshift relevant to non-linear structure formation. We use this description, in the first place, to quantify the systematic errors induced by several approximations often assumed in numerical simulations, including the typical set-up of the initial conditions for massive neutrino cosmologies adopted in previous works. We then take advantage of the flexibility of this approach to rescale the late-time linear power spectra to the simulation initial redshift, in order to be as consistent as possible with the dynamics of the N-body code and the approximations it assumes. We implement our method in a public code (REPS rescaled power spectra for initial conditions with massive neutrinos https://github.com/matteozennaro/reps) providing the initial displacements and velocities for cold dark matter and neutrino particles that will allow accurate, i.e. 1 per cent level, numerical simulations for this cosmological scenario.
Are turbulent spheres suitable initial conditions for star-forming clouds?
Rey-Raposo, Ramon; Duarte-Cabral, Ana
2014-01-01
To date, most numerical simulations of molecular clouds, and star formation within them, assume a uniform density sphere or box with an imposed turbulent velocity field. In this work, we select molecular clouds from galactic scale simulations as initial conditions, increase their resolution, and re-simulate them using the SPH code Gadget2. Our approach provides clouds with morphologies, internal structures, and kinematics that constitute more consistent and realistic initial conditions for simulations of star formation. We perform comparisons between molecular clouds derived from a galactic simulation, and spheres of turbulent gas of similar dimensions, mass and velocity dispersion. We focus on properties of the clouds such as their density, velocity structure and star formation rate. We find that the inherited velocity structure of the galactic clouds has a significant impact on the star formation rate and evolution of the cloud. Our results indicate that, although we can follow the time evolution of star fo...
Abstract fractional integro-differential equations involving nonlocal initial conditions in α-norm
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Wang Rong-Nian
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In the present paper, we deal with the Cauchy problems of abstract fractional integro-differential equations involving nonlocal initial conditions in α-norm, where the operator A in the linear part is the generator of a compact analytic semigroup. New criterions, ensuring the existence of mild solutions, are established. The results are obtained by using the theory of operator families associated with the function of Wright type and the semigroup generated by A, Krasnoselkii's fixed point theorem and Schauder's fixed point theorem. An application to a fractional partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal initial condition is also considered. Mathematics subject classification (2000 26A33, 34G10, 34G20
Initial Conditions for Accurate N-Body Simulations of Massive Neutrino Cosmologies
Zennaro, Matteo; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Carbone, Carmelita; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Guzzo, Luigi
2016-01-01
The set-up of the initial conditions in cosmological N-body simulations is usually implemented by rescaling the desired low-redshift linear power spectrum to the required starting redshift consistently with the Newtonian evolution of the simulation. The implementation of this practical solution requires more care in the context of massive neutrino cosmologies, mainly because of the non-trivial scale-dependence of the linear growth that characterises these models. In this work we consider a simple two-fluid, Newtonian approximation for cold dark matter and massive neutrinos perturbations that can reproduce the cold matter linear evolution predicted by Boltzmann codes such as CAMB or CLASS with a 0.1% accuracy or below for all redshift relevant to nonlinear structure formation. We use this description, in the first place, to quantify the systematic errors induced by several approximations often assumed in numerical simulations, including the typical set-up of the initial conditions for massive neutrino cosmolog...
Anomalous transport in cellular flows: The role of initial conditions and aging
Pöschke, Patrick; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A; Zaks, Michael A
2016-01-01
We consider the diffusion-advection problem in two simple cellular flow models (often invoked as examples for subdiffusive tracer's motion) and concentrate on the intermediate time range, in which the tracer's motion indeed may show subdiffusion. We have performed extensive numerical simulations of the systems under different initial conditions, and show that the pure intermediate-time subdiffusion regime is only evident when the particles start at the border between different cells, i.e. at the separatrix, and is less pronounced or absent for other initial conditions. The motion moreover shows quite peculiar aging properties which are also mirrored in the behavior of the time-averaged mean squared displacement for single trajectories. This kind of behavior is due to the complex motion of tracers trapped inside the cell, and is absent in classical models based on continuous time random walks (CTRW) with no dynamics in the trapped state.
Anomalous transport in cellular flows: The role of initial conditions and aging
Pöschke, Patrick; Sokolov, Igor M.; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A.; Zaks, Michael A.
2016-09-01
We consider the diffusion-advection problem in two simple cellular flow models (often invoked as examples of subdiffusive tracer motion) and concentrate on the intermediate time range, in which the tracer motion indeed may show subdiffusion. We perform extensive numerical simulations of the systems under different initial conditions and show that the pure intermediate-time subdiffusion regime is only evident when the particles start at the border between different cells, i.e., at the separatrix, and is less pronounced or absent for other initial conditions. The motion moreover shows quite peculiar aging properties, which are also mirrored in the behavior of the time-averaged mean squared displacement for single trajectories. This kind of behavior is due to the complex motion of tracers trapped inside the cell and is absent in classical models based on continuous-time random walks with no dynamics in the trapped state.
Quantifying uncertainty in Gulf of Mexico forecasts stemming from uncertain initial conditions
Iskandarani, Mohamed
2016-06-09
Polynomial Chaos (PC) methods are used to quantify the impacts of initial conditions uncertainties on oceanic forecasts of the Gulf of Mexico circulation. Empirical Orthogonal Functions are used as initial conditions perturbations with their modal amplitudes considered as uniformly distributed uncertain random variables. These perturbations impact primarily the Loop Current system and several frontal eddies located in its vicinity. A small ensemble is used to sample the space of the modal amplitudes and to construct a surrogate for the evolution of the model predictions via a nonintrusive Galerkin projection. The analysis of the surrogate yields verification measures for the surrogate\\'s reliability and statistical information for the model output. A variance analysis indicates that the sea surface height predictability in the vicinity of the Loop Current is limited to about 20 days. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Quantifying uncertainty in Gulf of Mexico forecasts stemming from uncertain initial conditions
Iskandarani, Mohamed; Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Thacker, William Carlisle; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Knio, Omar M.
2016-07-01
Polynomial Chaos (PC) methods are used to quantify the impacts of initial conditions uncertainties on oceanic forecasts of the Gulf of Mexico circulation. Empirical Orthogonal Functions are used as initial conditions perturbations with their modal amplitudes considered as uniformly distributed uncertain random variables. These perturbations impact primarily the Loop Current system and several frontal eddies located in its vicinity. A small ensemble is used to sample the space of the modal amplitudes and to construct a surrogate for the evolution of the model predictions via a nonintrusive Galerkin projection. The analysis of the surrogate yields verification measures for the surrogate's reliability and statistical information for the model output. A variance analysis indicates that the sea surface height predictability in the vicinity of the Loop Current is limited to about 20 days.
Janzing, Dominik; Chaves, Rafael; Schölkopf, Bernhard
2016-09-01
We postulate a principle stating that the initial condition of a physical system is typically algorithmically independent of the dynamical law. We discuss the implications of this principle and argue that they link thermodynamics and causal inference. On the one hand, they entail behavior that is similar to the usual arrow of time. On the other hand, they motivate a statistical asymmetry between cause and effect that has recently been postulated in the field of causal inference, namely, that the probability distribution {P}{{cause}} contains no information about the conditional distribution {P}{{effect}| {{cause}}} and vice versa, while {P}{{effect}} may contain information about {P}{{cause}| {{effect}}}.
Discretizing LTI Descriptor (Regular Differential Input Systems with Consistent Initial Conditions
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Athanasios D. Karageorgos
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A technique for discretizing efficiently the solution of a Linear descriptor (regular differential input system with consistent initial conditions, and Time-Invariant coefficients (LTI is introduced and fully discussed. Additionally, an upper bound for the error ‖x¯(kT−x¯k‖ that derives from the procedure of discretization is also provided. Practically speaking, we are interested in such kind of systems, since they are inherent in many physical, economical and engineering phenomena.
Massive Infrared-Quiet Dense Cores: Unveiling the Initial Conditions of High-Mass Star Formation
Motte, Frédérique; Schneider, N; Schilke, P; Menten, K M
2008-01-01
As Pr. Th. Henning said at the conference, cold precursors of high-mass stars are now "hot topics". We here propose some observational criteria to identify massive infrared-quiet dense cores which can host the high-mass analogs of Class 0 protostars and pre-stellar condensations. We also show how far-infrared to millimeter imaging surveys of entire complexes forming OB stars are starting to unveil the initial conditions of high-mass star formation.
The Influence of Initial and Boundary Conditions on Gaseous Detonation Waves.
1985-09-01
controller. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 59. Once introduced into the test volume, the fuel was mixed with initial ambient air using a multipath...agreement with the prediction. If the data of these authors are increased by an additional 10% to account for the difference in ambient pressures at DRES...i.e., w2 ;) wl). In essence, we would repeat the experiment carried out by Dabora. Havig done so, the critical condition would then be monitoreo in
Minijet Initial Conditions For Non-Equilibrium Parton Evolution at RHIC and LHC
Cooper, F; Nayak, G C
2003-01-01
An important ingredient for the non-equilibrium evolution of partons at RHIC and LHC is to have some physically reasonable initial conditions for the single particle phase space distribution functions for the partons. We consider several plausible parametrizations of initial conditions for the single particle distribution function f /sub i/ (x, p) and fix the parameters by matching integral f (x, p)p /sup mu / d sigma /sub mu / to the invariant momentum space semi-hard parton distributions obtained using perturbative QCD (pQCD), as well as fitting low order moments of the distribution function. We consider parametrizations of fi (x, p) with both boost invariant and boost non-invariant assumptions. We determine the initial number density, energy density and the corresponding (effective) temperature of the minijet plasma at RHIC and LHC energies. For a boost non- invariant minijet phase-space distribution function we obtain ~ 30 (140)/fm/sup 3/ as the initial number density, ~ 50(520) GeV/fm/sup 3 / as the init...
Optimal initial condition of passive tracers for their maximal mixing in finite time
Farazmand, Mohammad
2017-05-01
The efficiency of fluid flow for mixing passive tracers is often limited by fundamental laws and/or design constraints, such that a perfectly homogeneous mixture cannot be obtained in finite time. Here we address the natural corollary question: Given a fluid flow, what is the optimal initial tracer pattern that leads to the most homogeneous mixture after a prescribed finite time? For ideal passive tracers, we show that this optimal initial condition coincides with the right singular vector (corresponding to the smallest singular value) of a suitably truncated Perron-Frobenius (PF) operator. The truncation of the PF operator is made under the assumption that there is a small length-scale threshold ℓν under which the tracer blobs are considered, for all practical purposes, completely mixed. We demonstrate our results on two examples: a prototypical model known as the sine flow and a direct numerical simulation of two-dimensional turbulence. Evaluating the optimal initial condition through this framework requires only the position of a dense grid of fluid particles at the final instance and their preimages at the initial instance of the prescribed time interval. As such, our framework can be readily applied to flows where such data are available through numerical simulations or experimental measurements.
Lello, Louis; Holman, Richard
2013-01-01
If the large scale anomalies in the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background are of primordial origin, they may herald modifications to the slow roll inflationary paradigm on the largest scales. We study the possibility that the origin of the large scale power suppression is a modification of initial conditions during slow roll as a result of a pre-slow roll phase during which the inflaton evolves rapidly. This stage is manifest in a potential in the equations for the Gaussian fluctuations during slow roll and modify the power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations via an initial condition transfer function $\\mathcal{T}(k)$. We provide a general analytical study of its large and small scale properties and analyze the impact of these initial conditions on the infrared aspects of typical scalar field theories. The infrared behavior of massless minimally coupled scalar field theories leads to the dynamical generation of mass and anomalous dimensions, both depend non-analytically on $\\mat...
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De Pedro, Emiliano
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Multivariate Classification models to classify real farm conditions Iberian pigs, according to the feeding regime were developed by using fatty acids composition or NIR spectral data of liquid fat samples. A total of 121 subcutaneous fat samples were taken from Iberian pigs carcasses belonging to 5 batches reared under different feeding systems. Once the liquid sample was extracted from each subcutaneous fat sample, it was determined the percentage of 11 fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:0 and C20:1. At the same time, Near Infrared (NIR spectrum of each liquid sample was obtained. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA was considered as pattern recognition method to develop the multivariate models. Classification errors of the LDA models generated by using NIR spectral data were 0.0% and 1.7% for the model generated by using fatty acids composition. Results confirm the possibility to discriminate Iberian pig liquid samples from animals reared under different feeding regimes on real farm conditions by using NIR spectral data or fatty acids composition. Classification error obtained using models generated from NIR spectral data were lower than those obtained in models based on fatty acids composition.Se han desarrollado modelos multivariantes, generados a partir de la composición en ácidos grasos o datos espectrales NIR, para clasificar según el régimen alimenticio cerdos Ibéricos producidos bajo condiciones no experimentales. Se han empleado 121 muestras de grasa líquida procedentes de grasa subcutánea de canales de cerdos Ibéricos pertenecientes a 5 partidas con regímenes alimenticios diferentes. A dichas muestras líquidas se les determinó el contenido en 11 ácidos grasos (C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:0 and C20:1 y se obtuvo su espectro NIR. Los modelos de clasificación multivariantes se desarrollaron mediante Análisis Discriminante Lineal. Dichos
Sur, Sharanya; Schleicher, Dominik R G; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S
2012-01-01
We study the influence of initial conditions on the magnetic field amplification during the collapse of a magnetised gas cloud. We focus on the dependence of the growth and saturation level of the dynamo generated field on the turbulent properties of the collapsing cloud. In particular, we explore the effect of varying the initial strength and injection scale of turbulence and the initial uniform rotation of the collapsing magnetised cloud. In order to follow the evolution of the magnetic field in both the kinematic and the nonlinear regime, we choose an initial field strength of $\\simeq 1\\,\\mkG$ with the magnetic to kinetic energy ratio, $E_{\\rm m}/E_{\\rm k} \\sim 10^{-4}$. Both gravitational compression and the small-scale dynamo initially amplify the magnetic field. Further into the evolution, the dynamo-generated magnetic field saturates but the total magnetic field continues to grow because of compression. The saturation of the small-scale dynamo is marked by a change in the slope of $B/\\rho^{2/3}$ and by...
Terrestrial-type planet formation: Comparing different types of initial conditions
Ronco, M P; Guilera, O M
2015-01-01
To study the terrestrial-type planet formation during the post oligarchic growth, the initial distributions of planetary embryos and planetesimals used in N-body simulations play an important role. Most of these studies typically use ad hoc initial distributions based on theoretical and numerical studies. We analyze the formation of planetary systems without gas giants around solar-type stars focusing on the sensitivity of the results to the particular initial distributions of planetesimals and embryos. The formation of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ) and their final water contents are topics of interest. We developed two different sets of N-body simulations from the same protoplanetary disk. The first set assumes ad hoc initial distributions for embryos and planetesimals and the second set obtains these distributions from the results of a semi-analytical model which simulates the evolution of the gaseous phase of the disk. Both sets form planets in the HZ. Ad hoc initial conditions form planet...
Van Wamel, Willem J B; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Bonten, Marc J M; Top, Janetta; Posthuma, George; Willems, Rob J L
2007-02-01
A genetic subpopulation of Enterococcus faecium, called clonal complex 17 (CC-17), is strongly associated with hospital outbreaks and invasive infections. Most CC-17 strains contain a putative pathogenicity island encoding the E. faecium variant of enterococcal surface protein (Esp). Western blotting, flow cytometric analyses, and electron microscopy showed that Esp is expressed and exposed on the surface of E. faecium, though Esp expression and surface exposure are highly varied among different strains. Furthermore, Esp expression depends on growth conditions like temperature and anaerobioses. When grown at 37 degrees C, five of six esp-positive E. faecium strains showed significantly increased levels of surface-exposed Esp compared to bacteria grown at 21 degrees C, which was confirmed at the transcriptional level by real-time PCR. In addition, a significant increase in surface-exposed Esp was found in half of these strains when grown at 37 degrees C under anaerobic conditions compared to the level in bacteria grown under aerobic conditions. Finally, amounts of surface-exposed Esp correlated with initial adherence to polystyrene (R(2) = 0.7146) and biofilm formation (R(2) = 0.7535). Polystyrene adherence was competitively inhibited by soluble recombinant N-terminal Esp. This study demonstrates that Esp expression on the surface of E. faecium (i) varies consistently between strains, (ii) is growth condition dependent, and (iii) is quantitatively correlated with initial adherence and biofilm formation. These data indicate that E. faecium senses and responds to changing environmental conditions, which might play a role in the early stages of infection when bacteria transit from oxygen-rich conditions at room temperature to anaerobic conditions at body temperature. In addition, variation of surface exposure may explain the contrasting findings reported on the role of Esp in biofilm formation.
Lin, Yezhi; Liu, Yinping; Li, Zhibin
2012-01-01
The Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is one of the most effective methods for constructing analytic approximate solutions of nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, based on the new definition of the Adomian polynomials, and the two-step Adomian decomposition method (TSADM) combined with the Padé technique, a new algorithm is proposed to construct accurate analytic approximations of nonlinear differential equations with initial conditions. Furthermore, a MAPLE package is developed, which is user-friendly and efficient. One only needs to input a system, initial conditions and several necessary parameters, then our package will automatically deliver analytic approximate solutions within a few seconds. Several different types of examples are given to illustrate the validity of the package. Our program provides a helpful and easy-to-use tool in science and engineering to deal with initial value problems. Program summaryProgram title: NAPA Catalogue identifier: AEJZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4060 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 113 498 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MAPLE R13 Computer: PC Operating system: Windows XP/7 RAM: 2 Gbytes Classification: 4.3 Nature of problem: Solve nonlinear differential equations with initial conditions. Solution method: Adomian decomposition method and Padé technique. Running time: Seconds at most in routine uses of the program. Special tasks may take up to some minutes.
Lavoie, Jacques; Marchand, Geneviève; Cloutier, Yves; Lavoué, Jérôme
2011-08-01
Dust accumulation in the components of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is a potential source of contaminants. To date, very little information is available on recognized methods for assessing dust buildup in these systems. The few existing methods are either objective in nature, involving numerical values, or subjective in nature, based on experts' judgments. An earlier project aimed at assessing different methods of sampling dust in ducts was carried out in the laboratories of the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST). This laboratory study showed that all the sampling methods were practicable, provided that a specific surface-dust cleaning initiation criterion was used for each method. However, these conclusions were reached on the basis of ideal conditions in a laboratory using a reference dust. The objective of this present study was to validate these laboratory results in the field. To this end, the laboratory sampling templates were replicated in real ducts and the three sampling methods (the IRSST method, the method of the U.S. organization National Air Duct Cleaner Association [NADCA] and that of the French organization Association pour la Prévention et l'Étude de la Contamination [ASPEC]) were used simultaneously in a statistically representative number of systems. The air return and supply ducts were also compared. Cleaning initiation criteria under real conditions were found to be 6.0 mg/100 cm(2) using the IRSST method, 2.0 mg/100 cm(2) using the NADCA method, and 23 mg/100 cm(2) using the ASPEC method. In the laboratory study, the criteria using the same methods were 6.0 for the IRSST method, 2.0 for the NADCA method, and 3.0 for the ASPEC method. The laboratory criteria for the IRSST and NADCA methods were therefore validated in the field. The ASPEC criterion was the only one to change. The ASPEC method therefore allows for the most accurate evaluation of dust accumulation in HVAC
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SU BaiLi; LI ShaoYuan; ZHU QuanMin
2009-01-01
Stabilization of the constrained switched nonlinear systems is an attractive research subject. Predictive control can handle variable constraints well and make the system stable. Its stability is typically based on an assumption of initial feasibility of the optimization problem; however the set of initial conditions, starting from where a given predictive formulation is guaranteed to be feasible, is not explicitly char-acterized. In this paper, a hybrid predictive control method is proposed for a class of switched nonlin-ear systems with input constraints and un-measurable states. The main idea is to design a mixed con-troller using Lyapunov functions and a state observer, which switches appropriately between a bounded feedback controller and a predictive controller, and to give an explicitly characterized set of initial conditions to stabilize each closed-loop subsystem. For the whole switched nonlinear system, a suitable switched law based on the state estimation is designed to orchestrate the transitions between the consistituent modes and their respective controllers, and to ensure the whole closed-loop system's stability. The simulation results for a chemical process show the validity of the controller proposed in this paper.
The Halo Bispectrum in N-body Simulations with non-Gaussian Initial Conditions
Sefusatti, Emiliano; Desjacques, Vincent
2011-01-01
We present measurements of the bispectrum of dark matter halos in numerical simulations with non-Gaussian initial conditions of the local type. We show, in the first place, that the overall effect of primordial non-Gaussianity on the halo bispectrum is larger than on the halo power spectrum when all measurable configurations are taken into account. We then compare our measurements with a tree-level perturbative prediction finding good agreement at large scale when the constant Gaussian bias parameter, both linear and quadratic, and their constant non-Gaussian corrections are fitted for. The best-fit values of the Gaussian bias factors and their non-Gaussian, scale-independent corrections are in qualitative agreement with the peak-background split expectations. In particular, we show that the effect of non-Gaussian initial conditions on squeezed configurations is fairly large (up to 30% for f_NL=100 at redshift z=0.5) and results from contributions of similar amplitude induced by the initial matter bispectrum,...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Stabilization of the constrained switched nonlinear systems is an attractive research subject. Predictive control can handle variable constraints well and make the system stable. Its stability is typically based on an assumption of initial feasibility of the optimization problem; however the set of initial conditions, starting from where a given predictive formulation is guaranteed to be feasible, is not explicitly characterized. In this paper, a hybrid predictive control method is proposed for a class of switched nonlinear systems with input constraints and un-measurable states. The main idea is to design a mixed controller using Lyapunov functions and a state observer, which switches appropriately between a bounded feedback controller and a predictive controller, and to give an explicitly characterized set of initial conditions to stabilize each closed-loop subsystem. For the whole switched nonlinear system, a suitable switched law based on the state estimation is designed to orchestrate the transitions between the consistituent modes and their respective controllers, and to ensure the whole closed-loop system’s stability. The simulation results for a chemical process show the validity of the controller proposed in this paper.
The problem of the initial conditions in flavoured leptogenesis and the tauon N_2-dominated scenario
Bertuzzo, Enrico; Marzola, Luca
2010-01-01
We discuss the conditions to realize a scenario of strong thermal leptogenesis, where the final asymmetry is fully independent of the initial conditions, when both heavy and light flavor effects are taken into account. In particular the contribution to the final asymmetry from a residual initial pre-existing asymmetry has to be negligible. We show that in the case of a hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino mass spectrum, the only possible way is a N_2-dominated leptogenesis scenario with a lightest RH neutrino mass M_1 10^9 GeV and with a next-to-lightest RH neutrino mass 10^12 GeV M_2 >> 10^9 GeV. This scenario necessarily requires the presence of a heaviest third RH neutrino specie. Moreover, we show that the final asymmetry has to be dominantly produced in the tauon flavour while the electron and the muon asymmetries have to be efficiently washed out by the lightest RH neutrino inverse processes. Intriguingly, such seemingly special conditions for successful strong thermal leptogenesis are naturally fu...
Initial growth of Bauhinia variegata trees under different colored shade nets and light conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renata Bachin Mazzini-Guedes
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata and B. variegata var. candida, commonly known as orchid trees, are small sized trees widely used for urban forestry and landscaping. Adult plants grow under full sun; in Brazil, however, seedlings are generally cultivated in commercial nurseries under natural half-shading. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different colored shade nets and light conditions on the initial growth of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida. The influence of six light conditions (red net with 50% shading; blue net with 50% shading; black net with 70% shading; black net with 50% shading; black net with 30% shading; and full sun on the initial growth of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida were evaluated along 160 days, and growth relationships were calculated. Seedlings showed more efficiency on the use of photoassimilated compounds when grown under full sun. Such condition is the most appropriate for seedling production of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida, contradicting what has been performed in practice.
Lai, Yin-Hung; Wang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chiu Wen; Liu, Bo-Hong; Lin, Sheng Hsien; Lee, Yuan Tseh; Wang, Yi-Sheng
2012-08-16
This investigation concerns the initial chemical reactions that affect the ionization of matrixes in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). The study focuses on the relaxations of photon energy that occur on a comparable time scale to that of ionization, in which the available laser energy is shared and the ionization condition is changed. The relaxations include fluorescence, fragmentation, and nonradiative relaxation from the excited state to the ground state. With high absorption cross section and long excited-state lifetime, photoionization of matrix plays an important role if sufficient laser energy is used. Under other conditions, thermal ionization of the molecule in the ground state is predicted to be one of the important reactions. Evidence of change in the branching ratio of initial reactions with the matrix and the excitation wavelength was obtained with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, sinapinic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone. These matrixes are studied by obtaining their mixed crystal absorption spectra, fluorescence properties, laser-induced infrared emission, and product ions. The exact ionization pathway depends on the chemical properties of matrixes and the excitation conditions. This concept may explain the diversity of experimental results observed in MALDI experiments, which provides an insight into the ensemble of chemical reactions that govern the generation of ions.
Kalita, J. Z.; Rzepecka, Z.
2017-04-01
Tropospheric delay is one of the key factors that influence the convergence time of the precise point positioning (PPP) method. Current models do not allow for the fixing of the zenith path delay tropospheric parameter, leaving the difference between nominal and final value to the estimation process. Here, we present an analysis of several PPP result-sets using the tropospheric parameter’s nominal value adopted from models: VMF1, GPT2w, MOPS, and ZERO-WET. The last variant assumes a zero value for the initial wet part of the zenith delay. The PPP results are subtracted from a solution based on the final tropospheric product from the International GNSS Service (IGS). Several days exhibiting the most active tropospheric conditions were selected for each of the 7 stations located in the mid-latitude Central European region. During the active days, application of the VMF1 model increases the resulting height component’s quality by about 33–36% when compared to the GPT2w and MOPS. The respective improvement in VMF1 latitude and longitude components is 27% and 15%. The average relative deterioration in the result standard deviations between active and calm tropospheric conditions reaches about 20–30% of the former. We discuss the impact of the initial tropospheric parameter’s variance and bias on positioning. In addition, we compare the results with those of other studies over the impact of active tropospheric conditions on the PPP method.
The Conditions for Initiating "All-or-Nothing" Repolarization in Cardiac Muscle
Noble, D.; Hall, A. E.
1963-01-01
Solutions have been computed for the point polarization of an infinite cable-like membrane obeying the equations used to reproduce the Purkinje fiber action potential (Noble, 1960, 1962a) in order to determine the conditions for initiating all-or-nothing repolarization during the action potential plateau. It was found that all-or-nothing repolarization would not be obtainable during the first half of the action potential in spite of the fact that the membrane current-voltage relations contain regions of negative conductance. At the point at which the all-or-nothing response is first obtained, the computed threshold is large and repolarization almost back to the resting potential would be required in order to initiate the response. The results are discussed in relation to the experimental evidence at present available on repolarization in heart muscle. PMID:19431326
The relaxation of initial condition in systems with infinitely many absorbing states
Ódor, G; Dos Santos, M A; Marques, M C; Odor, Geza
1998-01-01
We have investigated the effect of the initial condition on the spreading exponents of the one-dimensional pair contact process (PCP) and threshold transfer process (TTP).The non-order field was found to exhibit critical fluctuations, relaxing to its natural value with the same power-law as the order parameter field. We argue that this slow relaxation, which was not taken into account in earlier studies of these models, is responsible for the continuously changing survival probability exponent. High precision numerical simulations show evidence of a(slight) dependence of the location of the transition point on the initial concentration, in the case of PCP. The damage spreading (DS) point and the spreading exponents coincide with those of the ordinary critical point in both cases.
Lemoine, F.
1997-09-01
Specific aspects of irradiated fuel result from the increasing retention of gaseous and volatile fission products with burnup, which, under overpower conditions, can lead to solid fuel pressurization and swelling causing severe PCMI (pellet clad mechanical interaction). In order to assess the reliability of high burnup fuel under RIAs, experimental programs have been initiated which have provided important data concerning the transient fission gas behavior and the clad loading mechanisms. The importance of the rim zone is demonstrated based on three experiments resulting in clad failure at low enthalpy, which are explained by energetic considerations. High gas release in non-failure tests with low energy deposition underlines the importance of grain boundary and porosity gas. Measured final releases are strongly correlated to the microstructure evolution, depending on energy deposition, pulse width, initial and refabricated fuel rod design. Observed helium release can also increase internal pressure and gives hints to the gas behavior understanding.
Transient fuel behavior of preirradiated PWR fuels under reactivity initiated accident conditions
Fujishiro, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Shiba, Koreyuki
1992-06-01
Since 1975, extensive studies on transient fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions have been continued in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. A new experimental program with preirradiated LWR fuel rods as test samples has recently been started. In this program, transient behavior and failure initiation have been studied with 14 × 14 type PWR fuel rods preirradiated to a burnup of 20 to 42 MWd/kgU. The test fuel rods contained in a capsule filled with the coolant water were subjected to a pulse irradiation in the NSRR to simulate a prompt power surge in an RIA. The effects of preirradiation on the transient fission gas release, pellet-cladding mechanical interaction and fuel failure were clearly observed through the transient in-core measurements and postirradiation examination.
Kumar, Devashish
2016-01-01
Climate models are thought to solve boundary value problems unlike numerical weather prediction, which is an initial value problem. However, climate internal variability (CIV) is thought to be relatively important at near-term (0-30 year) prediction horizons, especially at higher resolutions. The recent availability of significant numbers of multi-model (MME) and multi-initial condition (MICE) ensembles allows for the first time a direct sensitivity analysis of CIV versus model response variability (MRV). Understanding the relative agreement and variability of MME and MICE ensembles for multiple regions, resolutions, and projection horizons is critical for focusing model improvements, diagnostics, and prognosis, as well as impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability studies. Here we find that CIV (MICE agreement) is lower (higher) than MRV (MME agreement) across all spatial resolutions and projection time horizons for both temperature and precipitation. However, CIV dominates MRV over higher latitudes generally an...
Cherkas, S L
2015-01-01
It is shown, that initial conditions in the quasi-Heisenberg quantization scheme can be set at an initial cosmological singularity per se. This possibility is provided by finiteness of some quantities, namely momentums of the dynamical variables, at a singularity, in spite of infinity of the dynamical variables themselves. The uncertainty principle allows avoiding a necessity to set values of the dynamical variables at singularity, as a wave packet can be expressed through the finite momentums. The issue of a vacuum energy, arising during evolution when the gravitational waves appear, is addressed as well. It is shown that, in the certain gauge, the equations of motion contain a difference of kinetic and potential energies of the field oscillators. Thus, in this gauge, the leading divergent parts of the vacuum energy in the equations of motion cancel each other. It is conjectured that the UV cut-off allows physical interpretation of the weakly divergent part of the vacuum energy.
D mesons in non-central heavy-ion collisions: Fluctuating vs. averaged initial conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nahrgang, Marlene, E-mail: marlene.nahrgang@phy.duke.edu [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0305 (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Aichelin, Jörg; Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Werner, Klaus [SUBATECH, UMR 6457, Université de Nantes, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, IN2P3/CNRS, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France)
2014-12-15
The suppression of D mesons in non-central heavy-ion collisions is investigated. The anisotropy in collisions at finite impact parameter leads to an ordering of all-angle, in- and out-of-plane nuclear modification factors due to the different in-medium path lengths. Within our MC@sHQ+EPOS model of heavy-quark propagation in the QGP we demonstrate that fluctuating initial conditions lead to an effective reduction of the energy loss of heavy quarks, which is seen in a larger nuclear modification factor at intermediate and high transverse momenta. The elliptic flow at small transverse momenta is reduced.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-038, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)
2016-04-01
Creating spherical initial conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that are spherically conformal is a difficult task. Here, we describe two algorithmic methods for evenly distributing points on surfaces that when paired can be used to build three-dimensional spherical objects with optimal equipartition of volume between particles, commensurate with an arbitrary radial density function. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method against stretched lattice arrangements on the metrics of hydrodynamic stability, spherical conformity, and the harmonic power distribution of gravitational settling oscillations. We further demonstrate how our method is highly optimized for simulating multi-material spheres, such as planets with core–mantle boundaries.
The circulation of dust in protoplanetary discs and the initial conditions of planet formation
Hansen, Bradley M S
2014-01-01
We examine the consequences of a model for the circulation of solids in a protoplanetary nebula in which aerodynamic drag is counterbalanced by the recycling of material to the outer disc by a protostellar outflow or a disc wind. This population of circulating dust eventually becomes unstable to the formation of planetesimals by gravitational instability, and results in the ultimate deposition of 30--50 earth masses in planetesimals on scales R< 1 AU. Such a model may provide an appropriate justification for the approximately power law initial conditions needed to reproduce observed planetary systems by in situ assembly.
Walker, Christoph
2010-01-01
The paper focuses on positive solutions to a coupled system of parabolic equations with nonlocal initial conditions. Such equations arise as steady-state equations in an age-structured predator-prey model with diffusion. By using global bifurcation techniques, we describe the structure of the set of positive solutions with respect to two parameters measuring the intensities of the fertility of the species. In particular, we establish co-existence steady-states, i.e. solutions which are nonnegative and nontrivial in both components.
D mesons in non-central heavy-ion collisions: fluctuating vs. averaged initial conditions
Nahrgang, Marlene; Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Werner, Klaus
2014-01-01
The suppression of D mesons in non-central heavy-ion collisions is investigated. The anisotropy in collisions at finite impact parameter leads to an ordering of all-angle, in- and out-of-plane nuclear modification factors due to the different in-medium path lengths. Within our MC@sHQ+EPOS model of heavy-quark propagation in the QGP we demonstrate that fluctuating initial conditions lead to an effective reduction of the energy loss of heavy quarks, which is seen in a larger nuclear modification factor at intermediate and high transverse momenta. The elliptic flow at small transverse momenta is reduced.
Chimera states and the interplay between initial conditions and non-local coupling
Kalle, Peter; Sawicki, Jakub; Zakharova, Anna; Schöll, Eckehard
2017-03-01
Chimera states are complex spatio-temporal patterns that consist of coexisting domains of coherent and incoherent dynamics. We study chimera states in a network of non-locally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators. We investigate the impact of initial conditions in combination with non-local coupling. Based on an analytical argument, we show how the coupling phase and the coupling strength are linked to the occurrence of chimera states, flipped profiles of the mean phase velocity, and the transition from a phase- to an amplitude-mediated chimera state.
Raskin, Cody
2016-01-01
Creating spherical initial conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that are spherically conformal is a difficult task. Here, we describe two algorithmic methods for evenly distributing points on surfaces, that when paired can be used to build 3D spherical objects with optimal equipartition of volume between particles, commensurate with an arbitrary, radial density function. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method against stretched lattice arrangements on the metrics of hydrodynamic stability, spherical conformity, and the harmonic power distribution of gravitational settling oscillations. We further demonstrate how our method is highly optimized for simulating multi-material spheres, such as planets with core-mantle boundaries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. G. Fyke
2013-04-01
Full Text Available A new technique for generating ice sheet preindustrial 1850 initial conditions for coupled ice-sheet/climate models is developed and demonstrated over the Greenland Ice Sheet using the Community Earth System Model (CESM. Paleoclimate end-member simulations and ice core data are used to derive continuous surface mass balance fields which are used to force a long transient ice sheet model simulation. The procedure accounts for the evolution of climate through the last glacial period and converges to a simulated preindustrial 1850 ice sheet that is geometrically and thermodynamically consistent with the 1850 preindustrial simulated CESM state, yet contains a transient memory of past climate that compares well to observations and independent model studies. This allows future coupled ice-sheet/climate projections of climate change that include ice sheets to integrate the effect of past climate conditions on the state of the Greenland Ice Sheet, while maintaining system-wide continuity between past and future climate simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Lizama
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Using Hausdorff measure of noncompactness and a fixed-point argument we prove the existence of mild solutions for the semilinear integrodifferential equation subject to nonlocal initial conditions u′(t=Au(t+∫0tB(t-su(sds+f(t,u(t, t∈[0,1], u(0=g(u, where A:D(A⊆X→X, and for every t∈[0,1] the maps B(t:D(B(t⊆X→X are linear closed operators defined in a Banach space X. We assume further that D(A⊆D(B(t for every t∈[0,1], and the functions f:[0,1]×X→X and g:C([0,1];X→X are X-valued functions which satisfy appropriate conditions.
INITIAL TEST WELL CONDITIONING AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R.D. Oliver; J.C. Dinsmoor; S.J. Goldstein; I. Reyes; R. De La Garza
2005-07-11
Three test wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes during March-April 2003. The initial pumping to condition the wells was completed during December 2003. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, terminating 20 m below the top of the measured water level. The PB-2 and PB-3 wells, which were drilled on opposite sides of PB-1 at a radial distance of approximately 40 to 50 m outside of the remaining projected ore body, were also drilled to about 20 m below the top of the measured water level. Each test well was completed with 4-inch (10.2-cm) diameter PVC casing with a slotted liner below the water table. Initial conditioning of all three wells using a submersible pump at low pump rates [less than 1 gallon (3.8 1) per minute] resulted in measurable draw down and recoveries. The greatest drawdown ({approx}15 m) was observed in PB-2, whereas only minor (<1 m) drawdown occurred in PB-3. For PB-1 and PB-2, the water turbidity decreased as the wells were pumped and the pH values decreased, indicating that the contamination from the drilling fluid was reduced as the wells were conditioned. Test wells PB-1 and PB-2 showed increased inflow after several borehole volumes of fluid were removed, but their inflow rates remained less that the pumping rate. Test well PB-3 showed the smallest drawdown and least change in pH and conductivity during initial pumping and quickest recovery with a rise in measured water level after conditioning. The 195 gallons (750 l) of water pumped from PB-3 during conditioning was discharged through a household sponge. That sponge showed measurable gamma radiation, which decayed to background values in less than 12 hours. Preliminary interpretations include filtration of a radioisotope source with a short half-life or of a radioisotope that volatized as the sponge
Variation in initiation condition of debris flows in the mountain regions surrounding Beijing
Ma, Chao; Wang, Yu-jie; Du, Cui; Wang, Yun-qi; Li, Yun-peng
2016-11-01
Debris flows in the mountain regions surrounding Beijing have been occurring for a long time and have resulted in great economic losses. In this study, 23 rainstorm events, surficial sediments, and debris flow deposits were analyzed to quantify the area's rainfall threshold and to investigate how such conditions may be used to predict debris flow in this region. Rainfall threshold of intensity-duration (I-D) functions after vegetation recovery was higher than before recovery and also higher than I-D levels in other regions where debris flows are closely associated with runoff. Field investigations revealed that surficial sediments were characterized by coarse-grained sediments and that debris flow deposits lacked fine particles. Local debris flows can be triggered by runoff; however, no single standard equation is used to predict the conditions that lead to runoff-triggered debris flow; and commonly used equations give different values. Here, we propose an empirical function that takes into account peak discharge per width and particle diameter. This model should be verified with further investigations so that it can be used as a reference to analyze the conditions that lead to debris flow in the study area. Finally, debris flows may have been related to occasional storms in the study area, which has been experiencing substantially increased temperatures and decreased annual precipitation. This work provides important information about the conditions that initiated debris flow in the Beijing mountain regions in the last few decades.
Initial subjective reward: Single-exposure conditioned place preference to alcohol in mice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Judith E. Grisel
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10-20% of users persist (or progress in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions. Identifying at-risk individuals before neuroadaptative changes associated with chronic use become well ingrained is thus a key step in mitigating and preventing the end stage disease and its devastating impacts. Explaining liability has been impeded, in part, by the absence of animal models for assessing initial sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing properties, an important endophenotype in the trajectory toward excessive drinking. Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm. In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains. This model validates an assay of initial sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol, a widely used drug with multifarious impacts on both brain and society, and provides a new tool for theory-driven endophenotypic pharmacogenetic approaches to understanding and treating addiction.
Hypki, Arkadiusz; Giersz, Mirek
2017-04-01
In this paper, we present an analysis of the properties of blue straggler (BS) populations based on MOCCA simulations covering a range of initial globular cluster conditions. We broadly separate the BSs created in our simulations into two distinct types corresponding to their formation mechanism, namely evolutionary BSs formed from binary evolution and dynamical BSs formed from collisions or mergers induced by direct dynamical interactions between stars and binaries. We find that the dominant type of BS strongly depends on the initial semi-major axis distribution. With mostly compact binaries, the number of evolutionary BSs dominates. Conversely, with mostly wide binaries, dynamical BSs dominate. Higher cluster concentrations increase the contribution from dynamical BSs without affecting the numbers of evolutionary BSs, which are thus mostly descended from primordial binaries. We further consider the ratio between the number of BSs in binaries and as single stars (RB/S). Models that prefer compact and wide binaries begin with, respectively, high and low values of the ratio RB/S before converging to a nearly universal value ∼ 0.4. Finally, the initial eccentricity distribution has little to no influence on BS formation.
Initial subjective reward: single-exposure conditioned place preference to alcohol in mice.
Grisel, Judith E; Beasley, John B; Bertram, Emma C; Decker, Brooke E; Duan, Chunyu A; Etuma, Mahder; Hand, Annie; Locklear, Mallory N; Whitmire, Matthew P
2014-01-01
Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10-20% of users persist (or progress) in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions. Identifying at-risk individuals before neuroadaptative changes associated with chronic use become well ingrained is thus a key step in mitigating and preventing the end stage disease and its devastating impacts. Explaining liability has been impeded, in part, by the absence of animal models for assessing initial sensitivity to the drug's reinforcing properties, an important endophenotype in the trajectory toward excessive drinking. Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm. In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5 g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains. This model validates an assay of initial sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol, a widely used drug with multifarious impacts on both brain and society, and provides a new tool for theory-driven endophenotypic pharmacogenetic approaches to understanding and treating addiction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernanda Carlota Nery
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Ecophysiological studies under semi-controlled conditions in nurseries and greenhouses are essential to enable the use of native species to recover degraded areas and for commercial planting. Talisia subalbens (Mart Radlk, 'cascudo', is a native fruiting species of the Cerrado on the verge of extinction. The ecophysiological performance of this species was evaluated in nursery conditions under different levels of shading (full sunshine, 30%, 50% and 70%. Initial growth, biomass allocation, gas exchange and chlorophyll content of the plants were analyzed. Full sunshine cultivated plants showed a higher accumulation of total, shoot, and root dry biomass. There was no significant difference in the root/shoot ratio among the treatments. Seedlings cultivated under full sunshine and 30% shading showed higher values for height, basal diameter, and leaf area. Differences in stomata conductance and photosynthesis rate were not observed among the different shading levels. Plants cultivated under 70% of shading had higher contents of chlorophyll a, b, and total. During the initial phase with higher levels of radiation were fundamental for the development of T. subalbens seedlings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Athanasios A. Pantelous
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In some interesting applications in control and system theory, linear descriptor (singular matrix differential equations of higher order with time-invariant coefficients and (non- consistent initial conditions have been used. In this paper, we provide a study for the solution properties of a more general class of the Apostol-Kolodner-type equations with consistent and nonconsistent initial conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petar Glišović
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Although there has been significant progress in the seismic imaging of mantle heterogeneity, the outstanding issue that remains to be resolved is the unknown distribution of mantle temperature anomalies in the distant geological past that give rise to the present-day anomalies inferred by global tomography models. To address this question, we present 3-D convection models in compressible and self-gravitating mantle initialised by different hypothetical temperature patterns. A notable feature of our forward convection modelling is the use of self-consistent coupling of the motion of surface tectonic plates to the underlying mantle flow, without imposing prescribed surface velocities (i.e., plate-like boundary condition. As an approximation for the surface mechanical conditions before plate tectonics began to operate we employ the no-slip (rigid boundary condition. A rigid boundary condition demonstrates that the initial thermally-dominated structure is preserved, and its geographical location is fixed during the evolution of mantle flow. Considering the impact of different assumed surface boundary conditions (rigid and plate-like on the evolution of thermal heterogeneity in the mantle we suggest that the intrinsic buoyancy of seven superplumes is most-likely resolved in the tomographic images of present-day mantle thermal structure. Our convection simulations with a plate-like boundary condition reveal that the evolution of an initial cold anomaly beneath the Java-Indonesian trench system yields a long-term, stable pattern of thermal heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle that resembles the present-day Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs, especially below the Pacific. The evolution of subduction zones may be, however, influenced by the mantle-wide flow driven by deeply-rooted and long-lived superplumes since Archean times. These convection models also detect the intrinsic buoyancy of the Perm Anomaly that has been identified as a unique
Runoff sensitivity over Asia: Role of climate variables and initial soil conditions
Liu, Di; Mishra, Ashok K.; Zhang, Ke
2017-02-01
We applied statistical and numerical modeling approach to evaluate the sensitivity of runoff (ROF) to climate variables using Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data and regional climate model (RegCM4). It was observed that ROF is more sensitive to precipitation (P) compared to other analyzed hydroclimatic variables (potential evapotranspiration (PET), 2 m air temperature (T2m), solar radiation (Rn), specific humidity (SSH), and wind speed (U), especially over India, Indochina, and south-north-northeast China semihumid-humid climate transition zones based on the higher correlation coefficient (>0.7) and elasticity (>2). The abnormal positive T2m-ROF observed over Tibetan Plateau region (TP) may be due to its high topography and cold weather regime, while positive PET-ROF over India and north China-southeast Mongolia regions can be attributed to the stronger influence of local land-atmosphere interactions. Soil moisture (SM) reflects high correlation with runoff, especially over the climate transition zones (i.e., India and Indochina-southeast China). The initial wet (dry) soil moisture (SM) anomalies lead to an increase (decrease) of ROF in each season with the hot spots mainly located in middle to high latitudes (spring), TP and northeast (summer and autumn), and Indochina (autumn) regions. Such influence can persist almost 4 months in spring while only about 1 month in autumn during dry and wet conditions. The wet condition has stronger influence at beginning but dissipates quickly, while the dry condition can last longer within the same season. The impact of initial soil temperature anomalies on ROF is weaker than SM, with the only obvious ROF changes located over south China (spring and summer) and north India (autumn).
Conformal models of de Sitter space, initial conditions for inflation and the CMB
Lasenby, A; Lasenby, Anthony; Doran, Chris
2004-01-01
Conformal embedding of closed-universe models in a de Sitter background suggests a quantisation condition on the available conformal time. This condition implies that the universe is closed at no greater than the 10% level. When a massive scalar field is introduced to drive an inflationary phase this figure is reduced to closure at nearer the 1% level. In order to enforce the constraint on the available conformal time we need to consider conditions in the universe before the onset of inflation. A formal series around the initial singularity is constructed, which rests on a pair of dimensionless, scale-invariant parameters. For physically-acceptable models we find that both parameters are of order unity, so no fine tuning is required, except in the mass of the scalar field. For typical values of the input parameters we predict the observed values of the cosmological parameters, including the magnitude of the cosmological constant. The model produces a very good fit to the most recent CMBR data, predicting a lo...
Estimating initial conditions for groundwater flow modeling using an adaptive inverse method
Hassane Maina, F.; Delay, F.; Ackerer, P.
2017-09-01
Due to continuous increases in water demand, the need for seasonal forecasts of available groundwater resources becomes inevitable. Hydrogeological models might provide a valuable tool for this kind of resource management. Because predictions over short time horizons are foreseen, the reliability of model outputs depends on accurate estimates of the initial conditions (ICs), as well as the estimated parameter values, boundary conditions and forcing terms (e.g., recharge, as well as sinks and sources). Here, we provide an inverse procedure for estimating these ICs. The procedure is based on an adaptive parameterization of the ICs that limits over-parameterization and involves the minimization of an ad hoc objective function. The quasi-Newton algorithm is used for the minimization, and the gradients are computed with an adjoint-state method. Two test cases based on a real aquifer that are designed to evaluate the capability of the method were addressed. It is assumed that the boundary conditions, hydraulic parameters and forcing terms are known from an existing hydrogeological model. In both test cases, the proposed method was quite successful in estimating the ICs and predicting head values that were not used in the calibration. 50 calibrations for each test case have been performed to quantify the reliability of the predictions.
Photolysis and OH-Initiated oxidation of glycolaldehyde under atmospheric conditions.
Magneron, I; Mellouki, A; Le Bras, G; Moortgat, G K; Horowitz, A; Wirtz, K
2005-05-26
The photolysis and OH-initiated oxidation of glycolaldehyde (HOCH(2)CHO), which are relevant atmospheric processes, have been investigated under different conditions using complementary methods in three different laboratories. The UV absorption cross sections of glycolaldehyde determined in two of the laboratories are in excellent agreement. The photolysis of glycolaldehyde in air has been investigated in a quartz cell with sunlamps and in the EUPHORE chamber irradiated by sunlight. The mean photolysis rate measured under solar radiation was (1.1 +/- 0.3) x 10(-5) s(-1) corresponding to a mean effective photolysis quantum yield of (1.3 +/- 0.3). The major products detected were HCHO and CO, whereas CH(3)OH was also observed with an initial yield around 10%. Evidence for OH production was found in both experiments using either OH scavenger or OH tracer species. Photolysis of glycolaldehyde was used as the OH source to measure the reaction rate constants of OH with a series of dienes by the relative method and to identify and quantify the oxidation products of the OH-initiated oxidation of 2-propanol. The different experiments suggest that OH is produced by the primary channel: HOCH(2)CHO + hnu --> OH + CH(2)CHO (1). The rate constant of the OH reaction with glycolaldehyde has been measured at 298 K using the relative method: k(glyc) = (1.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The product study of the OH-initiated oxidation of glycolaldehyde in air has been performed using both a FEP bag and the EUPHORE chamber. HCHO was observed to be the major product with a primary yield of around 65%. Glyoxal (CHOCHO) was also observed in EUPHORE with a primary yield of (22 +/- 6)%. This yield corresponds to the branching ratio ( approximately 20%) of the H-atom abstraction channel from the CH(2) group in the OH + HOCH(2)CHO reaction, the major channel ( approximately 80%) being the H-atom abstraction from the carbonyl group. The data obtained in this work, especially the
Chow, Sy-Miin; Lu, Zhaohua; Sherwood, Andrew; Zhu, Hongtu
2016-03-01
The past decade has evidenced the increased prevalence of irregularly spaced longitudinal data in social sciences. Clearly lacking, however, are modeling tools that allow researchers to fit dynamic models to irregularly spaced data, particularly data that show nonlinearity and heterogeneity in dynamical structures. We consider the issue of fitting multivariate nonlinear differential equation models with random effects and unknown initial conditions to irregularly spaced data. A stochastic approximation expectation-maximization algorithm is proposed and its performance is evaluated using a benchmark nonlinear dynamical systems model, namely, the Van der Pol oscillator equations. The empirical utility of the proposed technique is illustrated using a set of 24-h ambulatory cardiovascular data from 168 men and women. Pertinent methodological challenges and unresolved issues are discussed.
Dynamic analysis of offshore structures with non-zero initial conditions in the frequency domain
Liu, Fushun; Lu, Hongchao; Li, Huajun
2016-03-01
The state of non-zero conditions is typically treated as fact when considering the dynamic analysis of offshore structures. This article extends a newly proposed method [1] to manage the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures in the frequency domain, including new studies on original environmental loads reconstruction, response comparisons with the commercial software ANSYS, and a demonstration using an experimental cantilever beam. The original environmental loads, such as waves, currents, and winds, that act on a structure are decomposed into multiple complex exponential components are represented by a series of poles and corresponding residues. Counter to the traditional frequency-domain method, the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures could be solved in the frequency domain. Compared with reference [1], an improvement reported in this article is that practical issues, including the choice of model order and central-processing-unit (CPU) time consumption, are further studied when applying this new method to offshore structures. To investigate the feasibility of the representation of initial environmental loads by their poles and corresponding residues, a measured random wave force collected from a column experiment at the Lab of Ocean University of China is used, decomposed, reconstructed and then compared with the original wave force; then, a numerical offshore platform is used to study the performance of the proposed method in detail. The numerical results of this study indicate that (1) a short duration of environmental loads are required to obtain their constitutive poles and residues, which implies good computational efficiency; and (2) the proposed method has a similar computational efficiency to traditional methods due to the use of the inverse Fourier transform technique. To better understand the performance, of time consumption and accuracy of the proposed method, the commercial software ANSYS is used to determine responses
Sensitivity of modelled channel network formation to environmental conditions and initial bathymetry
van Maanen, Barend; Coco, Giovanni; Bryan, Karin
2010-05-01
Estuaries show a variety of distinctive geomorphic features that reflect differences in environmental conditions, such as geological constraints, hydrodynamic forcing (e.g. tidal range, wave climate), sediment loads from the catchment, and the presence and types of both vegetation and benthic organisms. These differences yield varying patterns of sediment erosion/deposition and consequently determine the current shape of the estuary and its future evolution. Understanding how estuarine systems evolve as a function of both natural and anthropogenic drivers is still a main research topic in coastal science. Both the short- and long-term evolution of estuaries are affected by the dynamics related to tidal channel networks. Channel networks often exhibit complex morphological patterns and their initial formation is not entirely understood. Also, the subsequent evolution of channel networks can be accompanied by the development of tidal flats which provide ecologically important habitats. Despite their importance, observations of channel network formation involve large spatial and temporal scales so that detailed studies have rarely been reported. Recently, modelling approaches have been developed to study the long-term evolution of tidal basins and the associated formation of channel patterns. A model has been developed to simulate the formation of channel networks and tidal flats as a result of the interactions between hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and bed elevation change. Simulations were undertaken using idealised initial bathymetries. Flow velocities are computed using an open source numerical model (ELCOM; Estuary and Lake Computer Model) that solves the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow using the hydrostatic assumption. The computed flow velocities drive sediment transport, which is calculated using formulas widely adopted in sediment transport studies. Gradients in sediment transport rate yield morphological change
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cinbiz, Mahmut N [ORNL; Brown, Nicholas R [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Lowden, Rick R [ORNL; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL
2017-01-01
This study investigates the failure mechanisms of advanced nuclear fuel cladding of FeCrAl at high-strain rates, similar to design basis reactivity initiated accidents (RIA). During RIA, the nuclear fuel cladding was subjected to the plane-strain to equibiaxial tension strain states. To achieve those accident conditions, the samples were deformed by the expansion of high strength Inconel alloy tube under pre-specified pressure pulses as occurring RIA. The mechanical response of the advanced claddings was compared to that of hydrided zirconium-based nuclear fuel cladding alloy. The hoop strain evolution during pressure pulses were collected in situ; the permanent diametral strains of both accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings and the current nuclear fuel alloys were determined after rupture.
Jet tomography of harmonic fluctuations in the initial condition of heavy ion collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Xilin [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Liao Jinfeng, E-mail: liaoji@indiana.edu [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)
2012-06-18
In this Letter we study the jet response (particularly azimuthal anisotropy) as a hard probe of the harmonic fluctuations in the initial condition of central heavy ion collisions. By implementing the fluctuations via cumulant expansion for various harmonics quantified by {epsilon}{sub n} and using the geometric model for jet energy loss, we compute the response {chi}{sub n}{sup h}=v{sub n}/{epsilon}{sub n}. Combining these results with the known hydrodynamic response of the bulk matter expansion in the literature, we show that the hard-soft azimuthal correlation arising from their respective responses to the common geometric fluctuations reveals a robust and narrow near-side peak that may provide the dominant contribution to the 'hard-ridge' observed in experimental data.
Fortney, Jonathan J; Saumon, Didier; Lodders, Katharina
2008-01-01
We examine the spectra and infrared colors of the cool methane-dominated atmospheres at Teff < 1400 K expected for young gas giant planets. We couple these spectral calculations to an updated version of the Marley et al. (2007) giant planet thermal evolution models that include formation by core accretion-gas capture. These relatively cool "young Jupiters" can be 1-6 magnitudes fainter than predicted by standard cooling tracks that include a traditional initial condition, which may provide a diagnostic of formation. If correct, this would make true Jupiter-like planets much more difficult to detect at young ages than previously thought. Since Jupiter and Saturn are of distinctly super-solar composition, we examine emitted spectra for model planets at both solar metallicity and a metallicity of 5 times solar. These metal-enhanced young Jupiters have lower pressure photospheres than field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperatures arising from both lower surface gravities and enhanced atmospheric opacit...
The eccentricity in heavy-ion collisions from Color Glass Condensate initial conditions
Drescher, H J; Hayashigaki, A; Nara, Y; Drescher, Hans-Joachim; Dumitru, Adrian; Hayashigaki, Arata; Nara, Yasushi
2006-01-01
The eccentricity in coordinate-space at midrapidity of the overlap zone in high-energy heavy-ion collisions predicted by the $k_\\perp$-factorization formalism is generically larger than expected from scaling with the number of participants. We provide a simple qualitative explanation of the effect which shows that it is not caused predominantly by edge effects. We also show that it is quite insensitive to ``details'' of the unintegrated gluon distribution functions such as the presence of leading-twist shadowing and of an extended geometric scaling window. Finally, we point out that the longitudinal structure of the Color Glass Condensate initial condition for hydrodynamics away from midrapidity is non-trivial but requires understanding of large-$x$ effects.
Derrida, Bernard; Gerschenfeld, Antoine
2009-07-01
For the symmetric simple exclusion process on an infinite line, we calculate exactly the fluctuations of the integrated current Q t during time t through the origin when, in the initial condition, the sites are occupied with density ρ a on the negative axis and with density ρ b on the positive axis. All the cumulants of Q t grow like sqrt{t} . In the range where Qt˜ sqrt{t} , the decay exp [- Q {/t 3}/ t] of the distribution of Q t is non-Gaussian. Our results are obtained using the Bethe ansatz and several identities derived recently by Tracy and Widom for exclusion processes on the infinite line.
Testing variational estimation of process parameters and initial conditions of an earth system model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Blessing
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We present a variational assimilation system around a coarse resolution Earth System Model (ESM and apply it for estimating initial conditions and parameters of the model. The system is based on derivative information that is efficiently provided by the ESM's adjoint, which has been generated through automatic differentiation of the model's source code. In our variational approach, the length of the feasible assimilation window is limited by the size of the domain in control space over which the approximation by the derivative is valid. This validity domain is reduced by non-smooth process representations. We show that in this respect the ocean component is less critical than the atmospheric component. We demonstrate how the feasible assimilation window can be extended to several weeks by modifying the implementation of specific process representations and by switching off processes such as precipitation.
Non-adiabatic radiative collapse of a relativistic star under different initial conditions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ranjan Sharma; Ramesh Tikekar
2012-09-01
We examine the role of space-time geometry in the non-adiabatic collapse of a star dissipating energy in the form of radial heat flow, studying its evolution under different initial conditions. The collapse of a star filled with a homogeneous perfect fluid is compared with that of a star filled with inhomogeneous imperfect fluid under anisotropic pressure. Both the configurations are spherically symmetric. However, in the latter case, the physical space = constant of the configurations endowed with spheroidal or pseudospheroidal geometry is assumed to be inhomogeneous. It is observed that as long as the collapse is shear-free, its evolution depends only on the mass and size of the star at the onset of collapse.
A simple method to calculate first-passage time densities with arbitrary initial conditions
Nyberg, Markus; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lizana, Ludvig
2016-06-01
Numerous applications all the way from biology and physics to economics depend on the density of first crossings over a boundary. Motivated by the lack of general purpose analytical tools for computing first-passage time densities (FPTDs) for complex problems, we propose a new simple method based on the independent interval approximation (IIA). We generalise previous formulations of the IIA to include arbitrary initial conditions as well as to deal with discrete time and non-smooth continuous time processes. We derive a closed form expression for the FPTD in z and Laplace-transform space to a boundary in one dimension. Two classes of problems are analysed in detail: discrete time symmetric random walks (Markovian) and continuous time Gaussian stationary processes (Markovian and non-Markovian). Our results are in good agreement with Langevin dynamics simulations.
Failure behavior of plutonium-uranium mixed oxide fuel under reactivity-initiated accident condition
Abe, T.; Nakae, N.; Kodato, K.; Matsumoto, M.; Inabe, T.
1992-06-01
Two series of in-pile tests on MOX fuels were performed in the NSRR to study failure behavior under RIA (reactivity-initiated accident) conditions in water cooled reactors. PWR type MOX test rods were pulsed in a first series. The test rods were designed to have dimensions identical to standard UO 2 fuel, on which a large number of tests had been conducted previously. The test result was that the failure mechanism and the threshold of MOX fuel was consistent with those of UO 2 fuel. ATR-type MOX test rods with PuO 2 particles as well as reference rods without PuO 2 particles were subjected to pulsing in a second series. PuO 2 particles of 400 and 1100 μm in diameter were artificially embedded at the surface of MOX pellets. No effect of particles appeared on the threshold, and no significant indication of their effect was observed on the cladding.
On the initial condition problem of the time domain PMCHWT surface integral equation
Uysal, Ismail E.
2017-05-13
Non-physical, linearly increasing and constant current components are induced in marching on-in-time solution of time domain surface integral equations when initial conditions on time derivatives of (unknown) equivalent currents are not enforced properly. This problem can be remedied by solving the time integral of the surface integral for auxiliary currents that are defined to be the time derivatives of the equivalent currents. Then the equivalent currents are obtained by numerically differentiating the auxiliary ones. In this work, this approach is applied to the marching on-in-time solution of the time domain Poggio-Miller-Chan-Harrington-Wu-Tsai surface integral equation enforced on dispersive/plasmonic scatterers. Accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example.
Initial Condition of Relic Gravitational Waves Constrained by LIGO S6 and Multiple Interferometers
Chen, Jie-Wen; Zhao, Wen; Tong, Ming-Lei
2014-01-01
The relic gravitational wave (RGW) generated during the inflation depends on the initial condition via the amplitude, the spectral index $n_t$ and the running index $\\alpha_t$. CMB observations so far have only constrained the tensor-scalar ratio $r$, but not $n_t$ nor $\\alpha_t$. Complementary to this, the ground-based interferometric detectors working at $\\sim 10^2$Hz are able to constrain the spectral indices that influence the spectrum sensitively at high frequencies. In this work we give a proper normalization of the analytical spectrum at the low frequency end, yielding a modification by a factor of $\\sim 1/50$ to the previous treatment. We calculate the signal-noise ratios (SNR) for various ($n_t,\\alpha_t$) at fixed $r=0.2$ by S6 of LIGO H-L, and obtain the observational upper limit on the running index $\\alpha_t0.01364$.
Sensitivity of Initial Conditions on Diurnal Variability of Indian Summer Monsoon
Das, Sukanta Kumar; Deb, Sanjib Kumar; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, Pradip Kumar
2015-10-01
The diurnal cycle of different surface parameters, viz. surface air temperature, surface pressure, and rain intensities, simulated by the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) in the operational seasonal forecast of ISM-2012 using initial conditions (ICs) taken at synoptic hours of the day has been examined and compared with observations. Four members were simulated with ICs at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC on 1 August 2012. The impact of the initial conditions at the synoptic hours of the day was more visible over the landmass compared with the oceanic regions. The diurnal variation of the surface temperature in the model simulation showed the major features when compared with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis except for the warm pool of northwest India and the Tibetan region. The surface pressure in the ECMWF reanalysis showed the semidiurnal cycle with two peaks at 0600 UTC and 1800 UTC; however, the range of the cycle was underestimated by the model simulation, showing only one peak at 0600 UTC. Significant variations in the diurnal cycle of rain intensities were seen among the different members. The model captured the diurnal cycle as the positive and negative peaks at 1200 and 0000 UTC with intensities at the peaks ~0.5 mm high and low, respectively, in the model simulation when compared with the observations. Presently, the seasonal forecast of ISM is generated through ensemble CAM experiments using different ICs taken from different dates but all at 0000 UTC. Consideration of ICs at different times of the day will add different ranges of diurnal variations in all the surface parameters within the family of ensemble members and also increase the number of members in the family. Indeed, these improve the ensemble processes in generating the seasonal forecast of ISM.
INITIAL CHEMICAL AND RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AT LOS AZUFRES WELLHEAD POWER PLANT STARTUP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kruger, P.; Semprini, L.; Verma, S.; Barragan, R.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, C.
1985-01-22
One of the major concerns of electric utilities in installing geothermal power plants is not only the longevity of the steam supply, but also the potential for changes in thermodynamic properties of the resource that might reduce the conversion efficiency of the design plant equipment. Production was initiated at Los Azufres geothermal field with wellhead generators not only to obtain electric energy at a relatively early date, but also to acquire needed information about the resource so that plans for large central power plants could be finalized. Commercial electric energy production started at Los Azufres during the summer of 1982 with five 5-MWe wellhead turbine-generator units. The wells associated with these units had undergone extensive testing and have since been essentially in constant production. The Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is a complex structural and thermodynamic system, intersected by at least 4 major parallel faults and producing geothermal fluids from almost all water to all steam. The five wellhead generators are associated with wells of about 30%, 60%, and 100% steam fraction. A study to compile existing data on the chemical and reservoir conditions during the first two years of operation has been completed. Data have been compiled on mean values of wellhead and separator pressures, steam and liquid flowrates, steam fraction, enthalpy, and pertinent chemical components. The compilation serves both as a database of conditions during the start-up period and as an initial point to observe changes with continued and increased production. Current plans are to add additional wellhead generators in about two years followed by central power plants when the data have been sufficiently evaluated for optimum plant design. During the next two years, the data acquired at the five 5-MWe wellhead generator units can be compared to this database to observe any significant changes in reservoir behavior at constant production.
Still at the choice-point: action selection and initiation in instrumental conditioning.
Balleine, Bernard W; Ostlund, Sean B
2007-05-01
Contrary to classic stimulus-response (S-R) theory, recent evidence suggests that, in instrumental conditioning, rats encode the relationship between their actions and the specific consequences that these actions produce. It has remained unclear, however, how encoding this relationship acts to control instrumental performance. Although S-R theories were able to give a clear account of how learning translates into performance, the argument that instrumental learning constitutes the acquisition of information of the form "response R leads to outcome O" does not directly imply a particular performance rule or policy; this information can be used both to perform R and to avoid performing R. Recognition of this problem has forced the development of accounts that allow the O and stimuli that predict the O (i.e., S-O) to play a role in the initiation of specific Rs. In recent experiments, we have used a variety of behavioral procedures in an attempt to isolate the processes that contribute to instrumental performance, including outcome devaluation, reinstatement, and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer. Our results, particularly from experiments assessing outcome-selective reinstatement, suggest that both "feed-forward" (O-R) and "feed-back" (R-O) associations are critical and that although the former appear to be important to response selection, the latter-together with processes that determine outcome value-mediate response initiation. We discuss a conceptual model that integrates these processes and its neural implementation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Zavadskaya
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes assessment and monitoring program which has been designed and initiated for monitoring recreational impacts in some wildernesses areas of Kamchatka. The framework of the recreational assessment was tested through its application in a case study conducted during the summer 2008 in the Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve (the Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The overall objective of the case study was to assess the existing campsite and trail recreation impacts and to establish a network of key sites for the subsequent long-term impact monitoring. The detailed assessment of different components of natural complexes of the Kronotsky State Natural Preserve and the obtained maps of their ecological conditions showed that some sites had been highly disturbed. The results of these works have given rise to a concern that the intensive use of these areas would make an unacceptable impact on the nature. Findings of our initial work corroborate the importance of founding wilderness management programs on knowledge about the trail and campsite impacts and emphasize the necessity of adopting the recreational assessment and monitoring framework to the practice of decision-making.
The effects of sinusoidal initial conditions on finite-thickness, HED shear flows
di Stefano, Carlos; Merritt, Elizabeth; Doss, Forrest; Desjardins, Tiffany; Flippo, Kirk; Kline, John; Loomis, Eric; Rasmus, Alex
2016-10-01
Hydrodynamic shear instability plays a role in any system in which shear flow across materials can be found, including in high-energy-density examples such as fusion plasmas and many astrophysical systems. In this work we describe experiments, performed on the OMEGA laser, exploring shear instability through the use of carefully-controlled, single-mode initial conditions. A novel aspect of these experiments is that they employ counter-propagating shocks separated by a collimating layer. This produces a region of shear flow in which the pressure is balanced across flow, simplifying theoretical analysis and modeling. We discuss two interesting behaviors seen in these experiments. First, at early times, radiographs show the expansion of the collimator and the spectral evolution of the initial perturbation features from laser-drive heating of the material. The evolved features then couple to the primary shear instability we seek to probe. Second, at late times, we observe the persistence of a coherent long-wavelength mode in the mixing layer, driven by the imposed surface perturbation, which resonates with and the length scale introduced by the finite thickness of the collimator.
Formation of the First Low-Mass Stars from Cosmological Initial Conditions
Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Bromm, Volker
2014-01-01
We simulate the formation of a metal-poor ($10^{-2}\\,Z_{\\odot}$) stellar cluster in one of the first galaxies to form in the early Universe, specifically a high-redshift atomic cooling halo ($z\\sim14$). This is the first calculation that resolves the formation of individual metal-enriched stars in simulations starting from realistic cosmological initial conditions. We follow the evolution of a single dense clump among several in the parent halo. The clump forms a cluster of $\\sim40$ stars and sub-stellar objects within $7000$ yrs and could continue forming stars $\\sim5$ times longer. Protostellar dust heating has a negligible effect on the star formation efficiency, at least during the early evolutionary stages, but it moderately suppresses gaseous fragmentation and brown dwarf formation. We observe fragmentation in thin gaseous filaments and sustained accretion in larger, rotating structures as well as ejections by binary interactions. The stellar initial mass function above $0.1\\,M_{\\odot}$, evaluated after...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwyzer, Irene [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Kaegi, Ralf; Sigg, Laura [Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Magrez, Arnaud [EPFL - Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Nowack, Bernd, E-mail: nowack@empa.ch [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland)
2011-06-15
The colloidal stability of dry and suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the presence of amphiphilic compounds (i.e. natural organic matter or surfactants) at environmentally realistic concentrations was investigated over several days. The suspensions were analyzed for CNT concentration (UV-vis spectroscopy), particle size (nanoparticle tracking analysis), and CNT length and dispersion quality (TEM). When added in dry form, around 1% of the added CNTs remained suspended. Pre-dispersion in organic solvent or anionic detergent stabilized up to 65% of the added CNTs after 20 days of mild shaking and 5 days of settling. The initial state of the CNTs (dry vs. suspended) and the medium composition hence are critical determinants for the partitioning of CNTs between sediment and the water column. TEM analysis revealed that single suspended CNTs were present in all suspensions and that shaking and settling resulted in a fractionation of the CNTs with shorter CNTs remaining predominantly in suspension. - Highlights: > Individually suspended CNTs are present under environment relevant conditions. > The number of suspended CNTs varies depending on the medium composition. > Surfactants at environmental concentrations have no suspending effect on dry CNTs. > Pre-dispersed CNTs are more stable in suspension than dry CNTs. - The colloidal stability of CNTs varies a lot depending on the initial state of the CNTs (dry vs. pre-dispersed), the applied dispersant for pre-suspension, and the composition of the medium.
Origami constraints on the initial-conditions arrangement of dark-matter caustics and streams
Neyrinck, Mark C
2012-01-01
In a cold-dark-matter universe, cosmological structure formation proceeds in rough analogy to origami folding. Dark matter occupies a three-dimensional 'sheet,' non-intersecting in six-dimensional velocity-position phase space. At early times, the sheet was flat like an origami sheet, i.e. velocities were essentially zero. The present paper further illustrates this analogy, and identifies a result of origami mathematics that applies to cosmology. We define caustics in the initial conditions Lagrangian space) as surfaces in this sheet, along which the sheet has folded. The regions outlined by these caustics, which we call streams, may be colored according to the two possible orientations of initial basis vectors, a two-coloring such that adjacent streams are not colored the same. While this may not have clear observational consequences, it is a severe restriction on connectivity, since there are no bounds on the number of colors required to color a general arrangement of three-dimensional regions. Then, measur...
Glover, S C O
2006-01-01
We study the formation of H2 in the ISM, using a modified version of the astrophysical magnetohydrodynamical code ZEUS-MP that includes a non-equilibrium treatment of the formation and destruction of H2. We use a local approximation to compute the shielding of H2 against photodissociation, making three-dimensional high-resolution simulations of cloud formation feasible with modest computational resources. Our modification to ZEUS-MP also includes a detailed treatment of the thermal behaviour of the gas. In this paper, we focus on the problem of molecular cloud formation in gravitationally unstable, initially static gas. (In a subsequent paper, we consider turbulent flow). We show that in these conditions, H2 formation is driven by gravitational collapse, and so occurs over one or more gravitational free-fall timescales. For initial densities consistent with those observed in the cold, neutral atomic phase of the interstellar medium, this corresponds to a cloud formation timescale t > 10 Myr. We also show that...
Collins, B. D.; Stock, J. D.; Godt, J. W.
2012-12-01
Intense winter storms in the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) of California often trigger widespread landsliding, including debris flows that originate as shallow (initiation thresholds are available for the SFBA, antecedent soil moisture conditions also play a major role in determining the likelihood for landslide generation from a given storm. Previous research has demonstrated that antecedent triggering conditions can be obtained using pre-storm precipitation thresholds (e.g., 250-400 mm of seasonal pre-storm rainfall). However, these types of thresholds do not account for the often cyclic pattern of wetting and drying that can occur early in the winter storm season (i.e. October - December), and which may skew the applicability of precipitation-only based thresholds. To account for these cyclic and constantly evolving soil moisture conditions, we have pursued methods to measure soil moisture directly and integrate these measurements into predictive analyses. During the past three years, the USGS installed a series of four subsurface hydrology monitoring stations in shallow landslide-prone locations of the SFBA to establish a soil-moisture-based antecedent threshold. In addition to soil moisture sensors, the monitoring stations are each equipped with piezometers to record positive pore water pressure that is likely required for shallow landslide initiation and a rain gauge to compare storm intensities with existing precipitation-based thresholds. Each monitoring station is located on a natural, grassy hillslope typically composed of silty sands, underlain by sandstone, sloping at approximately 30°, and with a depth to bedrock of approximately 1 meter - conditions typical of debris flow generation in the SFBA. Our observations reveal that various locations respond differently to seasonal precipitation, with some areas (e.g., Marin County) remaining at higher levels of saturation for longer periods of time during the winter compared to other areas (e.g., the East
Wong, Sen; Yuen, Manwai
2014-01-01
We study, in the radial symmetric case, the finite time life span of the compressible Euler or Euler-Poisson equations in R (N) . For time t ≥ 0, we can define a functional H(t) associated with the solution of the equations and some testing function f. When the pressure function P of the governing equations is of the form P = Kρ (γ) , where ρ is the density function, K is a constant, and γ > 1, we can show that the nontrivial C (1) solutions with nonslip boundary condition will blow up in finite time if H(0) satisfies some initial functional conditions defined by the integrals of f. Examples of the testing functions include r (N-1)ln(r + 1), r (N-1) e (r) , r (N-1)(r (3) - 3r (2) + 3r + ε), r (N-1)sin((π/2)(r/R)), and r (N-1)sinh r. The corresponding blowup result for the 1-dimensional nonradial symmetric case is also given.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Jin-Lu; Wang Li-Na; Zhao Xing-Yu; Zhang Li-Li; Zhou Heng-Wei; Wei Lai; Huang Yi-Neng
2011-01-01
The string model for the glass transition can quantitatively describe the universal α-relaxation in glassformers. The string relaxation equation (SRE) of the model simplifies the well-known Debye and Rouse-Zimm relaxation equations at high and low enough temperatures, respectively. However, its initial condition, necessary to the further model predictions of glassy dynamics, has not been solved. In this paper, the general initial condition of the SRE for stochastically spatially configurative strings is solved exactly based on the obtained special initial condition of the SRE for straight strings in a previous paper (J. L. Zhang et al. 2010 Chin. Phya. B 19, 056403).
Hydrological modelling for flood forecasting: Calibrating the post-fire initial conditions
Papathanasiou, C.; Makropoulos, C.; Mimikou, M.
2015-10-01
Floods and forest fires are two of the most devastating natural hazards with severe socioeconomic, environmental as well as aesthetic impacts on the affected areas. Traditionally, these hazards are examined from different perspectives and are thus investigated through different, independent systems, overlooking the fact that they are tightly interrelated phenomena. In fact, the same flood event is more severe, i.e. associated with increased runoff discharge and peak flow and decreased time to peak, if it occurs over a burnt area than that occurring over a land not affected by fire. Mediterranean periurban areas, where forests covered with flammable vegetation coexist with agricultural land and urban zones, are typical areas particularly prone to the combined impact of floods and forest fires. Hence, the accurate assessment and effective management of post-fire flood risk becomes an issue of priority. The research presented in this paper aims to develop a robust methodological framework, using state of art tools and modern technologies to support the estimation of the change in time of five representative hydrological parameters for post-fire conditions. The proposed methodology considers both longer- and short-term initial conditions in order to assess the dynamic evolution of the selected parameters. The research focuses on typical Mediterranean periurban areas that are subjected to both hazards and concludes with a set of equations that associate post-fire and pre-fire conditions for five Fire Severity (FS) classes and three soil moisture states. The methodology has been tested for several flood events on the Rafina catchment, a periurban catchment in Eastern Attica (Greece). In order to validate the methodology, simulated hydrographs were produced and compared against available observed data. Results indicate a close convergence of observed and simulated flows. The proposed methodology is particularly flexible and thus easily adaptable to catchments with similar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Min Seok; Kim, Ung Soo; Park, Min Soo; Huh, Jae Young; Lee, Gyu Cheon [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
During SGTR accident, RCS pressure continuously decreases while the core power, core flow rate and core average temperature almost do not change until reactor trip occurs. As a result, the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) also continuously decreases, thus eroding the thermal margin to DNB. To identify no damage of the fuel cladding due to the onset of film boiling, it must be analyzed whether the heat flux is maintained below the critical heat flux or not. For this purpose, it is used to define the specified acceptable fuel design limit (SAFDL) of DNBR and evaluate that the DNBR stays above the SAFDL. Evaluating the DNBR in SGTR accident, several initial conditions are varied as that would challenge to the safety limit, or SAFDL. However, the effects of some initial conditions are complicate and difficult to be intuitively identified. The initial conditions mainly affect the minimum DNBR during SGTR accident are the initial core power, the initial RCS flow rate, the initial core inlet temperature and the initial pressurizer pressure. The conservative initial conditions for the core power and the RCS flow rate can be determined easily by qualitative evaluation. The others such as the initial core inlet temperature and the initial pressurizer pressure are complicate and difficult to be determined. From this study, it is identified that the maximum initial pressurizer pressure and the minimum initial core inlet temperature on SGTR accident most postpones the reactor trip resulting in smaller RCS inventory at the reactor trip time point. And the smaller RCS inventory at the time point of the reactor trip tends to make the DNBR undershoot larger which is a dominant factor to determine the minimum DNBR under a LOOP condition.
Evaluation of multivariate surveillance
Frisén,Marianne; Andersson, Eva; Schiöler, Linus
2009-01-01
Multivariate surveillance is of interest in many areas such as industrial production, bioterrorism detection, spatial surveillance, and financial transaction strategies. Some of the suggested approaches to multivariate surveillance have been multivariate counterparts to the univariate Shewhart, EWMA, and CUSUM methods. Our emphasis is on the special challenges of evaluating multivariate surveillance methods. Some new measures are suggested and the properties of several measures are demonstrat...
Effect of Initial Conditions on Gas-Puff Z-Pinch Dynamics.
Peterson, Gus Gordon
This dissertation concerns the effects initial conditions have on the dynamics of an imploded, annular gas-puff z-pinch. The influence of axial magnetic fields, nozzle size and composition, different gases, pre-ionization, and electrode design on pinch quality and x-ray yield is investigated. The experiment uses a 5-kJ capacitor bank to deliver 0.35 MA to the pinch load in 1.4 mu rm s. This research establishes parameters important to increasing the x-ray yield of dense z-pinches. The initial stage of the implosion is diagnosed with a framing camera that photographs visible light emitted from z-pinch gas breakdown. Data from subsequent stages of the pinch is recorded with a B-dot probe, filtered x-ray diodes, an x-ray filtered pinhole camera, and a nitrogen laser interferometer. Applied axial magnetic fields of ~100 gauss increase average x-ray yield by more than 20%. A substantial increase of K-shell x -ray yield of more than 200% was obtained by increasing the energy delivered to the plasma by enlarging the nozzle diameter from 4 to 5 cm. The use of a Teflon outer-mantle for the nozzle resulted in less uniform gas breakdown as compared to graphite and copper outer-mantles, but x-ray yield and final state uniformity were not reduced. Lower Z gases showed poorer breakdown uniformity. Pre-ionization improved the uniformity of helium and neon breakdown but did not appear to affect subsequent dynamics. X-ray yield was significantly higher using a knife-edge annular anode, as opposed to a flat stainless steel honeycomb anode. Annular anodes with diameters more than a few millimeters different than the nozzle diameter produced low quality pinches with substantially lower x-ray yield.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, S.; Cui, J.; Kawa, D.; Shek, G.K.; Scarth, D.A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
2006-07-01
The flaw evaluation procedure for Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) initiation currently provided in the CSA Standard N285.8 was developed for hydride ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides do not completely dissolve at peak temperature. Test results have shown that hydrided regions formed under non-ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides completely dissolve at peak temperature, have significantly higher resistance to cracking than those formed under ratcheting conditions. This paper presents some preliminary work on the development of a procedure for the evaluation of DHC initiation for flaws under hydride non-ratcheting conditions. (author)
Johnson, Barry L.; Barko, John W.; Gerasimov, Yuri; James, William F.; Litvinov, Alexander; Naimo, Teresa J.; Wiener, James G.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Rogala, James T.; Rogers, Sara J.; Schoettger, R.A.
1996-01-01
The Finger Lakes habitat-rehabilitation project is intended to improve physical and chemical conditions for fish in six connected back water lakes in Navigation Pool 5 of the upper Missouri River. The primary management objective is to improve water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and current velocity during winter for bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and black crappies, Pomoxis nigromaculatus, two of the primary sport fishes in the lakes. The lakes will be hydrologically altered by Installing culverts to Introduce controlled flows of oxygenated water into four lakes, and an existing unregulated culvert on a fifth lake will be equipped with a control gate to regulate inflow. These habitat modifications constitute a manipulative field experiment that will compare pre-project (1991 to summer 1993) and post-project (fall 1993 to 1996) conditions in the lakes, including hydrology, chemistry, rooted vegetation, and fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Initial data indicate that the Finger Lakes differ in water chemistry, hydrology, and macrophyte abundance. Macroinvertebrate communities also differed among lakes: species diversity was highest in lakes with dense aquatic macrophytes. The system seems to support a single fish community, although some species concentrated in individual lakes at different times. The introduction of similar flows into five of the lakes will probably reduce the existing physical and chemical differences among lakes. However, our ability to predict the effects of hydrologic modification on fish populations is limited by uncertainties concerning both the interactions of temperature, oxygen and current in winter and the biological responses of primary and secondary producers. Results from this study should provide guidance for similar habitat-rehabilitation projects in large rivers.
Welfare Conditions of Donkeys in Europe: Initial Outcomes from On-Farm Assessment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesca Dai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is a baseline study to present the initial outcomes of data collected in a sample of EU donkey farms using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys, comprehensive of 22 valid, reliable and feasible animal-based indicators. A total of 20 donkey facilities (N = 12 in Italy and N = 8 in United Kingdom were visited and 278 donkeys of different breed, aged 2–45 years, were assessed. Three assessors underwent a common training period to learn how to perform and score all the indicators included in the protocol. Data was collected using digitalized systems and downloaded to a database. A descriptive statistic for each welfare indicator was calculated. The authors found recurrent issues: 25% of donkeys were moderately over weight; although most of the assessed animals had good quality hoof care, 15.16% of them presented some signs of neglect, such as overgrowth and/or incorrect trimming; 18.05% of donkeys showed an avoidance reaction to an approaching human in the avoidance distance test. The protocol has proven to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude.
The initial conditions of stellar protocluster formation. I. A catalogue of Spitzer dark clouds
Peretto, N
2009-01-01
The majority of stars form in clusters. Therefore a comprehensive view of star formation requires understanding the initial conditions for cluster formation. The goal of our study is to shed light on the physical properties of infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and the role they play in the formation of stellar clusters. This article, the first of a series dedicated to the study of IRDCs, describes techniques developed to establish a complete catalogue of Spitzer IRDCs in the Galaxy. We have analysed Spitzer GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL data to identify a complete sample of IRDCs in the region of Galactic longitude and latitude 10deg 1x10^{22} cm^{-2}. The 24micron data are then used to characterize the star formation activity of each extracted cloud. A total of 11303 clouds have been extracted. A comparison with the existing MSX based catalogue of IRDCs shows that 80% of these Spitzer dark clouds were previously unknown. The algorithm also extracts ~ 20000 to 50000 fragments within these clouds, depending on detection thr...
The influence of initial conditions of water-entry on ricochet phenomenon
Guoming, Chen; Jinfu, Feng; Junhua, Hu; Yongli, Li; An, Liu
2017-08-01
The ricochet phenomenon of the water-entry of the water-air crossing vehicle is investigated by both experiments and numerical simulations. Experiments and numerical simulations of the water-entry process with different inclination angles, velocities, and attack angles are performed. The whole ricochet progress and the changing rules of angular acceleration, angular velocity, and displacement are obtained and analyzed by numerical simulation for a deeper understanding of ricochet phenomenon. The experiment is carried out to study the underwater trajectory by changing the initial condition only. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulations. The results show that: (1) A small inclination angle causes the trajectory to bend upward, favoring the ricochet phenomenon. (2) A large velocity value also favors the ricochet phenomenon, making it occur more easily and quickly, but lower velocities are insufficient to provide the necessary kinetic energy. (3) The ricochet phenomenon is more likely to occur under a negative attack angle that causes the trajectory to bend upward, but a positive angle balances the underwater trajectory. These results can provide guidance to design a new water-air cross vehicle.
The Effect of Corner Modes in the Initial Conditions of Cosmological Simulations
Falck, B; Neyrinck, M C; Wang, J; Szalay, A S
2016-01-01
In view of future high precision large scale structure surveys, it is important to quantify percent and sub-percent level effects in cosmological $N$-body simulations from which theoretical predictions are drawn. One such effect involves the choice of whether to set all modes above the one-dimensional Nyquist frequency, the so-called "corner" modes, to zero in the initial conditions. By comparing simulations with and without these modes, we find that at $z>6$, the difference in the matter power spectrum is large at wavenumbers just below $k_{\\rm{Ny}}$, reducing to below 2% at all scales by $z\\sim 3$. Including corner modes results in a better match between a low-resolution simulation and a high-resolution simulation at wavenumbers around the Nyquist frequency of the low-resolution simulation. The differences in mass functions are 3% for the smallest halos at $z=6$ for the simulation resolution studied here ($m_p \\sim 10^{11}h^{-1}\\,M_{\\odot}$), but we find no significant difference in the stacked profiles of ...
Numerical convergence in self-gravitating disc simulations: initial conditions and edge effects
Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Meru, Farzana
2011-01-01
We study the numerical convergence of hydrodynamical simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs, in which a simple cooling law is balanced by shock heating. It is well-known that there exists a critical cooling time scale for which shock heating can no longer compensate for the energy losses, at which point the disc fragments. The numerical convergence of previous results of this critical cooling time scale was questioned recently using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). We employ a two-dimensional grid-based code to study this problem, and find that for smooth initial conditions, fragmentation is possible for slower cooling as the resolution is increased, in agreement with recent SPH results. We show that this non-convergence is at least partly due to the creation of a special location in the disc, the boundary between the turbulent and the laminar region, when cooling towards a gravito-turbulent state. Converged results appear to be obtained in setups where no such sharp edges appear, and we then f...
Study on Transient Void Behavior During Reactivity Initiated Accidents Under Low Pressure Condition
Satou, Akira; Maruyama, Yu; Asaka, Hideaki; Nakamura, Hideo
Series of out-of-pile experiments to obtain the knowledge on the transient void behavior during reactivity initiated accidents are in progress at JAEA. In the present series of experiments, the transient void behavior in a test section of 2 x 2 bundle geometry under atmospheric pressure condition was measured using an impedance technique. The measuring areas and the arrangement of electrodes for the impedance technique were defined on the basis of numerical analyses and scaled model experiments. The comparison was made between the impedance and differential pressure techniques for steady boiling experiments to estimate the accuracy of the impedance technique. The impedance technique showed a good agreement with the void fraction estimated from the differential pressure. The transient void behavior in the bundle geometry was measured using the impedance technique. The void fraction distribution in the bundle cross-section could be quantitatively obtained by the impedance technique. It could be properly confirmed that the transient void behavior depended on both the subcooling of inlet water and the heat generation rate of simulated fuel rods.
Fingerprints of the initial conditions on the density profiles of cold and warm dark matter haloes
Polisensky, E
2015-01-01
We use N-body simulations of dark matter haloes in cold dark matter (CDM) and a large set of different warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologies to demonstrate that the spherically averaged density profile of dark matter haloes has a shape that depends on the power spectrum of matter perturbations. Density profiles are steeper in WDM but become shallower at scales less than one percent of the virial radius. Virialization isotropizes the velocity dispersion in the inner regions of the halo but does not erase the memory of the initial conditions in phase space. The location of the observed deviations from CDM in the density profile and in phase space can be directly related to the ratio between the halo mass and the filtering mass and are most evident in small mass haloes, even for a 34 keV thermal relic WDM. The rearrangement of mass within the haloes supports analytic models of halo structure that include angular momentum. We also find evidence of a dependence of the slope of the inner density profile in CDM cosmolo...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Venkatesulu
1996-01-01
Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Stelzer, Robert
2011-01-01
Univariate superpositions of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-type processes (OU), called supOU processes, provide a class of continuous time processes capable of exhibiting long memory behavior. This paper introduces multivariate supOU processes and gives conditions for their existence and finiteness of momen...
Ke, Weiyao; Bernhard, Jonah E; Bass, Steffen A
2016-01-01
We study the initial three-dimensional spatial configuration of the quark-gluon plasma produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using centrality and rapidity-dependent measurements of charged particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle correlations. A cumulant-generating function is used to parametrize the rapidity dependence of local entropy deposition and extend arbitrary boost-invariant initial conditions to nonzero beam rapidities. The model is compared to p+Pb and Pb+Pb single-particle distributions and systematically optimized using Bayesian parameter estimation to extract high-probability initial condition parameters. The optimized initial conditions are then compared to a number of experimental observables including two-particle rapidity correlations, the rapidity dependence of anisotropic flow, and event-plane decorrelations.
Shared Frailty Model for Left-Truncated Multivariate Survival Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Henrik; Brookmeyer, Ron; Aaby, Peter;
multivariate survival data, left truncation, multiplicative hazard model, shared gamma frailty, conditional model, piecewise exponential model, childhood survival......multivariate survival data, left truncation, multiplicative hazard model, shared gamma frailty, conditional model, piecewise exponential model, childhood survival...
Detrended fluctuation analysis of multivariate time series
Xiong, Hui; Shang, P.
2017-01-01
In this work, we generalize the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to the multivariate case, named multivariate DFA (MVDFA). The validity of the proposed MVDFA is illustrated by numerical simulations on synthetic multivariate processes, where the cases that initial data are generated independently from the same system and from different systems as well as the correlated variate from one system are considered. Moreover, the proposed MVDFA works well when applied to the multi-scale analysis of the returns of stock indices in Chinese and US stock markets. Generally, connections between the multivariate system and the individual variate are uncovered, showing the solid performances of MVDFA and the multi-scale MVDFA.
Sensitivity of the last glacial inception to initial and surface conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kubatzki, Claudia [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Claussen, Martin [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Calov, Reinhard; Ganopolski, Andrey [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)
2006-09-15
We investigate the sensitivity of simulations of the last glacial inception (LGI) with respect to initial (size of the Greenland ice sheet) and surface (state of ocean/vegetation) conditions and two different CO{sub 2} reconstructions. Utilizing the CLIMBER-2 Earth system model, we obtain the following results: (a) ice-sheet expansion in North America at the end of the Eemian can be reduced or even completely suppressed when pre-industrial or Eemian ocean/vegetation is prescribed. (b) A warmer surrounding ocean and, in particular, a large Laurentide ice sheet reduce the size of the Greenland ice sheet before and during the LGI. (c) A changing ocean contributes much stronger to the expansion of the Laurentide ice sheet when we apply the CO{sub 2} reconstruction according to Barnola et al. (Nature 329:408-414, 1987) instead of Petit et al. (Nature 399:429-436, 1999). (d) In the fully coupled model, the CO{sub 2} reconstruction used has only a small impact on the simulated ice sheets but it does impact the course of the climatic variables. (e) For the Greenland ice sheet, two equilibrium states exist under the insolation and CO{sub 2} forcing at 128,000 years before present (128 kyear BP); the one with an ice sheet reduced by about one quarter as compared to its simulated pre-industrial size and the other with nearly no inland ice in Greenland. (f) Even the extreme assumption of no ice sheet in Greenland at the beginning of our transient simulations does not alter the simulated expansion of northern hemispheric ice sheets at the LGI. (orig.)
Multivariable q-Racah polynomials
Van Diejen, J F
1996-01-01
The Koornwinder-Macdonald multivariable generalization of the Askey-Wilson polynomials is studied for parameters satisfying a truncation condition such that the orthogonality measure becomes discrete with support on a finite grid. For this parameter regime the polynomials may be seen as a multivariable counterpart of the (one-variable) q-Racah polynomials. We present the discrete orthogonality measure, expressions for the normalization constants converting the polynomials into an orthonormal system (in terms of the normalization constant for the unit polynomial), and we discuss the limit q\\rightarrow 1 leading to multivariable Racah type polynomials. Of special interest is the situation that q lies on the unit circle; in that case it is found that there exists a natural parameter domain for which the discrete orthogonality measure (which is complex in general) becomes real-valued and positive. We investigate the properties of a finite-dimensional discrete integral transform for functions over the grid, whose ...
Multivariate analysis with LISREL
Jöreskog, Karl G; Y Wallentin, Fan
2016-01-01
This book traces the theory and methodology of multivariate statistical analysis and shows how it can be conducted in practice using the LISREL computer program. It presents not only the typical uses of LISREL, such as confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models, but also several other multivariate analysis topics, including regression (univariate, multivariate, censored, logistic, and probit), generalized linear models, multilevel analysis, and principal component analysis. It provides numerous examples from several disciplines and discusses and interprets the results, illustrated with sections of output from the LISREL program, in the context of the example. The book is intended for masters and PhD students and researchers in the social, behavioral, economic and many other sciences who require a basic understanding of multivariate statistical theory and methods for their analysis of multivariate data. It can also be used as a textbook on various topics of multivariate statistical analysis.
Carro, Adrian; Miguel, Maxi San
2012-01-01
We study a model for continuous-opinion dynamics under bounded confidence. In particular, we analyze the importance of the initial distribution of opinions in determining the asymptotic configuration. Thus, we sketch the structure of attractors of the dynamical system, by means of the numerical computation of the time evolution of the agents density. We show that, for a given bound of confidence, a consensus can be encouraged or prevented by certain initial conditions. Furthermore, a noisy perturbation is added to the system with the purpose of modeling the free will of the agents. As a consequence, the importance of the initial condition is partially replaced by that of the statistical distribution of the noise. Nevertheless, we still find evidence of the influence of the initial state upon the final configuration for a short range of the bound of confidence parameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, R.P.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Grassi, F., E-mail: grassi@if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hama, Y. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Qian, W.-L. [Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (Brazil)
2012-06-06
Relativistic nuclear collisions data on two-particle correlations exhibit structures as function of relative azimuthal angle and rapidity. A unified description of these near-side and away-side structures is proposed for low to moderate transverse momentum. It is based on the combined effect of tubular initial conditions and hydrodynamical expansion. Contrary to expectations, the hydrodynamics solution shows that the high-energy density tubes (leftover from the initial particle interactions) give rise to particle emission in two directions and this is what leads to the various structures. This description is sensitive to some of the initial tube parameters and may provide a probe of the strong interaction. This explanation is compared with an alternative one where some triangularity in the initial conditions is assumed. A possible experimental test is suggested.
A Cluster in the Making: ALMA Reveals the Initial Conditions for High-mass Cluster Formation
Rathborne, J. M.; Longmore, S. N.; Jackson, J. M.; Alves, J. F.; Bally, J.; Bastian, N.; Contreras, Y.; Foster, J. B.; Garay, G.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Testi, L.; Walsh, A. J.
2015-04-01
G0.253+0.016 is a molecular clump that appears to be on the verge of forming a high-mass cluster: its extremely low dust temperature, high mass, and high density, combined with its lack of prevalent star formation, make it an excellent candidate for an Arches-like cluster in a very early stage of formation. Here we present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array observations of its small-scale (∼0.07 pc) 3 mm dust continuum and molecular line emission from 17 different species that probe a range of distinct physical and chemical conditions. The data reveal a complex network of emission features with a complicated velocity structure: there is emission on all spatial scales, the morphology of which ranges from small, compact regions to extended, filamentary structures that are seen in both emission and absorption. The dust column density is well traced by molecules with higher excitation energies and critical densities, consistent with a clump that has a denser interior. A statistical analysis supports the idea that turbulence shapes the observed gas structure within G0.253+0.016. We find a clear break in the turbulent power spectrum derived from the optically thin dust continuum emission at a spatial scale of ∼0.1 pc, which may correspond to the spatial scale at which gravity has overcome the thermal pressure. We suggest that G0.253+0.016 is on the verge of forming a cluster from hierarchical, filamentary structures that arise from a highly turbulent medium. Although the stellar distribution within high-mass Arches-like clusters is compact, centrally condensed, and smooth, the observed gas distribution within G0.253+0.016 is extended, with no high-mass central concentration, and has a complex, hierarchical structure. If this clump gives rise to a high-mass cluster and its stars are formed from this initially hierarchical gas structure, then the resulting cluster must evolve into a centrally condensed structure via a dynamical process.
A CLUSTER IN THE MAKING: ALMA REVEALS THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR HIGH-MASS CLUSTER FORMATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rathborne, J. M.; Contreras, Y. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW, 1710 (Australia); Longmore, S. N.; Bastian, N. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Jackson, J. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Alves, J. F. [University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Bally, J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 8030 (United States); Foster, J. B. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101 New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Garay, G. [Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Kruijssen, J. M. D. [Max-Planck Institut fur Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Testi, L. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Walsh, A. J., E-mail: Jill.Rathborne@csiro.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth (Australia)
2015-04-01
G0.253+0.016 is a molecular clump that appears to be on the verge of forming a high-mass cluster: its extremely low dust temperature, high mass, and high density, combined with its lack of prevalent star formation, make it an excellent candidate for an Arches-like cluster in a very early stage of formation. Here we present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array observations of its small-scale (∼0.07 pc) 3 mm dust continuum and molecular line emission from 17 different species that probe a range of distinct physical and chemical conditions. The data reveal a complex network of emission features with a complicated velocity structure: there is emission on all spatial scales, the morphology of which ranges from small, compact regions to extended, filamentary structures that are seen in both emission and absorption. The dust column density is well traced by molecules with higher excitation energies and critical densities, consistent with a clump that has a denser interior. A statistical analysis supports the idea that turbulence shapes the observed gas structure within G0.253+0.016. We find a clear break in the turbulent power spectrum derived from the optically thin dust continuum emission at a spatial scale of ∼0.1 pc, which may correspond to the spatial scale at which gravity has overcome the thermal pressure. We suggest that G0.253+0.016 is on the verge of forming a cluster from hierarchical, filamentary structures that arise from a highly turbulent medium. Although the stellar distribution within high-mass Arches-like clusters is compact, centrally condensed, and smooth, the observed gas distribution within G0.253+0.016 is extended, with no high-mass central concentration, and has a complex, hierarchical structure. If this clump gives rise to a high-mass cluster and its stars are formed from this initially hierarchical gas structure, then the resulting cluster must evolve into a centrally condensed structure via a dynamical process.
Puerto del Pino, Ana del; Fronzaroli-Molinieres, Laure; Pérez-Álvarez, María José; Giraud, Pierre; Carlier, Edmond; Wandosell, Francisco; Debanne, Dominique; Garrido, Juan José
2015-01-01
© 2014 The Author. All rights reserved. Axon properties, including action potential initiation and modulation, depend on both AIS integrity and the regulation of ion channel expression in the AIS. Alteration of the axon initial segment (AIS) has been implicated in neurodegenerative, psychiatric, and brain trauma diseases, thus identification of the physiological mechanisms that regulate the AIS is required to understand and circumvent AIS alterations in pathological conditions. Here, we show ...
Switching Between Multivariable Controllers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niemann, H.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Abrahamsen, R.B.
2004-01-01
A concept for implementation of multivariable controllers is presented in this paper. The concept is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. By using this architecture for implementation of multivariable controllers, it is shown how...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo
This article contains a review of multivariate GARCH models. Most common GARCH models are presented and their properties considered. This also includes nonparametric and semiparametric models. Existing specification and misspecification tests are discussed. Finally, there is an empirical example...... in which several multivariate GARCH models are fitted to the same data set and the results compared....
Multivariate irregular sampling theorem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
In this paper,we prove a Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund type inequality for multivariate entire functions of exponential type with non-equidistant spaced sampling points. And from this result,we establish a multivariate irregular Whittaker-Kotelnikov-Shannon type sampling theorem.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo
This article contains a review of multivariate GARCH models. Most common GARCH models are presented and their properties considered. This also includes nonparametric and semiparametric models. Existing specification and misspecification tests are discussed. Finally, there is an empirical example...... in which several multivariate GARCH models are fitted to the same data set and the results compared....
Multivariate irregular sampling theorem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN GuangGui; FANG GenSun
2009-01-01
In this paper, we prove a Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund type inequality for multivariate entire functions of exponential type with non-equidistant spaced sampling points. And from this result, we establish a multivariate irregular Whittaker-Kotelnikov-Shannon type sampling theorem.
Switching Between Multivariable Controllers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Abrahamsen, Rune
2004-01-01
it is possible to smoothly switch between multivariable controllers with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This includes also the case where one or more controllers are unstable. The concept for smooth online changes of multivariable controllers based on the YJBK architecture can also handle the start up...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redmond, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parker, G. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)
1993-07-01
This paper examines the role of the control objective and the control time in determining fuel-optimal actuator placement for structural vibration suppression. A general theory is developed that can be easily extended to include alternative performance metrics such as energy and time-optimal control. The performance metric defines a convex admissible control set which leads to a max-min optimization problem expressing optimal location as a function of initial conditions and control time. A solution procedure based on a nested Genetic Algorithm is presented and applied to an example problem. Results indicate that the optimal locations vary widely as a function of control time and initial conditions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henneberg, Morten; Jørgensen, Bent; Eriksen, René Lynge
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present an oil condition and wear debris evaluation method for ship thruster gears using T2 statistics to form control charts from a multi-sensor platform. The proposed method takes into account the different ambient conditions by multiple linear regression on the mean value...... as substitution from the normal empirical mean value. This regression approach accounts for the bias imposed on the empirical mean value due to different geographical and seasonal differences on the multi-sensor inputs. Data from a gearbox are used to evaluate the length of the run-in period in order to ensure...... only quasi-stationary data are included in phase I of the T2 statistics. Data from two thruster gears onboard two different ships are presented and analyzed, and the selection of the phase I data size is discussed. A graphic overview for quick localization of T2 signaling is also demonstrated using...
Sensitive versus Rough Dependence under Initial Conditions in Atmospheric Flow Regimes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anthony R. Lupo
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this work, we will identify the existence of “rough dependence on initial conditions” in atmospheric phenomena, a concept which is a problem for weather analysis and forecasting. Typically, two initially similar atmospheric states will diverge slowly over time such that forecasting the weather using the Navier-Stokes equations is useless after some characteristic time scale. With rough dependence, two initial states diverge very quickly, implying forecasting may be impossible. Using previous research in atmospheric science, rough dependence is characterized by using quantities that can be calculated using atmospheric data and quantities. Rough dependence will be tested for and identified in atmospheric phenomena at different time scales using case studies. Data were provided for this project by archives outside the University of Missouri (MU and by using the MU RADAR at the South Farm experiment station.
Jiang, J.; Koracin, D.; Vellore, R.; Xiao, M.; Lewis, J. M.
2010-12-01
Simulated evolution of climate and weather is sensitive to the specification of their initial state. Small errors in the initial state could lead the forecast into a different direction. It is essential to estimate the impact of the uncertainty in initial conditions on the forecast accuracy. For limited-area or regional forecasting, lateral boundary conditions also have considerable influence on the development of mesoscale or local-scale phenomena. Strong lateral boundary conditions derived from a larger scale environment could significantly alter or even remove local-scale components. This study investigates the impact of uncertainty in initial and lateral boundary conditions on medium-range regional forecasting using the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The WRF model was configured with two nested domains: the parent domain has a 108 km horizontal resolution, and a nested domain with 36 km resolution covers the western U.S. The ensemble forecasting was conducted with 50 ensemble members using random perturbations in the initial conditions (ICs) and lateral boundary conditions (LBCs). A case period of 15 days in December 2008 is chosen, during which two intense frontal passages occurred in the western U.S. Results show that, applying only IC perturbations, the contribution from the IC perturbations to the ensemble spread decreases with time. Using both randomly perturbed LBCs and ICs from the coarser domain, the inner nested domain shows a wider ensemble spread. The resulting ensemble forecasting can be interpreted as a probabilistic prediction for wind energy, especially for wind gust and wind turbine operational cut-off. The analysis also includes an efficiency comparison of using coarser ensemble forecasting vs. a higher resolution single control run.
Observables and initial conditions for rotating and expanding fireballs with spheroidal symmetry
Csorgo, T; Barna, I F
2015-01-01
Utilizing a recently found class of exact, analytic rotating solutions of non-relativistic fireball hydrodynamics, we calculate analytically the single-particle spectra, the elliptic flows and two-particle Bose-Einstein correlation functions for rotating and expanding fireballs with spheroidal symmetry. We demonstrate, that rotation generates final state momentum anisotropies even for a spatially symmetric, spherical initial geometry of the fireball. The mass dependence of the effective temperatures, as well as the HBT radius parameters and the elliptic flow are shown to be sensitive not only to radial flow effects but also to the magnitude of the initial angular momentum.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geubbels Eveline
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in remote rural African regions is increasing. Methods We assessed prospectively initial cART in HIV-infected adults treated from 2005 to 2008 at St. Francis Designated District Hospital, Ifakara, Tanzania. Adherence was assisted by personal adherence supporters. We estimated risk factors of death or loss to follow-up by Cox regression during the first 12 months of cART. Results Overall, 1,463 individuals initiated cART, which was nevirapine-based in 84.6%. The median age was 40 years (IQR 34-47, 35.4% were males, 7.6% had proven tuberculosis. Median CD4 cell count was 131 cells/μl and 24.8% had WHO stage 4. Median CD4 cell count increased by 61 and 130 cells/μl after 6 and 12 months, respectively. 215 (14.7% patients modified their treatment, mostly due to toxicity (56%, in particular polyneuropathy and anemia. Overall, 129 patients died (8.8% and 189 (12.9% were lost to follow-up. In a multivariate analysis, low CD4 cells at starting cART were associated with poorer survival and loss to follow-up (HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.15-2.75, p = 0.009; for CD4 100 cells/μl. Higher weight was strongly associated with better survival (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.51-0.76, p Conclusions cART initiation at higher CD4 cell counts and better general health condition reduces HIV related mortality in a rural African setting. Efforts must be made to promote earlier HIV diagnosis to start cART timely. More research is needed to evaluate effective strategies to follow cART at a peripheral level with limited technical possibilities.
What Variables Condition Syntactic Transfer? A Look at the L3 Initial State
Rothman, Jason; Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer
2010-01-01
This study investigates transfer at the third-language (L3) initial state, testing between the following possibilities: (1) the first language (L1) transfer hypothesis (an L1 effect for all adult acquisition), (2) the second language (L2) transfer hypothesis, where the L2 blocks L1 transfer (often referred to in the recent literature as the "L2…
Kozlov, V. V.; Litvinenko, M. V.; Litvinenko, Yu. A.; Kozlov, G. V.
2016-10-01
The goal of this work is an experimental study of the influence of the initial conditions (nozzle configuration, mean velocity profile at the nozzle exit, surface roughness, and jet diameter) on the flow structure in a round jet by various methods: hot-wire anemometry, smoke visualization, and particle image velocimetry (PIV).
Waalkens, Holger; Burbanks, Andrew; Wiggins, Stephen
2005-01-01
A procedure is presented for computing the phase space volume of initial conditions for trajectories that escape or ‘‘react’’ from a multidimensional potential well. The procedure combines a phase space transition state theory, which allows one to construct dividing surfaces that are free of local r
Jappsen, Anne-Katharina; Glover, Simon C O; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark
2007-01-01
Primordial star formation appears to result in stars at least an order of magnitude more massive than modern star formation. Bromm et al. proposed that the transition from primordial to modern initial mass functions occurs due to the onset of effective metal line cooling at a metallicity Z/Z_sun = 10^{-3.5}. However, their simulations neglected molecular cooling. We here perform simulations using the same initial conditions, but including molecular cooling, using both a simplified chemical network that primarily follows molecular hydrogen formation, and a more complex network that also directly follows carbon monoxide and water. We find in both cases that molecular cooling allows roughly equivalent fragmentation to proceed even at zero metallicity for the Bromm et al. initial conditions. The apparent transition just represents the point where metal line cooling becomes more important than molecular cooling. In all cases, the fragments are massive enough to be consistent with models of primordial stellar masse...
Methods of Multivariate Analysis
Rencher, Alvin C
2012-01-01
Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Stelzer, Robert
Univariate superpositions of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) type processes, called supOU processes, provide a class of continuous time processes capable of exhibiting long memory behaviour. This paper introduces multivariate supOU processes and gives conditions for their existence and finiteness...... of OU type processes, which has been suggested in [2] in the univariate case. Finally, as an important special case, we introduce positive semi-definite supOU processes....
The heat equation source determination for the case of non-smooth boundary and initial conditions
Solovi’ev, V. V.; Tkachenko, D. S.
2017-01-01
An inverse problem of reconstructing the source of a special kind for parabolic equations in a bounded region with smooth boundary is considered. Solutions are sought in the Holder classes. We prove an uniqueness criterion for the solution and sufficient conditions of Fredholm property of the task at hand. As a consequence of the sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness of solution of the inhomogeneous inverse problems are found.
On Initial Conditions for a Boundary Stabilized Hybrid Euler–Bernoulli Beam
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sujit K Bose
2001-08-01
We consider here small flexural vibrations of an Euler–Bernoulli beam with a lumped mass at one end subject to viscous damping force while the other end is free and the system is set to motion with initial displacement 0() and initial velocity 1(). By investigating the evolution of the motion by Laplace transform, it is proved (in dimensionless units of length and time) that $$\\int_0^1 y_{xt}^2 dx ≤ \\int_0^1 y_{xx}^2 dx, \\quad t>t_0,$$ where 0 may be sufficiently large, provided that {0, 1} satisfy very general restrictions stated in the concluding theorem. This supplies the restrictions for uniform exponential energy decay for stabilization of the beam considered in a recent paper.
Ciavardelli, Domenico; Sacchetta, Paolo; Federici, Giorgio; Di Ilio, Carmine; Urbani, Andrea
2010-02-15
Molecular mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of protein phosphorylation is partially limited by the molecular specie specificity of the analytical responses that might impair both qualitative and quantitative performances. Elemental MS, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can overcome these drawbacks; in fact, analytical performance is theoretically independent of the molecular structure of a target analyte naturally containing the elements of interest. Nevertheless, isobaric interferences derived from sample matrix and laboratory environment can hinder the quantitative determination of both phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) as (31)P(+) and (32)S(+) by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) under standard plasma conditions. These interferences may be overcome by quantifying P and S as oxide ions (31)P(16)O(+) and (32)S(16)O(+), respectively. In this study, we present a systematic investigation on the effect of plasma instrumental conditions on the oxide ion responses by a design of experiment approach for the simultaneous ICP-QMS determination of P and S ((31)P(16)O(+) and (32)S(16)O(+), respectively) in protein samples without the use of dynamic reaction, collision reaction cells or pre-addition of oxygen as reactant gas in the torch. The proposed method was evaluated in terms of limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, repeatability, and trueness. Moreover, detection and quantification capabilities of the optimized method were compared to the standard plasma mode for determination of (31)P(+) and (34)S(+). Spectral and non-spectral interferences affecting the quantification of (31)P(+), (31)P(16)O(+) and (32)S(16)O(+) were also studied. The suitability of inorganic elemental standards for P and S quantification in proteins was assessed. The method was applied to quantify the phosphorylation stoichiometry of commercially available caseins (bovine beta-casein, native and dephosphorylated alpha-casein) and
Positive solutions of some parabolic system with cross-diffusion and nonlocal initial conditions
Walker, Christoph
2010-01-01
The paper is concerned with a system consisting of two coupled nonlinear parabolic equations with a cross-diffusion term, where the solutions at positive times define the initial states. The equations arise as steady state equations of an age-structured predator-prey system with spatial dispersion. Based on unilateral global bifurcation methods for Fredholm operators and on maximal regularity for parabolic equations, global bifurcation of positive solutions is derived.
Initial conditions for hydrodynamics from weakly coupled pre-equilibrium evolution
Keegan, Liam; Mazeliauskas, Aleksas; Teaney, Derek
2016-01-01
We use effective kinetic theory, accurate at weak coupling, to simulate the pre-equilibrium evolution of transverse energy and flow perturbations in heavy-ion collisions. We provide a Green function which propagates the initial perturbations to the energy-momentum tensor at a time when hydrodynamics becomes applicable. With this map, the complete pre-thermal evolution from saturated nuclei to hydrodynamics can be modelled in a perturbatively controlled way.
Multivariate Time Series Search
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical...
Far-from-equilibrium initial conditions probed by a nonlocal observable
Shahkarami, L.; Ebrahim, H.; Ali-Akbari, M.; Charmchi, F.
2017-10-01
Using the gauge/gravity duality, we investigate the evolution of an out-of-equilibrium strongly-coupled plasma from the viewpoint of the two-point function of scalar gauge-invariant operators with large conformal dimension. This system is out of equilibrium due to the presence of anisotropy and/or a massive scalar field. Considering various functions for the initial anisotropy and scalar field, we conclude that the effect of the anisotropy on the evolution of the two-point function is considerably more than the effect of the scalar field. We also show that the ordering of the equilibration time of the one-point function for the non-probe scalar field and the correlation function between two points with a fixed separation can be reversed by changing the initial configuration of the plasma, when the system is out of the equilibrium due to the presence of at least two different sources like our problem. In addition, we find the equilibration time of the two-point function to be linearly increasing with respect to the separation of the two points with a fixed slope, regardless of the initial configuration that we start with. Finally we observe that, for larger separations the geodesic connecting two points on the boundary crosses the event horizon after it has reached its final equilibrium value, meaning that the two-point function can probe behind the event horizon.
Mizuuchi, Ryo; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya
2016-07-01
Adaptation to various environments is a remarkable characteristic of life. Is this limited to extant complex living organisms, or is it also possible for a simpler self-replication system to adapt? In this study, we addressed this question by using a translation-coupled RNA replication system that comprised a reconstituted translation system and an RNA "genome" that encoded a replicase gene. We performed RNA replication reactions under four conditions, under which different components of translation were partly inhibited. We found that replication efficiency increased with the number of rounds of replication under all the tested conditions. The types of dominant mutations differed depending on the condition, thus indicating that this simple system adapted to different environments in different ways. This suggests that even a primitive self-replication system composed of a small number of genes on the early earth could have had the ability to adapt to various environments.
Jappsen, A -K; Glover, S C O; Klessen, R S; Kitsionas, S
2008-01-01
The formation of the first stars out of metal-free gas appears to result in stars at least an order of magnitude more massive than in the present-day case. We here consider what controls the transition from a primordial to a modern initial mass function. It has been proposed that this occurs when effective metal line cooling occurs at a metallicity threshold of Z/Z_sun > 10^{-3.5}. We study the influence of low levels of metal enrichment on the cooling and collapse of initially ionized gas in small protogalactic halos using three-dimensional, smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with particle splitting. Our initial conditions represent protogalaxies forming within a previously ionized H ii region that has not yet had time to cool and recombine. These differ considerably from those used in simulations predicting a metallicity threshold, where the gas was initially cold and only partially ionized. In the centrally condensed potential that we study here, a wide variety of initial conditions for the gas yi...
Basics of Multivariate Analysis in Neuroimaging Data
Habeck, Christian Georg
2010-01-01
Multivariate analysis techniques for neuroimaging data have recently received increasing attention as they have many attractive features that cannot be easily realized by the more commonly used univariate, voxel-wise, techniques1,5,6,7,8,9. Multivariate approaches evaluate correlation/covariance of activation across brain regions, rather than proceeding on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Thus, their results can be more easily interpreted as a signature of neural networks. Univariate approaches, on the other hand, cannot directly address interregional correlation in the brain. Multivariate approaches can also result in greater statistical power when compared with univariate techniques, which are forced to employ very stringent corrections for voxel-wise multiple comparisons. Further, multivariate techniques also lend themselves much better to prospective application of results from the analysis of one dataset to entirely new datasets. Multivariate techniques are thus well placed to provide information about mean differences and correlations with behavior, similarly to univariate approaches, with potentially greater statistical power and better reproducibility checks. In contrast to these advantages is the high barrier of entry to the use of multivariate approaches, preventing more widespread application in the community. To the neuroscientist becoming familiar with multivariate analysis techniques, an initial survey of the field might present a bewildering variety of approaches that, although algorithmically similar, are presented with different emphases, typically by people with mathematics backgrounds. We believe that multivariate analysis techniques have sufficient potential to warrant better dissemination. Researchers should be able to employ them in an informed and accessible manner. The current article is an attempt at a didactic introduction of multivariate techniques for the novice. A conceptual introduction is followed with a very simple application to a diagnostic
The adjoint sensitivity of heavy rainfall to initial conditions in debris flow areas in China
Zhou, Feifan
2017-04-01
By studying three heavy rainfall events that were accompanied by debris flows in southwestern China, we find that 24-h accumulated rainfall is most sensitive to the initial temperature. The sensitivities to wind, surface pressure, and specific humidity are generally smaller. Moreover, the upper levels of the atmosphere are identified as the sensitive levels, and the sensitive areas are the areas with heavy rainfall. These results suggest that local temperature perturbations in the upper levels are a signal of short-term heavy rainfall in southwestern China. A validation experiment is carried out to justify the sensitivity results. The possible reasons are discussed and analyzed.
A study of fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident conditions — review
Ishikawa, Michio; Shiozawa, Shusaku
1980-11-01
Results obtained in the 400 tests performed to simulate reactivity initiated accidents since 1975 in the Japanese Nuclear Safety Research Reactor, are described. Tests included the effects of cooling environment, defective fuel elements, fuel design parameters, the behaviour of fuel elements for various reactor types, all done for a wide range of energy deposition. Four types of basic fuel failure mechanisms have been established, and are discussed in detail: cladding melt failure, UO 2 melt failure, high temperature burst failure and low temperature burst failure. Future test plans up to 1990 are out-lined and features requiring particular attention are pointed out.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUAN Hongjun; YAN Han
2009-01-01
The existence and uniqueness of the solutions for the Boltzmann equations with measures as initial value are still an open problem which is posed by P. L. Lions (2000). The aim of this paper is to discuss the Cauchy problem of the system of discrete Boltzmann equations of the form etf∫i+(∫mii)x=Qi(∫1,∫2,…,∫n), (mi1, i=1,…,n) with non-negative finite Radon measures as initial conditions. In particular, the existence and uniqueness of BV solutions for the above problem are obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mykola Bokalo
2017-03-01
Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem for systems described by a Fourier problem for parabolic equations. We prove the existence of solutions, and obtain necessary conditions of the optimal control in the case of final observation when the control functions occur in the coefficients.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T Mohammadi Moghaddam
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world and it is being used as a salted and roasted product or as an ingredient in snacks, ice cream, desserts, etc. (Maghsudi, 2010; Kashaninejad et al. 2006. Roasting is one of the most important food processes which provides useful attributes to the product. One of the objectives of nut roasting is to alter and significantly enhance the flavor, texture, color and appearance of the product (Ozdemir, 2001. In recent years, spectral imaging techniques (i.e. hyperspectral and multispectral imaging have emerged as powerful tools for safequality inspection of various agricultural commodities (Gowen et al., 2007. The objectives of this study were to apply reflectance hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive determination of moisture content and hardness of pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions. Materials and methods: Dried O’hadi pistachio nuts were supplied from a local market in Mashhad. Pistachio nuts were soaked in 5L of 20% salt solution for 20min (Goktas Seyhan, 2003. For roasting process, three temperatures (90, 120 and 150°C, three times (20, 35 and 50 min and three air velocities (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m s-1 were applied. The moisture content of pistachio kernels was measured in triplicate using oven drying (3 gr samples at 105 °C for 12 hours. Uniaxial compression test by a 35mm diameter plastic cylinder, was made on the pistachio kernels, which were mounted on a platform. Samples were compressed at a depth of 2mm and speed of 30 mm min-1. A hyperspectral imaging system in the Vis-NIR range (400-1000 nm was employed. The spectral pre-processing techniques: first derivative and second derivative, median filter, Savitzkye-Golay, wavelet, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC and standard normal variate transformation (SNV were used. To make models at PLSR and ANN methods, ParLeS software and Matlab R2009a were used, respectively. The coefficient
Initial Condition Model from Imaginary Part of Action and the Information Loss
Nielsen, H B
2009-01-01
We review slightly a work by Horowitz and Maldecena solving the information loss problem for black holes by having inside the blackhole - near to the singularity - a boundary condition, as e.g the no boundary proposal by Hartle and Hawking. Here we propose to make this boundary condition come out of our imaginary action model (together with Masao Ninomiya). This model naturally begins effectively to set up boundaries - whether it be in future or past! - especially strongly whenever we reach to high energy physics regimes, such as near the black hole singularity, or in Higgs producing machines as LHC or SSC. In such cases one can say our model predicts miracles. The point is that you may say that the information loss problem, unless you solve it in other ways, call for such a violation of time causality as in our imaginary action model!
INITIATORS AND TRIGGERING CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTIVE AUTOMATION IN ADVANCED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna h Oxstrand
2014-04-01
It is anticipated that Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs) will employ high degrees of automation. High levels of automation can enhance system performance, but often at the cost of reduced human performance. Automation can lead to human out-of the loop issues, unbalanced workload, complacency, and other problems if it is not designed properly. Researchers have proposed adaptive automation (defined as dynamic or flexible allocation of functions) as a way to get the benefits of higher levels of automation without the human performance costs. Adaptive automation has the potential to balance operator workload and enhance operator situation awareness by allocating functions to the operators in a way that is sensitive to overall workload and capabilities at the time of operation. However, there still a number of questions regarding how to effectively design adaptive automation to achieve that potential. One of those questions is related to how to initiate (or trigger) a shift in automation in order to provide maximal sensitivity to operator needs without introducing undesirable consequences (such as unpredictable mode changes). Several triggering mechanisms for shifts in adaptive automation have been proposed including: operator initiated, critical events, performance-based, physiological measurement, model-based, and hybrid methods. As part of a larger project to develop design guidance for human-automation collaboration in AdvSMRs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have investigated the effectiveness and applicability of each of these triggering mechanisms in the context of AdvSMR. Researchers reviewed the empirical literature on adaptive automation and assessed each triggering mechanism based on the human-system performance consequences of employing that mechanism. Researchers also assessed the practicality and feasibility of using the mechanism in the context of an AdvSMR control room. Results indicate that there are tradeoffs associated with each
Okawa, Hirotada
2013-01-01
Numerical relativity became a powerful tool to investigate the dynamics of binary problems with black holes or neutron stars as well as the very structure of General Relativity. Although public numerical relativity codes are available to evolve such systems, a proper understanding of the methods involved is quite important. Here we focus on the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations. Such equations arise when preparing initial data for numerical relativity, but also for monitoring the evolution of black holes. Because such elliptic equations play an important role in many branches of physics, we give an overview of the topic, and show how to numerically solve them with simple examples and sample codes written in C++ and Fortran90 for beginners in numerical relativity or other fields requiring numerical expertise.
Direct Method for Resolution of Optimal Control Problem with Free Initial Condition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Louadj Kahina
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The theory of control analyzes the proprieties of commanded systems. Problems of optimal control (OC have been intensively investigated in the world literature for over forty years. During this period, series of fundamental results have been obtained, among which should be noted the maximum principle (Pontryagin et al., 1962 and dynamic programming (Bellman, 1963. For many of the problems of the optimal control theory (OCT, adequate solutions are found (Bryson and Yu-chi, 1969, Lee and Markus, 1967, Gabasov and Kirillova, 1977, 1978, 1980. Results of the theory were taken up in various fields of science, engineering, and economics. The present paper aims at extending the constructive methods of Balashevich et al., (2000 that were developed for the problems of optimal control with the bounded initial state is not fixed are considered.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Familiar Solano, Rafael; Reis Antunes, Bruno; Santos Hansen, Alexandre [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil)
2010-07-01
Offshore pipelines can be subject to lateral buckling; some strategies are applied to prevent buckle initiation by monitoring the buckling behaviour. Some pipelines have been modified by PETROBRAS with triggers and sleepers; and distributed buoyancies have been added along the pipeline route. This paper investigated the thermo-mechanical design of the pipeline to avoid buckling and its consequences. Both planned buckles at dual sleepers and at distributed buoyancy modules and unplanned buckles were studied. Comparisons between the results obtained in design with finite element analysis and observed during operation with sidescan images were made. Seven planned buckles and two unplanned buckles were mapped and analyzed. It was found that the maximum stress, strain and fatigue damage at the buckle locations were fairly low. The mapping tests showed that the lengths and amplitudes of the buckles were compatible with lateral buckles in the design of pipelines.
de Mink, S E
2015-01-01
The initial mass function (IMF), binary fraction and distributions of binary parameters (mass ratios, separations and eccentricities) are indispensable input for simulations of stellar populations. It is often claimed that these are poorly constrained significantly affecting evolutionary predictions. Recently, dedicated observing campaigns provided new constraints on the initial conditions for massive stars. Findings include a larger close binary fraction and a stronger preference for very tight systems. We investigate the impact on the predicted merger rates of neutron stars and black holes. Despite the changes with previous assumptions, we only find an increase of less than a factor 2 (insignificant compared with evolutionary uncertainties of typically a factor 10-100). We further show that the uncertainties in the new initial binary properties do not significantly affect (within a factor of 2) our predictions of double compact object merger rates. An exception is the uncertainty in IMF (variations by a fac...
Sekerka, R. F.; Voorhees, P. W.; Coriel, S. R.; Mcfadden, G. B.
1988-01-01
The paper explores the initial conditions implied by t exp 1/2 growth of a spherical crystal solidifying from a pure, undercooled melt, including the effects of both capillarity and interface kinetics, and relates the findings to initial conditions that would be expected on the basis of classical nucleation theory. For crystal sizes near the nucleation radius, the calculated temperature profiles show a cold region ahead of the advancing interface that is even more undercooled than the undercooled bath. This cold region acts as a local heat sink that compensates for the reduced growth speed that would otherwise result from capillarity and kinetics, leading to precisely the same t exp 1/2 growth law that would have been obtained had both capillarity and kinetics been neglected.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea J Curtis
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of WHO clinical stage 3 and 4 conditions during early anti-retroviral therapy (ART in resource limited settings (RLS. DESIGN/SETTING: A descriptive analysis of routine program data collected prospectively from 25 Médecins Sans Frontières supported HIV treatment programs in eight countries between 2002 and 2010. SUBJECTS/PARTICIPANTS: 35,349 study participants with median follow-up on ART of 1.33 years (IQR 0.51-2.41. OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence in 100 person-years of WHO stage 3 or 4 conditions during 5 periods after ART initiation. Diagnoses of conditions were made according to WHO criteria and relied upon clinical assessments supported by basic laboratory investigations. RESULTS: The incidence of any WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 condition over 3 years was 40.02 per 100 person-years (31.77 for stage 3 and 8.25 for stage 4. The incidence of stage 3 and 4 conditions fell by over 97% between months 0-3 and months 25-36 (77.81 to 2.40 for stage 3 and 28.70 to 0.64 for stage 4. During months 0-3 pulmonary tuberculosis was the most common condition diagnosed in adults (incidence 22.24 per 100 person-years and children aged 5-14 years (25.76 and oral candidiasis was the most common in children <5 years (25.79. Overall incidences were higher in Africa compared with Asia (43.98 versus 12.97 for stage 3 and 8.98 versus 7.05 for stage 4 conditions, p<0.001. Pulmonary tuberculosis, weight loss, oral and oesophageal candidiasis, chronic diarrhoea, HIV wasting syndrome and severe bacterial infections were more common in Africa. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection, cryptococcosis, penicilliosis and toxoplasmosis were more common in Asia. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions during the early period after ART initiation in RLS is high, but greatly reduces over time. This is likely due to both the benefits of ART and deaths of the sickest patients occurring shortly
Otani, Naoki; Takasato, Yoshio; Masaoka, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Takanori; Yoshino, Yoshikazu; Yatsushige, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Hiroki; Sumiyoshi, Kyoko; Sugawara, Takashi; Chikashi, Aoyagi; Takeuchi, Satoru; Suzuki, Go
2010-01-01
Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) patients presenting in a severe condition tend to have poor outcomes due to the significant brain edema required to maintain the ICP at less than 20-25 mmHg. This study compared the surgical outcomes of 16 critically ill patients with ASDH who underwent hematoma irrigation with trephination therapy (HITT) based on their initial ICP values. The initial mean GCS score upon admission was four. A unilateral dilated pupil was seen in one and bilateral dilated pupils were seen in seven patients. The co-existence of a brain contusion was seen in seven patients, brain swelling was noted in six patients, and both basal cistern effacement and a midline shift greater than 5 mm were observed in all patients. The mean initial ICP value was 45 mmHg (range: 3 to 85 mmHg). Ten patients (62.5%) underwent a rapid external decompression to evacuate the hematoma. By using the Glasgow Outcome Scale upon discharge a score of good recovery (GR) was assigned to two (12.5 %), moderate disability (MD) to four (25.0 %), vegetative state (VS) to two (12.5 %), and death (D) to eight (50.0 %) patients. All six patients who showed an initial ICP greater than 60 mmHg died despite intensive care. Eight patients who showed an initial ICP less than 40 mmHg had a favorable outcome, but two patients deteriorated due to a traumatic cerebrovascular disorder. It seems that the initial ICP monitoring with HITT for ASDH patients in critical condition may be an important factor for predicting both surgical outcome and clinical course.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Tramblay
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A good knowledge of rainfall is essential for hydrological operational purposes such as flood forecasting. The objective of this paper was to analyze, on a relatively large sample of flood events, how rainfall-runoff modeling using an event-based model can be sensitive to the use of spatial rainfall compared to mean areal rainfall over the watershed. This comparison was based not only on the model's efficiency in reproducing the flood events but also through the estimation of the initial conditions by the model, using different rainfall inputs. The initial conditions of soil moisture are indeed a key factor for flood modeling in the Mediterranean region. In order to provide a soil moisture index that could be related to the initial condition of the model, the soil moisture output of the Safran-Isba-Modcou (SIM model developed by Météo-France was used. This study was done in the Gardon catchment (545 km^{2} in South France, using uniform or spatial rainfall data derived from rain gauge and radar for 16 flood events. The event-based model considered combines the SCS runoff production model and the Lag and Route routing model. Results show that spatial rainfall increases the efficiency of the model. The advantage of using spatial rainfall is marked for some of the largest flood events. In addition, the relationship between the model's initial condition and the external predictor of soil moisture provided by the SIM model is better when using spatial rainfall, in particular when using spatial radar data with R^{2} values increasing from 0.61 to 0.72.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inc, Mustafa [Department of Mathematics, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: minc@firat.edu.tr200
2007-11-15
A scheme is developed for the numerical study of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equations with initial conditions by a variational approach. The exact and numerical solutions obtained by variational iteration method are compared with those obtained by Adomian decomposition method. The comparison shows that the obtained solutions are in excellent agreement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mink, S. E. de [Anton Pannenkoek Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belczynski, K., E-mail: S.E.deMink@uva.nl, E-mail: kbelczyn@astrouw.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, Warsaw University, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland)
2015-11-20
The initial mass function (IMF), binary fraction, and distributions of binary parameters (mass ratios, separations, and eccentricities) are indispensable inputs for simulations of stellar populations. It is often claimed that these are poorly constrained, significantly affecting evolutionary predictions. Recently, dedicated observing campaigns have provided new constraints on the initial conditions for massive stars. Findings include a larger close binary fraction and a stronger preference for very tight systems. We investigate the impact on the predicted merger rates of neutron stars and black holes. Despite the changes with previous assumptions, we only find an increase of less than a factor of 2 (insignificant compared with evolutionary uncertainties of typically a factor of 10–100). We further show that the uncertainties in the new initial binary properties do not significantly affect (within a factor of 2) our predictions of double compact object merger rates. An exception is the uncertainty in IMF (variations by a factor of 6 up and down). No significant changes in the distributions of final component masses, mass ratios, chirp masses, and delay times are found. We conclude that the predictions are, for practical purposes, robust against uncertainties in the initial conditions concerning binary parameters, with the exception of the IMF. This eliminates an important layer of the many uncertain assumptions affecting the predictions of merger detection rates with the gravitational wave detectors aLIGO/aVirgo.
Zhang, Y. K.; Liang, X.
2014-12-01
Effects of aquifer heterogeneity and uncertainties in source/sink, and initial and boundary conditions in a groundwater flow model on the spatiotemporal variations of groundwater level, h(x,t), were investigated. Analytical solutions for the variance and covariance of h(x, t) in an unconfined aquifer described by a linearized Boussinesq equation with a white noise source/sink and a random transmissivity field were derived. It was found that in a typical aquifer the error in h(x,t) in early time is mainly caused by the random initial condition and the error reduces as time goes to reach a constant error in later time. The duration during which the effect of the random initial condition is significant may last a few hundred days in most aquifers. The constant error in groundwater in later time is due to the combined effects of the uncertain source/sink and flux boundary: the closer to the flux boundary, the larger the error. The error caused by the uncertain head boundary is limited in a narrow zone near the boundary but it remains more or less constant over time. The effect of the heterogeneity is to increase the variation of groundwater level and the maximum effect occurs close to the constant head boundary because of the linear mean hydraulic gradient. The correlation of groundwater level decreases with temporal interval and spatial distance. In addition, the heterogeneity enhances the correlation of groundwater level, especially at larger time intervals and small spatial distances.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shen Min-Fen; Liu Ying; Lin Lan-Xin
2009-01-01
A novel computationally efficient algorithm in terms of the time-varying symbolic dynamic method is proposed to estimate the unknown initial conditions of coupled map lattices (CMLs). The presented method combines symbolic dynamics with time-varying control parameters to develop a time-varying scheme for estimating the initial condition of multi-dimensional spatiotemporal chaotic signals. The performances of the presented time-varying estimator in both noiseless and noisy environments are analysed and compared with the common time-invariant estimator. Simulations are carried out and the obtained results show that the proposed method provides an efficient estimation of the initial condition of each lattice in the coupled system. The algorithm cannot yield an asymptotically unbiased estimation due to the effect of the coupling term, but the estimation with the time-varying algorithm is closer to the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) than that with the time-invariant estimation method, especially at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs).
Wasmund, Norbert; Nausch, Günther; Hansen, Anja
2014-11-01
Freshly upwelled water is poor in phytoplankton biomass but rich in nutrients. With its ageing, phytoplankton biomass increases whereas the nutrients are consumed. The overall aim of our investigation was to check the succession in the phytoplankton composition as a consequence of changing nutrient conditions. The experiments were carried out in mesocosms filled with surface water in the northern Benguela region and installed on board of R/V "Maria S. Merian". In the freshly upwelled water, phytoplankton took up nitrogen at a higher rate than phosphorus if compared with the Redfield ratio. Therefore, nitrogen was exhausted already by day 6. Nitrogen limitation after day 6 was indicated by decreasing chlorophyll a (chla) concentrations, primary production rates and productivity indices and increasing C/N ratios in particulate matter. Despite nitrogen limitation, phosphorus addition stimulated further growth, mainly of diatoms, pointing to luxury uptake. Cyanobacteria did not develop and nitrogen fixation was zero even with phosphorus and iron addition. Diatoms stay the most important group in the freshly upwelled water, but autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates increase strongly in the matured upwelled water. Mesocosms excluded disturbances by advective water transports, which influence the study of succssions under field conditions.
Conditioning film and initial biofilm formation on ceramics tiles in the marine environment.
Siboni, Nachshon; Lidor, Michal; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Kushmaro, Ariel
2007-09-01
The formation of biofilm on surfaces in the marine environment is believed to be an important factor driving colonization and recruitment of some sessile invertebrate communities. The present study follows the process of biofilm buildup on unglazed ceramic tiles deployed into the marine environment in the northern Gulf of Eilat. PCR-DGGE of film eluted from the tile surface indicated the presence of bacteria as early as 2 h after deployment. The makeup of the biofilm bacterial community was dynamic. Bacterial presence was apparent microscopically 6 h after deployment, though a developed biofilm was not observed until 24 h following deployment. Total organic carbon (TOC) data suggest that a conditioning film was built within the first four hours following deployment. During this time period TOC reached the highest level possibly due to adhesion of organics (e.g., sugars, proteins and humic substances) from the water column. We suggest that the primary adhering bacteria, whilst still in the reversible stage of adhesion, utilize the conditioning film as food causing the decrease in TOC. Understanding the dynamics between these primary bacterial settlers is of importance, since they may play a role on the succession of invertebrate species settlement onto artificial surfaces.
Multivariate Birkhoff interpolation
Lorentz, Rudolph A
1992-01-01
The subject of this book is Lagrange, Hermite and Birkhoff (lacunary Hermite) interpolation by multivariate algebraic polynomials. It unifies and extends a new algorithmic approach to this subject which was introduced and developed by G.G. Lorentz and the author. One particularly interesting feature of this algorithmic approach is that it obviates the necessity of finding a formula for the Vandermonde determinant of a multivariate interpolation in order to determine its regularity (which formulas are practically unknown anyways) by determining the regularity through simple geometric manipulations in the Euclidean space. Although interpolation is a classical problem, it is surprising how little is known about its basic properties in the multivariate case. The book therefore starts by exploring its fundamental properties and its limitations. The main part of the book is devoted to a complete and detailed elaboration of the new technique. A chapter with an extensive selection of finite elements follows as well a...
Applied multivariate statistical analysis
Härdle, Wolfgang Karl
2015-01-01
Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners. It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added. All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior. All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...
Hancock, G. R.; Coulthard, T. J.; Lowry, J. B. C.
2016-05-01
Numerical landscape evolution models were initially developed to examine natural catchment hydrology and geomorphology and have become a common tool to examine geomorphic behaviour over a range of time and space scales. These models all use a digital elevation model (DEM) as a representation of the landscape surface and a significant issue is the quality and resolution of this surface. Here we focus on how subtle perturbations or roughness on the DEM surface can produce alternative model results. This study is carried out by randomly varying the elevations of the DEM surface and examining the effect on sediment transport rates and geomorphology for a proposed rehabilitation design for a post-mining landscape using multiple landscape realisations with increasing magnitudes of random changes. We show that an increasing magnitude of random surface variability does not appear to have any significant effect on sediment transport over millennial time scales. However, the random surface variability greatly changes the temporal pattern or delivery of sediment output. A significant finding is that all simulations at the end of the 10,000 year modelled period are geomorphologically similar and present a geomorphological equifinality. However, the individual patterns of erosion and deposition were different for repeat simulations with a different sequence of random perturbations. The alternative positions of random perturbations strongly influence local patterns of hillslope erosion and evolution together with the pattern and behaviour of deposition. The findings demonstrate the complex feedbacks that occur even within a simple modelled system.
Assessment of Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Initial Conditions on Coupled Model Forecasts
Intrieri, J. M.; Solomon, A.; Persson, O. P. G.; Capotondi, A.; LaFontaine, F.; Jedlovec, G.
2016-12-01
We present weather-scale (0-10 day) sea ice forecast validation and skill results from an experimental coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere model during the fall freeze-up periods for 2015 and 2016. The model is a mesoscale, coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean mixed-layer model, termed RASM-ESRL, that was developed from the larger-scale Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) architecture. The atmospheric component of RASM-ESRL consists of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the sea-ice component is the Los Alamos CICE model, and the ocean model is POP. Experimental 5-day forecasts were run daily with RASM-ESRL from July through mid-November in 2015 and 2016. Our project focuses on how the modeled sea ice evolution compares to observed physical processes including atmospheric forcing of sea ice movement, melt, and freeze-up through energy fluxes. Model hindcast output is validated against buoy observations, satellite measurements, and concurrent in situ flux observations made from the R/V Sikuliaq in the fall of 2015. Model skill in predicting atmospheric state variables, wind and boundary layer structures, synoptic features, cloud microphysical and ocean properties will be discussed. We will show results of using different initializations of ocean sea surface temperature and sea ice extent and the impacts on sea ice edge prediction.
The initial conditions and evolution of isolated galaxy models: effects of the hot gas halo
Hwang, Jeong-Sun; Choi, Jun-Hwan
2013-01-01
We construct several Milky Way-like galaxy models containing a gas halo (as well as gaseous and stellar disks, a dark matter halo, and a stellar bulge) following either an isothermal or an NFW density profile with varying mass and initial spin. In addition, galactic winds associated with star formation are tested in some of the simulations. We evolve these isolated galaxy models using the GADGET-3 $N$-body/hydrodynamic simulation code, paying particular attention to the effects of the gas halo on the evolution. We find that the evolution of the models is strongly affected by the adopted gas halo component. The model without a gas halo shows an increasing star formation rate (SFR) at the beginning of the simulation for some hundreds of millions of years and then a continuously decreasing rate to the end of the run at 3 Gyr. On the other hand, the SFRs in the models with a gas halo emerge to be either relatively flat throughout the simulations or increasing over a gigayear and then decreasing to the end. The mo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueschke, N J; Andrews, M J; Schilling, O
2006-03-24
The initial multi-mode interfacial velocity and density perturbations present at the onset of a small Atwood number, incompressible, miscible, Rayleigh-Taylor instability-driven mixing layer have been quantified using a combination of experimental techniques. The streamwise interfacial and spanwise interfacial perturbations were measured using high-resolution thermocouples and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), respectively. The initial multi-mode streamwise velocity perturbations at the two-fluid density interface were measured using particle-image velocimetry (PIV). It was found that the measured initial conditions describe an initially anisotropic state, in which the perturbations in the streamwise and spanwise directions are independent of one another. The evolution of various fluctuating velocity and density statistics, together with velocity and density variance spectra, were measured using PIV and high-resolution thermocouple data. The evolution of the velocity and density statistics is used to investigate the early-time evolution and the onset of strongly-nonlinear, transitional dynamics within the mixing layer. The early-time evolution of the density and vertical velocity variance spectra indicate that velocity fluctuations are the dominant mechanism driving the instability development. The implications of the present experimental measurements on the initialization of Reynolds-averaged turbulent transport and mixing models and of direct and large-eddy simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability-induced turbulence are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueschke, N J; Andrews, M J; Schilling, O
2005-09-26
The initial multi-mode interfacial velocity and density perturbations present at the onset of a small Atwood number, incompressible, miscible, Rayleigh-Taylor instability-driven mixing layer have been quantified using a combination of experimental techniques. The streamwise interfacial and spanwise interfacial perturbations were measured using high-resolution thermocouples and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), respectively. The initial multi-mode streamwise velocity perturbations at the two-fluid density interface were measured using particle-image velocimetry (PIV). It was found that the measured initial conditions describe an initially anisotropic state, in which the perturbations in the streamwise and spanwise directions are independent of one another. The evolution of various fluctuating velocity and density statistics, together with velocity and density variance spectra, were measured using PIV and high-resolution thermocouple data. The evolution of the velocity and density statistics is used to investigate the early-time evolution and the onset of strongly-nonlinear, transitional dynamics within the mixing layer. The early-time evolution of the density and vertical velocity variance spectra indicate that velocity fluctuations are the dominant mechanism driving the instability development. The implications of the present experimental measurements on the initialization of Reynolds-averaged turbulent transport and mixing models and of direct and large-eddy simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability-induced turbulence are discussed.
Multivariate bubbles and antibubbles
Fry, John
2014-08-01
In this paper we develop models for multivariate financial bubbles and antibubbles based on statistical physics. In particular, we extend a rich set of univariate models to higher dimensions. Changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. Moreover, our multivariate models are able to capture some of the contagious effects that occur during such episodes. We are able to show that declining lending quality helped fuel a bubble in the US stock market prior to 2008. Further, our approach offers interesting insights into the spatial development of UK house prices.
Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Wang, Fawu; Wang, Gonghui
2010-05-01
Since July 19 to 26, 2009, western Japan had a severe rainstorms and caused floods and landslides. Most of the landslides are debris slide - debris flows. Most devastated case took place in Hofu city, Japan. On July 21, extremely intense rainstorm caused numerous debris flows and mud flows in the hillslopes Some of the debris flows destroyed residential houses and home for elderly people, and finally killed 14 residents. Debris flow distribution map was prepared soon based on airphoto interpretation. Japanese Meteorological Agency runs nation-wide ground-based rain gauge network as well as radar rain gauges, which provide hourly to 10 minutes precipitation distribution real-time with spatial resolution of about 5 km. Distribution of daily (cumulative) precipitation of July 21 shows (1) The cumulative precipitation from 6 am -- 12 am of the day was evaluated that their return period could be 200 - 600 years statistically. In 2009, another extraordinary rainfall, of which intensity was evaluated as less than 100 years more more, caused floods in another city claiming many residents lives on the way to evacuation area. Those frequent extraordinary extreme rainfall is not concluded as the consequence of global warming nor climate change, however, those frequency of extreme rainfall events affecting societies are obviously increasing in Japan, too. As for the Hofu city case, it was proved that debris flows took place in the high precipitation area and covered by covered by weathered granite sands and silts which is called "masa". This sands has been proved susceptible against landslides under extreme rainfall conditions. However, the transition from slide - debris flow process is not well revealed, except authors past experiment on the similar masa samples in June 1999 Hiroshima debris flow case. Authors have embedded pore pressure control system for the undrained ring shear apparatus. Strongly weathered sandy soils were sampled just on the smooth and flat granitic
Pillai, T; Wyrowski, F; Hatchell, J; Gibb, A G; Thompson, M A
2011-01-01
We present a new high-resolution study of pre-protocluster regions in tracers exclusively probing the coldest and dense gas (NH_2D). The data are used to constrain the chemical, thermal, kinematic, and physical conditions (i.e., densities) in G29.96e and G35.20w. NH_3, NH_2D, and continuum emission were mapped using the VLA, and PdBI. In particular, NH_2D is a unique tracer of cold, precluster gas at high densities, while NH_3 traces both the cold and warm gas of modest-to-high densities. In G29.96e, Spitzer images reveal two massive filaments, one of them in extinction (infrared dark cloud). We observe very low line widths in NH_3 (FWHM 6%), which make the above discoveries possible; (vi) and the destruction of NH_2D toward embedded stars. [abridged
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL; Gussev, Maxim N [ORNL
2011-04-01
Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking is a key materials degradation issue in today s nuclear power reactor fleet and affects critical structural components within the reactor core. The effects of increased exposure to irradiation, stress, and/or coolant can substantially increase susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steels in high-temperature water environments. . Despite 30 years of experience, the underlying mechanisms of IASCC are unknown. Extended service conditions will increase the exposure to irradiation, stress, and corrosive environment for all core internal components. The objective of this effort within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program is to evaluate the response and mechanisms of IASCC in austenitic stainless steels with single variable experiments. A series of high-value irradiated specimens has been acquired from the past international research programs, providing a valuable opportunity to examine the mechanisms of IASCC. This batch of irradiated specimens has been received and inventoried. In addition, visual examination and sample cleaning has been completed. Microhardness testing has been performed on these specimens. All samples show evidence of hardening, as expected, although the degree of hardening has saturated and no trend with dose is observed. Further, the change in hardening can be converted to changes in mechanical properties. The calculated yield stress is consistent with previous data from light water reactor conditions. In addition, some evidence of changes in deformation mode was identified via examination of the microhardness indents. This analysis may provide further insights into the deformation mode under larger scale tests. Finally, swelling analysis was performed using immersion density methods. Most alloys showed some evidence of swelling, consistent with the expected trends for this class of alloy. The Hf-doped alloy showed densification rather than swelling. This observation may be
Angra 1 high burnup fuel behaviour under reactivity initiated accident conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.b, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2011-07-01
The 16x16 NGF (Next Generation Fuel) fuel assembly, comprising of highly corrosive-resistant ZIRLO clad fuel rods, been replacing the current 16x16 Standard (16STD) fuel assembly in the Angra 1, a pressurized water reactor, with a net output of 626 MWe. The 16x16 NGF fuel assemblies are designed for a peak rod average burnup of up to 75 GWd/MTU, thus improving fuel utilization and reducing spent fuel storage issues. A design basis accident, the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA), became a concern for a further increase in burnup as the simulated RIA tests revealed a lower enthalpy threshold for fuel failure. Two fuel performance codes, FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN, were used to predict high burnup behavior of Angra 1, during an RIA. The maximum average linear fuel rating used was 17.62 KW/m. The FRAPCON 3.4 code was applied to simulate the steady-state performance of the 16 NGF fuel rods up to a burnup of 55 GWd/MTU. With FRAPTRAN-1.4 the fuel behavior was simulated for an RIA power pulse of 4.5 ms (FHWH), and enthalpy peak of 130 Cal/g. With FRAPCON-3.4, the corrosion and hydrogen pickup characteristics of the advanced ZIRLO clad fuel rods were added to the code by modifying the actual corrosion model for Zircaloy-4 through the multiplication of empirical factors, which were appropriate to each alloy, and by means of reducing the current hydrogen pickup fraction. (author)
ENSO response to high-latitude volcanic eruptions: the role of the initial conditions
Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Caballero, Rodrigo; Battisti, David S.
2016-04-01
Large volcanic eruptions can have major impacts on global climate affecting both atmospheric and ocean circulation through changes in atmospheric chemical composition and optical properties. The residence time of volcanic aerosol from strong eruptions is around 2-3 years and attention has consequently focused on their short-term impacts, and in particular on tropical eruptions. The long-term, ocean-mediated response has been less studied and large uncertainties remain. Moreover, studies have largely focused on tropical eruptions; high-latitude eruptions have drawn less attention because their impacts have been thought to be merely hemispheric rather than global and no study has hitherto investigated the long-term effects of such eruptions. Here we use a climate model to show that large summer high-latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere could cause an El Niño-like anomaly in the equatorial Pacific during the first 8-9 months after the start of the eruption owing to a strong hemispheric cooling. The hemispherically asymmetric cooling shifts the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone southwards, triggering a weakening of the trade winds over the western and central equatorial Pacific that leads to an El Niño-like anomaly. However, the El Niño-like anomaly strongly depends on the initial ENSO state: a 3-time larger response is shown when the climate system is going towards a La Niña compared to when is going towards an El Niño. Finally, the eruption also leads to a strengthening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in the first twenty-five years after the eruption, followed by a weakening lasting at least 35 years. The long-lived changes in the AMOC strength also alter the variability of El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
Luong, Thanh Thi; Kronenberg, Rico; Bernhofer, Christian; Janabi, Firas Al; Schütze, Niels
2017-04-01
Flash Floods are known as highly destructive natural hazards due to their sudden appearance and severe consequences. In Saxony/Germany flash floods occur in small and medium catchments of low mountain ranges which are typically ungauged. Besides rainfall and orography, pre-event moisture is decisive, as it determines the available natural retention in the catchment. The Flash Flood Guidance concept according to WMO and Prof. Marco Borga (University of Padua) will be adapted to incorporate pre-event moisture in real-time flood forecast within the ESF EXTRUSO project (SAB-Nr. 100270097). To arrive at pre-event moisture for the complete area of the low mountain range with flash flood potential, a widely applicable, accurate but yet simple approach is needed. Here, we use radar precipitation as input time series, detailed orographic, land-use and soil information and a lumped parameter model to estimate the overall catchment soil moisture and potential retention. When combined with rainfall forecast and its intrinsic uncertainty, the approach allows to find the point in time when precipitation exceeds the retention potential of the catchment. Then, spatially distributed and complex hydrological modeling and additional measurements can be initiated. Assuming reasonable rainfall forecasts of 24 to 48hrs, this part can start up to two days in advance of the actual event. The lumped-parameter model BROOK90 is used and tested for well observed catchments. First, physical meaningful parameters (like albedo or soil porosity) a set according to standards and second, "free" parameters (like percentage of lateral flow) were calibrated objectively by PEST (Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) with the target on evapotranspiration and soil moisture which both have been measured at the study site Anchor Station Tharandt in Saxony/Germany. Finally, first results are presented for the Wernersbach catchment in Tharandt forest for main flood events in the 50
Multivariate ultrametric root counting
Avendano, Martin
2011-01-01
Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...
Solution of the quantum initial value problem with transparent boundary conditions
Puga, A.; Miller, B. N.
2013-01-01
Many systems of interest at the forefront of technological development, for example, in quantum computation, consist of weakly interacting elements that obey quantum mechanics. A challenge for modern theoretical physics is to develop a systematic methodology for approaching these "open" quantum systems. In particular, applied mathematicians have formulated the method of transparent boundary conditions (TBCs) to model interacting quantum systems of infinite extent. Here, we consider a particular application of TBCs to the escape of a particle from a one-dimensional infinite well when one of the bounding barriers is extinguished. We analytically obtain the exact time-dependent wave function by a Green's function method and then show that a numerical solution based on the TBC method is in excellent agreement. This work was motivated by an experiment carried out at the University of Texas on escape from a gravitational wedge billiard. Physicists have used billiards to understand and explore both classical and quantum chaos. Although the original experiment was carried out in the classical regime, current work is probing lower temperatures, where a quantum mechanical formulation is required.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jyrki Kössi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS is a new technique developed for performing operations without a visible scar. Preliminary studies have reported the use of the technique mainly in cholecystectomy and appendectomy. We evaluated the feasibility of the technique in various appendicitis conditions including children, fertile women and obese patients. Materials and Methods. SILS technique was used in a random sample of patients hospitalised for suspected appendicitis. The ordinary diagnostic laparoscopy was performed and the appendix was removed if needed. The ligation of appendix was performed by thread loop, absorbable clip or endoscopic stapler. The details regarding the recovery of patients were collected prospectively. Results. Ten SILS procedures were performed without conversions or complications. The patient series included uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis patients. The mean age of the patients was 37 years (range 13–63, mean BMI was 26 (range 18–31, mean operative time was 40 minutes (range 18–31, and mean postoperative stay was 2 days (range 1–5. Conclusions. SILS technique is feasible for obese patients, uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis as well as for exploratory laparoscopy. Most common methods to ligate appendix are feasible with SILS technique. The true benefit of the technique should be assessed by randomised controlled trials.
The Impact of Sea-Surface Winds on Meteorological Conditions in Israel: An Initial Study
Otterman, J.; Saaroni, H.; Atlas, R.; Ardizzone, J.; Ben-Dor, E.; Druyan, L.; Jusem, C. J.; Karnieli, A.; Terry, J.
2000-01-01
The SSM/I (Spectral Sensor Microwave Imager) dataset is used to monitor surface wind speed and direction at four locations over the Eastern Mediterranean during December 1998 - January 1999. Time series of these data are compared to concurrent series of precipitation, surface temperature, humidity and winds at selected Israeli stations: Sde Dov (coastal), Bet Dagan (5 km. inland), Jerusalem (Judean Hills), Hafetz Haim (3 km. inland) and Sde Boker (central Negev). December 1998 and the beginning of January 1999 were dry in Israel, but significant precipitation was recorded at many stations during the second half of January (1999). SSM/I data show a surge in westerly surface winds west of Israel (32 N, 32.5 E) on 15 January, coinciding with the renewal of precipitation. We discuss the relevant circulation and pressure patterns during this transition in the context of the evolving meteorological conditions at the selected Israeli locations. The SSM/I dataset of near ocean surface winds, available for the last 12 years, is described. We analyze lagged correlation between these data and the Israeli station data and investigate possibility of predictive skill. Application of such relationships to short-term weather prediction would require real-time access to the SSM/I observations.
Effect of Initial Condition on Subsonic Jet Noise from Two Rectangular Nozzles
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2012-01-01
Differences in jet noise data from two small 8:1 aspect ratio nozzles are investigated experimentally. The interiors of the two nozzles are identical but one has a thin-lip at the exit while the has a perpendicular face at the exit (thick-lip). It is found that the thin-lip nozzle is substantially noisier throughout the subsonic Mach number range. As much as 5dB difference in OASPL is noticed around Mj =0.96. Hot-wire measurements are carried out for the characteristics of the exit boundary layer and, overall, the noise difference can be ascribed to differences in the boundary layer state. The boundary layer of the quieter (thick-lip) nozzle goes through transition around M(sub j) =0.25 and at higher M(sub j) it remains "nominally turbulent". In comparison, the boundary layer of the thin-lip nozzle is found to remain "nominally laminar". at high subsonic conditions. The nominally laminar state involves significantly larger turbulence intensities commensurate with the higher radiated noise.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg
Interest in statistical methodology is increasing so rapidly in the astronomical community that accessible introductory material in this area is long overdue. This book fills the gap by providing a presentation of the most useful techniques in multivariate statistics. A wide-ranging annotated set...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger
2011-01-01
We propose a multivariate realised kernel to estimate the ex-post covariation of log-prices. We show this new consistent estimator is guaranteed to be positive semi-definite and is robust to measurement error of certain types and can also handle non-synchronous trading. It is the first estimator...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg
Interest in statistical methodology is increasing so rapidly in the astronomical community that accessible introductory material in this area is long overdue. This book fills the gap by providing a presentation of the most useful techniques in multivariate statistics. A wide-ranging annotated set...
A MULTIVARIATE WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng Lee
2010-07-01
Full Text Available A multivariate survival function of Weibull Distribution is developed by expanding the theorem by Lu and Bhattacharyya. From the survival function, the probability density function, the cumulative probability function, the determinant of the Jacobian Matrix, and the general moment are derived.
Infrared Extinction and the Initial Conditions for Star and Planet Formation
Lada, Charles J.
2005-01-01
This grant funded a research program to use infrared extinction measurements to probe the detailed structure of dark molecular clouds and investigate the physical conditions which give rise to star and planet formation. The goals of the this program were to: 1) acquire deep infrared and molecular-line observations of a carefully selected sample of nearby dark clouds, 2) reduce and analyze the data obtained in order to produce detailed extinction maps of the clouds, 3) use the results to measure and quantitatively describe the physical conditions of the dense gas and dust that produce stars and their accompanying planetary systems in molecular clouds. The goals of this project were met and exceeded as described below. 1) The infrared data for the project were obtained in a number of observing runs using the 3.5-meter NTT and 8-meter VLT telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile and the 1.2-meter telescope of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Arizona, the 1 0-meter Keck telescope in Hawaii, the 6.5-meter MMT of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Arizona, and the NASA Hubble Space Telescope. The molecular-line data was obtained in three runs using the IRAM 30-meter telescope in Spain and one run with the ESO-15 meter millimeter-wave telescope in Chile. Millimeter-wave continuum measurements were obtained with the 15-meter JCMT in Hawaii. 2) Considerable effort was expended to reduce the infrared imaging observations including the development of custom software to produce high quality photometry and source astrometry. All the millimeter-line data was reduced using standard reduction routines. The highlights of the infrared analysis were the production of detailed extinction maps and the construction of profiles of the density structure of the B68, Coalsack, B335 and Lupus clouds. 3) The principal scientific accomplishments of this research program include the following: We were able to use our infrared observations to determine the
A Symplectic Method to Generate Multivariate Normal Distributions
Baumgarten, Christian
2012-01-01
The AMAS group at the Paul Scherrer Institute developed an object oriented library for high performance simulation of high intensity ion beam transport with space charge. Such particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations require a method to generate multivariate particle distributions as starting conditions. In a preceeding publications it has been shown that the generators of symplectic transformations in two dimensions are a subset of the real Dirac matrices (RDMs) and that few symplectic transformations are required to transform a quadratic Hamiltonian into diagonal form. Here we argue that the use of RDMs is well suited for the generation of multivariate normal distributions with arbitrary covariances. A direct and simple argument supporting this claim is that this is the "natural" way how such distributions are formed. The transport of charged particle beams may serve as an example: An uncorrelated gaussian distribution of particles starting at some initial position of the accelerator is subject to linear deformat...
Peres, David Johnny; Cancelliere, Antonino
2016-04-01
Assessment of shallow landslide hazard is important for appropriate planning of mitigation measures. Generally, return period of slope instability is assumed as a quantitative metric to map landslide triggering hazard on a catchment. The most commonly applied approach to estimate such return period consists in coupling a physically-based landslide triggering model (hydrological and slope stability) with rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. Among the drawbacks of such an approach, the following assumptions may be mentioned: (1) prefixed initial conditions, with no regard to their probability of occurrence, and (2) constant intensity-hyetographs. In our work we propose the use of a Monte Carlo simulation approach in order to investigate the effects of the two above mentioned assumptions. The approach is based on coupling a physically based hydrological and slope stability model with a stochastic rainfall time series generator. By this methodology a long series of synthetic rainfall data can be generated and given as input to a landslide triggering physically based model, in order to compute the return period of landslide triggering as the mean inter-arrival time of a factor of safety less than one. In particular, we couple the Neyman-Scott rectangular pulses model for hourly rainfall generation and the TRIGRS v.2 unsaturated model for the computation of transient response to individual rainfall events. Initial conditions are computed by a water table recession model that links initial conditions at a given event to the final response at the preceding event, thus taking into account variable inter-arrival time between storms. One-thousand years of synthetic hourly rainfall are generated to estimate return periods up to 100 years. Applications are first carried out to map landslide triggering hazard in the Loco catchment, located in highly landslide-prone area of the Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Italy. Then a set of additional simulations are performed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Dümig
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Numerous studies have been carried out on the community structure and diversity of biological soil crusts (BSCs as well as their important functions on ecosystem processes. However, the amount of BSC-derived organic carbon (OC input into soils and its chemical composition under natural conditions has rarely been investigated. In this study, different development stages of algae- and moss-dominated BSCs were investigated on a~natural (<17 yr old BSCs and experimental sand dune (<4 yr old BSCs in northeastern Germany. We determined the OC accumulation in BSC-layers and the BSC-derived OC input into the underlying substrates for bulk materials and fractions <63 μm. The chemical composition of OC was characterized by applying solid-state ^{13}C NMR spectroscopy and analysis of the carbohydrate-C signature.^{14}C contents were used to assess the origin and dynamic of OC in BSCs and underlying substrates. Our results indicated a rapid BSC establishment and development from algae- to moss-dominated BSCs within only 4 yr under this temperate climate. The distribution of BSC types was presumably controlled by the surface stability according to the position in the slope. We found no evidence that soil properties influenced the BSC distribution on both sand dunes. ^{14}C contents clearly indicated the existence of two OC pools in BSCs and substrates, recent BSC-derived OC and lignite-derived "old" OC (biologically refractory. The input of recent BSC-derived OC strongly decreased the mean residence time of total OC. The downward translocation of OC into the underlying substrates was only found for moss-dominated BSCs at the natural sand dune which may accelerate soil formation at these spots. BSC-derived OC mainly comprised O-alkyl C (carbohydrate-C and to a lesser extent also alkyl C and N-alkyl C in varying compositions. Accumulation of alkyl C was only detected in BSCs at the experimental dune which may induce a~lower water
Clark, E.; Wood, A.; Nijssen, B.; Newman, A. J.; Mendoza, P. A.
2016-12-01
The System for Hydrometeorological Applications, Research and Prediction (SHARP), developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), University of Washington, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, is a fully automated ensemble prediction system for short-term to seasonal applications. It incorporates uncertainty in initial hydrologic conditions (IHCs) and in hydrometeorological predictions. In this implementation, IHC uncertainty is estimated by propagating an ensemble of 100 plausible temperature and precipitation time series through the Sacramento/Snow-17 model. The forcing ensemble explicitly accounts for measurement and interpolation uncertainties in the development of gridded meteorological forcing time series. The resulting ensemble of derived IHCs exhibits a broad range of possible soil moisture and snow water equivalent (SWE) states. To select the IHCs that are most consistent with the observations, we employ a particle filter (PF) that weights IHC ensemble members based on observations of streamflow and SWE. These particles are then used to initialize ensemble precipitation and temperature forecasts downscaled from the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS), generating a streamflow forecast ensemble. We test this method in two basins in the Pacific Northwest that are important for water resources management: 1) the Green River upstream of Howard Hanson Dam, and 2) the South Fork Flathead River upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. The first of these is characterized by mixed snow and rain, while the second is snow-dominated. The PF-based forecasts are compared to forecasts based on a single IHC (corresponding to median streamflow) paired with the full GEFS ensemble, and 2) the full IHC ensemble, without filtering, paired with the full GEFS ensemble. In addition to assessing improvements in the spread of IHCs, we perform a hindcast experiment to evaluate the utility of PF-based data assimilation on streamflow forecasts at 1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dario eBesusso
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC play a crucial role in regulating T cell activation. Due to their capacity to shape the immune response, tolerogenic DC have been used to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study we examined whether 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 conditioned bone marrow derived DC (VitD-BMDC were able to limit the development of autoimmune pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. We found that VitD-BMDC had lower expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules and were less effective at priming autoreactive T cells in-vitro. Using our recently described BMDC driven model of EAE, we demonstrated that VitD-BMDC had a significantly reduced ability to initiate EAE. We found that the impaired ability of VitD-BMDC to initiate EAE was not due to T cell tolerisation. Instead, we discovered that the addition of 1,25(OH2D3 to BMDC cultures resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion of CD11c+ cells. Purified CD11c+VitD-BMDC were significantly less effective at priming T cells in-vitro yet were similarly capable of initiating EAE as vehicle treated CD11c+BMDC. This study demonstrates that in-vitro assays of DC function can be a poor predictor of in-vivo behaviour and that CD11c+VitD-BMDC are highly effective initiators of an autopathogenic T cell response.
Besusso, Dario; Saul, Louise; Leech, Melanie D; O'Connor, Richard A; MacDonald, Andrew S; Anderton, Stephen M; Mellanby, Richard J
2015-01-01
Dendritic cells (DC) play a crucial role in regulating T cell activation. Due to their capacity to shape the immune response, tolerogenic DC have been used to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined whether 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3-conditioned bone marrow-derived DC (VitD-BMDC) were able to limit the development of autoimmune pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found that VitD-BMDC had lower expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules and were less effective at priming autoreactive T cells in vitro. Using our recently described BMDC-driven model of EAE, we demonstrated that VitD-BMDC had a significantly reduced ability to initiate EAE. We found that the impaired ability of VitD-BMDC to initiate EAE was not due to T cell tolerization. Instead, we discovered that the addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 to BMDC cultures resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion of CD11c+ cells. Purified CD11c+ VitD-BMDC were significantly less effective at priming T cells in vitro yet were similarly capable of initiating EAE as vehicle-treated CD11c+ BMDC. This study demonstrates that in vitro assays of DC function can be a poor predictor of in vivo behavior and that CD11c+ VitD-BMDC are highly effective initiators of an autopathogenic T cell response.
Parameter Estimation in Multivariate Gamma Distribution
V S Vaidyanathan; R Vani Lakshmi
2015-01-01
Multivariate gamma distribution finds abundant applications in stochastic modelling, hydrology and reliability. Parameter estimation in this distribution is a challenging one as it involves many parameters to be estimated simultaneously. In this paper, the form of multivariate gamma distribution proposed by Mathai and Moschopoulos [10] is considered. This form has nice properties in terms of marginal and conditional densities. A new method of estimation based on optimal search is proposed for...
Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José; Berenguer, Marc
2016-10-01
Torrential flows like debris flows or debris floods are fast movements formed by a mix of water and different amounts of unsorted solid material. They generally occur in steep torrents and pose high risk in mountainous areas. Rainfall is their most common triggering factor and the analysis of the critical rainfall conditions is a fundamental research task. Due to their wide use in warning systems, rainfall thresholds for the triggering of torrential flows are an important outcome of such analysis and are empirically derived using data from past events. In 2009, a monitoring system was installed in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees (Spain). Since then, rainfall data of 25 torrential flows ("TRIG rainfalls") were recorded, with a 5-min sampling frequency. Other 142 rainfalls that did not trigger torrential flows ("NonTRIG rainfalls") were also collected and analyzed. The goal of this work was threefold: (i) characterize rainfall episodes in the Rebaixader catchment and compare rainfall data that triggered torrential flows and others that did not; (ii) define and test Intensity-Duration (ID) thresholds using rainfall data measured inside the catchment by with different techniques; (iii) analyze how the criterion used for defining the rainfall duration and the spatial variability of rainfall influences the value obtained for the thresholds. The statistical analysis of the rainfall characteristics showed that the parameters that discriminate better the TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls are the rainfall intensities, the mean rainfall and the total rainfall amount. The antecedent rainfall was not significantly different between TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls, as it can be expected when the source material is very pervious (a sandy glacial soil in the study site). Thresholds were derived from data collected at one rain gauge located inside the catchment. Two different methods were applied to calculate the duration and intensity of rainfall: (i) using total duration, Dtot
Vaibhav, V.
2011-04-01
The paper addresses the problem of constructing non-reflecting boundary conditions for two types of one dimensional evolution equations, namely, the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, ∂tu+Lu-iχ|u|2u=0 with L≡-i∂x2, and the equation obtained by letting L≡∂x3. The usual restriction of compact support of the initial data is relaxed by allowing it to have a constant amplitude along with a linear phase variation outside a compact domain. We adapt the pseudo-differential approach developed by Antoine et al. (2006) [5] for the NLS equation to the second type of evolution equation, and further, extend the scheme to the aforementioned class of initial data for both of the equations. In addition, we discuss efficient numerical implementation of our scheme and produce the results of several numerical experiments demonstrating its effectiveness.
Sriver, Ryan L.; Forest, Chris E.; Keller, Klaus
2015-07-01
The uncertainties surrounding the initial conditions in Earth system models can considerably influence interpretations about climate trends and variability. Here we present results from a new climate change ensemble experiment using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) to analyze the effect of internal variability on regional climate variables that are relevant for decision making. Each simulation is initialized from a unique and dynamically consistent model state sampled from a ~10,000 year fully coupled equilibrium simulation, which captures the internal unforced variability of the coupled Earth system. We find that internal variability has a sizeable contribution to the modeled ranges of temperature and precipitation. The effects increase for more localized regions. The ensemble exhibits skill in simulating key regional climate processes relevant to decision makers, such as seasonal temperature variability and extremes. The presented ensemble framework and results can provide useful resources for uncertainty quantification, integrated assessment, and climate risk management.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meluzín Tomáš
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this article, the authors study the relevance of the market timing hypothesis of going public, which tends to explain the lower post-issue operating performance of Czech initial public offerings. The data collected under the conditions of the Czech capital market are compared with the performance of companies selected from the main European stock exchanges, when they decided to adopt the IPO strategy. Achieving the objective required an empirical survey that involved a collection of accounting data in companies that had completed an initial public offer in the Czech capital market. The data were evaluated by financial performance measures. The comparisons were made using descriptive statistical methods. The research results broaden and deepen the present understanding of the market timing hypothesis in companies going public, particularly in the Czech Republic.
Smets, T.; Poesen, J.
2009-04-01
The effectiveness of a surface cover material (e.g. geotextiles, rock fragments, mulches, vegetation) in reducing runoff and soil erosion rates is often only assessed by the fraction of the soil surface covered. However, there are indications that soil structure has important effects on the runoff and erosion-reducing effectiveness of the cover materials. This study investigates the impact of initial soil condition (i.e. fine tilth versus sealed soil surface) on the effectiveness of biological geotextiles in increasing infiltration rates and in reducing runoff and interrill erosion rates on a medium and steep slope gradient. Rainfall was simulated during 60 minutes with an intensity of 67 mm h-1 on an interrill erosion plot having two slope gradients (i.e. 15 and 45%) and filled with an erodible sandy loam. Five biological and three simulated geotextiles with different cover percentage were tested on two simulated initial soil conditions (i.e. fine tilth and sealed soil surface). Final infiltration rates on a sealed soil surface (7.5-18.5 mm h-1) are observed after ca. 10 minutes of rainfall compared to ca. 50 minutes of rainfall on an initial seedbed (16.4-56.7 mm h-1). On the two tested slope gradients, significantly (α = 0.05) smaller runoff coefficients (RC) are observed on an initial seedbed (8.2% geotextile cover. However, on an initial sealed soil surface no significant effect of simulated geotextile cover on RC is observed. On a 15% slope gradient, calculated b-values from the mulch factor equation equalled 0.054 for an initial fine tilth and 0.022 for a sealed soil surface, indicating a higher effectiveness of geotextiles in reducing interrill erosion on a fine tilth compared to a sealed soil surface. Therefore, this study demonstrates the importance of applying geotextiles on the soil surface before the surface tilth is sealed due to rainfall. The effect of soil structure on the effectiveness of a surface cover in reducing runoff and interrill erosion
Nersisyan, Henrik; Amendola, Luca; Koivisto, Tomi S; Rubio, Javier
2016-01-01
We discuss the cosmological implications of the $R~\\Box^{-2}R$ nonlocal modification to standard gravity. We relax the assumption of special initial conditions in the local formulation of the theory, perform a full phase-space analysis of the system, and show that the late-time cosmology of the model exhibits two distinct evolution paths, on which a large range of values for the present equation of state can be reached. We then compare the general solutions to supernovae data and place constraints on the parameters of the model. In particular, we find that the mass parameter of the theory should be smaller than 1.2 in Hubble units.
2004-01-01
Boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels with burnups of 41 to 45 GWd/tU were pulse-irradiated in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to investigate fuel behavior under cold startup reactivity-initiated-accident (RIA) conditions. BWR fuel segment rods of 8times8BJ (STEP I) type from Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3 nuclear power plant were refabricated into short test rods, and they were subjected to prompt enthalpy insertion from 293 to 607 J/g (70 to 145 cal/g) within about 20 ms. The fuel cladding...
Skopina, Maria; Protasov, Vladimir
2016-01-01
This book presents a systematic study of multivariate wavelet frames with matrix dilation, in particular, orthogonal and bi-orthogonal bases, which are a special case of frames. Further, it provides algorithmic methods for the construction of dual and tight wavelet frames with a desirable approximation order, namely compactly supported wavelet frames, which are commonly required by engineers. It particularly focuses on methods of constructing them. Wavelet bases and frames are actively used in numerous applications such as audio and graphic signal processing, compression and transmission of information. They are especially useful in image recovery from incomplete observed data due to the redundancy of frame systems. The construction of multivariate wavelet frames, especially bases, with desirable properties remains a challenging problem as although a general scheme of construction is well known, its practical implementation in the multidimensional setting is difficult. Another important feature of wavelet is ...
Multivariate calculus and geometry
Dineen, Seán
2014-01-01
Multivariate calculus can be understood best by combining geometric insight, intuitive arguments, detailed explanations and mathematical reasoning. This textbook has successfully followed this programme. It additionally provides a solid description of the basic concepts, via familiar examples, which are then tested in technically demanding situations. In this new edition the introductory chapter and two of the chapters on the geometry of surfaces have been revised. Some exercises have been replaced and others provided with expanded solutions. Familiarity with partial derivatives and a course in linear algebra are essential prerequisites for readers of this book. Multivariate Calculus and Geometry is aimed primarily at higher level undergraduates in the mathematical sciences. The inclusion of many practical examples involving problems of several variables will appeal to mathematics, science and engineering students.
Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis
Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary
1995-01-01
Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.
Multivariate $\\alpha$-molecules
Flinth, Axel; Schäfer, Martin
2015-01-01
The suboptimal performance of wavelets with regard to the approximation of multivariate data gave rise to new representation systems, specifically designed for data with anisotropic features. Some prominent examples of these are given by ridgelets, curvelets, and shearlets, to name a few. The great variety of such so-called directional systems motivated the search for a common framework, which unites many under one roof and enables a simultaneous analysis, for example with respect to approxim...
Transient multivariable sensor evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander
2017-02-21
A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.
Transient multivariable sensor evaluation
Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander
2017-02-21
A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.
Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis
Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary
1995-01-01
Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.
Orthogonality Relations for Multivariate Krawtchouk Polynomials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroshi Mizukawa
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The orthogonality relations of multivariate Krawtchouk polynomials are discussed. In case of two variables, the necessary and sufficient conditions of orthogonality is given by Grünbaum and Rahman in [SIGMA 6 (2010, 090, 12 pages]. In this study, a simple proof of the necessary and sufficient condition of orthogonality is given for a general case.
Prive, Nikki C.; Errico, Ronald M.
2013-01-01
A series of experiments that explore the roles of model and initial condition error in numerical weather prediction are performed using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO). The use of an OSSE allows the analysis and forecast errors to be explicitly calculated, and different hypothetical observing networks can be tested with ease. In these experiments, both a full global OSSE framework and an 'identical twin' OSSE setup are utilized to compare the behavior of the data assimilation system and evolution of forecast skill with and without model error. The initial condition error is manipulated by varying the distribution and quality of the observing network and the magnitude of observation errors. The results show that model error has a strong impact on both the quality of the analysis field and the evolution of forecast skill, including both systematic and unsystematic model error components. With a realistic observing network, the analysis state retains a significant quantity of error due to systematic model error. If errors of the analysis state are minimized, model error acts to rapidly degrade forecast skill during the first 24-48 hours of forward integration. In the presence of model error, the impact of observation errors on forecast skill is small, but in the absence of model error, observation errors cause a substantial degradation of the skill of medium range forecasts.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Petar Glisovic; Alessandro M. Forte
2015-01-01
Although there has been significant progress in the seismic imaging of mantle heterogeneity, the outstanding issue that remains to be resolved is the unknown distribution of mantle temperature anomalies in the distant geological past that give rise to the present-day anomalies inferred by global tomography models. To address this question, we present 3-D convection models in compressible and self-gravitating mantle initialised by different hypothetical temperature patterns. A notable feature of our forward convection modelling is the use of self-consistent coupling of the motion of surface tectonic plates to the underlying mantle flow, without imposing prescribed surface velocities (i.e., plate-like boundary condition). As an approximation for the surface mechanical conditions before plate tectonics began to operate we employ the no-slip (rigid) boundary condition. A rigid boundary condition dem-onstrates that the initial thermally-dominated structure is preserved, and its geographical location is fixed during the evolution of mantle flow. Considering the impact of different assumed surface boundary conditions (rigid and plate-like) on the evolution of thermal heterogeneity in the mantle we suggest that the intrinsic buoyancy of seven superplumes is most-likely resolved in the tomographic images of present-day mantle thermal structure. Our convection simulations with a plate-like boundary condition reveal that the evolution of an initial cold anomaly beneath the Java-Indonesian trench system yields a long-term, stable pattern of thermal heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle that resembles the present-day Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs), especially below the Pacific. The evolution of sub-duction zones may be, however, influenced by the mantle-wide flow driven by deeply-rooted and long-lived superplumes since Archean times. These convection models also detect the intrinsic buoyancy of the Perm Anomaly that has been identified as a unique slow feature
Multivariate Analyis of Swap Bribery
Dorn, Britta
2010-01-01
We consider the computational complexity of a problem modeling bribery in the context of voting systems. In the scenario of Swap Bribery, each voter assigns a certain price for swapping the positions of two consecutive candidates in his preference ranking. The question is whether it is possible, without exceeding a given budget, to bribe the voters in a way that the preferred candidate wins in the election. We initiate a parameterized and multivariate complexity analysis of Swap Bribery, focusing on the case of k-approval. We investigate how different cost functions affect the computational complexity of the problem. We identify a special case of k-approval for which the problem can be solved in polynomial time, whereas we prove NP-hardness for a slightly more general scenario. We obtain fixed-parameter tractability as well as W[1]-hardness results for certain natural parameters.
Multivariate respiratory motion prediction
Dürichen, R.; Wissel, T.; Ernst, F.; Schlaefer, A.; Schweikard, A.
2014-10-01
In extracranial robotic radiotherapy, tumour motion is compensated by tracking external and internal surrogates. To compensate system specific time delays, time series prediction of the external optical surrogates is used. We investigate whether the prediction accuracy can be increased by expanding the current clinical setup by an accelerometer, a strain belt and a flow sensor. Four previously published prediction algorithms are adapted to multivariate inputs—normalized least mean squares (nLMS), wavelet-based least mean squares (wLMS), support vector regression (SVR) and relevance vector machines (RVM)—and evaluated for three different prediction horizons. The measurement involves 18 subjects and consists of two phases, focusing on long term trends (M1) and breathing artefacts (M2). To select the most relevant and least redundant sensors, a sequential forward selection (SFS) method is proposed. Using a multivariate setting, the results show that the clinically used nLMS algorithm is susceptible to large outliers. In the case of irregular breathing (M2), the mean root mean square error (RMSE) of a univariate nLMS algorithm is 0.66 mm and can be decreased to 0.46 mm by a multivariate RVM model (best algorithm on average). To investigate the full potential of this approach, the optimal sensor combination was also estimated on the complete test set. The results indicate that a further decrease in RMSE is possible for RVM (to 0.42 mm). This motivates further research about sensor selection methods. Besides the optical surrogates, the sensors most frequently selected by the algorithms are the accelerometer and the strain belt. These sensors could be easily integrated in the current clinical setup and would allow a more precise motion compensation.
Mulena, Gabriela C.; Allende, David G.; Puliafito, Salvador E.; Lakkis, Susan G.; Cremades, Pablo G.; Ulke, Ana G.
2016-07-01
The performance of the combination of the FALL3D ash dispersion model with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological model in the southern cone of South America under two initial and boundary conditions was evaluated. ERA-Interim and NCEP-GFS datasets were used as dynamic conditions by WRF to simulate meteorological fields for FALL3D. As a study case, we used the eruption of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex occurred in Chile in June 2011. The simulated meteorological results were compared with the horizontal wind direction, meridional and zonal wind components, air and dew point temperatures of 7 radio sounding stations using a set of error indicators. In addition, the ash mass load simulated by FALL3D for a day of maximum dispersion of volcanic ash was evaluated using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, on which the Prata algorithm was applied. As well as this, the WRF-dominant physical processes with both dynamic conditions were analyzed for that same date. Meteorological results indicated that the simulation performed with WRF and NCEP-GFS shows the lowest errors at levels between 925 and 300 hPa. Ash dispersion simulated with FALL3D and WRF in both dynamic conditions shows a different perfomance, which from the synoptic and dynamic viewpoint can be explained for the result of wind intensity and geopotential height. Moreover, WRF intiliazed with NCEP-GFS and FALL3D has a higher degree of concordance with the MODIS image. Based on the analysis and results, it was concluded that for the southern cone of South America, 1) it was not trivial for the simulation of volcanic ash dispersion to use one dynamic condition or another in WRF; 2) in that sense, meteorological variables that influenced the differences in volcanic ash dispersion were horizontal wind intensity and direction and geopotential heights; 3) the system generated from the combination of the WRF model initialized with NCEP-GFS and the FALL3D dispersion
Multivariate Statistical Process Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulahci, Murat
2013-01-01
As sensor and computer technology continues to improve, it becomes a normal occurrence that we confront with high dimensional data sets. As in many areas of industrial statistics, this brings forth various challenges in statistical process control (SPC) and monitoring for which the aim...... is to identify “out-of-control” state of a process using control charts in order to reduce the excessive variation caused by so-called assignable causes. In practice, the most common method of monitoring multivariate data is through a statistic akin to the Hotelling’s T2. For high dimensional data with excessive...
Liu, Chang; Liu, Yang; Xu, Xiao-xi; Wu, Hao; Xie, Hong-guo; Chen, Li; Lu, Ting; Yang, Li; Guo, Xin; Sun, Guang-wei; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiao-jun; He, Xin
2015-01-01
Cancer stem cell (CSC) or tumor initiating cell (TIC) plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. Biophysical forces in tumor microenvironment have an important effect on tumor formation and development. In this study, the potential effect of matrix stiffness on the biological characteristics of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) TICs, especially the enrichment of HNSCC TICs, was investigated under three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions by means of alginate gel (ALG) beads with different matrix stiffnesses. ALG beads with soft (21 kPa), moderate (70 kPa) and hard (105 kPa) stiffness were generated by changing alginate concentration. It was found that significant HNSCC TIC enrichment was achieved in the ALG beads with moderate matrix stiffness (70 kPa). The gene expression of stemness markers Oct3/4 and Nanog, TIC markers CD44 and ABCG2 was enhanced in cells under this moderate (70 kPa) stiffness. HNSCC TIC proportion was also highly enriched under moderate matrix stiffness, accompanying with higher tumorigenicity, metastatic ability and drug resistance. And it was also found that the possible molecular mechanism underlying the regulated TIC properties by matrix stiffness under 3D culture conditions was significantly different from 2D culture condition. Therefore, the results achieved in this study indicated that 3D biophysical microenvironment had an important effect on TIC characteristics and alginate-based biomimetic scaffolds could be utilized as a proper platform to investigate the interaction between tumor cells and 3D microenvironment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoliang eCheng
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Production of biofuels via enzymatic hydrolysis of complex plant polysaccharides is a subject of intense global interest. Microbial communities are known to express a wide range of enzymes necessary for the saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks and serve as a powerful reservoir for enzyme discovery. However, the growth temperature and conditions that yield high cellulase activity vary widely, and the throughput to identify optimal conditions has been limited by the slow handling and conventional analysis. A rapid method that uses small volumes of isolate culture to resolve specific enzyme activity is needed. In this work, a high throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS based approach was developed for screening a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete, Thermobispora bispora, for β-glucosidase production under various growth conditions. Media that produced high β-glucosidase activity were found to be I/S + glucose or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Medium 84 + rolled oats, and M9TE + MCC at 45 °C. Supernatants of cell cultures grown in M9TE + 1% MCC cleaved 2.5 times more substrate at 45 °C than at all other temperatures. While T. bispora is reported to grow optimally at 60 °C in Medium 84 + rolled oats and M9TE + 1% MCC, approximately 40% more conversion was observed at 45 °C. This high throughput NIMS approach may provide an important tool in discovery and characterization of enzymes from environmental microbes for industrial and biofuel applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miles, A
2004-04-27
In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this dissertation, we present a computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. Using multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics codes and theoretical models, we consider the late nonlinear instability evolution of single mode, few mode, and multimode interfaces. We rely primarily on 2D calculations but present recent 3D results as well. For planar multimode systems, we show that compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Aspects of the IC's are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self-similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. We point to recent stellar calculations that predict IC's we find incompatible with self-similarity, and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miles, Aaron R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
2004-01-01
In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this dissertation, we present a computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. Using multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics codes and theoretical models, we consider the late nonlinear instability evolution of single mode, few mode, and multimode interfaces. We rely primarily on 2D calculations but present recent 3D results as well. For planar multimode systems, we show that compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Aspects of the IC's are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self-similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. We point to recent stellar calculations that predict IC's we find incompatible with self-similarity, and
Gratton, Steven
2010-01-01
In this paper we present a path integral formulation of stochastic inflation, in which volume weighting can easily be implemented. With an in-depth study of inflation in a quartic potential, we investigate how the inflaton evolves and how inflation typically ends both with and without volume weighting. Perhaps unexpectedly, complex histories sometimes emerge with volume weighting. The reward for this excursion into the complex plane is an insight into how volume-weighted inflation both loses memory of initial conditions and ends via slow-roll. The slow-roll end of inflation mitigates certain "Youngness Paradox"-type criticisms of the volume-weighted paradigm. Thus it is perhaps time to rehabilitate proper time volume weighting as a viable measure for answering at least some interesting cosmological questions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Sui
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Lab-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of initial concentration, temperature and pH on the removal of bezafibrate (BF by activated sludge under aerobic condition. The results showed that adsorption of BF onto activated sludge was negligible, and biodegradation was the main removal mechanism of BF. The removal of BF in the aqueous phase by the activated sludge can be described by a pseudo-first-order reaction. The reaction rate constants had a negative relationship with the initial concentration of BF, and dramatically reduced from 0.050 to 0.007 h−1, when the temperature dropped from 20 °C to 10 °C. Variation of pH between 5.0 and 9.0 did not have significant influence on the removal of BF, indicating a high adaptation of microorganism in the activated sludge responsible for BF degradation to a wide pH range. The findings of this study are helpful to improve the removal of pharmaceuticals during the wastewater treatment plants by selecting the appropriate process variables, and eventually eliminate their release to the environment.
Ukhov, Alexander; Stenchikov, Georgiy
2017-04-01
In this study, we test the sensitivity of the horizontal and vertical distributions of aerosols to the initial and boundary conditions (IC&BC) of the aerosol/chemistry. We use the WRF-Chem model configured over the Arabian Peninsula to study both dust and anthropogenic aerosols. Currently, in the WRF-Chem the aerosol/chemistry IC&BC are constructed using either default aerosol/chemistry profiles with no inflow of aerosols and chemicals through the lateral boundaries or using the aerosol/chemistry fields from MOZART, the model for ozone and related chemical tracers from the NCAR. Here, we construct aerosol/chemistry IC&BC using MERRA-2 output. MERRA-2 is a recently developed reanalysis that assimilates ground-based and satellite observations to provide the improved distributions of aerosols and chemical species. We ran WRF-Chem simulations for July-August 2015 using GOCART/AFWA dust emission and GOCART aerosol schemes. We used the EDGAR HTAP V4 dataset to calculate SO2 emissions. Comparison of three runs initiated using the same ERA-Interim reanalysis fields but different aerosol/chemistry IC&BC (default WRF-Chem, MOZART, and MERRA-2) with AERONET, Micropulse Lidar, Balloon, and satellite observations shows that the MERRA-2 IC&BC are superior.
Approximation by Multivariate Singular Integrals
Anastassiou, George A
2011-01-01
Approximation by Multivariate Singular Integrals is the first monograph to illustrate the approximation of multivariate singular integrals to the identity-unit operator. The basic approximation properties of the general multivariate singular integral operators is presented quantitatively, particularly special cases such as the multivariate Picard, Gauss-Weierstrass, Poisson-Cauchy and trigonometric singular integral operators are examined thoroughly. This book studies the rate of convergence of these operators to the unit operator as well as the related simultaneous approximation. The last cha
Initial reaction between CaO and SO_{2 }under carbonating and non-carbonating conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Martin Hagsted; Wedel, Stig; Pedersen, Kim H.;
2015-01-01
The initial kinetics of the CaO/SO2 reaction have been investigated for reaction times shorter than 1s and in the temperature interval between 450 and 600°C under both carbonating and non-carbonating conditions (0-20 vol% CO2) to clarify how recirculating CaO influences the emission of SO2 from...... showed that the CaO conversion with respect to SO2 declined when the CO2 concentration was increased. Under all conditions, larger specific surface areas of CaO gave higher reaction rates with SO2. Higher temperatures had a positive effect on the reaction between SO2 and CaO under non...... a modern dry kiln preheater system for cement production. Calcined Faxe Bryozo limestone with a particle size smaller than 400μm was utilized as CaO source. It was shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that the observed reaction rates were influenced by mass transport limitations. The results...
Mohammadipour, Omid Reza; Niazmand, Hamid; Succi, Sauro
2017-03-01
In this paper, an alternative approach to implement initial and boundary conditions in the lattice Boltzmann method is presented. The main idea is to approximate the nonequilibrium component of distribution functions as a third-order power series in the lattice velocities and formulate a procedure to determine boundary node distributions by using fluid variables, consistent with such an expansion. The velocity shift associated with the body force effects is included in this scheme, along with an approximation to determine the mass density in complex geometries. Different strategies based on the present scheme are developed to implement velocity and pressure conditions for arbitrarily shaped boundaries, using the D2Q9, D3Q15, D3Q19 and D3Q27 lattices, in two and three space dimensions, respectively. The proposed treatment is tested against several well-established problems, showing second-order spatial accuracy and often improved behavior as compared to various existing methods, with no appreciable computational overhead.
Low rank Multivariate regression
Giraud, Christophe
2010-01-01
We consider in this paper the multivariate regression problem, when the target regression matrix $A$ is close to a low rank matrix. Our primary interest in on the practical case where the variance of the noise is unknown. Our main contribution is to propose in this setting a criterion to select among a family of low rank estimators and prove a non-asymptotic oracle inequality for the resulting estimator. We also investigate the easier case where the variance of the noise is known and outline that the penalties appearing in our criterions are minimal (in some sense). These penalties involve the expected value of the Ky-Fan quasi-norm of some random matrices. These quantities can be evaluated easily in practice and upper-bounds can be derived from recent results in random matrix theory.
Analog multivariate counting analyzers
Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P
2003-01-01
Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...
Meddings, Jennifer A.; Reichert, Heidi; Rogers, Mary A. M.; Hofer, Timothy P.; McMahon, Laurence F.; Grazier, Kyle L.
2017-01-01
OBJECTIVE To assess the financial impact of the 2008 Hospital-Acquired Conditions Initiative’s pressure ulcer payment changes on Medicare and other payors. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective before-and-after study of all-payor statewide administrative data for >2.4 million annual adult discharges from 311 nonfederal acute-care California hospitals in 2007 and 2009, using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Datasets. We assessed how often and by how much the 2008 payment changes for pressure ulcers affected hospital payment. MEASUREMENTS Pressure ulcer rates and hospital payment changes RESULTS Hospital-acquired pressure ulcer rates were very low (0.28%) in 2007 and 2009; present-on-admission pressure ulcer rates increased from 2.35% in 2007 to 3.00% in 2009. By clinical stage of pressure ulcer (available in 2009), hospital-acquired stage III–IV ulcers occurred in 603 discharges (0.02%); 60,244 discharges (2.42%) contained other pressure ulcer diagnoses. Payment removal for stage III–IV hospital-acquired ulcers reduced payment in 75 (0.003%) discharges for a statewide payment decrease of $310,444 (0.001%) for all payors and $199,238 (0.001%) for Medicare. For all other pressure ulcers, the Hospital-Acquired Conditions Initiative reduced hospital payment in 20,246 (0.81%) cases (including 18,953 cases with present-on-admission ulcers) reducing statewide payment by $62,538,586 (0.21%) for all payors and $47,237,984 (0.32%) for Medicare. CONCLUSION The total financial impact of the 2008 payment changes for pressure ulcers was negligible. Most payment decreases occurred by removal of comorbidity payments for present-on-admission pressure ulcers other than stages III–IV. The removal of payment for hospital-acquired stage III–IV ulcers was more than 200 times less than the removal of payment for other types of pressure ulcers that occurred in implementation of the Hospital-Acquired Conditions Initiative. PMID:26140454
Yang, H.
2015-12-01
In coastal Southern California, variation in solar energy production is predominantly due to the presence of stratocumulus clouds (Sc), as they greatly attenuate surface solar irradiance and cover most distributed photovoltaic systems on summer mornings. Correct prediction of the spatial coverage and lifetime of coastal Sc is therefore vital to the accuracy of solar energy forecasts in California. In Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations, underprediction of Sc inherent in the initial conditions directly leads to an underprediction of Sc in the resulting forecasts. Hence, preprocessing methods were developed to create initial conditions more consistent with observational data and reduce spin-up time requirements. Mathiesen et al. (2014) previously developed a cloud data assimilation system to force WRF initial conditions to contain cloud liquid water based on CIMSS GOES Sounder cloud cover. The Well-mixed Preprocessor and Cloud Data Assimilation (WEMPPDA) package merges an initial guess of cloud liquid water content obtained from mixed-layer theory with assimilated CIMSS GOES Sounder cloud cover to more accurately represent the spatial coverage of Sc at initialization. The extent of Sc inland penetration is often constrained topographically; therefore, the low inversion base height (IBH) bias in NAM initial conditions decreases Sc inland penetration. The Inversion Base Height (IBH) package perturbs the initial IBH by the difference between model IBH and the 12Z radiosonde measurement. The performance of these multi-initial-condition configurations was evaluated over June, 2013 against SolarAnywhere satellite-derived surface irradiance data. Four configurations were run: 1) NAM initial conditions, 2) RAP initial conditions, 3) WEMPPDA applied to NAM, and 4) IBH applied to NAM. Both preprocessing methods showed significant improvement in the prediction of both spatial coverage and lifetime of coastal Sc. The best performing configuration was then
Multivariate statistical methods a primer
Manly, Bryan FJ
2004-01-01
THE MATERIAL OF MULTIVARIATE ANALYSISExamples of Multivariate DataPreview of Multivariate MethodsThe Multivariate Normal DistributionComputer ProgramsGraphical MethodsChapter SummaryReferencesMATRIX ALGEBRAThe Need for Matrix AlgebraMatrices and VectorsOperations on MatricesMatrix InversionQuadratic FormsEigenvalues and EigenvectorsVectors of Means and Covariance MatricesFurther Reading Chapter SummaryReferencesDISPLAYING MULTIVARIATE DATAThe Problem of Displaying Many Variables in Two DimensionsPlotting index VariablesThe Draftsman's PlotThe Representation of Individual Data P:ointsProfiles o
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SILVANA P.Q. SCALON
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the osmotic conditioning and shading on the germination and on the initial growth of aroeira seedlings. The seeds were pre-imbibed in solutions with different concentrations of PEG (polyethylene glycol and KNO3 and incubated at 10°C and 20°C temperatures, during 0 (control, 12 and 24 hours. After these periods, the seeds were dried until they reached the initial levels of humidity. After that, they were put for germinating in BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand chambers, at alternated 20-30°C. The control treatment and the pre-conditionings that presented the best results in BOD germination were selected, PEG (-1.0 MPa + KNO3 (-1.0 MPa and KNO3 (-1.0 MPa, with pre-imbibition for 12 h and incubated in BOD at 20°C. The seeds were sowed on trays and then they were transplanted, keeping under a net covered with 50% and 70% of shading and at sunlight. The osmotic conditioning did not change the seeds germination in BOD, but the highest aerial part size was observed in PEG -1.0 MPa + KNO3-1.0 MPa treatment. The shading levels at 50% and 70% and the osmotic conditioning with PEG -1.0 MPa + KNO3-1.0 MPa offered a higher emergence in a greenhouse condition; however, at sunlight the seeds presented a better index of quality on the 145th day.O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o condicionamento osmótico e o sombreamento na germinação e no crescimento inicial de mudas de aroeira. As sementes foram pré-embebidas em soluções de diferentes concentrações de PEG (Polietilenoglicol e KNO3 e incubadas em temperatura de 10°C e 20°C durante 0 (controle, 12 e 24 horas. Após estes períodos as sementes foram secas até atingirem os níveis iniciais de umidade. Posteriormente elas foram colocadas para germinar em BOD (Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio na temperatura de 20-30°C. O tratamento controle e os pré-condicionamentos que apresentaram os melhores resultados de germinação em BOD foram selecionados, sendo PEG (-1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
О. A. Tereshchenko
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The article highlights development of the methodological basis for simulation the processes of cars accumulation in solving operational planning problems under conditions of initial information uncertainty for assessing the sustainability of the adopted planning scenario and calculating the associated technological risks. Methodology. The solution of the problem under investigation is based on the use of general scientific approaches, the apparatus of probability theory and the theory of fuzzy sets. To achieve this purpose, the factors influencing the entropy of operational plans are systematized. It is established that when planning the operational work of railway stations, sections and nodes, the most significant factors that cause uncertainty in the initial information are: a external conditions with respect to the railway ground in question, expressed by the uncertainty of the timing of cars arrivals; b external, hard-to-identify goals for the functioning of other participants in the logistics chain (primarily customers, expressed by the uncertainty of the completion time with the freight cars. These factors are suggested to be taken into account in automated planning through statistical analysis – the establishment and study of the remaining time (prediction errors. As a result, analytical dependencies are proposed for rational representation of the probability density functions of the time residual distribution in the form of point, piecewise-defined and continuous analytic models. The developed models of cars accumulation, the application of which depends on the identified states of the predicted incoming car flow to the accumulation system, are presented below. In addition, the last proposed model is a general case of models of accumulation processes with an arbitrary level of reliability of the initial information for any structure of the incoming flow of cars. In conclusion, a technique for estimating the results of
Delia, M.; Alaalam, M.; Grech, M.
1998-04-01
The effect of austenitizing conditions on the microstructure and impact properties of an austempered ductile iron (ADI) containing 1.6% Cu and 1.6% Ni as the main alloying elements was investigated. Impact tests were carried out on samples of initially ferritic matrix structure and which had been first austenitized at 850,900, 950, and 1000°C for 15 to 360 min and austempered at 360°C for 180 min. Results showed that the austenitizing temperature, Tγ, and time, tγ, have a significant effect on the impact properties of the alloy. This has been attributed to the influence of these variables on the carbon kinetics. The impact energy is generally high after short tγ, and it falls with further soaking. In samples austenitized at 850 and 900°C, these trends correspond to the gradual disappearance of the pro-eutectoid ferrite and the attainment of fully developed ausferritic structures. In initially ferritic structures, the carbon diffusion distances involved during austenitization are large compared to those in pearlitic structures. This explains the relatively long soaking periods required to attain fully ausferritic structures, which in spite of the lower impact energy values, have a better combination of mechanical properties. Microstructures of samples austenitized at 950 and 1000°C contain no pro-eutectoid ferrite. The impact properties of the former structures are independent of tγ, while those solution treated at 1000°C are generally low and show wide variation over the range of soaking time investigated. For fully ausferritic structures, impact properties fall with an increase in Tγ. This is particularly evident at 1000°C. As the Tγ increases, the amount of carbon dissolved in the original austenite increases. This slows down the rate of austenite transformation and results in coarser structures with lower mechanical properties. Optimum impact properties are obtained following austenitizing between 900 and 950°C for 120 to 180 min.
Multivariate analysis of bistable flow; Analisis multivariable de flujo biestable
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castillo D, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Ruiz E, J.A. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Calleros M, G. [CFE, Alto LUcero, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: rcd@nuclear.inin.mx
2007-07-01
In this work a bistable flow analysis with an autoregressive multivariate analysis is presented. The bistable flow happens in the boiling water nuclear reactors with external recirculation pumps, and it is presented in the bolster of discharge of the recirculation knot toward the central jet pumps. The phenomenon has two flow patterns, one with greater hydraulic lost that the other one. To irregular time intervals, the flow changes pattern in a random way. The program NOISE that it is in development in the ININ was used and that it uses a autoregressive multivariate model to determine the autoregression coefficients that contain the dynamic information of the signals and that later on they are used to obtain the relative contribution of power, which allows to settle down the influence that exists among the different analyzed variables. It was analyzed an event of bistable flow happened in a BWR5 to operation conditions of 80% power and 69% of total flow through the core. The signal flow noise in each one of the 20 jet pumps, of the power of a monitor of power average, of the motive flows of recirculation, of the controllers and of the position of the control valves in the knots, of the signals of the instrumentation of the recirculation pumps (power, current, pressure drop and suction temperature), and of the buses of where they take the feeding voltage the motors of the pumps. Among the main results it was found that the phenomenon of bistable flow affects to the pressure drop in the recirculation pump of the knot in that occur, what affects to the motor flow in the knot by what the opening system of the flow control valve of recirculation of the knot responds. (Author)
Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Ildefonse, Benoît; Dubacq, Benoît; Prigent, Cécile; Yamato, Philippe
2017-04-01
Amphibolites are commonly found in the middle to lower continental crust and along oceanic transform faults and detachments. Amphibolites are also the main component of metamorphic soles beneath highly strained peridotites at the base of large-scale ophiolites as exemplified in Oman. Metamorphic soles are crustal slivers stripped from the slab during early subduction and underplated below the upper plate (future ophiolite) mantle when the subduction interface is still young and warm (i.e. during the first million years -My- of intra-oceanic subduction). Understanding the rheological behaviour of amphibolitic rocks is therefore of major interest to model and quantify deformation and strain localisation in varied geodynamical environments. This contribution focuses on the deformation mechanisms of amphibole through a microstructural and petrological study of garnet-bearing and garnet-free clinopyroxene-bearing amphibolites, using EBSD analysis. The first aim is to test the influence of progres- sive changes in PT conditions during deformation and of the appearance/disappearance of anhydrous minerals (plagioclase, clinopyroxene and garnet) on the mechanical behaviour of mafic amphibolites. The second aim is to track deformation mechanisms during early subduction, through the study of these metamorphosed oceanic rocks, commonly 10-100 m thick, which range from high- to low-grade away from the contact with the peridotites (i.e. from 800 ± 100˚C - 0.9 ± 0.2 GPa to 500 ± 100˚C - 0.5 ± 0.1 GPa) and are essentially mafic at the top). Our study points out the existence of two major steps of deformation in the high-temperature amphibolite slices of the metamorphic soles during the early subdduction dynamics. These two steps witness important mechanical coupling and progressive strain localization at plate interface under cooling and hydrated conditions after subduction initiation. During the accretion of the first slice of metamorphic sole at 850 ± 50˚C (the garnet
Asymptotic Theory for Extended Asymmetric Multivariate GARCH Processes
M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
2016-01-01
textabstractThe paper considers various extended asymmetric multivariate conditional volatility models, and derives appropriate regularity conditions and associated asymptotic theory. This enables checking of internal consistency and allows valid statistical inferences to be drawn based on empirical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koenig, Michael [K.Group GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Nachhaltige Energieversorgung und Stadtentwicklung
2009-06-15
In the regulated market, municipal utilities are forced to find new fields of activity. The heat market offers good chances. For example, local district heating grids can be established, independent power generation can be encouraged, and new services can be offered which may increase customer loyalty. The district heating initiative of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Minister of the Environment was launched early in 2009 with the intention to offer valuable assistance to the municipal utilities. (orig.)
Yettella, Vineel; Kay, Jennifer E.
2017-09-01
The extratropical precipitation response to global warming is investigated within a 30-member initial condition climate model ensemble. As in observations, modeled cyclonic precipitation contributes a large fraction of extratropical precipitation, especially over the ocean and in the winter hemisphere. When compared to present day, the ensemble projects increased cyclone-associated precipitation under twenty-first century business-as-usual greenhouse gas forcing. While the cyclone-associated precipitation response is weaker in the near-future (2016-2035) than in the far-future (2081-2100), both future periods have similar patterns of response. Though cyclone frequency changes are important regionally, most of the increased cyclone-associated precipitation results from increased within-cyclone precipitation. Consistent with this result, cyclone-centric composites show statistically significant precipitation increases in all cyclone sectors. Decomposition into thermodynamic (mean cyclone water vapor path) and dynamic (mean cyclone wind speed) contributions shows that thermodynamics explains 92 and 95% of the near-future and far-future within-cyclone precipitation increases respectively. Surprisingly, the influence of dynamics on future cyclonic precipitation changes is negligible. In addition, the forced response exceeds internal variability in both future time periods. Overall, this work suggests that future cyclonic precipitation changes will result primarily from increased moisture availability in a warmer world, with secondary contributions from changes in cyclone frequency and cyclone dynamics.
Bagchi, Debarshee; Tsallis, Constantino
2016-06-01
We introduce a generalized d -dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model in the presence of long-range interactions, and perform a first-principle study of its chaos for d =1 ,2 ,3 through large-scale numerical simulations. The nonlinear interaction is assumed to decay algebraically as dij -α (α ≥0 ) , {di j} being the distances between N oscillator sites. Starting from random initial conditions we compute the maximal Lyapunov exponent λmax as a function of N . Our N ≫1 results strongly indicate that λmax remains constant and positive for α /d >1 (implying strong chaos, mixing, and ergodicity), and that it vanishes like N-κ for 0 ≤α /d 1 . The value α /d =1 can therefore be seen as a critical point separating the ergodic regime from the anomalous one, κ playing a role analogous to that of an order parameter. This scaling law is consistent with Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics for α /d >1 , and possibly with q statistics for 0 ≤α /d <1 .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delia, M.; Alaalam, M.; Grech, M. [Univ. of Malta (Malta). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials
1998-04-01
The effect of austenitizing conditions on the microstructure and impact properties of an austempered ductile iron (ADI) containing 1.6% Cu and 1.6% Ni as the main alloying elements was investigated. Impact tests were carried out on samples of initially ferritic matrix structure and which had been first austenitized at 850, 900, 950, and 1,000 C for 15 to 360 min and austempered at 360 C for 180 min. Results showed that the austenitizing temperature, T{sub {gamma}}, and time, t{sub {gamma}} have a significant effect on the impact properties of the alloy. This has been attributed to the influence of these variables on the carbon kinetics. Microstructures of samples austenitized at 950 and 1,000 C contain no pro-eutectoid ferrite. The impact properties of the former structures are independent of t{sub {gamma}}, while those solution treated at 1,000 C are generally low and show wide variation over the range of soaking time investigated. For fully ausferritic structures, impact properties fall with an increase in T{sub {gamma}}. This is particularly evident at 1,000 C. As the T{sub {gamma}} increases, the amount of carbon dissolved in the original austenite increases. This slows down the rate of austenite transformation and results in coarser structures with lower mechanical properties. Optimum impact properties are obtained following austenitizing between 900 and 950 C for 120 to 180 min.
Yettella, Vineel; Kay, Jennifer E.
2016-10-01
The extratropical precipitation response to global warming is investigated within a 30-member initial condition climate model ensemble. As in observations, modeled cyclonic precipitation contributes a large fraction of extratropical precipitation, especially over the ocean and in the winter hemisphere. When compared to present day, the ensemble projects increased cyclone-associated precipitation under twenty-first century business-as-usual greenhouse gas forcing. While the cyclone-associated precipitation response is weaker in the near-future (2016-2035) than in the far-future (2081-2100), both future periods have similar patterns of response. Though cyclone frequency changes are important regionally, most of the increased cyclone-associated precipitation results from increased within-cyclone precipitation. Consistent with this result, cyclone-centric composites show statistically significant precipitation increases in all cyclone sectors. Decomposition into thermodynamic (mean cyclone water vapor path) and dynamic (mean cyclone wind speed) contributions shows that thermodynamics explains 92 and 95% of the near-future and far-future within-cyclone precipitation increases respectively. Surprisingly, the influence of dynamics on future cyclonic precipitation changes is negligible. In addition, the forced response exceeds internal variability in both future time periods. Overall, this work suggests that future cyclonic precipitation changes will result primarily from increased moisture availability in a warmer world, with secondary contributions from changes in cyclone frequency and cyclone dynamics.
Henshaw, J D; Kruijssen, J M D
2016-01-01
Star formation within the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) may be intimately linked to the orbital dynamics of the gas. Recent models suggest that star formation within the dust ridge molecular clouds (from G0.253+0.016 to Sgr B2) follows an evolutionary time sequence, triggered by tidal compression during their preceding pericentre passage. Given that these clouds are the most likely precursors to a generation of massive stars and extreme star clusters, this scenario would have profound implications for constraining the time-evolution of star formation. In this Letter, we search for the initial conditions of the protocluster clouds, focusing on the kinematics of gas situated upstream from pericentre. We observe a highly-regular corrugated velocity field in $\\{l,\\,v_{\\rm LSR}\\}$ space, with amplitude and wavelength $A=3.7\\,\\pm\\,0.1$ kms$^{-1}$ and $\\lambda_{\\rm vel, i}=22.5\\,\\pm\\,0.1$ pc, respectively. The extremes in velocity correlate with a series of massive ($\\sim10^{4}$M$_{\\odot}$) and compact ($R_{\\rm eq}\\s...
Carter, Michelle Qiu; Louie, Jacqueline W; Feng, Doris; Zhong, Wayne; Brandl, Maria T
2016-08-01
Several species of enteric pathogens produce curli fimbriae, which may affect their interaction with surfaces and other microbes in nonhost environments. Here we used two Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak strains with distinct genotypes to understand the role of curli in surface attachment and biofilm formation in several systems relevant to fresh produce production and processing. Curli significantly enhanced the initial attachment of E. coli O157:H7 to spinach leaves and stainless steel surfaces by 5-fold. Curli was also required for E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation on stainless steel and enhanced biofilm production on glass by 19-27 fold in LB no-salt broth. However, this contribution was not observed when cells were grown in sterile spinach lysates. Furthermore, both strains of E. coli O157:H7 produced minimal biofilms on polypropylene in LB no-salt broth but considerable amounts in spinach lysates. Under the latter conditions, curli appeared to slightly increase biofilm production. Importantly, curli played an essential role in the formation of mixed biofilm by E. coli O157:H7 and plant-associated microorganisms in spinach leaf washes, as revealed by confocal microscopy. Little or no E. coli O157:H7 biofilms were detected at 4 °C, supporting the importance of temperature control in postharvest and produce processing environments.
Yuan, Xing; Ma, Feng; Wang, Linying; Zheng, Ziyan; Ma, Zhuguo; Ye, Aizhong; Peng, Shaoming
2016-06-01
The hydrological cycle over the Yellow River has been altered by the climate change and human interventions greatly during past decades, with a decadal drying trend mixed with a large variation of seasonal hydrological extremes. To provide support for the adaptation to a changing environment, an experimental seasonal hydrological forecasting system is established over the Yellow River basin. The system draws from a legacy of a global hydrological forecasting system that is able to make use of real-time seasonal climate predictions from North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) climate models through a statistical downscaling approach but with a higher resolution and a spatially disaggregated calibration procedure that is based on a newly compiled hydrological observation dataset with 5 decades of naturalized streamflow at 12 mainstream gauges and a newly released meteorological observation dataset including 324 meteorological stations over the Yellow River basin. While the evaluation of the NMME-based seasonal hydrological forecasting will be presented in a companion paper to explore the added values from climate forecast models, this paper investigates the role of initial hydrological conditions (ICs) by carrying out 6-month Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) and reverse ESP-type simulations for each calendar month during 1982-2010 with the hydrological models in the forecasting system, i.e., a large-scale land surface hydrological model and a global routing model that is regionalized over the Yellow River. In terms of streamflow predictability, the ICs outweigh the meteorological forcings up to 2-5 months during the cold and dry seasons, but the latter prevails over the former in the predictability after the first month during the warm and wet seasons. For the streamflow forecasts initialized at the end of the rainy season, the influence of ICs for lower reaches of the Yellow River can be 5 months longer than that for the upper reaches, while such a difference
Multivariate statistics exercises and solutions
Härdle, Wolfgang Karl
2015-01-01
The authors present tools and concepts of multivariate data analysis by means of exercises and their solutions. The first part is devoted to graphical techniques. The second part deals with multivariate random variables and presents the derivation of estimators and tests for various practical situations. The last part introduces a wide variety of exercises in applied multivariate data analysis. The book demonstrates the application of simple calculus and basic multivariate methods in real life situations. It contains altogether more than 250 solved exercises which can assist a university teacher in setting up a modern multivariate analysis course. All computer-based exercises are available in the R language. All R codes and data sets may be downloaded via the quantlet download center www.quantlet.org or via the Springer webpage. For interactive display of low-dimensional projections of a multivariate data set, we recommend GGobi.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kuptaraeva P.D.
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Building designs at the moment of commissioning include the initial (building and technological moisture. Thermal insulation systems influence on the yield of the initial moisture from the structures. However, there are no specific design requirements about determining initial moisture content in insulation systems.In this article the features of the initial period of operation on an example of aerated concrete are defined: the results of field surveys and calculations are shown and compared. On the basis of this comparison basic advice on the accounting features of the initial period of operation of autoclaved aerated concrete structures with external insulation are given.
Multivariate Statistical Modelling of Drought and Heat Wave Events
Manning, Colin; Widmann, Martin; Vrac, Mathieu; Maraun, Douglas; Bevaqua, Emanuele
2016-04-01
copula is a multivariate distribution function which allows one to model the dependence structure of given variables separately from the marginal behaviour. We firstly look at the structure of soil moisture drought over the entire of France using the SAFRAN dataset between 1959 and 2009. Soil moisture is represented using the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Drought characteristics are computed at grid point scale where drought conditions are identified as those with an SPEI value below -1.0. We model the multivariate dependence structure of drought events defined by certain characteristics and compute return levels of these events. We initially find that drought characteristics such as duration, mean SPEI and the maximum contiguous area to a grid point all have positive correlations, though the degree to which they are correlated can vary considerably spatially. A spatial representation of return levels then may provide insight into the areas most prone to drought conditions. As a next step, we analyse the dependence structure between soil moisture conditions preceding the onset of a heat wave and the heat wave itself.
Simon, Jacob B; Li, Rixin; Youdin, Andrew N
2015-01-01
We study the formation of planetesimals in protoplanetary disks from the gravitational collapse of solid over-densities generated via the streaming instability. To carry out these studies, we implement and test a particle-mesh self-gravity module for the Athena code that enables the simulation of aerodynamically coupled systems of gas and collisionless self-gravitating solid particles. Upon employment of our algorithm to planetesimal formation simulations, we find that (when a direct comparison is possible) the Athena simulations yield predicted planetesimal properties that agree well with those found in prior work using different numerical techniques. In particular, the gravitational collapse of streaming-initiated clumps leads to an initial planetesimal mass function that is well-represented by a power-law, dN/dM ~ M^(-p),with p = 1.6 +/- 0.1. We find no significant trends with resolution from a convergence study of up to 512^3 grid zones and N_par ~ 1.5x10^8 particles. Likewise, the power-law slope appears...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wooyeon Sunwoo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Runoff prediction in limited-data areas is vital for hydrological applications, such as the design of infrastructure and flood defenses, runoff forecasting, and water management. Rainfall–runoff models may be useful for simulation of runoff generation, particularly event-based models, which offer a practical modeling scheme because of their simplicity. However, there is a need to reduce the uncertainties related to the estimation of the initial wetness condition (IWC prior to a rainfall event. Soil moisture is one of the most important variables in rainfall–runoff modeling, and remotely sensed soil moisture is recognized as an effective way to improve the accuracy of runoff prediction. In this study, the IWC was evaluated based on remotely sensed soil moisture by using the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN method, which is one of the representative event-based models used for reducing the uncertainty of runoff prediction. Four proxy variables for the IWC were determined from the measurements of total rainfall depth (API5, ground-based soil moisture (SSMinsitu, remotely sensed surface soil moisture (SSM, and soil water index (SWI provided by the advanced scatterometer (ASCAT. To obtain a robust IWC framework, this study consists of two main parts: the validation of remotely sensed soil moisture, and the evaluation of runoff prediction using four proxy variables with a set of rainfall–runoff events in the East Asian monsoon region. The results showed an acceptable agreement between remotely sensed soil moisture (SSM and SWI and ground based soil moisture data (SSMinsitu. In the proxy variable analysis, the SWI indicated the optimal value among the proposed proxy variables. In the runoff prediction analysis considering various infiltration conditions, the SSM and SWI proxy variables significantly reduced the runoff prediction error as compared with API5 by 60% and 66%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed IWC framework with
Maharana, P.; Dimri, A. P.
2014-03-01
The Western Himalayas during winter receives precipitation due to the eastward moving low pressure synoptic weather systems, called Western Disturbances (WDs) in Indian meteorological parlance. The complex Himalayan topography, sparse observational data, less understanding of physical processes, etc. form many interesting research questions over this region. One of the important research goals is to study the change in the winter (Dec., Jan. and Feb. - DJF) climate over the Himalayas. In the presented study with modelling efforts having varying initial and boundary conditions (ICBC) with same model physics option is attempted to provide a comment on important physical processes pertaining to precipitation and temperature fields. A 22 year (1980-2001) simulation with Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) forced with National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis 1 (NNRP1), NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 2 (NNRP2) and European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40 Year reanalysis (ERA40) as three different ICBC is carried out. The present study focuses on the winter climatology of the main meteorological parameters viz., temperature, precipitation and snow depth and interannual variability of winter seasonal precipitation. The model shows overestimation of seasonal average precipitation and underestimation of seasonal average temperature fields over the Western Himalayas in all the three model simulations. The interannual variability of precipitation and temperature over this region is nicely captured by the model. The model simulation with NNRP2 as the ICBC shows more realistic results. In addition the ensemble mean of the three simulations has shown improved results and is closer to the abovementioned simulation. Precipitation bias explained in terms of the higher vertical integrated moisture flux and transport shows strong convergence zone over and along the southern rim of the Indian Himalayas. The
Multivariate Bioclimatic Ecosystem Change Approaches
2015-02-06
conclude that an analogous patch did not exist. It must exist somewhere, but some of the other MVA techniques were restricted by the mathematical ...found that the Primarily Analogous Multivariate approach developed during this research clearly distinguished itself from the other five approaches in...Principally Analogous Multivariate (PAM) approach ............................................... 29 4.6.1 Introduction to the PAM approach
Multivariate covariance generalized linear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent
2016-01-01
We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...... are fitted by using an efficient Newton scoring algorithm based on quasi-likelihood and Pearson estimating functions, using only second-moment assumptions. This provides a unified approach to a wide variety of types of response variables and covariance structures, including multivariate extensions...
Analysis of multivariate extreme intakes of food chemicals
Paulo, M.J.; Voet, van der H.; Wood, J.C.; Marion, G.R.; Klaveren, van J.D.
2006-01-01
A recently published multivariate Extreme Value Theory (EVT) model [Heffernan, J.E., Tawn, J.A., 2004. A conditional approach for multivariate extreme values (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B 66 (3), 497¿546] is applied to the estimation of population risks associa
Multivariate analysis of gamma spectra to characterize used nuclear fuel
Coble, Jamie; Orton, Christopher; Schwantes, Jon
2017-04-01
The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor provides an efficient means to monitor the process conditions in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities to support process verification and validation. The MIP Monitor applies multivariate analysis to gamma spectroscopy of key stages in the reprocessing stream in order to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. This research extends the MIP Monitor by characterizing a used fuel sample after initial dissolution according to the type of reactor of origin (pressurized or boiling water reactor; PWR and BWR, respectively), initial enrichment, burn up, and cooling time. Simulated gamma spectra were used to develop and test three fuel characterization algorithms. The classification and estimation models employed are based on the partial least squares regression (PLS) algorithm. A PLS discriminate analysis model was developed which perfectly classified reactor type for the three PWR and three BWR reactor designs studied. Locally weighted PLS models were fitted on-the-fly to estimate the remaining fuel characteristics. For the simulated gamma spectra considered, burn up was predicted with 0.1% root mean squared percent error (RMSPE) and both cooling time and initial enrichment with approximately 2% RMSPE. This approach to automated fuel characterization can be used to independently verify operator declarations of used fuel characteristics and to inform the MIP Monitor anomaly detection routines at later stages of the fuel reprocessing stream to improve sensitivity to changes in operational parameters that may indicate issues with operational control or malicious activities.
Multivariate analysis of gamma spectra to characterize used nuclear fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coble, Jamie; Orton, Christopher; Schwantes, Jon
2017-04-01
Abstract—The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor provides an efficient approach to monitoring the process conditions in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities to support process verification and validation. The MIP Monitor applies multivariate analysis to gamma spectroscopy of reprocessing streams in order to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. This research extends the MIP Monitor by characterizing a used fuel sample after initial dissolution according to the type of reactor of origin (pressurized or boiling water reactor), initial enrichment, burn up, and cooling time. Simulated gamma spectra were used to develop and test three fuel characterization algorithms. The classification and estimation models employed are based on the partial least squares regression (PLS) algorithm. A PLS discriminate analysis model was developed which perfectly classified reactor type. Locally weighted PLS models were fitted on-the-fly to estimate continuous fuel characteristics. Burn up was predicted within 0.1% root mean squared percent error (RMSPE) and both cooling time and initial enrichment within approximately 2% RMSPE. This automated fuel characterization can be used to independently verify operator declarations of used fuel characteristics and inform the MIP Monitor anomaly detection routines at later stages of the fuel reprocessing stream to improve sensitivity to changes in operational parameters and material diversions.
A primer of multivariate statistics
Harris, Richard J
2014-01-01
Drawing upon more than 30 years of experience in working with statistics, Dr. Richard J. Harris has updated A Primer of Multivariate Statistics to provide a model of balance between how-to and why. This classic text covers multivariate techniques with a taste of latent variable approaches. Throughout the book there is a focus on the importance of describing and testing one's interpretations of the emergent variables that are produced by multivariate analysis. This edition retains its conversational writing style while focusing on classical techniques. The book gives the reader a feel for why
Model Checking Multivariate State Rewards
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2010-01-01
We consider continuous stochastic logics with state rewards that are interpreted over continuous time Markov chains. We show how results from multivariate phase type distributions can be used to obtain higher-order moments for multivariate state rewards (including covariance). We also generalise ...... the treatment of eventuality to unbounded path formulae. For all extensions we show how to obtain closed form definitions that are straightforward to implement and we illustrate our development on a small example.......We consider continuous stochastic logics with state rewards that are interpreted over continuous time Markov chains. We show how results from multivariate phase type distributions can be used to obtain higher-order moments for multivariate state rewards (including covariance). We also generalise...
Strategies for Industrial Multivariable Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hangstrup, M.
Multivariable control strategies well-suited for industrial applications are suggested. The strategies combine the practical advantages of conventional SISO control schemes and -technology with the potential of multivariable controllers. Special emphasis is put on parameter-varying systems whose...... dynamics and gains strongly depend upon one or more physical parameters characterizing the operating point. This class covers many industrial systems such as airplanes, ships, robots and process control systems. Power plant boilers are representatives for process control systems in general. The dynamics...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Nied
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Floods are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological event characteristics and pre-event catchment conditions. While the large-scale meteorological conditions have been classified and successfully linked to floods, this is lacking for the large-scale pre-event catchment conditions. Therefore, we propose to classify soil moisture as a key variable of pre-event catchment conditions and to investigate the link between soil moisture patterns and flood occurrence in the Elbe river basin. Soil moisture is simulated using a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model over the period 1951–2003. Principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis are applied successively to identify days of similar soil moisture patterns. The results show that PCA considerably reduced the dimensionality of the soil moisture data. The first principal component (PC explains 75.71% of the soil moisture variability and represents the large-scale seasonal wetting and drying. The successive PCs express the spatial heterogeneous antecedent catchment conditions. By clustering the leading PCs, we detected large-scale soil moisture patterns which frequently occur before the onset of floods. In winter floods are initiated by overall high soil moisture content whereas in summer the flood initiating soil moisture patterns are diverse and less stable in time. The results underline the importance of large-scale pre-event catchment conditions in flood initiation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Bai-Yuan; Fang Mao-Fa; Huang Jiang
2013-01-01
In this paper,the dynamical behavior of entanglement of an uncoupled two-qubit system,which interacts with independent identical amplitude damping environments and is initially prepared in the extended Werner-like (EWL) states,is investigated.The results show that whether entanglement sudden death (ESD) of an EWL state will occur or not depends on initial purity and concurrence.The boundaries between ESD states and ESD-free states for two kinds of EWL states are found to be different.Furthermore,some regions are shown where ESD states can be transformed into ESD-free states by local unitary operations.
Multivariate analysis in thoracic research.
Mengual-Macenlle, Noemí; Marcos, Pedro J; Golpe, Rafael; González-Rivas, Diego
2015-03-01
Multivariate analysis is based in observation and analysis of more than one statistical outcome variable at a time. In design and analysis, the technique is used to perform trade studies across multiple dimensions while taking into account the effects of all variables on the responses of interest. The development of multivariate methods emerged to analyze large databases and increasingly complex data. Since the best way to represent the knowledge of reality is the modeling, we should use multivariate statistical methods. Multivariate methods are designed to simultaneously analyze data sets, i.e., the analysis of different variables for each person or object studied. Keep in mind at all times that all variables must be treated accurately reflect the reality of the problem addressed. There are different types of multivariate analysis and each one should be employed according to the type of variables to analyze: dependent, interdependence and structural methods. In conclusion, multivariate methods are ideal for the analysis of large data sets and to find the cause and effect relationships between variables; there is a wide range of analysis types that we can use.
Multivariate Term Structure Models with Level and Heteroskedasticity Effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Charlotte
2005-01-01
The paper introduces and estimates a multivariate level-GARCH model for the long rate and the term-structure spread where the conditional volatility is proportional to the ãth power of the variable itself (level effects) and the conditional covariance matrix evolves according to a multivariate GA...... and the level model. GARCH effects are more important than level effects. The results are robust to the maturity of the interest rates. Udgivelsesdato: MAY...
Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Kalinowski, Joseph; Robbins, Mary; Crawcour, Stephen; Bowers, Andrew
2009-01-01
Background: Stuttering is prone to strike during speech initiation more so than at any other point in an utterance. The use of auditory feedback (AAF) has been found to produce robust decreases in the stuttering frequency by creating an electronic rendition of choral speech (i.e., speaking in unison). However, AAF requires users to self-initiate…
Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Kalinowski, Joseph; Robbins, Mary; Crawcour, Stephen; Bowers, Andrew
2009-01-01
Background: Stuttering is prone to strike during speech initiation more so than at any other point in an utterance. The use of auditory feedback (AAF) has been found to produce robust decreases in the stuttering frequency by creating an electronic rendition of choral speech (i.e., speaking in unison). However, AAF requires users to self-initiate…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Meng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The premixed flame speed under a small four stock homogeneous charge compression ignition engine, fueled with dimethyl ether, was investigated. The effects of intermediate species, initial temperature, initial pressure, exhaust gas recirculation, and equivalence ratio were studied and compared to the baseline condition. Results show that, under all conditions, the flame speeds calculated without intermediates are higher than those which took the intermediates in consideration. Flame speeds increase with the increase of crank angle. The increase rate is divided into three regions and the increase rate is obviously high in the event of low temperature heat release. Initial temperature and pressure only affect the crank angle of flame speed, but have little influence on its value. Equivalence ratio and exhaust gas recirculation ratio do not only distinctly decrease the flame speed, but also advance the crank angle of flame speed.
Uemura, Kazuki; Yamada, Minoru; Nagai, Koutatsu; Tanaka, Buichi; Mori, Shuhei; Ichihashi, Noriaki
2012-02-01
Little is known about dynamic balance control under dual-task conditions in older adults with fear of falling (FoF). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of FoF on anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation under dual-task conditions in older adults. Fifty-seven elderly volunteers (age, 79.2 [6.8] years) from the community participated in this study. Each participant was categorised into either the Fear (n=24) or No-fear (n=33) group on the basis of the presence or absence of FoF. Under single- and dual-task conditions, centre of pressure (COP) data were collected while the participants performed gait initiation trials from a starting position on a force platform. We also performed a 10-m walking test (WT), a timed up & go test (TUG), and a functional reach test (FR). The reaction and APA phases were measured from the COP data. The results showed that under the dual-task condition, the Fear group had significantly longer APA phases than the No-fear group, although no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in the reaction and APA phases under the single-task condition and in any clinical measurements (WT, TUG, and FR). Our findings suggest that specific deficits in balance control occur in subjects with FoF during gait initiation while dual tasking, even if their physical functions are comparable to subjects without FoF.
Multivariate Generalized Multiscale Entropy Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne Humeau-Heurtier
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Multiscale entropy (MSE was introduced in the 2000s to quantify systems’ complexity. MSE relies on (i a coarse-graining procedure to derive a set of time series representing the system dynamics on different time scales; (ii the computation of the sample entropy for each coarse-grained time series. A refined composite MSE (rcMSE—based on the same steps as MSE—also exists. Compared to MSE, rcMSE increases the accuracy of entropy estimation and reduces the probability of inducing undefined entropy for short time series. The multivariate versions of MSE (MMSE and rcMSE (MrcMSE have also been introduced. In the coarse-graining step used in MSE, rcMSE, MMSE, and MrcMSE, the mean value is used to derive representations of the original data at different resolutions. A generalization of MSE was recently published, using the computation of different moments in the coarse-graining procedure. However, so far, this generalization only exists for univariate signals. We therefore herein propose an extension of this generalized MSE to multivariate data. The multivariate generalized algorithms of MMSE and MrcMSE presented herein (MGMSE and MGrcMSE, respectively are first analyzed through the processing of synthetic signals. We reveal that MGrcMSE shows better performance than MGMSE for short multivariate data. We then study the performance of MGrcMSE on two sets of short multivariate electroencephalograms (EEG available in the public domain. We report that MGrcMSE may show better performance than MrcMSE in distinguishing different types of multivariate EEG data. MGrcMSE could therefore supplement MMSE or MrcMSE in the processing of multivariate datasets.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张希翔; 李陶深
2012-01-01
Regression analysis is often used for filling and predicting incomplete data, whereas it has some flaws when constructing regression equation, the independent variable form is fixed and single. In order to solve the problem, the paper proposed an improved multivariate regression analytical method based on heuristic constructed variable. Firstly, the existing variables' optimized combination forms were found by means of greedy algorithm, then the new constructed variable for multivariate regression analysis was chosen to get a better goodness of fit. Results of calculating and estimating incomplete data of wheat stalks' mechanical strength prove thai the proposed method is feasible and effective, and it can get a better goodness of fit when predicting incomplete data.%传统的多元回归分析方法可以对缺失数据进行预测填补,但它在构造回归方程时存在自变量形式较为固定、单一等不足.为此,提出一种基于启发式构元的多元回归分析方法,通过贪婪算法找出现有变量的优化组合形式,选取若干新构变量进行回归分析,从而得到更好的拟合优度.通过对案例中小麦茎秆机械强度缺失数据信息进行仿真计算和评估,证实了方法的有效性.算例结果表明该方法运用在缺失数据预测中拥有较好的精准性.
Sondergaard, R.; Cantwell, B.; Mansour, N.
1997-01-01
Direct numerical simulations have been used to examine the effect of the initial disturbance field on the development of three-dimensionality and the transition to turbulence in the incompressible plane wake. The simulations were performed using a new numerical method for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in flows with one infinite and two periodic directions. The method uses standard Fast Fourier Transforms and is applicable to cases where the vorticity field is compact in the infinite direction. Initial disturbances fields examined were combinations of two-dimensional waves and symmetric pairs of 60 deg oblique waves at the fundamental, subharmonic, and sub-subharmonic wavelengths. The results of these simulations indicate that the presence of 60 deg disturbances at the subharmonic streamwise wavelength results in the development of strong coherent three-dimensional structures. The resulting strong three-dimensional rate-of-strain triggers the growth of intense fine scale motions. Wakes initiated with 60 deg disturbances at the fundamental streamwise wavelength develop weak coherent streamwise structures, and do not develop significant fine scale motions, even at high Reynolds numbers. The wakes which develop strong three-dimensional structures exhibit growth rates on par with experimentally observed turbulent plane wakes. Wakes which develop only weak three-dimensional structures exhibit significantly lower late time growth rates. Preliminary studies of wakes initiated with an oblique fundamental and a two-dimensional subharmonic, which develop asymmetric coherent oblique structures at the subharmonic wavelength, indicate that significant fine scale motions only develop if the resulting oblique structures are above an angle of approximately 45 deg.
Grillakis, M. G.; Koutroulis, A. G.; Komma, J.; Tsanis, I. K.; Wagner, W.; Blöschl, G.
2016-10-01
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the importance of the initial soil moisture state for flash flood magnitudes. Four extreme events that occurred in different case study regions were analysed, one winter and one autumn flash flood in the Giofiros and Almirida catchments in Crete, and two summer floods in the Rastenberg catchment in Austria. The hydrological processes were simulated by the spatially distributed flash flood model Kampus. For the Crete cases Kampus model was calibrated against remotely sensed soil moisture while for the Austrian case the model was calibrated against observed runoff. Kampus model was then used to estimate the sensitivity of the stream flow peak to initial soil moisture. The largest of the events analysed (in terms of specific peak discharge) was found to have a sensitivity of less than 0.2% flood peak change per % soil moisture change while the smallest event had a sensitivity of more than 3% flood peak change per % soil moisture change. This suggests that initial soil moisture effects on the flash flood response probably depend on event magnitude rather than on the climate or region. Moreover, the Austrian catchment was found to exhibit a more nonlinear relationship between antecedent soil moisture and the peak discharge than the Cretan catchments which was explained by differences in the soil type.
Parameter Estimation in Multivariate Gamma Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V S Vaidyanathan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Multivariate gamma distribution finds abundant applications in stochastic modelling, hydrology and reliability. Parameter estimation in this distribution is a challenging one as it involves many parameters to be estimated simultaneously. In this paper, the form of multivariate gamma distribution proposed by Mathai and Moschopoulos [10] is considered. This form has nice properties in terms of marginal and conditional densities. A new method of estimation based on optimal search is proposed for estimating the parameters using the marginal distributions and the concepts of maximum likelihood, spacings and least squares. The proposed methodology is easy to implement and is free from calculus. It optimizes the objective function by searching over a wide range of values and determines the estimate of the parameters. The consistency of the estimates is demonstrated in terms of mean, standard deviation and mean square error through simulation studies for different choices of parameters.
A Multivariate Approach to Functional Neuro Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørch, Niels J.S.
1998-01-01
This Ph.D. thesis, A Multivariate Approach to Functional Neuro Modeling, deals with the analysis and modeling of data from functional neuro imaging experiments. A multivariate dataset description is provided which facilitates efficient representation of typical datasets and, more importantly...... and overall conditions governing the functional experiment, via associated micro- and macroscopic variables. The description facilitates an efficient microscopic re-representation, as well as a handle on the link between brain and behavior; the latter is achieved by hypothesizing variations in the micro...... a generalization theoretical framework centered around measures of model generalization error. - Only few, if any, examples of the application of generalization theory to functional neuro modeling currently exist in the literature. - Exemplification of the proposed generalization theoretical framework...
New multivariable capabilities of the INCA program
Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.
1989-01-01
The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly, efficient environment for the design and analysis of control systems, specifically spacecraft control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. The (INCA) program was initially developed as a comprehensive classical design analysis tool for small and large order control systems. The latest version of INCA, expected to be released in February of 1990, was expanded to include the capability to perform multivariable controls analysis and design.
Multivariable modeling and multivariate analysis for the behavioral sciences
Everitt, Brian S
2009-01-01
Multivariable Modeling and Multivariate Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences shows students how to apply statistical methods to behavioral science data in a sensible manner. Assuming some familiarity with introductory statistics, the book analyzes a host of real-world data to provide useful answers to real-life issues.The author begins by exploring the types and design of behavioral studies. He also explains how models are used in the analysis of data. After describing graphical methods, such as scatterplot matrices, the text covers simple linear regression, locally weighted regression, multip
Applied multivariate statistics with R
Zelterman, Daniel
2015-01-01
This book brings the power of multivariate statistics to graduate-level practitioners, making these analytical methods accessible without lengthy mathematical derivations. Using the open source, shareware program R, Professor Zelterman demonstrates the process and outcomes for a wide array of multivariate statistical applications. Chapters cover graphical displays, linear algebra, univariate, bivariate and multivariate normal distributions, factor methods, linear regression, discrimination and classification, clustering, time series models, and additional methods. Zelterman uses practical examples from diverse disciplines to welcome readers from a variety of academic specialties. Those with backgrounds in statistics will learn new methods while they review more familiar topics. Chapters include exercises, real data sets, and R implementations. The data are interesting, real-world topics, particularly from health and biology-related contexts. As an example of the approach, the text examines a sample from the B...
Multivariate Modelling via Matrix Subordination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nicolato, Elisa
Extending the vast library of univariate models to price multi-asset derivatives is still a challenge in the field of Quantitative Finance. Within the literature on multivariate modelling, a dichotomy may be noticed. On one hand, the focus has been on the construction of models displaying...... stochastic correlation within the framework of discussion processes (see e.g. Pigorsh and Stelzer (2008), Hubalek and Nicolato (2008) and Zhu (2000)). On the other hand a number of authors have proposed multivariate Levy models, which allow for flexible modelling of returns, but at the expenses of a constant...... correlation structure (see e.g. Leoni and Schoutens (2007) and Leoni and Schoutens (2007) among others). Tractable multivariate models displaying flexible and stochastic correlation structures combined with jumps is proving to be rather problematic. In particular, the classical technique of introducing...
Multivariate stochastic simulation with subjective multivariate normal distributions
P. J. Ince; J. Buongiorno
1991-01-01
In many applications of Monte Carlo simulation in forestry or forest products, it may be known that some variables are correlated. However, for simplicity, in most simulations it has been assumed that random variables are independently distributed. This report describes an alternative Monte Carlo simulation technique for subjectively assesed multivariate normal...
Marks, Michael
2010-01-01
By comparing N-body calculations that include primordial residual-gas expulsion with the observed properties of 20 Galactic globular clusters (GCs) for which the stellar mass function (MF) has been measured, we constrain the time-scale over which the gas of their embedded cluster counterparts must have been removed, the star formation efficiency the progenitor cloud must have had and the strength of the tidal-field the clusters must have formed in. The three parameters determine the expansion and mass-loss during residual-gas expulsion. After applying corrections for stellar and dynamical evolution we find birth cluster masses, sizes and densities for the GC sample and the same quantities for the progenitor gas clouds. The pre-cluster cloud core masses were between 10^5-10^7 M_sun and half-mass radii were typically below 1 pc and reach down to 0.2 pc. We show that the low-mass present day (PD) MF slope, initial half-mass radius and initial density of clusters correlates with cluster metallicity, unmasking met...
Bebbington, Mark; Harte, David; Williams, Charles
2016-01-01
Using 2 years of aftershock data and three fault-plane solutions for each of the initial M7.1 Darfield earthquake and the larger (M >6) aftershocks, we conduct a detailed examination of Coulomb stress transfer in the Canterbury 2010-2011 earthquake sequence. Moment tensor solutions exist for 283 of the events with M ≥ 3.6, while 713 other events of M ≥ 3.6 have only hypocentre and magnitude information available. We look at various methods for deciding between the two possible mechanisms for the 283 events with moment tensor solutions, including conformation to observed surface faulting, and maximum ΔCFF transfer from the Darfield main shock. For the remaining events, imputation methods for the mechanism including nearest-neighbour, kernel smoothing, and optimal plane methods are considered. Fault length, width, and depth are arrived at via a suite of scaling relations. A large (50-70 %) proportion of the faults considered were calculated to have initial loading in excess of the final stress drop. The majority of faults that accumulated positive ΔCFF during the sequence were `encouraged' by the main shock failure, but, on the other hand, of the faults that failed during the sequence, more than 50 % of faults appeared to have accumulated a negative ΔCFF from all preceding failures during the sequence. These results were qualitatively insensitive to any of the factors considered. We conclude that there is much unknown about how Coulomb stress triggering works in practice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Auffray B.
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The sorption of inorganic elements on carbonate minerals is well known in strictly controlled conditions which limit the impact of other phenomena such as dissolution and/or precipitation. In this study, we evidence the behavior of Zn(II (initially in solution and two trace elements, Mn(II and Sr(II (released by carbonate dissolution in the context of a leakage from a CO2 storage site. The initial pH chosen are either equal to the pH of the water-CO2 equilibrium (~ 2.98 or equal to the pH of the water-CO2-calcite system (~ 4.8 in CO2 storage conditions. From this initial influx of liquid, saturated or not with respect to calcite, the batch experiments evolve freely to their equilibrium, as it would occur in a natural context after a perturbation. The batch experiments are carried out on two natural carbonates (from Lavoux and St-Emilion with PCO2 = 10−3.5 bar, with different initial conditions ([Zn(II]i from 10−4 to 10−6 M, either with pure water or 100 g/L NaCl brine. The equilibrium regarding calcite dissolution is confirmed in all experiments, while the zinc sorption evidenced does not always correspond to the two-step mechanism described in the literature. A preferential sorption of about 10% of the concentration is evidenced for Mn(II in aqueous experiments, while Sr(II is more sorbed in saline conditions. This study also shows that this preferential sorption, depending on the salinity, is independent of the natural carbonate considered. Then, the simulations carried out with PHREEQC show that experiments and simulations match well concerning the equilibrium of dissolution and the sole zinc sorption, with log KZn(II ~ 2 in pure water and close to 4 in high salinity conditions. When the simulations were possible, the log K values for Mn(II and Sr(II were much different from those in the literature obtained by sorption in controlled conditions. It is shown that a new conceptual model regarding multiple Trace Elements (TE sorption is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furlan, Claudia Maria; Salatino, Antonio [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Secao de Ecologia, Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2007-03-15
Saplings of Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava, cultivated under standardized soil conditions, were placed in two sites at Cubatao (state of Sao Paulo, southeast Brazil) to study the effects of air pollution on growth, biomass allocation and foliar nitrogen and fluoride concentrations. Thirty-six potted plants were maintained over two periods of one year (Jul/00 to Jun/01; Dec/00 to Nov/01) at each of two experimental sites with distinct levels of air pollution: Piloes River Valley (PV) with vegetation virtually unaffected by air pollution; and Mogi River Valley (MV) severely affected by pollutants released mainly by chemical, fertilizer, iron and steel industries. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed alterations of growth and biomass allocation, as well as increased leaf concentrations of nitrogen and fluoride. Comparing both experimental periods, the one starting in winter (the driest season in Southeastern Brazil) seemed to affect the saplings more severely, the differences of the measured parameters between MV and PV being higher than in the second period. Multivariate analysis revealed two groups of data: one representing the MV and the other the PV saplings. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed differences in chemical composition, growth and biomass allocation, compared with the PV saplings. The results suggested that seasonal conditions of the first months of sapling exposure (summer or winter) modulate the intensity of responses to pollution stress. (author)
Ridge, N A; Megeath, S T; Ridge, Naomi A.; Bergin, Edwin A.
2002-01-01
In order to obtain a census of the pre-stellar and star-forming molecular cores, we have begun an unbiased survey in CS and N2H+ of the L1630 and L1641 molecular clouds. The use of these two molecular species enables us to quantify and disentangle the effects of depletion often seen in CS observations of dense cores. The spectral line data will provide essential kinematical information not present in similar studies of the sub-millimeter dust-continuum, enabling us to examine the overall core to core velocity dispersion and study the effects of infall and outflows around known sub-mm and infra-red sources. Here we present our initial observations of part of L1630, taken during the commissioning phase of the FCRAO On-the-Fly Mapping system in January 2002.
Zakaria, Siti Aminah; Hussain, Zuhailawati; Seman, Anasyida Abu
2016-07-01
The aims of this study to determine the suitable initial heat treatment for 1100 aluminum alloy prior to cryorolling process and the properties of annealed and cryorolled annealed sample. The samples were annealed at different annealing temperature of 200˚C, 250˚C, 300˚C, 350˚C and 400˚C for 2 hours soaking time before cryorolling. The annealing samples then were cryorolled up to 50% thickness reduction after dipping in liquid nitrogen for 30 minutes. The effect of annealing temperature on cryorolled sample was investigated by employing hardness measurements and tensile test. The highest hardness and tensile properties achieved for sample annealed at 250 °C. The entire cryorolled sample showed severely deformed grain which are elongated along and following the rolling direction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anton eIlango
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Midbrain dopamine neurons are implicated in motivation and learning. However, it is unclear how phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, which is implicated in learning, is involved in motivation. Here we used a self-stimulation procedure to examine how mice seek for optogenetically-induced phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, with an emphasis on the temporal dimension. TH-Cre transgenic mice received adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin-2 into the ventral tegmental area, resulting in selective expression of the opsin in dopamine neurons. These mice were trained to press on a lever for photo-pulse trains that phasically excited dopamine neurons. They learned to self-stimulate in a fast, constant manner, and rapidly reduced pressing during extinction. We first determined effective parameters of photo-pulse trains in self-stimulation. Lever-press rates changed as a function of the manipulation of pulse number, duration, intensity and frequency. We then examined effects of interval and ratio schedules of reinforcement on photo-pulse train reinforcement, which was contrasted with food reinforcement. Reinforcement with food inhibited lever pressing for a few seconds, after which pressing was robustly regulated in a goal-directed manner. In contrast, phasic excitation of dopamine neurons robustly potentiated the initiation of lever pressing; however, this effect did not last more than 1 s and quickly diminished. Indeed, response rates markedly decreased when lever pressing was reinforced with inter-reinforcement interval schedules of 3 or 10 s or ratio schedules requiring multiple responses per reinforcement. Thus, phasic excitation of dopamine neurons briefly potentiates the initiation of approach behavior with apparent lack of long-term motivational regulation.
Ilango, Anton; Kesner, Andrew J; Broker, Carl J; Wang, Dong V; Ikemoto, Satoshi
2014-01-01
Midbrain dopamine neurons are implicated in motivation and learning. However, it is unclear how phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, which is implicated in learning, is involved in motivation. Here we used a self-stimulation procedure to examine how mice seek for optogenetically-induced phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, with an emphasis on the temporal dimension. TH-Cre transgenic mice received adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin-2 into the ventral tegmental area, resulting in selective expression of the opsin in dopamine neurons. These mice were trained to press on a lever for photo-pulse trains that phasically excited dopamine neurons. They learned to self-stimulate in a fast, constant manner, and rapidly reduced pressing during extinction. We first determined effective parameters of photo-pulse trains in self-stimulation. Lever-press rates changed as a function of the manipulation of pulse number, duration, intensity, and frequency. We then examined effects of interval and ratio schedules of reinforcement on photo-pulse train reinforcement, which was contrasted with food reinforcement. Reinforcement with food inhibited lever pressing for a few seconds, after which pressing was robustly regulated in a goal-directed manner. In contrast, phasic excitation of dopamine neurons robustly potentiated the initiation of lever pressing; however, this effect did not last more than 1 s and quickly diminished. Indeed, response rates markedly decreased when lever pressing was reinforced with inter-reinforcement interval schedules of 3 or 10 s or ratio schedules requiring multiple responses per reinforcement. Thus, phasic excitation of dopamine neurons briefly potentiates the initiation of approach behavior with apparent lack of long-term motivational regulation.
Gorbunov, Dmitry
2016-01-01
A classical evolution in chaotic inflationary models starts at high energy densities with semi-classical initial conditions presumably consistent with universal quantum nature of all the fundamental forces. That is each quantum contributes the same amount to the energy density. We point out the upper limit on this amount inherent in this approach, so that all the quanta are inside the weak-coupling domain. We discuss this issue in realistic models with modified gravity, $R^2$- and Higgs-inflations, emphasizing the specific change of the initial conditions with metric frame, while all the quanta still contribute equal parts. The analysis can be performed straightforwardly in any model with modified gravity ($F(R)$-gravity, scalars with non-minimal couplings to gravity, etc).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renata Stiebler
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemozoin (Hz is a heme crystal that represents a vital pathway for heme disposal in several blood-feeding organisms. Recent evidence demonstrated that β-hematin (βH (the synthetic counterpart of Hz formation occurs under physiological conditions near synthetic or biological hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. This seems to require a heme dimer acting as a precursor of Hz crystals that would be formed spontaneously in the absence of the competing water molecules bound to the heme iron. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of medium polarity on spontaneous βH formation in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the effect of water content on spontaneous βH formation by using the aprotic solvent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO and a series of polyethyleneglycols (PEGs. We observed that both DMSO and PEGs (3.350, 6.000, 8.000, and 22.000 increased the levels of soluble heme under acidic conditions. These compounds were able to stimulate the production of βH crystals in the absence of any biological sample. Interestingly, the effects of DMSO and PEGs on βH formation were positively correlated with their capacity to promote previous heme solubilization in acidic conditions. Curiously, a short chain polyethyleneglycol (PEG 300 caused a significant reduction in both soluble heme levels and βH formation. Finally, both heme solubilization and βH formation strongly correlated with reduced medium water activity provided by increased DMSO concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here support the notion that reduction of the water activity is an important mechanism to support spontaneous heme crystallization, which depends on the previous increase of soluble heme levels.
Building multivariate systems biology models
Kirwan, G.M.; Johansson, E.; Kleemann, R.; Verheij, E.R.; Wheelock, A.M.; Goto, S.; Trygg, J.; Wheelock, C.E.
2012-01-01
Systems biology methods using large-scale "omics" data sets face unique challenges: integrating and analyzing near limitless data space, while recognizing and removing systematic variation or noise. Herein we propose a complementary multivariate analysis workflow to both integrate "omics" data from
The Multivariate Gaussian Probability Distribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahrendt, Peter
2005-01-01
This technical report intends to gather information about the multivariate gaussian distribution, that was previously not (at least to my knowledge) to be found in one place and written as a reference manual. Additionally, some useful tips and tricks are collected that may be useful in practical...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueschke, N; Schilling, O
2008-07-23
A 1152 x 760 x 1280 direct numerical simulation (DNS) using initial conditions, geometry, and physical parameters chosen to approximate those of a transitional, small Atwood number Rayleigh-Taylor mixing experiment [Mueschke, Andrews and Schilling, J. Fluid Mech. 567, 27 (2006)] is presented. The density and velocity fluctuations measured just off of the splitter plate in this buoyantly unstable water channel experiment were parameterized to provide physically-realistic, anisotropic initial conditions for the DNS. The methodology for parameterizing the measured data and numerically implementing the resulting perturbation spectra in the simulation is discussed in detail. The DNS model of the experiment is then validated by comparing quantities from the simulation to experimental measurements. In particular, large-scale quantities (such as the bubble front penetration hb and the mixing layer growth parameter {alpha}{sub b}), higher-order statistics (such as velocity variances and the molecular mixing parameter {theta}), and vertical velocity and density variance spectra from the DNS are shown to be in favorable agreement with the experimental data. Differences between the quantities obtained from the DNS and from experimental measurements are related to limitations in the dynamic range of scales resolved in the simulation and other idealizations of the simulation model. This work demonstrates that a parameterization of experimentally-measured initial conditions can yield simulation data that quantitatively agrees well with experimentally-measured low- and higher-order statistics in a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer. This study also provides resolution and initial conditions implementation requirements needed to simulate a physical Rayleigh-Taylor mixing experiment. In Part II [Mueschke and Schilling, Phys. Fluids (2008)], other quantities not measured in the experiment are obtained from the DNS and discussed, such as the integral- and Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarkadi, Peter; Schaffrath, Andreas [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany)
2009-07-01
In the frame of a PWR reactor safety analysis the TUEV Nord Sys Tec GmbH has analyzed the plant behavior in case of a steam generator tube leakage using the thermal hydraulic code ATHLET and realistic initial and boundary conditions. The aim of the analysis was to show that the response of the emergency cooling criteria including the activation of safety injection pumps can be avoided. The Activation of the safety injection pumps could jeopardize the activity retention.
Fuller, Jack T.; Butler, Steven; Devarajan, Deepa; Jacobs, Austin; Hashiguchi, Brian G.; Konnick, Michael M.; Goddard, William A.; Gonzales, Jason M.; Periana, Roy A.; Ess, Daniel H.
2016-01-01
Methane conversion to methyl bisulfate by Hg^(II)(SO_4) in sulfuric acid is an example of fast and selective alkane oxidation catalysis. Dichotomous mechanisms involving C–H activation and electron transfer have been proposed based on experiments. Radical oxidation pathways have also been proposed for some reaction conditions. Hg^(II) is also of significant interest because as a d^(10) transition metal it is similar to d^(10) main-group metals that also oxidize alkanes. Density-functional cal...
Multivariable Intelligent Decoupling Control System and its Application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TianYou CHAI; Heng YUE
2005-01-01
Many industrial processes have compositive complexities including multivariable, strong coupling, nonlinearity, time-variant and operating condition variations. Combining multivariable adaptive decoupling control with neural networks, this paper presents a multivariable neural networkbased decoupling control algorithm. This control algorithm is integrated with distributed control technique and intelligent control technique, and a three-leveled intelligent decoupling control system consisting of basic control level, coordinating control level, and management and decision level is developed. The configuration and function of the control system are discussed in detail. This system has been successfully applied in ball mill pulverizing systems of 200MW power units, and remarkable benefits have been obtained.
Strachota, Beata; Matějka, Libor; Zhigunov, Alexander; Konefał, Rafał; Spěváček, Jiří; Dybal, Jiří; Puffr, Rudolf
2015-12-28
The formation of the hydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-clay (LAPONITE®) by redox polymerization was investigated, and the main factors governing the gel build-up were determined. The significant effect of the redox initiating system ammonium peroxodisulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) on gel formation and structure was established, making it possible to control the structure of the gel. Moreover, the pre-reaction stage involving the quality of the clay exfoliation in an aqueous suspension and the interaction of reaction components with the clay play a role in controlling the polymerization and gel structure. The molecular and phase structure evolution during polymerization was followed in situ by the following independent techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), chemorheology, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis). The combination of these methods enabled us to describe in detail particular progress stages during the gel formation and determine the correlation of the corresponding processes on a time and conversion scale. The mechanism of gel formation was refined based on these experimental results.
Orban, Chris
2011-01-01
Motivated by cosmological surveys that demand accurate theoretical modeling of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in galaxy clustering, we analyze N-body simulations in which a BAO-like gaussian bump modulates the linear theory correlation function \\xi_L(r)=(r_0/r)^{n+3} of an underlying self-similar model with initial power spectrum P(k)=A k^n. These simulations test physical and analytic descriptions of BAO evolution far beyond the range of most studies, since we consider a range of underlying power spectra (n=-0.5, -1, -1.5) and evolve simulations to large effective correlation amplitudes (equivalent to \\sigma_8=4-12 for r_bao = 100 Mpc/h). In all cases, non-linear evolution flattens and broadens the BAO bump in \\xi(r) while approximately preserving its area. This evolution resembles a "diffusion" process in which the bump width \\sigma_bao is the quadrature sum of the linear theory width and a length proportional to the rms relative displacement \\Sigma_pair(r_bao}) of particle pairs separated by...
Marty, R.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Cassing, W.; Aichelin, J.
2015-07-01
For nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies currently available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we calculate observables in two different transport approaches, i.e., the n -body molecular dynamical model "relativistic quantum molecular dynamics for strongly interacting matter with phase transition or crossover" (RSP) and the two-body parton hadron string dynamics (PHSD), starting out from the same distribution in the initial energy density at the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formation time. The RSP dynamics is based on the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) Lagrangian, whereas in PHSD the partons are described by the dynamical quasiparticle model (DQPM). Despite the very different description of the parton properties and their interactions and of the hadronization in both approaches, the final transverse momentum distributions of pions turn out to be quite similar, which is less visible for the strange mesons owing to the large NJL cross sections involved. Our findings can be attributed, in part, to a partial thermalization of the quark degrees of freedom in central Au +Au collisions for both approaches. The rapidity distribution of mesons shows a stronger sensitivity to the nature of the degrees of freedom involved and to their interaction strength in the QGP.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Corrosion behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy in simulating acid rain under wet-dry cyclic condition was investigated.The results show that corrosion potential shifts positively and the corrosion current density decreases at low wet-dry cyclic time.Further increase of the cyclic time results in the negative movement of corrosion potential and the increase of current density.SEM observation indicates that corrosion Occurs only in αphase,βphase is inert in corrosive medium,and the corrosion of AZ91 magnesium appears in uniform characteristic.XPS analysis suggests that the corrosion product is mainly composed of oxide and hydroxide of magnesium and aluminum,and a small amount of sulfate is also contained in the film.
Jenkins, Gregory S.; Diokhane, Aminita Mbow
2017-10-01
During the northern hemisphere winter and spring seasons Saharan dust events overspreading West Africa are frequent and linked to mid-latitude interactions. The dust events have the ability to produce low visibilities, poor air quality and can promote respiratory disease. While a number of case studies have been undertaken, the ability to forecast Saharan dust events is largely unknown. To investigate this matter, we have performed hindcasts using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard Chemistry Aerosols Radiation Transport (GOCART) module, with 6-h boundary conditions from the NOAA ' National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) final analysis (FNL). We use observed and forecasted PM10 concentrations to evaluate the hindcasts. The hindcasts begin with different conditions 3-8 days before two Saharan dust events where the maximum Particulate matter at 10 microns (PM10) concentrations are observed on 20 January and 7 February 2012 in Dakar, Senegal. The results show that all hindcasts are able to capture the timing of the peak on 20 January but the maximum peak during the second dust event occurs one day prior to the observed peak on 7 February with similar pattern from satellite based aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates. The hindcasts have positive biases in PM10 concentrations relative to the observations in Dakar Senegal. The hindcasts suggest that WRF model has the potential to effectively forecasts Saharan dust events in real-time forecasts, however, they must be evaluated against additional surface PM10 observations at varying locations, which are currently sparse over West Africa.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Nied
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Floods are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological event characteristics and pre-event catchment conditions. While the large-scale meteorological conditions have been classified and successfully linked to floods, this is lacking for the large-scale pre-event catchment conditions. Therefore, we propose classifying soil moisture as a key variable of pre-event catchment conditions and investigating the link between soil moisture patterns and flood occurrence in the Elbe River basin. Soil moisture is simulated using a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model over the period 1951–2003. Principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis are applied successively to identify days of similar soil moisture patterns. The results show that PCA considerably reduced the dimensionality of the soil moisture data. The first principal component (PC explains 75.71% of the soil moisture variability and represents the large-scale seasonal wetting and drying. The successive PCs express spatially heterogeneous catchment processes. By clustering the leading PCs, we identify large-scale soil moisture patterns which frequently occur before the onset of floods. In winter, floods are initiated by overall high soil moisture content, whereas in summer the flood-initiating soil moisture patterns are diverse and less stable in time.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱明琳; 杭丽君; 李国杰; 解大; 李文伟
2016-01-01
电网不平衡不仅会导致模块化多电平变流器(multi-modular converter，MMC)网侧电流波形质量变差，还会引起桥臂电压不平衡、桥臂环流增加等一系列问题。为避免MMC系统发生过电压或过电流的安全问题，考虑交流侧最大工作电流、桥臂最大电容电压纹波以及最大注入无功三个方面的工作条件限制，分别从理论角度推导出多变量保护控制算法下控制参数k的计算公式。首先分析了MMC系统电流方程、电压方程以及能量的动态方程。基于上述系统方程，考虑MMC系统允许的工作范围如交流侧最大工作电流、桥臂最大电容电压纹波以及最大注入无功三个方面，详细给出了参数 k 的设计原则和流程。最后，利用实时仿真平台和MMC样机对理论计算给出了仿真和实验验证结果。%In the grid-connected modular multilevel converters (MMCs) system, grid faults not only cause the quality deterioration of grid currentswhich may lead the MMC to shut down, but also bring unbalanced problems to the arm voltages. In this paper, a multi-variable protected control method which was employed ind-q coordinate was presented. Considering the permitted maximum of three-phase current, the permitted capacitor voltage ripple and the maximum reactive power set-point, the calculation of the parameterk was given respectively. The converter mathematical models which were based on the laws of Kirchhoff and energy balance were given first. Then the relationship between the system requirements, such as the maximum current and the permitted capacitor voltage ripple, and the parameterk was derived. Furthermore, the design principles of parameterk were deduced. Finally, the simulating results from real time digital simulator (RTDS), and the experimental results from a scaled-down MMC prototype were presented to verify the theoretical analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D`Amore, F. [CNR, Pisa (Italy). International Institute for Geothermal Research ; Mejia, J.T. [Comision Ejuctiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa, El Salvador (El Salvador)
1999-02-01
A study has been made to obtain the main chemical and physical reservoir conditions of the Berlin field (El Salvador), before the commencement of large-scale exploitation of the geothermal resource. The upflow zone and the main flow path within the geothermal system have been determined from the area distribution of chemical parameters such as Cl concentrations, ratios such as Na/K, K/Mg, K/Ca, and temperatures computed from silica concentrations and cation ratios. Gas compositions have been used to calculate reservoir parameters such as temperature, steam fraction and P{sub CO{sub 2}}. The computer code WATCH (new edition 1994) has been used to evaluate the temperature of equilibrium between the aqueous species and selected alteration minerals in the reservoir. The fluid in Berlin flows to the exploited reservoir from the south, entering it in the vicinity of well TR-5. Along its flow-path (south-north direction), the fluid is cooled by boiling and conductive cooling. The chloride-enthalpy diagram indicates the existence of a parent water, with a chemical composition similar to well TR-5, that boils and the residual brine produces the fluid of well TR-3, which is very concentrated in salts. The fluid of TR-5 is probably produced from this parent water, generating the fluids of wells TR-2 and TR-9 by boiling, and the fluids of wells TR-1 and TR-4 by conductive cooling. The computed values for the deep steam fraction clearly indicate that this is a liquid-dominated system, with computed temperature values decreasing from 310{sup o}C (upflow zone) to about 230{sup o}C, from south to north. (author)
Visualization of Multivariate Metabolomic Data
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Jun; CAO Bei; ZHENG Tian; LIU Lin-sheng; GUO Sheng; DUAN Jin-ao; AA Ji-ye; WANG Guang-ji; ZHANG Feng-yi; GU Rong-rong; WANG Xin-wen; ZHAO Chun-yan; LI Meng-jie; SHI Jian
2011-01-01
Objective Although principal components analysis profiles greatly facilitate the visualization and interpretation of the multivariate data,the quantitative concepts in both scores plot and loading plot are rather obscure.This article introduced three profiles that assisted the better understanding of metabolomic data.Methods The discriminatory profile,heat map,and statistic profile were developed to visualize the multivariate data obtained from high-throughput GC-TOF-MS analysis.Results The discriminatory profile and heat map obviously showed the discriminatory metabolites between the two groups,while the statistic profile showed the potential markers of statistic significance.Conclusion The three types of profiles greatly facilitate our understanding of the metabolomic data and the identification of the potential markers.
Flotation control -- A multivariable stabilizer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert, J.H.; Henning, R.G.D.; Hulbert, D.G.; Craig, I.K. [Mintek, Randburg (South Africa)
1995-12-31
This paper presents a stabilizing controller for flotation plants which uses a quasi-multivariable technique. The controller monitors all the levels in the plant, and by anticipating interactions between various parts of the plant, is able to stabilize the plant far more successfully than the normal plant control. Once stabilizing control has been achieved, optimization of the process becomes easier and more sustainable. An estimate of the improvement in metallurgical performance is made and a singular value analysis was conducted to verify that the multivariable algorithm will theoretically control better than a collection of individual PID loops. Metallurgical results are presented to show that the improvements are attainable in practice. Control by the Mintek algorithm was alternated with normal plant control, to show that the improvements are statistically significant.
Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...... Bayesian hierarchy for sparse models using slab and spike priors (two-component δ-function and continuous mixtures), non-Gaussian latent factors and a stochastic search over the ordering of the variables. The framework, which we call SLIM (Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate modeling), is validated...... and bench-marked on artificial and real biological data sets. SLIM is closest in spirit to LiNGAM (Shimizu et al., 2006), but differs substantially in inference, Bayesian network structure learning and model comparison. Experimentally, SLIM performs equally well or better than LiNGAM with comparable...
Multivariate Evolutionary Analyses in Astrophysics
Fraix-Burnet, Didier
2011-01-01
The large amount of data on galaxies, up to higher and higher redshifts, asks for sophisticated statistical approaches to build adequate classifications. Multivariate cluster analyses, that compare objects for their global similarities, are still confidential in astrophysics, probably because their results are somewhat difficult to interpret. We believe that the missing key is the unavoidable characteristics in our Universe: evolution. Our approach, known as Astrocladistics, is based on the evolutionary nature of both galaxies and their properties. It gathers objects according to their "histories" and establishes an evolutionary scenario among groups of objects. In this presentation, I show two recent results on globular clusters and earlytype galaxies to illustrate how the evolutionary concepts of Astrocladistics can also be useful for multivariate analyses such as K-means Cluster Analysis.
Nonnegative Decomposition of Multivariate Information
Williams, Paul L
2010-01-01
Of the various attempts to generalize information theory to multiple variables, the most widely utilized, interaction information, suffers from the problem that it is sometimes negative. Here we reconsider from first principles the general structure of the information that a set of sources provides about a given variable. We begin with a new definition of redundancy as the minimum information that any source provides about each possible outcome of the variable, averaged over all possible outcomes. We then show how this measure of redundancy induces a lattice over sets of sources that clarifies the general structure of multivariate information. Finally, we use this redundancy lattice to propose a definition of partial information atoms that exhaustively decompose the Shannon information in a multivariate system in terms of the redundancy between synergies of subsets of the sources. Unlike interaction information, the atoms of our partial information decomposition are never negative and always support a clear i...
Polo Miranda, Carlos
2002-01-01
Este libro ha sido elaborado y editado para los estudios de segundo ciclo de Ingeniería de Organización Industrial, que se imparten en la ETSEIT de la UPC. La estadística multivariable permite el análisis y la interpretación del comportamiento de múltiples variables de interés, asociadas a un mismo individuo, de las que se dispone de un gran número de observaciones.
Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (Preprint)
1990-08-01
characteristics of olive oils as a function of production year by multivariate methods. La Revista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse, 60, Oct. . Friedman, J...Projection pursuit 76, 817-823. Friedman, J. H. and Wright, M. J. (1981). A nested partitioni: integration. ACM Trans. Math. Software, March. simonious...data. Proc. 1964 ACM Nat. Conf., 517-524. Shumaker, L. L. (1976). Fitting surfaces to scattered data. In Approximation Theory III, G. G. Lorentz, C
Shurtz, Randy Clark
The effects of elevated pressure and high heating rates on coal pyrolysis and gasification were investigated. A high-pressure flat-flame burner (HPFFB) was designed and built to conduct these studies. The HPFFB was designed to provide an environment with laminar, dispersed entrained flow, with particle heating rates of ˜105 K/s, pressures of up to 15 atm, and gas temperatures of up to 2000 K. Residence times were varied from 30 to 700 ms in this study. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at particle heating rates of ˜10 5 K/s and maximum gas temperatures of ˜1700 K at pressures of 1 to 15 atm. A new coal swelling correlation was developed that predicts the effects of heating rate, pressure, and coal rank on the swelling ratio at heating rates above ˜104 K/s. A coal swelling rank index system based on 13C-NMR chemical structural parameters was devised. The empirical swelling model requires user inputs of the coal ultimate and proximate analyses and the use of a transient particle energy balance to predict the maximum particle heating rate. The swelling model was used to explain differences in previously reported bituminous coal swelling ratios that were measured in facilities with different heating rates. Char gasification studies by CO2 were conducted on a subbituminous coal and 4 bituminous coals in the HPFFB. Pressures of 5, 10, and 15 atmospheres were used with gas compositions of 20, 40, and 90 mole % CO2. Gas conditions with peak temperatures of 1700 K to 2000 K were used, which resulted in char particle temperatures of 1000 K to 1800 K. Three gasification models were developed to fit and analyze the gasification data. A simple 1 st--order model was used to show that the measured gasification rates were far below the film-diffusion limit. The other two models, designated CCK and CCKN, were based on three versions of the CBK models. CCKN used an nth--order kinetic mechanism and CCK used a semi-global Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic mechanism. The two CCK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Javier Sánchez-Aparicio
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Identifying and quantifying the potential causes of damages to a construction and evaluating its current stability have become an imperative task in today’s world. However, the existence of variables, unknown conditions and a complex geometry hinder such work, by hampering the numerical results that simulate its behavior. Of the mentioned variables, the following can be highlighted: (i the lack of historical information; (ii the mechanical properties of the material; (iii the initial geometry and (iv the interaction with other structures. Within the field of remote sensors, the laser scanner and photogrammetric systems have become especially valuable for construction analysis. Such sensors are capable of providing highly accurate and dense geometrical data with which to assess a building’s condition. It is also remarkable, that the latter provide valuable radiometric data with which to identify the properties of the materials, and also evaluate and monitor crack patterns. Motivated by this, the present article investigates the potential offered by the combined use of photogrammetric techniques (DIC and SfM, as well as geometrical (NURBs and Hausdorff distance and numerical strategies (FEM to assess the origin of the damage (through an estimation of the initial conditions and give an evaluation of the current stability (considering the deformation and the damage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Markowski
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Injury to soybean seedlings caused by low temperature (5°C at the beginning of germination was greatly reduced when instead of chilling (10°C a higher temperature (20°C was applied at the end of germination and during emergence. A new interpretation of the physiological mechanism involved in this reversibility of chilling injury was proposed. Hydration in water vapour of soybean seeds with initial moisture content of from 5 to 10% to a level of 30%, dry weight basis, increased seedling survival under controlled conditions of germination and emergence at respectively 5°C and l0°C as well as under natural soil conditions in field experiments both after early and late planting dates. A modified method of seed hydration in water vapour (i.e. conditioning or hardening of seeds against cold was developed for practical application. In field experiments conditioning of seeds increased seedling survival and thus also yields per unit area of plot but had no significant effect on yield per plant. Seed conditioning may have practical significance in soybean growing and for breeding purposes when equalizing the number of plants per plot is important for comparing new varieties and breeding forms.
Trautz, Andrew C.; Smits, Kathleen M.; Cihan, Abdullah
2015-09-01
Evaporation and condensation in bare soils govern water and energy fluxes between the land and atmosphere. Phase change between liquid water and water vapor is commonly evaluated in soil hydrology using an assumption of instantaneous phase change (i.e., chemical equilibrium). Past experimental studies have shown that finite volatilization and condensation times can be observed under certain environmental conditions, thereby questioning the validity of this assumption. A comparison between equilibrium and nonequilibrium phase change modeling approaches showed that the latter is able to provide better estimates of evaporation, justifying the need for more research on this topic. Several formulations based on irreversible thermodynamics, first-order reaction kinetics, or the kinetic theory of gases have been employed to describe nonequilibrium phase change at the continuum scale. In this study, results from a fully coupled nonisothermal heat and mass transfer model applying four different nonequilibrium phase change formulations were compared with experimental data generated under different initial and boundary conditions. Results from a modified Hertz-Knudsen formulation based on kinetic theory of gases, proposed herein, were consistently in best agreement in terms of preserving both magnitude and trends of experimental data under all environmental conditions analyzed. Simulation results showed that temperature-dependent formulations generally better predict evaporation than formulations independent of temperature. Analysis of vapor concentrations within the porous media showed that conditions were not at equilibrium under the experimental conditions tested.
Peng, Zhen; Liu, Zhiquan; Chen, Dan; Ban, Junmei
2017-04-01
In an attempt to improve the forecasting of atmospheric aerosols, the ensemble square root filter algorithm was extended to simultaneously optimize the chemical initial conditions (ICs) and emission input. The forecast model, which was expanded by combining the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model and a forecast model of emission scaling factors, generated both chemical concentration fields and emission scaling factors. The forecast model of emission scaling factors was developed by using the ensemble concentration ratios of the WRF-Chem forecast chemical concentrations and also the time smoothing operator. Hourly surface fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) observations were assimilated in this system over China from 5 to 16 October 2014. A series of 48 h forecasts was then carried out with the optimized initial conditions and emissions on each day at 00:00 UTC and a control experiment was performed without data assimilation. In addition, we also performed an experiment of pure assimilation chemical ICs and the corresponding 48 h forecasts experiment for comparison. The results showed that the forecasts with the optimized initial conditions and emissions typically outperformed those from the control experiment. In the Yangtze River delta (YRD) and the Pearl River delta (PRD) regions, large reduction of the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) was obtained for almost the entire 48 h forecast range attributed to assimilation. In particular, the relative reduction in RMSE due to assimilation was about 37.5 % at nighttime when WRF-Chem performed comparatively worse. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (JJJ) region, relatively smaller improvements were achieved in the first 24 h forecast but then no improvements were achieved afterwards. Comparing to the forecasts with only the optimized ICs, the forecasts with the joint adjustment were always much better during the night in the PRD and YRD regions. However, they were very similar during daytime in both
Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael
We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...... proposed simulation method for one-dimensional bridges to the mulit-variate setting. First a method of simulating approzimate, but often very accurate, diffusion bridges is proposed. These approximate bridges are used as proposal for easily implementable MCMC algorithms that produce exact diffusion bridges...
Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes
Huser, Raphaël
2015-11-17
The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.
Aspects of multivariate statistical theory
Muirhead, Robb J
2009-01-01
The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. "". . . the wealth of material on statistics concerning the multivariate normal distribution is quite exceptional. As such it is a very useful source of information for the general statistician and a must for anyone wanting to pen
Exploratory and multivariate data analysis
Jambu, Michel
1991-01-01
With a useful index of notations at the beginning, this book explains and illustrates the theory and application of data analysis methods from univariate to multidimensional and how to learn and use them efficiently. This book is well illustrated and is a useful and well-documented review of the most important data analysis techniques.Key Features* Describes, in detail, exploratory data analysis techniques from the univariate to the multivariate ones* Features a complete description of correspondence analysis and factor analysis techniques as multidimensional statistical data a
Multivariate residues and maximal unitarity
Søgaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang
2013-12-01
We extend the maximal unitarity method to amplitude contributions whose cuts define multidimensional algebraic varieties. The technique is valid to all orders and is explicitly demonstrated at three loops in gauge theories with any number of fermions and scalars in the adjoint representation. Deca-cuts realized by replacement of real slice integration contours by higher-dimensional tori encircling the global poles are used to factorize the planar triple box onto a product of trees. We apply computational algebraic geometry and multivariate complex analysis to derive unique projectors for all master integral coefficients and obtain compact analytic formulae in terms of tree-level data.
Essentials of multivariate data analysis
Spencer, Neil H
2013-01-01
""… this text provides an overview at an introductory level of several methods in multivariate data analysis. It contains in-depth examples from one data set woven throughout the text, and a free [Excel] Add-In to perform the analyses in Excel, with step-by-step instructions provided for each technique. … could be used as a text (possibly supplemental) for courses in other fields where researchers wish to apply these methods without delving too deeply into the underlying statistics.""-The American Statistician, February 2015
Minimal inversion, command matching and disturbance decoupling in multivariable systems
Seraji, H.
1989-01-01
The present treatment of the related problems of minimal inversion and perfect output control in linear multivariable systems uses a simple analytical expression for the inverse of a square multivariate system's transfer-function matrix to construct a minimal-order inverse of the system. Because the poles of the minimal-order inverse are the transmission zeros of the system, necessary and sufficient conditions for the inverse system's stability are simply stated in terms of the zero polynomial of the original system. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the required controllers is that the plant zero polynomial be neither identical to zero nor unstable.
Evaluating multivariate GARCH models in the Nordic electricity markets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malo, P.; Kanto, A.
2005-07-01
This paper considers a variety of specification tests for multivariate GARCH models that are used in dynamic hedging in the electricity markets. The test statistics include the robust conditional moments tests for sign-size bias along with the recently introduced copula tests for an appropriate dependence structure. We consider this effort worthwhile, since quite often the tests of multivariate GARCH models are easily omitted and the models become selected ad-hoc depending on the results they generate. Hedging performance comparisons, in terms of unconditional and conditional ex-post variance portfolio reduction, are conducted. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martínez-Mesa, Aliezer [Departmento de Física Teórica, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Saalfrank, Peter [Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)
2015-05-21
Femtosecond-laser pulse driven non-adiabatic spectroscopy and dynamics in molecular and condensed phase systems continue to be a challenge for theoretical modelling. One of the main obstacles is the “curse of dimensionality” encountered in non-adiabatic, exact wavepacket propagation. A possible route towards treating complex molecular systems is via semiclassical surface-hopping schemes, in particular if they account not only for non-adiabatic post-excitation dynamics but also for the initial optical excitation. One such approach, based on initial condition filtering, will be put forward in what follows. As a simple test case which can be compared with exact wavepacket dynamics, we investigate the influence of the different parameters determining the shape of a laser pulse (e.g., its finite width and a possible chirp) on the predissociation dynamics of a NaI molecule, upon photoexcitation of the A(0{sup +}) state. The finite-pulse effects are mapped into the initial conditions for semiclassical surface-hopping simulations. The simulated surface-hopping diabatic populations are in qualitative agreement with the quantum mechanical results, especially concerning the subpicosend photoinduced dynamics, the main deviations being the relative delay of the non-adiabatic transitions in the semiclassical picture. Likewise, these differences in the time-dependent electronic populations calculated via the semiclassical and the quantum methods are found to have a mild influence on the overall probability density distribution. As a result, the branching ratios between the bound and the dissociative reaction channels and the time-evolution of the molecular wavepacket predicted by the semiclassical method agree with those computed using quantum wavepacket propagation. Implications for more challenging molecular systems are given.