WorldWideScience

Sample records for initial attack success

  1. Predicting the effect of climate change on wildfire behavior and initial attack success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, William; Fried, Jeremy S.; Gilless, J. Keith; Riley, William J.; Moody, Tadashi J.; Simon de Blas, Clara; Hayhoe, Katharine; Moritz, Max; Stephens, Scott; Torn, Margaret

    2007-12-01

    This study focused on how climate change-induced effects on weather will translate into changes in wildland fire severity and outcomes in California, particularly on the effectiveness of initial attack at limiting the number of fires that escape initial attack. The results indicate that subtle shifts in fire behavior of the sort that might be induced by the climate changes anticipated for the next century are of sufficient magnitude to generate an appreciable increase in the number of fires that escape initial attack. Such escapes are of considerable importance in wildland fire protection planning, given the high cost to society of a catastrophic escape like those experienced in recent decades in the Berkeley-Oakland, Santa Barbara, San Diego, or Los Angeles areas. However, at least for the three study areas considered, it would appear that relatively modest augmentations to existing firefighting resources might be sufficient to compensate for change-induced changes in wildland fire outcomes.

  2. On the anatomy of social engineering attacks : A literature-based dissection of successful attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Montoya, L.; Pieters, Wolter; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    The aim of this studywas to explore the extent towhich persuasion principles are used in successful social engineering attacks. Seventy-four scenarioswere extracted from 4 books on social engineering (written by social engineers) and analysed. Each scenariowas split into attack steps, containing

  3. Analysing initial attack on wildland fires using stochastic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; J. Keith Gilless; James. Spero

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic simulation models of initial attack on wildland fire can be designed to reflect the complexity of the environmental, administrative, and institutional context in which wildland fire protection agencies operate, but such complexity may come at the cost of a considerable investment in data acquisition and management. This cost may be well justified when it...

  4. Successful attack on permutation-parity-machine-based neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Luís F; Ruttor, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    An algorithm is presented which implements a probabilistic attack on the key-exchange protocol based on permutation parity machines. Instead of imitating the synchronization of the communicating partners, the strategy consists of a Monte Carlo method to sample the space of possible weights during inner rounds and an analytic approach to convey the extracted information from one outer round to the next one. The results show that the protocol under attack fails to synchronize faster than an eavesdropper using this algorithm.

  5. Privacy-Enhancing Security Protocol in LTE Initial Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uijin Jang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Evolution (LTE is a fourth-generation mobile communication technology implemented throughout the world. It is the communication means of smartphones that send and receive all of the private date of individuals. M2M, IOT, etc., are the base technologies of mobile communication that will be used in the future cyber world. However, identification parameters, such as International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI, Radio Network Temporary Identities (RNTI, etc., in the initial attach section for accessing the LTE network are presented with the vulnerability of being exposed as clear text. Such vulnerability does not end in a mere identification parameter, but can lead to a secondary attack using the identification parameter, such as replication of the smartphone, illegal use of the mobile communication network, etc. This paper proposes a security protocol to safely transmit identification parameters in different cases of the initial attach. The proposed security protocol solves the exposed vulnerability by encrypting the parameters in transmission. Using an OPNET simulator, it is shown that the average rate of delay and processing ratio are efficient in comparison to the existing process.

  6. Underlying Reasons for Success and Failure of Terrorist Attacks: Selected Case Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCleskey, Edward; McCord, Diana; Leetz, Jennifer; Markey, John

    2007-01-01

    .... This is the second of a two-phased effort: Phase I focused on assessing the underlying reasons for the success and failure of terrorist attacks against targets within the United States and against U.S. interests abroad...

  7. Attacking 22 entries in rugby union: running demands and differences between successful and unsuccessful entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, P; Tobin, D P; Blake, C; Delahunt, E

    2017-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is commonly utilized in team sports, including rugby union. It has been used to describe the average running demands of rugby union. This has afforded an enhanced understanding of the physical fitness requirements for players. However, research in team sports has suggested that training players relative to average demands may underprepare them for certain scenarios within the game. To date, no research has investigated the running demands of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Additionally, no research has been undertaken to determine whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries in rugby union. The first aim of this study was to describe the running intensity of attacking 22 entries. The second aim of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries. Running intensity was measured using meters per minute (m min -1 ) for (a) total distance, (b) running distance, (c) high-speed running distance, and (d) very high-speed running distance. This study provides normative data for the running intensity of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Forwards achieved greater high-speed running intensity in successful (3.6 m min -1 ) compared to unsuccessful (1.8 m min -1 ) attacking 22 entries. Forwards should try and achieve greater high-speed running intensity in attacking 22 entries to increase the likelihood of successful outcomes during this period of gameplay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Modelling the attack success of planktonic predators: patterns and mechanisms of prey size selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caparroy, P.; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Visser, Andre

    2000-01-01

    of being captured. By combining the attack success model with previously published hydrodynamic models of predator and prey perception, we examine how predator foraging behaviour and prey perceptive ability affect the size spectra of encountered and captured copepod prey. We examine food size spectra of (i......) a rheotactic cruising predator, (ii) a suspension-feeding hovering copepod and (iii) a larval fish. For rheotactic predators such as carnivorous copepods, a central assumption of the model is that attack is triggered by prey escape reaction, which in turn depends on the deformation rate of the fluid created...

  9. Identification of Successive ``Unobservable'' Cyber Data Attacks in Power Systems Through Matrix Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengzhi; Wang, Meng; Chow, Joe H.; Ghiocel, Scott G.; Fardanesh, Bruce; Stefopoulos, George; Razanousky, Michael P.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a new framework of identifying a series of cyber data attacks on power system synchrophasor measurements. We focus on detecting "unobservable" cyber data attacks that cannot be detected by any existing method that purely relies on measurements received at one time instant. Leveraging the approximate low-rank property of phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, we formulate the identification problem of successive unobservable cyber attacks as a matrix decomposition problem of a low-rank matrix plus a transformed column-sparse matrix. We propose a convex-optimization-based method and provide its theoretical guarantee in the data identification. Numerical experiments on actual PMU data from the Central New York power system and synthetic data are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Leaf-cutting ant attack in initial pine plantations and growth of defoliated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Aparecida Nickele

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the natural attack by Acromyrmex crassispinus in initial Pinus taeda plantations without control measures against ants, as well as the effect of defoliation in seedlings of P. taeda. Evaluations of the attack of leaf-cutting ants on P. taeda plantations were done monthly in the first six months, then 9 and 12 months after planting. The percentages of plants that were naturally attacked by ants were registered. The effect of defoliation was evaluated by artificial defoliation, simulating the natural patterns of attack by A. crassispinus on P. taeda seedlings. The natural attack of A. crassispinus was greater during the first months after planting, being more intense in the first 30 days. Artificial defoliation indicated that there were no significant losses in diameter and height in plants with less than 75% defoliation. However, there were significant losses in diameter and height in plants with 100% defoliation, independently of the cut of the apical meristem, and also plant death. The control of leaf-cutting ants in P. taeda plantings, in which A. crassispinus is the most frequent leaf-cutting ant, should be intense only at the beginning of planting, since the most severe attacks occur during this time.

  11. Initial crisis risk communications: A success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, S.B.; Traverso, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    Federal regulations require nuclear facilities to be prepared for the risk communication aspects of a catastrophic emergency. Thus, all nuclear plants have provisions for a Joint Public Information Center (JPIC). The JPICs are designed to handle more than 300 media for 24 hours a day; to coordinate information among utility, federal, state, and local agencies; to provide spokespersons; etc. For a large-scale emergency, JPICs can work very well. However, some utilities - indeed, most companies - appear to have only two modes of emergency communication response: normal staff and JPIC. Experience has shown that normal staffing is inadequate to handle the risk communication response for media-intensive low-level emergencies and for the initial stages of an escalating emergency. It is clear that initial response will determine how well a company fares in its overall emergency response and in its long-term relations with the media and public. A solution to this risk communication challenge was developed by Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company's Perry Nuclear Plant - the Public Information Response Team. Using existing facilities and staff - only one of whom works regularly with the media - the Perry plant proactively manages its initial risk communication response

  12. Surface Warfare Officers Initial Training For Future Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    9 A school is initial rating specific technical training that is given to sailors. 14 Figure 4. Less...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS— INITIAL TRAINING FOR FUTURE SUCCESS March 2018...professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS—INITIAL TRAINING FOR FUTURE SUCCESS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Arron J

  13. Thinking Tools for Successful Collaborative Initiatives - 13351

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Laurel A.

    2013-01-01

    Successful collaboration requires effective communication and collective problem solving. Regardless of the subject area --- environmental remediation, waste management, program planning and budgeting --- those involved must focus their efforts in an orderly and cooperative manner. A thinking tool is a technique used to get individuals to focus on specific components of the task at the same time and to eliminate the 'noise' that accompanies communications among individuals with different objectives and different styles of communicating. For example, one of these thinking tools is a technique which enables a working group to delineate its roles, responsibilities and communication protocols so that it can deliver the right information to the right people at the right time. Another enables a group to objectively and collectively evaluate and improve a policy, plan, or program. A third technique enables a group to clarify its purpose and direction while generating interest and buy-in. A fourth technique makes it possible for a group with polarized opinions to acknowledge their differences as well as what they have in common. A fifth technique enables a group to consider a subject of importance from all perspectives so as to produce a more comprehensive and sustainable solution. These thinking tools make effective communication and collective problem solving possible in radioactive waste management and remediation. They can be used by a wide spectrum of professionals including policy specialists, program administrators, program and project managers, and technical specialists. (author)

  14. The persuasion and security awareness experiment: reducing the success of social engineering attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Montoya, L.; Pieters, Wolter; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Objectives: The aim of the current study is to explore to what extent an intervention reduces the effects of social engineering (e.g. the obtaining of access by persuasion) in an office environment. In particular, we study the effect of authority during a `social engineering' attack. Methods: 31

  15. Enabling Success: 2011-2012 Think Tank Initiative Annual Report ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-06-12

    In addition to a review of the Initiative's overall progress, this year's annual report, Enabling Success, captures the conversations at last year's TTI Exchange in Cape Town about what it means to be a ... English · Français ... June 12, 2013.

  16. Identifying Risk of Future Asthma Attacks Using UK Medical Record Data : A Respiratory Effectiveness Group Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, John D.; Price, David B.; Pizzichini, Emilio; Popov, Todor A.; Dimitrov, Borislav D.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Josephs, Lynn K.; Kaplan, Alan; Papi, Alberto; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.; Chisholm, Alison; Thomas, Mike

    BACKGROUND: Asthma attacks are common, serious, and costly. Individual factors associated with attacks, such as poor symptom control, are not robust predictors. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the rich data available in UK electronic medical records could identify patients at risk of recurrent

  17. Underlying Reasons for Success and Failure of Terrorist Attacks: Selected Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-04

    Ibrahim had exhibited antisocial behavior as early as high school217 and had a significant criminal past—in 1996, he was sentenced to five years in prison...media. In addition to long-term emotional health issues, the attacks of September 11 have had a lasting effect on the physical health of those who were...Psychological and Behavioural Reactions to the Bombings in London on 7 July 2005: Cross Sectional Survey of a Representative Sample of Londoners

  18. Sleep bruxism possibly triggered by multiple sclerosis attacks and treated successfully with botulinum toxin: Report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevim, Serhan; Kaleağası, Hakan; Fidancı, Halit

    2015-09-01

    Sleep bruxism refers to a nocturnal parafunctional activity including the clenching, grinding or gnashing of teeth. While most of the nocturnal bruxism cases seen in the general population are apparently idiopathic, it has been reported to be associated with a range of neurological diseases such as Huntington's disease, cranio-cervical dystonia and post-anoxic brain damage, but not multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe three cases of MS patients who have had moderate to severe complaints of bruxism in the two weeks following their relevant MS attacks. None of the three patients had a diagnosis of bruxism prior to her attack. The diagnosis was confirmed in one out of three by a polysomnography. One patient did not have any complaints related to bruxism previous to her attack, whereas two had mild and infrequent complaints. The symptoms of the relevant attacks were left hemihypesthesia in all and hemiparesis in two. None of the patients had spasticity that could result in severe teeth clenching. All three patients presented with morning headaches and jaw pain or tightness and were treated successfully with botulinum toxin (Btx) injections applied to their masseter and temporalis muscles. The cause of bruxism is controversial but lesions of the cortico-basalganglia-thalamo-cotrical loops are thought to be most likely. However, acute or chronic lesions in those pathways were not demonstrated in the 3 patients. It is feasible that they had normal appearing white matter interruptions in their cortico-basalganglia-thalamocortical loops along with their relevant attack. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying Risk of Future Asthma Attacks Using UK Medical Record Data: A Respiratory Effectiveness Group Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, John D; Price, David B; Pizzichini, Emilio; Popov, Todor A; Dimitrov, Borislav D; Postma, Dirkje S; Josephs, Lynn K; Kaplan, Alan; Papi, Alberto; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hillyer, Elizabeth V; Chisholm, Alison; Thomas, Mike

    Asthma attacks are common, serious, and costly. Individual factors associated with attacks, such as poor symptom control, are not robust predictors. We investigated whether the rich data available in UK electronic medical records could identify patients at risk of recurrent attacks. We analyzed anonymized, longitudinal medical records of 118,981 patients with actively treated asthma (ages 12-80 years) and 3 or more years of data. Potential risk factors during 1 baseline year were evaluated using univariable (simple) logistic regression for outcomes of 2 or more and 4 or more attacks during the following 2-year period. Predictors with significant univariable association (P attacks included baseline-year markers of attacks (acute oral corticosteroid courses, emergency visits), more frequent reliever use and health care utilization, worse lung function, current smoking, blood eosinophilia, rhinitis, nasal polyps, eczema, gastroesophageal reflux disease, obesity, older age, and being female. The number of oral corticosteroid courses had the strongest association. The final cross-validated models incorporated 19 and 16 risk factors for 2 or more and 4 or more attacks over 2 years, respectively, with areas under the curve of 0.785 (95% CI, 0.780-0.789) and 0.867 (95% CI, 0.860-0.873), respectively. Routinely collected data could be used proactively via automated searches to identify individuals at risk of recurrent asthma attacks. Further research is needed to assess the impact of such knowledge on clinical prognosis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The successful implementation of STEM initiatives in lower income schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Leena

    The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership strategies utilized by superintendents, district administrators and school principals and the impact of these identified strategies on implementing STEM initiatives specifically for lower-income students. This study set out to determine (a) What role does district leadership play in the implementation of STEM initiatives in lower income secondary schools; (b) What internal systems of accountability exist in successful lower income secondary schools' STEM programs; (c) What leadership strategies are used to implement STEM curriculum initiatives; (d) How do school and district leadership support staff in order to achieve student engagement in STEM Initiative curriculum. This study used a mixed-methods approach to determine the impact of leadership strategies utilized by superintendents, district administrators and school principals on implementing STEM initiatives. Quantitative data analyzed survey questionnaires to determine the degree of correlation between the school districts that have demonstrated the successful implementation of STEM initiatives at the school and district levels. Qualitative data was collected using highly structured participant interviews and purposeful sampling of four district superintendents, one district-level administrator and five school leaders to capture the key strategies in implementing STEM initiatives in lower income secondary schools. Through the process of triangulation, the results of the study revealed that superintendents and principals should consider the characteristics of effective STEM initiatives that have shown a considerable degree of correlation with positive outcomes for lower income students. These included the leadership strategies of personnel's making decisions about the district's and school's instructional direction and an emphasis on the conceptual development of scientific principles using the Next Generation Science Standards coupled with the Common Core

  1. Cytoskeleton reorganization/disorganization is a key feature of induced inaccessibility for defence to successive pathogen attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Canales, Francisco J; Rubiales, Diego; Prats, Elena

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we investigated the involvement of the long-term dynamics of cytoskeletal reorganization on the induced inaccessibility phenomenon by which cells that successfully defend against a previous fungal attack become highly resistant to subsequent attacks. This was performed on pea through double inoculation experiments using inappropriate (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae, Bga) and appropriate (Erysiphe pisi, Ep) powdery mildew fungi. Pea leaves previously inoculated with Bga showed a significant reduction of later Ep infection relative to leaves inoculated only with Ep, indicating that cells had developed induced inaccessibility. This reduction in Ep infection was higher when the time interval between Bga and Ep inoculation ranged between 18 and 24 h, although increased penetration resistance in co-infected cells was observed even with time intervals of 24 days between inoculations. Interestingly, this increase in resistance to Ep following successful defence to the inappropriate Bga was associated with an increase in actin microfilament density that reached a maximum at 18-24 h after Bga inoculation and very slowly decreased afterwards. The putative role of cytoskeleton reorganization/disorganization leading to inaccessibility is supported by the suppression of the induced resistance mediated by specific actin (cytochalasin D, latrunculin B) or general protein (cycloheximide) inhibitors. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Successful ADVANCE Initiatives for Junior Women Faculty in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Eve

    2015-01-01

    The NSF ADVANCE program was designed to transform university policies, procedures, and practices so that women faculty could advance in STEM faculty careers, obtain tenure, and ultimately become academic leaders. The results have been impressive. The most recent data from the American Society of Engineering Education (Fall 2013) show that the average percentage of women faculty in U.S. Colleges of Engineering is now 14.5%; it was just 9% when ADVANCE started in 2001.This talk will describe programs to support and promote junior women faculty that have been successful in recruiting and retaining women in STEM. These programs include mentoring, professional development, and work/life balance initiatives. Suggestions will be made for ways to disseminate low-cost successful ADVANCE programs to other institutions so that they can successfully support their own women faculty in STEM. One effort is the University of Washington's LEAD-it-Yourself! online toolkit that will enable other universities to run their own leadership workshops for department chairs and deans.

  3. Academic Success and Initial Labor Market Outcomes for Pharmacy Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Murphy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the relationship between academic success and labor market outcomes among graduating pharmacy students. Unlike previous studies, this paper characterizes labor market outcome not only as an individual's starting salary, but also whether or not the student had a position secured at the time of graduation, whether or not a signing bonus was received, and the setting in which (she will practice. Methods: A standard exit survey was administered to graduating Doctor of Pharmacy students at a Midwestern, public university within two weeks of graduation. The relationship between academic success and initial labor market outcome was assessed using cross-tabulations, chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: There were no significant relationships between grade point averages and signing bonuses, starting salaries or employment offers. Students with higher grade point averages were less likely to work in chain community pharmacies, and more likely to work in a hospital or other health-system setting. Conclusions: The relationships between academic and direct measures of labor market outcomes (salary and bonuses were not necessarily positive, as standard economic theory predicts. Rather, the relationship is indirect, as it appears that students with greater academic success obtained employment in more clinical settings, which carry a different mix of pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits. Type: Original Research

  4. Efficient reconfigurable hardware architecture for accurately computing success probability and data complexity of linear attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Kavun, Elif Bilge; Tischhauser, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    An accurate estimation of the success probability and data complexity of linear cryptanalysis is a fundamental question in symmetric cryptography. In this paper, we propose an efficient reconfigurable hardware architecture to compute the success probability and data complexity of Matsui's Algorithm...... block lengths ensures that any empirical observations are not due to differences in statistical behavior for artificially small block lengths. Rather surprisingly, we observed in previous experiments a significant deviation between the theory and practice for Matsui's Algorithm 2 for larger block sizes...

  5. Fungal Succession and Decomposition of Acacia mangium Leaf Litters in Health and Ganoderma Attacked Standings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMINGAN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litters of Acacia mangium play an important functional role in ecosystem, producing sources of nutrients and giving diversity of microorganisms. Understanding the variation in fungal populations in A. mangium forest is important due to the roles of fungi in regulating populations of other organisms and ecosystem processes. For these purposes, the tests were conducted under two years old of health standing (2S and Ganoderma attacked standing (2G using litterbag method. Litter weight loss and lignin, cellulose, C, N contents were measured each month during eight months of decomposition, as well as fungal community involved was observed. Litter weight loss and lignin, cellulose, C, N contents were measured each month during eight months of decomposition, as well as fungal community involved was observed. After eight months of decomposition, litter weight losses were low up to 34.61% (k = 0.7/year in 2S and 30.64% (k = 0.51/year in 2G, as well as lignin weight losses were low up to 20.05% in 2S and 13.87% in 2G. However, cellulose weight losses were 16.34% in 2S and 14.71% in 2G. In both standings, the numbers of fungal species were 21 and 20 respectively, while the total of fungal populations tends to increase after one month of decomposition and tend to decrease in the last three months. In the first and second months of decomposition fungal species were dominated by genera of Penicillium and Aspergillus and the last three months by Trichoderma, Phialophora, and Pythium.

  6. A Mitigation Approach to Counter Initial Ranging Based DoS Attacks on IEEE 802.16-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Y.; Asif, K.H.; Ahmad, T.; Bashir, K.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years increase in wireless accessed devices does not prerequisite any evidence. Security is the main concern for the researchers in 802.16e now-a-days. The layer structures defines that the security sub-layer resides over the physical layer and provides security on the link layer. This paper discusses the security threats present and still unsolved at the initial network entry stage. A mitigation approach to counter Initial Ranging Based DoS attacks on IEEE 802.16-2009 are particularized in this paper. Furthermore the existing solutions of initial ranging vulnerability are analyzed and their limitations are discussed. Proposed solution was checked against these limitations to ensure their absence. Moreover the solution was implemented in OMNET++ and results were analyzed to ensure the practicality and efficiency. (author)

  7. Host Plants Affect the Foraging Success of Two Parasitoids that Attack Light Brown Apple Moth Epiphyas postvittana (Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Feng

    Full Text Available The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana is a key pest of wine grapes in Australia. Two parasitoids, Dolichogenidea tasmanica and Therophilus unimaculatus, attack the larval stage of this pest. D. tasmanica is dominant in vineyards, whereas T. unimaculatus is mainly active in native vegetation. We sought to understand why they differ in their use of habitats. Plants are a major component of habitats of parasitoids, and herbivore-infested plants influence parasitoid foraging efficiency by their architecture and emission of volatile chemicals. We investigated how different plant species infested by E. postvittana could affect the foraging success of the two parasitoid species in both laboratory and field experiments. Four common host-plant species were selected for this study. In paired-choice experiments to determine the innate foraging preferences for plants, both parasitoid species showed differences in innate search preferences among plant species. The plant preference of D. tasmanica was altered by oviposition experience with hosts that were feeding on other plant species. In a behavioral assay, the two parasitoid species allocated their times engaged in various types of behavior differently when foraging on different plant species. For both parasitoids, parasitism on Hardenbergia violacea was the highest of the four plant species. Significantly more larvae dropped from Myoporum insulare when attacked than from the other three host-plant species, which indicates that parasitism is also affected by interactions between plants and host insects. In vineyards, parasitism by D. tasmanica was significantly lower on M. insulare than on the other three host-plant species, but the parasitism rates were similar among the other three plant species. Our results indicate that plants play a role in the habitat preferences of these two parasitoid species by influencing their foraging behavior, and are likely to contribute to their distributions

  8. EPA Lean Government Initiative: How to Replicate Lean Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Lean Replication Primer describes how EPA Offices and Regions can identify and adapt successful practices from previous Lean projects to “replicate” their successes and generate further improvements.

  9. Detecting and Preventing Beacon Replay Attacks in Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocols for Energy Efficient WSNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, Alessio; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In receiver-initiated MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication is initiated by the receiver of the data through beacons containing the receiver's identity. In this paper, we consider the case of a network intruder that captures and replays such beacons towards legitimate...

  10. Isolated Cataplexy in the Differential Diagnosis of Drop Attacks: A Case of Successful Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T. Egel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Drop attacks are sudden spontaneous falls that are not accompanied by alteration of consciousness and are followed by immediate recovery. Cataplexy, which is usually associated with narcolepsy, is one of the causes of drop attacks. We report a patient with the rare condition of cataplexy without associated narcolepsy (isolated cataplexy. Isolated cataplexy should be included in the differential diagnosis when a patient presents with recurrent drop attacks and normal diagnostic test results.

  11. Financial planning for major initiatives: a framework for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John M

    2007-11-01

    A solid framework for assessing a major strategic initiative consists of four broad steps: Initial considerations, including level of analysis required and resources that will be brought to bear. Preliminary financial estimates for board approval to further assess the initiative. Assessment of potential partners' interest in the project. Feasibility analysis for board green light.

  12. Successful integration of ergonomics into continuous improvement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Kimberly; Fick, Faye; Joshi, Madina

    2012-01-01

    Process improvement initiatives are receiving renewed attention by large corporations as they attempt to reduce manufacturing costs and stay competitive in the global marketplace. These initiatives include 5S, Six Sigma, and Lean. These programs often take up a large amount of available time and budget resources. More often than not, existing ergonomics processes are considered separate initiatives by upper management and struggle to gain a seat at the table. To effectively maintain their programs, ergonomics program managers need to overcome those obstacles and demonstrate how ergonomics initiatives are a natural fit with continuous improvement philosophies.

  13. Innovating and Entrepreneurial Initiatives: Some Cases of Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen De Pablos Heredero

    2017-05-01

    An entrepreneur cannot be guided by his own interests. He has to invest in order to know the needs of the potential customers Impact on Society\t: Customer experience is key to have success in new business models

  14. An Attack on Inclusive Education in Secondary Education. Limitations in Initial Teacher Training in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel López-Torrijo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education is hard to implement in secondary schools. Probably, one of the determining factors lies in teachers' initial  training that determines their attitude, identity and professional practice. This research analyses the initial teacher education programmes for Secondary Education, Higher Secondary Education, called bachillerato in Spain, and Vocational and Artistic training in the five best valued Spanish universities in the education field, according to the ranking I-UGR, after the European convergence process in the European Higher Education Area. The study analyses the national regulations that govern this training. A quantitative study was conducted to examine the number of credits dedicated to inclusive education and also a review of the contents of these subjects was carried out. The study concludes that this initial teacher training provides sufficient theoretical basis regarding the conceptualization of inclusive education and the skills to deal with the tutorship and academic and professional orientation. However, important limitations in training prevent future teachers from identifying students’ and context’s special educational needs, and the attention to diversity through different methods and curriculum adaptations.

  15. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  16. Appliance Call Center: A Successful Mixed-Initiative Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheetham, William E.; Goebel, Kai

    2007-01-01

    Customer service is defined as the ability of a company to afford the service requestor with the expressed need. Due to the increasing importance of service offerings as a revenue source and increasing competition among service providers, it is important for companies to optimize both the customer experience as well as the associated cost of providing the service. For more complex interactions with higher value, mixed-initiative systems provide an avenue that gives a good balance between the ...

  17. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  18. Successful initiation of and management through a distributed computer upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barich, F.T.; Crawford, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    Processing capacity, the lack of data analysis tools, obsolescence, and spare parts issues are forcing utilities to upgrade or replace their plant computer systems with newer, larger systems. As a result, the utility faces an increasing number of new technologies, such as fiber optics and communication standards (FDDI, ATM, etc.), Graphic User Interface using X-Windows, and distributed architectures that eliminate the host based computer. Technologies such as these, if properly applied, can greatly enhance the capabilities and functions of the existing system. Besides this, the utility also faces funtionality previously not available through the plant computer, such as integrated plant monitoring and digital controls, voice, imaging, etc. With computing technology vastly changing from traditional host systems, the utility confronts the question, open-quotes what are my needs (now and for the future), and what new system can meet those needs most effectively?close quotes. This paper describes the management process necessary to define the needs and then carry out a successful computer replacement project

  19. Documenting success of energy management cost reduction initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.

    1993-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to offer methods to document energy saving projects. The examples used are based on actual industrial facilities. I will define concepts to be used in the analysis of the industrial work place energy consumption. With the concepts defined we can begin to apply the documentation strategy for some specific examples. Why should we be interested in auditing the results of energy projects? Nearly every industrial facility has embarked on the road to energy efficiency. As one of my plant engineer associates relates open-quotes If all our energy saving programs were working as stated the power company would be paying us.close quotes The underlying principles in this statement are true. Does it mean we as technicians, engineers and managers of energy projects have failed? No, we have however failed to finish the job and document there results. My experience has shown there is good support and enthusiasm for those energy projects we begin. It is also my experience that a well documented successful project provides many levels of satisfaction. Large energy management projects involve a major financial commitment. Documenting the results provides all those who supported the project from finance, management and the technical staff the positive reinforcement to support your future projects. We should begin by defining what an energy audit is and what is the expected result of an audit

  20. Initial insights into bacterial succession during human decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Embriette R; Haarmann, Daniel P; Petrosino, Joseph F; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-05-01

    Decomposition is a dynamic ecological process dependent upon many factors such as environment, climate, and bacterial, insect, and vertebrate activity in addition to intrinsic properties inherent to individual cadavers. Although largely attributed to microbial metabolism, very little is known about the bacterial basis of human decomposition. To assess the change in bacterial community structure through time, bacterial samples were collected from several sites across two cadavers placed outdoors to decompose and analyzed through 454 pyrosequencing and analysis of variable regions 3-5 of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Each cadaver was characterized by a change in bacterial community structure for all sites sampled as time, and decomposition, progressed. Bacteria community structure is variable at placement and before purge for all body sites. At bloat and purge and until tissues began to dehydrate or were removed, bacteria associated with flies, such as Ignatzschineria and Wohlfahrtimonas, were common. After dehydration and skeletonization, bacteria associated with soil, such as Acinetobacter, were common at most body sites sampled. However, more cadavers sampled through multiple seasons are necessary to assess major trends in bacterial succession.

  1. Telephone-based social engineering attacks: An experiment testing the success and time decay of an intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.; Mathur, A.; Roychoudhury, A.

    The objective of this study is to get insight into the effectiveness of an information campaign to counter a social engineering attack via the telephone. Four different offenders phoned 48 employees and made them believe that their PC was distributing spam emails. Targets were told that this

  2. Success factors for strategic change initiatives: a qualitative study of healthcare administrators' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita Arbab; Spaulding, Aaron; Johnson, Christopher E; Gamm, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Success factors related to the implementation of change initiatives are well documented and discussed in the management literature, but they are seldom studied in healthcare organizations engaged in multiple strategic change initiatives. The purpose of this study was to identify key success factors related to implementation of change initiatives based on rich qualitative data gathered from health leader interviews at two large health systems implementing multiple change initiatives. In-depth personal interviews with 61 healthcare leaders in the two large systems were conducted and inductive qualitative analysis was employed to identify success factors associated with 13 change initiatives. Results from this analysis were compared to success factors identified in the literature, and generalizations were drawn that add significantly to the management literature, especially to that in the healthcare sector. Ten specific success factors were identified for the implementation of change initiatives. The top three success factors were (1) culture and values, (2) business processes, and (3) people and engagement. Two of the identified success factors are unique to the healthcare sector and not found in the literature on change models: service quality and client satisfaction (ranked fourth of 10) and access to information (ranked ninth). Results demonstrate the importance of human resource functions, alignment of culture and values with change, and business processes that facilitate effective communication and access to information to achieve many change initiatives. The responses also suggest opportunities for leaders of healthcare organizations to more formally recognize the degree to which various change initiatives are dependent on one another.

  3. Physics-based simulations of aerial attacks by peregrine falcons reveal that stooping at high speed maximizes catch success against agile prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Robin; Hildenbrandt, Hanno; Taylor, Graham K; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K

    2018-04-01

    The peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus is renowned for attacking its prey from high altitude in a fast controlled dive called a stoop. Many other raptors employ a similar mode of attack, but the functional benefits of stooping remain obscure. Here we investigate whether, when, and why stooping promotes catch success, using a three-dimensional, agent-based modeling approach to simulate attacks of falcons on aerial prey. We simulate avian flapping and gliding flight using an analytical quasi-steady model of the aerodynamic forces and moments, parametrized by empirical measurements of flight morphology. The model-birds' flight control inputs are commanded by their guidance system, comprising a phenomenological model of its vision, guidance, and control. To intercept its prey, model-falcons use the same guidance law as missiles (pure proportional navigation); this assumption is corroborated by empirical data on peregrine falcons hunting lures. We parametrically vary the falcon's starting position relative to its prey, together with the feedback gain of its guidance loop, under differing assumptions regarding its errors and delay in vision and control, and for three different patterns of prey motion. We find that, when the prey maneuvers erratically, high-altitude stoops increase catch success compared to low-altitude attacks, but only if the falcon's guidance law is appropriately tuned, and only given a high degree of precision in vision and control. Remarkably, the optimal tuning of the guidance law in our simulations coincides closely with what has been observed empirically in peregrines. High-altitude stoops are shown to be beneficial because their high airspeed enables production of higher aerodynamic forces for maneuvering, and facilitates higher roll agility as the wings are tucked, each of which is essential to catching maneuvering prey at realistic response delays.

  4. Physics-based simulations of aerial attacks by peregrine falcons reveal that stooping at high speed maximizes catch success against agile prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mills

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus is renowned for attacking its prey from high altitude in a fast controlled dive called a stoop. Many other raptors employ a similar mode of attack, but the functional benefits of stooping remain obscure. Here we investigate whether, when, and why stooping promotes catch success, using a three-dimensional, agent-based modeling approach to simulate attacks of falcons on aerial prey. We simulate avian flapping and gliding flight using an analytical quasi-steady model of the aerodynamic forces and moments, parametrized by empirical measurements of flight morphology. The model-birds' flight control inputs are commanded by their guidance system, comprising a phenomenological model of its vision, guidance, and control. To intercept its prey, model-falcons use the same guidance law as missiles (pure proportional navigation; this assumption is corroborated by empirical data on peregrine falcons hunting lures. We parametrically vary the falcon's starting position relative to its prey, together with the feedback gain of its guidance loop, under differing assumptions regarding its errors and delay in vision and control, and for three different patterns of prey motion. We find that, when the prey maneuvers erratically, high-altitude stoops increase catch success compared to low-altitude attacks, but only if the falcon's guidance law is appropriately tuned, and only given a high degree of precision in vision and control. Remarkably, the optimal tuning of the guidance law in our simulations coincides closely with what has been observed empirically in peregrines. High-altitude stoops are shown to be beneficial because their high airspeed enables production of higher aerodynamic forces for maneuvering, and facilitates higher roll agility as the wings are tucked, each of which is essential to catching maneuvering prey at realistic response delays.

  5. Rising from failure and learning from success: The role of past experience in radical initiative taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We investigate how the successes and failures of people who initiate radical ideas influence (a) the inclination to take new personal initiatives and (b) the outcome of those initiatives. Using the data of 1,792 radical ideas suggested by 908 employees in a

  6. Rising from failure and learning from success: the role of past experience in radical initiative taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deichmann, D.; van den Ende, J..

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how the successes and failures of people who initiate radical ideas influence (a) the inclination to take new personal initiatives and (b) the outcome of those initiatives. Using the data of 1,792 radical ideas suggested by 908 employees in a multinational firm's idea and innovation

  7. Composite Dos Attack Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ramanauskaitė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for potential threats is one of the most important phases ensuring system security. It allows evaluating possible losses, changes in the attack process, the effectiveness of used countermeasures, optimal system settings, etc. In cyber-attack cases, executing real experiments can be difficult for many reasons. However, mathematical or programming models can be used instead of conducting experiments in a real environment. This work proposes a composite denial of service attack model that combines bandwidth exhaustion, filtering and memory depletion models for a more real representation of similar cyber-attacks. On the basis of the introduced model, different experiments were done. They showed the main dependencies of the influence of attacker and victim’s properties on the success probability of denial of service attack. In the future, this model can be used for the denial of service attack or countermeasure optimization.

  8. It's the Motivation Stupid! : The Influence of Motivation of Secondary Currency Initiators on the Currencies' Success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Fesenfeld (Lukas); J. Stuckatz (Jan); I. Summerson (Iona); T. Kiesgen (Thomas); D. Russ (Daniela); M. Klimaschewski (Maja)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper attempts to explain the success of secondary currencies. Success is defined as the degree to which the initiators of these currencies manage to reach their original goals. In order to do so, we draw on two explanatory factors: the motivation of a currency’s founder and the

  9. Differences in Attack Avoidance and Mating Success between Strains Artificially Selected for Dispersal Distance in Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentarou Matsumura

    Full Text Available Individuals of both dispersal and non-dispersal types (disperser and non-disperser are found in a population, suggesting that each type has both costs and benefits for fitness. However, few studies have examined the trade-off between the costs and benefits for the types. Here, we artificially selected for walking distance, i.e., an indicator of dispersal ability, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and established strains with longer (L-strains or shorter (S-strains walking distances. We then compared the frequency of predation by the assassin bug Amphibolus venator and the mating frequency of the selected strains. L-strain beetles suffered higher predation risk, than did S-strain beetles. L-strain males had significantly increased mating success compared to S-strain males, but females did not show a significant difference between the strains. The current results showed the existence of a trade-off between predation avoidance and mating success associated with dispersal types at a genetic level only in males. This finding can help to explain the maintenance of variation in dispersal ability within a population.

  10. Extended Password Recovery Attacks against APOP, SIP, and Digest Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yu; Wang, Lei; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

    In this paper, we propose password recovery attacks against challenge-response authentication protocols. Our attacks use a message difference for a MD5 collision attack proposed in IEICE 2008. First, we show how to efficiently find a message pair that collides with the above message difference. Second, we show that a password used in authenticated post office protocol (APOP) can be recovered practically. We also show that the password recovery attack can be applied to a session initiation protocol (SIP) and digest authentication. Our attack can recover up to the first 31 password characters in a short time and up to the first 60 characters faster than the naive search method. We have implemented our attack and confirmed that 31 characters can be successfully recovered.

  11. Why cryptography should not rely on physical attack complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    This book presents two practical physical attacks. It shows how attackers can reveal the secret key of symmetric as well as asymmetric cryptographic algorithms based on these attacks, and presents countermeasures on the software and the hardware level that can help to prevent them in the future. Though their theory has been known for several years now, since neither attack has yet been successfully implemented in practice, they have generally not been considered a serious threat. In short, their physical attack complexity has been overestimated and the implied security threat has been underestimated. First, the book introduces the photonic side channel, which offers not only temporal resolution, but also the highest possible spatial resolution. Due to the high cost of its initial implementation, it has not been taken seriously. The work shows both simple and differential photonic side channel analyses. Then, it presents a fault attack against pairing-based cryptography. Due to the need for at least two indepe...

  12. Roles High School Principals Play in Establishing a Successful Character Education Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francom, Jacob A.

    2016-01-01

    Principal leadership is crucial to the success of a high school character education initiative. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to identify the roles that high school principals play in developing, implementing, and sustaining a high functioning character education program. Data were collected through interviews and…

  13. Successive substitution one-leg hybrid P-stable LMM for initial value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper derives P-stable successive substitution one-leg hybrid linear multistep methods for the numerical solution of second order initial value problems in ordinary differential equations without explicit first order derivative. The methods are demonstrated by a numerical example also considered by Fatunla, et al (1997) ...

  14. Peritoneal dialysis technique success during the initial 90 days of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Steven; Hayes, Andrew C; Story, Kenneth; Davis, Ira D

    2012-01-01

    Comparisons of technique success by peritoneal dialysis (PD) modality have typically excluded the initial 90 days of therapy. We analyzed a database of 51,469 new PD starts from 2004 to 2008 in the United States. The analysis concentrated on the initial 90 days of therapy to determine technique success and the impact of the continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) and automated PD (APD) modalities. Overall, 13.3% of patients stopped PD within 90 days. Of patients starting directly on APD, 14.3% stopped PD within 90 days. Of patients starting on CAPD, 12.6% stopped PD within 90 days, and 63.4% changed to APD within 90 days. Only 3.3% of the latter patients failed to reach 90 days of therapy. By comparison, technique failure occurred in 28.8% of those initiating with and remaining on CAPD. We conclude that initial training to perform CAPD, with timely transfer to APD within the first 3 months, was associated with the greatest technique success at 90 days. The reasons for that success are unclear, and further research should be directed to determining factors responsible. It is possible that patients trained initially to CAPD but converted to APD have a greater understanding of the total therapy, which improves confidence. Those converted to APD may be more appreciative of the lifestyle benefits of APD, which translates into improved compliance; alternatively, technical factors associated with APD may be responsible. Those technical factors may include improved catheter function in the recumbent position during APD or the reduced infection risk associated with just 2 connect/disconnect procedures in APD compared with 8 in CAPD.

  15. THE ANALYSIS OF THE COMMODITY PRICE FORECASTING SUCCESS CONSIDERING DIFFERENT LENGTHS OF THE INITIAL CONDITION DRIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lascsáková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the numerical model based on the exponential approximation of commodity stock exchanges was derived. The price prognoses of aluminium on the London Metal Exchange were determined as numerical solution of the Cauchy initial problem for the 1st order ordinary differential equation. To make the numerical model more accurate the idea of the modification of the initial condition value by the stock exchange was realized. By having analyzed the forecasting success of the chosen initial condition drift types, the initial condition drift providing the most accurate prognoses for the commodity price movements was determined. The suggested modification of the original model made the commodity price prognoses more accurate.

  16. Neural Correlates of User-initiated Motor Success and Failure - A Brain-Computer Interface Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazmir, Boris; Reiner, Miriam

    2018-05-15

    Any motor action is, by nature, potentially accompanied by human errors. In order to facilitate development of error-tailored Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) correction systems, we focused on internal, human-initiated errors, and investigated EEG correlates of user outcome successes and errors during a continuous 3D virtual tennis game against a computer player. We used a multisensory, 3D, highly immersive environment. Missing and repelling the tennis ball were considered, as 'error' (miss) and 'success' (repel). Unlike most previous studies, where the environment "encouraged" the participant to perform a mistake, here errors happened naturally, resulting from motor-perceptual-cognitive processes of incorrect estimation of the ball kinematics, and can be regarded as user internal, self-initiated errors. Results show distinct and well-defined Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), embedded in the ongoing EEG, that differ across conditions by waveforms, scalp signal distribution maps, source estimation results (sLORETA) and time-frequency patterns, establishing a series of typical features that allow valid discrimination between user internal outcome success and error. The significant delay in latency between positive peaks of error- and success-related ERPs, suggests a cross-talk between top-down and bottom-up processing, represented by an outcome recognition process, in the context of the game world. Success-related ERPs had a central scalp distribution, while error-related ERPs were centro-parietal. The unique characteristics and sharp differences between EEG correlates of error/success provide the crucial components for an improved BCI system. The features of the EEG waveform can be used to detect user action outcome, to be fed into the BCI correction system. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  18. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... properly causes your body's blood sugar levels to rise, increasing your risk of heart attack. Metabolic syndrome. This occurs when you have obesity, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. Having metabolic ...

  19. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family history of heart attack race – African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and native Hawaiians are at ... Your doctor will prescribe the medicines that are right for you. If you have had a heart ...

  20. Initial radioiodine remnant ablation success rates compared by diagnostic scan methods: I123 versus I131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W.; Choi, E.; Yoo, I.; Kim, S.; Han, E.; Lee, S.; Lee, W.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Objective: to see if diagnostic whole body scan (DxWBS) performed with I-131 prior diminishes the success rate of initial radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) compared to I-123 DxWBS in differentiated thyroid cancer patients. Material and methods: consecutive thyroid cancer patients who received total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and then high dose RRA (either 100 mCi or 150 mCi) within 6 months were included. DxWBSs were performed with I-123 or with I-131. Prior to the DxWBSs, all patients followed strict low iodine diet for 2 weeks and withdrew hormone to stimulate TSH above 30 mIU/l. Patients with extra-thyroidal extension of tumor, lymph node metastasis, or distant metastasis were excluded. The initial RRA was defined as successful if the next DxWBS done 6 months to 1 year later was negative and stimulated thyroglobulin level was below 2 ng/ml. Results: of 71 patients who had I-123 DxWBSs, 31 patients went on to receive RRA with 100 mCi and 40 patients received 150 mCi. Of 73 patients who had I-131 DxWBSs, 66 received 100 mCi and 7 patients received 150 mCi. The overall success rate was 79% for patients who had I-123 DxWBS prior to RRA (68% for 100 mCi and 86% for 150 mCi), and 68% for patient who had I-131 DxWBSs (68% for 100 mCi and 71% for 150 mCi). Conclusion: for patients who received 100 mCi, the RRA success rate was the same for I-123 DxWBS and I-131 DxWBS. For patients treated with 150 mCi, the success rate may be lower in patients who receive RRA following DxWBS with I-131 compared to DxWBS with I-123. (authors)

  1. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE AND ERP IMPLEMENTATION SUCCESS: THE MODERATING ROLE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar U. Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP is a useful tool that builds strong capabilities, improves performance, supports better decision making, and provides competitive advantage for businesses. ERP aims to help the management by setting better business practices and equipping them with the right information to take timely decision. In any new technology implementation, one of the issues that need to be addressed is the resistance to change. Many implementations have failed due to strong resistance from the end users. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to test the impact of resistance to change on ERP's implementation success and how change management initiatives acts in the capacity of a moderating role. Using data collected from 69 manufacturing organizations through a mail survey, it was found that resistance to change is negatively related to achievement of predetermined goals (b = –0.930, p < 0.01 and usersatisfaction (b = –0.952, p < 0.01. Further, change management initiatives did not moderate the relationship between resistance and predetermined goals but it moderated the relationship between resistance and user satisfaction. In addition, change management initiatives have a direct positive impact on user satisfaction. This research concludes that the human factor is very important in ERP's implementation.

  2. An Analysis of Attacks on Blockchain Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Bissias, George; Levine, Brian Neil; Ozisik, A. Pinar; Andresen, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    We present and validate a novel mathematical model of the blockchain mining process and use it to conduct an economic evaluation of the double-spend attack, which is fundamental to all blockchain systems. Our analysis focuses on the value of transactions that can be secured under a conventional double-spend attack, both with and without a concurrent eclipse attack. Our model quantifies the importance of several factors that determine the attack's success, including confirmation depth, attacke...

  3. Can community change be measured for an outcomes-based initiative? A comparative case study of the success by 6 initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minich, Lisa; Howe, Steven; Langmeyer, Daniel; Corcoran, Kevin

    2006-12-01

    One of the challenges facing nonprofit organizations today is the demand for measurable results. Increasingly, these organizations are focusing less on program outputs and program outcomes in favor of community outcomes or changes demonstrated in the larger community. Success by 6(R) is a popular United Way initiative that emphasizes defining and measuring community outcomes. In this paper, we describe our work with 24 Success by 6(R) initiatives around the country. It is clear that not all of these initiatives are measuring community outcomes. Of those initiatives that are experiencing some success measuring community outcomes, similar measurement strategies are reported. Additionally, our experience suggests several United Way employees express dissatisfaction with the logic model as a framework for defining and measuring community outcomes although no preferred alternative model is identified. Evaluators working with community-wide initiatives must find ways to communicate the differences between program and community outcomes to key stakeholders and funders.

  4. Global mobility orientation and the success of self-initiated expatriates in greater China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We investigated 640 self-initiated expatriate academics residing in Greater China. We examined whether their inherent demographic characteristics (age/gender) and acquired demographic characteristics (marital status/seniority) differentiated their work outcomes regarding job adjustment, time...... to proficiency, performance and satisfaction. We also explored the associations between global mobility orientation and these four work outcomes and examined to what extent the demographic characteristics differentiated the relationships. Results support most hypothesized differences. We found that a global...... mobility orientation was associated with all the work outcomes, except satisfaction. For inherent demographic characteristics, we found support for our hypotheses that for individuals with less successful demographics (younger, male), there was a stronger relationship between global mobility orientation...

  5. How can a successful multi-family residential recycling programme be initiated within Baltimore City, Maryland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, Michael B

    2012-07-01

    Baltimore City formally began recycling in 1989 with all neighbourhoods having residential collection by 1992. Although the city of 637 000 has recycled for approximately 20 years, almost all residents in multi-family residential (MFR) housing have been and are still barred from participating at their residences. Discussions with City officials and residents have verified this antiquated policy of exclusion within MFR housing. Yet, the policy is still observed by the Department of Public Works even though the updated single-stream Code states that the 'Director of Public Works must collect all. . .recyclable materials. . .from all dwellings, including multiple-family dwellings'. The purpose of this study's is to provide policies, regulations, and recommendations for implementing requisite MFR recycling within Baltimore City. The study's methodology follows a case study approach by examining three cities in the United States that currently mandate MFR recycling: Chicago, Illinois; Boston, Massachusetts; and Arlington, Virginia. Post-analysis suggests that while some cities' MFR programmes perform poorly, each city's strengths aid in creating specific proposals that can produce a successful MFR recycling program in Baltimore City. These tenets of a future MFR recycling program form the basis of a successful MFR recycling program that will allow all city residents to participate via initiatives in the categories of both programme, accessibility, and informing and self-review.

  6. Calculating Adversarial Risk from Attack Trees: Control Strength and Probabilistic Attackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Davarynejad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Attack trees are a well-known formalism for quantitative analysis of cyber attacks consisting of multiple steps and alternative paths. It is possible to derive properties of the overall attacks from properties of individual steps, such as cost for the attacker and probability of success. However, in

  7. RApid Primary care Initiation of Drug treatment for Transient Ischaemic Attack (RAPID−TIA): study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background People who have a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke are at high risk of a recurrent stroke, particularly in the first week after the event. Early initiation of secondary prevention drugs is associated with an 80% reduction in risk of stroke recurrence. This raises the question as to whether these drugs should be given before being seen by a specialist – that is, in primary care or in the emergency department. The aims of the RAPID-TIA pilot trial are to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial, to analyse cost effectiveness and to ask: Should general practitioners and emergency doctors (primary care physicians) initiate secondary preventative measures in addition to aspirin in people they see with suspected TIA or minor stroke at the time of referral to a specialist? Methods/Design This is a pilot randomised controlled trial with a sub-study of accuracy of primary care physician diagnosis of TIA. In the pilot trial, we aim to recruit 100 patients from 30 general practices (including out-of-hours general practice centres) and 1 emergency department whom the primary care physician diagnoses with TIA or minor stroke and randomly assign them to usual care (that is, initiation of aspirin and referral to a TIA clinic) or usual care plus additional early initiation of secondary prevention drugs (a blood-pressure lowering protocol, simvastatin 40 mg and dipyridamole 200 mg m/r bd). The primary outcome of the main study will be the number of strokes at 90 days. The diagnostic accuracy sub-study will include these 100 patients and an additional 70 patients in whom the primary care physician thinks the diagnosis of TIA is possible, rather than probable. For the pilot trial, we will report recruitment rate, follow-up rate, a preliminary estimate of the primary event rate and occurrence of any adverse events. For the diagnostic study, we will calculate sensitivity and specificity of primary care physician diagnosis using the final

  8. RApid Primary care Initiation of Drug treatment for Transient Ischaemic Attack (RAPID-TIA): study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Duncan; Fletcher, Kate; Deller, Rachel; McManus, Richard; Lasserson, Daniel; Giles, Matthew; Sims, Don; Norrie, John; McGuire, Graham; Cohn, Simon; Whittle, Fiona; Hobbs, Vikki; Weir, Christopher; Mant, Jonathan

    2013-07-02

    People who have a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke are at high risk of a recurrent stroke, particularly in the first week after the event. Early initiation of secondary prevention drugs is associated with an 80% reduction in risk of stroke recurrence. This raises the question as to whether these drugs should be given before being seen by a specialist--that is, in primary care or in the emergency department. The aims of the RAPID-TIA pilot trial are to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial, to analyse cost effectiveness and to ask: Should general practitioners and emergency doctors (primary care physicians) initiate secondary preventative measures in addition to aspirin in people they see with suspected TIA or minor stroke at the time of referral to a specialist? This is a pilot randomised controlled trial with a sub-study of accuracy of primary care physician diagnosis of TIA. In the pilot trial, we aim to recruit 100 patients from 30 general practices (including out-of-hours general practice centres) and 1 emergency department whom the primary care physician diagnoses with TIA or minor stroke and randomly assign them to usual care (that is, initiation of aspirin and referral to a TIA clinic) or usual care plus additional early initiation of secondary prevention drugs (a blood-pressure lowering protocol, simvastatin 40 mg and dipyridamole 200 mg m/r bd). The primary outcome of the main study will be the number of strokes at 90 days. The diagnostic accuracy sub-study will include these 100 patients and an additional 70 patients in whom the primary care physician thinks the diagnosis of TIA is possible, rather than probable. For the pilot trial, we will report recruitment rate, follow-up rate, a preliminary estimate of the primary event rate and occurrence of any adverse events. For the diagnostic study, we will calculate sensitivity and specificity of primary care physician diagnosis using the final TIA clinic diagnosis as the

  9. Measures of student success with textbook transformations: the Affordable Learning Georgia Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Croteau

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the state of Georgia’s budget supported a University System of Georgia (USG initiative: Affordable Learning Georgia (ALG. The initiative was implemented via Textbook Transformation Grants, which provided grants to USG faculty, libraries and librarians, and institutions to “transform their use of textbooks and other learning materials into using lower cost options”, in other words to use open educational resources (OER in lieu of a traditional bound textbook. The Round One Textbook Transformation Grants have already shown to be successful in that they saved students approximately $760,000.  What is not known, is the collective impact on student learning. This study examines the learning gains or losses pre- and post-transformation in ALG Round One courses where traditional resources were replaced with OER.  It estimates differences between pre- and post- textbook transformation across the following outcomes: 1 Drop Fail Withdraw (DFW rates, 2 rates of completion, 3 numbers of students receiving a final grade of A or B, C and D, 4 numerical final grades as a percent, 5 final exam grades as a percent, and, 6 course-specific assessment grades measured in percent. Twenty-four data sets were analyzed for DFW rate, eight data sets for completion rate, fourteen data sets for grade distribution, three data sets for final exam grades, three data sets for course specific assessment and one data set for final grades. The null hypothesis that there would be no differences between pre- and post-transformation rates in these learning outcomes was supported.  Thus, this study demonstrates that the USG’s ALG initiative helped students save money without negatively impacting learning outcomes. In addition, it is the first of its kind to measure some of these learning outcomes (e.g. final exam grade, assessment grade, and distribution of letter grades at this scale.

  10. Implementation of oral health initiatives by Australian rural communities: Factors for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Judy; Carlisle, Karen; Farmer, Jane; Larkins, Sarah; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Kenny, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we consider factors significant in the success of community participation in the implementation of new oral health services. Our analysis draws on data from the Rural Engaging Communities in Oral Health (Rural ECOH) study (2014-2016). We aimed to assess the Australian relevance of a Scottish community participation framework for health service development; Remote Service Futures. Internationally, community participation in planning of health initiatives is common, but less common in new service implementation. Health managers query the legitimacy of "lay" community members, whether they will persist, and whether they can act as change agents. Our data provide evidence that helps answer these queries. Six communities, located within regions covered by two large rural primary healthcare organisations (Medicare Locals), were selected in two Australian states. Two university-based facilitators worked with a group of local residents (for each community) to monitor implementation of new oral health initiatives designed through participatory processes. Data about implementation were collected through interviews with 28 key stakeholders at the beginning of implementation and 12 months later. Data were coded, themed and analysed abductively. Five themes emerged; the inter-relationship between community motivation to participate with the fortunes of the oral health initiatives, having the "right" people involved, continuing involvement of sponsors and/or significant people, trusting working relationships between participants and perceiving benefits from participation. Findings provide evidence of a role for community participation in implementing new community services if solid partnerships with relevant providers can be negotiated and services are seen to be relevant and useful to the community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Resolving the paradox for protein aggregation diseases: a common mechanism for aggregated proteins to initially attack membranes without needing aggregates [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Qin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxically, aggregation of specific proteins is characteristic of many human diseases and aging, yet aggregates have been found to be unnecessary for initiating pathogenesis. Here we determined the NMR topology and dynamics of a helical mutant in a membrane environment transformed from the 125-residue cytosolic all-β MSP by the ALS-causing P56S mutation. Unexpectedly, despite its low hydrophobicity, the P56S major sperm protein (MSP domain becomes largely embedded in the membrane environment with high backbone rigidity. Furthermore it is composed of five helices with amphiphilicity comparable to those of the partly-soluble membrane toxin mellitin and α-synuclein causing Parkinson's disease. Consequently, the mechanism underlying this chameleon transformation becomes clear: by disrupting the specific tertiary interaction network stabilizing the native all-β MSP fold to release previously-locked amphiphilic segments, the P56S mutation acts to convert the classic MSP fold into a membrane-active protein that is fundamentally indistinguishable from mellitin and α-synuclein which are disordered in aqueous solution but spontaneously partition into membrane interfaces driven by hydrogen-bond energetics gained from forming α-helix in the membrane environments. As segments with high amphiphilicity exist in all proteins, our study successfully resolves the paradox by deciphering that the proteins with a higher tendency to aggregate have a stronger potential to partition into membranes through the same mechanism as α-synuclein to initially attack membranes to trigger pathogenesis without needing aggregates. This might represent the common first step for various kinds of aggregated proteins to trigger familiar, sporadic and aging diseases. Therefore the homeostasis of aggregated proteins in vivo is the central factor responsible for a variety of human diseases including aging. The number and degree of the membrane attacks by aggregated proteins may

  12. Counting equations in algebraic attacks on block ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about counting linearly independent equations for so-called algebraic attacks on block ciphers. The basic idea behind many of these approaches, e.g., XL, is to generate a large set of equations from an initial set of equations by multiplication of existing equations by the variables...... in the system. One of the most difficult tasks is to determine the exact number of linearly independent equations one obtain in the attacks. In this paper, it is shown that by splitting the equations defined over a block cipher (an SP-network) into two sets, one can determine the exact number of linearly...... independent equations which can be generated in algebraic attacks within each of these sets of a certain degree. While this does not give us a direct formula for the success of algebraic attacks on block ciphers, it gives some interesting bounds on the number of equations one can obtain from a given block...

  13. Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: evaluation of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia da Silva Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To asses the performance of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding in an university hospital. METHODS: Descriptive and quantitative research, in which 103 people were interviewed in the outpatient prenatal clinic, in the maternity-ward and in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital in Vitória, Southeast Brazil. The "Institutional Self-Evaluation Questionnaire" of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative was applied. Using this tool, the outcome was measured by the concordance index (CI proposed by the World Health Organization and by the United Nations Children's Fund. RESULTS: Although the hospital does not have a policy that addresses promotion, protection and support for breastfeeding, 93.3% of the mothers had contact with their babies immediately after birth (step 4, 83.3% of the professionals guided mothers how to breastfeed (step 5, 86.6% of the neonates did not receive any food or drink other than breast milk (step 6, 100% of babies were housed together with their mothers (step 7, 83.3% of the women were encouraged for breastfeeding on demand (step 8 and 100% of the infants did not use bottles or pacifiers (step 9. CONCLUSIONS: 60% of the steps were completed by the hospital. The greatest difficulty was to inform pregnant women about the importance and the management of breastfeeding (step 3. Therefore, visits to pregnant women are recommended, in order to prepare them for breastfeeding and to explain about the infants' healthy feeding habits.

  14. An integrated mission approach to the space exploration initiative will ensure success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    The direction of the American space program, as defined by President Bush and the National Commission on Space, is to expand human presence into the solar system. Landing an American on Mars by the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing is the goal. This challenge has produced a level of excitement among young Americans not seen for nearly three decades. The exploration and settlement of the space frontier will occupy the creative thoughts and energies of generations of Americans well into the next century. The return of Americans to the moon and beyond must be viewed as a national effort with strong public support if it is to become a reality. Key to making this an actuality is the mission approach selected. Developing a permanent presence in space requires a continual stepping outward from Earch in a logical progressive manner. If we seriously plan to go and to stay, then not only must we plan what we are to do and how we are to do it, we must address the logistic support infrastructure that will allow us to stay there once we arrive. A fully integrated approach to mission planning is needed if the Space exploration Initiative (SEI) is to be successful. Only in this way can a permanent human presence in space be sustained. An integrated infrastructure approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI while an early return on investment through technology spin-offs would be an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness. If the exploration, development, and colonization of space is to be affordable and acceptable, careful consideration must be given to such things as ''return on investment'' and ''commercial product potential'' of the technologies developed

  15. Preoperative short hookwire placement for small pulmonary lesions: evaluation of technical success and risk factors for initial placement failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Hiraki, Takao; Matsui, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Masaoka, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takashi; Sato, Takuya; Gobara, Hideo; Toyooka, Shinichi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2018-05-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the technical success of computed tomography fluoroscopy-guided short hookwire placement before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and to identify the risk factors for initial placement failure. In total, 401 short hookwire placements for 401 lesions (mean diameter 9.3 mm) were reviewed. Technical success was defined as correct positioning of the hookwire. Possible risk factors for initial placement failure (i.e., requirement for placement of an additional hookwire or to abort the attempt) were evaluated using logistic regression analysis for all procedures, and for procedures performed via the conventional route separately. Of the 401 initial placements, 383 were successful and 18 failed. Short hookwires were finally placed for 399 of 401 lesions (99.5%). Univariate logistic regression analyses revealed that in all 401 procedures only the transfissural approach was a significant independent predictor of initial placement failure (odds ratio, OR, 15.326; 95% confidence interval, CI, 5.429-43.267; p < 0.001) and for the 374 procedures performed via the conventional route only lesion size was a significant independent predictor of failure (OR 0.793, 95% CI 0.631-0.996; p = 0.046). The technical success of preoperative short hookwire placement was extremely high. The transfissural approach was a predictor initial placement failure for all procedures and small lesion size was a predictor of initial placement failure for procedures performed via the conventional route. • Technical success of preoperative short hookwire placement was extremely high. • The transfissural approach was a significant independent predictor of initial placement failure for all procedures. • Small lesion size was a significant independent predictor of initial placement failure for procedures performed via the conventional route.

  16. Ways of decision of problem of forming for the cadets of the special qualities, need the militiaman to successful counteract against the armed attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko V.V.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Directions of forming of the special qualities of workers of militia are certain. Information is systematized about the real collisions of workers of militia with criminals. Conformities to law are rotined in the conduct of a be out for scalps criminal. The necessity of development and perfection of the special qualities of workers of militia is exposed. The terms of the hidden attack of criminal are considered. The necessity of mastering of knowledge is rotined about preparatory motions of the armed criminal. Directions of perfection of the special physical and psychical qualities, forming of abilities and skills of implementation of receptions of disarmament, are resulted.

  17. An integrated mission approach to the space exploration initiative will ensure success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Edmund P.; Dagle, Jefferey E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Noffsinger, Kent E.

    1991-01-01

    The direction of the American space program, as defined by President Bush and the National Commission on Space, is to expand human presence into the solar system. Landing an American on Mars by the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing is the goal. This challenge has produced a level of excitement among young Americans not seen for nearly three decades. The exploration and settlement of the space frontier will occupy the creative thoughts and energies of generations of Americans well into the next century. The return of Americans to the moon and beyond must be viewed as a national effort with strong public support if it is to become a reality. Key to making this an actuality is the mission approach selected. Developing a permanent presence in space requires a continual stepping outward from Earch in a logical progressive manner. If we seriously plan to go and to stay, then not only must we plan what we are to do and how we are to do it, we must address the logistic support infrastructure that will allow us to stay there once we arrive. A fully integrated approach to mission planning is needed if the Space exploration Initiative (SEI) is to be successful. Only in this way can a permanent human presence in space be sustained. An integrated infrastructure approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI while an early return on investment through technology spin-offs would be an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness. If the exploration, development, and colonization of space is to be affordable and acceptable, careful consideration must be given to such things as ``return on investment'' and ``commercial product potential'' of the technologies developed. This integrated approach will win the Congressional support needed to secure the financial backing necessary to assure

  18. Extracorporeal Shock-wave Lithotripsy Success Rate and Complications: Initial Experience at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Al-Marhoon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with Modularis Vario Siemens in the management of patients with renal and ureteral stones.Methods: Between 2007 and 2009, 225 outpatients were treated with Siemens Modularis Vario lithotripter at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stone size, location, total number of shockwaves, stone-free rate, complications and adjunctive interventions were investigated. Chi-Square and Logistic Regression analyses were used, with p<0.05 set as the level of significance.Results: Of the 225 initial consecutive patients who underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, 192 (85% had renal stones and 33 (15% had ureteric stones. The mean±SD stone size was 11.3 ± 4.5 mm, while the mean age of the patients was 39.9 ± 12.8 years with 68.5% males. The mean renal stone size was 11.6 ± 4.7 mm; a mean of 1.3 sessions was required. The mean ureteric stone size was 9.9 ± 3 mm; and a mean of 1.3 sessions was required. Treatment success (defined as complete clearance of ureteric stones, stone-free or clinically insignificant residual fragments of <4 mm for renal stones was 74% for renal stones and 88% for ureteric stones. Additional extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy were the most adjunctive procedures used for stone clearance. Complications occurred in 74 patients (38.5% with renal stones and 13 patients (39.4% with uretetric stones. The most common complication was loin pain (experienced by 16.7% with renal stones and 21% with ureteric stones. Severe renal colic mandating admission occurred in 2% of patients with renal stones and 6% of patients with ureteric stones. In patients with renal stone, steinstrasse occurred in 3.6% and infection post extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in 0.5%. Using Multivariate Logistic Regression analysis, factors found to have significant effect on complete stone clearance were serum creatinine (p=0.004 and the number of

  19. Genetic attack on neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  20. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-01-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size

  1. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  2. Has the Alberta daily physical activity initiative been successfully implemented in Calgary schools?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, Christine Diane; Cantell, Marja; Dewey, Deborah

    INTRODUCTION: In September 2005, the Alberta government introduced the daily physical activity (DPA) initiative, which requires that students from grades 1 to 9 be physically active in school for a minimum of 30 min per day. OBJECTIVE: To obtain information on whether and how the DPA initiative has

  3. Understanding a successful obesity prevention initiative in children under 5 from a systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Brynle; Brown, Andrew D; Kuhlberg, Jill; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Economos, Christina; Allender, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Systems thinking represents an innovative and logical approach to understanding complexity in community-based obesity prevention interventions. We report on an approach to apply systems thinking to understand the complexity of a successful obesity prevention intervention in early childhood (children aged up to 5 years) conducted in a regional city in Victoria, Australia. A causal loop diagram (CLD) was developed to represent system elements related to a successful childhood obesity prevention intervention in early childhood. Key stakeholder interviews (n = 16) were examined retrospectively to generate purposive text data, create microstructures, and form a CLD. A CLD representing key stakeholder perceptions of a successful intervention comprised six key feedback loops explaining changes in project implementation over time. The loops described the dynamics of collaboration, network formation, community awareness, human resources, project clarity, and innovation. The CLD developed provides a replicable means to capture, evaluate and disseminate a description of the dynamic elements of a successful obesity prevention intervention in early childhood.

  4. Ciclovía initiatives: engaging communities, partners, and policy makers along the route to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieff, Susan G; Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kim, Mi-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space, including bicycle lanes, temporary parks, and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. This article describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in 2 US urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and Web sites, media sources, and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on 3 grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy makers in other contexts? Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach, and merchant support were relatively similar among the 2 initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents, and city agencies is critical for a positive experience in developing and implementing ciclovia-type initiatives

  5. Stochastic Model of TCP SYN Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ramanauskaitė

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A great proportion of essential services are moving into internet space making the threat of DoS attacks even more actual. To estimate the real risk of some kind of denial of service (DoS attack in real world is difficult, but mathematical and software models make this task easier. In this paper we overview the ways of implementing DoS attack models and offer a stochastic model of SYN flooding attack. It allows evaluating the potential threat of SYN flooding attacks, taking into account both the legitimate system flow as well as the possible attack power. At the same time we can assess the effect of such parameters as buffer capacity, open connection storage in the buffer or filte­ring efficiency on the success of different SYN flooding attacks. This model can be used for other type of memory depletion denial of service attacks.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Entrepreneurial Choices of Initial Human Capital Endowments and New Venture Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; B. Folta, Timothy

    The founder (team)'s human capital is a vital determinant of future firm performance. This is a stylized fact. Less is known about the effect of the human capital of the initial workforce hired by the founder(s). We study the performance consequences of a founder's choice of the initial workforce......'s human capital (quantity and quality), besides the human capital of the founder(s). The analysis is based on matched employer-employee data and covers about 5,300 startups in manufacturing industries founded by individuals coming from employment between 1992 and 2007. We acknowledge that initial hiring...... decisions are endogenous and correlated with the human capital of the founders and the ownership structure of startups (single founder versus team of founders). Given the stickiness of initial choices, human capital decisions at entry turn out to be a close to irreversible matter with significant...

  7. [Organizational and individual determinants of using initiatives conducive to successful work-life balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andysz, Aleksandra; Najder, Anna; Merecz-Kot, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate distribution of time and energy between work and personal life poses a challenge to many working people. Unfortunately, many professionally active people experience work-family conflict. In order to minimize it, employees are offered various solutions aimed at reconciling professional and private spheres (work-life balance (WLB) initiatives). The authors attempt to answer what makes employees use WLB initiatives and what influences the decision to reject the available options. The review is based on the articles published after 2000, searched by Google Scholar and Web of Knowledge with use of the key words: work-life balance, work-family conflict, work-life balance initiatives, work-life balance initiatives use, use of WLB solutions. We focused on organizational and individual determinants of WLB initiatives use, such as organizational culture, stereotypes and values prevailing in the work environment that may result in stigmatization of workers - flexibility stigma. We discuss the reasons why supervisors and co-workers stigmatize their colleagues, and what are the consequences of experiencing such stigmatization. Among the individual determinants of WLB initiatives use, we have inter alia focused on the preference for integration vs. separation of the spheres of life. The presented material shows that social factors - cultural norms prevailing in a society, relationships in the workplace and individual factors, such as the level of self-control - are of equal importance for decisions of using WLB initiatives as their existence. Our conclusion is that little attention has been paid to the research on determinants of WLB initiatives use, especially to individual ones.

  8. Organizational and individual determinants of using initiatives conducive to successful work-life balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Andysz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate distribution of time and energy between work and personal life poses a challenge to many working people. Unfortunately, many professionally active people experience work-family conflict. In order to minimize it, employees are offered various solutions aimed at reconciling professional and private spheres (work-life balance (WLB initiatives. The authors attempt to answer what makes employees use WLB initiatives and what influences the decision to reject the available options. The review is based on the articles published after 2000, searched by Google Scholar and Web of Knowledge with use of the key words: work-life balance, work-family conflict, work-life balance initiatives, work-life balance initiatives use, use of WLB solutions. We focused on organizational and individual determinants of WLB initiatives use, such as organizational culture, stereotypes and values prevailing in the work environment that may result in stigmatization of workers - flexibility stigma. We discuss the reasons why supervisors and co-workers stigmatize their colleagues, and what are the consequences of experiencing such stigmatization. Among the individual determinants of WLB initiatives use, we have inter alia focused on the preference for integration vs. separation of the spheres of life. The presented material shows that social factors - cultural norms prevailing in a society, relationships in the workplace and individual factors, such as the level of self-control - are of equal importance for decisions of using WLB initiatives as their existence. Our conclusion is that little attention has been paid to the research on determinants of WLB initiatives use, especially to individual ones. Med Pr 2014;65(1:119–129

  9. Organizational and individual determinants of using initiatives conducive to successful work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Andysz; Anna Najder; Dorota Merecz-Kot

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate distribution of time and energy between work and personal life poses a challenge to many working people. Unfortunately, many professionally active people experience work-family conflict. In order to minimize it, employees are offered various solutions aimed at reconciling professional and private spheres (work-life balance (WLB) initiatives). The authors attempt to answer what makes employees use WLB initiatives and what influences the decision to reject the available options. The...

  10. Coping Successfully with Dyslexia: An Initial Study of an Inclusive School-Based Resilience Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Nola; Frydenberg, Erica; Steeg, Charlotte; Bond, Lyndal

    2013-01-01

    A dyslexia coping programme entitled "Success and Dyslexia" was implemented in two primary schools within a whole-class coping programme and whole-school dyslexia professional development context. One hundred and two year 6 students, 23 of whom had dyslexia, undertook surveys pretest, post-test and at 1-year follow-up. Effectiveness of…

  11. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  12. Is ATAR Useful for Predicting the Success of Australian Students in Initial Teacher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Vince J.

    2015-01-01

    Quality teaching is the most significant systemic factor contributing to student achievement. Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers are important goals for Australia as they are for all nations. Debate rages currently about criteria for selection of students into Initial Teacher Education (ITE). The Australian Tertiary Admission…

  13. Initial species composition predicts the progress in the spontaneous succession on post-mining sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Doležal, Jiří; Frouz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 11 (2016), s. 665-670 ISSN 0925-8574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S; GA ČR GA13-10377S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Spontaneous succession * Ecological restoration * Calamagrostis epigejos Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.914, year: 2016

  14. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  15. Effect of stage of initial labor dystocia on vaginal birth after cesarean success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowitz, Adam Korrick; Nakagawa, Sanae; Thiet, Mari-Paule; Rosenstein, Melissa Greer

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether the stage of labor dystocia causing a primary cesarean delivery (CD) affects a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) success. This was a retrospective cohort study of women who had primary CD of singleton pregnancies for first- or second-stage labor dystocia and attempted TOLAC at a single hospital between 2002 and 2014. We compared TOLAC success rates between women whose primary CD was for first- vs second-stage labor dystocia and investigated whether the effect of prior dystocia stage on TOLAC success was modified by previous vaginal delivery (VD). A total of 238 women were included; nearly half (49%) achieved vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). Women with a history of second-stage labor dystocia were more likely to have VBAC compared with those with first-stage dystocia, although this trend was not statistically significant among the general population (55% vs 45%, adjusted odds ratio, 1.4, 95% confidence interval, 0.8-2.5]). However, among women without a prior VD, those with a history of second-stage dystocia did have statistically higher odds of achieving VBAC than those with prior first-stage dystocia (54% vs 38%, adjusted odds ratio, 1.8 [95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.3], P for interaction = .043). Nearly half of women with a history of primary CD for labor dystocia will achieve VBAC. Women with a history of second-stage labor dystocia have a slightly higher VBAC rate, seen to a statistically significant degree in those without a history of prior VD. TOLAC should be offered to all eligible women and should not be discouraged in women with a prior second-stage arrest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Healthy competition drives success in results-based aid: Lessons from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Palmisano, Erin B; Dansereau, Emily; Schaefer, Alexandra; Woldeab, Alexander; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Salvatierra, Benito; Hernandez-Prado, Bernardo; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) is a three-operation strategy, and is a pioneer in the world of results-based aid (RBA) in terms of the success it has achieved in improving health system inputs following its initial operation. This success in meeting pre-defined targets is rare in the world of financial assistance for health. We investigated the influential aspects of SMI that could have contributed to its effectiveness in improving health systems, with the aim of providing international donors, bilateral organizations, philanthropies, and recipient countries with new perspectives that can help increase the effectiveness of future assistance for health, specifically in the arena of RBA. Qualitative methods based on the criteria of relevance and effectiveness proposed by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Our methods included document review, key informant interviews, a focus group discussion, and a partnership analysis. A purposive sample of 113 key informants, comprising donors, representatives from the Inter-American Development Bank, ministries of health, technical assistance organizations, evaluation organizations, and health care providers. During May-October 2016, we interviewed regarding the relevance and effectiveness of SMI. Themes emerged relative to the topics we investigated, and covered the design and the drivers of success of the initiative. The success is due to 1) the initiative's regional approach, which pressured recipient countries to compete toward meeting targets, 2) a robust and flexible design that incorporated the richness of input from stakeholders at all levels, 3) the design-embedded evaluation component that created a culture of accountability among recipient countries, and 4) the reflective knowledge environment that created a culture of evidence-based decision-making. A regional approach involving all appropriate stakeholders, and based on knowledge sharing and

  17. Explaining the success or failure of quality improvement initiatives in long-term care organizations from a dynamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Francis; Couturier, Yves; Denis, Jean-Louis; Tremblay, Lucie; Tannenbaum, Cara

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand why change initiatives succeed or fail in long-term care organizations. Four case studies from Québec, Canada were contrasted retrospectively. A constipation and restraints program succeeded, while an incontinence and falls program failed. Successful programs were distinguished by the use of a change strategy that combined "let-it happen," "help-it happen," and "make-it happen" interventions to create senses of urgency, solidarity, intensity, and accumulation. These four active ingredients of the successful change strategies propelled their respective change processes forward to completion. This paper provides concrete examples of successful and unsuccessful combinations of "let-it happen," "help-it happen," and "make-it happen" change management interventions. Change managers (CM) can draw upon these examples to best tailor and energize change management strategies in their own organizations. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Initial Sleep Time Predicts Success in Manual-Guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Kyhle, Kicki; Broman, Jan-Erik; Gordh, Torsten; Fredrikson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy produces significant and long-lasting improvement for individuals with insomnia, but treatment resources are scarce. A "stepped care" approach has therefore been proposed, but knowledge is limited on how to best allocate patients to different treatment steps. In this study, 66 primary-care patients with insomnia attended a low-end treatment step: manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary-care personnel. Based on clinically significant treatment effects, subjects were grouped into treatment responders or nonresponders. Baseline data were analyzed to identify predictors for treatment success. Long total sleep time at baseline assessment was the only statistically significant predictor for becoming a responder, and sleep time may thus be important to consider before enrolling patients in low-end treatments.

  19. Cache timing attacks on recent microarchitectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Alexandres; Bogdanov, Andrey; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Cache timing attacks have been known for a long time, however since the rise of cloud computing and shared hardware resources, such attacks found new potentially devastating applications. One prominent example is S$A (presented by Irazoqui et al at S&P 2015) which is a cache timing attack against...... AES or similar algorithms in virtualized environments. This paper applies variants of this cache timing attack to Intel's latest generation of microprocessors. It enables a spy-process to recover cryptographic keys, interacting with the victim processes only over TCP. The threat model is a logically...... separated but CPU co-located attacker with root privileges. We report successful and practically verified applications of this attack against a wide range of microarchitectures, from a two-core Nehalem processor (i5-650) to two-core Haswell (i7-4600M) and four-core Skylake processors (i7-6700). The attack...

  20. Expansion of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding into neonatal intensive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Häggkvist, Anna-Pia; Hansen, Mette N

    2013-01-01

    In the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund document Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care, neonatal care is mentioned as 1 area that would benefit from expansion of the original Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The different...... provision of antenatal information, that are specific to neonatal care. Facilitation of early, continuous, and prolonged skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo mother care), early initiation of breastfeeding, and mothers' access to breastfeeding support during the infants' whole hospital stay are important. Mother......'s own milk or donor milk (when available) is the optimal nutrition. Efforts should be made to minimize parent-infant separation and facilitate parents' unrestricted presence with their infants. The initiation and continuation of breastfeeding should be guided only by infant competence and stability...

  1. The role of tissue-specific microbiota in initial establishment success of Pacific oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokmer, Ana; Kuenzel, Sven; Baines, John F; Wegner, Karl Mathias

    2016-03-01

    Microbiota can have positive and negative effects on hosts depending on the environmental conditions. Therefore, it is important to decipher host-microbiota-environment interactions, especially under natural conditions exerting (a)biotic stress. Here, we assess the relative importance of microbiota in different tissues of Pacific oyster for its successful establishment in a new environment. We transplanted oysters from the Southern to the Northern Wadden Sea and controlled for the effects of resident microbiota by administering antibiotics to half of the oysters. We then followed survival and composition of haemolymph, mantle, gill and gut microbiota in local and translocated oysters over 5 days. High mortality was recorded only in non-antibiotic-treated translocated oysters, where high titres of active Vibrio sp. in solid tissues indicated systemic infections. Network analyses revealed the highest connectivity and a link to seawater communities in the haemolymph microbiota. Since antibiotics decreased modularity and increased connectivity of the haemolymph-based networks, we propose that community destabilization in non-treated translocated oysters could be attributed to interactions between resident and external microbiota, which in turn facilitated passage of vibrios into solid tissues and invoked disease. These interactions of haemolymph microbiota with the external and internal environment may thus represent an important component of oyster fitness. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Coping successfully with dyslexia: an initial study of an inclusive school-based resilience programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Nola; Frydenberg, Erica; Steeg, Charlotte; Bond, Lyndal

    2013-05-01

    A dyslexia coping programme entitled Success and Dyslexia was implemented in two primary schools within a whole-class coping programme and whole-school dyslexia professional development context. One hundred and two year 6 students, 23 of whom had dyslexia, undertook surveys pretest, post-test and at 1-year follow-up. Effectiveness of the coping programme and maintenance of effects for the students after transition to secondary school were investigated. Inclusion of contrast group data in the follow-up year suggested significant positive changes at first and second follow-ups in locus of control and nonproductive coping may also be associated with increase in age. Most trends were in the expected direction, especially for students with dyslexia. At follow-up, students with dyslexia reported similar perceived control and adaptive coping to students without dyslexia rather than a decrease in these areas as is usually the case. A larger sample and an ongoing control group are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative 2008-2018: Celebrating 10 Years of Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-01-04

    Launched in January 2008, the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) set out transform Hawaii into a world model for energy independence and sustainability. With its leading-edge vision to transition to a Hawaii-powered clean energy economy within a single generation, HCEI established the most aggressive clean energy goals in the nation. Ten years after its launch, HCEI has significantly outdistanced the lofty targets established as Hawaii embarked on its ambitious quest for energy independence. The state now generates 27 percent of its electricity sales from clean energy sources like wind and solar, placing it 12 percentage points ahead of HCEI's original 2015 RPS target of 15 percent. This brochure highlights some of HCEI's key accomplishments and impacts during its first decade and reveals how its new RPS goal of 100 percent by 2045, which the Hawaii state legislature adopted in May 2015, has positioned Hawaii to become the first U.S. state to produce all of its electricity from indigenous renewable sources.

  4. Local learning-networks on energy efficiency in industry - Successful initiative in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochem, Eberhard; Gruber, Edelgard

    2007-01-01

    Profitable energy-efficiency potentials are often not exploited in industry since management tends not to focus on energy issues. Sharing experiences between companies reveals possibilities for reducing the transaction costs involved. For this purpose, regionally or locally-organised learning networks of companies have been established. Social mechanisms are used to motivate management to pay more attention to energy efficiency in Switzerland and Germany. The main elements of the activities include initial consultation for each company with an experienced engineer, agreement on a common target for energy-efficiency improvement, regular meetings with technical presentations and an exchange of experiences, yearly control of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions as well as scientific monitoring and evaluation of the process. The results of some evaluations show that substantial progress has been made in implementing organisational measures and investments in energy efficiency in the participating companies. The reasons for these achievements are discussed and conclusions drawn about the opportunities and limits of this instrument. Finally, a recommendation is made to implement this instrument on a broader level

  5. Successfully Reducing Hospitalizations of Nursing Home Residents: Results of the Missouri Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Popejoy, Lori; Vogelsmeier, Amy; Galambos, Colleen; Alexander, Greg; Flesner, Marcia; Crecelius, Charles; Ge, Bin; Petroski, Gregory

    2017-11-01

    The goals of the Missouri Quality Initiative (MOQI) for long-stay nursing home residents were to reduce the frequency of avoidable hospital admissions and readmissions, improve resident health outcomes, improve the process of transitioning between inpatient hospitals and nursing facilities, and reduce overall healthcare spending without restricting access to care or choice of providers. The MOQI was one of 7 program sites in the United States, with specific interventions unique to each site tested for the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) Innovations Center. A prospective, single group intervention design, the MOQI included an advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) embedded full-time within each nursing home (NH) to influence resident care outcomes. Data were collected continuously for more than 3 years from an average of 1750 long-stay Medicare, Medicaid, and private pay residents living each day in 16 participating nursing homes in urban, metro, and rural communities within 80 miles of a major Midwestern city in Missouri. Performance feedback reports were provided to each facility summarizing their all-cause hospitalizations and potentially avoidable hospitalizations as well as a support team of social work, health information technology, and INTERACT/Quality Improvement Coaches. The MOQI achieved a 30% reduction in all-cause hospitalizations and statistically significant reductions in 4 single quarters of the 2.75 years of full implementation of the intervention for long-stay nursing home residents. As the population of older people explodes in upcoming decades, it is critical to find good solutions to deal with increasing costs of health care. APRNs, working with multidisciplinary support teams, are a good solution to improving care and reducing costs if all nursing home residents have access to APRNs nationwide. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring success: results from a national survey of recruitment and retention initiatives in the nursing workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Carthon, J Margo; Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Chittams, Jesse; Park, Elizabeth; Guevara, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify common components of diversity pipeline programs across a national sample of nursing institutions and determine what effect these programs have on increasing underrepresented minority enrollment and graduation. Linked data from an electronic survey conducted November 2012 to March 2013 and American Association of Colleges of Nursing baccalaureate graduation and enrollment data (2008 and 2012). Academic and administrative staff of 164 nursing schools in 26 states, including Puerto Rico in the United States. Chi-square statistics were used to (1) describe organizational features of nursing diversity pipeline programs and (2) determine significant trends in underrepresented minorities' graduation and enrollment between nursing schools with and without diversity pipeline programs Twenty percent (n = 33) of surveyed nursing schools reported a structured diversity pipeline program. The most frequent program measures associated with pipeline programs included mentorship, academic, and psychosocial support. Asian, Hispanic, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander nursing student enrollment increased between 2008 and 2012. Hispanic/Latino graduation rates increased (7.9%-10.4%, p = .001), but they decreased among Black (6.8%-5.0%, p = .004) and Native American/Pacific Islander students (2.1 %-0.3%, p ≥ .001). Nursing diversity pipeline programs are associated with increases in nursing school enrollment and graduation for some, although not all, minority students. Future initiatives should build on current trends while creating targeted strategies to reverse downward graduation trends among Black, Native American, and Pacific Island nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transhepatic Balloon Dilatation of Early Biliary Strictures in Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Successful Initial and Mid-Term Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belenky, Alexander; Mor, Eytan; Bartal, Gabriel; Atar, Eli; Shapiro, Riki; Bar-Nathan, Nathan; Bachar, Gil N.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the initial and mid-term outcomes of transhepatic balloon dilatation for the treatment of early biliary strictures in lateral left-segment liver transplants in young children.Methods: Between April 1997 and May 2001, seven children aged 9 months to 6 years with nine benign strictures in left-segment liver grafts were treated percutaneously. Sessions of two or three dilations were performed three or four times at average intervals of 10-20 days. In each session, the biliary stenoses were gradually dilated using balloons of 3-7 mm. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 54 months (mean 27 months, median 12 months). Clinical success was defined as resolution of the stenosis, normalization of liver enzymes and lack of clinical symptoms. Results: Technical success was achieved in all nine strictures. Hemobilia occurred in one patient and was successfully treated. On follow-up, all patients had complete clinical recovery with normalization of liver function and imaging of patent bile ducts. Conclusion: Balloon dilatation is an effective and relatively safe method for the treatment of early biliary strictures in left-segment liver transplantation in young children. We recommend this approach as the initial treatment for early strictures. Metal stents or surgery should be reserved for patients with late appearance of strictures or failure of balloon dilatation

  8. Co-culture microorganisms with different initial proportions reveal the mechanism of chalcopyrite bioleaching coupling with microbial community succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liyuan; Wang, Xingjie; Feng, Xue; Liang, Yili; Xiao, Yunhua; Hao, Xiaodong; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Xueduan

    2017-01-01

    The effect of co-culture microorganisms with different initial proportions on chalcopyrite bioleaching was investigated. Communities were rebuilt by six typical strains isolated from the same habitat. The results indicated, by community with more sulfur oxidizers at both 30 and 40°C, the final copper extraction rate was 19.8% and 6.5% higher, respectively, than that with more ferrous oxidizers. The variations of pH, redox potential, ferrous and copper ions in leachate also provided evidences that community with more sulfur oxidizers was more efficient. Community succession of free and attached cells revealed that initial proportions played decisive roles on community dynamics at 30°C, while communities shared similar structures, not relevant to initial proportions at 40°C. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed different microbial functions on mineral surface. A mechanism model for chalcopyrite bioleaching was established coupling with community succession. This will provide theoretical basis for reconstructing an efficient community in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The global polio eradication initiative: lessons learned and prospects for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Bruce; Tangermann, Rudolf

    2011-12-30

    Following the rapid progress towards interrupting indigenous wild poliovirus transmission in the Americas in the early 1980s, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched with a resolution of the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988. The GPEI built on many lessons learned from smallpox eradication, including the large-scale deployment of technical assistance, implementing agendas of innovation and research and the use of professionally planned and guided advocacy. By the year 2000, the incidence of polio globally had decreased by 99% compared with the estimated >350,000 cases reported from 125 endemic countries in 1988. By 2002, three WHO Regions (the Americas, Western Pacific and European Regions) had been certified polio-free. By 2005, transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) had been interrupted in all but 4 'endemic' countries: India, Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan, where eradication efforts effectively stalled. WPV exported from northern Nigeria and northern India subsequently caused >50 outbreaks and paralysed >1500 children in previously polio-free countries across Asia and Africa. In each of the four remaining polio-endemic countries different challenges, or a combination of factors, prevented to build up sufficient levels of population immunity to stop transmission. Consequently, specific strategies were increasingly tailored to each setting. A new 2010-2012 GPEI Strategic Plan was developed which brought together several approaches to overcome the remaining hurdles to eradication, including the large-scale use of bivalent oral poliovaccine (bOPV) in supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). By the end of 2010, the impact of the new GPEI Strategic Plan 2010-2012 was apparent. Compared to 2009, the number of new polio cases in 2010 fell by 95% in both northern Nigeria and northern India, the world's largest remaining reservoirs of indigenous WPVs. By mid-2011, India had not reported a polio case for more than 5 months, and in

  10. DDOS ATTACK DETECTION SIMULATION AND HANDLING MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sanmorino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we discuss how to handle DDoS attack that coming from the attacker by using detection method and handling mechanism. Detection perform by comparing number of packets and number of flow. Whereas handling mechanism perform by limiting or drop the packets that detected as a DDoS attack. The study begins with simulation on real network, which aims to get the real traffic data. Then, dump traffic data obtained from the simulation used for detection method on our prototype system called DASHM (DDoS Attack Simulation and Handling Mechanism. From the result of experiment that has been conducted, the proposed method successfully detect DDoS attack and handle the incoming packet sent by attacker.

  11. Heuristic attacks against graphical password generators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peach, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors explore heuristic attacks against graphical password generators. A new trend is emerging to use user clickable pictures to generate passwords. This technique of authentication can be successfully used for - for example...

  12. Terrorists and Suicide Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Audrey K

    2003-01-01

    Suicide attacks by terrorist organizations have become more prevalent globally, and assessing the threat of suicide attacks against the United States and its interests at home and abroad has therefore...

  13. Solidarity under Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi; Goffredo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/susi-meret-sergio-goffredo/solidarity-under-attack......https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/susi-meret-sergio-goffredo/solidarity-under-attack...

  14. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: A previous heart attack Open heart surgery Chest trauma A heart attack that has affected the thickness of your heart muscle Symptoms Symptoms include: Anxiety Chest pain from the swollen pericardium rubbing on the ...

  15. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  16. Defense and attack of complex and dependent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausken, Kjell

    2010-01-01

    A framework is constructed for how to analyze the strategic defense of an infrastructure subject to attack by a strategic attacker. Merging operations research, reliability theory, and game theory for optimal analytical impact, the optimization program for the defender and attacker is specified. Targets can be in parallel, series, combined series-parallel, complex, k-out-of-n redundancy, independent, interdependent, and dependent. The defender and attacker determine how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human, and symbolic values, subjectively assessed by the defender and attacker. A contest success function determines the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the investments by the defender and attacker into each target, and on characteristics of the contest. The defender minimizes the expected damage plus the defense costs. The attacker maximizes the expected damage minus the attack costs. Each agent is concerned about how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Interdependent systems are analyzed where the defense and attack on one target impacts all targets. Dependent systems are analyzed applying Markov analysis and repeated games where a successful attack on one target in the first period impacts the unit costs of defense and attack, and the contest intensity, for the other target in the second period.

  17. Defense and attack of complex and dependent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausken, Kjell, E-mail: kjell.hausken@uis.n [Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)

    2010-01-15

    A framework is constructed for how to analyze the strategic defense of an infrastructure subject to attack by a strategic attacker. Merging operations research, reliability theory, and game theory for optimal analytical impact, the optimization program for the defender and attacker is specified. Targets can be in parallel, series, combined series-parallel, complex, k-out-of-n redundancy, independent, interdependent, and dependent. The defender and attacker determine how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human, and symbolic values, subjectively assessed by the defender and attacker. A contest success function determines the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the investments by the defender and attacker into each target, and on characteristics of the contest. The defender minimizes the expected damage plus the defense costs. The attacker maximizes the expected damage minus the attack costs. Each agent is concerned about how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Interdependent systems are analyzed where the defense and attack on one target impacts all targets. Dependent systems are analyzed applying Markov analysis and repeated games where a successful attack on one target in the first period impacts the unit costs of defense and attack, and the contest intensity, for the other target in the second period.

  18. Quantitative Attack Tree Analysis via Priced Timed Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Ruijters, Enno Jozef Johannes; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram; Vicario, Enrico

    The success of a security attack crucially depends on the resources available to an attacker: time, budget, skill level, and risk appetite. Insight in these dependencies and the most vulnerable system parts is key to providing effective counter measures. This paper considers attack trees, one of the

  19. Expansion of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding into neonatal intensive care: expert group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Häggkvist, Anna-Pia; Hansen, Mette N; Kylberg, Elisabeth; Frandsen, Annemi L; Maastrup, Ragnhild; Ezeonodo, Aino; Hannula, Leena; Haiek, Laura N

    2013-08-01

    In the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund document Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care, neonatal care is mentioned as 1 area that would benefit from expansion of the original Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The different situations faced by preterm and sick infants and their mothers, compared to healthy infants and their mothers, necessitate a specific breastfeeding policy for neonatal intensive care and require that health care professionals have knowledge and skills in lactation and breastfeeding support, including provision of antenatal information, that are specific to neonatal care. Facilitation of early, continuous, and prolonged skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo mother care), early initiation of breastfeeding, and mothers' access to breastfeeding support during the infants' whole hospital stay are important. Mother's own milk or donor milk (when available) is the optimal nutrition. Efforts should be made to minimize parent-infant separation and facilitate parents' unrestricted presence with their infants. The initiation and continuation of breastfeeding should be guided only by infant competence and stability, using a semi-demand feeding regimen during the transition to exclusive breastfeeding. Pacifiers are appropriate during tube-feeding, for pain relief, and for calming infants. Nipple shields can be used for facilitating establishment of breastfeeding, but only after qualified support and attempts at the breast. Alternatives to bottles should be used until breastfeeding is well established. The discharge program should include adequate preparation of parents, information about access to lactation and breastfeeding support, both professional and peer support, and a plan for continued follow-up.

  20. A Review of a Successful Unsubsidized Market-Based Rural Solar Development Initiative in Laikipia District, Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wambuguh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of renewable energy technologies (RETs in many areas far from grid-based electricity have primarily involved solar photovoltaics (SPVs which tap solar radiation to provide heat, light, hot water, electricity, and cooling for homes, businesses, and industry. A study on RETs took place in the Wiyumiririe Location of Laikipia District (north-central Kenya, a rich agricultural region. To explore this solar initiative in such a remote part of the country, a purposive randomized convenience sample of 246 households was selected and landowner interviews conducted, followed by field visits and observations. Although more than half of the households visited had SPV installations, solar energy was found to contribute only 18% of household estimated total energy needs; most residents still primarily relying on traditional energy sources. Several types of solar panels of different capacities and costs were utilized. Many landowners had at least one or two rooms using solar energy for household lighting, for appliance charging and to power radio and television. Almost all respondents appreciated that solar energy was clean renewable energy that greatly improved household living conditions; gave them some prestige; was easy to use and maintain; and was available year around. Although such significant benefits were associated with SPVs, only about 40% of residents interviewed were somehow satisfied with its development. Respondents expressed specific developmental initiatives that were closely associated with the availability of solar energy. Nevertheless, a number of challenges were raised associated with SPVs primarily investment capital and equipment costs and maintenance. As solutions to capital building will not solely rely on subsidies or individual farmer inputs, strategies must be found to mobilize the essential and tested tools for success including sustainable capital generation, building local institutions and capacities that

  1. VoIP attacks detection engine based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    The security is crucial for any system nowadays, especially communications. One of the most successful protocols in the field of communication over IP networks is Session Initiation Protocol. It is an open-source project used by different kinds of applications, both open-source and proprietary. High penetration and text-based principle made SIP number one target in IP telephony infrastructure, so security of SIP server is essential. To keep up with hackers and to detect potential malicious attacks, security administrator needs to monitor and evaluate SIP traffic in the network. But monitoring and following evaluation could easily overwhelm the security administrator in networks, typically in networks with a number of SIP servers, users and logically or geographically separated networks. The proposed solution lies in automatic attack detection systems. The article covers detection of VoIP attacks through a distributed network of nodes. Then the gathered data analyze aggregation server with artificial neural network. Artificial neural network means multilayer perceptron network trained with a set of collected attacks. Attack data could also be preprocessed and verified with a self-organizing map. The source data is detected by distributed network of detection nodes. Each node contains a honeypot application and traffic monitoring mechanism. Aggregation of data from each node creates an input for neural networks. The automatic classification on a centralized server with low false positive detection reduce the cost of attack detection resources. The detection system uses modular design for easy deployment in final infrastructure. The centralized server collects and process detected traffic. It also maintains all detection nodes.

  2. Development of a framework towards successful implementation of e-governance initiatives in health sector in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Subhasis; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the route map for employing efficient e-governance so that at least existing resource and infrastructure are better utilized and deficiencies are tracked for future planning. National health is one of the most important factors in a country's economic growth. India seems to be a victim of the vicious cycle around poor economy and poor health conditions. A detailed study was carried out to find out India's healthcare infrastructure and its standing in e-governance initiatives. After consolidating the fact that effective e-governance can enhance the quality of healthcare service even within limited resources, authors explored success and failure factors of many e-governance initiatives in India and abroad. Finally, an e-governance framework is suggested based on the above factors together with the authors' own experience of implementing e-governance projects in India and abroad. The suggested framework is based on a phased implementation approach. The first phase "Information Dissemination" is more geared towards breaking the "digital divide" across three dimensions: G2Business; G2Citizen; and G2Agent. The most advanced stage is aimed towards joining up healthcare information across the above three dimensions and drawing meaningful analytics out of it. The recommendations also include management of Policies, Scope, Process Reform, Infrastructure, Technology, Finance, Partnership and People for efficient implementation of such e-governance initiatives. The paper provides measures for continuous evaluation of systems as one passes through various stages of implementation. However, the framework can be tested on real or simulated environment to prove its worthiness. This paper can be a potential frame of reference for nation-wide e-healthcare projects not only in India but also in other developing countries. The paper also describes challenges that are most likely to be faced during implementation. Since the paper is practical in

  3. An Explanation of Nakamoto's Analysis of Double-spend Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Ozisik, A. Pinar; Levine, Brian Neil

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental attack against blockchain systems is the double-spend attack. In this tutorial, we provide a very detailed explanation of just one section of Satoshi Nakamoto's original paper where the attack's probability of success is stated. We show the derivation of the mathematics relied upon by Nakamoto to create a model of the attack. We also validate the model with a Monte Carlo simulation, and we determine which model component is not perfect.

  4. Activity Modelling and Comparative Evaluation of WSN MAC Security Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    and initiate security attacks that disturb the normal functioning of the network in a severe manner. Such attacks affect the performance of the network by increasing the energy consumption, by reducing throughput and by inducing long delays. Of all existing WSN attacks, MAC layer attacks are considered...... the most harmful as they directly affect the available resources and thus the nodes’ energy consumption. The first endeavour of this paper is to model the activities of MAC layer security attacks to understand the flow of activities taking place when mounting the attack and when actually executing it....... The second aim of the paper is to simulate these attacks on hybrid MAC mechanisms, which shows the performance degradation of aWSN under the considered attacks. The modelling and implementation of the security attacks give an actual view of the network which can be useful in further investigating secure...

  5. Use of Attack Graphs in Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Shandilya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Attack graphs have been used to model the vulnerabilities of the systems and their potential exploits. The successful exploits leading to the partial/total failure of the systems are subject of keen security interest. Considerable effort has been expended in exhaustive modeling, analyses, detection, and mitigation of attacks. One prominent methodology involves constructing attack graphs of the pertinent system for analysis and response strategies. This not only gives the simplified representation of the system, but also allows prioritizing the security properties whose violations are of greater concern, for both detection and repair. We present a survey and critical study of state-of-the-art technologies in attack graph generation and use in security system. Based on our research, we identify the potential, challenges, and direction of the current research in using attack graphs.

  6. Children’s Environmental Health Faculty Champions Initiative: A Successful Model for Integrating Environmental Health into Pediatric Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bonnie; McCurdy, Leyla Erk; Slavin, Katie; Grubb, Kimberly; Roberts, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pediatric medical and nursing education lack the environmental health content needed to properly prepare health care professionals to prevent, recognize, manage, and treat environmental exposure–related diseases. The need for improvements in health care professionals’ environmental health knowledge has been expressed by leading institutions. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of programs that incorporate pediatric environmental health (PEH) into curricula and practice. Objective We evaluated the effectiveness of the National Environmental Education Foundation’s (NEEF) Children’s Environmental Health Faculty Champions Initiative, which is designed to build environmental health capacity among pediatric health care professionals. Methods Twenty-eight pediatric health care professionals participated in a train-the-trainer workshop, in which they were educated to train other health care professionals in PEH and integrate identified PEH competencies into medical and nursing practice and curricula. We evaluated the program using a workshop evaluation tool, action plan, pre- and posttests, baseline and progress assessments, and telephone interviews. Results During the 12 months following the workshop, the faculty champions’ average pretest score of 52% was significantly elevated (p < 0.0001) to 65.5% on the first posttest and to 71.5% on the second posttest, showing an increase and retention of environmental health knowledge. Faculty champions trained 1,559 health care professionals in PEH, exceeding the goal of 280 health care professionals trained. Ninety percent of faculty champions reported that PEH had been integrated into the curricula at their institution. Conclusion The initiative was highly effective in achieving its goal of building environmental health capacity among health care professionals. The faculty champions model is a successful method and can be replicated in other arenas. PMID:19478972

  7. Success rates for initial eradication of peri-prosthetic knee infection treated with a two-stage procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Andrzej; Citak, Mustafa; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Fehmer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rates of primary total knee arthroplasty procedures and exchange arthroplasty procedures continue to rise. Late-onset peri-prosthetic infection constitutes a serious complication whose management may be dependent upon the spectrum of micro-organisms involved. The aim of this study was to provide a retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of initial eradication measures performed as part of a two-stage procedure. Between 2002 and 2008, a total of 328 patients who had received a first-time diagnosis of chronic peri-prosthetic knee infection following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) subsequently underwent surgery at our clinic. The surgical approach consisted of a two-stage procedure, with the initial procedure consisting of the removal of the prosthesis and radical debridement, followed by insertion of an antibiotic-loaded static spacer. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed after six weeks, with each patient undergoing a number of clinical and laboratory-based tests, including knee joint aspiration. Staphylococcus aureus strains were responsible for 68% (n=223) of the total number of cases of peri-prosthetic knee infection. 19% of cases (n=62) showed evidence of gram-negative bacteria, while MRSA accounted for 15% (n=49) of cases. Six weeks after completion of the above-named treatment regimen, eradication of infection was considered successful in 289 patients (88.1%). Eradication was unsuccessful in 22% of MRSA infections (n=11) and 7% of MSSA infections (n=23). The treatment regimen outlined in this report is capable of achieving satisfactory results in the management of late-onset peri-prosthetic knee infection, with one exception: patients with infections caused by MRSA showed high failure rates.

  8. Distinguishing attack and second-preimage attack on encrypted message authentication codes (EMAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariwibowo, Sigit; Windarta, Susila

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show that distinguisher on CBC-MAC can be applied to Encrypted Message Authentication Code (EMAC) scheme. EMAC scheme in general is vulnerable to distinguishing attack and second preimage attack. Distinguishing attack simulation on AES-EMAC using 225 message modifications, no collision have been found. According to second preimage attack simulation on AES-EMAC no collision found between EMAC value of S1 and S2, i.e. no second preimage found for messages that have been tested. Based on distinguishing attack simulation on truncated AES-EMAC we found collision in every message therefore we cannot distinguish truncated AES-EMAC with random function. Second-preimage attack is successfully performed on truncated AES-EMAC.

  9. Web server attack analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Mižišin, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Web server attack analyzer - Abstract The goal of this work was to create prototype of analyzer of injection flaws attacks on web server. Proposed solution combines capabilities of web application firewall and web server log analyzer. Analysis is based on configurable signatures defined by regular expressions. This paper begins with summary of web attacks, followed by detection techniques analysis on web servers, description and justification of selected implementation. In the end are charact...

  10. Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Rob; Borkin, Mike; Alpern, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Microsoft products? Then you need Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Microsoft applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Windows Operating System-Password AttacksActive Directory-Escalat

  11. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2018, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. ...

  12. Seven deadliest USB attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting USB technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest USB Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to USB, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: USB Hacksaw USB Switchblade USB Based Virus/Malicous Code Launch USB Device Overflow RAMdum

  13. Nest initiation in three North American bumble bees (Bombus): gyne number and presence of honey bee workers influence establishment success and colony size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, James P

    2010-01-01

    Three species of bumble bees, Bombus appositus Cresson, Bombus bifarius, Cresson and Bombus centralis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were evaluated for nest initiation success under three sets of initial conditions. In the spring, gynes of each species were caught in the wild and introduced to nest boxes in one of three ways. Gynes were either introduced in conspecific pairs, singly with two honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers, or alone. Nesting success and colony growth parameters were measured to understand the effects of the various treatments on nest establishment. Colonies initiated from pairs of conspecific gynes were most successful in producing worker bees (59.1%), less successful were colonies initiated with honey bee workers (33.3%), and least successful were bumble bee gynes initiating colonies alone (16.7%). There was a negative correlation between the numbers of days to the emergence of the first worker in a colony to the attainment of ultimate colony size, indicating that gynes that have not commenced oviposition in 21 days are unlikely to result in colonies exceeding 50 workers. B. appositus had the highest rate of nest establishment followed by B. bifarius and B. centralis. Nest establishment rates in three western bumble bee species can be increased dramatically by the addition of either honey bee workers or a second gyne to nesting boxes at colony initiation.

  14. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses

  15. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  16. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    2016-01-01

    analysis of quantitative properties of complex attack-defence scenarios, using an extension of attack-defence trees which models temporal ordering of actions and allows explicit dependencies in the strategies adopted by attackers and defenders. We adopt a game-theoretic approach, translating attack...... which guarantee or optimise some quantitative property, such as the probability of a successful attack, the expected cost incurred, or some multi-objective trade-off between the two. We implement our approach, building upon the PRISM-games model checker, and apply it to a case study of an RFID goods...

  17. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  18. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  19. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  20. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  1. False Positive and False Negative Effects on Network Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yilun

    2018-01-01

    Robustness against attacks serves as evidence for complex network structures and failure mechanisms that lie behind them. Most often, due to detection capability limitation or good disguises, attacks on networks are subject to false positives and false negatives, meaning that functional nodes may be falsely regarded as compromised by the attacker and vice versa. In this work, we initiate a study of false positive/negative effects on network robustness against three fundamental types of attack strategies, namely, random attacks (RA), localized attacks (LA), and targeted attack (TA). By developing a general mathematical framework based upon the percolation model, we investigate analytically and by numerical simulations of attack robustness with false positive/negative rate (FPR/FNR) on three benchmark models including Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks, random regular (RR) networks, and scale-free (SF) networks. We show that ER networks are equivalently robust against RA and LA only when FPR equals zero or the initial network is intact. We find several interesting crossovers in RR and SF networks when FPR is taken into consideration. By defining the cost of attack, we observe diminishing marginal attack efficiency for RA, LA, and TA. Our finding highlights the potential risk of underestimating or ignoring FPR in understanding attack robustness. The results may provide insights into ways of enhancing robustness of network architecture and improve the level of protection of critical infrastructures.

  2. A Unique Fatal Moose Attack Mimicking Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmannsson, Petur; Berge, Johan; Druid, Henrik; Ericsson, Göran; Eriksson, Anders

    2018-03-01

    Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury. The dog probably provoked a moose, which, in response, stomped and gored the victim to death. The injuries resembled those previously reported from attacks by cattle and water buffalo. Fatal moose attacks constitute an extremely rare threat in boreal areas, but can be considered in traumatic deaths of unknown cause. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Using agility to combat cyber attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kerry

    2017-06-01

    Some incident response practitioners feel that they have been locked in a battle with cyber criminals since the popular adoption of the internet. Initially, organisations made great inroads in preventing and containing cyber attacks. In the last few years, however, cyber criminals have become adept at eluding defence security technologies and rapidly modifying their exploit strategies for financial or political gains. Similar to changes in military combat tactics, cyber criminals utilise distributed attack cells, real-time communications, and rapidly mutating exploits to minimise the potential for detection. Cyber criminals have changed their attack paradigm. This paper describes a new incident response paradigm aimed at combating the new model of cyber attacks with an emphasis on agility to increase the organisation's ability to respond rapidly to these new challenges.

  4. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Technical Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This Technical Appendix discusses how researchers from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education (NRCCTE) conducted the five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005, and how they defined and…

  5. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Final Technical Report: Major Findings and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This is the final technical report from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's (NRCCTE's) five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005. NRCCTE-affiliated researchers at the National…

  6. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...

  7. Time to ART Initiation among Patients Treated for Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in Khayelitsha, South Africa: Impact on Mortality and Treatment Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Johnny Flippie; Khogali, Mohammed; Mohr, Erika; Cox, Vivian; Moyo, Sizulu; Edginton, Mary; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Meintjes, Graeme; Hughes, Jennifer; De Azevedo, Virginia; van Cutsem, Gilles; Cox, Helen Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Khayelitsha, South Africa, with high burdens of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) and HIV co-infection. To describe time to antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation among HIV-infected RR-TB patients initiating RR-TB treatment and to assess the association between time to ART initiation and treatment outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients with RR-TB and HIV co-infection not on ART at RR-TB treatment initiation. Of the 696 RR-TB and HIV-infected patients initiated on RR-TB treatment between 2009 and 2013, 303 (44%) were not on ART when RR-TB treatment was initiated. The median CD4 cell count was 126 cells/mm3. Overall 257 (85%) patients started ART during RR-TB treatment, 33 (11%) within 2 weeks, 152 (50%) between 2-8 weeks and 72 (24%) after 8 weeks. Of the 46 (15%) who never started ART, 10 (21%) died or stopped RR-TB treatment within 4 weeks and 16 (37%) had at least 4 months of RR-TB treatment. Treatment success and mortality during treatment did not vary by time to ART initiation: treatment success was 41%, 43%, and 50% among patients who started ART within 2 weeks, between 2-8 weeks, and after 8 weeks (p = 0.62), while mortality was 21%, 13% and 15% respectively (p = 0.57). Mortality was associated with never receiving ART (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 6.0, CI 2.1-18.1), CD4 count ≤100 (aHR 2.1, CI 1.0-4.5), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) with second-line resistance (aHR 2.5, CI 1.1-5.4). Despite wide variation in time to ART initiation among RR-TB patients, no differences in mortality or treatment success were observed. However, a significant proportion of patients did not initiate ART despite receiving >4 months of RR-TB treatment. Programmatic priorities should focus on ensuring all patients with RR-TB/HIV co-infection initiate ART regardless of CD4 count, with special attention for patients with CD4 counts ≤ 100 to initiate ART as soon as possible after RR-TB treatment initiation.

  8. Cyber Attacks, Information Attacks, and Postmodern Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuch Jozef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and differentiate between the phenomena of cyberwarfare and information warfare, as manifestations of what we perceive as postmodern warfare. We describe and analyse the current examples of the use the postmodern warfare and the reactions of states and international bodies to these phenomena. The subject matter of this paper is the relationship between new types of postmodern conflicts and the law of armed conflicts (law of war. Based on ICJ case law, it is clear that under current legal rules of international law of war, cyber attacks as well as information attacks (often performed in the cyberspace as well can only be perceived as “war” if executed in addition to classical kinetic warfare, which is often not the case. In most cases perceived “only” as a non-linear warfare (postmodern conflict, this practice nevertheless must be condemned as conduct contrary to the principles of international law and (possibly a crime under national laws, unless this type of conduct will be recognized by the international community as a “war” proper, in its new, postmodern sense.

  9. Efecto de la posición inicial sobre la respuesta de reacción en las acciones de ataque en esgrima. [Effect of the initial position on the reaction response in the actions of attack in fencing].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila

    2013-10-01

    competition of more than five years participated in this study. Two force platforms, operating to 500 Hz, a video camera, to 210 Hz and an electronic chronometer adapted to the system of wired up of the sword were used to record data. An electronic signal was used to synchronise all the recording systems mentioned. For the experimental situation where the CM was moving towards the back foot (backward, the fencer adopted the position of "en garde" with a vertical force on the back foot, between 65 % and 75 % of the corporal weight, and between 45 % and 55 % for the experimental situation of equidistant (equidistant distribution of both supports. In a third situation, the fencer adopted his/her habitual position of "en garde". The results indicated that, the backward position increases the time of movement and the speed of the CM decreases during the movement initiation of the lunge attack.http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2013.03406

  10. Seven Deadliest Wireless Technologies Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Brad

    2010-01-01

    How can an information security professional keep up with all of the hacks, attacks, and exploits? One way to find out what the worst of the worst are is to read the seven books in our Seven Deadliest Attacks Series. Not only do we let you in on the anatomy of these attacks but we also tell you how to get rid of them and how to defend against them in the future. Countermeasures are detailed so that you can fight against similar attacks as they evolve. Attacks featured in this book include:Bluetooth AttacksCredit Card, Access Card, and Passport AttacksBad Encryption

  11. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  12. A fatal elephant attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejna, Petr; Zátopková, Lenka; Safr, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of an elephant attack is presented. A 44-year-old man working as an elephant keeper was attacked by a cow elephant when he tripped over a foot chain while the animal was being medically treated. The man fell down and was consequently repeatedly attacked with elephant tusks. The man sustained multiple stab injuries to both groin regions, a penetrating injury to the abdominal wall with traumatic prolapse of the loops of the small bowel, multiple defects of the mesentery, and incomplete laceration of the abdominal aorta with massive bleeding into the abdominal cavity. In addition to the penetrating injuries, the man sustained multiple rib fractures with contusion of both lungs and laceration of the right lobe of the liver, and comminuted fractures of the pelvic arch and left femoral body. The man died shortly after he had been received at the hospital. The cause of death was attributed to traumatic shock. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Attack Potential Evaluation in Desktop and Smartphone Fingerprint Sensors: Can They Be Attacked by Anyone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Goicoechea-Telleria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biometrics keeps growing. Every day, we use biometric recognition to unlock our phones or to have access to places such as the gym or the office, so we rely on the security manufacturers offer when protecting our privileges and private life. It is well known that it is possible to hack into a fingerprint sensor using fake fingers made of Play-Doh and other easy-to-obtain materials but to what extent? Is this true for all users or only for specialists with a deep knowledge on biometrics? Are smartphone fingerprint sensors as reliable as desktop sensors? To answer these questions, we performed 3 separate evaluations. First, we evaluated 4 desktop fingerprint sensors of different technologies by attacking them with 7 different fake finger materials. All of them were successfully attacked by an experienced attacker. Secondly, we carried out a similar test on 5 smartphones with embedded sensors using the most successful materials, which also hacked the 5 sensors. Lastly, we gathered 15 simulated attackers with no background in biometrics to create fake fingers of several materials, and they had one week to attack the fingerprint sensors of the same 5 smartphones, with the starting point of a short video with the techniques to create them. All 5 smartphones were successfully attacked by an inexperienced attacker. This paper will provide the results achieved, as well as an analysis on the attack potential of every case. All results are given following the metrics of the standard ISO/IEC 30107-3.

  14. The Environmental Health/Home Safety Education Project: a successful and practical U.S.-Mexico border initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Cox, Susan C; Mangadu, Thenral; Jacquez, Benjamín; Fullerton, Lynne

    2010-05-01

    The Environmental Health/Home Safety Education Project (Proyecto de Salud Ambiental y Seguridad en el Hogar) has been developed in response to a wide array of severe and often preventable environmental health issues occurring in and around homes on the U.S.-Mexico border. Utilizing well-trained community members, called promotoras , homes are visited and assessed for potential environmental hazards, including home fire and food safety issues. Data analyzed from project years 2002 to 2005 shows a significant impact in knowledge levels and initial behavior change among targeted participants as it relates to fire and food safety issues. Since the initiation of the project in 1999, hundreds of participants have improved their quality of life by making their homes safer. The project has proven to be sustainable, replicable, flexible, and attractive to funders.

  15. Modeling Resources Allocation in Attacker-Defender Games with "Warm Up" CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Peiqiu; Zhuang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Like many other engineering investments, the attacker's and defender's investments may have limited impact without initial capital to "warm up" the systems. This article studies such "warm up" effects on both the attack and defense equilibrium strategies in a sequential-move game model by developing a class of novel and more realistic contest success functions. We first solve a single-target attacker-defender game analytically and provide numerical solutions to a multiple-target case. We compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the investment "warm up" effects, and find that the defender would suffer higher expected damage, and either underestimate the attacker effort or waste defense investment if the defender falsely believes that no investment "warm up" effects exist. We illustrate the model results with real data, and compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the correlation between the "warm up" threshold and the investment effectiveness. Interestingly, we find that the defender is suggested to give up defending all the targets when the attack or the defense "warm up" thresholds are sufficiently high. This article provides new insights and suggestions on policy implications for homeland security resource allocation. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary...... participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger...

  17. The Success Rate of Initial {sup 131I} Ablation in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Comparison Between Less strict and Very Strict Low Iodine Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Seo, Ye Young; Oh, Jin Kyoung; O, Joo Hyun; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To decrease the risk of recurrence or metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), selected patients receive radioactive iodine ablation of remnant thyroid tissue or tumor. A low iodine diet can enhance uptake of radioactive iodine. We compared the success rates of radioactive iodine ablation therapy in patients who followed two different low iodine diets (LIDs). The success rates of postsurgical radioactive iodine ablation in DTC patients receiving empiric doses of 150 mCi were retrospectively reviewed. First-time radioactive iodine ablation therapy was done in 71 patients following less strict LID. Less strict LID restricted seafood, iodized salt, egg yolk, dairy products, processed meat, instant prepared meals, and multivitamins. Very strict LID additionally restricted rice, freshwater fish, spinach, and soybean products. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy was considered successful when follow up {sup 123I} whole body scan was negative and stimulated serum thyroglobulin level was less than 2.0 ng/mL. The success rate of patients following less strict LID was 80.3% and for very strict LID 75.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates between the two LID groups (P=0.48). Very strict LID may not contribute to improving the success rate of initial radioactive iodine ablation therapy at the cost of great inconvenience to the patient.

  18. Routine delayed voiding cystourethography after initial successful endoscopic treatment with Dextranomer/Hialuronic Acid Copolimer (Dx/HA) of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aparicio, L; Blázquez-Gómez, E; Vila Santandreu, A; Camacho Diaz, J A; Vila-Cots, J; Ramos Cebrian, M; de Haro, I; Martin, O; Tarrado, X

    2016-12-01

    Some guidelines recommend an early voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) after endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), but there's no consensus if it's necessary a long-term follow-up in these patients. The aim of our study is analyze if it's necessary a delayed VCUG after initial successful treatment with Dx/HA. We have reviewed all medical charts of patients that underwent Dx/HA treatment from 2006 to 2010. We have selected patients with initial successful treatment and more than 3 years of radiological and clinical follow-up. We have analyzed late clinical and radiological outcomes. One hundred and sixty children with 228 refluxing ureters underwent Dx/HA endoscopic treatment with a mean follow-up of 52.13 months. Early VCUG was performed in 215 ureters with an initial successful rate of 84.1%. The group of study was 94/215 ureters with more than 3 years of follow-up with a delayed VCUG. VUR was still resolved in 79,8% of the ureters. Clinical success rate was 91.7%. The incidence of febrile urinary tract infection in those patients with cured VUR and those with a relapsed VUR was 8 and 15%, respectively; but there were no significant differences. We have not found any variable related with relapsed VUR except those ureters that initially received 2 injections (P<.05). If our objective in the treatment of VUR is to reduce the incidence of febrile urinary tract infection it is not necessary to perform a delayed VCUG even though the long-term radiological outcomes is worse than clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Attacker Model Lab

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz present Tutorial Quiz Presentation Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial the two sub-classes of computer attackers: amateurs and professionals. It provides valuable insight into the nature of necessary protection measure for information assets. CS3600 Information Assurance: Introduction to Computer Security Course

  20. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... major stroke. It's important to call 9-1-1 immediately for any stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2018, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. The content in this ...

  1. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  2. Successful implementation of diabetes audits in Australia: the Australian National Diabetes Information Audit and Benchmarking (ANDIAB) initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A S; Colagiuri, S; Flack, J R

    2018-04-06

    We developed and implemented a national audit and benchmarking programme to describe the clinical status of people with diabetes attending specialist diabetes services in Australia. The Australian National Diabetes Information Audit and Benchmarking (ANDIAB) initiative was established as a quality audit activity. De-identified data on demographic, clinical, biochemical and outcome items were collected from specialist diabetes services across Australia to provide cross-sectional data on people with diabetes attending specialist centres at least biennially during the years 1998 to 2011. In total, 38 155 sets of data were collected over the eight ANDIAB audits. Each ANDIAB audit achieved its primary objective to collect, collate, analyse, audit and report clinical diabetes data in Australia. Each audit resulted in the production of a pooled data report, as well as individual site reports allowing comparison and benchmarking against other participating sites. The ANDIAB initiative resulted in the largest cross-sectional national de-identified dataset describing the clinical status of people with diabetes attending specialist diabetes services in Australia. ANDIAB showed that people treated by specialist services had a high burden of diabetes complications. This quality audit activity provided a framework to guide planning of healthcare services. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  3. Blocking of Brute Force Attack

    OpenAIRE

    M.Venkata Krishna Reddy

    2012-01-01

    A common threat Web developers face is a password-guessing attack known as a brute-force attack. A brute-force attack is an attempt to discover a password by systematically trying every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols until you discover the one correct combination that works. If your Web site requires user authentication, you are a good target for a brute-force attack. An attacker can always discover a password through a brute-force attack, but the downside is that it co...

  4. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  5. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  6. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  7. Role of heterozygous APC mutation in niche succession and initiation of colorectal cancer--a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roschen Sasikumar

    Full Text Available Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene are found in most colorectal cancers. They cause constitutive activation of proliferative pathways when both alleles of the gene are mutated. However studies on individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP have shown that a single mutated APC allele can also create changes in the precancerous colon crypt, like increased number of stem cells, increased crypt fission, greater variability of DNA methylation patterns, and higher somatic mutation rates. In this paper, using a computational model of colon crypt dynamics, we evolve and investigate a hypothesis on the effect of heterozygous APC mutation that explains these different observations. Based on previous reports and the results from the computational model we propose the hypothesis that heterozygous APC mutation has the effect of increasing the chances for a stem cell to divide symmetrically, producing two stem cell daughters. We incorporate this hypothesis into the model and perform simulation experiments to investigate the consequences of the hypothesis. Simulations show that this hypothesis links together the changes in FAP crypts observed in previous studies. The simulations also show that an APC(+/- stem cell gets selective advantages for dominating the crypt and progressing to cancer. This explains why most colon cancers are initiated by APC mutation. The results could have implications for preventing or retarding the onset of colon cancer in people with inherited or acquired mutation of one APC allele. Experimental validation of the hypothesis as well as investigation into the molecular mechanisms of this effect may therefore be worth undertaking.

  8. Step to improve neural cryptography against flipping attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiantao; Xu, Qinzhen; Pei, Wenjiang; He, Zhenya; Szu, Harold

    2004-12-01

    Synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning has been demonstrated to be possible for constructing key exchange protocol over public channel. However, the neural cryptography schemes presented so far are not the securest under regular flipping attack (RFA) and are completely insecure under majority flipping attack (MFA). We propose a scheme by splitting the mutual information and the training process to improve the security of neural cryptosystem against flipping attacks. Both analytical and simulation results show that the success probability of RFA on the proposed scheme can be decreased to the level of brute force attack (BFA) and the success probability of MFA still decays exponentially with the weights' level L. The synchronization time of the parties also remains polynomial with L. Moreover, we analyze the security under an advanced flipping attack.

  9. Network overload due to massive attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Yosef; Barach, Gilad; Tuchman, Yaakov; Kadish, Benjamin; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.

    2018-05-01

    We study the cascading failure of networks due to overload, using the betweenness centrality of a node as the measure of its load following the Motter and Lai model. We study the fraction of survived nodes at the end of the cascade pf as a function of the strength of the initial attack, measured by the fraction of nodes p that survive the initial attack for different values of tolerance α in random regular and Erdös-Renyi graphs. We find the existence of a first-order phase-transition line pt(α ) on a p -α plane, such that if p pt , pf is large and the giant component of the network is still present. Exactly at pt, the function pf(p ) undergoes a first-order discontinuity. We find that the line pt(α ) ends at a critical point (pc,αc) , in which the cascading failures are replaced by a second-order percolation transition. We find analytically the average betweenness of nodes with different degrees before and after the initial attack, we investigate their roles in the cascading failures, and we find a lower bound for pt(α ) . We also study the difference between localized and random attacks.

  10. Investigating the Possibility to Individualize Asthma Attack Therapy Based on Attack Severity and Patient Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sárkány Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate with the help of a computerized simulation model whether the treatment of an acute asthma attack can be individualized based on the severity of the attack and the characteristics of the patient. Material and Method: A stochastic lung model was used to simulate the deposition of 1 nm - 10 μm particles during a mild and a moderate asthma attack. Breathing parameters were varied to maximize deposition, and simulation results were compared with those obtained in the case of a severe asthma attack. In order to investigate the effect of height on the deposition of inhaled particles, another series of simulations was carried out with identical breathing parameters, comparing patient heights of 155 cm, 175 cm and 195 cm. Results: The optimization process yielded an increase in the maximum deposition values of around 6-7% for each type of investigated asthma attack, and the difference between attacks of different degree of severity was around 5% for both the initial and the optimized values, a higher degree of obstruction increasing the amount of deposited particles. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the individualization of asthma attack treatment cannot be based on particles of different size, as the highest deposited fraction in all three types of attacks can be obtained using 0.01 μm particles. The use of a specific set of breathing parameters yields a difference between a mild and a moderate, as well as a moderate and a severe asthma attack of around 5%.

  11. Initial study of arthropods succession and pig carrion decomposition in two freshwater ecosystems in the Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Maria; Wolff, Marta

    2011-10-10

    Entomological succession and trophic roles of arthropods associated with different stages of carcass decomposition were studied to estimate the post-mortem submersion interval in two freshwater ecosystems in the Colombian Andes, at an altitude of 2614 m. Pig carcasses were employed as models placed 68 m apart, one in a stream (lotic) and another in an artificial lake (lentic). Decomposition time to skeletal remains was 74 days in the lake and 80 days in the stream. Six phases of decomposition were established: submerged fresh, early floating, floating decay, bloated deterioration, floating remains and sunken remains. A total of 18,832 organisms associated with the carcasses were collected: 11,487 in the lake (four orders, 19 families and 33 species) and 7345 in the stream (eight orders, 15 families and 25 species). Organisms were classified in the following ecological categories: shredders, collectors, predators, necrophagous, sarcosaprophagous and opportunists. Physical and chemical properties of the habitats, such as water temperature, CO(2) and conductivity, varied according to rainfall. In the lake, shredders (Coleoptera: Tropisternus sp. and Berosus sp.) and collectors (Diptera: Chironomus sp.) were found to be associated with submerged phases. Predators (Odonata) were only present during the first phases. Coleoptera (Dytiscidae) were found during floating decay and bloated deterioration stages. In the stream, shredders (Hyalella sp.) and collectors (Simulium sp.) were found during all stages, whereas the predator Oxelytrum discicolle was found exclusively during the floating stages, during which body temperature increased in a fashion similar to active decay in terrestrial environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated Discovery of Mimicry Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giffin, Jonathon T; Jha, Somesh; Miller, Barton P

    2006-01-01

    .... These systems are useful only if they detect actual attacks. Previous research developed manually-constructed mimicry and evasion attacks that avoided detection by hiding a malicious series of system calls within a valid sequence allowed by the model...

  13. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat, cholesterol and other substances (plaque). Watch an animation of a heart attack . Many women think the ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  14. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  15. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  16. Occurrence of a 'bad' split and success of initial mandibular healing: a review of 524 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 262 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posnick, J C; Choi, E; Liu, S

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of a 'bad' split after sagittal ramus osteotomies (SRO) and report the results of initial mandibular healing. A retrospective cohort study derived from patients treated by a single surgeon at one institution between 2004 and 2013 was performed. An index group consisting of a series of subjects with a spectrum of bimaxillary dentofacial deformities also involving the chin and symptomatic chronic obstructive nasal breathing was identified. The SRO design, bicortical screw fixation technique, and perioperative management were consistent. Outcome variables included the occurrence of a 'bad' split and the success of initial SRO healing. Two hundred sixty-two subjects undergoing 524 SROs met the inclusion criteria. Their average age was 25 years (range 13-63 years) and 134 were female (51%). Simultaneous removal of a third molar was performed during 209 of the SROs (40%). There were no 'bad' splits. All subjects achieved successful bone union, the planned occlusion, and return to a chewing diet and physical activities by 5 weeks after surgery. The presence of a third molar removed during SRO was not associated with an increased frequency of a 'bad' split or delayed mandibular healing. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The attack navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2016-01-01

    The need to assess security and take protection decisions is at least as old as our civilisation. However, the complexity and development speed of our interconnected technical systems have surpassed our capacity to imagine and evaluate risk scenarios. This holds in particular for risks...... that are caused by the strategic behaviour of adversaries. Therefore, technology-supported methods are needed to help us identify and manage these risks. In this paper, we describe the attack navigator: a graph-based approach to security risk assessment inspired by navigation systems. Based on maps of a socio...

  18. Attacks on computer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan V. Vuletić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems are a critical component of the human society in the 21st century. Economic sector, defense, security, energy, telecommunications, industrial production, finance and other vital infrastructure depend on computer systems that operate at local, national or global scales. A particular problem is that, due to the rapid development of ICT and the unstoppable growth of its application in all spheres of the human society, their vulnerability and exposure to very serious potential dangers increase. This paper analyzes some typical attacks on computer systems.

  19. Robustness analysis of interdependent networks under multiple-attacking strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan-Li; Chen, Shi-Ming; Nie, Sen; Ma, Fei; Guan, Jun-Jie

    2018-04-01

    The robustness of complex networks under attacks largely depends on the structure of a network and the nature of the attacks. Previous research on interdependent networks has focused on two types of initial attack: random attack and degree-based targeted attack. In this paper, a deliberate attack function is proposed, where six kinds of deliberate attacking strategies can be derived by adjusting the tunable parameters. Moreover, the robustness of four types of interdependent networks (BA-BA, ER-ER, BA-ER and ER-BA) with different coupling modes (random, positive and negative correlation) is evaluated under different attacking strategies. Interesting conclusions could be obtained. It can be found that the positive coupling mode can make the vulnerability of the interdependent network to be absolutely dependent on the most vulnerable sub-network under deliberate attacks, whereas random and negative coupling modes make the vulnerability of interdependent network to be mainly dependent on the being attacked sub-network. The robustness of interdependent network will be enhanced with the degree-degree correlation coefficient varying from positive to negative. Therefore, The negative coupling mode is relatively more optimal than others, which can substantially improve the robustness of the ER-ER network and ER-BA network. In terms of the attacking strategies on interdependent networks, the degree information of node is more valuable than the betweenness. In addition, we found a more efficient attacking strategy for each coupled interdependent network and proposed the corresponding protection strategy for suppressing cascading failure. Our results can be very useful for safety design and protection of interdependent networks.

  20. No survival difference after successful {sup 131}I ablation between patients with initially low-risk and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik Anton [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Stokkel, Marcel P.M.; Verkooijen, Robbert B.T. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Dueren, Christian; Reiners, Christoph [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Maeder, Uwe [University of Wuerzburg, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wuerzburg (Germany); Isselt, Johannes W. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Marlowe, Robert J. [Spencer-Fontayne Corporation, Jersey City, NJ (United States); Smit, Johannes W. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology, Leiden (Netherlands); Luster, Markus [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    To compare disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival (RFS) after successful {sup 131}I ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) between those defined before ablation as low-risk and those defined as high-risk according to the European Thyroid Association 2006 consensus statement. Retrospective data from three university hospitals were pooled. Of 2009 consecutive patients receiving ablation, 509 were identified as successfully ablated based on both undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin in the absence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and a negative diagnostic whole-body scan in a follow-up examination conducted 8.1{+-}4.6 months after ablation. Of these 509 patients, 169 were defined as high-risk. After a mean follow-up of 81{+-}64 months (range 4-306 months), only three patients had died of DTC, rendering assessment of disease-specific survival differences impossible. Of the 509 patients, 12 (2.4%) developed a recurrence a mean 35 months (range 12-59 months) after ablation. RFS for the duration of follow-up was 96.6% according to the Kaplan-Meier method. RFS did not differ between high-risk and low-risk patients (p=0.68). RFS differed slightly but significantly between those with papillary and those with follicular thyroid carcinoma (p=0.03) and between those aged {<=}45 years those aged >45 years at diagnosis (p=0.018). After (near) total thyroidectomy and successful {sup 131}I ablation, RFS does not differ between patients classified as high-risk and those classified as low-risk based on TNM stage at diagnosis. Consequently, the follow-up protocol should be determined on the basis of the result of initial treatment rather than on the initial tumour classification. (orig.)

  1. Recent "phishing" attacks

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few weeks there has been a marked increase in the number of attacks on CERN made by cybercriminals. Typical attacks arrive in the form of e-mail messages purporting to come from the CERN Help Desk, Mail Service, or some similarly official-sounding entity and suggest that there is a problem with your account, such as it being over-quota. They then ask you to click on a link or to reply and give your password. Please don’t! Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. NEVER provide your password or other details if these are requested. These messages try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer, and anti-virus software cannot be relied on to detect all cases. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact mailto:helpdesk@cern.ch. CERN Comput...

  2. Algebraic Side-Channel Attack on Twofish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chujiao Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While algebraic side-channel attack (ASCA has been successful in breaking simple cryptographic algorithms, it has never been done on larger or more complex algorithms such as Twofish. Compared to other algorithms that ASCA has been used on, Twofish is more difficult to attack due to the key-dependent S-boxes as well as the complex key scheduling. In this paper, we propose the first algebraic side-channel attack on Twofish, and examine the importance of side-channel information in getting past the key-dependent S-boxes and the complex key scheduling. The cryptographic algorithm and side-channel information are both expressed as boolean equations and a SAT solver is used to recover the key. While algebraic attack by itself is not sufficient to break the algorithm, with the help of side-channel information such as Hamming weights, we are able to correctly solve for 96 bits of the 128 bits key in under 2 hours with known plaintext/ciphertext.

  3. Multiple cyber attacks against a target with observation errors and dependent outcomes: Characterization and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Maochao; Xu, Shouhuai; Zhao, Peng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a cybersecurity model: An attacker can launch multiple attacks against a target with a termination strategy that says that the attacker will stop after observing a number of successful attacks or when the attacker is out of attack resources. However, the attacker's observation of the attack outcomes (i.e., random variables indicating whether the target is compromised or not) has an observation error that is specified by both a false-negative and a false-positive probability. The novelty of the model we study is the accommodation of the dependence between the attack outcomes, because the dependence was assumed away in the literature. In this model, we characterize the monotonicity and bounds of the compromise probability (i.e., the probability that the target is compromised). In addition to extensively showing the impact of dependence on quantities such as compromise probability and attack cost, we give methods for finding the optimal strategy that leads to maximum compromise probability or minimum attack cost. This study highlights that the dependence between random variables cannot be assumed away, because the results will be misleading. - Highlights: • A novel cybersecurity model is proposed to accommodate the dependence among attack outcomes. • The monotonicity and bounds of the compromise probability are studied. • The dependence effect on the compromise probability and attack cost is discussed via simulation. • The optimal strategy that leads to maximum compromise probability or minimum attack cost is presented.

  4. The efficacy and tolerability of frovatriptan and dexketoprofen for the treatment of acute migraine attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Gianni; Rolando, Sara; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Benedetto, Chiara

    2014-08-01

    Frovatriptan is a triptan characterized by a high affinity for 5-HT1B/1D receptors and a long half-life contributing to a more sustained and prolonged action than other triptans. Dexketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a relatively short half-life and rapid onset of action, blocking the action of cyclo-oxygenase, which is involved in prostaglandins' production, thus reducing inflammation and pain. Both drugs have been successfully employed as monotherapies for the treatment of acute migraine attacks. The combination of these two drugs (frovatriptan 2.5 mg plus dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg) has been tested in migraine sufferers, showing a rapid and good initial efficacy, with 2-h pain free rates of 51%, and a high persistence in the 48-h following the onset of pain: recurrence occurred in only 29% of attacks and sustained pain free rates were 43% at 24- and 33% at 48-h.

  5. Cyber Attacks and Combat Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carataș Maria Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is an intangible danger, a real over the corner threat in the life of individuals,organizations, and governments and is getting harder to deal with its damages. The motivations forthe cyber-attacks are different, depending on the terrorist group, from cybercrime to hacktivism,attacks over the authorities’ servers. Organizations constantly need to find new ways ofstrengthening protection against cyber-attacks, assess their cyber readiness, expand the resiliencecapacity and adopts international security regulations.

  6. The RAS Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI established the RAS Initiative to explore innovative approaches for attacking the proteins encoded by mutant forms of RAS genes and to ultimately create effective, new therapies for RAS-related cancers.

  7. Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Timm, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting social networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Social Networking Infrastruct

  8. Initial deposition and electron paramagnetic resonance defects characterization of TiO{sub 2} films prepared using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yiyong, E-mail: wuyiyong2001@yahoo.com.cn [National Key Laboratory of Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. 432, Nan gang District, Harbin, 150080 (China); Shi Yaping [National Key Laboratory of Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. 432, Nan gang District, Harbin, 150080 (China); Harbin University of Commerce, P.O. 493, Song bei District, Harbin, 150028 (China); Xu Xianbin; Sun Chengyue [National Key Laboratory of Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. 432, Nan gang District, Harbin, 150080 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique was considered promisingly to deposit ultra thin titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) films under ambient condition. In this paper, the growth process, structures and paramagnetic defects of the films were characterized by complementary techniques of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results indicate that on glass substrate the SILAR TiO{sub 2} film nucleates in an island mode within the initial five deposition cycles but grows in a layer-by-layer mode afterwards. The growth rate was measured as 4.6 A/cycle. In the as-deposited films, a kind of paramagnetic defects is detected at g (2.0029) and it can be attributed to oxygen vacancies. These as-received oxygen vacancies could be annealed out at 473 K. Ultraviolet irradiation on the as-deposited films can also decrease the density of the defects. The relative mechanisms on the phenomenon were discussed in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} films are deposited on glass at 25 Degree-Sign C by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method with a rate of 4.6 A/cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films nucleate in an island mode initially but grow in a layer mode afterwards. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SILAR TiO{sub 2} films nucleation period is five cycles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that TiO{sub 2} films paramagnetic defects are attributed to oxygen vacancies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They will decrease by anneal or ultraviolet radiation and form hydroxyl or superoxide radicals.

  9. Initial deposition and electron paramagnetic resonance defects characterization of TiO2 films prepared using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiyong; Shi Yaping; Xu Xianbin; Sun Chengyue

    2012-01-01

    Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique was considered promisingly to deposit ultra thin titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films under ambient condition. In this paper, the growth process, structures and paramagnetic defects of the films were characterized by complementary techniques of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results indicate that on glass substrate the SILAR TiO 2 film nucleates in an island mode within the initial five deposition cycles but grows in a layer-by-layer mode afterwards. The growth rate was measured as 4.6 Å/cycle. In the as-deposited films, a kind of paramagnetic defects is detected at g (2.0029) and it can be attributed to oxygen vacancies. These as-received oxygen vacancies could be annealed out at 473 K. Ultraviolet irradiation on the as-deposited films can also decrease the density of the defects. The relative mechanisms on the phenomenon were discussed in this paper. - Highlights: ► TiO 2 films are deposited on glass at 25 °C by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method with a rate of 4.6 Å/cycle. ► The films nucleate in an island mode initially but grow in a layer mode afterwards. ► The SILAR TiO 2 films nucleation period is five cycles. ► Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that TiO 2 films paramagnetic defects are attributed to oxygen vacancies. ► They will decrease by anneal or ultraviolet radiation and form hydroxyl or superoxide radicals.

  10. The success factors of scaling-up Estonian sexual and reproductive health youth clinic network--from a grassroots initiative to a national programme 1991-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempers, Jari; Ketting, Evert; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raudsepp, Triin

    2015-01-08

    A growing number of middle-income countries are scaling up youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health pilot projects to national level programmes. Yet, there are few case studies on successful national level scale-up of such programmes. Estonia is an excellent example of scale-up of a small grassroots adolescent sexual and reproductive health initiative to a national programme, which most likely contributed to improved adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This study; (1) documents the scale-up process of the Estonian youth clinic network 1991-2013, and (2) analyses factors that contributed to the successful scale-up. This research provides policy makers and programme managers with new insights to success factors of the scale-up, that can be used to support planning, implementation and scale-up of adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes in other countries. Information on the scale-up process and success factors were collected by conducting a literature review and interviewing key stakeholders. The findings were analysed using the WHO-ExpandNet framework, which provides a step-by-step process approach for design, implementation and assessment of the results of scaling-up health innovations. The scale-up was divided into two main phases: (1) planning the scale-up strategy 1991-1995 and (2) managing the scaling-up 1996-2013. The planning phase analysed innovation, user organizations (youth clinics), environment and resource team (a national NGO and international assistance). The managing phase examines strategic choices, advocacy, organization, resource mobilization, monitoring and evaluation, strategic planning and management of the scale-up. The main factors that contributed to the successful scale-up in Estonia were: (1) favourable social and political climate, (2) clear demonstrated need for the adolescent services, (3) a national professional organization that advocated, coordinated and represented the youth clinics, (4) enthusiasm

  11. Crony Attack: Strategic Attack’s Silver Bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    physical assets or financial assets. The form of crony attack that most closely resembles classic strategic attack is to deny, degrade, or destroy a money...February 1951. Reprinted in Airpower Studies Coursebook , Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL, 2002, 152–58. Hirsch, Michael. “NATO’s Game of

  12. Developing Simulated Cyber Attack Scenarios Against Virtualized Adversary Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    enclave, as shown in Figure 11, is a common design for many secure networks. Different variations of a cyber-attack scenario can be rehearsed based...achieved a greater degree of success against multiple variations of an enemy network. E. ATTACK TYPES A primary goal of this thesis is to define and...2013. [33] R. Goldberg , “Architectural principles for virtual computer systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Comp. Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge

  13. Exploiting Small Leakages in Masks to Turn a Second-Order Attack into a First-Order Attack and Improved Rotating Substitution Box Masking with Linear Code Cosets

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTrano, Alexander; Karimi, Naghmeh; Karri, Ramesh; Guo, Xiaofei; Carlet, Claude; Guilley, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Masking countermeasures, used to thwart side-channel attacks, have been shown to be vulnerable to mask-extraction attacks. State-of-the-art mask-extraction attacks on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm target S-Box recomputation schemes but have not been applied to scenarios where S-Boxes are precomputed offline. We propose an attack targeting precomputed S-Boxes stored in nonvolatile memory. Our attack targets AES implemented in software protected by a low entropy masking scheme and recovers the masks with 91% success rate. Recovering the secret key requires fewer power traces (in fact, by at least two orders of magnitude) compared to a classical second-order attack. Moreover, we show that this attack remains viable in a noisy environment or with a reduced number of leakage points. Eventually, we specify a method to enhance the countermeasure by selecting a suitable coset of the masks set. PMID:26491717

  14. Using the Domain Name System to Thwart Automated Client-Based Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Curtis R [ORNL; Shue, Craig A [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    On the Internet, attackers can compromise systems owned by other people and then use these systems to launch attacks automatically. When attacks such as phishing or SQL injections are successful, they can have negative consequences including server downtime and the loss of sensitive information. Current methods to prevent such attacks are limited in that they are application-specific, or fail to block attackers. Phishing attempts can be stopped with email filters, but if the attacker manages to successfully bypass these filters, then the user must determine if the email is legitimate or not. Unfortunately, they often are unable to do so. Since attackers have a low success rate, they attempt to compensate for it in volume. In order to have this high throughput, attackers take shortcuts and break protocols. We use this knowledge to address these issues by implementing a system that can detect malicious activity and use it to block attacks. If the client fails to follow proper procedure, they can be classified as an attacker. Once an attacker has been discovered, they will be isolated and monitored. This can be accomplished using existing software in Ubuntu Linux applications, along with our custom wrapper application. After running the system and seeing its performance on three popular Web browsers Chromium, Firefox and Internet Explorer as well as two popular email clients, Thunderbird and Evolution, we found that not only is this system conceivable, it is effective and has low overhead.

  15. Invisible Trojan-horse attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance...

  16. When Sinuses Attack! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Search English Español When Sinuses Attack! KidsHealth / For Kids / When Sinuses Attack! What's in this article? What ...

  17. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  18. A joint mid-course and terminal course cooperative guidance law for multi-missile salvo attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie ZENG

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Salvo attacking a surface target by multiple missiles is an effective tactic to enhance the lethality and penetrate the defense system. However, existing cooperative guidance laws in the mid-course or terminal course are not suitable for long- and medium-range missiles or stand-off attacking. Because the initial conditions of cooperative terminal guidance that are generally generated from the mid-course flight may not lead to a successful cooperative terminal guidance without proper mid-course flight adjustment. Meanwhile, cooperative guidance in the mid-course cannot solely guarantee the accuracy of a simultaneous arrival of multiple missiles. Therefore, a joint mid-course and terminal course cooperative guidance law is developed. By building a distinct leader-follower framework, this paper proposes an efficient coordinated Dubins path planning method to synchronize the arrival time of all engaged missiles in the mid-course flight. The planned flight can generate proper initial conditions for cooperative terminal guidance, and also benefit an earliest simultaneous arrival. In the terminal course, an existing cooperative proportional navigation guidance law guides all the engaged missiles to arrive at a target accurately and simultaneously. The integrated guidance law for an intuitive application is summarized. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed method can generate fast and accurate salvo attack. Keywords: Cooperative systems, Dubins path, Mid-course flight, Missile guidance, Salvo attack

  19. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  20. Ontogenetic development of attack behaviour by turbot larvae when exposed to copepod prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Jacob K.; Bruno, Eleonora; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt

    2018-01-01

    offered small nauplii (129–202 μm), large nauplii (222–278 μm) and copepodites (342–542 μm), of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. At 8 DPH, turbot larvae had the highest capture success (67%) when offered small nauplii, with a lower capture success of large nauplii (27%) but totally lacked...... by the larva on the copepod was examined, and the approach pattern of the larva was identified as a controlling mechanism for their strike distance, with the initial approach speed of larva at DPH 10 being significantly less than at DPH 8. In all successful attacks, the strike distance was less than 1.17 mm...

  1. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  2. Shark Attack Project - Marine Attack at Towed Hydrophone Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalmijn, Adrianus J

    2005-01-01

    The original objective of the SIO Marine Attack project was to identify the electric and magnetic fields causing sharks to inflict serious damage upon the towed hydrophone arrays of US Navy submarines...

  3. The Cyber-Physical Attacker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The world of Cyber-Physical Systems ranges from industrial to national interest applications. Even though these systems are pervading our everyday life, we are still far from fully understanding their security properties. Devising a suitable attacker model is a crucial element when studying...... the security properties of CPSs, as a system cannot be secured without defining the threats it is subject to. In this work an attacker scenario is presented which addresses the peculiarities of a cyber-physical adversary, and we discuss how this scenario relates to other attacker models popular in the security...

  4. A framework of initiatives for successful application of life cycle costing (LCC in industrialised building system (IBS in Malaysian construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddin Siti Mazzuana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialised Building System (IBS contributes a great shift in sustainable construction and benefits the society. Previous studies have proven in general that one of the hindrances in promoting sustainable in IBS, is a high cost for any pre-cast material specifically thus effected the overall cost. The introduction of Life Cycle Costing (LCC leads into providing a better and comprehensive cost estimation, including projecting actual cost to operate the building, hence providing a better baseline for decision making. The lacking application of LCC in IBS is still in trivial impact, therefore, this paper presents a framework which produced by expressing the successful initiatives of LCC and IBS in Malaysia construction industry. The framework developed based on findings from the extensive literature reviews, 164 responded questionnaires, and 19 expert opinions, which has three sections: Strategy Development, System Development and the last part is Decision Level. Aspects of objectivity, practicality, reliability, completeness that were likely to be implemented in the Malaysian construction industry were used. There are significant opinions on the usefulness and completeness of the proposed framework in providing a comprehensive cost estimates which helps much in deciding to carry out IBS or remain with a traditional construction method.

  5. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  6. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva; Stan, Rydell

    2008-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment

  7. Construction of a Cyber Attack Model for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varuttamaseni, Athi; Bari, Robert A.; Youngblood, Robert

    2017-05-01

    The consideration of how one compromised digital equipment can impact neighboring equipment is critical to understanding the progression of cyber attacks. The degree of influence that one component may have on another depends on a variety of factors, including the sharing of resources such as network bandwidth or processing power, the level of trust between components, and the inclusion of segmentation devices such as firewalls. The interactions among components via mechanisms that are unique to the digital world are not usually considered in traditional PRA. This means potential sequences of events that may occur during an attack may be missed if one were to only look at conventional accident sequences. This paper presents a method where, starting from the initial attack vector, the progression of a cyber attack can be modeled. The propagation of the attack is modeled by considering certain attributes of the digital components in the system. These attributes determine the potential vulnerability of a component to a class of attack and the capability gained by the attackers once they are in control of the equipment. The use of attributes allows similar components (components with the same set of attributes) to be modeled in the same way, thereby reducing the computing resources required for analysis of large systems.

  8. Changes in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials after Meniere attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Wei; Yang, Ting-Hua; Young, Yi-Ho

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to apply videonystagmography (VNG) and vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) tests to patients with Meniere attacks, to explore the mechanics of where saccular disorders may affect the semicircular canals. From January 2001 to December 2003, 12 consecutive patients with unilateral definite Meniere's disease with vertiginous attacks underwent VNG for recording spontaneous nystagmus, as well as VEMP tests. At the very beginning of the Meniere attack, the spontaneous nystagmus beat toward the lesion side in 5 patients (42%) and toward the healthy side in 7 patients (58%). Twenty-four hours later, only 6 patients (50%) showed spontaneous nystagmus beating toward the healthy side. Nevertheless, spontaneous nystagmus subsided in all patients within 48 hours. The VEMP test was performed within 24 hours of a Meniere attack; the VEMPs were normal in 4 patients and abnormal in 8 patients (67%). After 48 hours, 4 patients with initially abnormal VEMPs had resolution and return to normal VEMPs, and the other 4 patients still had absent VEMPs. Most patients (67%) with Meniere attacks revealed abnormal VEMPs, indicating that the saccule participates in a Meniere attack. This is an important idea that stimulates consideration of the mechanism of Meniere attacks.

  9. Chess therapy: A new approach to curing panic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Kazem; Barzegar, Somayeh

    2017-12-01

    To study the effect of playing cell phone chess game on treating panic attack. The chess game on an android cell phone was played by the researcher who was affected by panic attack as a post-traumatic disorder immediately after or before feeling of the start of symptoms. The right level of difficulty, i.e., levels 2-4, was selected for optimal results. Playing chess game on the android cell phone prevented the manifestation of panic attack and led to the cure of this traumatic condition. Chess therapy with the right level of difficulty can be recommended as a very effective non-pharmaceutical method for the successful treatment of panic attacks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Forensics Investigation of Web Application Security Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Amor Lazzez; Thabet Slimani

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, web applications are popular targets for security attackers. Using specific security mechanisms, we can prevent or detect a security attack on a web application, but we cannot find out the criminal who has carried out the security attack. Being unable to trace back an attack, encourages hackers to launch new attacks on the same system. Web application forensics aims to trace back and attribute a web application security attack to its originator. This may significantly reduce the sec...

  11. Robustness of coevolution in resolving prisoner's dilemma games on interdependent networks subject to attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Penghui; Liu, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Recently, coevolution between strategy and network structure has been established as a rule to resolve social dilemmas and reach optimal situations for cooperation. Many follow-up researches have focused on studying how coevolution helps networks reorganize to deter the defectors and many coevolution methods have been proposed. However, the robustness of the coevolution rules against attacks have not been studied much. Since attacks may directly influence the original evolutionary process of cooperation, the robustness should be an important index while evaluating the quality of a coevolution method. In this paper, we focus on investigating the robustness of an elementary coevolution method in resolving the prisoner's dilemma game upon the interdependent networks. Three different types of time-independent attacks, named as edge attacks, instigation attacks and node attacks have been employed to test its robustness. Through analyzing the simulation results obtained, we find this coevolution method is relatively robust against the edge attack and the node attack as it successfully maintains cooperation in the population over the entire attack range. However, when the instigation probability of the attacked individuals is large or the attack range of instigation attack is wide enough, coevolutionary rule finally fails in maintaining cooperation in the population.

  12. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security......Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... of several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  13. Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Major changes in your life, such as a divorce or the addition of a baby Smoking or ... quality of life. Complications that panic attacks may cause or be linked to include: Development of specific ...

  14. What Is a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones know how you feel and what they can do to help you. Risk of a Repeat Heart Attack Once ...

  15. Software-based Microarchitectural Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gruss, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Modern processors are highly optimized systems where every single cycle of computation time matters. Many optimizations depend on the data that is being processed. Software-based microarchitectural attacks exploit effects of these optimizations. Microarchitectural side-channel attacks leak secrets from cryptographic computations, from general purpose computations, or from the kernel. This leakage even persists across all common isolation boundaries, such as processes, containers, and virtual ...

  16. OPERATION COBRA. Deliberate Attack, Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-25

    to attack Sens, then continue to Troyes , on the Seine River. CCA was in the north, crossing the Loing River at Souppes against light resistance and...advanced from Troyes and prepared positions close to Sens. Under strong artillery support, a task force from CCA (TF Oden) attacked the enemy frontally...movement towards the Seine River on 24 August with an advance toward Troyes . Facing the combat command were what remained of the 51st SS Brigade, light

  17. Defending majority voting systems against a strategic attacker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell; Ben Haim, Hanoch

    2013-01-01

    Voting systems used in technical and tactical decision making in pattern recognition and target detection, data handling, signal processing, distributed and secure computing etc. are considered. A maxmin two period game is analyzed where the defender first protects and chooses units for participation in voting. The attacker thereafter attacks a subset of units. It is shown that when the defender protects all the voting units, the optimal number of units chosen for voting is either one or the maximal possible odd number. When the defender protects only the units chosen for voting, the optimal number of chosen units increases with the defender resource superiority (i.e., more resources than the attacker) and with probability of providing correct output by any unit. The system success probability always increases in the total number of voting units, the defender–attacker resource ratio, and the probability that each voting unit produces a correct output. The system success probability increases in the attacker–defender contest intensity if the defender achieves per-unit resource superiority, and otherwise decreases in the contest intensity. The presented model and enumerative algorithm allow obtaining optimal voting system defense strategy for any combination of parameters: total number of units, attack and defense resources, unit success probability and contest intensity.

  18. An Approach for Assessing Consequences of Potential Supply Chain and Insider Contributed Cyber Attacks on Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tsong L.

    2016-11-06

    The Stuxnet attack at the Natanz facility is an example of a targeted and successful cyber attack on a nuclear facility. Snowden's release of National Security Agency documents demonstrated the consequences of the insider threat. More recently, the United States tried to attack North Korea but failed, South Korea was attempting to attack North Korea, and both applied Stuxnet-like approaches. These sophisticated targeted attacks differ from web-site hacking events that are reported almost daily in the news mainly because targeted attacks require detailed design and operation information of the systems attacked and/or are often carried out by insiders. For instance, in order to minimize disruption of facilities around the world, Stuxnet remained idle until it recognized the specific configuration of the Natanz facility, demonstrating that the attackers possessed extremely detailed information about the facility. Such targeted cyber attacks could become a national-level military weapon and be used in coercion of hostile countries.

  19. A New Unified Intrusion Anomaly Detection in Identifying Unseen Web Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hilmi Kamarudin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global usage of more sophisticated web-based application systems is obviously growing very rapidly. Major usage includes the storing and transporting of sensitive data over the Internet. The growth has consequently opened up a serious need for more secured network and application security protection devices. Security experts normally equip their databases with a large number of signatures to help in the detection of known web-based threats. In reality, it is almost impossible to keep updating the database with the newly identified web vulnerabilities. As such, new attacks are invisible. This research presents a novel approach of Intrusion Detection System (IDS in detecting unknown attacks on web servers using the Unified Intrusion Anomaly Detection (UIAD approach. The unified approach consists of three components (preprocessing, statistical analysis, and classification. Initially, the process starts with the removal of irrelevant and redundant features using a novel hybrid feature selection method. Thereafter, the process continues with the application of a statistical approach to identifying traffic abnormality. We performed Relative Percentage Ratio (RPR coupled with Euclidean Distance Analysis (EDA and the Chebyshev Inequality Theorem (CIT to calculate the normality score and generate a finest threshold. Finally, Logitboost (LB is employed alongside Random Forest (RF as a weak classifier, with the aim of minimising the final false alarm rate. The experiment has demonstrated that our approach has successfully identified unknown attacks with greater than a 95% detection rate and less than a 1% false alarm rate for both the DARPA 1999 and the ISCX 2012 datasets.

  20. Analytical Characterization of Internet Security Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellke, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…

  1. Modeling attacker-defender interactions in information networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Michael Joseph

    2010-09-01

    The simplest conceptual model of cybersecurity implicitly views attackers and defenders as acting in isolation from one another: an attacker seeks to penetrate or disrupt a system that has been protected to a given level, while a defender attempts to thwart particular attacks. Such a model also views all non-malicious parties as having the same goal of preventing all attacks. But in fact, attackers and defenders are interacting parts of the same system, and different defenders have their own individual interests: defenders may be willing to accept some risk of successful attack if the cost of defense is too high. We have used game theory to develop models of how non-cooperative but non-malicious players in a network interact when there is a substantial cost associated with effective defensive measures. Although game theory has been applied in this area before, we have introduced some novel aspects of player behavior in our work, including: (1) A model of how players attempt to avoid the costs of defense and force others to assume these costs; (2) A model of how players interact when the cost of defending one node can be shared by other nodes; and (3) A model of the incentives for a defender to choose less expensive, but less effective, defensive actions.

  2. Automated Generation of Attack Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error-prone and impractica......Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error......-prone and impracticable for large systems. Nonetheless, the automated generation of attack trees has only been explored in connection to computer networks and levering rich models, whose analysis typically leads to an exponential blow-up of the state space. We propose a static analysis approach where attack trees...... are automatically inferred from a process algebraic specification in a syntax-directed fashion, encompassing a great many application domains and avoiding incurring systematically an exponential explosion. Moreover, we show how the standard propositional denotation of an attack tree can be used to phrase...

  3. Choosing What to Protect When Attacker Resources and Asset Valuations are Uncertain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Hausken

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The situation has been modelled where the attacker's resources are unknown to the defender. Protecting assets presupposes that the defender has some information on the attacker's resource capabilities. An attacker targets one of two assets. The attacker's resources and valuations of these assets are drawn probabilistically. We specify when the isoutility curves are upward sloping (the defender prefers to invest less in defense, thus leading to higher probabilities of success for attacks on both assets or downward sloping (e.g. when one asset has a low value or high unit defense cost. This stands in contrast to earlier research and results from the uncertainty regarding the level of the attacker's resources. We determine which asset the attacker targets depending on his type, unit attack costs, the contest intensity, and investment in defense. A two stage game is considered, where the defender moves first and the attacker moves second. When both assets are equivalent and are treated equivalently by both players, an interior equilibrium exists when the contest intensity is low, and a corner equilibrium with no defense exists when the contest intensity is large and the attacker holds large resources. Defense efforts are inverse U shaped in the attacker's resources. (original abstract

  4. Reliably determining data leakage in the presence of strong attackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bortolameotti, R.; Peter, A.; Everts, M.H.; Jonker, W.; Hartel, P.

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of determining what data has been leaked from a system after its recovery from a successful attack. This is a forensic process which is relevant to give a better understanding of the impact of a data breach, but more importantly it is becoming mandatory according to the recent

  5. Impact modeling and prediction of attacks on cyber targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Aram; Michalk, Brian; Alford, Lee; Henney, Chris; Gilbert, Logan

    2010-04-01

    In most organizations, IT (information technology) infrastructure exists to support the organization's mission. The threat of cyber attacks poses risks to this mission. Current network security research focuses on the threat of cyber attacks to the organization's IT infrastructure; however, the risks to the overall mission are rarely analyzed or formalized. This connection of IT infrastructure to the organization's mission is often neglected or carried out ad-hoc. Our work bridges this gap and introduces analyses and formalisms to help organizations understand the mission risks they face from cyber attacks. Modeling an organization's mission vulnerability to cyber attacks requires a description of the IT infrastructure (network model), the organization mission (business model), and how the mission relies on IT resources (correlation model). With this information, proper analysis can show which cyber resources are of tactical importance in a cyber attack, i.e., controlling them enables a large range of cyber attacks. Such analysis also reveals which IT resources contribute most to the organization's mission, i.e., lack of control over them gravely affects the mission. These results can then be used to formulate IT security strategies and explore their trade-offs, which leads to better incident response. This paper presents our methodology for encoding IT infrastructure, organization mission and correlations, our analysis framework, as well as initial experimental results and conclusions.

  6. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  7. Initial perspectives on process threat management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteley, James R. Rob; Mannan, M. Sam

    2004-01-01

    Terrorist and criminal acts are now considered credible risks in the process industries. Deliberate attacks on the nation's petroleum refineries and chemical plants would pose a significant threat to public welfare, national security, and the US economy. To-date, the primary response of government and industry has been on improved security to prevent attacks and the associated consequences. While prevention is clearly preferred, the potential for successful attacks must be addressed. If plant security is breached, the extent of the inflicted damage is determined by the available plant safety systems and procedures. We refer to this 'inside the gate' response as process threat management. The authors have initiated a joint industry/academia study to address: - the level of safety provided by existing plant equipment and safety systems in response to a terrorist act, and; - identification of process (rather than security) needs or opportunities to address this new safety concern. This paper describes the initial perspectives and issues identified by the team at the beginning of the study

  8. Weather, logging, and tree growth associated with fir engraver attack scars in white fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    George T. Ferrell

    1973-01-01

    The boles of 32 recently killed, and 41 living, white fir were examined for embedded fir engraver (Scolytus ventralis) attack scars. Of 287 scars found in annual rings for the years 1934-69, only 2 to 3 percent represented reproductively successful attacks. Trends in scar abundance were directly correlated with trends in white fir killed by ...

  9. Assessing risk from intelligent attacks: A perspective on approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guikema, Seth D.; Aven, Terje

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the uncertainties in and severity of the consequences of intelligent attacks are fundamentally different from risk assessment for accidental events and other phenomena with inherently random failures. Intelligent attacks against a system involve adaptation on the part of the adversary. The probabilities of the initiating events depend on the risk management actions taken, and they may be more difficult to assess due to high degrees of epistemic uncertainty about the motivations and future actions of adversaries. Several fundamentally different frameworks have been proposed for assessing risk from intelligent attacks. These include basing risk assessment and management on game theoretic modelling of attacker actions, using a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) approach based on eliciting probabilities of different initiating events from appropriate experts, assessing uncertainties beyond probabilities and expected values, and ignoring the probabilities of the attacks and choosing to protect highest valued targets. In this paper we discuss and compare the fundamental assumptions that underlie each of these approaches. We then suggest a new framework that makes the fundamental assumptions underlying the approaches clear to decision makers and presents them with a suite of results from conditional risk analysis methods. Each of the conditional methods presents the risk from a specified set of fundamental assumptions, allowing the decision maker to see the impacts of these assumptions on the risk management strategies considered and to weight the different conditional results with their assessments of the relative likelihood of the different sets of assumptions.

  10. The characteristics of radiological cloud caused by 'dirty bomb' attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingbo; Wang Bairong

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of the radiological cloud after the RDD explosion, including the initial cloud size, material's distribution and the rate of particle or aerosol sedimentation. For there are limited papers in involved this topic publicly, only empirical formulas are given. However, it would be helpful when evaluating the consequences of the RDD terrorism attacks. (authors)

  11. LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A study on the mechanism of speculative attack and the defence strategy of the central bank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hyun Yun

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We first analyze the concrete mechanism of speculative attack on the foreign exchange market which became very prevalent phenomena during the foreign exchange crisis. When the central bank of the domestic country tries to defend the attack by increasing the interest rate, some problems can arise in that the speculative attacks through foreign exchange options market and/or index futures markets can be very successful due to that policy. So the central bank should pay much attention to the microstructure of the financial markets when the defence strategy against speculative attack is determined.

  13. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  14. Detection of complex cyber attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Berk, Vincent H.; Giani, Annarita; Bakos, George; Bates, Marion; Cybenko, George; Madory, Doug

    2006-05-01

    One significant drawback to currently available security products is their inabilty to correlate diverse sensor input. For instance, by only using network intrusion detection data, a root kit installed through a weak username-password combination may go unnoticed. Similarly, an administrator may never make the link between deteriorating response times from the database server and an attacker exfiltrating trusted data, if these facts aren't presented together. Current Security Information Management Systems (SIMS) can collect and represent diverse data but lack sufficient correlation algorithms. By using a Process Query System, we were able to quickly bring together data flowing from many sources, including NIDS, HIDS, server logs, CPU load and memory usage, etc. We constructed PQS models that describe dynamic behavior of complicated attacks and failures, allowing us to detect and differentiate simultaneous sophisticated attacks on a target network. In this paper, we discuss the benefits of implementing such a multistage cyber attack detection system using PQS. We focus on how data from multiple sources can be combined and used to detect and track comprehensive network security events that go unnoticed using conventional tools.

  15. Neuroradiological study of transient ischemic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takusagawa, Yoshihiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Ichiki, Ken; Suga, Takeshi; Nishigaki, Shinichi

    1986-08-01

    Fifty-two patients with carotid TIAs and thirteen patients with vertebrobasilar TIAs were investigated by angiography and computed tomography. TIA was diagnosed by clinical symptoms in accordance with the criteria for TIA of the Joint Committee for Stroke Facilities in the U.S.A. (1974). The 65 patients with TIAs included 49 males and 16 females with average age of 63.5 years old at the initial episode of TIA. As for the diseases associated with TIA, hypertension (51 %), diabetes mellitus (15 %) and ischemic heart diseases (11 %) were the major disorders. Atrial fibrillation was observed in 2 cases. Intervals from last TIA attack to angiography were less than 7 days in 22 cases, 8 -- 30 days in 19 cases, 1 -- 4 monthes in 14 cases and more than 4 monthes in 10 cases, respectively. The cases in which angiography was done earlier after attacks displayed more abnormal findings. In 52 patients with caroted TIAs the artherosclerotic change of extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery was found in 14 cases (27 %), that of intracranial portion of the artery in 11 cases (21 %) and both lesions in 2 cases (4 %). On the other hand, in 13 patients with vertebrobasilar TIAs, this change was observed in 4 cases at the extracranival potion and in 1 case at the intracranial potion (siphon) of the internal carotid artery. Abnormal CT findings were found in 29 of 65 patients, namely 9 had ventricular dilatation and brain atrophy, 6 had cerebral infarction which was not associated with associated with symptoms of TIA. In carotid TIAs, Cerebral infarction was associated with symptoms of TIAs in 15 cases, namely 10 had a small low density area in the basal ganglia near the internal capsule and 5 had a low density area in the cortical or subcortical region. All of these 5 cases had cerebral embolism, which recanalized after attacks. (J.P.N.).

  16. Neuroradiological study of transient ischemic attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takusagawa, Yoshihiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Ichiki, Ken; Suga, Takeshi; Nishigaki, Shinichi

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-two patients with carotid TIAs and thirteen patients with vertebrobasilar TIAs were investigated by angiography and computed tomography. TIA was diagnosed by clinical symptoms in accordance with the criteria for TIA of the Joint Committee for Stroke Facilities in the U.S.A. (1974). The 65 patients with TIAs included 49 males and 16 females with average age of 63.5 years old at the initial episode of TIA. As for the diseases associated with TIA, hypertension (51 %), diabetes mellitus (15 %) and ischemic heart diseases (11 %) were the major disorders. Atrial fibrillation was observed in 2 cases. Intervals from last TIA attack to angiography were less than 7 days in 22 cases, 8 ∼ 30 days in 19 cases, 1 ∼ 4 monthes in 14 cases and more than 4 monthes in 10 cases, respectively. The cases in which angiography was done earlier after attacks displayed more abnormal findings. In 52 patients with caroted TIAs the artherosclerotic change of extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery was found in 14 cases (27 %), that of intracranial portion of the artery in 11 cases (21 %) and both lesions in 2 cases (4 %). On the other hand, in 13 patients with vertebrobasilar TIAs, this change was observed in 4 cases at the extracranival potion and in 1 case at the intracranial potion (siphon) of the internal carotid artery. Abnormal CT findings were found in 29 of 65 patients, namely 9 had ventricular dilatation and brain atrophy, 6 had cerebral infarction which was not associated with associated with symptoms of TIA. In carotid TIAs, Cerebral infarction was associated with symptoms of TIAs in 15 cases, namely 10 had a small low density area in the basal ganglia near the internal capsule and 5 had a low density area in the cortical or subcortical region. All of these 5 cases had cerebral embolism, which recanalized after attacks. (J.P.N.)

  17. ShadowNet: An Active Defense Infrastructure for Insider Cyber Attack Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The ShadowNet infrastructure for insider cyber attack prevention is comprised of a tiered server system that is able to dynamically redirect dangerous/suspicious network traffic away from production servers that provide web, ftp, database and other vital services to cloned virtual machines in a quarantined environment. This is done transparently from the point of view of both the attacker and normal users. Existing connections, such as SSH sessions, are not interrupted. Any malicious activity performed by the attacker on a quarantined server is not reflected on the production server. The attacker is provided services from the quarantined server, which creates the impression that the attacks performed are successful. The activities of the attacker on the quarantined system are able to be recorded much like a honeypot system for forensic analysis.

  18. Neutralizing SQL Injection Attack Using Server Side Code Modification in Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asish Kumar Dalai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports on web application security risks show that SQL injection is the top most vulnerability. The journey of static to dynamic web pages leads to the use of database in web applications. Due to the lack of secure coding techniques, SQL injection vulnerability prevails in a large set of web applications. A successful SQL injection attack imposes a serious threat to the database, web application, and the entire web server. In this article, the authors have proposed a novel method for prevention of SQL injection attack. The classification of SQL injection attacks has been done based on the methods used to exploit this vulnerability. The proposed method proves to be efficient in the context of its ability to prevent all types of SQL injection attacks. Some popular SQL injection attack tools and web application security datasets have been used to validate the model. The results obtained are promising with a high accuracy rate for detection of SQL injection attack.

  19. Wolf Attack Probability: A Theoretical Security Measure in Biometric Authentication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Une, Masashi; Otsuka, Akira; Imai, Hideki

    This paper will propose a wolf attack probability (WAP) as a new measure for evaluating security of biometric authentication systems. The wolf attack is an attempt to impersonate a victim by feeding “wolves” into the system to be attacked. The “wolf” means an input value which can be falsely accepted as a match with multiple templates. WAP is defined as a maximum success probability of the wolf attack with one wolf sample. In this paper, we give a rigorous definition of the new security measure which gives strength estimation of an individual biometric authentication system against impersonation attacks. We show that if one reestimates using our WAP measure, a typical fingerprint algorithm turns out to be much weaker than theoretically estimated by Ratha et al. Moreover, we apply the wolf attack to a finger-vein-pattern based algorithm. Surprisingly, we show that there exists an extremely strong wolf which falsely matches all templates for any threshold value.

  20. Cluster headache attack remission with sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads C J; Jürgens, Tim P; May, Arne

    2016-01-01

    collected at regular clinic visits. The time point “after remission” was defined as the first visit after the end of the remission period. Results: Thirty percent (10/33) of enrolled patients experienced at least one period of complete attack remission. All remission periods followed the start of SPG...... stimulation, with the first period beginning 134 ± 86 (range 21-272) days after initiation of stimulation. On average, each patient’s longest remission period lasted 149 ± 97 (range 62-322) days. The ability to treat acute attacks before and after remission was similar (37 % ± 25 % before, 49 % ± 32 % after...

  1. A rare case report of peri-implant bone necrosis: Mapping the distance of initial peri-implant complication toward a path of success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Salaria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, science of implant placement has greatly advanced and at the same time much success has been experienced with the endosseous implant. Despite the long-term predictability of the implants, however, biological, technical and esthetic complications do occur. The use of osseointegrated implants as a foundation for prosthetic replacement of missing teeth has been highly predictable, but still at present, there is no consensus of how to best manage the complications occurring after implant placement. In this report, we discuss post-insertion complication of bone necrosis and its successful management.

  2. A Strategic Analysis of Information Sharing Among Cyber Attackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Hausken

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We build a game theory model where the market design is such that one firm invests in security to defend against cyber attacks by two hackers. The firm has an asset, which is allocated between the three market participants dependent on their contest success. Each hacker chooses an optimal attack, and they share information with each other about the firm’s vulnerabilities. Each hacker prefers to receive information, but delivering information gives competitive advantage to the other hacker. We find that each hacker’s attack and information sharing are strategic complements while one hacker’s attack and the other hacker’s information sharing are strategic substitutes. As the firm’s unit defense cost increases, the attack is inverse U-shaped and reaches zero, while the firm’s defense and profit decrease, and the hackers’ information sharing and profit increase. The firm’s profit increases in the hackers’ unit cost of attack, while the hackers’ information sharing and profit decrease. Our analysis also reveals the interesting result that the cumulative attack level of the hackers is not affected by the effectiveness of information sharing between them and moreover, is also unaffected by the intensity of joint information sharing. We also find that as the effectiveness of information sharing between hackers increases relative to the investment in attack, the firm’s investment in cyber security defense and profit are constant, the hackers’ investments in attacks decrease, and information sharing levels and hacker profits increase. In contrast, as the intensity of joint information sharing increases, while the firm’s investment in cyber security defense and profit remain constant, the hackers’ investments in attacks increase, and the hackers’ information sharing levels and profits decrease. Increasing the firm’s asset causes all the variables to increase linearly, except information sharing which is constant. We extend

  3. Associate Degree Nursing: Model Prerequisites Validation Study. California Community College Associate Degree Programs by The Center for Student Success, A Health Care Initiative Sponsored Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brad C.; Spurling, Steven; Armstrong, William A.

    California faces a severe nursing shortage, with the number of registered nurses far below what is required to avert a potential state health care crisis. The Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Project is a joint project involving scholars, educational researchers, and analysts from the Center for Student Success (CSS) housed at City College of San…

  4. Effect of Angle of Attack on Slope Climbing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Colin M.; Jones, Lucas; Smith, Lauren M.

    2017-01-01

    Ascending steep slopes is often a very difficult challenge for off-road vehicles, whether on Earth or on extraterrestrial bodies. This challenge is even greater if the surface consists of loose granular soil that does not provide much shear strength. This study investigated how the path at which a vehicle traverses a slope, specifically the angle that it is commanded to drive relative to the base of the hill (the angle of attack), can affect its performance. A vehicle was driven in loose sand at slope angles up to 15 degrees and angles of attack ranging from 10 to 90 degrees. A novel photogrammetry technique was implemented to both track vehicle motion and create a three-dimensional profile of the terrain. This allowed for true wheel sinkage measurements. The study showed that though low angles of attack result in lower wheel slip and sinkage, the efficiency of the vehicles uphill motion increased at higher angles of attack. For slopes up to 15 degrees, a 90 degree angle of attack provided the greatest likelihood of successful ascent.

  5. Gray Matter Is Targeted in First-Attack Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutzer, Steven E.; Angel, Thomas E.; Liu, Tao; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Xie, Fang; Bergquist, Jonas P.; Vecsei, Lazlo' ; Zadori, Denes; Camp, David G.; Holland, Bart K.; Smith, Richard D.; Coyle, Patricia K.

    2013-09-10

    The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS), its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups) compared to established relapsing remitting (RR) MS and controls. We found that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse). Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation.

  6. Peacetime Use of Computer Network Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Busby, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    .... PDD-63 alerts the nation to prepare for impending cyber attacks. This paper examines the nature, scale, and likelihood of cyber attacks posited in PDD-63 and finds that the country does not face an imminent "electronic Pearl Harbor...

  7. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter ... most common heart attack symptom in men and women is chest pain or discomfort. However, women also ...

  8. Robust Detection of Stepping-Stone Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Ting; Tong, Lang

    2006-01-01

    The detection of encrypted stepping-stone attack is considered. Besides encryption and padding, the attacker is capable of inserting chaff packets and perturbing packet timing and transmission order...

  9. Using an ontology for network attack planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern complexity of network attacks and their counter-measures (cyber operations) requires detailed planning. This paper presents a Network Attack Planning ontology which is aimed at providing support for planning such network operations within...

  10. Systematic Management of Change Is the Key to Successful Staff Development. An Initial Study of the Bloomfield Public Schools Staff Development Project. Teacher Essentials, Styles & Strategies (TESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celso, Nicholas; Morris, Harold

    Confronted by a maturing staff, lower teacher turnover rates, declining enrollments, and more sophisticated instructional methods, the Bloomfield (New Jersey) Public School District adopted an ambitious staff development initiative in 1983. This paper describes the planning and implementation strategies used to launch Bloomfield's Teaching…

  11. Attack Graph Construction for Security Events Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Alexeevich Chechulin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigation of the attack graphs construction and analysis task for a network security evaluation and real-time security event processing. Main object of this research is the attack modeling process. The paper contains the description of attack graphs building, modifying and analysis technique as well as overview of implemented prototype for network security analysis based on attack graph approach.

  12. Research Note on the Energy Infrastructure Attack Database (EIAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Giroux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The January 2013 attack on the In Amenas natural gas facility drew international attention. However this attack is part of a portrait of energy infrastructure targeting by non-state actors that spans the globe. Data drawn from the Energy Infrastructure Attack Database (EIAD shows that in the last decade there were, on average, nearly 400 annual attacks carried out by armed non-state actors on energy infrastructure worldwide, a figure that was well under 200 prior to 1999. This data reveals a global picture whereby violent non-state actors target energy infrastructures to air grievances, communicate to governments, impact state economic interests, or capture revenue in the form of hijacking, kidnapping ransoms, theft. And, for politically motivated groups, such as those engaged in insurgencies, attacking industry assets garners media coverage serving as a facilitator for international attention. This research note will introduce EIAD and position its utility within various research areas where the targeting of energy infrastructure, or more broadly energy infrastructure vulnerability, has been addressed, either directly or indirectly. We also provide a snapshot of the initial analysis of the data between 1980-2011, noting specific temporal and spatial trends, and then conclude with a brief discussion on the contribution of EIAD, highlighting future research trajectories. 

  13. REAL-TIME INTELLIGENT MULTILAYER ATTACK CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subbhulakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS takes the lion’s share of the current security infrastructure. Detection of intrusions is vital for initiating the defensive procedures. Intrusion detection was done by statistical and distance based methods. A threshold value is used in these methods to indicate the level of normalcy. When the network traffic crosses the level of normalcy then above which it is flagged as anomalous. When there are occurrences of new intrusion events which are increasingly a key part of system security, the statistical techniques cannot detect them. To overcome this issue, learning techniques are used which helps in identifying new intrusion activities in a computer system. The objective of the proposed system designed in this paper is to classify the intrusions using an Intelligent Multi Layered Attack Classification System (IMLACS which helps in detecting and classifying the intrusions with improved classification accuracy. The intelligent multi layered approach contains three intelligent layers. The first layer involves Binary Support Vector Machine classification for detecting the normal and attack. The second layer involves neural network classification to classify the attacks into classes of attacks. The third layer involves fuzzy inference system to classify the attacks into various subclasses. The proposed IMLACS can be able to detect an intrusion behavior of the networks since the system contains a three intelligent layer classification and better set of rules. Feature selection is also used to improve the time of detection. The experimental results show that the IMLACS achieves the Classification Rate of 97.31%.

  14. Gait biometrics under spoofing attacks: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.

  15. Initiatives and Challenges in Consequence Management after a WMD Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Challenges in Consequence Management people to seek shelter or other protection when possible, to avoid exposure to weapons of mass destruction effects . The...Potential Effects .........................................9 V. Methods for Managing the Consequences of WMD Use.................14 VI. Toward a...mass destruction (WMD). Consequence management1 is a process to mitigate the effects of the use of weapons of mass destruction, including

  16. Safe and successful endoscopic initial treatment and long-term eradication of gastric varices by endoscopic ultrasound-guided Histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) injection

    OpenAIRE

    Gubler, Christoph; Bauerfeind, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Optimal endoscopic treatment of gastric varices is still not standardized nowadays. Actively bleeding varices may prohibit a successful endoscopic injection therapy of Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate). Since 2006, we have treated gastric varices by standardized endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided Histoacryl injection therapy without severe adverse events. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present a large single-center cohort over 7 years with a standardized EUS-guided sclerotherapy o...

  17. Safe and successful endoscopic initial treatment and long-term eradication of gastric varices by endoscopic ultrasound-guided Histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, Christoph; Bauerfeind, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Optimal endoscopic treatment of gastric varices is still not standardized nowadays. Actively bleeding varices may prohibit a successful endoscopic injection therapy of Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate). Since 2006, we have treated gastric varices by standardized endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided Histoacryl injection therapy without severe adverse events. We present a large single-center cohort over 7 years with a standardized EUS-guided sclerotherapy of all patients with gastric varices. Application was controlled by fluoroscopy to immediately detect any glue embolization. Only perforating veins located within the gastric wall were treated. In the follow up, we repeated this treatment until varices were eradicated. Utmost patients (36 of 40) were treated during or within 24 h of active bleeding. About 32.5% of patients were treated while visible bleeding. Histoacryl injection was always technically successful and only two patients suffered a minor complication. Acute bleeding was stopped in all patients. About 15% (6 of 40) of patients needed an alternative rescue treatment in the longer course. Three patients got a transjugular portosystemic shunt and another three underwent an orthotopic liver transplantation. Mean long-term survival of 60 months was excellent. Active bleeding of gastric varices can be treated successfully without the necessity of gastric rinsing with EUS-guided injection of Histoacryl.

  18. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is widely used in LTE and Wi-Fi communication systems. AES has recently been exposed to new attacks which have questioned the overall security of AES. The newest attack is a so called biclique attack, which is using the fact that the content of the state array...

  19. Automated classification of computer network attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available according to the relevant types of attack scenarios depicted in the ontology. The two network attack instances are the Distributed Denial of Service attack on SpamHaus in 2013 and the theft of 42 million Rand ($6.7 million) from South African Postbank...

  20. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  1. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R.M. [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Getoff, Nikola [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2008-06-15

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  2. Guillain–Barré syndrome occurring synchronously with systemic lupus erythematosus as initial manifestation treated successfully with low-dose cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE is frequently encountered in clinical practice; a widespread immunological response can involve any organ system, sometimes leading to rare and diagnostically challenging presentations. We describe a 38-year-old female who presented with symmetric numbness and tingling of the hands and feet, and cervical pain. Imaging studies were not diagnostic of any serious underlying pathology. The patient developed ascending paresis involving lower extremities and cranial muscles (dysphagia and facial weakness. Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS was diagnosed on the basis of electromyography and lumbar puncture showing albuminocytologic dissociation. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG were administered for 5 days. Supported by anti-dsDNA antibody, oral ulcers, proteinuria of 0.7 g in 24 h, and neurological manifestation, she was diagnosed with lupus. After completion of IVIG, she received pulse-dose corticosteroids and one dose of low-dose cyclophosphamide. Her neurological symptoms improved and she had complete neurological recovery several months after her initial presentation. Literature search provides evidence of co-occurrence of lupus and GBS occurring mostly later in the course of the disease. However, GBS as initial manifestation of SLE is exceedingly rare and less understood. The association of GBS with lupus is important to recognize for rapid initiation of appropriate therapy and for consideration of immunosuppressive therapy which may affect the outcome.

  3. Attacks on IEEE 802.11 wireless networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milan Tepšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Security of wireless computer networks was initially secured with the WEP security protocol, which relies on the RC4 encryption algorithm and the CRC algorithm to check the integrity. The basic problems of the WEP are a short initialization vector, unsafe data integrity checking, using a common key, the lack of mechanisms for management and exchange of keys, the lack of protection from the endless insertion of the same package into the network, the lack of authentication of access points and the like. The consequences of these failures are easy attacks against the WEP network, namely their complete insecurity. Therefore, the work began on the IEEE 802.11i protocol, which should radically improve the security of wireless networks. Since the development of a protocol lasted, the WPA standard was released to offset the security gap caused by the WEP. The WPA also relies on RC4 and CRC algorithms, but brings temporary keys and the MIC algorithm for data integrity. The 802.1X authentication was introduced and common keys are no longer needed, since it is possible to use an authentication server. The length of the initialization vector was increased and the vector is obtained based on the packet serial number, in order to prevent the insertion of the same packet into the network. The weakness of the WPA security mechanism is the use of a common key. WPA2 (802.11i later appeared. Unlike the WPA mechanism that worked on old devices with the replacement of software, WPA2 requires new network devices that can perform AES encryption. AES replaces the RC4 algorithm and delivers much greater security. Data integrity is protected by encryption. Despite progress, there are still weaknesses in wireless networks. Attacks for denial of service are possible as well as spoofing package headers attacks. For now, it is not advisable to use wireless networks in environments where unreliability and unavailability are not tolerated. Introduction In the entire history of

  4. Whispering through DDoS attack

    OpenAIRE

    Miralem Mehic; Jiri Slachta; Miroslav Voznak

    2016-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attack is an attempt of the attacker to disable victim's machine by depleting network or computing resources. If this attack is performed with more than one machine, it is called distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack. Covert channels are those channels which are used for information transmission even though they are neither designed nor intended to transfer information at all. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using of DDoS attack for purposes o...

  5. Script-viruses Attacks on UNIX OS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Mikhaylov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article attacks on UNIX OS are considered. Currently antivirus developers are concentrated on protecting systems from viruses that are most common and attack popular operating systems. If the system or its components are not often attacked then the antivirus products are not protecting these components as it is not profitable. The same situation is with script-viruses for UNIX OS as most experts consider that it is impossible for such viruses to get enough rights to attack. Nevertheless the main conclusion of this article is the fact that such viruses can be very powerful and can attack systems and get enough rights.

  6. Protecting Cryptographic Memory against Tampering Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Pratyay

    In this dissertation we investigate the question of protecting cryptographic devices from tampering attacks. Traditional theoretical analysis of cryptographic devices is based on black-box models which do not take into account the attacks on the implementations, known as physical attacks. In prac......In this dissertation we investigate the question of protecting cryptographic devices from tampering attacks. Traditional theoretical analysis of cryptographic devices is based on black-box models which do not take into account the attacks on the implementations, known as physical attacks....... In practice such attacks can be executed easily, e.g. by heating the device, as substantiated by numerous works in the past decade. Tampering attacks are a class of such physical attacks where the attacker can change the memory/computation, gains additional (non-black-box) knowledge by interacting...... with the faulty device and then tries to break the security. Prior works show that generically approaching such problem is notoriously difficult. So, in this dissertation we attempt to solve an easier question, known as memory-tampering, where the attacker is allowed tamper only with the memory of the device...

  7. Attack Tree Generation by Policy Invalidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2015-01-01

    through brainstorming of experts. In this work we formalize attack tree generation including human factors; based on recent advances in system models we develop a technique to identify possible attacks analytically, including technical and human factors. Our systematic attack generation is based......Attacks on systems and organisations increasingly exploit human actors, for example through social engineering, complicating their formal treatment and automatic identification. Formalisation of human behaviour is difficult at best, and attacks on socio-technical systems are still mostly identified...... on invalidating policies in the system model by identifying possible sequences of actions that lead to an attack. The generated attacks are precise enough to illustrate the threat, and they are general enough to hide the details of individual steps....

  8. Whispering through DDoS attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralem Mehic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Denial of service (DoS attack is an attempt of the attacker to disable victim's machine by depleting network or computing resources. If this attack is performed with more than one machine, it is called distributed denial of service (DDoS attack. Covert channels are those channels which are used for information transmission even though they are neither designed nor intended to transfer information at all. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using of DDoS attack for purposes of hiding data or concealing the existing covert channel. In addition, in this paper we analyzed the possibility of detection of such covert communication with the well-known statistical method. Also, we proposed the coordination mechanisms of the attack which may be used. A lot of research has been done in order to describe and prevent DDoS attacks, yet research on steganography on this field is still scarce.

  9. Network Protection Against DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dzurenda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with possibilities of the network protection against Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS. The basic types of DDoS attacks and their impact on the protected network are presented here. Furthermore, we present basic detection and defense techniques thanks to which it is possible to increase resistance of the protected network or device against DDoS attacks. Moreover, we tested the ability of current commercial Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS, especially Radware DefensePro 6.10.00 product against the most common types of DDoS attacks. We create five scenarios that are varied in type and strength of the DDoS attacks. The attacks intensity was much greater than the normal intensity of the current DDoS attacks.

  10. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  11. Attack-Resistant Trust Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levien, Raph

    The Internet is an amazingly powerful tool for connecting people together, unmatched in human history. Yet, with that power comes great potential for spam and abuse. Trust metrics are an attempt to compute the set of which people are trustworthy and which are likely attackers. This chapter presents two specific trust metrics developed and deployed on the Advogato Website, which is a community blog for free software developers. This real-world experience demonstrates that the trust metrics fulfilled their goals, but that for good results, it is important to match the assumptions of the abstract trust metric computation to the real-world implementation.

  12. Depletion-of-Battery Attack: Specificity, Modelling and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhov, Vladimir; Koo, Insoo

    2018-06-06

    The emerging Internet of Things (IoT) has great potential; however, the societal costs of the IoT can outweigh its benefits. To unlock IoT potential, there needs to be improvement in the security of IoT applications. There are several standardization initiatives for sensor networks, which eventually converge with the Internet of Things. As sensor-based applications are deployed, security emerges as an essential requirement. One of the critical issues of wireless sensor technology is limited sensor resources, including sensor batteries. This creates a vulnerability to battery-exhausting attacks. Rapid exhaustion of sensor battery power is not only explained by intrusions, but can also be due to random failure of embedded sensor protocols. Thus, most wireless sensor applications, without tools to defend against rash battery exhausting, would be unable to function during prescribed times. In this paper, we consider a special type of threat, in which the harm is malicious depletion of sensor battery power. In contrast to the traditional denial-of-service attack, quality of service under the considered attack is not necessarily degraded. Moreover, the quality of service can increase up to the moment of the sensor set crashes. We argue that this is a distinguishing type of attack. Hence, the application of a traditional defense mechanism against this threat is not always possible. Therefore, effective methods should be developed to counter the threat. We first discuss the feasibility of rash depletion of battery power. Next, we propose a model for evaluation of energy consumption when under attack. Finally, a technique to counter the attack is discussed.

  13. Depletion-of-Battery Attack: Specificity, Modelling and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shakhov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging Internet of Things (IoT has great potential; however, the societal costs of the IoT can outweigh its benefits. To unlock IoT potential, there needs to be improvement in the security of IoT applications. There are several standardization initiatives for sensor networks, which eventually converge with the Internet of Things. As sensor-based applications are deployed, security emerges as an essential requirement. One of the critical issues of wireless sensor technology is limited sensor resources, including sensor batteries. This creates a vulnerability to battery-exhausting attacks. Rapid exhaustion of sensor battery power is not only explained by intrusions, but can also be due to random failure of embedded sensor protocols. Thus, most wireless sensor applications, without tools to defend against rash battery exhausting, would be unable to function during prescribed times. In this paper, we consider a special type of threat, in which the harm is malicious depletion of sensor battery power. In contrast to the traditional denial-of-service attack, quality of service under the considered attack is not necessarily degraded. Moreover, the quality of service can increase up to the moment of the sensor set crashes. We argue that this is a distinguishing type of attack. Hence, the application of a traditional defense mechanism against this threat is not always possible. Therefore, effective methods should be developed to counter the threat. We first discuss the feasibility of rash depletion of battery power. Next, we propose a model for evaluation of energy consumption when under attack. Finally, a technique to counter the attack is discussed.

  14. Lead exposure potentiates predatory attack behavior in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjie; Han Shenggao; Gregg, T.R.; Kemp, F.W.Francis W.; Davidow, A.L.; Louria, D.B.; Siegel, Allan; Bogden, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that environmental lead exposure is associated with aggressive behavior in children; however, numerous confounding variables limit the ability of these studies to establish a causal relationship. The study of aggressive behavior using a validated animal model was used to test the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggression in the absence of confounding variables. We studied the effects of lead exposure on a feline model of aggression: predatory (quiet biting) attack of an anesthetized rat. Five cats were stimulated with a precisely controlled electrical current via electrodes inserted into the lateral hypothalamus. The response measure was the predatory attack threshold current (i.e., the current required to elicit an attack response on 50% of the trials). Blocks of trials were administered in which predatory attack threshold currents were measured three times a week for a total of 6-10 weeks, including before, during, and after lead exposure. Lead was incorporated into cat food 'treats' at doses of 50-150 mg/kg/day. Two of the five cats received a second period of lead exposure. Blood lead concentrations were measured twice a week and were <1, 21-77, and <20 μg/dL prior to, during, and after lead exposure, respectively. The predatory attack threshold decreased significantly during initial lead exposure in three of five cats and increased after the cessation of lead exposure in four of the five cats (P<0.01). The predatory attack thresholds and blood lead concentrations for each cat were inversely correlated (r=-0.35 to -0.74). A random-effects mixed model demonstrated a significant (P=0.0019) negative association between threshold current and blood lead concentration. The data of this study demonstrate that lead exposure enhances predatory aggression in the cat and provide experimental support for a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggressive behavior in humans

  15. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  16. Anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Prakash Painuly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on anger attacks has been mostly limited to depression, and only a few studies have focused on anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study all new obsessive compulsive disorder patients aged 20-60 years attending an outpatient clinic were assessed using the anger attack questionnaire, irritability, depression and anxiety scale (for the direction of the aggressive behavior and quality of life (QOL. Results: The sample consisted of 42 consecutive subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder, out of which 21 (50% had anger attacks. The obsessive compulsive disorder subjects with and without anger attacks did not show significant differences in terms of sociodemographic variables, duration of illness, treatment, and family history. However, subjects with anger attacks had significantly higher prevalence of panic attacks and comorbid depression. Significantly more subjects with anger attacks exhibited aggressive acts toward spouse, parents, children, and other relatives in the form of yelling and threatening to hurt, trying to hurt, and threatening to leave. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of QOL, except for the psychological domain being worse in the subjects with anger attacks. Conclusion: Anger attacks are present in half of the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, and they correlate with the presence of comorbid depression.

  17. A unique collaborative nursing evidence-based practice initiative using the Iowa model: a clinical nurse specialist, a health science librarian, and a staff nurse's success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krom, Zachary R; Batten, Janene; Bautista, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to share how the collaboration of a clinical nurse specialist (CNS), a health science librarian, and a staff nurse can heighten staff nurses' awareness of the evidence-based practice (EBP) process. The staff nurse is expected to incorporate EBP into daily patient care. This expectation is fueled by the guidelines established by professional, accrediting, and regulatory bodies. Barriers to incorporating EBP into practice have been well documented in the literature. A CNS, a health science librarian, and a staff nurse collaborated to develop an EBP educational program for staff nurses. The staff nurse provides the real-time practice issues, the CNS gives extensive knowledge of translating research into practice, and the health science librarian is an expert at retrieving the information from the literature. The resulting collaboration at this academic medical center has increased staff nurse exposure to and knowledge about EBP principles and techniques. The collaborative relationship among the CNS, health science librarian, and staff nurse effectively addresses a variety of barriers to EBP. This successful collaborative approach can be utilized by other medical centers seeking to educate staff nurses about the EBP process.

  18. SDN-based path hopping communication against eavesdropping attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanhao; Bu, Youjun; Zhao, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Network eavesdropping is one of the most popular means used by cyber attackers, which has been a severe threat to network communication security. Adversaries could capture and analyze network communication data from network nodes or links, monitor network status and steal sensitive data such as username and password etc. Traditional network usually uses static network configuration, and existing defense methods, including firewall, IDS, IPS etc., cannot prevent eavesdropping, which has no distinguishing characteristic. Network eavesdropping become silent during most of the time of the attacking process, which is why it is difficult to discover and to defend. But A successful eavesdropping attack also has its' precondition, which is the target path should be relatively stable and has enough time of duration. So, In order to resolve this problem, it has to work on the network architecture. In this paper, a path hopping communication(PHC) mechanism based on Software Define Network (SDN) was proposed to solve this problem. In PHC, Ends in communication packets as well as the routing paths were changed dynamically. Therefore, the traffic would be distributed to multiple flows and transmitted along different paths. so that Network eavesdropping attack could be prevented effectively. It was concluded that PHC was able to increase the overhead of Network eavesdropping, as well as the difficulty of communication data recovery.

  19. Dog attack resulting in evisceration in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Laura A; Yamout, Sani Z; Glick, Philip L

    2011-04-01

    Severe dog bites can result in substantial morbidity and potentially fatal injury. We present a case of an infant attacked by a Staffordshire bull terrier with resultant soft tissue injury, evisceration, and bowel injury. Rapid assessment in the emergency department included evaluation for both blunt and penetrating injuries. After initial survey and resuscitation, the patient was transported to the operating room where he underwent an exploratory laparotomy, small bowel repair, and abdominal wall closure. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  20. Assessment of Malawi's success in child mortality reduction through the lens of the Catalytic Initiative Integrated Health Systems Strengthening programme: Retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tanya; Zembe, Wanga; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Kinney, Mary; Manda, Samuel; Besada, Donela; Jackson, Debra; Daniels, Karen; Rohde, Sarah; van Damme, Wim; Kerber, Kate; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Rudan, Igor; Muniz, Maria; Oliphant, Nicholas P; Zamasiya, Texas; Rohde, Jon; Sanders, David

    2015-12-01

    Malawi is estimated to have achieved its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 target. This paper explores factors influencing progress in child survival in Malawi including coverage of interventions and the role of key national policies. We performed a retrospective evaluation of the Catalytic Initiative (CI) programme of support (2007-2013). We developed estimates of child mortality using four population household surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2010. We recalculated coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions and documented child health programmes and policies. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate child lives saved in 2013. The mortality rate in children under 5 years decreased rapidly in the 10 CI districts from 219 deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval (CI) 189 to 249) in the period 1991-1995 to 119 deaths (95% CI 105 to 132) in the period 2006-2010. Coverage for all indicators except vitamin A supplementation increased in the 10 CI districts across the time period 2000 to 2013. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 10 800 child deaths averted in the 10 CI districts in 2013, primarily attributable to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine (24%) and increased household coverage of insecticide-treated bednets (19%). These improvements have taken place within a context of investment in child health policies and scale up of integrated community case management of childhood illnesses. Malawi provides a strong example for countries in sub-Saharan Africa of how high impact child health interventions implemented within a decentralised health system with an established community-based delivery platform, can lead to significant reductions in child mortality.

  1. Assessment of Malawi’s success in child mortality reduction through the lens of the Catalytic Initiative Integrated Health Systems Strengthening programme: Retrospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Doherty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Malawi is estimated to have achieved its Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 target. This paper explores factors influencing progress in child survival in Malawi including coverage of interventions and the role of key national policies. We performed a retrospective evaluation of the Catalytic Initiative (CI programme of support (2007–2013. We developed estimates of child mortality using four population household surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2010. We recalculated coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions and documented child health programmes and policies. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST was used to estimate child lives saved in 2013. The mortality rate in children under 5 years decreased rapidly in the 10 CI districts from 219 deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval (CI 189 to 249 in the period 1991–1995 to 119 deaths (95% CI 105 to 132 in the period 2006–2010. Coverage for all indicators except vitamin A supplementation increased in the 10 CI districts across the time period 2000 to 2013. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 10 800 child deaths averted in the 10 CI districts in 2013, primarily attributable to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine (24% and increased household coverage of insecticide–treated bednets (19%. These improvements have taken place within a context of investment in child health policies and scale up of integrated community case management of childhood illnesses. Malawi provides a strong example for countries in sub–Saharan Africa of how high impact child health interventions implemented within a decentralised health system with an established community–based delivery platform, can lead to significant reductions in child mortality.

  2. Model checking exact cost for attack scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Attack trees constitute a powerful tool for modelling security threats. Many security analyses of attack trees can be seamlessly expressed as model checking of Markov Decision Processes obtained from the attack trees, thus reaping the benefits of a coherent framework and a mature tool support....... However, current model checking does not encompass the exact cost analysis of an attack, which is standard for attack trees. Our first contribution is the logic erPCTL with cost-related operators. The extended logic allows to analyse the probability of an event satisfying given cost bounds and to compute...... the exact cost of an event. Our second contribution is the model checking algorithm for erPCTL. Finally, we apply our framework to the analysis of attack trees....

  3. Securing internet by eliminating DDOS attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranchana, R.; Gayathri Devi, N.; Santhi, H.; Gayathri, P.

    2017-11-01

    The major threat caused to the authorised usage of Internet is Distributed Denial of Service attack. The mechanisms used to prevent the DDoS attacks are said to overcome the attack’s ability in spoofing the IP packets source addresses. By utilising Internet Protocol spoofing, the attackers cause a consequential load over the networks destination for policing attack packets. To overcome the IP Spoofing level on the Internet, We propose an Inter domain Packet Filter (IPF) architecture. The proposed scheme is not based on global routing information. The packets with reliable source addresses are not rejected, the IPF frame work works in such a manner. The spoofing capability of attackers is confined by IPF, and also the filter identifies the source of an attack packet by minimal number of candidate network.

  4. Resisting persuasion by the skin of one's teeth: the hidden success of resisted persuasive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormala, Zakary L; Clarkson, Joshua J; Petty, Richard E

    2006-09-01

    Recent research has suggested that when people resist persuasion they can perceive this resistance and, under specifiable conditions, become more certain of their initial attitudes (e.g., Z. L. Tormala & R. E. Petty, 2002). Within the same metacognitive framework, the present research provides evidence for the opposite phenomenon--that is, when people resist persuasion, they sometimes become less certain of their initial attitudes. Four experiments demonstrate that when people perceive that they have done a poor job resisting persuasion (e.g., they believe they generated weak arguments against a persuasive message), they lose attitude certainty, show reduced attitude-behavioral intention correspondence, and become more vulnerable to subsequent persuasive attacks. These findings suggest that resisted persuasive attacks can sometimes have a hidden yet important success by reducing the strength of the target attitude. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Big News: The Indian Media and Student Attacks in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Wade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By any measure, 2009 was a big year for news in India. And yet the safety of Indian students in Australia ranked among the major news events in India that year. The India-Australia Poll 2013 found 65 per cent of respondents believed the Indian media had accurately reported the problems faced by Indian students in Australia in 2009-10. That implies two-thirds of Indians accepted the Indian media’s mostly negative depictions of Australia. Those who believed the media reporting about Australia had been accurate were more likely to be from large cities, be tertiary educated and have relatively high-incomes. The poll found 62 per cent of respondents thought Australia was a dangerous place for Indian students and that 61 per cent believed attacks on Indian students were motivated by racism. The results suggest negative perceptions about Australia created by the media’s portrayal of the student attacks linger in the Indian community. The timing of the initial attacks, and the imagery associated with them, helped attract and sustain media attention on the issue. The diplomatic tensions created by the crisis highlighted the growing influence of the broadcast media on India’s foreign relations. But the episode also exposed a deep lack of understanding about India in Australia. Governments were slow to comprehend how much damage media coverage of student attacks could do to Australia’s reputation in India.

  6. Where can an Insider attack?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Nielson, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    By definition, an insider has better access, is more trusted, and has better information about internal procedures, high-value targets, and potential weak spots in the security, than an outsider. Consequently, an insider attack has the potential to cause significant, even catastrophic, damage...... to the targeted organisation. While the problem is well recognised in the security community as well as in law-enforcement and intelligence communities, the main resort still is to audit log files \\$\\backslash\\$emph{after the fact}. There has been little research into developing models, automated tools......, and techniques for analysing and solving (parts of) the problem. In this paper we first develop a formal model of systems, that can describe real-world scenarios. These high-level models are then mapped to acKlaim, a process algebra with support for access control, that is used to study and analyse properties...

  7. Transient ischemic attack: diagnostic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messé, Steven R; Jauch, Edward C

    2008-08-01

    A transient ischemic attack portends significant risk of a stroke. Consequently, the diagnostic evaluation in the emergency department is focused on identifying high-risk causes so that preventive strategies can be implemented. The evaluation consists of a facilitated evaluation of the patient's metabolic, cardiac, and neurovascular systems. At a minimum, the following tests are recommended: fingerstick glucose level, electrolyte levels, CBC count, urinalysis, and coagulation studies; noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the head; electrocardiography; and continuous telemetry monitoring. Vascular imaging studies, such as carotid ultrasonography, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography, should be performed on an urgent basis and prioritized according to the patient's risk stratification for disease. Consideration should be given for echocardiography if no large vessel abnormality is identified.

  8. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Fovino, Igor; Masera, Marcelo; De Cian, Alessio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.

  9. Visualizing Risks: Icons for Information Attack Scenarios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosmer, Hilary

    2000-01-01

    .... Visual attack scenarios help defenders see system ambiguities, imprecision, vulnerabilities and omissions, thus speeding up risk analysis, requirements gathering, safeguard selection, cryptographic...

  10. Classifying network attack scenarios using an ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, RP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ) or to the target?s reputation. The Residue sub-phase refers to damage or artefacts of the attack that occur after the attack goal has been achieved, and occurs because the attacker loses control of some systems. For example after the launch of a DDOS..., A. (1995). Hacking theft of $10 million from citibank revealed. Retrieved 10/10, 2011, from http://articles.latimes.com/1995-08-19/business/fi-36656_1_citibank-system Hurley, E. (2004). SCO site succumbs to DDoS attack. Retrieved 10/10, 2011, from...

  11. A computer network attack taxonomy and ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, RP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available of the attack that occur after the attack goal has been achieved, and occurs because the attacker loses control of some systems. For example, after the launch of a DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack, zombie computers may still connect to the target...-scrap- value-of-a-hacked-pc-revisited/ . Lancor, L., & Workman, R. (2007). Using Google Hacking to Enhance Defense Strategies. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 39 (1), 491-495. Lau, F., Rubin, S. H., Smith, M. H., & Trajkovic, L. (2000). Distributed Denial of Service...

  12. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nai Fovino, Igor [Joint Research Centre - EC, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra, VA (Italy)], E-mail: igor.nai@jrc.it; Masera, Marcelo [Joint Research Centre - EC, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra, VA (Italy); De Cian, Alessio [Department of Electrical Engineering, University di Genova, Genoa (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.

  13. Defense of Cyber Infrastructures Against Cyber-Physical Attacks Using Game-Theoretic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nageswara S V; Poole, Stephen W; Ma, Chris Y T; He, Fei; Zhuang, Jun; Yau, David K Y

    2016-04-01

    The operation of cyber infrastructures relies on both cyber and physical components, which are subject to incidental and intentional degradations of different kinds. Within the context of network and computing infrastructures, we study the strategic interactions between an attacker and a defender using game-theoretic models that take into account both cyber and physical components. The attacker and defender optimize their individual utilities, expressed as sums of cost and system terms. First, we consider a Boolean attack-defense model, wherein the cyber and physical subinfrastructures may be attacked and reinforced as individual units. Second, we consider a component attack-defense model wherein their components may be attacked and defended, and the infrastructure requires minimum numbers of both to function. We show that the Nash equilibrium under uniform costs in both cases is computable in polynomial time, and it provides high-level deterministic conditions for the infrastructure survival. When probabilities of successful attack and defense, and of incidental failures, are incorporated into the models, the results favor the attacker but otherwise remain qualitatively similar. This approach has been motivated and validated by our experiences with UltraScience Net infrastructure, which was built to support high-performance network experiments. The analytical results, however, are more general, and we apply them to simplified models of cloud and high-performance computing infrastructures. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. State of the art on defenses against wormhole attacks in wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.; Giannetsos, T.; Dimitriou, T.

    2009-01-01

    describe the wormhole attack, a severe routing attack against sensor networks that is particularly challenging to defend against. We detail its characteristics and study its effects on the successful operation of a sensor network. We present state-of-the-art research for addressing wormhole related...... the possibility of using more sophisticated methods, like intrusion detection systems, to achieve a more complete and autonomic defense mechanism against wormhole attackers. We present our work on intrusion detection and introduce a lightweight IDS framework, called LIDeA, designed for wireless sensor networks....... LIDeA is based on a distributed architecture, in which nodes overhear their neighboring nodes and collaborate with each other in order to successfully detect an intrusion. We conclude by highlighting how such a system can be used for defending against wormhole attackers....

  15. Screening mammography: a successful public health initiative El tamizaje mamográfico: una iniciativa de salud pública que ha dado buenos resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Feig

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the ability of screening mammography to reduce breast cancer death rates, and it discusses methods that maximize benefits and reduce false-positive interpretations in a screening program. The review covers published results from screening mammography programs conducted in Europe and North America, along with quality assurance measures designed to ensure that similar or even better outcomes will be shared by other populations of screened women. Randomized trials in Europe and the United States of America have shown the benefit from screening women ages 40-70 years. Encouraged by the success of these trials, many Scandinavian countries now offer screening mammography to their populations as a public health service. These service screening programs have reduced breast cancer deaths as much as 63% among women who were screened. In the United States, where 61.5% of women age 40 and older report having had a mammogram in the preceding year, death rates from breast cancer have been falling despite an increasing incidence of the disease. The technical quality of mammography in the United States has improved as a result of advances in mammography equipment, including the film-screen systems. Also contributing to the improvement has been the implementation of federally mandated quality control testing at each mammography facility, as required by the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA, which the Congress of the United States approved in 1992. Factors that result in increased detection of early-stage cancers include better technique, use of two mammographic views per breast, annual screening intervals, and improved interpretation. Mammography is one of the 10 major subject categories on the American Board of Radiology examinations. Furthermore, MQSA requires radiologists who practice mammography to obtain continuing medical education credits and to use standard interpretation assessments on every report. Manuals for technical quality

  16. Nonstructural carbohydrate dynamics of lodgepole pine dying from mountain pine beetle attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Erin; Rogers, Bruce J; Hodgkinson, Robert; Landhäusser, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks are an important cause of tree death, but the process by which trees die remains poorly understood. The effect of beetle attack on whole-tree nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics is particularly unclear, despite the potential role of carbohydrates in plant defense and survival. We monitored NSC dynamics of all organs in attacked and protected lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) during a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in British Columbia, starting before beetle flight in June 2011 through October 2012, when most attacked trees had died. Following attack, NSC concentrations were first reduced in the attacked region of the bole. The first NSC reduction in a distant organ appeared in the needles at the end of 2011, while branch and root NSC did not decline until much later in 2012. Attacked trees that were still alive in October 2012 had less beetle damage, which was negatively correlated with initial bark sugar concentrations in the attack region. The NSC dynamics of dying trees indicate that trees were killed by a loss of water conduction and not girdling. Further, our results identify locally reduced carbohydrate availability as an important mechanism by which stressors like drought may increase tree susceptibility to biotic attack. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Attack Trees for Practical Security Assessment: Ranking of Attack Scenarios with ADTool 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadyatskaya, Olga; Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, P.T.; Lounis, Karim; Mauw, Sjouke; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    In this tool demonstration paper we present the ADTool2.0: an open-source software tool for design, manipulation and analysis of attack trees. The tool supports ranking of attack scenarios based on quantitative attributes entered by the user; it is scriptable; and it incorporates attack trees with

  18. The work-averse cyber attacker model : theory and evidence from two million attack signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allodi, L.; Massacci, F.; Williams, J.

    The typical cyber attacker is assumed to be all powerful and to exploit all possible vulnerabilities. In this paper we present, and empirically validate, a novel and more realistic attacker model. The intuition of our model is that an attacker will optimally choose whether to act and weaponize a new

  19. The Effect of Elevated CO2 and Increased Temperature on in Vitro Fertilization Success and Initial Embryonic Development of Single Male:Female Crosses of Broad-Cast Spawning Corals at Mid- and High-Latitude Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on the in vitro fertilization success and initial embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals using a single male:female cross of three different species from mid- and high-latitude locations: Lyudao, Taiwan (22° N and Kochi, Japan (32° N. Eggs were fertilized under ambient conditions (27 °C and 500 μatm CO2 and under conditions predicted for 2100 (IPCC worst case scenario, 31 °C and 1000 μatm CO2. Fertilization success, abnormal development and early developmental success were determined for each sample. Increased temperature had a more profound influence than elevated CO2. In most cases, near-future warming caused a significant drop in early developmental success as a result of decreased fertilization success and/or increased abnormal development. The embryonic development of the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the high-latitude location was more sensitive to the increased temperature (+4 °C than the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the mid-latitude location. The response to the elevated CO2 level was small and highly variable, ranging from positive to negative responses. These results suggest that global warming is a more significant and universal stressor than ocean acidification on the early embryonic development of corals from mid- and high-latitude locations.

  20. Internet of Things Security: Layered classification of attacks and possible Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otmane El Mouaatamid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the internet of things (IoT presents a strong focus of research with various initiatives working on the application, and usage of Internet standards in the IoT. But the big challenge of the internet of things is security. In this paper a layered classification and a goal based comparison of attacks in the IoT are presented so that a better understanding of IoT attacks can be achieved and subsequently more efficient and effective techniques and procedures to combat these attacks may be developed

  1. Higher Order Differential Attack on 6-Round MISTY1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoo, Yukiyasu; Saito, Teruo; Nakashima, Hiroki; Shigeri, Maki

    MISTY1 is a 64-bit block cipher that has provable security against differential and linear cryptanalysis. MISTY1 is one of the algorithms selected in the European NESSIE project, and it has been recommended for Japanese e-Government ciphers by the CRYPTREC project. This paper reports a previously unknown higher order differential characteristic of 4-round MISTY1 with the FL functions. It also shows that a higher order differential attack that utilizes this newly discovered characteristic is successful against 6-round MISTY1 with the FL functions. This attack can recover a partial subkey with a data complexity of 253.7 and a computational complexity of 264.4, which is better than any previous cryptanalysis of MISTY1.

  2. Resilience of LTE networks against smart jamming attacks: Wideband model

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan M.

    2015-12-03

    LTE/LTE-A networks have been successfully providing advanced broadband services to millions of users worldwide. Lately, it has been suggested to use LTE networks for mission-critical applications like public safety, smart grid and military communications. We have previously shown that LTE networks are vulnerable to Denial-of-Service (DOS) and loss of service attacks from smart jammers. In this paper, we extend our previous work on resilience of LTE networks to wideband multipath fading channel, SINR estimation in frequency domain and computation of utilities based on observable parameters under the framework of single-shot and repeated games with asymmetric information. In a single-shot game formulation, network utility is severely compromised at its solutions, i.e. at the Nash Equilibria (NE). We propose evolved repeated-game strategy algorithms to combat smart jamming attacks that can be implemented in existing deployments using current technology. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. Attack Tree Generation by Policy Invalidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Kammüller, Florian; Naeem Akram, R.; Jajodia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Attacks on systems and organisations increasingly exploit human actors, for example through social engineering, complicating their formal treatment and automatic identi﬿cation. Formalisation of human behaviour is difficult at best, and attacks on socio-technical systems are still mostly identi﬿ed

  4. Evaluation of Crosstalk Attacks in Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Grobe, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    WDM-PON systems regained interest as low-cost solution for metro and access networks. We present a comparative analysis of resilience of wavelength-selective and wavelength-routed architectures against crosstalk attackers. We compare the vulnerability of these architectures against attacks...

  5. Drammer : Deterministic Rowhammer attacks on mobile platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Veen, Victor; Fratantonio, Yanick; Lindorfer, Martina; Gruss, Daniel; Maurice, Clémentine; Vigna, Giovanni; Bos, Herbert; Razavi, Kaveh; Giuffrida, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    Recent work shows that the Rowhammer hardware bug can be used to craft powerful attacks and completely subvert a system. However, existing efforts either describe probabilistic (and thus unreliable) attacks or rely on special (and often unavailable) memory management features to place victim objects

  6. Collaborative Attack Mitigation and Response: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberger, Jessica; Sperotto, Anna; Baier, Harald; Pras, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, network-based attacks have become to one of the top causes of network infrastructure and service outages. To counteract a network-based attack, an approach is to move mitigation from the target network to the networks of Internet Service Providers (ISP). However, it remains

  7. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolic, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we combine a recent rotational cryptanalysis with the rebound attack, which results in the best cryptanalysis of Skein, a candidate for the SHA-3 competition. The rebound attack approach was so far only applied to AES-like constructions. For the first time, we show that this approach...

  8. A UNIFIED APPROACH FOR DETECTION AND PREVENTION OF DDOS ATTACKS USING ENHANCED SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES AND FILTERING MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subbulakshmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks were considered to be a tremendous threat to the current information security infrastructure. During DDoS attack, multiple malicious hosts that are recruited by the attackers launch a coordinated attack against one host or a network victim, which cause denial of service to legitimate users. The existing techniques suffer from more number of false alarms and more human intervention for attack detection. The objective of this paper is to monitor the network online which automatically initiates detection mechanism if there is any suspicious activity and also defense the hosts from being arrived at the network. Both spoofed and non spoofed IP’s are detected in this approach. Non spoofed IP’s are detected using Enhanced Support Vector Machines (ESVM and spoofed IP’s are detected using Hop Count Filtering (HCF mechanism. The detected IP’s are maintained separately to initiate the defense process. The attack strength is calculated using Lanchester Law which initiates the defense mechanism. Based on the calculated attack strength any of the defense schemes such as Rate based limiting or History based IP filtering is automatically initiated to drop the packets from the suspected IP. The integrated online monitoring approach for detection and defense of DDoS attacks is deployed in an experimental testbed. The online approach is found to be obvious in the field of integrated DDoS detection and defense.

  9. An Attack on Duffer's Downtown

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glenn, Russell

    2001-01-01

    This recalling of an extended series of dreams will, if successful, serve to foment thoughts regarding what is, what could be, and what should be when a nation's soldiers and marines are once again...

  10. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  11. Automatic Classification of Attacks on IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Safarik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an algorithm for automatic analysis of attack data in IP telephony network with a neural network. Data for the analysis is gathered from variable monitoring application running in the network. These monitoring systems are a typical part of nowadays network. Information from them is usually used after attack. It is possible to use an automatic classification of IP telephony attacks for nearly real-time classification and counter attack or mitigation of potential attacks. The classification use proposed neural network, and the article covers design of a neural network and its practical implementation. It contains also methods for neural network learning and data gathering functions from honeypot application.

  12. Testing Dialog-Verification of SIP Phones with Single-Message Denial-of-Service Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedorf, Jan; Beckers, Kristian; Huici, Felipe

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is widely used for signaling in multimedia communications. However, many SIP implementations are still in their infancy and vulnerable to malicious messages. We investigate flaws in the SIP implementations of eight phones, showing that the deficient verification of SIP dialogs further aggravates the problem by making it easier for attacks to succeed. Our results show that the majority of the phones we tested are susceptible to these attacks.

  13. Creative Persuasion: A Study on Adversarial Behaviors and Strategies in Phishing Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajivan, Prashanth; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2018-01-01

    Success of phishing attacks depend on effective exploitation of human weaknesses. This research explores a largely ignored, but crucial aspect of phishing: the adversarial behavior. We aim at understanding human behaviors and strategies that adversaries use, and how these may determine the end-user response to phishing emails. We accomplish this through a novel experiment paradigm involving two phases. In the adversarial phase, 105 participants played the role of a phishing adversary who were incentivized to produce multiple phishing emails that would evade detection and persuade end-users to respond. In the end-user phase, 340 participants performed an email management task, where they examined and classified phishing emails generated by participants in phase-one along with benign emails. Participants in the adversary role, self-reported the strategies they employed in each email they created, and responded to a test of individual creativity. Data from both phases of the study was combined and analyzed, to measure the effect of adversarial behaviors on end-user response to phishing emails. We found that participants who persistently used specific attack strategies (e.g., sending notifications, use of authoritative tone, or expressing shared interest) in all their attempts were overall more successful, compared to others who explored different strategies in each attempt. We also found that strategies largely determined whether an end-user was more likely to respond to an email immediately, or delete it. Individual creativity was not a reliable predictor of adversarial performance, but it was a predictor of an adversary's ability to evade detection. In summary, the phishing example provided initially, the strategies used, and the participants' persistence with some of the strategies led to higher performance in persuading end-users to respond to phishing emails. These insights may be used to inform tools and training procedures to detect phishing strategies in

  14. Planning for College Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEPNet, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Planning for College Success" (PCS) is a curriculum model designed by Sharon Downs, M.S., for a course intended to assist deaf and hard of hearing students during their initial introduction to college life. This program allows students to work one-on-one with a counselor to plan for their college success. The program includes short-term goals and…

  15. Patent foramen ovale and migraine attacks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Philomena Z Y; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-05-01

    Migraine headache and the presence of a patent foramen ovale have been associated with each other, although the precise pathophysiological mechanism(s) are uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the extent of patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and to determine whether closure of a patent foramen ovale would improve migraine headache. An electronic literature search was performed to select studies between January 1980 and February 2013 that were relevant to the prevalence of patent foramen ovale and migraine, and the effects of intervention(s) on migraine attacks. Of the initial 368 articles presented by the initial search, 20 satisfied the inclusion criteria assessing patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and 21 presented data on patent foramen ovale closure. In case series and cohort studies, patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs ranged from 14.6% to 66.5%. Case-control studies reported a prevalence ranging from 16.0% to 25.7% in controls, compared with 26.8% to 96.0% for migraine with aura. The extent of improvement or resolution of migraine headache attack symptoms was variable. In case series, intervention ameliorated migraine headache attack in 13.6% to 92.3% of cases. One single randomized trial did not show any benefit from patent foramen ovale closure. The data overall do not exclude the possibility of a placebo effect for resolving migraine following patent foramen ovale closure. This systematic review demonstrates firstly that migraine headache attack is associated with a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale than among the general population. Observational data suggest that some improvement of migraine would be observed if the patent foramen ovale were to be closed. A proper assessment of any interventions for patent foramen ovale closure would require further large randomized trials to be conducted given uncertainties from existing trial data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive cyber-attack modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Dougherty, Edward T.

    2006-05-01

    The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities. Much effort and focus has been placed on preventing and ameliorating network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Typical software protection technique and methodology evaluation and verification and validation (V&V) involves the use of a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) to mimic potential attackers or hackers. This manpower intensive, time-consuming, and potentially cost-prohibitive approach is not amenable to performing the necessary multiple non-subjective analyses required to support quantifying software protection levels. To facilitate the evaluation and V&V of software protection solutions, we have designed and developed a prototype adaptive cyber attack modeling system. Our approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model instantiation, adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Off-line model construction is supported via a knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based cyber-attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.

  17. Radiological attacks and accidents. Medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuta, Hidenari

    2007-01-01

    Probability of the occurrence of radiological attacks appears to be elevated after the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11 in 2001. There are a lot of scenarios of radiological attack: simple radiological device, radiological disperse device (RDD or dirty bomb), attacks against nuclear reactor, improvised nuclear device, and nuclear weapons. Of these, RDD attack is the most probable scenario, because it can be easily made and can generate enormous psychological and economic damages. Radiological incidents are occurring to and fro in the world, including several cases of theft to nuclear facilities and unsuccessful terrorist attacks against them. Recently, a former Russian spy has allegedly been killed using polonium-210. In addition, serious radiological accidents have occurred in Chernobyl, Goiania, and Tokai-mura. Planning, preparation, education, and training exercise appear to be essential factors to cope with radiological attacks and accidents effectively without feeling much anxiety. Triage and psychological first aid are prerequisite to manage and provide effective medial care for mass casualties without inducing panic. (author)

  18. Forensic Evidence Identification and Modeling for Attacks against a Simulated Online Business Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manghui Tu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Forensic readiness can support future forensics investigation or auditing on external/internal attacks, internal sabotage and espionage, and business frauds. To establish forensics readiness, it is essential for an organization to identify what evidences are relevant and where they can be found, to determine whether they are logged in a forensic sound way and whether all the needed evidences are available to reconstruct the events successfully.  Our goal of this research is to ensure evidence availability. First, both external and internal attacks are molded as augmented attack trees/graphs based on the system vulnerabilities. Second, modeled attacks are conducted against a honeynet simulating an online business information system, and each honeypot's hard drive is forensic sound imaged for each individual attack. Third, an evidence tree/graph will be built after forensics examination on the disk images for each attack. The evidence trees/graphs are expected to be used for automatic crime scene reconstruction and automatic attack/fraud detection in the future.

  19. Non-invasive ventilation in severe asthma attack, its possibilities and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, K; Tomii, K; Chin, K; Niimi, A; Ishihara, K; Mishima, M

    2011-06-01

    Asthma attack is characterized by episodic attacks of cough, dyspnea and wheeze occurring due to bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness and mucous hypersecretion. Although nationwide clinical guidelines have been published to establish the standard care of asthma, choices in the treatment of fatal asthma attacks remain of clinical significance. Especially, in a severe asthma attack, despite the application of conventional medical treatment, respiratory management is critical. Even though non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be effective in a wide variety of clinical settings, reports of NIV in asthmatic patients are scarce. According to a few prospective clinical trials reporting promising results in favour of the use of NIV in a severe asthma attack, a trial of NIV prior to invasive mechanical ventilation seems acceptable and may benefit patients by decreasing the need for intubation and by supporting pharmaceutical treatments. Although selecting the appropriate patients for NIV use is a key factor in successful NIV application, how to distinguish such patients is quite controversial. Larger high quality clinical trails are urgently required to confirm the benefits of NIV to patients with severe asthma attack. In this article, we focus on the body of evidence supporting the use of NIV in asthma attacks and discuss its advantages as well its problems.

  20. An efficient algorithm for the detection of exposed and hidden wormhole attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.A.; Rehman, S.U.; Islam, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    MANETs (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks) are slowly integrating into our everyday lives, their most prominent uses are visible in the disaster and war struck areas where physical infrastructure is almost impossible or very hard to build. MANETs like other networks are facing the threat of malicious users and their activities. A number of attacks have been identified but the most severe of them is the wormhole attack which has the ability to succeed even in case of encrypted traffic and secure networks. Once wormhole is launched successfully, the severity increases by the fact that attackers can launch other attacks too. This paper presents a comprehensive algorithm for the detection of exposed as well as hidden wormhole attack while keeping the detection rate to maximum and at the same reducing false alarms. The algorithm does not require any extra hardware, time synchronization or any special type of nodes. The architecture consists of the combination of Routing Table, RTT (Round Trip Time) and RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) for comprehensive detection of wormhole attack. The proposed technique is robust, light weight, has low resource requirements and provides real-time detection against the wormhole attack. Simulation results show that the algorithm is able to provide a higher detection rate, packet delivery ratio, negligible false alarms and is also better in terms of Ease of Implementation, Detection Accuracy/ Speed and processing overhead. (author)

  1. Classification of cyber attacks in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available various ATM's throughout South Africa. Two criminals, Motsoane and Masoleng, were arrested in February 2012 and both sentenced to 15 years in jail [36, 37]. 3.10 2013: IOL DDoS Anonymous Africa claimed responsibility for launching a Distributed Denial... of Service (DDoS) attack on the Independent Newspaper web site iol.co.za. The attack was in response to claims that the IOL group supports Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe. The following taunt was sent to boast about the attack: “IOL bad boys bad boys...

  2. Attacker Modelling in Ubiquitous Computing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papini, Davide

    in with our everyday life. This future is visible to everyone nowadays: terms like smartphone, cloud, sensor, network etc. are widely known and used in our everyday life. But what about the security of such systems. Ubiquitous computing devices can be limited in terms of energy, computing power and memory...... attacker remain somehow undened and still under extensive investigation. This Thesis explores the nature of the ubiquitous attacker with a focus on how she interacts with the physical world and it denes a model that captures the abilities of the attacker. Furthermore a quantitative implementation...

  3. A Novel Multiple-Bits Collision Attack Based on Double Detection with Error-Tolerant Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Side-channel collision attacks are more powerful than traditional side-channel attack without knowing the leakage model or establishing the model. Most attack strategies proposed previously need quantities of power traces with high computational complexity and are sensitive to mistakes, which restricts the attack efficiency seriously. In this paper, we propose a multiple-bits side-channel collision attack based on double distance voting detection (DDVD and also an improved version, involving the error-tolerant mechanism, which can find all 120 relations among 16 key bytes when applied to AES (Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm. In addition, we compare our collision detection method called DDVD with the Euclidean distance and the correlation-enhanced collision method under different intensity of noise, which indicates that our detection technique performs better in the circumstances of noise. Furthermore, 4-bit model of our collision detection method is proven to be optimal in theory and in practice. Meanwhile the corresponding practical attack experiments are also performed on a hardware implementation of AES-128 on FPGA board successfully. Results show that our strategy needs less computation time but more traces than LDPC method and the online time for our strategy is about 90% less than CECA and 96% less than BCA with 90% success rate.

  4. Classifier fusion for VoIP attacks classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Rezac, Filip

    2017-05-01

    SIP is one of the most successful protocols in the field of IP telephony communication. It establishes and manages VoIP calls. As the number of SIP implementation rises, we can expect a higher number of attacks on the communication system in the near future. This work aims at malicious SIP traffic classification. A number of various machine learning algorithms have been developed for attack classification. The paper presents a comparison of current research and the use of classifier fusion method leading to a potential decrease in classification error rate. Use of classifier combination makes a more robust solution without difficulties that may affect single algorithms. Different voting schemes, combination rules, and classifiers are discussed to improve the overall performance. All classifiers have been trained on real malicious traffic. The concept of traffic monitoring depends on the network of honeypot nodes. These honeypots run in several networks spread in different locations. Separation of honeypots allows us to gain an independent and trustworthy attack information.

  5. Asynchronous Channel-Hopping Scheme under Jamming Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchul Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio networks (CRNs are considered an attractive technology to mitigate inefficiency in the usage of licensed spectrum. CRNs allow the secondary users (SUs to access the unused licensed spectrum and use a blind rendezvous process to establish communication links between SUs. In particular, quorum-based channel-hopping (CH schemes have been studied recently to provide guaranteed blind rendezvous in decentralized CRNs without using global time synchronization. However, these schemes remain vulnerable to jamming attacks. In this paper, we first analyze the limitations of quorum-based rendezvous schemes called asynchronous channel hopping (ACH. Then, we introduce a novel sequence sensing jamming attack (SSJA model in which a sophisticated jammer can dramatically reduce the rendezvous success rates of ACH schemes. In addition, we propose a fast and robust asynchronous rendezvous scheme (FRARS that can significantly enhance robustness under jamming attacks. Our numerical results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed scheme vastly outperforms the ACH scheme when there are security concerns about a sequence sensing jammer.

  6. A thermodynamic model for the attack behaviour in stainless steel clad oxide fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzmann, O.

    1979-01-01

    So far, post irradiation examination of burnt fuel pins has not revealed a clear cut picture of the cladding attack situation. For seemingly same conditions sometimes attack occurs, sometimes not. This model tries to depict the reaction possibilities along the inner cladding wall on the basis of thermodynamic facts in the fuel pin. It shows how the thermodynamic driving force for attack changes along the fuel column, and with different initial and operational conditions. Two criteria for attack are postulated: attack as a result of the direct reaction of reactive elements with cladding components; and attack as a result of the action of a special agent (CsOH). In defining a reaction potenial the oxygen potential, the temperature conditions (cladding temperature and fuel surface temperature), and the fission products are involved. For the determination of the oxygen potential at the cladding, three models for the redistribution of oxygen across the fuel/clad gap are offered. The effect of various parameters, like rod power, gap conductance, oxygen potential, inner wall temperature, on the thermodynamic potential for attack is analysed. (Auth.)

  7. Post-attack aposematic display in prey facilitates predator avoidance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changku eKang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Warning signals protect unpalatable prey from predation because predators who learn the association between the warning signal and prey unprofitability decrease attacks on the prey. Most of the research have focused on visual aposematic signals that are constantly presented and visible to the predators. But a variety of chemically defended insects are rather cryptic when resting, and only in response to predator attacks (post-attack they perform displays of conspicuous abdomens or hindwings normally hidden under forewings. The function of those displays in unpalatable insects is not well understood. We examined two adaptive hypotheses on this facultative aposematic display using wild-caught oriental tits (Parus minor as predators. First, we tested whether the display increases the rejection of the prey by predators upon seeing the display (i.e. at the moment of attack through learning trials (aposematic signaling hypothesis. Second, we tested whether the display facilitates the memory formation between cryptic visible form of the prey and prey defense so that it prevents the predators initiate an attack upon seeing the cryptic form (facilitation hypothesis. We found that predators learned to avoid attacking the prey which supports the facilitation hypothesis. However, the support for the aposematic signaling hypothesis was equivocal. Our results open new directions of research by highlighting the possibility that similar facilitation effects may contribute to the evolution of various forms of post-attack visual displays in chemically, or otherwise, defended animals.

  8. DMP: Detouring Using Multiple Paths against Jamming Attack for Ubiquitous Networking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihui Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To successfully realize the ubiquitous network environment including home automation or industrial control systems, it is important to be able to resist a jamming attack. This has recently been considered as an extremely threatening attack because it can collapse the entire network, despite the existence of basic security protocols such as encryption and authentication. In this paper, we present a method of jamming attack tolerant routing using multiple paths based on zones. The proposed scheme divides the network into zones, and manages the candidate forward nodes of neighbor zones. After detecting an attack, detour nodes decide zones for rerouting, and detour packets destined for victim nodes through forward nodes in the decided zones. Simulation results show that our scheme increases the PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio and decreases the delay significantly in comparison with rerouting by a general routing protocol on sensor networks, AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector, and a conventional JAM (Jammed Area Mapping service with one reroute.

  9. A blind video watermarking scheme resistant to rotation and collusion attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Karmakar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT based blind video watermarking algorithm is proposed, which is perceptually invisible and robust against rotation and collusion attacks. To make the scheme resistant against rotation, watermark is embedded within the square blocks, placed on the middle position of every luminance channel. Then Zernike moments of those square blocks are calculated. The rotation invariance property of the Complex Zernike moments is exploited to predict the rotation angle of the video at the time of extraction of watermark bits. To make the scheme robust against collusion, design of the scheme is done in such a way that the embedding blocks will vary for the successive frames of the video. A Pseudo Random Number (PRN generator and a permutation vector are used to achieve the goal. The experimental results show that the scheme is robust against conventional video attacks, rotation attack and collusion attacks.

  10. Analysis for Ad Hoc Network Attack-Defense Based on Stochastic Game Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The attack actions analysis for Ad Hoc networks can provide a reference for the design security mechanisms. This paper presents an analysis method of security of Ad Hoc networks based on Stochastic Game Nets (SGN. This method can establish a SGN model of Ad Hoc networks and calculate to get the Nash equilibrium strategy. After transforming the SGN model into a continuous-time Markov Chain (CTMC, the security of Ad Hoc networks can be evaluated and analyzed quantitatively by calculating the stationary probability of CTMC. Finally, the Matlab simulation results show that the probability of successful attack is related to the attack intensity and expected payoffs, but not attack rate.

  11. DMP: detouring using multiple paths against jamming attack for ubiquitous networking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihui; Chae, Kijoon

    2010-01-01

    To successfully realize the ubiquitous network environment including home automation or industrial control systems, it is important to be able to resist a jamming attack. This has recently been considered as an extremely threatening attack because it can collapse the entire network, despite the existence of basic security protocols such as encryption and authentication. In this paper, we present a method of jamming attack tolerant routing using multiple paths based on zones. The proposed scheme divides the network into zones, and manages the candidate forward nodes of neighbor zones. After detecting an attack, detour nodes decide zones for rerouting, and detour packets destined for victim nodes through forward nodes in the decided zones. Simulation results show that our scheme increases the PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio) and decreases the delay significantly in comparison with rerouting by a general routing protocol on sensor networks, AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector), and a conventional JAM (Jammed Area Mapping) service with one reroute.

  12. Study of the impact on PSA success criteria of the variability of the initial liquid level in case of the loss of the RHR system accident scenario under mid-loop operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, J.F.; Carlos, S.; Martorell, S.; Serradell, V.; Pelayo, F.; Mendizabal, R.; Cirauqui, C.; Sol, I.

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is recognized nowadays as an important tool to support risk-informed decision-making aimed at providing both operational flexibility and plant safety [1]. Experience of current PSA studies shows the importance of some risky scenarios with the plant at low power and shutdown conditions as compared to the accident scenarios with the plant operating at full power. In particular, current low power and shutdown PSA (LPSA) studies shows that the loss of the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) transient is one of the most risk-significant events under low power conditions [2]. This accident type is supposed to occur for various plant operating states, of which mid-loop operation represents one of the main contributors [3]. LPSA has widely used methods for thermal-hydraulic analysis that play an important role in determining success criteria of safety-related functions involved to mitigate the severity of accident scenarios with the plant operating in such conditions. Various best estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis codes have been used to analyze the loss of the RHRS during low power and shutdown conditions [4, 5]. It is known that RELAP code can give good results as derived after a number of benchmark exercises using results from experiments at research facilities (e.g. ROSA-IV, BETHSY, PKL). [6] Previous research has shown how thermal-hydraulic phenomena after the loss of the RHRS, e.g. peak reactor coolant system pressure, are sensitive to the initial liquid level at the time of loss of the RHRS [2]. This paper presents the results of the study of the thermalhydraulic analysis of the accident scenarios after the loss of the RHRS under mid-loop conditions paying particular attention to the analysis of the effect of the variability of the initial liquid level on the success criteria of the safety-related functions considered in a typical LPSA [3]. (author)

  13. YET ANOTHER ATTACK ON WAGES AND CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    An unobjectionable-sounding title obscures the real intent of the latest in a series of Bills which the federal Coalition government is attempting to legislate in its ongoing attempts to undermine employee wages and conditions and attack unions.

  14. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes complications - heart; Coronary artery disease - diabetes; CAD - diabetes; Cerebrovascular disease - diabetes ... People with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure and high ...

  15. Marine Attack on Towed Hydrophone Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalmijn, Ad

    2002-01-01

    The original objective of the SIO Marine Attack project was to identify the electric and magnetic fields causing sharks to inflict serious damage upon the towed hydrophone arrays of US Navy submarines...

  16. On localization attacks against cloud infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Sistani, Mohammad Ali

    2013-05-01

    One of the key characteristics of cloud computing is the device and location independence that enables the user to access systems regardless of their location. Because cloud computing is heavily based on sharing resource, it is vulnerable to cyber attacks. In this paper, we investigate a localization attack that enables the adversary to leverage central processing unit (CPU) resources to localize the physical location of server used by victims. By increasing and reducing CPU usage through the malicious virtual machine (VM), the response time from the victim VM will increase and decrease correspondingly. In this way, by embedding the probing signal into the CPU usage and correlating the same pattern in the response time from the victim VM, the adversary can find the location of victim VM. To determine attack accuracy, we investigate features in both the time and frequency domains. We conduct both theoretical and experimental study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such an attack.

  17. Social engineering attack examples, templates and scenarios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, Francois

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available that are representative of real-world examples, whilst still being general enough to encompass several different real-world examples. The proposed social engineering attack templates cover all three types of communication, namely bidirectional communication...

  18. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rusinowitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically generating abstract attacks and converting them to concrete tests on protocol implementations. In particular we aim to improve previously proposed blackbox testing methods in order to discover automatically new attacks and vulnerabilities. As a proof of concept we have experimented our proposed architecture to detect a renegotiation vulnerability on some implementations of SSL/TLS, a protocol widely used for securing electronic transactions.

  19. The role of sleep in migraine attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Inamorato

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Migraine attacks may be precipitated by sleep deprivation or excessive sleep and sleep is also associated with relief of migraine attacks. In view of this variable relationship we studied the records of 159 consecutive outpatients of our Headache Unit. In 121 records there was reference to sleep involvement, in 55% by a single form and in 45% by more than one form. When only one form was related, relief was most common (70%. 30% of that group of patients had the migraine attack precipitated by sleep, 24% by deprivation and 6% by sleep excess. When the effects of sleep were multiple, these effects were as expected logically in 65%: «in accordance» group (e.g attack precipitated by sleep deprivation and relieved by sleep onset. In a second group, («conflicting» where the involvement was not logical, there were three different combinations of sleep involvement, possibly due to more than one pathophysiological mechanism.

  20. ATTACK WARNING: Costs to Modernize NORAD's Computer System Significantly Understated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cross, F

    1991-01-01

    ...) Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment (ITW/AA) system. These subsystems provide critical strategic surveillance and attack warning and assessment information to United States and Canadian leaders...

  1. Protecting Dynamic Mobile Agent against Denial of Service Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Nipur, Pallavi

    2010-11-01

    Mobile Agents are softwares migrating from one node to another to fulfill the task of its owner. The introduction of mobile agents has reduced network latency, network traffic a lot but at the same time it has increased the vulnerability for attacks by malicious hosts. One such attack is `Denial of Service', once the agent is launched it is free to roam without any control of its owner, this on one hand decreases the cost of agent—owner interaction and on the other hand increases the chances of `Denial Of Service'. In Denial Of Service attack the malicious host may deny resources required by the agent and kill the agent, thus the result computed so far is lost and this may happen every time the agent visits any malicious host. In this paper we continued the work done in [10] in which the authors proposed techniques by which owner can detect the malicious host for `Denial Of Service' but they did not covered technique for dynamic routes i.e. where the host or agent initiate migrations to hosts which were not contained in the route composed by the owner. We introduced an algorithm and a model which can be useful for the above purpose.

  2. [Chronic pancreatitis diagnosed after the first attack of acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojková, Martina; Dítě, Petr; Uvírová, Magdalena; Dvořáčková, Nina; Kianička, Bohuslav; Kupka, Tomáš; Svoboda, Pavel; Klvaňa, Pavel; Martínek, Arnošt

    2016-02-01

    One of the diseases involving a potential risk of developing chronic pancreatitis is acute pancreatitis. Of the overall number of 231 individuals followed with a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, 56 patients were initially treated for acute pancreatitis (24.2 %). Within an interval of 12- 24 months from the first attack of acute pancreatitis, their condition gradually progressed to reached the picture of chronic pancreatitis. The individuals included in the study abstained (from alcohol) following the first attack of acute pancreatitis and no relapse of acute pancreatitis was proven during the period of their monitoring. The etiology of acute pancreatitis identified alcohol as the predominant cause (55.3 %), biliary etiology was proven in 35.7 %. According to the revised Atlanta classification, severe pancreatitis was established in 69.6 % of the patients, the others met the criterion for intermediate form, those with the light form were not included. Significant risk factors present among the patients were smoking, obesity and 18 %, resp. 25.8 % had pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus identified. 88.1 % of the patients with acute pancreatitis were smokers. The majority of individuals with chronic pancreatitis following an attack of acute pancreatitis were of a productive age from 25 to 50 years. It is not only acute alcoholic pancreatitis which evolves into chronic pancreatitis, we have also identified this transition for pancreatitis of biliary etiology.

  3. RAPTOR: Ransomware Attack PredicTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Quinkert, Florian; Holz, Thorsten; Hossain, KSM Tozammel; Ferrara, Emilio; Lerman, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Ransomware, a type of malicious software that encrypts a victim's files and only releases the cryptographic key once a ransom is paid, has emerged as a potentially devastating class of cybercrimes in the past few years. In this paper, we present RAPTOR, a promising line of defense against ransomware attacks. RAPTOR fingerprints attackers' operations to forecast ransomware activity. More specifically, our method learns features of malicious domains by looking at examples of domains involved in...

  4. Attack Helicopter Operations: Art or Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-13

    ATTACK HELICOPTER OPERATIONS: ART OR SCIENCE ? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAN CALLEN United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...TASK IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NC 11. TITLE (Include Socurity Classification) Attack Helicopter Operations: Art or Science ? 12. PERSONAL...OPERATIONS: ART OR SCIENCE ? AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Jan Callen United States Army Colonel Greg Snelgrove Project Adviser U.S

  5. Protecting mobile agents from external replay attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigues Olivella, Carles; Migas, Nikos; Buchanan, William; Robles, Sergi; Borrell Viader, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Peer-reviewed This paper presents a protocol for the protection of mobile agents against external replay attacks. This kind of attacks are performed by malicious platforms when dispatching an agent multiple times to a remote host, thus making it reexecute part of its itinerary. Current proposals aiming to address this problem are based on storing agent identifiers, or trip markers, inside agent platforms, so that future reexecutions can be detected and prevented. The problem of these solut...

  6. Semantic Identification Attacks on Web Browsing

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Neel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a Semantic Identification Attack, in which an adversary uses semantic signals about the pages visited in one browsing session to identify other browsing sessions launched by the same user. This attack allows an adver- sary to determine if two browsing sessions originate from the same user regardless of any measures taken by the user to disguise their browser or network. We use the MSNBC Anonymous Browsing data set, which contains a large set of user visits (labeled by category) t...

  7. Consciousness in Non-Epileptic Attack Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Reuber, M.; Kurthen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) is one of the most important differential diagnoses of epilepsy. Impairment of\\ud consciousness is the key feature of non-epileptic attacks (NEAs). The first half of this review summarises the clinical research\\ud literature featuring observations relating to consciousness in NEAD. The second half places this evidence in the wider context\\ud of the recent discourse on consciousness in neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. We argue that studies of consci...

  8. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dale

    2012-05-31

    This goal of this project was to develop cyber security audit and attack detection tools for industrial control systems (ICS). Digital Bond developed and released a tool named Bandolier that audits ICS components commonly used in the energy sector against an optimal security configuration. The Portaledge Project developed a capability for the PI Historian, the most widely used Historian in the energy sector, to aggregate security events and detect cyber attacks.

  9. Vulnerability assessment of IPv6 websites to SQL injection and other application level attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Given the proliferation of internet connected devices, IPv6 has been proposed to replace IPv4. Aside from providing a larger address space which can be assigned to internet enabled devices, it has been suggested that the IPv6 protocol offers increased security due to the fact that with the large number of addresses available, standard IP scanning attacks will no longer become feasible. However, given the interest in attacking organizations rather than individual devices, most initial points of entry onto an organization's network and their attendant devices are visible and reachable through web crawling techniques, and, therefore, attacks on the visible application layer may offer ways to compromise the overall network. In this evaluation, we provide a straightforward implementation of a web crawler in conjunction with a benign black box penetration testing system and analyze the ease at which SQL injection attacks can be carried out.

  10. A Study on the VHCF Fatigue Behaviors of Hydrogen Attacked Inconel 718 Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Chang-Min [Kyungpook National Univ., DMI Senior Fellow, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Seung-Hoon [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun-Hyong; Pyun, Young-Sik [Sun Moon Univ., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    This study is to investigate the influence of hydrogen attack and UNSM on fatigue behaviors of the Inconel 718 alloy. The decrease of the fatigue life between the untreated and the hydrogen attacked material is 10-20%. The fatigue lives of hydrogen attacked specimen decreased without a fatigue limit, similar to those of nonferrous materials. Due to hydrogen embrittlement, about 80% of the surface cracks were smaller than the average grain size of 13 μm. Many small surface cracks caused by the embrittling effect of hydrogen attack were initiated at the grain boundaries and surface scratches. Cracks were irregularly distributed, grew, and then coalesced through tearing, leading to a reduction of fatigue life. Results revealed that the fatigue lives of UNSM-treated specimens were longer than those of the untreated specimens.

  11. Vulnerability Assessment of IPv6 Websites to SQL Injection and Other Application Level Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chiang Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the proliferation of internet connected devices, IPv6 has been proposed to replace IPv4. Aside from providing a larger address space which can be assigned to internet enabled devices, it has been suggested that the IPv6 protocol offers increased security due to the fact that with the large number of addresses available, standard IP scanning attacks will no longer become feasible. However, given the interest in attacking organizations rather than individual devices, most initial points of entry onto an organization's network and their attendant devices are visible and reachable through web crawling techniques, and, therefore, attacks on the visible application layer may offer ways to compromise the overall network. In this evaluation, we provide a straightforward implementation of a web crawler in conjunction with a benign black box penetration testing system and analyze the ease at which SQL injection attacks can be carried out.

  12. An efficient collaborative approach for black hole attack discovery and mitigating its impact in manet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devipriya, K.; Ivy, B. Persis Urbana; Prabha, D.

    2018-04-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an assemblage of nodes composed of mobile devices coupled in various ways wirelessly which do not have any central administration. Each node in MANET cooperates in forwarding packets in the network. This type of collaboration incurs high cost but there exits nodes that declines to cooperate leading to selfish conduct of nodes which effects overall network performance. To discover the attacks caused by such nodes, a renowned mechanism using watchdog can be deployed. In infrastructure less network attack detection and reaction and high false positives, false negatives initiating black hole attack becomes major issue in watchdog. This paper put forward a collaborative approach for identifying such attacks in MANET. Through abstract analysis and extensive simulation of this approach, the detection time of misbehaved nodes is reduced and substantial enhancement in overhead and throughput is witnessed.

  13. Intrusion detection in cloud computing based attack patterns and risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Charhi Youssef

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of work originally presented in SYSCO CONF.We extend our previous work by presenting the initial results of the implementation of intrusion detection based on risk assessment on cloud computing. The idea focuses on a novel approach for detecting cyber-attacks on the cloud environment by analyzing attacks pattern using risk assessment methodologies. The aim of our solution is to combine evidences obtained from Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS deployed in a cloud with risk assessment related to each attack pattern. Our approach presents a new qualitative solution for analyzing each symptom, indicator and vulnerability analyzing impact and likelihood of distributed and multi-steps attacks directed to cloud environments. The implementation of this approach will reduce the number of false alerts and will improve the performance of the IDS.

  14. Combined Heuristic Attack Strategy on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Šimon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the existence of a complex network is considered an advantage feature and efforts are made to increase its robustness against an attack. However, there exist also harmful and/or malicious networks, from social ones like spreading hoax, corruption, phishing, extremist ideology, and terrorist support up to computer networks spreading computer viruses or DDoS attack software or even biological networks of carriers or transport centers spreading disease among the population. New attack strategy can be therefore used against malicious networks, as well as in a worst-case scenario test for robustness of a useful network. A common measure of robustness of networks is their disintegration level after removal of a fraction of nodes. This robustness can be calculated as a ratio of the number of nodes of the greatest remaining network component against the number of nodes in the original network. Our paper presents a combination of heuristics optimized for an attack on a complex network to achieve its greatest disintegration. Nodes are deleted sequentially based on a heuristic criterion. Efficiency of classical attack approaches is compared to the proposed approach on Barabási-Albert, scale-free with tunable power-law exponent, and Erdős-Rényi models of complex networks and on real-world networks. Our attack strategy results in a faster disintegration, which is counterbalanced by its slightly increased computational demands.

  15. SCADA system vulnerabilities to cyber attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, W. T. [Cyber Security Consulting (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    The susceptibility to terrorist attacks of computer-based supervisory control (SCADA) systems that are used to monitor and control water distribution systems, oil and gas pipelines and the electrical grid, is discussed. The discussion includes ways in which SCADA systems may be attacked and remedial actions that may be taken to reduce or eliminate the possibility of such attacks. Attacks may take the form of causing the system to generate false data to divert attention from impending system disasters, or commandeer the system to seriously disable it, or cause damage to the process or equipment being controlled by sending improper control commands. SCADA systems are also vulnerable to internal threats, either from an accidental action that results in damage, or an intentional action, as for example by a disgruntled employee, or ex-employee, usually by way of reprogramming an RTU or PLC by accessing the polling/communications circuit. Recent SCADA systems are much more susceptible to concerted cyber attacks because of the adoption of IT technologies and standards into the design of such systems. (Older systems are more likely to be unique designs, hence less susceptible to attack). As far as protection of SCADA systems is concerned, there are no technologies that would prevent a technologically sophisticated terrorist or disgruntled employee from doing major damage to the system, however, the IT world has developed a range of technologies for the protection of IT assets, and many of these same technologies can also be used to safeguard modern SCADA systems.

  16. [Clinical pathway for management of patients with acute asthma attack].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Naoto; Katada, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kojima, Makiko; Nakajima, Yumi; Shibano, Miyo; Tomita, Hitomi; Yamanaka, Takao; Harada, Yoshinori; Ishii, Taeko; Saeki, Yukihiko

    2008-11-01

    There have been few reports of clinical pathway (CP) for treatment of asthma attack, because patients with asthma always admit emergently and the severity varies. We introduced CP so that standard asthma treatment can be widely used, and investigated its clinical usefulness. We designed a new CP for treating asthma attack according to the guideline (Japanese guideline (JGL) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)). 136 patients who admitted to our hospital due to asthma attack from January 1999 to November 2006, were enrolled our study. Excluding cases complicated with pneumonia, COPD or cardiac failure, we evaluated 46 cases treated with the CP comparing with 19 cases treated without the CP. The clinical evaluations include systemic and inhaled steroid use, FEV1.0%, history of asthma, and the duration of asthma attack. Furthermore, we investigated difference between cases with and without prolonged admission. While the rates of systemic and inhaled steroid use in cases without the CP were 57.9% and 52.6% respectively, those in cases with the CP were approximately 100%. Employing the CP, FEV 1.0% at discharge time was elevated from 71.7% to 76.3% and the duration of hospitalization was shortened from 14.2 days to 11.5 days. Mean age of the cases with prolonged admission was higher than the rest. The asthma CP is an effective way for the standard treatment according to the guideline to be used widely even by doctors who are not familiar with asthma treatment. It improves the efficacy of in-hospital treatment.

  17. Guideline on management of the acute asthma attack in children by Italian Society of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indinnimeo, Luciana; Chiappini, Elena; Miraglia Del Giudice, Michele

    2018-04-06

    Acute asthma attack is a frequent condition in children. It is one of the most common reasons for emergency department (ED) visit and hospitalization. Appropriate care is fundamental, considering both the high prevalence of asthma in children, and its life-threatening risks. Italian Society of Pediatrics recently issued a guideline on the management of acute asthma attack in children over age 2, in ambulatory and emergency department settings. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was adopted. A literature search was performed using the Cochrane Library and Medline/PubMed databases, retrieving studies in English or Italian and including children over age 2 year. Inhaled ß 2 agonists are the first line drugs for acute asthma attack in children. Ipratropium bromide should be added in moderate/severe attacks. Early use of systemic steroids is associated with reduced risk of ED visits and hospitalization. High doses of inhaled steroids should not replace systemic steroids. Aminophylline use should be avoided in mild/moderate attacks. Weak evidence supports its use in life-threatening attacks. Epinephrine should not be used in the treatment of acute asthma for its lower cost / benefit ratio, compared to β 2 agonists. Intravenous magnesium solphate could be used in children with severe attacks and/or forced expiratory volume1 (FEV1) lower than 60% predicted, unresponsive to initial inhaled therapy. Heliox could be administered in life-threatening attacks. Leukotriene receptor antagonists are not recommended. This Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in managing acute asthma attacks in children over age 2.

  18. Exploiting Hardware Vulnerabilities to Attack Embedded System Devices: a Survey of Potent Microarchitectural Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos P. Fournaris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-Physical system devices nowadays constitute a mixture of Information Technology (IT and Operational Technology (OT systems that are meant to operate harmonically under a security critical framework. As security IT countermeasures are gradually been installed in many embedded system nodes, thus securing them from many well-know cyber attacks there is a lurking danger that is still overlooked. Apart from the software vulnerabilities that typical malicious programs use, there are some very interesting hardware vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to mount devastating software or hardware attacks (typically undetected by software countermeasures capable of fully compromising any embedded system device. Real-time microarchitecture attacks such as the cache side-channel attacks are such case but also the newly discovered Rowhammer fault injection attack that can be mounted even remotely to gain full access to a device DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory. Under the light of the above dangers that are focused on the device hardware structure, in this paper, an overview of this attack field is provided including attacks, threat directives and countermeasures. The goal of this paper is not to exhaustively overview attacks and countermeasures but rather to survey the various, possible, existing attack directions and highlight the security risks that they can pose to security critical embedded systems as well as indicate their strength on compromising the Quality of Service (QoS such systems are designed to provide.

  19. Predicting Factors of Zone 4 Attack in Volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo C; Castro, Henrique O; Evangelista, Breno F; Malheiros, Laura M; Greco, Pablo J; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert

    2017-06-01

    This study examined 142 volleyball games of the Men's Super League 2014/2015 seasons in Brazil from which we analyzed 24-26 games of each participating team, identifying 5,267 Zone 4 attacks for further analysis. Within these Zone 4 attacks, we analyzed the association between the effect of the attack carried out and the separate effects of serve reception, tempo and type of attack. We found that the reception, tempo of attack, second tempo of attack, and power of diagonal attack were predictors of the attack effect in Zone 4. Moreover, placed attacks showed a tendency to not yield a score. In conclusion, winning points in high-level men's volleyball requires excellent receptions, a fast attack tempo and powerfully executed of attacks.

  20. Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Braga da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? The stink bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae is a predator found in several Brazilian regions, which possesses desirable attributes as a natural control agent and in biological control programs. The aim of this study was to test if the attack behavior and predation success of S. cincticeps were affected by prey species. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Geometridae were offered to S. cincticeps in laboratory bioassays where predatory attack and prey defensive behaviors were observed for 2-hour periods. The attack behavior of S. cincticeps changed with the prey species offered. More than 25% of T. molitor and S. frugiperda larvae were immediately attacked, but T. arnobia was not immediately attacked by S. cincticeps. Successful attack (i.e., successful insertion of the predator stylets into the prey depends on the region of the body attacked, with a greater proportion of successful attacks in the anterior than in the median or posterior regions. Larvae of T. arnobia and S. frugiperda displayed a sequence of abrupt head and body movements in response to S. cincticeps attack. Attempts of predation were more successful on T. molitor and S. frugiperda than on T. arnobia. Information about the differential attack behavior of S. cincticeps on different prey species is important for designing successful biological control programs using this hemipteran predator.

  1. Nonepileptic attack disorder among married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanaraj, M; Rangaraj, R; Arulmozhi, T; Vengatesan, A

    2005-06-01

    To study the clinical features, precipitating stressful life events and prognosis of nonepileptic attack disorder (NEAD) among married women. Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. A tertiary care teaching hospital. Of the 1020 patients with epilepsy referred to the epilepsy clinic during 2002-2003, 30 were married women with NEAD. The diagnostic criteria for NEAD included normal EEG during ictal and post-ictal phase of the generalized 'attack.' The data collected included clinical characteristics, semiology of the attacks, precipitating stressful events, and co-morbid psychiatric disorders. The control group included 30 age-matched married women with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The long-term outcome and factors influencing the outcomes were analyzed. The mean duration of illness was 18 months, and the pattern of the attack was 'fall and lying still' in 53% and 'fall with generalized motor movements' in 47%. The frequency was one or more per week in 57% and occasionally in 43%. The important stressful events were matrimonial discord following illegal relationship of the husband with another woman (chi2 = 9.02, P = 0.003) and constant quarrel with other family members (chi2 = 5.19, P = 0.02). The prevalence of sexual abuse was low (7%). Co-morbid psychiatric disorder was observed in 70%. At the end of 1 year, 39% were free from the attack. Resolution of the stressful life events (chi2 = 4.52, P = 0.03) and lower frequency of attack at the time of reporting (chi2 = 3.88, P = 0.05) correlated with good outcomes. Among patients with NEAD in India, the major precipitating factors were matrimonial discord following illegal relationship of the husband with another woman and constant quarrel with other family members and not sexual abuse. Women with low frequency of attack at the time of reporting and the remission of the stressful events had better outcomes.

  2. The epidemiology of physical attack and rape among crack-using women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, R S; Wang, J; Carlson, R G; Siegal, H A

    2001-02-01

    This prospective study examines the epidemiology of physical attack and rape among a sample of 171 not-in-treatment, crack-cocaine using women. Since initiating crack use, 62% of the women reported suffering a physical attack. The annual rate of victimization by physical attack was 45%. Overall, more than half of the victims sought medical care subsequent to an attack. The prevalence of rape since crack use was initiated was 32%, and the annual rate was 11%. Among those women having been raped since they initiated crack use, 83% reported they were high on crack when the crime occurred as were an estimated 57% of the perpetrators. Logistic regression analyses showed that duration of crack use, arrest for prostitution, and some college education were predictors of having experienced a physical attack. Duration of crack use and a history of prostitution were predictors of suffering a rape. Drug abuse treatment programs must be sensitive to high levels of violence victimization experienced by crack-cocaine using women. Screening women for victimization, and treating the problems that emanate from it, may help make drug abuse treatment more effective.

  3. Success in Science, Success in Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mariann R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    This is a series of four different scientific problems which were resolved through collaborations. They are: "Better flow cytometry through novel focusing technology", "Take Off®: Helping the Agriculture Industry Improve the Viability of Sustainable, Large-Production Crops", "The National Institutes of Health's Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS)", and "Expanding the capabilities of SOLVE/RESOLVE through the PHENIX Consortium." For each one, the problem is listed, the solution, advantages, bottom line, then information about the collaboration including: developing the technology, initial success, and continued success.

  4. The use of new facility by means internal balance with sting support for wide range Angle of Attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagyo; Daryanto, Yanto; Risnawan, Novan

    2018-04-01

    The development of facilities for the testing of wide range angle of attack aircraft in the wind tunnel at subsonic regime has done and implemented. Development required to meet the test at an angle of attack from -20 ° to 40 °. Testing the wide range angle of attack aircraft with a wide variation of the angle of attack become important needs. This can be done simply by using the sting support-equipped by internal balance to measure the forces and moments component aerodynamics. The results of development and use on the wide range angle of attack aircraft testing are aerodynamics characteristics in the form of the coefficient three components forces and the three components of the moment. A series of test aircraft was successfully carried out and the results are shown in the form of graphs of characteristic of aerodynamics at wind speed 70 m/s.

  5. 12 CFR 263.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is brought in... shall be excused based on the pendency before any court of any interlocutory appeal or collateral attack. ...

  6. 12 CFR 509.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding....17 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is... shall be excused based on the pendency before any court of any interlocutory appeal or collateral attack. ...

  7. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  8. Security attack detection algorithm for electric power gis system based on mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Feng, Renjun; Wang, Liming; Huang, Wei; Guo, Yajuan

    2017-05-01

    Electric power GIS is one of the key information technologies to satisfy the power grid construction in China, and widely used in power grid construction planning, weather, and power distribution management. The introduction of electric power GIS based on mobile applications is an effective extension of the geographic information system that has been widely used in the electric power industry. It provides reliable, cheap and sustainable power service for the country. The accurate state estimation is the important conditions to maintain the normal operation of the electric power GIS. Recent research has shown that attackers can inject the complex false data into the power system. The injection attack of this new type of false data (load integrity attack LIA) can successfully bypass the routine detection to achieve the purpose of attack, so that the control center will make a series of wrong decision. Eventually, leading to uneven distribution of power in the grid. In order to ensure the safety of the electric power GIS system based on mobile application, it is very important to analyze the attack mechanism and propose a new type of attack, and to study the corresponding detection method and prevention strategy in the environment of electric power GIS system based on mobile application.

  9. Trace Attack against Biometric Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Ghouzali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponential increase in the dependence on mobile devices in everyday life, there is a growing concern related to privacy and security issues in the Gulf countries; therefore, it is imperative that security threats should be analyzed in detail. Mobile devices store enormous amounts of personal and financial information, unfortunately without any security. In order to secure mobile devices against different threats, biometrics has been applied and shown to be effective. However, biometric mobile applications are also vulnerable to several types of attacks that can decrease their security. Biometric information itself is considered sensitive data; for example, fingerprints can leave traces in touched objects and facial images can be captured everywhere or accessed by the attacker if the facial image is stored in the mobile device (lost or stolen. Hence, an attacker can easily forge the identity of a legitimate user and access data on a device. In this paper, the effects of a trace attack on the sensitivity of biometric mobile applications are investigated in terms of security and user privacy. Experimental results carried out on facial and fingerprint mobile authentication applications using different databases have shown that these mobile applications are vulnerable to the proposed attack, which poses a serious threat to the overall system security and user privacy.

  10. Subclinical endophthalmitis following a rooster attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekse Kovach, Jaclyn; Maguluri, Srilakshmi; Recchia, Franco M

    2006-12-01

    Ocular injury resulting from rooster attacks is rarely reported in the literature. Sadly, the target of these attacks is most often children younger than 3 years old, whose naiveté of the aggressive, territorial behavior of birds can place them at risk. Acute sequelae of these attacks can result in a lifetime of visual impairment. The possibility of a subacute or occult infection is an unusual occurrence that must always be considered. In an effort to prevent future attacks and ocular casualties, we present a case of a 12-month-old boy who suffered an open globe following a rooster attack. The open globe was emergently repaired. One week later, a white cataract was noticed on examination in the absence of systemic or ocular signs of inflammation. Traumatic endophthalmitis and lenticular abscess were suspected during examination under anesthesia. Vitrectomy, lensectomy, and injection of intravitreal antibiotics were performed. Culture of lenticular and vitreous aspirates grew alpha-streptococcus. Alpha-streptococcal endophthalmitis can result from ocular injuries caused by rooster pecking. The infection may present insidiously and without typical ocular or systemic symptoms or signs. Management is challenging and may require surgery.

  11. Modeling attacking of high skills volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gamaliy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the model indicators of technical and tactical actions in the attack highly skilled volleyball players. Material and Methods: the study used statistical data of major international competitions: Olympic Games – 2012 World Championships – 2010, World League – 2010–2014 European Championship – 2010–2014. A total of 130 analyzed games. Methods were used: analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature, analysis of competitive activity highly skilled volleyball players, teacher observation, modeling technical and tactical actions in attacking highly skilled volleyball players. Results: it was found that the largest volume application of technical and tactical actions in the attack belongs to the group tactics «supple movement», whose indicator is 21,3%. The smallest amount of application belongs to the group tactics «flight level» model whose indicators is 5,4%, the efficiency of 3,4%, respectively. It is found that the power service in the jump from model parameters used in 51,6% of cases, the planning targets – 21,7% and 4,4% planning to reduce. Attacks performed with the back line, on model parameters used in the amount of 20,8% efficiency –13,7%. Conclusions: we prove that the performance of technical and tactical actions in the attack can be used as model in the control system of training and competitive process highly skilled volleyball players

  12. Attacks on public telephone networks: technologies and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloff, T.; Moore, Tyler; Keller, J.; Manes, Gavin W.; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2003-09-01

    Signaling System 7 (SS7) is vital to signaling and control in America's public telephone networks. This paper describes a class of attacks on SS7 networks involving the insertion of malicious signaling messages via compromised SS7 network components. Three attacks are discussed in detail: IAM flood attacks, redirection attacks and point code spoofing attacks. Depending on their scale of execution, these attacks can produce effects ranging from network congestion to service disruption. Methods for detecting these denial-of-service attacks and mitigating their effects are also presented.

  13. Cross-site scripting attacks procedure and Prevention Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-site scripting attacks and defense has been the site of attack and defense is an important issue, this paper, the definition of cross-site scripting attacks, according to the current understanding of the chaos on the cross-site scripting, analyzes the causes and harm cross-site scripting attacks formation of attacks XXS complete process XSS attacks made a comprehensive analysis, and then for the web program includes Mobility there are cross-site scripting filter laxity given from ordinary users browse the web and web application developers two the defense cross-site scripting attacks effective strategy.

  14. How Successful is Non-Invasive Ventilation Treatment that is Initiated in the Emergency Department in Cases of COPD Exacerbations with Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure? Can We Predict Treatment Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Çoban Ağca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the success rate of non-invasive ventilation (NIV in wards and the predictors of failure in cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD-related acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF. Methods: The was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital between May 2011 and 2013. Patients who were admitted to the emergency department (ED because of COPD with AHRF were evaluated; 544 patients who initially received NIV in ED and were transferred to wards were included. Patient characteristics, baseline and follow-up pH values, and partial arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2 values were recorded. Baseline pH values were categorized as severe (pH<7.26, moderate (pH≥7.26–7.30, and mild (pH≥7.30 acidosis. According to the in-hospital outcome, patients were classified in 2 groups: Group 1: home discharge, Group 2: death or intensive care unit transfer. Results: Treatment resulted in success in 477 (88% patients. Albumin levels were significantly low and the mean Charlson index (CI score was significantly high in Group 2. Admission pH and PaCO2 values did not affect the treatment outcome. Patients in Group 2 had higher PaCO2 and lower pH values as well as a lower level of decrease in PaCO2 values within 2 hours of treatment in ED. Similarly, higher PaCO2 and lower pH values at the end of the first day in wards were indicative of NIV failure (p<0.05. Conclusion: The success rate of NIV in wards in cases of AHRF is high. Patients with low albumin levels and higher CI scores have worse response to treatment. pH or PaCO2 values after a few hours of treatment and not the baseline pH or PaCO2 values are better predictors than the baseline pH and PaCO2 values.

  15. Overview of DOS attacks on wireless sensor networks and experimental results for simulation of interference attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Gavrić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are now used in various fields. The information transmitted in the wireless sensor networks is very sensitive, so the security issue is very important. DOS (denial of service attacks are a fundamental threat to the functioning of wireless sensor networks. This paper describes some of the most common DOS attacks and potential methods of protection against them. The case study shows one of the most frequent attacks on wireless sensor networks – the interference attack. In the introduction of this paper authors assume that the attack interference can cause significant obstruction of wireless sensor networks. This assumption has been proved in the case study through simulation scenario and simulation results.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection as a triggering factor of attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visy, Beáta; Füst, George; Bygum, Anette

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is considered among the causative factors of urticaria and angioedema. Having conducted a study on 65 patients, Hungarian authors reported in 2001 that successful eradication of H. pylori is followed by a significant reduction in the number of attacks in ...

  17. Counteracting Power Analysis Attacks by Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Elisabeth; Mangard, Stefan

    The publication of power analysis attacks [12] has triggered a lot of research activities. On the one hand these activities have been dedicated toward the development of secure and efficient countermeasures. On the other hand also new and improved attacks have been developed. In fact, there has been a continuous arms race between designers of countermeasures and attackers. This chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-the art in the arms race in the context of a countermeasure called masking. Masking is a popular countermeasure that has been extensively discussed in the scientific community. Numerous articles have been published that explain different types of masking and that analyze weaknesses of this countermeasure.

  18. The WOMBAT Attack Attribution Method: Some Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacier, Marc; Pham, Van-Hau; Thonnard, Olivier

    In this paper, we present a new attack attribution method that has been developed within the WOMBAT project. We illustrate the method with some real-world results obtained when applying it to almost two years of attack traces collected by low interaction honeypots. This analytical method aims at identifying large scale attack phenomena composed of IP sources that are linked to the same root cause. All malicious sources involved in a same phenomenon constitute what we call a Misbehaving Cloud (MC). The paper offers an overview of the various steps the method goes through to identify these clouds, providing pointers to external references for more detailed information. Four instances of misbehaving clouds are then described in some more depth to demonstrate the meaningfulness of the concept.

  19. Security Analysis of 7-Round MISTY1 against Higher Order Differential Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoo, Yukiyasu; Saito, Teruo; Shigeri, Maki; Kawabata, Takeshi

    MISTY1 is a 64-bit block cipher that has provable security against differential and linear cryptanalysis. MISTY1 is one of the algorithms selected in the European NESSIE project, and it has been recommended for Japanese e-Government ciphers by the CRYPTREC project. This paper shows that higher order differential attacks can be successful against 7-round versions of MISTY1 with FL functions. The attack on 7-round MISTY1 can recover a partial subkey with a data complexity of 254.1 and a computational complexity of 2120.8, which signifies the first successful attack on 7-round MISTY1 with no limitation such as a weak key. This paper also evaluates the complexity of this higher order differential attack on MISTY1 in which the key schedule is replaced by a pseudorandom function. It is shown that resistance to the higher order differential attack is not substantially improved even in 7-round MISTY1 in which the key schedule is replaced by a pseudorandom function.

  20. The role of initial success rates and other factors in determining reliability of outcomes of phosphodiesterase inhibitor therapy for erectile dysfunction: a pooled analysis of 17 placebo-controlled trials of tadalafil for use as needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Angelina; Rosen, Raymond C; Litman, Heather J; Ni, Xiao; Araujo, Andre B

    2013-02-01

    Reliability of successful outcomes in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) on phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors is an important aspect of patient management. We examined reliability of successful outcomes in a large integrated dataset of randomized tadalafil trials. Success rates, time to success, subsequent success after first success, and probability of success were analyzed based on Sexual Encounter Profile questions 2 and 3. Data from 3,254 ED patients treated with tadalafil 10 mg (N = 510), 20 mg (N = 1,772), or placebo (N = 972) were pooled from 17 placebo-controlled studies. Tadalafil patients had significantly higher first-attempt success rates vs. placebo. This effect was consistent across most subgroups; however, patients with severe ED experienced a greater response to tadalafil than patients with mild-moderate ED. Approximately 80% of patients achieved successful penile insertion within two attempts with either tadalafil dose and successful intercourse within eight attempts for tadalafil 10 mg and four attempts for tadalafil 20 mg. However, approximately 70% of tadalafil-treated patients achieved successful intercourse even by the second attempt. Subsequent success rates were higher for patients with first-attempt success (81.5% for 10 mg and 86.1% for 20 mg vs. 66.2% for placebo, P success (53.2% for 10 mg and 56.4% for 20 mg vs. 39.9% for placebo, P success rates at early attempts were similar to rates at later attempts (i.e., attempts 5 and 10 vs. 25), although insertion success rates were significantly lower earlier in treatment. The findings affirm the reliability of successful outcomes with tadalafil treatment and that first-attempt success is a critical factor affecting subsequent outcomes. The results further show that even among men who did not succeed on first attempt, a substantial proportion will have successful outcomes if treatment is maintained. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. A novel proposed network security management approach for cyber attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.; Nazir, B.; Zafar, M.F.; Anwar, M.M.; Azam, K.; Asar, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    Network security is a discipline that focuses on securing networks from unauthorized access. Given the Escalating threats of malicious cyber attacks, modern enterprises employ multiple lines of defense. A comprehensive defense strategy against such attacks should include (I) an attack detection component that deter- mines the fact that a program is compromised, (2) an attack identification and prevention component that identifies attack packets so that one can block such packets in the future and prevents the attack from further propagation. Over the last decade, a significant amount of research has been vested in the systems that can detect cyber attacks either statically at compile time or dynamically at run time, However, not much effort is spent on automated attack packet identification or attack prevention. In this paper we present a unified solution to the problems mentioned above. We implemented this solution after the forward engineering of Open Source Security Information Management (OSSIM) system called Preventive Information Security management (PrISM) system that correlates input from different sensors so that the resulting product can automatically detect any cyber attack against it and prevents by identifying the actual attack packet(s). The PrISM was always able to detect the attacks, identify the attack packets and most often prevent by blocking the attacker's IP address to continue normal execution. There is no additional run-time performance overhead for attack prevention. (author)

  2. Playing Attack and Defense with Trusted Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2014-01-01

    It is often convenient to assume in a data management platform that one or several computing devices are trusted, specially when the goal is to provide privacy guarantees over personal data. But what does it take for a computing device to be trusted? More specifically, how can a personal device...... provide trusted storage? This is the question we tackle in this demonstration. We describe how secure devices, equipped with a trusted execution environment, differ from general purpose devices. We illustrate with our demonstration scenario, that it is much more difficult to attack a storage service...... running on a secure device, than to attack the same service running on a general purpose device....

  3. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolić, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    ciphers, including the new standard SHA-3 (Keccak). The rebound attack is a start-from-the-middle approach for finding differential paths and conforming pairs in byte-oriented designs like Substitution-Permutation networks and AES. We apply our new compositional attack to the reduced version of the hash...... number of rounds. We also use neutral bits and message modification methods from the practice of collision search in MD5 and SHA-1 hash functions. These methods push the rotational property through more rounds than previous analysis suggested, and eventually establish a distinguishing property...

  4. A Distinguish Attack on COSvd Cipher

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Orumiehchi ha; R. Mirghadri

    2007-01-01

    The COSvd Ciphers has been proposed by Filiol and others (2004). It is a strengthened version of COS stream cipher family denoted COSvd that has been adopted for at least one commercial standard. We propose a distinguish attack on this version, and prove that, it is distinguishable from a random stream. In the COSvd Cipher used one S-Box (10×8) on the final part of cipher. We focus on S-Box and use weakness this S-Box for distinguish attack. In addition, found a leak on HNLL that the sub s-bo...

  5. Attacks and infections in percolation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Hans-Karl; Stenull, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    We discuss attacks and infections at propagating fronts of percolation processes based on the extended general epidemic process. The scaling behavior of the number of the attacked and infected sites in the long time limit at the ordinary and tricritical percolation transitions is governed by specific composite operators of the field-theoretic representation of this process. We calculate corresponding critical exponents for tricritical percolation in mean-field theory and for ordinary percolation to 1-loop order. Our results agree well with the available numerical data. (paper)

  6. Attack strategies on quantum cryptographic protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, S.; Suda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum authentication (QA) have been a topic of extensive research in the last 20 years. In course of that many attacks on QKD and QA protocols have been studied. Among these, Zhang, Lee and Guo presented an attack on a QKD protocol using entanglement swapping. Based on that strategy we take a look at other protocols to inspect how much information an adversary may get if he shares entanglement with either one or both parties. We will present some protocols where an adversary can even get full information about the key using entanglement. (author)

  7. Effect of mutual interference on the ability of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to attack and parasitize pupae of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of mutual interference on the attack efficiency and the rate of successful parasitism on the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) attacking pupae of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Female parasitoids (2, 4, 8, 16, or 32) were exposed to 100 fly pupae during ...

  8. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ in 1987, this article maps out the important themes...... and discussions that have emerged from the interdisciplinary field of ageing research. These include an emphasis on interdisciplinarity; the interaction between biology, psycho-social contexts and lifestyle choices; the experiences of elderly people; life-course perspectives; optimisation and prevention...... strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of ‘ successful ageing’....

  9. Citation Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaio, Gianfranco Di; Waldenström, Daniel; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of citation success among authors who have recently published their work in economic history journals. Besides offering clues about how to improve one's scientific impact, our citation analysis also sheds light on the state of the field of economic history...... find similar patterns when assessing the same authors' citation success in economics journals. As a novel feature, we demonstrate that the diffusion of research — publication of working papers, as well as conference and workshop presentations — has a first-order positive impact on the citation rate........ Consistent with our expectations, we find that full professors, authors appointed at economics and history departments, and authors working in Anglo-Saxon and German countries are more likely to receive citations than other scholars. Long and co-authored articles are also a factor for citation success. We...

  10. Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,…

  11. A Novel Friendly Jamming Scheme in Industrial Crowdsensing Networks against Eavesdropping Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuran; Wang, Qiu; Dai, Hong-Ning; Wang, Hao

    2018-06-14

    Eavesdropping attack is one of the most serious threats in industrial crowdsensing networks. In this paper, we propose a novel anti-eavesdropping scheme by introducing friendly jammers to an industrial crowdsensing network. In particular, we establish a theoretical framework considering both the probability of eavesdropping attacks and the probability of successful transmission to evaluate the effectiveness of our scheme. Our framework takes into account various channel conditions such as path loss, Rayleigh fading, and the antenna type of friendly jammers. Our results show that using jammers in industrial crowdsensing networks can effectively reduce the eavesdropping risk while having no significant influence on legitimate communications.

  12. Sequential and Parallel Attack Tree Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Guck, Dennis; Kumar, Rajesh; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Koornneef, Floor; van Gulijk, Coen

    The intricacy of socio-technical systems requires a careful planning and utilisation of security resources to ensure uninterrupted, secure and reliable services. Even though many studies have been conducted to understand and model the behaviour of a potential attacker, the detection of crucial

  13. Cooperative Electronic Attack using Unmanned Air Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mears, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    ... that are salient in the context of cooperative control. The utility of electronic attack is described in the context of integrated air defense systems that rely on RADAR sites that act as a network to gather information about potential airborne threats...

  14. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Garcia-Font

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  15. Adversarial Feature Selection Against Evasion Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection.

  16. Intrusion-Tolerant Replication under Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Much of our critical infrastructure is controlled by large software systems whose participants are distributed across the Internet. As our dependence on these critical systems continues to grow, it becomes increasingly important that they meet strict availability and performance requirements, even in the face of malicious attacks, including those…

  17. Strengthening Crypto-1 Cipher Against Algebraic Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Afianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several studies addressed the problem of data security in Mifare Classic. One of its weaknesses is the low random number quality. This causes SAT solver attacks to have lower complexity. In order to strengthen Crypto-1 against SAT solver attacks, a modification of the feedback function with better cryptographic properties is proposed. It applies a primitive polynomial companion matrix. SAT solvers cannot directly attack the feedback shift register that uses the modified Boolean feedback function, the register has to be split into smaller groups. Experimental testing showed that the amount of memory and CPU time needed were highest when attacking the modified Crypto-1 using the modified feedback function and the original filter function. In addition, another modified Crypto-1, using the modified feedback function and a modified filter function, had the lowest percentage of revealed variables. It can be concluded that the security strength and performance of the modified Crypto-1 using the modified feedback function and the modified filter function are better than those of the original Crypto-1.

  18. Wrap-Attack Pack: Product Packaging Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Hoffman, K. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Although many marketing courses discuss traditional concepts pertaining to product strategy, concepts specifically relating to packaging are often glossed over. This exercise, "Wrap-Attack Pack," teaches students about the utilitarian and hedonic design elements of packaging. More specifically, the primary objective is to creatively…

  19. Social Engineering Attack Detection Model: SEADMv2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available link in the security chain. A social engineering attack targets this weakness by using various manipulation techniques to elicit individuals to perform sensitive requests. The field of social engineering is still in its infancy as far as formal...

  20. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2017-04-05

    Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  1. Armed Deterrence: Countering Soft Target Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-06

    offer no security. With over 17,430 such geographically separated military sites across the United States, these fatal shootings by a Kuwaiti- born ...increasing trend and the carnage 4 that IS sympathizers can unleash. This coordinated attack on a concert hall, a soccer stadium, and restaurant

  2. 47 CFR 76.1612 - Personal attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND... issues of public importance, an attack is made upon the honesty, character, integrity, or like personal qualities of an identified person or group, the cable television system operator shall, within a reasonable...

  3. Rising Trend: Complex and sophisticated attack methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stux, DuQu, Nitro, Luckycat, Exploit Kits, FLAME. ADSL/SoHo Router Compromise. Botnets of compromised ADSL/SoHo Routers; User Redirection via malicious DNS entry. Web Application attacks. SQL Injection, RFI etc. More and more Webshells. More utility to hackers; Increasing complexity and evading mechanisms.

  4. Strategic defense and attack for reliability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausken, Kjell

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates a method by which arbitrarily complex series/parallel reliability systems can be analyzed. The method is illustrated with the series-parallel and parallel-series systems. Analytical expressions are determined for the investments and utilities of the defender and the attacker, depend on their unit costs of investment for each component, the contest intensity for each component, and their evaluations of the value of system functionality. For a series-parallel system, infinitely many components in parallel benefit the defender maximally regardless of the finite number of parallel subsystems in series. Conversely, infinitely many components in series benefit the attacker maximally regardless of the finite number of components in parallel in each subsystem. For a parallel-series system, the results are opposite. With equivalent components, equal unit costs for defender and attacker, equal intensity for all components, and equally many components in series and parallel, the defender always prefers the series-parallel system rather than the parallel-series system, and converse holds for the attacker. Hence from the defender's perspective, ceteris paribus, the series-parallel system is more reliable, and has fewer 'cut sets' or failure modes

  5. Validation Method of a Telecommunications Blackout Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amado, Joao; Nunes, Paulo

    2005-01-01

    ..., and to obtain the maximum disruptive effect over the services. The proposed method uses a top-down approach, starting on the service level and ending on the different network elements that can be identified in the end as the targets for the attack.

  6. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  7. Rising Trend: Complex and sophisticated attack methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Increased frequency and intensity of DoS/DDoS. Few Gbps is now normal; Anonymous VPNs being used; Botnets being used as a vehicle for launching DDoS attacks. Large scale booking of domain names. Hundred thousands of domains registered in short duration via few registrars; Single registrant; Most of the domains ...

  8. Understanding How Components of Organisations Contribute to Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Min; Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Probst, Christian W.

    2016-01-01

    Attacks on organisations today explore many different layers, including buildings infrastructure, IT infrastructure, and human factor – the physical, virtual, and social layer. Identifying possible attacks, understanding their impact, and attributing their origin and contributing factors is diffi......Attacks on organisations today explore many different layers, including buildings infrastructure, IT infrastructure, and human factor – the physical, virtual, and social layer. Identifying possible attacks, understanding their impact, and attributing their origin and contributing factors...... is difficult. Recently, system models have been used for automatically identifying possible attacks on the modelled organisation. The generated attacks consider all three layers, making the contribution of building infrastructure, computer infrastructure, and humans (insiders and outsiders) explicit. However......, this contribution is only visible in the attack trees as part of the performed steps; it cannot be mapped back to the model directly since the actions usually involve several elements (attacker and targeted actor or asset). Especially for large attack trees, understanding the relations between several model...

  9. An Adaptive Approach for Defending against DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhai Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In various network attacks, the Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS attack is a severe threat. In order to deal with this kind of attack in time, it is necessary to establish a special type of defense system to change strategy dynamically against attacks. In this paper, we introduce an adaptive approach, which is used for defending against DDoS attacks, based on normal traffic analysis. The approach can check DDoS attacks and adaptively adjust its configurations according to the network condition and attack severity. In order to insure the common users to visit the victim server that is being attacked, we provide a nonlinear traffic control formula for the system. Our simulation test indicates that the nonlinear control approach can prevent the malicious attack packets effectively while making legitimate traffic flows arrive at the victim.

  10. Recovery of human remains after shark attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; James, Ross A; Heath, Karen J

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of fatal shark attack are reported where the only tissues recovered were fragments of lung. Case 1: An 18-year-old male who was in the sea behind a boat was observed by friends to be taken by a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). The shark dragged him under the water and then, with a second shark, dismembered the body. Witnesses noted a large amount of blood and unrecognizable body parts coming to the surface. The only tissues recovered despite an intensive beach and sea search were 2 fragments of lung. Case 2: A 19-year-old male was attacked by a great white shark while diving. A witness saw the shark swim away with the victim's body in its mouth. Again, despite intensive beach and sea searches, the only tissue recovered was a single piece of lung, along with pieces of wetsuit and diving equipment. These cases indicate that the only tissue to escape being consumed or lost in fatal shark attacks, where there is a significant attack with dismemberment and disruption of the integrity of the body, may be lung. The buoyancy of aerated pulmonary tissue ensures that it rises quickly to the surface, where it may be recovered by searchers soon after the attack. Aeration of the lung would be in keeping with death from trauma rather than from drowning and may be a useful marker in unwitnessed deaths to separate ante- from postmortem injury, using only relatively small amounts of tissues. Early organ recovery enhances the identification of human tissues as the extent of morphologic alterations by putrefactive processes and sea scavengers will have been minimized. DNA testing is also possible on such recovered fragments, enabling confirmation of the identity of the victim.

  11. Citation Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Waldenström, Daniel; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    affects citations. In regard to author-specific characteristics, male authors, full professors and authors working economics or history departments, and authors employed in Anglo-Saxon countries, are more likely to get cited than others. As a ‘shortcut' to citation success, we find that research diffusion...

  12. Successful modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    Tichelaar and Ruff [1989] propose to “estimate model variance in complicated geophysical problems,” including the determination of focal depth in earthquakes, by means of unconventional statistical methods such as bootstrapping. They are successful insofar as they are able to duplicate the results from more conventional procedures.

  13. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusumastuti, Sasmita; Derks, Marloes G. M.; Tellier, Siri

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of disease and a loss of functioning on several bodily and mental domains and some argue that maintaining health and functioning is essential for a successful old age. Paradoxically, studies have shown that overall wellbeing follows a curvili...

  14. Transforming Graphical System Models to Graphical Attack Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2016-01-01

    Manually identifying possible attacks on an organisation is a complex undertaking; many different factors must be considered, and the resulting attack scenarios can be complex and hard to maintain as the organisation changes. System models provide a systematic representation of organisations...... approach to transforming graphical system models to graphical attack models in the form of attack trees. Based on an asset in the model, our transformations result in an attack tree that represents attacks by all possible actors in the model, after which the actor in question has obtained the asset....

  15. New attacks on Wi-Fi Protected Setup

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Mohtadi; Alireza Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) is a network security standard that is used to secure networks in home and office, introduced in 2006 by the Wi-Fi Alliance. It provides easier configuration setup and is used in almost all recent Wi-Fi devices. In this paper we propose two attacks on this standard. The first attack is an offline brute force attack that uses imbalance on registration protocol. This attack needs user action, but it is more efficient than previous attacks. The second attack uses weak...

  16. 1994 Attack Team Workshop: Phase II - Full-Scale Offensive Fog Attack Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheffey, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    .... This report demonstrates the benefits of using a medium angle fog stream to control the overhead fire threat when conducting a direct attack on a growing/steady state fire where the sea of the fire is obstructed...

  17. Effects of Motivation: Rewarding Hackers for Undetected Attacks Cause Analysts to Perform Poorly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Zahid; Makhijani, Nidhi; Pammi, V S Chandrasekhar; Dutt, Varun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how monetary motivations influence decision making of humans performing as security analysts and hackers in a cybersecurity game. Cyberattacks are increasing at an alarming rate. As cyberattacks often cause damage to existing cyber infrastructures, it is important to understand how monetary rewards may influence decision making of hackers and analysts in the cyber world. Currently, only limited attention has been given to this area. In an experiment, participants were randomly assigned to three between-subjects conditions ( n = 26 for each condition): equal payoff, where the magnitude of monetary rewards for hackers and defenders was the same; rewarding hacker, where the magnitude of monetary reward for hacker's successful attack was 10 times the reward for analyst's successful defense; and rewarding analyst, where the magnitude of monetary reward for analyst's successful defense was 10 times the reward for hacker's successful attack. In all conditions, half of the participants were human hackers playing against Nash analysts and half were human analysts playing against Nash hackers. Results revealed that monetary rewards for human hackers and analysts caused a decrease in attack and defend actions compared with the baseline. Furthermore, rewarding human hackers for undetected attacks made analysts deviate significantly from their optimal behavior. If hackers are rewarded for their undetected attack actions, then this causes analysts to deviate from optimal defend proportions. Thus, analysts need to be trained not become overenthusiastic in defending networks. Applications of our results are to networks where the influence of monetary rewards may cause information theft and system damage.

  18. Security strategy of powered-off SRAM for resisting physical attack to data remanence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Kai; Zou Xuecheng; Yu Guoyi; Wang Weixu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a security strategy for resisting a physical attack utilizing data remanence in powered-off static random access memory (SRAM). Based on the mechanism of physical attack to data remanence, the strategy intends to erase data remanence in memory cells once the power supply is removed, which disturbs attackers trying to steal the right information. Novel on-chip secure circuits including secure power supply and erase transistor are integrated into conventional SRAM to realize erase operation. Implemented in 0.25 μm Huahong-NEC CMOS technology, an SRAM exploiting the proposed security strategy shows the erase operation is accomplished within 0.2 μs and data remanence is successfully eliminated. Compared with conventional SRAM, the retentive time of data remanence is reduced by 82% while the operation power consumption only increases by 7%.

  19. Use of Deception to Improve Client Honeypot Detection of Drive-by-Download Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovsky, Barbara; Narvaez Suarez, Julia F.; Seifert, Christian; Frincke, Deborah A.; O' Neil, Lori R.; Aval, Chiraag U.

    2009-07-24

    This paper presents the application of deception theory to improve the success of client honeypots at detecting malicious web page attacks from infected servers programmed by online criminals to launch drive-by-download attacks. The design of honeypots faces three main challenges: deception, how to design honeypots that seem real systems; counter-deception, techniques used to identify honeypots and hence defeating their deceiving nature; and counter counter-deception, how to design honeypots that deceive attackers. The authors propose the application of a deception model known as the deception planning loop to identify the current status on honeypot research, development and deployment. The analysis leads to a proposal to formulate a landscape of the honeypot research and planning of steps ahead.

  20. ROBUSTNESS OF THE SECRET MESSAGE IN STEGO FILE AGAINST FLIP AND ROTATION ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimir Zhelezov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an algorithm to achieve robustness with the extraction of the secret message from a Stego file after an applied attack from the fl ip, rotate type, or any random combination thereof. The LSB method is at the base of the algorithm, which is applied with a column modification when reading the matrix of pixels. Ratios are used, such as PSNR and embedding efficiency. To assess the results histogram and steganalytic analyses are applied as well. It is experimentally proved that the proposed method can be successfully applied to extract the secret message with these attacks, even if an LSB Inversion attack is attached to the file as well.

  1. A Framework for Attack-Resilient Industrial Control Systems : Attack Detection and Controller Reconfiguration

    OpenAIRE

    Paridari, Kaveh; O'Mahony, Niamh; Mady, Alie El-Din; Chabukswar, Rohan; Boubekeur, Menouer; Sandberg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Most existing industrial control systems (ICSs), such as building energy management systems (EMSs), were installed when potential security threats were only physical. With advances in connectivity, ICSs are now, typically, connected to communications networks and, as a result, can be accessed remotely. This extends the attack surface to include the potential for sophisticated cyber attacks, which can adversely impact ICS operation, resulting in service interruption, equipment damage, safety c...

  2. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  3. Robust multiple frequency multiple power localization schemes in the presence of multiple jamming attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulqader Hussein

    Full Text Available Localization of the wireless sensor network is a vital area acquiring an impressive research concern and called upon to expand more with the rising of its applications. As localization is gaining prominence in wireless sensor network, it is vulnerable to jamming attacks. Jamming attacks disrupt communication opportunity among the sender and receiver and deeply impact the localization process, leading to a huge error of the estimated sensor node position. Therefore, detection and elimination of jamming influence are absolutely indispensable. Range-based techniques especially Received Signal Strength (RSS is facing severe impact of these attacks. This paper proposes algorithms based on Combination Multiple Frequency Multiple Power Localization (C-MFMPL and Step Function Multiple Frequency Multiple Power Localization (SF-MFMPL. The algorithms have been tested in the presence of multiple types of jamming attacks including capture and replay, random and constant jammers over a log normal shadow fading propagation model. In order to overcome the impact of random and constant jammers, the proposed method uses two sets of frequencies shared by the implemented anchor nodes to obtain the averaged RSS readings all over the transmitted frequencies successfully. In addition, three stages of filters have been used to cope with the replayed beacons caused by the capture and replay jammers. In this paper the localization performance of the proposed algorithms for the ideal case which is defined by without the existence of the jamming attack are compared with the case of jamming attacks. The main contribution of this paper is to achieve robust localization performance in the presence of multiple jamming attacks under log normal shadow fading environment with a different simulation conditions and scenarios.

  4. A systematic review of re-identification attacks on health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Emam, Khaled; Jonker, Elizabeth; Arbuckle, Luk; Malin, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Privacy legislation in most jurisdictions allows the disclosure of health data for secondary purposes without patient consent if it is de-identified. Some recent articles in the medical, legal, and computer science literature have argued that de-identification methods do not provide sufficient protection because they are easy to reverse. Should this be the case, it would have significant and important implications on how health information is disclosed, including: (a) potentially limiting its availability for secondary purposes such as research, and (b) resulting in more identifiable health information being disclosed. Our objectives in this systematic review were to: (a) characterize known re-identification attacks on health data and contrast that to re-identification attacks on other kinds of data, (b) compute the overall proportion of records that have been correctly re-identified in these attacks, and (c) assess whether these demonstrate weaknesses in current de-identification methods. Searches were conducted in IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, and PubMed. After screening, fourteen eligible articles representing distinct attacks were identified. On average, approximately a quarter of the records were re-identified across all studies (0.26 with 95% CI 0.046-0.478) and 0.34 for attacks on health data (95% CI 0-0.744). There was considerable uncertainty around the proportions as evidenced by the wide confidence intervals, and the mean proportion of records re-identified was sensitive to unpublished studies. Two of fourteen attacks were performed with data that was de-identified using existing standards. Only one of these attacks was on health data, which resulted in a success rate of 0.00013. The current evidence shows a high re-identification rate but is dominated by small-scale studies on data that was not de-identified according to existing standards. This evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions about the efficacy of de-identification methods.

  5. A systematic review of re-identification attacks on health data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled El Emam

    Full Text Available Privacy legislation in most jurisdictions allows the disclosure of health data for secondary purposes without patient consent if it is de-identified. Some recent articles in the medical, legal, and computer science literature have argued that de-identification methods do not provide sufficient protection because they are easy to reverse. Should this be the case, it would have significant and important implications on how health information is disclosed, including: (a potentially limiting its availability for secondary purposes such as research, and (b resulting in more identifiable health information being disclosed. Our objectives in this systematic review were to: (a characterize known re-identification attacks on health data and contrast that to re-identification attacks on other kinds of data, (b compute the overall proportion of records that have been correctly re-identified in these attacks, and (c assess whether these demonstrate weaknesses in current de-identification methods.Searches were conducted in IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, and PubMed. After screening, fourteen eligible articles representing distinct attacks were identified. On average, approximately a quarter of the records were re-identified across all studies (0.26 with 95% CI 0.046-0.478 and 0.34 for attacks on health data (95% CI 0-0.744. There was considerable uncertainty around the proportions as evidenced by the wide confidence intervals, and the mean proportion of records re-identified was sensitive to unpublished studies. Two of fourteen attacks were performed with data that was de-identified using existing standards. Only one of these attacks was on health data, which resulted in a success rate of 0.00013.The current evidence shows a high re-identification rate but is dominated by small-scale studies on data that was not de-identified according to existing standards. This evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions about the efficacy of de-identification methods.

  6. Critical supply network protection against intentional attacks: A game-theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricha, Naji; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    A crucial issue in today's critical supply chains is how to protect facilities against intentional attacks, since it has become unacceptable to ignore the high impact of low probability disruptions caused by these attacks. This article develops a game-theoretical model to deal with the protection of facilities, in the context of the uncapacitated fixed-charge location problem. Given a set of investment alternatives for protecting the facilities against identified threats, the objective is to select the optimal defence strategy. The attacker is considered as a player who tries to maximise the expected damage while weighing against the attacks expenditures. The conflict on facilities vulnerability is modelled using the concept of contest. The vulnerability of a facility is defined by its destruction probability. Contest success functions determine the vulnerability of each facility dependent on the relative investments of the defender and the attacker on each facility, and on the characteristics of the contest. A method is developed to evaluate the utilities of the players (i.e., the defender and the attacker). This method evaluates many expected costs, including the cost needed to restore disabled facilities, the backorder cost, and the cost incurred because of the increase in transportation costs after attacks. In fact, when one or several facilities are unavailable, transportation costs will increase since reassigned customers may receive shipments from facilities which are farther away. The model considers a non-cooperative two-period game between the players, and an algorithm is presented to determine the equilibrium solution and the optimal defence strategy. An illustrative example is presented. The approach is compared to other suggested strategies, and some managerial insights are provided in the context of facility location

  7. Bush animal attacks: management of complex injuries in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Katrina B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Though animal-related injuries and fatalities have been documented throughout the world, the variety of attacks by wild animals native to rural East Africa are less commonly described. Given the proximity of our northwestern Tanzania hospital to Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, and the Serengeti National Park, and presentation of several patients attacked by bush animals and suffering a variety of complex injuries, we sought to report the pattern of attacks and surgical management in a resource-limited setting. Materials and methods Four patients who were admitted to the northwestern Tanzania tertiary referral hospital, Bugando Medical Centre (BMC, in 2010-2011 suffered attacks by different bush animals: hyena, elephant, crocodile, and vervet monkey. These patients were triaged as trauma patients in the Casualty Ward, then admitted for inpatient monitoring and treatment. Their outcomes were followed to discharge. Results The age and gender of the patients attacked was variable, though all but the pediatric patient were participating in food gathering or guarding activities in rural locations at the time of the attacks. All patients required surgical management of their injuries, which included debridement and closure of wounds, chest tube insertion, amputation, and external fixation of an extremity fracture. All patients survived and were discharged home. Discussion Though human injuries secondary to encounters with undomesticated animals such as cows, moose, and camel are reported, they often are indirect traumas resulting from road traffic collisions. Snake attacks are well documented and common. However, this series of unique bush animal attacks describes the initial and surgical management of human injuries in the resource-limited setting of the developing world. Conclusion Animal attacks are common throughout the world, but their pattern may vary in Africa throughout jungle and bush environmental settings. It is

  8. Exploiting Wireless Received Signal Strength Indicators to Detect Evil-Twin Attacks in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanyong Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evil-Twin is becoming a common attack in smart home environments where an attacker can set up a fake AP to compromise the security of the connected devices. To identify the fake APs, The current approaches of detecting Evil-Twin attacks all rely on information such as SSIDs, the MAC address of the genuine AP, or network traffic patterns. However, such information can be faked by the attacker, often leading to low detection rates and weak protection. This paper presents a novel Evil-Twin attack detection method based on the received signal strength indicator (RSSI. Our approach considers the RSSI as a fingerprint of APs and uses the fingerprint of the genuine AP to identify fake ones. We provide two schemes to detect a fake AP in two different scenarios where the genuine AP can be located at either a single or multiple locations in the property, by exploiting the multipath effect of the Wi-Fi signal. As a departure from prior work, our approach does not rely on any professional measurement devices. Experimental results show that our approach can successfully detect 90% of the fake APs, at the cost of a one-off, modest connection delay.

  9. An Approach for Prevention of MitM Attack Based on Rogue AP in Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of WLAN, more and more schools and businesses have begun to provide the WLAN for users. However, WLAN is considerably more susceptible to MitM (man- in-the-middle attack. To overcome it, we propose a dynamic password technology named Two-way Dynamic Authentication Technology (TDAT. It uses two-factor during the initial authentication, and uses a two-way hash chain during the cross-domain authentication. TDAT effectively protects users' authentication credentials and improves users' experience. In an actual wireless network environment, we implement a MitM attack framework based on Rogue AP. Then we effectively prevent this MitM attack by using TDAT. Moreover we analyze the security of TDAT by using BAN logic.

  10. Resilience 2.0: social media use and (self-)care during the 2011 Norway attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Departing from the understanding that resilience is a technique of self-organization during emergencies, this article provides a study on the way in which the use of social media influenced and engendered societal resilience practices during the 2011 Norway attacks. It builds on the concepts of governmentality and mediality to discuss how the interplay between social media and its users created new forms of self-initiated and mediated emergency governance. Empirically, it draws on material from 20 in-depth interviews with Norwegians who explained and reflected upon their social media use during the attacks. The article presents an overview of the different functions that social media assumed in the process of dealing with the attacks and discusses these vis-à-vis their related challenges. It draws conclusions about the way in which resilience practices and the resilient subject are influenced by the networked character of 2.0 technologies. PMID:29708120

  11. Information Warfare: Defining the Legal Response to An Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pottorff, James

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulty in determining whether an information warfare attack, such as a computer virus, can be treated as an "armed attack" for purposes of national defense under the United Nations charter. As the U.S...

  12. Denial of Service Attack Techniques: Analysis, Implementation and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elleithy

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A denial of service attack (DOS is any type of attack on a networking structure to disable a server from servicing its clients. Attacks range from sending millions of requests to a server in an attempt to slow it down, flooding a server with large packets of invalid data, to sending requests with an invalid or spoofed IP address. In this paper we show the implementation and analysis of three main types of attack: Ping of Death, TCP SYN Flood, and Distributed DOS. The Ping of Death attack will be simulated against a Microsoft Windows 95 computer. The TCP SYN Flood attack will be simulated against a Microsoft Windows 2000 IIS FTP Server. Distributed DOS will be demonstrated by simulating a distribution zombie program that will carry the Ping of Death attack. This paper will demonstrate the potential damage from DOS attacks and analyze the ramifications of the damage.

  13. Calcium Supplements: A Risk Factor for Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factor for heart attack? I've read that calcium supplements may increase the risk of heart attack. ... D. Some doctors think it's possible that taking calcium supplements may increase your risk of a heart ...

  14. Cyber Attacks During the War on Terrorism: A Predictive Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vatis, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Just as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 defied what many thought possible, cyber attacks could escalate in response to United States and allied retaliatory measures against the terrorists...

  15. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited...

  16. RISK DISCLOSURE AGAINST ATTACK ON CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper analyzes the government's defensive and disclosure strategies to reduce the damage caused by terrorists that attack critical infrastructures using subjective game theory. The government recognizes a terrorist as a hidden opponent and the government's decision making about the policies against terror attacks depends on the belief about the existence of terrorist. In addition, it is not necessarily true that the government and the terrorist play the common game and make their decisions. Considering these points, the paper formulates the model in which the government and the terrorist formulate the subjective games respectively, and they induce the strategies using the equilibriums of their subjective games. The paper concluded that the government's disclosure about the implementation of the countermeasure, rather than the disclosure of warning level related with the belief about the existence of terrorist, brings about the higher increment of the subjective payoffs of the government.

  17. Marine microalgae attack and feed on metazoans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berge, Terje; Poulsen, Louise K.; Moldrup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Free-living microalgae from the dinoflagellate genus Karlodinium are known to formmassive blooms in eutrophic coastal waters worldwide and are often associated with fish kills. Natural bloom populations, recently shown to consist of the two mixotrophic and toxic species Karlodinium armiger...... and Karlodinium veneficum have caused fast paralysis and mortality of finfish and copepods in the laboratory, and have been associated with reduced metazooplankton biomass in-situ. Here we show that a strain of K. armiger (K-0688) immobilises the common marine copepod Acartia tonsa in a densitydependent manner...... and collectively ingests the grazer to promote its own growth rate. In contrast, four strains of K. veneficum did not attack or affect the motility and survival of the copepods. Copepod immobilisation by the K. armiger strain was fast (within 15min) and caused by attacks of swarming cells, likely through...

  18. Cascade-based attacks on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Adilson E.; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2002-12-01

    We live in a modern world supported by large, complex networks. Examples range from financial markets to communication and transportation systems. In many realistic situations the flow of physical quantities in the network, as characterized by the loads on nodes, is important. We show that for such networks where loads can redistribute among the nodes, intentional attacks can lead to a cascade of overload failures, which can in turn cause the entire or a substantial part of the network to collapse. This is relevant for real-world networks that possess a highly heterogeneous distribution of loads, such as the Internet and power grids. We demonstrate that the heterogeneity of these networks makes them particularly vulnerable to attacks in that a large-scale cascade may be triggered by disabling a single key node. This brings obvious concerns on the security of such systems.

  19. Research About Attacks Over Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is expected to continue expanding in the next few years and people will start to see some of the following benefits in their real lives. Security of cloud computing environments is the set of control-based technologies and policies absolute to adhere regulatory compliance rules and protect information data applications and infrastructure related with cloud use. In this paper we suggest a model to estimating the cloud computing security and test the services provided to users. The simulator NG-Cloud Next Generation Secure Cloud Storage is used and modified to administer the proposed model. This implementation achieved security functions potential attacks as defined in the proposed model. Finally we also solve some attacks over cloud computing to provide the security and safety of the cloud.

  20. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  1. Blind Data Attack on BGP Routers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Second Reader Dr. Cynthia Irvine Chair, Cyber Academic Group iii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iv ABSTRACT Transport Communication Protocol (TCP...Postgraduate School. The experience of higher learning at this institution was incredible, and I would whole-heartedly recommend it to any of my peers and...data attack packets to the victim device. Scapy is a Python library that is used to craft and send packets [28]. BGP is supported in Python through

  2. Fighting Through a Logistics Cyber Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    cumulative cost of cyber-attacks was more than the combined global black market cost of cocaine, heroin and marijuana. These alarming figures raised...the country to its knees. The Luftwaffe was uncontested in the Battle of Britain until radar’s ability to detect inbound aircraft provided the...manifest information in IGC and provides inbound passenger manifest data to the aerial port of debarkation (APOD) and other receiving activities for

  3. Are blockchains immune to all malicious attacks?

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, blockchain technology has attracted considerable attention. It records cryptographic transactions in a public ledger that is difficult to alter and compromise because of the distributed consensus. As a result, blockchain is believed to resist fraud and hacking. Results: This work explores the types of fraud and malicious activities that can be prevented by blockchain technology and identifies attacks to which blockchain remains vulnerable. Conclusions: This study ...

  4. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Predators preferentially attack vital body parts to avoid prey escape. Consequently, prey adaptations that make predators attack less crucial body parts are expected to evolve. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings have long been thought to have this deflective, but hitherto undemonstrated function.Here we report that a butterfly, Lopinga achine, with broad-spectrum reflective white scales in its marginal eyespot pupils deceives a generalist avian predator, the blue tit, to attack the marginal eyespots, but only under particular conditions-in our experiments, low light intensities with a prominent UV component. Under high light intensity conditions with a similar UV component, and at low light intensities without UV, blue tits directed attacks towards the butterfly head.In nature, birds typically forage intensively at early dawn, when the light environment shifts to shorter wavelengths, and the contrast between the eyespot pupils and the background increases. Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by flight impossible, and when insectivorous birds typically initiate another day's search for food. Our finding that the deflective function of eyespots is highly dependent on the ambient light environment helps explain why previous attempts have provided little support for the deflective role of marginal eyespots, and we hypothesize that the mechanism that we have discovered in our experiments in a laboratory setting may function also in nature when birds forage on resting butterflies under low light intensities.

  5. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Martin; Vallin, Adrian; Jakobsson, Sven; Wiklund, Christer

    2010-05-24

    Predators preferentially attack vital body parts to avoid prey escape. Consequently, prey adaptations that make predators attack less crucial body parts are expected to evolve. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings have long been thought to have this deflective, but hitherto undemonstrated function. Here we report that a butterfly, Lopinga achine, with broad-spectrum reflective white scales in its marginal eyespot pupils deceives a generalist avian predator, the blue tit, to attack the marginal eyespots, but only under particular conditions-in our experiments, low light intensities with a prominent UV component. Under high light intensity conditions with a similar UV component, and at low light intensities without UV, blue tits directed attacks towards the butterfly head. In nature, birds typically forage intensively at early dawn, when the light environment shifts to shorter wavelengths, and the contrast between the eyespot pupils and the background increases. Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by flight impossible, and when insectivorous birds typically initiate another day's search for food. Our finding that the deflective function of eyespots is highly dependent on the ambient light environment helps explain why previous attempts have provided little support for the deflective role of marginal eyespots, and we hypothesize that the mechanism that we have discovered in our experiments in a laboratory setting may function also in nature when birds forage on resting butterflies under low light intensities.

  6. Fuzzy Expert System for Heart Attack Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Norlida; Arbaiy, Nureize; Shah, Noor Aziyan Ahmad; Afizah Afif@Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    Heart attack is one of the serious illnesses and reported as the main killer disease. Early prevention is significant to reduce the risk of having the disease. The prevention efforts can be strengthen through awareness and education about risk factor and healthy lifestyle. Therefore the knowledge dissemination is needed to play role in order to distribute and educate public in health care management and disease prevention. Since the knowledge dissemination in medical is important, there is a need to develop a knowledge based system that can emulate human intelligence to assist decision making process. Thereby, this study utilized hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to develop a Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosing Heart Attack Disease (HAD). This system integrates fuzzy logic with expert system, which helps the medical practitioner and people to predict the risk and as well as diagnosing heart attack based on given symptom. The development of HAD is expected not only providing expert knowledge but potentially become one of learning resources to help citizens to develop awareness about heart-healthy lifestyle.

  7. Iraqi violence, Saudi attack and further bombings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-03-15

    Iraq moved closer to all-out civil war following an attack on the Imam Ali al-Hadi mosque in Samarra, one of Shi'i Islam's holiest shrines, on 22nd February. In the days that followed, several hundred Iraqis died in inter-communal violence. Attacks on installations close to the Basrah Oil Terminal were reported. Earlier in the month, the main oil storage facility in Kirkuk was bombed, forcing the Northern Oil Company to shut-in the 0.3 mn bpd field. Oil and electricity supplies in southern Iraq were cut by attacks on installations some 40 miles south of Baghdad. Turkey agreed to resume product exports to Iraq after a deal was agreed on repaying Iraqi debts of $1 bn to Turkish suppliers. An official Australian inquiry into illegal payments made under the UN's oil-for-food programme is to investigate allegations involving two Australian-controlled oil firms. (author)

  8. Pareto Efficient Solution of Attack-Defence Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes, such as

  9. Vulnerability Assessment by Learning Attack Specifications in Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Lopes, Raul H.C.

    This paper presents an evolutionary approach for learning attack specifications that describe attack scenarios. The objective is to find vulnerabilities in computer networks which minimise the cost of an attack with maximum impact. Although we focus on Insider Threat, the proposed approach applies

  10. Attacks on the AJPS Mersenne-based cryptosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Boer (Koen); L. Ducas (Léo); S. Jeffery (Stacey); R. M. de Wolf (Ronald)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractAggarwal, Joux, Prakash and Santha recently introduced a new potentially quantum-safe public-key cryptosystem, and suggested that a brute-force attack is essentially optimal against it. They consider but then dismiss both Meet-in-the-Middle attacks and LLL-based attacks. Very soon after

  11. 12 CFR 747.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... INVESTIGATIONS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 747.17 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is brought in any court concerning all or any part of an...

  12. 12 CFR 308.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.17 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is brought in any...

  13. 12 CFR 19.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 19.17 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is brought in any court concerning all...

  14. Limit Asthma Attacks Caused by Colds or Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma: Limit asthma attacks caused by colds or flu A cold or the flu can trigger an asthma attack. Here's why — and how to keep your sneeze ... plan. If you notice warning signs of an asthma attack — such as coughing, wheezing, chest tightness or shortness ...

  15. Link-layer Jamming Attacks on S-MAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Hartel, Pieter H.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2004-01-01

    We argue that among denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, link-layer jamming is a more attractive option to attackers than radio jamming is. By exploiting the semantics of the link-layer protocol (aka MAC protocol), an attacker can achieve better efficiency than blindly jamming the radio signals alone.

  16. Link-layer jamming attacks on S-MAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Hartel, Pieter H.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    We argue that among denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, link-layer jamming is a more attractive option to attackers than radio jamming is. By exploiting the semantics of the link-layer protocol (aka MAC protocol), an attacker can achieve better efficiency than blindly jamming the radio signals alone.

  17. Regression Nodes: Extending attack trees with data from social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Montoya, L.; Pieters, Wolter; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    In the field of security, attack trees are often used to assess security vulnerabilities probabilistically in relation to multi-step attacks. The nodes are usually connected via AND-gates, where all children must be executed, or via OR-gates, where only one action is necessary for the attack step to

  18. What Can We Learn?--The Algonquin Bear Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Describes a bear attack in Algonquin Park in Lake Opeongo (Canada) in which a man and woman were killed. Hypothesizes that the bear deliberately preyed on its victims and concludes that the bear was physically normal. Despite this isolated attack, the chance of being attacked by a black bear when camping is virtually nonexistent. (KS)

  19. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    Attack-defence trees are a powerful technique for formally evaluating attack-defence scenarios. They represent in an intuitive, graphical way the interaction between an attacker and a defender who compete in order to achieve conflicting objectives. We propose a novel framework for the formal

  20. Modeling and Analysis of Information Attack in Computer Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepyne, David

    2003-01-01

    ... (as opposed to physical and other forms of attack) . Information based attacks are attacks that can be carried out from anywhere in the world, while sipping cappuccino at an Internet cafe' or while enjoying the comfort of a living room armchair...

  1. Mining IP to Domain Name Interactions to Detect DNS Flood Attacks on Recursive DNS Servers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roberto; Monroy, Raúl; Trejo, Luis A

    2016-08-17

    The Domain Name System (DNS) is a critical infrastructure of any network, and, not surprisingly a common target of cybercrime. There are numerous works that analyse higher level DNS traffic to detect anomalies in the DNS or any other network service. By contrast, few efforts have been made to study and protect the recursive DNS level. In this paper, we introduce a novel abstraction of the recursive DNS traffic to detect a flooding attack, a kind of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS). The crux of our abstraction lies on a simple observation: Recursive DNS queries, from IP addresses to domain names, form social groups; hence, a DDoS attack should result in drastic changes on DNS social structure. We have built an anomaly-based detection mechanism, which, given a time window of DNS usage, makes use of features that attempt to capture the DNS social structure, including a heuristic that estimates group composition. Our detection mechanism has been successfully validated (in a simulated and controlled setting) and with it the suitability of our abstraction to detect flooding attacks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that work is successful in using this abstraction to detect these kinds of attacks at the recursive level. Before concluding the paper, we motivate further research directions considering this new abstraction, so we have designed and tested two additional experiments which exhibit promising results to detect other types of anomalies in recursive DNS servers.

  2. Mining IP to Domain Name Interactions to Detect DNS Flood Attacks on Recursive DNS Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Alonso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Domain Name System (DNS is a critical infrastructure of any network, and, not surprisingly a common target of cybercrime. There are numerous works that analyse higher level DNS traffic to detect anomalies in the DNS or any other network service. By contrast, few efforts have been made to study and protect the recursive DNS level. In this paper, we introduce a novel abstraction of the recursive DNS traffic to detect a flooding attack, a kind of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS. The crux of our abstraction lies on a simple observation: Recursive DNS queries, from IP addresses to domain names, form social groups; hence, a DDoS attack should result in drastic changes on DNS social structure. We have built an anomaly-based detection mechanism, which, given a time window of DNS usage, makes use of features that attempt to capture the DNS social structure, including a heuristic that estimates group composition. Our detection mechanism has been successfully validated (in a simulated and controlled setting and with it the suitability of our abstraction to detect flooding attacks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that work is successful in using this abstraction to detect these kinds of attacks at the recursive level. Before concluding the paper, we motivate further research directions considering this new abstraction, so we have designed and tested two additional experiments which exhibit promising results to detect other types of anomalies in recursive DNS servers.

  3. Attacks of the soccer teams participating in the champions league and the Serbian super liga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of tactics in soccer game is of particular importance for modern soccer development. The analysis and improvement of spatio-temporal indicators as well as the game principles related to tactics may be crucial to the achievement of competitive results. This study is aimed at comparing tactical manifestations of the teams competing in the top quality European club competition, the Champions League, and the best Serbian soccer championship by analyzing competitive activity. The results of the conducted research were obtained by observing an overall of 20 randomly selected matches, 10 of the Champions League (CL and 10 of the Serbian Super Liga (SSL, which is a sufficient number of matches for making conclusions about the competitions respectively. In the previously designed observing protocol, using a method of notation, we analyzed all the attacks completed by shooting at the opponent's goal. The structure of successfully realized attacks was assessed on the basis of: accuracy, types of realized offensive actions; area of starting the action, manner of realization of passes completed (assists and distance from the goal from which a shot on goal was executed. The study showed that there are certain common characteristics, but also there are differences in the structure of successfully realized attacks between the two analyzed competitions. The teams of the CL competition had significantly greater number of effective attacks per match (p = 0. 006, they realized their offensive activities with slightly greater number of players (p = 0.002 and number of passes (p = 0.000, whereas there are no significant differences in the area of starting successful attacks, the manner of realization of assists and distance from which shots on goal were executed. The study results may define certain guidelines in training technology when preparing the teams of the SSL competition for taking part in the European soccer cups.

  4. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  5. Unified communications forensics anatomy of common UC attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Nicholas Mr

    2013-01-01

    Unified Communications Forensics: Anatomy of Common UC Attacks is the first book to explain the issues and vulnerabilities and demonstrate the attacks, forensic artifacts, and countermeasures required to establish a secure (UC) environment. This book is written by leading UC experts Nicholas Grant and Joseph W. Shaw II and provides material never before found on the market, including: analysis of forensic artifacts in common UC attacks an in-depth look at established UC technologies and attack exploits hands-on understanding of UC attack vectors and associated countermeasures

  6. Hybrid attacks on model-based social recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Gao, Min; Rong, Wenge; Li, Wentao; Xiong, Qingyu; Wen, Junhao

    2017-10-01

    With the growing popularity of the online social platform, the social network based approaches to recommendation emerged. However, because of the open nature of rating systems and social networks, the social recommender systems are susceptible to malicious attacks. In this paper, we present a certain novel attack, which inherits characteristics of the rating attack and the relation attack, and term it hybrid attack. Furtherly, we explore the impact of the hybrid attack on model-based social recommender systems in multiple aspects. The experimental results show that, the hybrid attack is more destructive than the rating attack in most cases. In addition, users and items with fewer ratings will be influenced more when attacked. Last but not the least, the findings suggest that spammers do not depend on the feedback links from normal users to become more powerful, the unilateral links can make the hybrid attack effective enough. Since unilateral links are much cheaper, the hybrid attack will be a great threat to model-based social recommender systems.

  7. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework.

  8. Adaptive optimisation-offline cyber attack on remote state estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Dong, Jiuxiang

    2017-10-01

    Security issues of cyber-physical systems have received increasing attentions in recent years. In this paper, deception attacks on the remote state estimator equipped with the chi-squared failure detector are considered, and it is assumed that the attacker can monitor and modify all the sensor data. A novel adaptive optimisation-offline cyber attack strategy is proposed, where using the current and previous sensor data, the attack can yield the largest estimation error covariance while ensuring to be undetected by the chi-squared monitor. From the attacker's perspective, the attack is better than the existing linear deception attacks to degrade the system performance. Finally, some numerical examples are provided to demonstrate theoretical results.

  9. Cyber Attacks and Energy Infrastructures: Anticipating Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desarnaud, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the likelihood of cyber-attacks against European energy infrastructures and their potential consequences, particularly on the electricity grid. It also delivers a comparative analysis of measures taken by different European countries to protect their industries and collaborate within the European Union. The energy sector experiences an unprecedented digital transformation upsetting its activities and business models. Our energy infrastructures, sometimes more than a decade old and designed to remain functional for many years to come, now constantly interact with light digital components. The convergence of the global industrial system with the power of advanced computing and analytics reveals untapped opportunities at every step of the energy value chain. However, the introduction of digital elements in old and unprotected industrial equipment also exposes the energy industry to the cyber risk. One of the most compelling example of the type of threat the industry is facing, is the 2015 cyber-attack on the Ukraine power grid, which deprived about 200 000 people of electricity in the middle of the winter. The number and the level of technical expertise of cyber-attacks rose significantly after the discovery of the Stuxnet worm in the network of Natanz uranium enrichment site in 2010. Energy transition policies and the growing integration of renewable sources of energy will intensify this tendency, if cyber security measures are not part of the design of our future energy infrastructures. Regulators try to catch up and adapt, like in France where the authorities collaborate closely with the energy industry to set up a strict and efficient regulatory framework, and protect critical operators. This approach is adopted elsewhere in Europe, but common measures applicable to the whole European Union are essential to protect strongly interconnected energy infrastructures against a multiform threat that defies frontiers

  10. Key Recovery Attacks on Recent Authenticated Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Dobraunig, Christoph; Eichlseder, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we cryptanalyze three authenticated ciphers: AVALANCHE, Calico, and RBS. While the former two are contestants in the ongoing international CAESAR competition for authenticated encryption schemes, the latter has recently been proposed for lightweight applications such as RFID systems...... and wireless networks. All these schemes use well-established and secure components such as the AES, Grain-like NFSRs, ChaCha and SipHash as their building blocks. However, we discover key recovery attacks for all three designs, featuring square-root complexities. Using a key collision technique, we can...

  11. Twisted Polynomials and Forgery Attacks on GCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed A. M. A.; Beelen, Peter; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Polynomial hashing as an instantiation of universal hashing is a widely employed method for the construction of MACs and authenticated encryption (AE) schemes, the ubiquitous GCM being a prominent example. It is also used in recent AE proposals within the CAESAR competition which aim at providing...... in an improved key recovery algorithm. As cryptanalytic applications of our twisted polynomials, we develop the first universal forgery attacks on GCM in the weak-key model that do not require nonce reuse. Moreover, we present universal weak-key forgeries for the nonce-misuse resistant AE scheme POET, which...

  12. Competitive Reactions to Advertising and Promotion Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Jan-Benedict E. M. Steenkamp; Vincent R. Nijs; Dominique M. Hanssens; Marnik G. Dekimpe

    2005-01-01

    How do competitors react to each other's price-promotion and advertising attacks? What are the reasons for the observed reaction behavior? We answer these questions by performing a large-scale empirical study on the short-run and long-run reactions to promotion and advertising shocks in over 400 consumer product categories over a four-year time span. Our results clearly show that the most predominant form of competitive response is passive in nature. When a reaction does occur, it is usually ...

  13. Successful Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrahman Nasihun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging concept of successful aging is based on evidence that in healthy individual when they get aged, there are  considerable variations in physiological functions alteration. Some people exhibiting greater, but others very few or no age related alteration. The first is called poor aging and the later is called successful pattern of aging (Lambert SW, 2008. Thus, in the simple words the successful aging concept is define as an opportunity of old people to stay  active and productive condition despite they get aged chronologically. Aging itself might be defined as the progressive accumulation of changes with time associated with or responsible for the ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and death which accompanies advancing age (Harman D, 1981. The time needed to accumulate changes is attributable to aging process. The marked emerging questions are how does aging happen and where does aging start? To answer these questions and because of the complexity of aging process, there are more than 300 aging theories have been proposed to explain how and where aging occured and started respectively. There are too many to enumerate theories and classification of aging process. In summary, all of these aging theories can be grouped into three clusters: 1. Genetics program theory, this theory suggests that aging is resulted from program directed by the genes; 2. Epigenetic theory, in these theory aging is resulted from environmental random events not determined by the genes; 3. Evolutionary theory, which propose that aging is a medium for disposal mortal soma in order to avoid competition between organism and their progeny for food and space, did not try to explain how aging occur, but possibly answer why aging occur (De la Fuente. 2009. Among the three groups of aging theories, the epigenetic theory is useful to explain and try to solve the enigma of aging which is prominently caused by internal and external environmental influences

  14. Neutralizing SQL Injection Attack Using Server Side Code Modification in Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dalai, Asish Kumar; Jena, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Reports on web application security risks show that SQL injection is the top most vulnerability. The journey of static to dynamic web pages leads to the use of database in web applications. Due to the lack of secure coding techniques, SQL injection vulnerability prevails in a large set of web applications. A successful SQL injection attack imposes a serious threat to the database, web application, and the entire web server. In this article, the authors have proposed a novel method for prevent...

  15. Random Access Performance of Distributed Sensors Attacked by Unknown Jammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Kyo Jeong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we model and investigate the random access (RA performance of sensor nodes (SN in a wireless sensor network (WSN. In the WSN, a central head sensor (HS collects the information from distributed SNs, and jammers disturb the information transmission primarily by generating interference. In this paper, two jamming attacks are considered: power and code jamming. Power jammers (if they are friendly jammers generate noises and, as a result, degrade the quality of the signal from SNs. Power jamming is equally harmful to all the SNs that are accessing HS and simply induces denial of service (DoS without any need to hack HS or SNs. On the other hand, code jammers mimic legitimate SNs by sending fake signals and thus need to know certain system parameters that are used by the legitimate SNs. As a result of code jamming, HS falsely allocates radio resources to SNs. The code jamming hence increases the failure probability in sending the information messages, as well as misleads the usage of radio resources. In this paper, we present the probabilities of successful preamble transmission with power ramping according to the jammer types and provide the resulting throughput and delay of information transmission by SNs, respectively. The effect of two jamming attacks on the RA performances is compared with numerical investigation. The results show that, compared to RA without jammers, power and code jamming degrade the throughput by up to 30.3% and 40.5%, respectively, while the delay performance by up to 40.1% and 65.6%, respectively.

  16. Practising of radiological emergency caused by a terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racana, R.; Terrado, C.

    2006-01-01

    After the events of September 11, 2001 terrorist working has become an important factor in the forecasts to adopt in the face of the possibility of confronting different radiological emergencies. The not wanted events of exposure to ionizing radiations can take place by flaws of systems or accidents, or also by criminal voluntary actions. These malevolent actions can include attacks or sabotages in nuclear plants, detonation of manufactured nuclear devices or acquired under ground, robbery of radioactive sources to manufacture the calls dirty bombs or to cause damage, panic or threats. In the scenarios in that the radiological emergency is voluntarily provoked the moment and place of the attack are chosen by the aggressors, therefore the ionizing radiations will be in not prepared atmospheres neither equipped to the effect. This increases the confusion, the panic and the damage not only caused by the radiation effects but also by the uncertainty and consequent reactions. To diminish the effects of this type of threats it is necessary to make forecasts and to train the personnel that it can be direct or indirectly involved. During 2005, an exercise in which it was outlined the robbery by part of a group command of a source of Co 60 of 5000 Ci that it was transported to make a decanting in a medical center of The Pampa county, Argentina. It was about a cabinet exercise, planned and executed jointly among the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Secretary of Interior Safety, in which participated the professionals of the nuclear area that by law are the responsible ones of coordinating the actions in the event of an emergency of this type, and the safety forces that depend of the Secretary of Interior Safety, Federal and Provincial Policemen, Naval Prefecture and National Gendarmerie. The exercise last one day during which 9 main situations were approached that were unchained after having produced the attack and initial robbery. For each situation it was checked the

  17. Communication: essential strategies for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary

    2013-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advance organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tool, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses strategies for communication for change processes, whether large or small. Intentional planning and development of a communication strategy alongside, not as an afterthought, to change initiatives are essential.

  18. On Realistically Attacking Tor with Website Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Website fingerprinting allows a local, passive observer monitoring a web-browsing client’s encrypted channel to determine her web activity. Previous attacks have shown that website fingerprinting could be a threat to anonymity networks such as Tor under laboratory conditions. However, there are significant differences between laboratory conditions and realistic conditions. First, in laboratory tests we collect the training data set together with the testing data set, so the training data set is fresh, but an attacker may not be able to maintain a fresh data set. Second, laboratory packet sequences correspond to a single page each, but for realistic packet sequences the split between pages is not obvious. Third, packet sequences may include background noise from other types of web traffic. These differences adversely affect website fingerprinting under realistic conditions. In this paper, we tackle these three problems to bridge the gap between laboratory and realistic conditions for website fingerprinting. We show that we can maintain a fresh training set with minimal resources. We demonstrate several classification-based techniques that allow us to split full packet sequences effectively into sequences corresponding to a single page each. We describe several new algorithms for tackling background noise. With our techniques, we are able to build the first website fingerprinting system that can operate directly on packet sequences collected in the wild.

  19. Recent computer attacks via Instant Messaging

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. Several computers at CERN have recently been broken into by attackers who have tricked users of Instant Messaging applications (e.g. MSN, Yahoo Messenger, etc.) into clicking on web links which appeared to come from known contacts. The links appeared to be photos from ‘friends’ and requested software to be installed. In practice, attacker software was installed and the messages did not come from real contacts. In the past such fake messages were mainly sent by email but now a wider range of applications are being targeted, including Instant Messaging. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake messages to try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer. Anti-virus software cann...

  20. Consciousness in non-epileptic attack disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuber, Markus; Kurthen, M

    2011-01-01

    Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) is one of the most important differential diagnoses of epilepsy. Impairment of consciousness is the key feature of non-epileptic attacks (NEAs). The first half of this review summarises the clinical research literature featuring observations relating to consciousness in NEAD. The second half places this evidence in the wider context of the recent discourse on consciousness in neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. We argue that studies of consciousness should not only distinguish between the 'level' and `content' of consciousness but also between 'phenomenal consciousness' (consciousness of states it somehow "feels to be like") and 'access consciousness' (having certain 'higher' cognitive processes at one's disposal). The existing evidence shows that there is a great intra- and interindividual variability of NEA experience. However, in most NEAs phenomenal experience - and, as a precondition for that experience, vigilance or wakefulness - is reduced to a lesser degree than in those epileptic seizures involving impairment of consciousness. In fact, complete loss of "consciousness" is the exception rather than the rule in NEAs. Patients, as well as external observers, may have a tendency to overestimate impairments of consciousness during the seizures.

  1. Command Disaggregation Attack and Mitigation in Industrial Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A cyber-physical attack in the industrial Internet of Things can cause severe damage to physical system. In this paper, we focus on the command disaggregation attack, wherein attackers modify disaggregated commands by intruding command aggregators like programmable logic controllers, and then maliciously manipulate the physical process. It is necessary to investigate these attacks, analyze their impact on the physical process, and seek effective detection mechanisms. We depict two different types of command disaggregation attack modes: (1 the command sequence is disordered and (2 disaggregated sub-commands are allocated to wrong actuators. We describe three attack models to implement these modes with going undetected by existing detection methods. A novel and effective framework is provided to detect command disaggregation attacks. The framework utilizes the correlations among two-tier command sequences, including commands from the output of central controller and sub-commands from the input of actuators, to detect attacks before disruptions occur. We have designed components of the framework and explain how to mine and use these correlations to detect attacks. We present two case studies to validate different levels of impact from various attack models and the effectiveness of the detection framework. Finally, we discuss how to enhance the detection framework.

  2. Command Disaggregation Attack and Mitigation in Industrial Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Peng; Zhu, Pei-Dong; Hu, Yi-Fan; Cui, Peng-Shuai; Zhang, Yan

    2017-10-21

    A cyber-physical attack in the industrial Internet of Things can cause severe damage to physical system. In this paper, we focus on the command disaggregation attack, wherein attackers modify disaggregated commands by intruding command aggregators like programmable logic controllers, and then maliciously manipulate the physical process. It is necessary to investigate these attacks, analyze their impact on the physical process, and seek effective detection mechanisms. We depict two different types of command disaggregation attack modes: (1) the command sequence is disordered and (2) disaggregated sub-commands are allocated to wrong actuators. We describe three attack models to implement these modes with going undetected by existing detection methods. A novel and effective framework is provided to detect command disaggregation attacks. The framework utilizes the correlations among two-tier command sequences, including commands from the output of central controller and sub-commands from the input of actuators, to detect attacks before disruptions occur. We have designed components of the framework and explain how to mine and use these correlations to detect attacks. We present two case studies to validate different levels of impact from various attack models and the effectiveness of the detection framework. Finally, we discuss how to enhance the detection framework.

  3. Simulation of Attacks for Security in Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alvaro; Sanchez, Pablo

    2016-11-18

    The increasing complexity and low-power constraints of current Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) require efficient methodologies for network simulation and embedded software performance analysis of nodes. In addition, security is also a very important feature that has to be addressed in most WSNs, since they may work with sensitive data and operate in hostile unattended environments. In this paper, a methodology for security analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks is presented. The methodology allows designing attack-aware embedded software/firmware or attack countermeasures to provide security in WSNs. The proposed methodology includes attacker modeling and attack simulation with performance analysis (node's software execution time and power consumption estimation). After an analysis of different WSN attack types, an attacker model is proposed. This model defines three different types of attackers that can emulate most WSN attacks. In addition, this paper presents a virtual platform that is able to model the node hardware, embedded software and basic wireless channel features. This virtual simulation analyzes the embedded software behavior and node power consumption while it takes into account the network deployment and topology. Additionally, this simulator integrates the previously mentioned attacker model. Thus, the impact of attacks on power consumption and software behavior/execution-time can be analyzed. This provides developers with essential information about the effects that one or multiple attacks could have on the network, helping them to develop more secure WSN systems. This WSN attack simulator is an essential element of the attack-aware embedded software development methodology that is also introduced in this work.

  4. Simulation of Attacks for Security in Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alvaro; Sanchez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity and low-power constraints of current Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) require efficient methodologies for network simulation and embedded software performance analysis of nodes. In addition, security is also a very important feature that has to be addressed in most WSNs, since they may work with sensitive data and operate in hostile unattended environments. In this paper, a methodology for security analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks is presented. The methodology allows designing attack-aware embedded software/firmware or attack countermeasures to provide security in WSNs. The proposed methodology includes attacker modeling and attack simulation with performance analysis (node’s software execution time and power consumption estimation). After an analysis of different WSN attack types, an attacker model is proposed. This model defines three different types of attackers that can emulate most WSN attacks. In addition, this paper presents a virtual platform that is able to model the node hardware, embedded software and basic wireless channel features. This virtual simulation analyzes the embedded software behavior and node power consumption while it takes into account the network deployment and topology. Additionally, this simulator integrates the previously mentioned attacker model. Thus, the impact of attacks on power consumption and software behavior/execution-time can be analyzed. This provides developers with essential information about the effects that one or multiple attacks could have on the network, helping them to develop more secure WSN systems. This WSN attack simulator is an essential element of the attack-aware embedded software development methodology that is also introduced in this work. PMID:27869710

  5. Speeding up detection of SHA-1 collision attacks using unavoidable attack conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); D. Shumow

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCounter-cryptanalysis, the concept of using cryptanalytic techniques to detect cryptanalytic attacks, was introduced by Stevens at CRYPTO 2013 [22] with a hash collision detection algorithm. That is, an algorithm that detects whether a given single message is part of a colliding message

  6. How oxygen attacks [FeFe] hydrogenases from photosynthetic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripp, Sven T.; Goldet, Gabrielle; Brandmayr, Caterina; Sanganas, Oliver; Vincent, Kylie A.; Haumann, Michael; Armstrong, Fraser A.; Happe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Green algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii synthesize an [FeFe] hydrogenase that is highly active in hydrogen evolution. However, the extreme sensitivity of [FeFe] hydrogenases to oxygen presents a major challenge for exploiting these organisms to achieve sustainable photosynthetic hydrogen production. In this study, the mechanism of oxygen inactivation of the [FeFe] hydrogenase CrHydA1 from C. reinhardtii has been investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that reaction with oxygen results in destruction of the [4Fe-4S] domain of the active site H-cluster while leaving the di-iron domain (2FeH) essentially intact. By protein film electrochemistry we were able to determine the order of events leading up to this destruction. Carbon monoxide, a competitive inhibitor of CrHydA1 which binds to an Fe atom of the 2FeH domain and is otherwise not known to attack FeS clusters in proteins, reacts nearly two orders of magnitude faster than oxygen and protects the enzyme against oxygen damage. These results therefore show that destruction of the [4Fe-4S] cluster is initiated by binding and reduction of oxygen at the di-iron domain—a key step that is blocked by carbon monoxide. The relatively slow attack by oxygen compared to carbon monoxide suggests that a very high level of discrimination can be achieved by subtle factors such as electronic effects (specific orbital overlap requirements) and steric constraints at the active site. PMID:19805068

  7. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    factor from multiple performance criteria was created for the ammonium sulfate exposure. Environmental charts were developed to determine the level of aggression associated with sodium sulfate attack from temperature, RH and degree of wetting-drying expected in service. This novel modeling approach showed promising success in handling complex durability topics such as the sulfate attack of concrete, which involves non-linearity, ambiguity and interface with operator approximation. The current thesis provides needed fundamental knowledge on the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. It elucidates complex deterioration mechanisms and failure modes of cement-based materials under multi-mechanistic aging processes. It also proposes carefully engineered integrated sulfate attack tests that replicate various sulfate attack exposure regimes, which could be refined and standardized in the future. In addition, the current work introduced original knowledge-based smart models capable of handling uncertainty and providing reliable predictions for the behaviour of concrete under external sulfate attack. The models do not require conducting exhaustive laboratory experiments and/or making assumptions, thus facilitating the selection of optimum concrete mixtures for a specified exposure. Overall, this research should effectively contribute to the development of performance-based standards and specifications for, and improvement of durability-based design and life-cycle analysis of concrete structures subjected to external sulfate attack. Keywords. Sulfate attack, self-consolidating concrete, integrated testing, composite cements, air-entrainment, hybrid fibres, full immersion, cations, pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, cyclic cold-hot conditions, flexural loading, thaumasite, salt crystallization, fuzzy, neuro-fuzzy, systems.

  8. Distributed Classification of Localization Attacks in Sensor Networks Using Exchange-Based Feature Extraction and Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Zhe Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Secure localization under different forms of attack has become an essential task in wireless sensor networks. Despite the significant research efforts in detecting the malicious nodes, the problem of localization attack type recognition has not yet been well addressed. Motivated by this concern, we propose a novel exchange-based attack classification algorithm. This is achieved by a distributed expectation maximization extractor integrated with the PECPR-MKSVM classifier. First, the mixed distribution features based on the probabilistic modeling are extracted using a distributed expectation maximization algorithm. After feature extraction, by introducing the theory from support vector machine, an extensive contractive Peaceman-Rachford splitting method is derived to build the distributed classifier that diffuses the iteration calculation among neighbor sensors. To verify the efficiency of the distributed recognition scheme, four groups of experiments were carried out under various conditions. The average success rate of the proposed classification algorithm obtained in the presented experiments for external attacks is excellent and has achieved about 93.9% in some cases. These testing results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can produce much greater recognition rate, and it can be also more robust and efficient even in the presence of excessive malicious scenario.

  9. Attacks on quantum key distribution protocols that employ non-ITS authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacher, C.; Abidin, A.; Lorünser, T.; Peev, M.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.; Larsson, J.-Å.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how adversaries with large computing resources can break quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols which employ a particular message authentication code suggested previously. This authentication code, featuring low key consumption, is not information-theoretically secure (ITS) since for each message the eavesdropper has intercepted she is able to send a different message from a set of messages that she can calculate by finding collisions of a cryptographic hash function. However, when this authentication code was introduced, it was shown to prevent straightforward man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks against QKD protocols. In this paper, we prove that the set of messages that collide with any given message under this authentication code contains with high probability a message that has small Hamming distance to any other given message. Based on this fact, we present extended MITM attacks against different versions of BB84 QKD protocols using the addressed authentication code; for three protocols, we describe every single action taken by the adversary. For all protocols, the adversary can obtain complete knowledge of the key, and for most protocols her success probability in doing so approaches unity. Since the attacks work against all authentication methods which allow to calculate colliding messages, the underlying building blocks of the presented attacks expose the potential pitfalls arising as a consequence of non-ITS authentication in QKD post-processing. We propose countermeasures, increasing the eavesdroppers demand for computational power, and also prove necessary and sufficient conditions for upgrading the discussed authentication code to the ITS level.

  10. Acanthopria and Mimopriella parasitoid wasps (Diapriidae) attack Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, Attini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Wcislo, William T.

    2006-01-01

    New World diapriine wasps are abundant and diverse, but the biology of most species is unknown. We provide the first description of the biology of diapriine wasps, Acanthopria spp. and Mimopriella sp., which attack the larvae of Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants. In Puerto Rico, the koinobiont parasitoids Acanthopria attack Cyphomyrmex minutus, while in Panama at least four morphospecies of Acanthopria and one of Mimopriella attack Cyphomyrmex rimosus. Of the total larvae per colony, 0 100% were parasitized, and 27 70% of the colonies per population were parasitized. Parasitism rate and colony size were negatively correlated for C. rimosus but not for C. minutus. Worker ants grasped at, bit, and in some cases, killed adult wasps that emerged in artificial nests or tried to enter natural nests. Parasitoid secondary sex ratios were female-biased for eclosing wasps, while field collections showed a male-biased sex ratio. Based on their abundance and success in attacking host ants, these minute wasps present excellent opportunities to explore how natural enemies impact ant colony demography and population biology.

  11. Intelligent Intrusion Detection of Grey Hole and Rushing Attacks in Self-Driving Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattab M. Ali Alheeti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs play a vital role in the success of self-driving and semi self-driving vehicles, where they improve safety and comfort. Such vehicles depend heavily on external communication with the surrounding environment via data control and Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs exchanges. VANETs are potentially exposed to a number of attacks, such as grey hole, black hole, wormhole and rushing attacks. This work presents an intelligent Intrusion Detection System (IDS that relies on anomaly detection to protect the external communication system from grey hole and rushing attacks. These attacks aim to disrupt the transmission between vehicles and roadside units. The IDS uses features obtained from a trace file generated in a network simulator and consists of a feed-forward neural network and a support vector machine. Additionally, the paper studies the use of a novel systematic response, employed to protect the vehicle when it encounters malicious behaviour. Our simulations of the proposed detection system show that the proposed schemes possess outstanding detection rates with a reduction in false alarms. This safe mode response system has been evaluated using four performance metrics, namely, received packets, packet delivery ratio, dropped packets and the average end to end delay, under both normal and abnormal conditions.

  12. Analysis Of Default Passwords In Routers Against Brute-Force Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Farik; ABM Shawkat Ali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Password authentication is the main means of access control on network routers and router manufacturers provide a default password for initial login to the router. While there has been many publications regarding the minimum requirements of a good password how widely the manufacturers themselves are adhering to the minimum standards and whether these passwords can withstand brute-force attack are not widely known. The novelty of this research is that this is the first time default...

  13. An Approach for Prevention of MitM Attack Based on Rogue AP in Wireless Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhendong Wu; Mengru Cai; Siyu Liang

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of WLAN, more and more schools and businesses have begun to provide the WLAN for users. However, WLAN is considerably more susceptible to MitM (man- in-the-middle) attack. To overcome it, we propose a dynamic password technology named Two-way Dynamic Authentication Technology (TDAT). It uses two-factor during the initial authentication, and uses a two-way hash chain during the cross-domain authentication. TDAT effectively protects users' authentication credentials a...

  14. Marine light attack helicopter close air support trainer for situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    JTAC Joint Terminal Attack Controller MAGTF Marine Air Ground Task Force MATSS Marine Aviation Training System Sites MAW Marine Aircraft Wing...relevant to aircraft performance not CAS. Therefore, the SA training system should provide visual and audio cues relevant to the CAS environment ... environmental elements outside the aircraft . The initial environment elements included in the trainer are those relating directly to the CAS execution

  15. Managing burn victims of suicide bombing attacks: outcomes, lessons learnt, and changes made from three attacks in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (2003). Problems faced, lessons learnt, and costs incurred are discussed. A burns disaster plan drawing on lessons learnt from these attacks is presented. Thirty-one patients were treated at the SGH Burns Centre in three attacks (2002 Bali attack [n = 15], 2003 Jakarta attack [n = 14], and 2005 Bali attack [n = 2]). For the 2002 Bali attack, median age was 29 years (range 20 to 50 years), median percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) was 29% (range 5% to 55%), and median abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6 (range 3 to 10). Eight of 15 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. For the 2003 Jakarta attack, median age was 35 years (range 24 to 56 years), median percentage of TBSA was 10% (range 2% to 46%), and median ABSI was 4 (range 3 to 9). A large number of patients had other injuries. Problems faced included manpower issues, lack of bed space, shortage of blood products, and lack of cadaver skin. The changing nature of terror attacks mandates continued vigilance and disaster preparedness. The multidimensional burns patient, complicated by other injuries, is likely to become increasingly common. A burns disaster plan with emphasis on effective command, control, and communication as well as organisation of health care personnel following a 'team concept' will do much to ensure that the sudden onset of a crisis situation at an unexpected time does not overwhelm hospital manpower and resources.

  16. A Secure Localization Approach against Wormhole Attacks Using Distance Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wormhole attacks can negatively affect the localization in wireless sensor networks. A typical wormhole attack can be launched by two colluding attackers, one of which sniffs packets at one point in the network and tunnels them through a wired or wireless link to another point, and the other relays them within its vicinity. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the wormhole attack on the localization and propose a novel distance-consistency-based secure localization scheme against wormhole attacks, which includes three phases of wormhole attack detection, valid locators identification and self-localization. The theoretical model is further formulated to analyze the proposed secure localization scheme. The simulation results validate the theoretical results and also demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  17. Attack and Vulnerability Penetration Testing: FreeBSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hanan Abdullah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer system security has become a major concern over the past few years. Attacks, threasts or intrusions, against computer system and network have become commonplace events. However, there are some system devices and other tools that are available to overcome the threat of these attacks. Currently, cyber attack is a major research and inevitable. This paper presents some steps of penetration in FreeBSD operating system, some tools and new steps to attack used in this experiment, probes for reconnaissance, guessing password via brute force, gaining privilege access and flooding victim machine to decrease availability. All these attacks were executed and infiltrate within the environment of Intrusion Threat Detection Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (ITD UTM data set. This work is expected to be a reference for practitioners to prepare their systems from Internet attacks.

  18. Analysis of Network Vulnerability Under Joint Node and Link Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongcheng; Liu, Shumei; Yu, Yao; Cao, Ting

    2018-03-01

    The security problem of computer network system is becoming more and more serious. The fundamental reason is that there are security vulnerabilities in the network system. Therefore, it’s very important to identify and reduce or eliminate these vulnerabilities before they are attacked. In this paper, we are interested in joint node and link attacks and propose a vulnerability evaluation method based on the overall connectivity of the network to defense this attack. Especially, we analyze the attack cost problem from the attackers’ perspective. The purpose is to find the set of least costs for joint links and nodes, and their deletion will lead to serious network connection damage. The simulation results show that the vulnerable elements obtained from the proposed method are more suitable for the attacking idea of the malicious persons in joint node and link attack. It is easy to find that the proposed method has more realistic protection significance.

  19. Induction of cellular accessibility and inaccessibility and suppression and potentiation of cell death in oat attacked by ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤avenae¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Lyngkjær, M.F.; Neyron, L.

    1999-01-01

    graminis DC.). Successful penetration and haustorium formation by the inducer rendered living epidermal cells highly accessible to later challenge attack as judged by increased frequency of challenge penetration success compared to controls. Conversely, where failure of inducer attack on living epidermal......First-formed (seedling) and later-formed leaves of oat cvs Selma (susceptible) and Maldwyn (adult plant resistance under complex genetic control) were subjected to a double inoculation procedure ('inducer' followed by 'challenger') with conidia of Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer (Syn. Erysiphe......, suggesting that induced changes in (in)accessibility may be a common consequence of B. graminis attack in cereals. As expected, in Maldwyn, cell death was a consistent but infrequent response to attack (5-20%, of attacks caused cell death in controls). Here, the successful formation of an inducer haustorium...

  20. Sleep Deprivation Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattasali, Tapalina; Chaki, Rituparna; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    Deployment of sensor network in hostile environment makes it mainly vulnerable to battery drainage attacks because it is impossible to recharge or replace the battery power of sensor nodes. Among different types of security threats, low power sensor nodes are immensely affected by the attacks which cause random drainage of the energy level of sensors, leading to death of the nodes. The most dangerous type of attack in this category is sleep deprivation, where target of the intruder is to maxi...