WorldWideScience

Sample records for inhomogeneous dielectric objects

  1. VIE-FG-FFT for Analyzing EM Scattering from Inhomogeneous Nonmagnetic Dielectric Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new realization of the volume integral equation (VIE in combination with the fast Fourier transform (FFT is established by fitting Green’s function (FG onto the nodes of a uniform Cartesian grid for analyzing EM scattering from inhomogeneous nonmagnetic dielectric objects. The accuracy of the proposed method is the same as that of the P-FFT and higher than that of the AIM and the IE-FFT especially when increasing the grid spacing size. Besides, the preprocessing time of the proposed method is obviously less than that of the P-FFT for inhomogeneous nonmagnetic dielectric objects. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  2. Analysis of Scattering by Inhomogeneous Dielectric Objects Using Higher-Order Hierarchical MoM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2003-01-01

    An efficient technique for the analysis of electromagnetic scattering by arbitrary shaped inhomogeneous dielectric objects is presented. The technique is based on a higher-order method of moments (MoM) solution of the volume integral equation. This higher-order MoM solution comprises recently...... that the condition number of the resulting MoM matrix is reduced by several orders of magnitude in comparison to existing higher-order hierarchical basis functions and, consequently, an iterative solver can be applied even for high expansion orders. Numerical results demonstrate excellent agreement...

  3. Effective permittivity of finite inhomogeneous objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghunathan, S.B.; Budko, N.V.

    2010-01-01

    A generalization of the S-parameter retrieval method for finite three-dimensional inhomogeneous objects under arbitrary illumination and observation conditions is presented. The effective permittivity of such objects may be rigorously defined as a solution of a nonlinear inverse scattering problem.

  4. Electrostatic field in inhomogeneous dielectric media. I. Indirect boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, N.S.; Gang, F.; Ko, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A computationally fast method is presented for calculating electrostatic field in arbitrary inhomogeneous dielectric media with open boundary condition. The method involves dividing the whole space into cubical cells and then finding effective dielectric parameters for interfacial cells consisting of several dielectrics. The electrostatic problem is then solved using either the indirect boundary element method described in this paper or the so-called volume element method described in the companion paper. Both methods are tested for accuracy by comparing the numerically calculated electrostatic fields against those analytically obtained for a dielectric sphere and dielectric ellipsoid in a uniform field and for a dielectric sphere in a point charge field

  5. Time-dependent inhomogeneous jet models for BL Lac objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, A. T.; Urry, C. M.; George, I. M.

    1992-05-01

    Relativistic beaming can explain many of the observed properties of BL Lac objects (e.g., rapid variability, high polarization, etc.). In particular, the broadband radio through X-ray spectra are well modeled by synchrotron-self Compton emission from an inhomogeneous relativistic jet. We have done a uniform analysis on several BL Lac objects using a simple but plausible inhomogeneous jet model. For all objects, we found that the assumed power-law distribution of the magnetic field and the electron density can be adjusted to match the observed BL Lac spectrum. While such models are typically unconstrained, consideration of spectral variability strongly restricts the allowed parameters, although to date the sampling has generally been too sparse to constrain the current models effectively. We investigate the time evolution of the inhomogeneous jet model for a simple perturbation propagating along the jet. The implications of this time evolution model and its relevance to observed data are discussed.

  6. Explicit solution of the Volterra integral equation for transient fields on inhomogeneous arbitrarily shaped dielectric bodies

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed

    2011-09-01

    A new predictor-corrector scheme for solving the Volterra integral equation to analyze transient electromagnetic wave interactions with arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneous dielectric bodies is considered. Numerical results demonstrating stability and accuracy of the proposed method are presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of inhomogeneous and composite weak conductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petzelt, Jan; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 89, 7-8 (2016), 651-666 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-08389S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : dielectric spectroscopy * effective medium approximation * coreshell composite * giant permittivity effects * negative permittivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2016

  8. Hydrodynamical flows in dielectric liquid in strong inhomogeneous pulsed electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshonok, Dmitry V; Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Naidis, George V; Smirnov, Boris M

    2016-01-01

    We consider a hydrodynamical flow of dielectric liquid near a high voltage needle-shaped electrode in a strong inhomogeneous pulsed electric field. It was shown that under a small rise time, a negative pressure area (pressure is less than critical pressure) appears near the electrode leading to the formation of a cavity in which electric breakdown can develop. A comparison of the dependence of the velocity of fluid near an electrode for two cases (taking into account the dependence of dielectric permeability of the liquid on the electric field and without taking it into account) was made. A field-dependent dielectric coefficient leads to the appearance of two local maximums of the velocities and increases the minimum pressure, thus lowering the possibility of cavitation. While under the constant value of dielectric permeability only one local maximum appears. (paper)

  9. Dielectric tensor elements for the description of waves in rotating inhomogeneous magnetized plasma spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli-Arani, A.; Ramezani-Arani, R.

    2012-11-01

    The dielectric permittivity tensor elements of a rotating cold collisionless plasma spheroid in an external magnetic field with toroidal and axial components are obtained. The effects of inhomogeneity in the densities of charged particles and the initial toroidal velocity on the dielectric permittivity tensor and field equations are investigated. The field components in terms of their toroidal components are calculated and it is shown that the toroidal components of the electric and magnetic fields are coupled by two differential equations. The influence of thermal and collisional effects on the dielectric tensor and field equations in the rotating plasma spheroid are also investigated. In the limiting spherical case, the dielectric tensor of a stationary magnetized collisionless cold plasma sphere is presented.

  10. Self-consistent field model for strong electrostatic correlations and inhomogeneous dielectric media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Manman; Xu, Zhenli

    2014-12-28

    Electrostatic correlations and variable permittivity of electrolytes are essential for exploring many chemical and physical properties of interfaces in aqueous solutions. We propose a continuum electrostatic model for the treatment of these effects in the framework of the self-consistent field theory. The model incorporates a space- or field-dependent dielectric permittivity and an excluded ion-size effect for the correlation energy. This results in a self-energy modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck or Poisson-Boltzmann equation together with state equations for the self energy and the dielectric function. We show that the ionic size is of significant importance in predicting a finite self energy for an ion in an inhomogeneous medium. Asymptotic approximation is proposed for the solution of a generalized Debye-Hückel equation, which has been shown to capture the ionic correlation and dielectric self energy. Through simulating ionic distribution surrounding a macroion, the modified self-consistent field model is shown to agree with particle-based Monte Carlo simulations. Numerical results for symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes demonstrate that the model is able to predict the charge inversion at high correlation regime in the presence of multivalent interfacial ions which is beyond the mean-field theory and also show strong effect to double layer structure due to the space- or field-dependent dielectric permittivity.

  11. Self-consistent field model for strong electrostatic correlations and inhomogeneous dielectric media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Manman, E-mail: mmm@sjtu.edu.cn; Xu, Zhenli, E-mail: xuzl@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, Institute of Natural Sciences, and MoE Key Laboratory of Scientific and Engineering Computing, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-12-28

    Electrostatic correlations and variable permittivity of electrolytes are essential for exploring many chemical and physical properties of interfaces in aqueous solutions. We propose a continuum electrostatic model for the treatment of these effects in the framework of the self-consistent field theory. The model incorporates a space- or field-dependent dielectric permittivity and an excluded ion-size effect for the correlation energy. This results in a self-energy modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck or Poisson-Boltzmann equation together with state equations for the self energy and the dielectric function. We show that the ionic size is of significant importance in predicting a finite self energy for an ion in an inhomogeneous medium. Asymptotic approximation is proposed for the solution of a generalized Debye-Hückel equation, which has been shown to capture the ionic correlation and dielectric self energy. Through simulating ionic distribution surrounding a macroion, the modified self-consistent field model is shown to agree with particle-based Monte Carlo simulations. Numerical results for symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes demonstrate that the model is able to predict the charge inversion at high correlation regime in the presence of multivalent interfacial ions which is beyond the mean-field theory and also show strong effect to double layer structure due to the space- or field-dependent dielectric permittivity.

  12. Comparison of three-dimensional poisson solution methods for particle-based simulation and inhomogeneous dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Claudio; Gillespie, Dirk; Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Eisenberg, Robert S; Fiegna, Claudio

    2012-07-01

    Particle-based simulation represents a powerful approach to modeling physical systems in electronics, molecular biology, and chemical physics. Accounting for the interactions occurring among charged particles requires an accurate and efficient solution of Poisson's equation. For a system of discrete charges with inhomogeneous dielectrics, i.e., a system with discontinuities in the permittivity, the boundary element method (BEM) is frequently adopted. It provides the solution of Poisson's equation, accounting for polarization effects due to the discontinuity in the permittivity by computing the induced charges at the dielectric boundaries. In this framework, the total electrostatic potential is then found by superimposing the elemental contributions from both source and induced charges. In this paper, we present a comparison between two BEMs to solve a boundary-integral formulation of Poisson's equation, with emphasis on the BEMs' suitability for particle-based simulations in terms of solution accuracy and computation speed. The two approaches are the collocation and qualocation methods. Collocation is implemented following the induced-charge computation method of D. Boda et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 034901 (2006)]. The qualocation method is described by J. Tausch et al. [IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems 20, 1398 (2001)]. These approaches are studied using both flat and curved surface elements to discretize the dielectric boundary, using two challenging test cases: a dielectric sphere embedded in a different dielectric medium and a toy model of an ion channel. Earlier comparisons of the two BEM approaches did not address curved surface elements or semiatomistic models of ion channels. Our results support the earlier findings that for flat-element calculations, qualocation is always significantly more accurate than collocation. On the other hand, when the dielectric boundary is discretized with curved surface elements, the

  13. X-ray phase contrast imaging of objects with subpixel-size inhomogeneities: a geometrical optics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasilov, Sergei V; Coan, Paola

    2012-09-01

    Several x-ray phase contrast extraction algorithms use a set of images acquired along the rocking curve of a perfect flat analyzer crystal to study the internal structure of objects. By measuring the angular shift of the rocking curve peak, one can determine the local deflections of the x-ray beam propagated through a sample. Additionally, some objects determine a broadening of the crystal rocking curve, which can be explained in terms of multiple refraction of x rays by many subpixel-size inhomogeneities contained in the sample. This fact may allow us to differentiate between materials and features characterized by different refraction properties. In the present work we derive an expression for the beam broadening in the form of a linear integral of the quantity related to statistical properties of the dielectric susceptibility distribution function of the object.

  14. Pre-breakdown processes in a dielectric fluid in inhomogeneous pulsed electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shneider, Mikhail N., E-mail: m.n.shneider@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Pekker, Mikhail [MMSolution, 6808 Walker Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19135 (United States)

    2015-06-14

    We consider the development of pre-breakdown cavitation nanopores appearing in the dielectric fluid under the influence of the electrostrictive stresses in the inhomogeneous pulsed electric field. It is shown that three characteristic regions can be distinguished near the needle electrode. In the first region, where the electric field gradient is greatest, the cavitation nanopores, occurring during the voltage nanosecond pulse, may grow to the size at which an electron accelerated by the field inside the pores can acquire enough energy for excitation and ionization of the liquid on the opposite pore wall, i.e., the breakdown conditions are satisfied. In the second region, the negative pressure caused by the electrostriction is large enough for the cavitation initiation (which can be registered by optical methods), but, during the voltage pulse, the pores do not reach the size at which the potential difference across their borders becomes sufficient for ionization or excitation of water molecules. And, in the third, the development of cavitation is impossible, due to an insufficient level of the negative pressure: in this area, the spontaneously occurring micropores do not grow and collapse under the influence of surface tension forces. This paper discusses the expansion dynamics of the cavitation pores and their most probable shape.

  15. Effects of dielectric inhomogeneity on electrostatic twist rigidity of a helical biomolecule in Debye-Hückel regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie-Dereshgi, Amir; Mohammad-Rafiee, Farshid

    2018-04-01

    The electrostatic interactions play a crucial role in biological systems. Here we consider an impermeable dielectric molecule in the solvent with a different dielectric constant. The electrostatic free energy in the problem is studied in the Debye-Hückel regime using the analytical Green function that is calculated in the paper. Using this electrostatic free energy, we study the electrostatic contribution to the twist rigidity of a double stranded helical molecule such as a DNA and an actin filament. The dependence of the electrostatic twist rigidity of the molecule to the dielectric inhomogeneity, structural parameters, and the salt concentration is studied. It is shown that, depending on the parameters, the electrostatic twist rigidity could be positive or negative.

  16. Homogeneous/Inhomogeneous-Structured Dielectrics and their Energy-Storage Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhonghua; Song, Zhe; Hao, Hua; Yu, Zhiyong; Cao, Minghe; Zhang, Shujun; Lanagan, Michael T; Liu, Hanxing

    2017-05-01

    The demand for dielectric capacitors with higher energy-storage capability is increasing for power electronic devices due to the rapid development of electronic industry. Existing dielectrics for high-energy-storage capacitors and potential new capacitor technologies are reviewed toward realizing these goals. Various dielectric materials with desirable permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength potentially meeting the device requirements are discussed. However, some significant limitations for current dielectrics can be ascribed to their low permittivity, low breakdown strength, and high hysteresis loss, which will decrease their energy density and efficiency. Thus, the implementation of dielectric materials for high-energy-density applications requires the comprehensive understanding of both the materials design and processing. The optimization of high-energy-storage dielectrics will have far-reaching impacts on the sustainable energy and will be an important research topic in the near future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Pair interactions in polyelectrolyte-nanoparticle systems: Influence of dielectric inhomogeneities and the partial dissociation of polymers and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2015-01-01

    We study the effective pair interactions between two charged spherical particles in polyelectrolyte solutions using polymer self-consistent field theory. In a recent study [V. Pryamitsyn and V. Ganesan, Macromolecules 47, 6095 (2015)], we considered a model in which the particles possess fixed charge density, the polymers contain a prespecified amount of dissociated charges and, the dielectric constant of the solution was assumed to be homogeneous in space and independent of the polymer concentration. In this article, we present results extending our earlier model to study situations in which either or both the particle and the polymers possess partially dissociable groups. Additionally, we also consider the case when the dielectric constant of the solution depends on the local concentration of the polymers and when the particle’s dielectric constant is lower than that of the solvent. For each case, we quantify the polymer-mediated interactions between the particles as a function of the polymer concentrations and the degree of dissociation of the polymer and particles. Consistent with the results of our previous study, we observe that the polymer-mediated interparticle interactions consist of a short-range attraction and a long-range repulsion. The partial dissociablity of the polymer and particles was seen to have a strong influence on the strength of the repulsive portion of the interactions. Rendering the dielectric permittivity to be inhomogeneous has an even stronger effect on the repulsive interactions and results in changes to the qualitative nature of interactions in some parametric ranges

  18. Cross Talk Analysis on Multiple Coupled Transmission Lines; (The calculation of transfer functions on multiple coupled tansmission lines in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1994-01-01

    A flow graph relating voltages and the forward and reflected propagation modes (¿ TEM) on multiple coupled transmission lines in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium is presented. This flow graph directy gives the different transfer functions, including S-parameters, in matrix form needed to calcul......A flow graph relating voltages and the forward and reflected propagation modes (¿ TEM) on multiple coupled transmission lines in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium is presented. This flow graph directy gives the different transfer functions, including S-parameters, in matrix form needed...

  19. Radiation processing of inhomogeneous objects at the 300 MeV electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demeshko, O.A.; Kochetov, S.S.; Makhnenko, L.A.; Melnitsky, I.V.; Shopen, O.A.

    2009-01-01

    Comparison is made between the calculated and experimental doses absorbed by complex density-inhomogeneous objects during their radiation processing. The process of fast electron passage through the object and depth dose formation has been simulated by the Monte Carlo technique with the use of the licensed program package PENELOPE. The calculated and experimental data are found to be in good agreement (∼ 30 %). Preliminary simulation of the process of object irradiation at given conditions provides the necessary information when developing the methods for a particular group of objects. This is of particular importance at performing bilateral irradiation, when an insignificant density variance of different objects may lead to appreciable errors of dose determination in the symmetry plane of the object.

  20. A generalized transformation to convert an arbitrary perfect electric conductor into another arbitrary dielectric object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lujun; Zhou Daming; Wang Jian; Li Guanhai; Li Zhifeng; Chen Xiaoshuang; Lu Wei

    2011-01-01

    A generalized transformation is proposed to design an illusion device. The device can reshape an arbitrarily shaped perfect electrical conductor (PEC) into another dielectric object with arbitrary geometry. Such a device can evolve into an ideal invisibility cloak with non-conformal boundaries if the virtual space is filled with air. Furthermore, the validity of our proposed transformation is confirmed by two specific devices. One is to convert a regular polygonal PEC cylinder into a circular dielectric cylinder. Another one is to reshape a circular PEC cylinder into a regular polygonal dielectric cylinder.

  1. Detection of Buried Inhomogeneous Elliptic Cylinders by a Memetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Caorsi, Salvatore; Massa, Andrea; Pastorino, Matteo; Raffetto, Mirco; Randazzo, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    The application of a global optimization procedure to the detection of buried inhomogeneities is studied in the present paper. The object inhomogeneities are schematized as multilayer infinite dielectric cylinders with elliptic cross sections. An efficient recursive analytical procedure is used for the forward scattering computation. A functional is constructed in which the field is expressed in series solution of Mathieu functions. Starting by the input scattered data, the iterative minimiza...

  2. Analysis of Buried Dielectric Objects Using Higher-Order MoM for Volume Integral Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    A higher-order method of moments (MoM) is applied to solve a volume integral equation for dielectric objects in layered media. In comparison to low-order methods, the higher-order MoM, which is based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre vector basis functions and curvilinear hexahedral elements,...

  3. Casimir stress in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, T.G.; Xiong, C.; Leonhardt, U.

    2010-01-01

    The Casimir effect in an inhomogeneous dielectric is investigated using Lifshitz's theory of electromagnetic vacuum energy. A permittivity function that depends continuously on one Cartesian coordinate is chosen, bounded on each side by homogeneous dielectrics. The result for the Casimir stress is infinite everywhere inside the inhomogeneous region, a divergence that does not occur for piece-wise homogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries. A Casimir force per unit volume can be extracted from the infinite stress but it diverges on the boundaries between the inhomogeneous medium and the homogeneous dielectrics. An alternative regularization of the vacuum stress is considered that removes the contribution of the inhomogeneity over small distances, where macroscopic electromagnetism is invalid. The alternative regularization yields a finite Casimir stress inside the inhomogeneous region, but the stress and force per unit volume diverge on the boundaries with the homogeneous dielectrics. The case of inhomogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries thus falls outside the current understanding of the Casimir effect.

  4. Passive UHF RFID Tags with Specific Printed Antennas for Dielectric and Metallic Objects Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Siakavara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Design process and respective results for the synthesis of specific Radiofrequency Identification(RFID tag antennas, suitable for dielectric and metallic objects, are presented. The antennas were designed for the UHF(865MHz-869MHz band and their basic configuration is that of the printed spiral type. Six modification steps to the classical spiral layout are proposed and it was proved that they can lead to tags with high readability and reading distances up to 10m when designed for dielectric object and up to 7m in the case of metallic objects. The results of the measurements of the fabricated tags are explained via theoretical evaluations which take into account reflection phenomena, that are present in a real environment at which the tags are used.

  5. 3D Imaging of Dielectric Objects Buried under a Rough Surface by Using CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Tetik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D scalar electromagnetic imaging of dielectric objects buried under a rough surface is presented. The problem has been treated as a 3D scalar problem for computational simplicity as a first step to the 3D vector problem. The complexity of the background in which the object is buried is simplified by obtaining Green’s function of its background, which consists of two homogeneous half-spaces, and a rough interface between them, by using Buried Object Approach (BOA. Green’s function of the two-part space with planar interface is obtained to be used in the process. Reconstruction of the location, shape, and constitutive parameters of the objects is achieved by Contrast Source Inversion (CSI method with conjugate gradient. The scattered field data that is used in the inverse problem is obtained via both Method of Moments (MoM and Comsol Multiphysics pressure acoustics model.

  6. Antennas in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    Antennas in Inhomogeneous Media details the methods of analyzing antennas in such inhomogeneous media. The title covers the complex geometrical configurations along with its variational formulations. The coverage of the text includes various conditions the antennas are subjected to, such as antennas in the interface between two media; antennas in compressible isotropic plasma; and linear antennas in a magnetoionic medium. The selection also covers insulated loops in lossy media; slot antennas with a stratified dielectric or isotropic plasma layers; and cavity-backed slot antennas. The book wil

  7. Radiation of a charge in presence of a dielectric object: aperture method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukhtin, A. V.; Vorobev, V. V.; Belonogaya, E. S.; Galyamin, S. N.

    2018-02-01

    We develop an original method for calculation of radiation from a charge moving in the presence of a dielectric object. The method can be applied to objects which are larger than the wavelengths under consideration. First, the field of a charge in an infinite medium (without external boundaries) is calculated. Further the field at the external boundary of the object ("the aperture") is found using the Snell's and Fresnel's laws. At final step of this technique, we calculate the field outside the target using Stratton-Chu formulae ("aperture integrals"). Contrary to the ray-optic technique, this method is valid for the observation point with arbitrary wave parameter (including Fraunhofer area) as well as in neighborhoods of focuses and caustics. We apply the method developed to the cone with vacuum channel where the charge moves (axially symmetrical problem). As well, this problem is simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics. Comparing results of both techniques one can conclude that the aperture method can be applied even for relatively small objects which have the size of several wavelengths. It is important as well that the accuracy of calculations increases with an increase in the distance from the aperture.

  8. Inhomogeneous superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkham, M.

    1978-01-01

    The coherence length xi and penetration depth lambda set the characteristic length scales in superconductors, typically 100 to 5,000 A. A lattice of flux lines, each carrying a single quantum, can penetrate type II superconductors, i.e., those for which kappa identical with lambda/xi > 1/√2. Inhomogeneities on the scale of the flux lattice spacing are required to pin the lattice to prevent dissipative flux motion. Recent work using voids as pinning centers has demonstrated this principle, but practical materials rely on cold-work, inclusions of second phases, etc., to provide the inhomogeneity. For stability against thermal fluctuations, the superconductor should have the form of many filaments of diameter 10 to 100 μm imbedded in a highly conductive normal metal matrix. Such wire is made by drawing down billets of copper containing rods of the superconductor. An alternative approach is the metallurgical one of Tsuei, which leads to thousands of superconducting filamentary segments in a copper matrix. The superconducting proximity effect causes the whole material to superconduct at low current densities. At high current densities, the range of the proximity effect is reduced so that the effective superconducting volume fraction falls below the percolation threshold, and a finite resistance arises from the copper matrix. But, because of the extremely elongated filaments, this resistance is orders of magnitude lower than that of the normal wire, and low enough to permit the possibility of technical applications

  9. Computation of Electromagnetic Fields Scattered From Dielectric Objects of Uncertain Shapes Using MLMC Center for Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-05

    Simulators capable of computing scattered fields from objects of uncertain shapes are highly useful in electromagnetics and photonics, where device designs are typically subject to fabrication tolerances. Knowledge of statistical variations in scattered fields is useful in ensuring error-free functioning of devices. Oftentimes such simulators use a Monte Carlo (MC) scheme to sample the random domain, where the variables parameterize the uncertainties in the geometry. At each sample, which corresponds to a realization of the geometry, a deterministic electromagnetic solver is executed to compute the scattered fields. However, to obtain accurate statistics of the scattered fields, the number of MC samples has to be large. This significantly increases the total execution time. In this work, to address this challenge, the Multilevel MC (MLMC) scheme is used together with a (deterministic) surface integral equation solver. The MLMC achieves a higher efficiency by “balancing” the statistical errors due to sampling of the random domain and the numerical errors due to discretization of the geometry at each of these samples. Error balancing results in a smaller number of samples requiring coarser discretizations. Consequently, total execution time is significantly shortened.

  10. Computation of Electromagnetic Fields Scattered From Dielectric Objects of Uncertain Shapes Using MLMC

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2016-01-06

    Simulators capable of computing scattered fields from objects of uncertain shapes are highly useful in electromagnetics and photonics, where device designs are typically subject to fabrication tolerances. Knowledge of statistical variations in scattered fields is useful in ensuring error-free functioning of devices. Oftentimes such simulators use a Monte Carlo (MC) scheme to sample the random domain, where the variables parameterize the uncertainties in the geometry. At each sample, which corresponds to a realization of the geometry, a deterministic electromagnetic solver is executed to compute the scattered fields. However, to obtain accurate statistics of the scattered fields, the number of MC samples has to be large. This significantly increases the total execution time. In this work, to address this challenge, the Multilevel MC (MLMC [1]) scheme is used together with a (deterministic) surface integral equation solver. The MLMC achieves a higher efficiency by balancing the statistical errors due to sampling of the random domain and the numerical errors due to discretization of the geometry at each of these samples. Error balancing results in a smaller number of samples requiring coarser discretizations. Consequently, total execution time is significantly shortened.

  11. Computation of Electromagnetic Fields Scattered From Dielectric Objects of Uncertain Shapes Using MLMC

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-07

    Simulators capable of computing scattered fields from objects of uncertain shapes are highly useful in electromagnetics and photonics, where device designs are typically subject to fabrication tolerances. Knowledge of statistical variations in scattered fields is useful in ensuring error-free functioning of devices. Oftentimes such simulators use a Monte Carlo (MC) scheme to sample the random domain, where the variables parameterize the uncertainties in the geometry. At each sample, which corresponds to a realization of the geometry, a deterministic electromagnetic solver is executed to compute the scattered fields. However, to obtain accurate statistics of the scattered fields, the number of MC samples has to be large. This significantly increases the total execution time. In this work, to address this challenge, the Multilevel MC (MLMC [1]) scheme is used together with a (deterministic) surface integral equation solver. The MLMC achieves a higher efficiency by “balancing” the statistical errors due to sampling of the random domain and the numerical errors due to discretization of the geometry at each of these samples. Error balancing results in a smaller number of samples requiring coarser discretizations. Consequently, total execution time is significantly shortened.

  12. UWB tomosynthesis of objects in mediums with metal inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubov, V. P.; Shipilov, S. E.; Sukhanov, D. Ya; Minin, I. V.; Minin, O. V.

    2017-08-01

    Radiowave tomography of dielectric objects containing metal inclusions is a rather complex problem, since the scattering of waves by dielectric inhomogeneities occurs against the background of substantially stronger reflections from metal parts, even if they are geometrically small. The arising features of obtaining a tomogram in such conditions, including overcoming of disguising by reinforcing ribbons and the appearance of locational shadows at different depths, are discussed in the paper. Herewith principled importance to achieve high focusing of UWB radiation by tomosynthesis is noted on the basis of direct experimental data.

  13. Investigation of the effect of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators on the radar cross section of an object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, S; Arjomandi, M

    2011-01-01

    The application of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma as an electromagnetic absorber was investigated by determining the radar cross section (RCS) of a rectangular, flat plate with a DBD plasma actuator array installed on one of its sides. In order to justify the experimental results, the expected effect of plasma actuation on RCS was analysed by determining the attenuation effect of the plasma with the Lorentz model. Due to the very limited life time of the free electrons and the small extent of the plasma sheath, the attenuation was found to be only minimal. The theoretical results have been verified by comparing the measured RCS values of a plate with and without plasma actuation applied on it in a high-frequency anechoic lab. As expected, no significant influence of DBD plasma on RCS was detected. In addition, it was found that the high voltage power supply used as a part of DBD circuitry produced a high level of disturbance even in the microwave range.

  14. Investigation of the effect of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators on the radar cross section of an object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, S; Arjomandi, M [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 (Australia)

    2011-08-10

    The application of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma as an electromagnetic absorber was investigated by determining the radar cross section (RCS) of a rectangular, flat plate with a DBD plasma actuator array installed on one of its sides. In order to justify the experimental results, the expected effect of plasma actuation on RCS was analysed by determining the attenuation effect of the plasma with the Lorentz model. Due to the very limited life time of the free electrons and the small extent of the plasma sheath, the attenuation was found to be only minimal. The theoretical results have been verified by comparing the measured RCS values of a plate with and without plasma actuation applied on it in a high-frequency anechoic lab. As expected, no significant influence of DBD plasma on RCS was detected. In addition, it was found that the high voltage power supply used as a part of DBD circuitry produced a high level of disturbance even in the microwave range.

  15. MICROWAVE INTERACTIONS WITH INHOMOGENEOUS PARTIALLY IONIZED PLASMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, A. H.

    1962-11-15

    Microwave interactions with inhomogeneous plasmas are often studied by employing a simplified electromagnetic approach, i.e., by representing the effects of the plasma by an effective dielectric coefficient. The problems and approximations associated with this procedure are discussed. The equation describing the microwave field in an inhomogeneous partially ionized plasma is derived, and the method that is applied to obtain the reflected, transmitted, and absorbed intensities in inhomogeneous plasmas is presented. The interactions of microwaves with plasmas having Gaussian electron density profiles are considered. The variation of collision frequency with position is usually neglected. In general, the assumption of constant collision frequency is not justified; e.g., for a highly ionized plasma, the electron density profile determines, in part, the profile of the electron-ion collision frequency. The effect of the variation of the collision frequency profile on the interaction of microwaves with inhomogeneous plasmas is studied in order to obtain an estimate of the degree of error that may result when constant collision frequency is assumed instead of a more realistic collision frequency profile. It is shown that the degree of error is of particular importance when microwave analysis is used as a plasma diagnostic. (auth)

  16. Multicolour Observations, Inhomogeneity & Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hellaby, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We propose a method of testing source evolution theories that is independent of the effects of inhomogeneity, and thus complementary to other studies of evolution. It is suitable for large scale sky surveys, and the new generation of large telescopes. In an earlier paper it was shown that basic cosmological observations - luminosity versus redshift, area distance versus redshift and number counts versus redshift - cannot separate the effects of cosmic inhomogeneity, cosmic evolution and sourc...

  17. On equilibrium charge distribution above dielectric surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Slyusarenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the equilibrium state of the charged many-particle system above dielectric surface is formulated. We consider the case of the presence of the external attractive pressing field and the case of its absence. The equilibrium distributions of charges and the electric field, which is generated by these charges in the system in the case of ideally plane dielectric surface, are obtained. The solution of electrostatic equations of the system under consideration in case of small spatial heterogeneities caused by the dielectric surface, is also obtained. These spatial inhomogeneities can be caused both by the inhomogeneities of the surface and by the inhomogeneous charge distribution upon it. In particular, the case of the "wavy" spatially periodic surface is considered taking into account the possible presence of the surface charges.

  18. Dispersion functions for weakly relativistic magnetized plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaelzer, R.; Schneider, R.S.; Ziebell, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    The study of wave propagation and absorption inhomogeneous plasmas can be made by using a formulation in which the dielectric properties of the plasma are described by an effective dielectric tensor which incorporates inhomogeneity effects, inserted into a dispersion relation which is formally the same as that of an homogeneous plasma. We have recently utilized this formalism in the study of electron cyclotron absorption in inhomogeneous media, both in the case of homogeneous magnetic field and in the case of inhomogeneous magnetic field. In the present paper we resume the study of the case with inhomogeneous magnetic field, in order to introduce a generalized dispersion function useful for the case of a Maxwellian plasma, and discuss some of its properties. (author). 10 refs

  19. Instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovsky, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field causes a wide class of instabilities which are called instabilities of an inhomogeneous plasma or gradient instabilities. The instabilities that can be studied in the approximation of a magnetic field with parallel straight field lines are treated first, followed by a discussion of the influence of shear on these instabilities. The instabilities of a weakly inhomogeneous plasma with the Maxwellian velocity distribution of particles caused by the density and temperature gradients are often called drift instabilities, and the corresponding types of perturbations are the drift waves. An elementary theory of drift instabilities is presented, based on the simplest equations of motion of particles in the field of low-frequency and long-wavelength perturbations. Following that is a more complete theory of inhomogeneous collisionless plasma instabilities which uses the permittivity tensor and, in the case of electrostatic perturbations, the scalar of permittivity. The results are used to study the instabilities of a strongly inhomogeneous plasma. The instabilities of a plasma in crossed fields are discussed and the electromagnetic instabilities of plasma with finite and high pressure are described. (Auth.)

  20. Accretion from an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livio, M.; Soker, N.; Koo, M. de; Savonije, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of accretion by a compact object from an inhomogeneous medium is studied in the general γnot=1 case. The mass accretion rate is found to decrease with increasing γ. The rate of accretion of angular momentum is found to be significantly lower than the rate at which angular momentum is deposited into the Bondi-Hoyle, symmetrical, accretion cylinder. The consequences of the results are studied for the cases of neutron stars accreting from the winds of early-type companions and white dwarfs and main-sequence stars accreting from winds of cool giants. (author)

  1. Big Bounce and inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizuela, David; Mena Marugan, Guillermo A; Pawlowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of an inhomogeneous universe is studied with the methods of loop quantum cosmology, via a so-called hybrid quantization, as an example of the quantization of vacuum cosmological spacetimes containing gravitational waves (Gowdy spacetimes). The analysis of this model with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, performed at the effective level, shows that (i) the initial Big Bang singularity is replaced (as in the case of homogeneous cosmological models) by a Big Bounce, joining deterministically two large universes, (ii) the universe size at the bounce is at least of the same order of magnitude as that of the background homogeneous universe and (iii) for each gravitational wave mode, the difference in amplitude at very early and very late times has a vanishing statistical average when the bounce dynamics is strongly dominated by the inhomogeneities, whereas this average is positive when the dynamics is in a near-vacuum regime, so that statistically the inhomogeneities are amplified. (fast track communication)

  2. Inhomogeneous electric field air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    For applications requiring the filtration of air contaminated with enriched uranium, plutonium or other transuranium compounds, it appears desirable to collect the material in a fashion more amenable to recovery than is now practical when material is collected on HEPA filters. In some instances, it may also be desirable to use an air cleaner of this type to substantially reduce the loading to which HEPA filters are subjected. A theoretical evaluation of such an air cleaner considers the interaction between an electrically neutral particle, dielectric or conducting, with an inhomogeneous electric field. An expression is derived for the force exerted on a particle in an electrode configuration of two concentric cylinders. Equations of motion are obtained for a particle suspended in a laminar flow of air passing through this geometry. An electrical quadrupole geometry is also examined and shown to be inferior to the cylindrical one. The results of two separate configurations of the single cell prototypes of the proposed air cleaner are described. These tests were designed to evaluate collection efficiencies using mono-disperse polystyrene latex and polydisperse NaCl aerosols. The advantages and problems of such systems in terms of a large scale air cleaning facility will be discussed

  3. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  4. Inhomogeneous compact extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronnikov, K.A. [Center of Gravity and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, 46 Ozyornaya st., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation); Budaev, R.I.; Grobov, A.V.; Dmitriev, A.E.; Rubin, Sergey G., E-mail: kb20@yandex.ru, E-mail: buday48@mail.ru, E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com, E-mail: alexdintras@mail.ru, E-mail: sergeirubin@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    We show that an inhomogeneous compact extra space possesses two necessary features— their existence does not contradict the observable value of the cosmological constant Λ{sub 4} in pure f ( R ) theory, and the extra dimensions are stable relative to the 'radion mode' of perturbations, the only mode considered. For a two-dimensional extra space, both analytical and numerical solutions for the metric are found, able to provide a zero or arbitrarily small Λ{sub 4}. A no-go theorem has also been proved, that maximally symmetric compact extra spaces are inconsistent with 4D Minkowski space in the framework of pure f ( R ) gravity.

  5. The inhomogeneous Suslov problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Naranjo, Luis C., E-mail: luis@mym.iimas.unam.mx [Departamento de Matemáticas y Mecánica, IIMAS-UNAM, Apdo Postal 20-726, Mexico City 01000 (Mexico); Maciejewski, Andrzej J., E-mail: andrzej.j.maciejewski@gmail.com [J. Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland); Marrero, Juan C., E-mail: jcmarrero@ull.edu.es [ULL-CSIC, Geometría Diferencial y Mecánica Geométrica, Departamento de Matemática Fundamental, Facultad de Matemáticas, Universidad de la Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Przybylska, Maria, E-mail: M.Przybylska@if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland)

    2014-06-27

    We consider the Suslov problem of nonholonomic rigid body motion with inhomogeneous constraints. We show that if the direction along which the Suslov constraint is enforced is perpendicular to a principal axis of inertia of the body, then the reduced equations are integrable and, in the generic case, possess a smooth invariant measure. Interestingly, in this generic case, the first integral that permits integration is transcendental and the density of the invariant measure depends on the angular velocities. We also study the Painlevé property of the solutions. - Highlights: • We consider the Suslov problem of nonholonomic rigid body motion with inhomogeneous constraints. • We study the problem in detail for a particular choice of the parameters that has a clear physical interpretation. • We show that the equations of motion possess an invariant measure whose density depends on the velocity variables. • We show that the reduced system is integrable due to the existence of a transcendental first integral. • We study the Painlevé property of the solutions.

  6. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  7. Inhomogeneous microstructural growth by irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishan, K.; Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper we discuss the development of heterogeneous microstructure for uniform irradiation conditions. It is shown that microstructural inhomogeneities on a scale of 0.1 μm can develop purely from kinematic considerations because of the basic structure of the rate equations used...... to describe such evolution. Two aspects of the growth of such inhomogeneities are discussed. Firstly, it is shown that a local variation in the sink densities of the various microstructural defects will tend to enhance the inhomogeneity rather than remove it. Secondly, such inhomogeneities will lead to point...... defect fluxes that result in a spatial growth of the inhomogeneous region, which will be stopped only when the microstructural density around this region becomes large. The results have important implications in the formation of denuded zones and void formation in metals....

  8. Infrared and THz spectroscopy of nanostructured dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Petzelt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Results achieved using the infrared/THz spectroscopy of various inhomogeneous dielectrics in the Department of Dielectrics, Institute of Physics, Prague, during the last decade are briefly reviewed. The discussion concerns high-permittivity ceramics with inevitable low-permittivity dead layers along the grain boundaries, relaxor ferroelectrics with highly anisotropic polar nano-regions, classical matrix-type composites, core-shell composites, filled nanoporous glasses, polycrystalline and epitaxial thin films, heterostructures and superlattices on dielectric substrates. The analysis using models based on the effective medium approach is discussed. The importance of depolarizing field and of the percolation of components on the effective ac dielectric response and the excitations contributing to it are emphasized.

  9. Broadband dielectric and conductivity spectroscopy of inhomogeneous and composite conductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petzelt, Jan; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Bovtun, Viktor; Savinov, Maxim; Kempa, Martin; Rychetský, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 11 (2013), s. 2259-2271 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0232; GA MŠk LD12025 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : effective medium approximation * infrared spectroscopy * THz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.525, year: 2013

  10. Random field assessment of nanoscopic inhomogeneity of bone

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, X. Neil; Luo, Qing; Sparkman, Daniel M.; Millwater, Harry R.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2010-01-01

    Bone quality is significantly correlated with the inhomogeneous distribution of material and ultrastructural properties (e.g., modulus and mineralization) of the tissue. Current techniques for quantifying inhomogeneity consist of descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. However, these parameters do not describe the spatial variations of bone properties. The objective of this study was to develop a novel statistical method to characterize and quanti...

  11. Foerster resonance energy transfer in inhomogeneous non-dispersive nanophotonic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Vos, Willem L.

    A nondispersive inhomogeneous dielectric environment of a donor-acceptor pair of quantum emitters affects their Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) rate. We find that this rate does not depend on the emission frequency and hence not on the local optical density of states (LDOS) at that freq...

  12. Particle creation in inhomogeneous spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frieman, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    We study the creation of particles by inhomogeneous perturbations of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies. For massless scalar fields, the pair-creation probability can be expressed in terms of geometric quantities (curvature invariants). The results suggest that inhomogeneities on scales up to the particle horizon will be damped out near the Planck time. Perturbations on scales larger than the horizon are explicitly shown to yield no created pairs. The results generalize to inhomogeneous spacetimes several earlier studies of pair creation in homogeneous anisotropic cosmologies

  13. Inclusions and inhomogeneities under stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Some general theorems, new and old, concerning the behaviour of elastic inclusions and inhomogeneities in bodies without or with external stress, are assembled. The principal new result is that arbitrary external tractions cannot influence the shape...

  14. Stochastic and deterministic causes of streamer branching in liquid dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadidian, Jouya; Zahn, Markus; Lavesson, Nils; Widlund, Ola; Borg, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Streamer branching in liquid dielectrics is driven by stochastic and deterministic factors. The presence of stochastic causes of streamer branching such as inhomogeneities inherited from noisy initial states, impurities, or charge carrier density fluctuations is inevitable in any dielectric. A fully three-dimensional streamer model presented in this paper indicates that deterministic origins of branching are intrinsic attributes of streamers, which in some cases make the branching inevitable depending on shape and velocity of the volume charge at the streamer frontier. Specifically, any given inhomogeneous perturbation can result in streamer branching if the volume charge layer at the original streamer head is relatively thin and slow enough. Furthermore, discrete nature of electrons at the leading edge of an ionization front always guarantees the existence of a non-zero inhomogeneous perturbation ahead of the streamer head propagating even in perfectly homogeneous dielectric. Based on the modeling results for streamers propagating in a liquid dielectric, a gauge on the streamer head geometry is introduced that determines whether the branching occurs under particular inhomogeneous circumstances. Estimated number, diameter, and velocity of the born branches agree qualitatively with experimental images of the streamer branching

  15. Inhomogeneous wire explosion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Kong, H.J.; Lee, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Inhomogeneous processes are observed in underwater copper wire explosion induced by a condensed capacitor discharge. The wire used is 0.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, and the capacitor of 2 μF is charged to 5 KV. A N 2 laser is used for the diagnostic of spatial extension of exploding copper vapour. The photographs obtained in this experiment show unambiguously the inhomogeneous explosion along the exploding wire. The quenching of plasma by the surrounding water inhibits the expansion of the vapour. It is believed the observed inhomogeneous explosion along the wire is located and localized around Goronkin's striae, which was first reported by Goronkin and discussed by Froengel as a pre-breakdown phenomenon. (author)

  16. Dynamics of inhomogeneous chiral condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Juan Pablo; Krein, Gastão; Kroff, Daniel; Peixoto, Thiago

    2018-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the formation of inhomogeneous chirally broken phases in the final stages of a heavy-ion collision, with particular interest on the time scales involved in the formation process. The study is conducted within the framework of a Ginzburg-Landau time evolution, driven by a free energy functional motivated by the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Expansion of the medium is modeled by one-dimensional Bjorken flow and its effect on the formation of inhomogeneous condensates is investigated. We also use a free energy functional from a nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model which predicts metastable phases that lead to long-lived inhomogeneous condensates before reaching an equilibrium phase with homogeneous condensates.

  17. Parametric instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear coupling of three waves in a plasma is considered. One of the waves is assumed large and constant; its amplitude is the parameter of the parametric instability. The spatial-temporal evolution of the other two waves is treated theoretically, in one dimension, by analytic methods and by direct numerical integration of the basic equations. Various monotonic forms of inhomogeneity are considered; agreement with previous work is found and new results are established. Nonmonotonic inhomogeneities are considered, in the form of turbulence and, as a model problem, in the form of a simple sinusoidal modulation. Relatively small amounts of nonmonotonic inhomogeneity, in the presence of a linear density gradient, are found to destabilize the well-known convective saturation, absolute growth occurring instead. (U.S.)

  18. Simple inhomogeneous cosmological (toy) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidro, Eddy G. Chirinos; Zimdahl, Winfried; Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric we consider two flat inhomogeneous big-bang models. We aim at clarifying, as far as possible analytically, basic features of the dynamics of the simplest inhomogeneous models and to point out the potential usefulness of exact inhomogeneous solutions as generalizations of the homogeneous configurations of the cosmological standard model. We discuss explicitly partial successes but also potential pitfalls of these simplest models. Although primarily seen as toy models, the relevant free parameters are fixed by best-fit values using the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA)-sample data. On the basis of a likelihood analysis we find that a local hump with an extension of almost 2 Gpc provides a better description of the observations than a local void for which we obtain a best-fit scale of about 30 Mpc. Future redshift-drift measurements are discussed as a promising tool to discriminate between inhomogeneous configurations and the ΛCDM model.

  19. Quasilinear diffusion in inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooley, D.L.

    1975-05-01

    The problem of inhomogeneous diffusion in a plasma is considered with emphasis on its possible application to relativistic electron beams. A one-dimensional model with a background electrostatic field is used to illustrate the basic approach, which is then extended to a two-dimensional plasma with a background magnetic field. Only preliminary results are available. (U.S.)

  20. Inhomogeneous Markov point processes by transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Nielsen, Linda Stougaard

    2000-01-01

    We construct parametrized models for point processes, allowing for both inhomogeneity and interaction. The inhomogeneity is obtained by applying parametrized transformations to homogeneous Markov point processes. An interesting model class, which can be constructed by this transformation approach......, is that of exponential inhomogeneous Markov point processes. Statistical inference For such processes is discussed in some detail....

  1. Baryon inhomogeneities due to cosmic string wakes at the quark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    abundances of light elements if they persist up to the time of nucleosynthesis. These inhomogeneities ... the creation of compact baryon-rich objects as well as alter the abundances of light ele- ments if they persist up to the time ... The trajectories of collisionless particles bend while passing by the string. They overlap in the ...

  2. Electromagnetic properties of metal-dielectric media and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animilli, Shravan Rakesh

    The main objective of this dissertation is to investigate nano-structured random composite materials, which exhibit anomalous phenomena, such as the extraordinary enhancements of linear and non-linear optical processes due to excitation of collective electronic states, surface plasmons (SP). The main goal is to develop a time and memory efficient novel numerical method to study the properties of these random media in three dimensions (3D) by utilization of multi core processing and packages such as MPI for parallel execution. The developed numerical studies are then utilized to provide a comprehensive characterization and optimization of a surface plasmon enhanced solar cell (SPESC) and to serve as a test bed for enhanced bio and chemical sensing. In this context, this thesis work develops an efficient and exact numerical algorithm here referred to as Block Elimination Method (BE) which provides the unique capability of modeling extremely large scale composite materials (with up to 1 million strongly interacting metal or dielectric particles). This capability is crucial in order to study the electromagnetic response of large scale inhomogeneous (fractal) films and bulk composites at critical concentrations (percolation). The developed numerical method is used to accurately estimate parameters that describe the composite materials, including the effective conductivity and correlation length scaling exponents, as well as density of states and localization length exponents at the band center. This works reveals, for a first time, a unique de-localization mechanism that plays an important role in the excitation of charge-density waves, i.e. surface plasmons (SP), in metal-dielectric composites. It also shows that in 3D metal-dielectric percolation systems the local fields distribution function for frequencies close to the single particle plasmon resonance is log-normal which is a signature of a metal-dielectric phase transition manifested in the optical response of the

  3. Diffusion in inhomogeneous polymer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasargod, Sameer S.; Adib, Farhad; Neogi, P.

    1995-10-01

    The dual mode sorption solubility isotherms assume, and in instances Zimm-Lundberg analysis of the solubilities show, that glassy polymers are heterogeneous and that the distribution of the solute in the polymer is also inhomogeneous. Under some conditions, the heterogeneities cannot be represented as holes. A mathematical model describing diffusion in inhomogeneous polymer membranes is presented using Cahn and Hilliard's gradient theory. The fractional mass uptake is found to be proportional to the fourth root of time rather than the square root, predicted by Fickian diffusion. This type of diffusion is classified as pseudo-Fickian. The model is compared with one experimental result available. A negative value of the persistence factor is obtained and the results are interpreted.

  4. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-04-20

    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...

  5. Inhomogeneities in a Friedmann universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    One of the outstanding problems in cosmology is the growth of inhomogeneities, which are characterized by an anisotropic pressure and density distribution. Following a method developed by McVittie (1967, 1968) it has been possible to find time-dependent spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's field equations containing an arbitrary pressure and density distribution which connect smoothly to a Friedmann universe for any desired equation of state. (author). 5 refs

  6. Control of inhomogeneous materials strength by method of acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Носов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous connection between the results of acoustic emission control and the strength of materials makes acoustic-emission diagnosis ineffective and actualizes the problem of strength and metrological heterogeneity. Inhomogeneity is some deviation from a certain norm. The real object is always heterogeneous, homogeneity is an assumption that simplifies the image of the object and the solution of the tasks associated with it. The need to consider heterogeneity is due to the need to clarify a particular task and is a transition to a more complex level of research. Accounting for heterogeneity requires the definition of its type, criterion and method of evaluation. The type of heterogeneity depends on the problem being solved and should be related to the property that determines the function of the real object, the criterion should be informative, and the way of its evaluation is non-destructive. The complexity of predicting the behavior of heterogeneous materials necessitates the modeling of the destructive process that determines the operability, the formulation of the inhomogeneity criterion, the interpretation of the Kaiser effect, as showing inhomogeneity of the phenomenon of non-reproduction of acoustic emission (AE activity upon repeated loading of the examined object.The article gives an example of modeling strength and metrological heterogeneity, analyzes and estimates the informative effect of the Kaiser effect on the danger degree of state of diagnosed object from the positions of the micromechanical model of time dependencies of AE parameters recorded during loading of structural materials and technical objects.

  7. Observations of localised dielectric excitations, secondary events and ionisation damage by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howie, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) a high intensity /approximately/0.5nm diameter, probe of 100 keV electrons is formed. This can be positioned to collect energy loss spectra from surfaces, interfaces, small spheres or other particles at controlled values of impact parameter or can be scanned across the object (usually a thin film) to produce high resolution images formed from a variety of signals - small angle or large angle (Z contrast) elastic scattering, inelastic scattering (both valence and core losses), secondary electron emission and x-ray or optical photon emission. The high spatial resolution achievable in a variety of simple structures raises many unsolved theoretical problems concerning the generation, propagation and decay of excitations in inhomogeneous media. These range from quite well posed problems in the mathematical physics of dielectric excitation to problems of plasmon propagation and rather more exotic and less well understood problems of radiation damage. 15 refs., 4 figs

  8. Super dielectric capacitor using scaffold dielectric

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Patent A capacitor having first and second electrodes and a scaffold dielectric. The scaffold dielectric comprises an insulating material with a plurality of longitudinal channels extending across the dielectric and filled with a liquid comprising cations and anions. The plurality of longitudinal channels are substantially parallel and the liquid within the longitudinal channels generally has an ionic strength of at least 0.1. Capacitance results from the migrations of...

  9. Inhomogeneous Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, J. F.; Kajino, T.; Mathews, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    We reanalyze the allowed parameters for inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis in light of the WMAP constraints on the baryon-to-photon ratio and a recent measurement which has set the neutron lifetime to be 878.5 +/- 0.7 +/- 0.3 seconds. For a set baryon-to-photon ratio the new lifetime reduces the mass fraction of He4 by 0.0015 but does not significantly change the abundances of other isotopes. This enlarges the region of concordance between He4 and deuterium in the parameter space of the b...

  10. Large scale inhomogeneities and the cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Meszaros, A.

    1984-12-01

    The compatibility of cosmologic principles and possible large scale inhomogeneities of the Universe is discussed. It seems that the strongest symmetry principle which is still compatible with reasonable inhomogeneities, is a full conformal symmetry in the 3-space defined by the cosmological velocity field, but even in such a case, the standard model is isolated from the inhomogeneous ones when the whole evolution is considered. (author)

  11. Inhomogeneous dusty Universes and their deceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Exact results stemming directly from Einstein equations imply that inhomogeneous Universes endowed with vanishing pressure density can only decelerate, unless the energy density of the Universe becomes negative. Recent proposals seem to argue that inhomogeneous (but isotropic) space-times, filled only with incoherent matter,may turn into accelerated Universes for sufficiently late times. To scrutinize these scenarios, fully inhomogeneous Einstein equations are discussed in the synchronous system. In a dust-dominated Universe, the inhomogeneous generalization of the deceleration parameter is always positive semi-definite implying that no acceleration takes place.

  12. Moessbauer spectroscopy of locally inhomogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusakov, V. S.; Kadyrzhanov, K. K.

    2004-01-01

    Substances with characteristic local inhomogeneities - with different from position to position neighborhood and properties of like atoms - gain recently increased scientific attention and wide practical application. We would call a system locally inhomogeneous if atoms in the system are in non-equivalent atomic locations and reveal different properties. Such systems are, first of all, variable composition phases, amorphous, multi-phase, admixture, defect and other systems. LIS are most convenient model objects for studies of structure, charge, and spin atomic states, interatomic interactions, relations between matter properties and its local characteristics as well as for studies of diffusion kinetics, phase formation, crystallization and atomic ordering; all that explains considerable scientific interest in such LIS. Such systems find their practical application due to wide spectrum of useful, and sometimes unique, properties that can be controlled varying character and degree of local inhomogeneity. Moessbauer spectroscopy is one of the most effective methods for investigation of LIS. Local character of obtained information combined with information on cooperative phenomena makes it possible to run investigations impossible for other methods. Moessbauer spectroscopy may provide with abundant information on peculiarities of macro- and microscopic state of matter including that for materials without regular structure. At the same time, analysis, processing and interpretation of Moessbauer spectra for LIS (that are sets of a large amount of partial spectra) face considerable difficulties. Development of computer technique is accompanied with development of mathematical methods used for obtaining physical information from experimental data. The methods make it possible to improve considerably, with some available a priori information, effectiveness of the research. Utilization of up-to-date mathematical methods in Moessbauer spectroscopy requires not only adaptation

  13. Inertial polarization of dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Zavodovsky, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    It was proved that accelerated motion of a linear dielectric causes its polarization. Accelerated translational motion of a dielectric's plate leads to the positive charge of the surface facing the direction of motion. Metal plates of a capacitor were used to register polarized charges on a dielectric's surface. Potential difference between the capacitor plates is proportional to acceleration, when acceleration is constant potential difference grows with the increase of a dielectric's area, o...

  14. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    plate capacitor will reduce the net field to an unprecedented extent. This family of materials can form materials with dielectric values orders of... Capacitor -Increase Area (A)............8 b. Multi-layer Ceramic Capacitor -Decrease Thickness (d) .......10 c. Super Dielectric Material-Increase...circuit modeling, from [44], and B) SDM capacitor charge and discharge ...................................................22 Figure 15. Dielectric

  15. Estimating functions for inhomogeneous Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Estimation methods are reviewed for inhomogeneous Cox processes with tractable first and second order properties. We illustrate the various suggestions by means of data examples.......Estimation methods are reviewed for inhomogeneous Cox processes with tractable first and second order properties. We illustrate the various suggestions by means of data examples....

  16. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  17. A sparsity-regularized Born iterative method for reconstruction of two-dimensional piecewise continuous inhomogeneous domains

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, Ali Imran; Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    A sparsity-regularized Born iterative method (BIM) is proposed for efficiently reconstructing two-dimensional piecewise-continuous inhomogeneous dielectric profiles. Such profiles are typically not spatially sparse, which reduces the efficiency of the sparsity-promoting regularization. To overcome this problem, scattered fields are represented in terms of the spatial derivative of the dielectric profile and reconstruction is carried out over samples of the dielectric profile's derivative. Then, like the conventional BIM, the nonlinear problem is iteratively converted into a sequence of linear problems (in derivative samples) and sparsity constraint is enforced on each linear problem using the thresholded Landweber iterations. Numerical results, which demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method in reconstructing piecewise-continuous dielectric profiles, are presented.

  18. A sparsity-regularized Born iterative method for reconstruction of two-dimensional piecewise continuous inhomogeneous domains

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, Ali Imran

    2016-04-10

    A sparsity-regularized Born iterative method (BIM) is proposed for efficiently reconstructing two-dimensional piecewise-continuous inhomogeneous dielectric profiles. Such profiles are typically not spatially sparse, which reduces the efficiency of the sparsity-promoting regularization. To overcome this problem, scattered fields are represented in terms of the spatial derivative of the dielectric profile and reconstruction is carried out over samples of the dielectric profile\\'s derivative. Then, like the conventional BIM, the nonlinear problem is iteratively converted into a sequence of linear problems (in derivative samples) and sparsity constraint is enforced on each linear problem using the thresholded Landweber iterations. Numerical results, which demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method in reconstructing piecewise-continuous dielectric profiles, are presented.

  19. Observable relations in an inhomogeneous self-similar cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    An exact self-similar solution is taken in general relativity as a model for an inhomogeneous cosmology. The self-similarity property means (conceptually) that the model is scale-free and (mathematically) that its essential parameters are functions of only one dimensionless variable zeta (equivalentct/R, where R and t are distance and time coordinates and c is the velocity of light). It begins inhomogeneous (zeta=0 or t=0), and tends to a homogeneous Einstein--de Sitter type state as zeta (or t) →infinity. Such a model can be used (a) for evaluating the observational effects of a clumpy universe; (b) for studying astrophysical processes such as galaxy formation and the growth and decay of inhomogeneities in initially clumpy cosmologies; and (c) as a relativistic basis for cosmological models with extended clustering of the de Vaucouleurs and Peebles types. The model has two adjustable parameters, namely, the observer's coordinate zeta 0 and a constant α/sub s/ that fixes the effect of the inhomogeneity. Expressions are obtained for the redshift, Hubble parameter, deceleration parameter, magnitude-redshift relation, and (number density of objects) --redshift relation. Expected anisotropies in the 3 K microwave background are also examined. There is no conflict with observation if zeta 0 /α/sub s/> or approx. =10, and four tests of the model are suggested that can be used to further determine the acceptability of inhomogeneous cosmologies of this type. The ratio α/sub s//zeta 0 on presently available data is α/sub s//zeta 0 < or approx. =10% and this, loosely speaking, means that the universe at the present epoch is globally homogeneous to within about 10%

  20. Lattices of dielectric resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Trubin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the analytical theory of complex systems composed of a large number of high-Q dielectric resonators. Spherical and cylindrical dielectric resonators with inferior and also whispering gallery oscillations allocated in various lattices are considered. A new approach to S-matrix parameter calculations based on perturbation theory of Maxwell equations, developed for a number of high-Q dielectric bodies, is introduced. All physical relationships are obtained in analytical form and are suitable for further computations. Essential attention is given to a new unified formalism of the description of scattering processes. The general scattering task for coupled eigen oscillations of the whole system of dielectric resonators is described. The equations for the  expansion coefficients are explained in an applicable way. The temporal Green functions for the dielectric resonator are presented. The scattering process of short pulses in dielectric filter structures, dielectric antennas  and lattices of d...

  1. Top-gate dielectric induced doping and scattering of charge carriers in epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Conor P.; Staley, Neal E.; Moon, Jeong-Sun; Robinson, Joshua A.; Campbell, Paul M.; Tedesco, Joseph L.; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Eddy, Charles R.; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Liu, Ying

    2011-07-01

    We show that an e-gun deposited dielectric impose severe limits on epitaxial graphene-based device performance based on Raman spectroscopy and low-temperature transport measurements. Specifically, we show from studies of epitaxial graphene Hall bars covered by SiO2 that the measured carrier density is strongly inhomogenous and predominantly induced by charged impurities at the grapheme/dielectric interface that limit mobility via Coulomb interactions. Our work emphasizes that material integration of epitaxial graphene and a gate dielectric is the next major road block towards the realization of graphene-based electronics.

  2. Light-induced space-charge fields for the structuration of dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, H.A.

    2006-11-01

    Light-induced space-charge fields in lithium-niobate crystals are used for patterning of dielectric materials. This includes tailored ferroelectric domains in the bulk of the crystal, different sorts of micro and nanoparticles on a crystal surface, as well as poling of electrooptic chromophores. A stochastical model is introduced, which can describe the spatial inhomogeneous domain inversion. (orig.)

  3. Inhomogenous loop quantum cosmology with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-de Bias, D; Mena Marugán, G A; Martín-Benito, M

    2012-01-01

    The linearly polarized Gowdy T 3 model with a massless scalar field with the same symmetries as the metric is quantized by applying a hybrid approach. The homogeneous geometry degrees of freedom are loop quantized, fact which leads to the resolution of the cosmological singularity, while a Fock quantization is employed for both matter and gravitational inhomogeneities. Owing to the inclusion of the massless scalar field this system allows us to modelize flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies filled with inhomogeneities propagating in one direction. It provides a perfect scenario to study the quantum back-reaction between the inhomogeneities and the polymeric homogeneous and isotropic background.

  4. Characterization of dielectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Danny J.; Babinec, Susan; Hagans, Patrick L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Payzant, Edward A.; Daniel, Claus; Sabau, Adrian S.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Howe, Jane Y.; Wood, III, David L.; Nembhard, Nicole S.

    2017-06-27

    A system and a method for characterizing a dielectric material are provided. The system and method generally include applying an excitation signal to electrodes on opposing sides of the dielectric material to evaluate a property of the dielectric material. The method can further include measuring the capacitive impedance across the dielectric material, and determining a variation in the capacitive impedance with respect to either or both of a time domain and a frequency domain. The measured property can include pore size and surface imperfections. The method can still further include modifying a processing parameter as the dielectric material is formed in response to the detected variations in the capacitive impedance, which can correspond to a non-uniformity in the dielectric material.

  5. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri; Polygalov, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions. (paper)

  6. Method of making dielectric capacitors with increased dielectric breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Liu, Shanshan

    2017-05-09

    The invention is directed to a process for making a dielectric ceramic film capacitor and the ceramic dielectric laminated capacitor formed therefrom, the dielectric ceramic film capacitors having increased dielectric breakdown strength. The invention increases breakdown strength by embedding a conductive oxide layer between electrode layers within the dielectric layer of the capacitors. The conductive oxide layer redistributes and dissipates charge, thus mitigating charge concentration and micro fractures formed within the dielectric by electric fields.

  7. Plasma waves in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The complete dispersion equation governing small amplitude plasma waves propagating in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is solved numerically. The efficiency of the wave energy thermalization in the lower hybrid frequency range is studied

  8. The Electrical Breakdown of Thin Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers are being developed for use in actuators, sensors and generators to be used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, the devices are operated at high electrical fields....... This increases the likelihood for electrical breakdown significantly. Hence, for many applications the performance of the dielectric elastomers is limited by this risk of failure, which is triggered by several factors. Amongst others thermal effects may strongly influence the electrical breakdown strength....... In this study, we model the electrothermal breakdown in thin PDMS based dielectric elastomers in order to evaluate the thermal mechanisms behind the electrical failures. The objective is to predict the operation range of PDMS based dielectric elastomers with respect to the temperature at given electric field...

  9. Scattering characteristics of electromagnetic waves in time and space inhomogeneous weakly ionized dusty plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-xin; Chen, Wei; Li, Jiang-ting; Ren, Yi; Liu, Song-hua

    2018-05-01

    The dielectric coefficient of a weakly ionised dusty plasma is used to establish a three-dimensional time and space inhomogeneous dusty plasma sheath. The effects of scattering on electromagnetic (EM) waves in this dusty plasma sheath are investigated using the auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain method. Backward radar cross-sectional values of various parameters, including the dust particle radius, charging frequency of dust particles, dust particle concentration, effective collision frequency, rate of the electron density variation with time, angle of EM wave incidence, and plasma frequency, are analysed within the time and space inhomogeneous plasma sheath. The results show the noticeable effects of dusty plasma parameters on EM waves.

  10. Ehrenfest force in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisakyan, A.N.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Samojlov, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    The Ehrenfest force in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is calculated. It is shown that there exist such (very rare) topologically nontrivial physical situations when the Gauss theorem in its classic formulation fails and, as a consequence, apart from the usual Lorentz force an additional, purely imaginary force acts on the charged particle. This force arises only in inhomogeneous magnetic fields of special configurations, has a purely quantum origin, and disappears in the classical limit

  11. Impact of cosmic inhomogeneities on SNe observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Marra, Valerio

    2010-06-01

    We study the impact of cosmic inhomogeneities on the interpretation of SNe observations. We build an inhomogeneous universe model that can confront supernova data and yet is reasonably well compatible with the Copernican Principle. Our model combines a relatively small local void, that gives apparent acceleration at low redshifts, with a meatball model that gives sizeable lensing (dimming) at high redshifts. Together these two elements, which focus on different effects of voids on the data, allow the model to mimic the concordance model.

  12. Inhomogeneous inflation: The initial-value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, P.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Matzner, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    We present a spatially three-dimensional study for solving the initial-value problem in general relativity for inhomogeneous cosmologies. We use York's conformal approach to solve the constraint equations of Einstein's field equations for scalar field sources and find the initial data which will be used in the evolution. This work constitutes the first stage in the development of a code to analyze the effects of matter and spacetime inhomogeneities on inflation

  13. Perturbed soliton excitations in inhomogeneous DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, M.; Vasumathi, V.

    2005-05-01

    We study nonlinear dynamics of inhomogeneous DNA double helical chain under dynamic plane-base rotator model by considering angular rotation of bases in a plane normal to the helical axis. The DNA dynamics in this case is found to be governed by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation when taking into account the interstrand hydrogen bonding energy and intrastrand inhomogeneous stacking energy and making an analogy with the Heisenberg model of the Hamiltonian for an inhomogeneous anisotropic spin ladder with ferromagnetic legs and antiferromagentic rung coupling. In the homogeneous limit the dynamics is governed by the kink-antikink soliton of the sine-Gordon equation which represents the formation of open state configuration in DNA double helix. The effect of inhomogeneity in stacking energy in the form of localized and periodic variations on the formation of open states in DNA is studied under perturbation. The perturbed soliton is obtained using a multiple scale soliton perturbation theory by solving the associated linear eigen value problem and constructing the complete set of eigen functions. The inhomogeneity in stacking energy is found to modulate the width and speed of the soliton depending on the nature of inhomogeneity. Also it introduces fluctuations in the form of train of pulses or periodic oscillation in the open state configuration (author)

  14. Quantum entanglement in inhomogeneous 1D systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    The entanglement entropy of the ground state of a quantum lattice model with local interactions usually satisfies an area law. However, in 1D systems some violations may appear in inhomogeneous systems or in random systems. In our inhomogeneous system, the inhomogeneity parameter, h, allows us to tune different regimes where a volumetric violation of the area law appears. We apply the strong disorder renormalization group to describe the maximally entangled state of the system in a strong inhomogeneity regime. Moreover, in a weak inhomogeneity regime, we use a continuum approximation to describe the state as a thermo-field double in a conformal field theory with an effective temperature which is proportional to the inhomogeneity parameter of the system. The latter description also shows that the universal scaling features of this model are captured by a massless Dirac fermion in a curved space-time with constant negative curvature R = h2, providing another example of the relation between quantum entanglement and space-time geometry. The results we discuss here were already published before, but here we present a more didactic exposure of basic concepts of the rainbow system for the students attending the Latin American School of Physics "Marcos Moshinsky" 2017.

  15. Random field assessment of nanoscopic inhomogeneity of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X Neil; Luo, Qing; Sparkman, Daniel M; Millwater, Harry R; Wang, Xiaodu

    2010-12-01

    Bone quality is significantly correlated with the inhomogeneous distribution of material and ultrastructural properties (e.g., modulus and mineralization) of the tissue. Current techniques for quantifying inhomogeneity consist of descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. However, these parameters do not describe the spatial variations of bone properties. The objective of this study was to develop a novel statistical method to characterize and quantitatively describe the spatial variation of bone properties at ultrastructural levels. To do so, a random field defined by an exponential covariance function was used to represent the spatial uncertainty of elastic modulus by delineating the correlation of the modulus at different locations in bone lamellae. The correlation length, a characteristic parameter of the covariance function, was employed to estimate the fluctuation of the elastic modulus in the random field. Using this approach, two distribution maps of the elastic modulus within bone lamellae were generated using simulation and compared with those obtained experimentally by a combination of atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation techniques. The simulation-generated maps of elastic modulus were in close agreement with the experimental ones, thus validating the random field approach in defining the inhomogeneity of elastic modulus in lamellae of bone. Indeed, generation of such random fields will facilitate multi-scale modeling of bone in more pragmatic details. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Scattering of inhomogeneous circularly polarized optical field and mechanical manifestation of the internal energy flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekshaev, A. Ya; Angelsky, O. V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    between the forward- and backward-scattered momentum fluxes in the Rayleigh scattering regime appears due to the spin part of the internal energy flow in the incident beam. The transverse ponderomotive forces exerted on dielectric and conducting particles of different sizes are calculated and special......Based on the Mie theory and on the incident beam model via superposition of two plane waves, we analyze numerically the momentum flux of the field scattered by a spherical, nonmagnetic microparticle placed within the spatially inhomogeneous circularly polarized paraxial light beam. The asymmetry...

  17. Contemporary dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with experimental results of the physical characterization of several important, dielectric materials of great current interest. The experimental tools used for the analysis of these materials include X-ray diffraction, dielectric measurements, magnetic measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer, optical measurements using a UV-Visible spectrometer etc.

  18. Dielectric Modulated FET (DMFET)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Working Principle: Change in Dielectric constant due to immobilization of biomolecules in the nanogap cavity leads to change in effective gate capacitance and thus gate bias for FET. Working Principle: Change in Dielectric constant due to immobilization of biomolecules in the ...

  19. Thermal dielectric function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moneta, M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal dielectric functions ε(k,ω) for homogeneous electron gas were determined and discussed. The ground state of the gas is described by the Fermi-Dirac momentum distribution. The low and high temperature limits of ε(k,ω) were related to the Lindhard dielectric function and to ε(k, omega) derived for Boltzmann and for classical momentum distributions, respectively. (author)

  20. Light in complex dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, F.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis the properties of light in complex dielectrics are described, with the two general topics of "modification of spontaneous emission" and "Anderson localization of light". The first part focuses on the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom in a dielectric host with variable

  1. Scattering of electromagnetic wave by the layer with one-dimensional random inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lev; Zaboronkova, Tatiana; Grigoriev, Gennadii., IV.

    A great deal of attention has been paid to the study of probability characteristics of electro-magnetic waves scattered by one-dimensional fluctuations of medium dielectric permittivity. However, the problem of a determination of a density of a probability and average intensity of the field inside the stochastically inhomogeneous medium with arbitrary extension of fluc-tuations has not been considered yet. It is the purpose of the present report to find and to analyze the indicated functions for the plane electromagnetic wave scattered by the layer with one-dimensional fluctuations of permittivity. We assumed that the length and the amplitude of individual fluctuations as well the interval between them are random quantities. All of indi-cated fluctuation parameters are supposed as independent random values possessing Gaussian distribution. We considered the stationary time cases both small-scale and large-scale rarefied inhomogeneities. Mathematically such problem can be reduced to the solution of integral Fred-holm equation of second kind for Hertz potential (U). Using the decomposition of the field into the series of multiply scattered waves we obtained the expression for a probability density of the field of the plane wave and determined the moments of the scattered field. We have shown that all odd moments of the centered field (U-¡U¿) are equal to zero and the even moments depend on the intensity. It was obtained that the probability density of the field possesses the Gaussian distribution. The average field is small compared with the standard fluctuation of scattered field for all considered cases of inhomogeneities. The value of average intensity of the field is an order of a standard of fluctuations of field intensity and drops with increases the inhomogeneities length in the case of small-scale inhomogeneities. The behavior of average intensity is more complicated in the case of large-scale medium inhomogeneities. The value of average intensity is the

  2. Ionic Structure at Dielectric Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yufei

    interfaces using molecular dynamics(MD) simulations and compared it with liquid state theory result. We explore the effects of high electrolyte concentrations, multivalent ions, and dielectric contrasts on the ionic distributions. We observe the presence of non-monotonous ionic density profiles leading to structure deformation in the fluid which is attributed to the competition between electrostatic and steric (entropic) interactions. We find that thermal forces that arise from symmetry breaking at the interfaces can have a profound effect on the ionic structure and can oftentimes overwhelm the influence of dielectric discontinuity. The combined effect of ionic correlations and inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity significantly changes the character of effective interaction between two interfaces. We show that, in concentrated electrolytes with confinement, it is imperative to take into account the finite-size of the ions as well as proper description of electrostatic interactions in heterogeneous media, which is not fully fulfilled by Poisson-Boltzmann based approaches. The effect of electric field at interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions is studied as well. The classical Poisson-Boltzmann theory has been widely used to describe the corresponding ionic distribution, even though it neglects the polarization and ion correlations typical of these charged systems. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we provide an enhanced description of an oil-water interface in the presence of an electric field without needing any adjustable parameter, including realistic ionic sizes, ion correlations, and image charges. Our data agree with experimental measurements of excess surface tension for a wide range of electrolyte concentrations of LiCl and TBATPB (tetrabutylammonium-tetraphenylborate), contrasting with the result of the classical non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. More importantly, we show that the size-asymmetry between small Li+ and large Cl- ions can significantly

  3. Inhomogeneous target-dose distributions: a dimension more for optimization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersem, Werner R.T. de; Derycke, Sylvie; Colle, Christophe O.; Wagter, Carlos de; Neve, Wilfried J. de

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if the use of inhomogeneous target-dose distributions, obtained by 3D conformal radiotherapy plans with or without beam intensity modulation, offers the possibility to decrease indices of toxicity to normal tissues and/or increase indices of tumor control stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Ten patients with stage III NSCLC were planned using a conventional 3D technique and a technique involving noncoplanar beam intensity modulation (BIM). Two planning target volumes (PTVs) were defined: PTV1 included macroscopic tumor volume and PTV2 included macroscopic and microscopic tumor volume. Virtual simulation defined the beam shapes and incidences as well as the wedge orientations (3D) and segment outlines (BIM). Weights of wedged beams, unwedged beams, and segments were determined by optimization using an objective function with a biological and a physical component. The biological component included tumor control probability (TCP) for PTV1 (TCP1), PTV2 (TCP2), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for lung, spinal cord, and heart. The physical component included the maximum and minimum dose as well as the standard deviation of the dose at PTV1. The most inhomogeneous target-dose distributions were obtained by using only the biological component of the objective function (biological optimization). By enabling the physical component in addition to the biological component, PTV1 inhomogeneity was reduced (biophysical optimization). As indices for toxicity to normal tissues, NTCP-values as well as maximum doses or dose levels to relevant fractions of the organ's volume were used. As indices for tumor control, TCP-values as well as minimum doses to the PTVs were used. Results: When optimization was performed with the biophysical as compared to the biological objective function, the PTV1 inhomogeneity decreased from 13 (8-23)% to 4 (2-9)% for the 3D-(p = 0.00009) and from 44 (33-56)% to 20 (9-34)% for the BIM

  4. Linear and ultrafast nonlinear plasmonics of single nano-objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crut, Aurélien; Maioli, Paolo; Vallée, Fabrice; Del Fatti, Natalia

    2017-03-01

    Single-particle optical investigations have greatly improved our understanding of the fundamental properties of nano-objects, avoiding the spurious inhomogeneous effects that affect ensemble experiments. Correlation with high-resolution imaging techniques providing morphological information (e.g. electron microscopy) allows a quantitative interpretation of the optical measurements by means of analytical models and numerical simulations. In this topical review, we first briefly recall the principles underlying some of the most commonly used single-particle optical techniques: near-field, dark-field, spatial modulation and photothermal microscopies/spectroscopies. We then focus on the quantitative investigation of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of metallic nano-objects using linear and ultrafast optical techniques. While measured SPR positions and spectral areas are found in good agreement with predictions based on Maxwell’s equations, SPR widths are strongly influenced by quantum confinement (or, from a classical standpoint, surface-induced electron scattering) and, for small nano-objects, cannot be reproduced using the dielectric functions of bulk materials. Linear measurements on single nano-objects (silver nanospheres and gold nanorods) allow a quantification of the size and geometry dependences of these effects in confined metals. Addressing the ultrafast response of an individual nano-object is also a powerful tool to elucidate the physical mechanisms at the origin of their optical nonlinearities, and their electronic, vibrational and thermal relaxation processes. Experimental investigations of the dynamical response of gold nanorods are shown to be quantitatively modeled in terms of modifications of the metal dielectric function enhanced by plasmonic effects. Ultrafast spectroscopy can also be exploited to unveil hidden physical properties of more complex nanosystems. In this context, two-color femtosecond pump-probe experiments performed on individual

  5. Improved Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.; Cygan, Peter J.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Dielectric films made from blends of some commercially available high-dielectric-constant cyanoresins with each other and with cellulose triacetate (CTA) have both high dielectric constants and high breakdown strengths. Dielectric constants as high as 16.2. Films used to produce high-energy-density capacitors.

  6. Traveltime approximations for inhomogeneous HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Traveltimes information is convenient for parameter estimation especially if the medium is described by an anisotropic set of parameters. This is especially true if we could relate traveltimes analytically to these medium parameters, which is generally hard to do in inhomogeneous media. As a result, I develop traveltimes approximations for horizontaly transversely isotropic (HTI) media as simplified and even linear functions of the anisotropic parameters. This is accomplished by perturbing the solution of the HTI eikonal equation with respect to η and the azimuthal symmetry direction (usually used to describe the fracture direction) from a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. The resulting approximations can provide accurate analytical description of the traveltime in a homogenous background compared to other published moveout equations out there. These equations will allow us to readily extend the inhomogenous background elliptical anisotropic model to an HTI with a variable, but smoothly varying, η and horizontal symmetry direction values. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  7. Assessment of inhomogeneous ELF magnetic field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    In daily life as well as at workplaces, exposures to inhomogeneous magnetic fields become very frequent. This makes easily applicable compliance assessment methods increasingly important. Reference levels have been defined linking basic restrictions to levels of homogeneous fields at worst-case exposure conditions. If reference levels are met, compliance with basic restrictions can be assumed. If not, further investigations could still prove compliance. Because of the lower induction efficiency, inhomogeneous magnetic fields such as from electric appliances could be allowed exceeding reference levels. To easily assess inhomogeneous magnetic fields, a quick and flexible multi-step assessment procedure is proposed. On the basis of simulations with numerical, anatomical human models reference factors were calculated elevating reference levels to link hot-spot values measured at source surfaces to basic limits and allowing accounting for different source distance, size, orientation and position. Compliance rules are proposed minimising assessment efforts. (authors)

  8. Inhomogeneous Markov Models for Describing Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Emil Banning; Møller, Jan K.; Morales, Juan Miguel

    2017-01-01

    . Specifically, an inhomogeneous Markov model that captures the diurnal variation in the use of a vehicle is presented. The model is defined by the time-varying probabilities of starting and ending a trip, and is justified due to the uncertainty associated with the use of the vehicle. The model is fitted to data...... collected from the actual utilization of a vehicle. Inhomogeneous Markov models imply a large number of parameters. The number of parameters in the proposed model is reduced using B-splines....

  9. Inhomogeneous Markov Models for Describing Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    . Specically, an inhomogeneous Markov model that captures the diurnal variation in the use of a vehicle is presented. The model is dened by the time-varying probabilities of starting and ending a trip and is justied due to the uncertainty associated with the use of the vehicle. The model is tted to data...... collected from the actual utilization of a vehicle. Inhomogeneous Markov models imply a large number of parameters. The number of parameters in the proposed model is reduced using B-splines....

  10. Moving inhomogeneous envelopes of stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oskinova, L.M.; Kubátová, Brankica; Hamann, W.-R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 183, Special Issue (2016), s. 100-112 ISSN 0022-4073. [International Conference on Radiation Mechanisms of Astrophysical Objects - Classics Today. St. Petersburg, 21.09.2016-25.09.2016] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars * mass-loss * winds Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.419, year: 2016

  11. Dielectric materials for electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Vega, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Part 1 is particularly concerned with physical properties, electrical ageing and modeling with topics such as the physics of charged dielectric materials, conduction mechanisms, dielectric relaxation, space charge, electric ageing and life end models and dielectric experimental characterization. Part 2 concerns some applications specific to dielectric materials: insulating oils for transformers, electrorheological fluids, electrolytic capacitors, ionic membranes, photovoltaic conversion, dielectric thermal control coatings for geostationary satellites, plastics recycling and piezoelectric poly

  12. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David M [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H M [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  13. Optics of dielectric microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    From the work carried out within the ph.d. project two topics have been selected for this thesis, namely emission of radiation by sources in dielectric microstructures, and planar photonic crystal waveguides. The work done within the first topic, emission of radiation by sources in dielectric...... microstructures, will be presented in the part I of this thesis consisting of the chapters 2-5. An introductions is given in chapter 2. In part I three methods are presented for calculating spontaneous and classical emission from sources in dielectric microstructures. The first method presented in chapter 3...... is based on the Fermi Golden Rule, and spontaneous emission from emitters in a passive dielectric microstructure is calculated by summing over the emission into each electromagnetic mode of the radiation field. This method is applied to investigate spontaneous emission in a two-dimensional photonic crystal...

  14. Electrostatic correlations in inhomogeneous charged fluids beyond loop expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Achim, C V; Ala-Nissila, T

    2012-09-14

    Electrostatic correlation effects in inhomogeneous symmetric electrolytes are investigated within a previously developed electrostatic self-consistent theory [R. R. Netz and H. Orland, Eur. Phys. J. E 11, 301 (2003)]. To this aim, we introduce two computational approaches that allow to solve the self-consistent equations beyond the loop expansion. The first method is based on a perturbative Green's function technique, and the second one is an extension of a previously introduced semiclassical approximation for single dielectric interfaces to the case of slit nanopores. Both approaches can handle the case of dielectrically discontinuous boundaries where the one-loop theory is known to fail. By comparing the theoretical results obtained from these schemes with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations that we ran for ions at neutral single dielectric interfaces, we first show that the weak coupling Debye-Huckel theory remains quantitatively accurate up to the bulk ion density ρ(b) ≃ 0.01 M, whereas the self-consistent theory exhibits a good quantitative accuracy up to ρ(b) ≃ 0.2 M, thus improving the accuracy of the Debye-Huckel theory by one order of magnitude in ionic strength. Furthermore, we compare the predictions of the self-consistent theory with previous Monte Carlo simulation data for charged dielectric interfaces and show that the proposed approaches can also accurately handle the correlation effects induced by the surface charge in a parameter regime where the mean-field result significantly deviates from the Monte Carlo data. Then, we derive from the perturbative self-consistent scheme the one-loop theory of asymmetrically partitioned salt systems around a dielectrically homogeneous charged surface. It is shown that correlation effects originate in these systems from a competition between the salt screening loss at the interface driving the ions to the bulk region, and the interfacial counterion screening excess attracting them towards the surface

  15. Electrostatic correlations in inhomogeneous charged fluids beyond loop expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Achim, C. V.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2012-09-01

    Electrostatic correlation effects in inhomogeneous symmetric electrolytes are investigated within a previously developed electrostatic self-consistent theory [R. R. Netz and H. Orland, Eur. Phys. J. E 11, 301 (2003)], 10.1140/epje/i2002-10159-0. To this aim, we introduce two computational approaches that allow to solve the self-consistent equations beyond the loop expansion. The first method is based on a perturbative Green's function technique, and the second one is an extension of a previously introduced semiclassical approximation for single dielectric interfaces to the case of slit nanopores. Both approaches can handle the case of dielectrically discontinuous boundaries where the one-loop theory is known to fail. By comparing the theoretical results obtained from these schemes with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations that we ran for ions at neutral single dielectric interfaces, we first show that the weak coupling Debye-Huckel theory remains quantitatively accurate up to the bulk ion density ρb ≃ 0.01 M, whereas the self-consistent theory exhibits a good quantitative accuracy up to ρb ≃ 0.2 M, thus improving the accuracy of the Debye-Huckel theory by one order of magnitude in ionic strength. Furthermore, we compare the predictions of the self-consistent theory with previous Monte Carlo simulation data for charged dielectric interfaces and show that the proposed approaches can also accurately handle the correlation effects induced by the surface charge in a parameter regime where the mean-field result significantly deviates from the Monte Carlo data. Then, we derive from the perturbative self-consistent scheme the one-loop theory of asymmetrically partitioned salt systems around a dielectrically homogeneous charged surface. It is shown that correlation effects originate in these systems from a competition between the salt screening loss at the interface driving the ions to the bulk region, and the interfacial counterion screening excess attracting

  16. Light-induced space-charge fields for the structuration of dielectric materials; Lichtinduzierte Raumladungsfelder zur Strukturierung dielektrischer Materialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, H A

    2006-11-15

    Light-induced space-charge fields in lithium-niobate crystals are used for patterning of dielectric materials. This includes tailored ferroelectric domains in the bulk of the crystal, different sorts of micro and nanoparticles on a crystal surface, as well as poling of electrooptic chromophores. A stochastical model is introduced, which can describe the spatial inhomogeneous domain inversion. (orig.)

  17. No hair theorem for inhomogeneous cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, L.G.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    We show that under very general conditions any inhomogeneous cosmological model with a positive cosmological constant, that can be described in a synchronous reference system will tend asymptotically in time towards the de Sitter solution. This is shown to be relevant in the context of inflationary models as it makes inflation very weakly dependent on initial conditions. 8 refs

  18. Critical behavior in inhomogeneous random graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der R.W.

    2013-01-01

    We study the critical behavior of inhomogeneous random graphs in the so-called rank-1 case, where edges are present independently but with unequal edge occupation probabilities. The edge occupation probabilities are moderated by vertex weights, and are such that the degree of vertex i is close in

  19. Critical behavior in inhomogeneous random graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der R.W.

    2009-01-01

    We study the critical behavior of inhomogeneous random graphs where edges are present independently but with unequal edge occupation probabilities. We show that the critical behavior depends sensitively on the properties of the asymptotic degrees. Indeed, when the proportion of vertices with degree

  20. Electron Beam interaction with an inhomogeneous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki, N G; El-Shorbagy, Kh H [Plasma physics and Nuclear Fusion Dept. Nuclear Research Centre Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The linear and nonlinear interaction of an electron beam with an inhomogeneous semi bounded warm plasma is investigated. The amount of energy absorbed by the plasma is obtained. The formation of waves at double frequency at the inlet of the beam into the plasma is also considered.

  1. Inhomogeneous Pre-Big Bang String Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    1997-01-01

    An inhomogeneous version of pre--Big Bang cosmology emerges, within string theory, from quite generic initial conditions, provided they lie deeply inside the weak-coupling, low-curvature regime. Large-scale homogeneity, flatness, and isotropy appear naturally as late-time outcomes of such an evolution.

  2. Optical inhomogeneity developing in flashlamp photolysis lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, B V; Borovkov, V V; Brodskii, A Ya; Lazhintsev, B V; Nor-Arevian, V A; Sukhanov, L V

    1980-07-01

    The paper discusses the dynamics of optical inhomogenity developing in the active medium of a high-power flashlamp-pumped photolysis laser in inverse population storage, fast inversion suppression, and free-running lasing regimes. A chemical component of the refractive index was found in a C3F7I photolysis experiment, along with the anomalous growth of a gas refractive index.

  3. Effective dielectric functions of samples obtained by evaporation of alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, J.; Grosse, P.; Theiss, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the dielectric properties of inhomogeneous samples consisting of small alkali halide particles (NaCl, KBr) on gold-coated substrates. Our reflection measurements in the far infrared can be simulated as a thin layer of the power with an effective dielectric function on a perfectly reflecting substrate. Scanning electron micrographs provide useful information about sample topology. Several mixing formulas (e.g. the Maxwell-Garnett, the Bruggeman- and the Looyenga-formula) lead to effective dielectric functions neglecting the individual arrangement of the particles. The essence of our work is that, in contrast, the general ansatz of the Bergman spectral representation has to be employed in order to take into account topology effects on the dielectric function based on the so-called spectral density g adjustable to the specific situation. (orig.)

  4. Axi-symmetric analysis of vertically inhomogeneous elastic multilayered systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available primary resilient responses are investigated by way of worked examples of hypothetical three-layer system, which was analyzed by considering homogenous and inhomogeneous material properties in each of the three layers. Effect of a inhomogeneity parameter...

  5. Full-wave solution of short impulses in inhomogeneous plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media will be presented on a fundamentally new, ... The general problem of wave propagation of monochromatic signals in inhomogeneous media was enlightened in [1]. ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  6. Metrical theorems on systems of small inhomogeneous linear forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Kristensen, Simon

    In this paper we establish complete Khintchine-Groshev and Schmidt type theorems for inhomogeneous small linear forms in the so-called doubly metric case, in which the inhomogeneous parameter is not fixed.......In this paper we establish complete Khintchine-Groshev and Schmidt type theorems for inhomogeneous small linear forms in the so-called doubly metric case, in which the inhomogeneous parameter is not fixed....

  7. Propagation of strong electromagnetic beams in inhomogeneous plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale)

    1980-09-01

    We study some simple aspects of nonlinear propagation of relativistically strong electromagnetic beams in inhomogeneous plasmas, especially in connection with effects of beam self-trapping in extended extragalactic radio sources. The two effects of (i) long scale longitudinal and radial inhomogeneities inherent to the plasma and (ii) radial inhomogeneities produced by the ponderomotive force of the beam itself are investigated.

  8. Dynamics of an inhomogeneous anisotropic antiferromagnetic spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, M.; Amuda, R.

    1994-11-01

    We investigate the nonlinear spin excitations in the two sublattice model of a one dimensional classical continuum Heisenberg inhomogeneous antiferromagnetic spin chain. The dynamics of the inhomogeneous chain reduces to that of its homogeneous counterpart when the inhomogeneity assumes a particular form. Apart from the usual twists and pulses, we obtain some planar configurations representing the nonlinear dynamics of spins. (author). 12 refs

  9. Super Dielectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromille, Samuel; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-12-22

    Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 10⁵ at low frequency (dielectric materials (SDM), can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 10⁸ in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 10⁴. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc. ), filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution), herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS) capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å) of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to "short" the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass "supercapacitors" in volumetric energy density.

  10. Super Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fromille

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 105 at low frequency (<10−2 Hz, herein called super dielectric materials (SDM, can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 108 in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 104. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc., filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution, herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to “short” the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass “supercapacitors” in volumetric energy density.

  11. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities (>1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark...... is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between...... the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge...

  12. Electron dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogaret, Alain, E-mail: A.R.Nogaret@bath.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-30

    This review explores the dynamics of two-dimensional electrons in magnetic potentials that vary on scales smaller than the mean free path. The physics of microscopically inhomogeneous magnetic fields relates to important fundamental problems in the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity, spintronics and graphene physics and spins out promising applications which will be described here. After introducing the initial work done on electron localization in random magnetic fields, the experimental methods for fabricating magnetic potentials are presented. Drift-diffusion phenomena are then described, which include commensurability oscillations, magnetic channelling, resistance resonance effects and magnetic dots. We then review quantum phenomena in magnetic potentials including magnetic quantum wires, magnetic minibands in superlattices, rectification by snake states, quantum tunnelling and Klein tunnelling. The third part is devoted to spintronics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This covers spin filtering by magnetic field gradients and circular magnetic fields, electrically induced spin resonance, spin resonance fluorescence and coherent spin manipulation. (topical review)

  13. A nonquasiclassical description of inhomogeneous superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, A.D.; Panyukov, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Exact microscopic equations are derived that make it possible to describe inhomogeneous superconductors when the quasi-classical approach is not suitable. These equations are simpler than the Gorkov equations. The authors generalize the derived equations for describing the nonequilibrium states of inhomogeneous superconductors. It is demonstrated that the derived equations (including the case of a nonequilibrium quasi particle distribution function) may be written in the form of linear differential equations for the simultaneous wave function μ, ν. The quasi-classical limit of such equations is examined. Effective boundary conditions are derived for the μ, ν functions that allow description of superconductors with a sharp change in parameters within the scope of the quasi-classical approach

  14. Inhomogeneities from quantum collapse scheme without inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cañate, Pedro, E-mail: pedro.canate@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Sudarsky, Daniel, E-mail: sudarsky@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-04-09

    In this work, we consider the problem of the emergence of seeds of cosmic structure in the framework of the non-inflationary model proposed by Hollands and Wald. In particular, we consider a modification to that proposal designed to account for breaking the symmetries of the initial quantum state, leading to the generation of the primordial inhomogeneities. This new ingredient is described in terms of a spontaneous reduction of the wave function. We investigate under which conditions one can recover an essentially scale free spectrum of primordial inhomogeneities, and which are the dominant deviations that arise in the model as a consequence of the introduction of the collapse of the quantum state into that scenario.

  15. Equilibrium and stability in strongly inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1978-10-01

    The equilibrium of strongly inhomogeneous, collisionless, slab plasmas, is studied using a generalized version of a formalism previously developed, which permits the generation of self-consistent equilibria, for plasmas with arbitrary magnetic shear, and variation of magnetic field strength. A systematic procedure is developed for deriving the form of the guiding-center Hamiltonian K, for finite eta, in an axisymmetric geometry. In the process of obtaining K, an expression for the first adiabatic invariant (the gyroaction) is obtained, which generalizes the usual expression 1/2 mv/sub perpendicular/ 2 /Ω/sub c/ (Ω/sub c/ = eB/mc), to finite eta and magnetic shear. A formalism is developed for the study of the stability of strongly-inhomogeneous, magnetized slab plasmas; it is then applied to the ion-drift-cyclotron instability

  16. Primordial inhomogeneities from massive defects during inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Karami, Asieh; Rostami, Tahereh, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: karami@ipm.ir, E-mail: t.rostami@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    We consider the imprints of local massive defects, such as a black hole or a massive monopole, during inflation. The massive defect breaks the background homogeneity. We consider the limit that the physical Schwarzschild radius of the defect is much smaller than the inflationary Hubble radius so a perturbative analysis is allowed. The inhomogeneities induced in scalar and gravitational wave power spectrum are calculated. We obtain the amplitudes of dipole, quadrupole and octupole anisotropies in curvature perturbation power spectrum and identify the relative configuration of the defect to CMB sphere in which large observable dipole asymmetry can be generated. We observe a curious reflection symmetry in which the configuration where the defect is inside the CMB comoving sphere has the same inhomogeneous variance as its mirror configuration where the defect is outside the CMB sphere.

  17. Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, P M; Crowley, B J B; Gericke, D O; Regan, S P; Gregori, G

    2016-04-12

    Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems.

  18. Cosmic acceleration driven by mirage inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galfard, Christophe [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Germani, Cristiano [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Kehagias, Alex [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece)

    2006-03-21

    A cosmological model based on an inhomogeneous D3-brane moving in an AdS{sub 5} x S{sub 5} bulk is introduced. Although there are no special points in the bulk, the brane universe has a centre and is isotropic around it. The model has an accelerating expansion and its effective cosmological constant is inversely proportional to the distance from the centre, giving a possible geometrical origin for the smallness of a present-day cosmological constant. Besides, if our model is considered as an alternative of early-time acceleration, it is shown that the early stage accelerating phase ends in a dust-dominated FRW homogeneous universe. Mirage-driven acceleration thus provides a dark matter component for the brane universe final state. We finally show that the model fulfils the current constraints on inhomogeneities.

  19. Inflation and inhomogeneities: a hybrid quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmedo, J; Fernández-Méndez, M; Mena Marugán, G A

    2012-01-01

    We provide a complete quantization of a homogeneous and isotropic spacetime with positive spatial curvature coupled to a massive scalar field in the framework of Loop Quantum Cosmology. The physical Hilbert space is constructed out of the space of initial data on the minimum volume section. By means of a perturbative treatment we introduce inhomogeneities and thereafter we adopt a hybrid quantum approach, in which these inhomogeneous degrees of freedom are described by a standard Fock quantization. For the considered case of compact spatial topology, the requirements of: i) invariance of the vacuum state under the spatial isometries, and ii) unitary implementation of the quantum dynamics, pick up a privileged set of canonical fields and a unique Fock representation (up to unitary equivalence).

  20. Use of the shearing interferometry for dense inhomogeneous plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharenkov, Yu.A.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Shikanov, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is a possibility of applying the shearing interferometry for diagnostics of a dense inhomogeneous laser plasma which makes it possible to measure the electron density without losses in accuracy near the critical surface. A shearing interferogram is formed upon interference of two identical images of the object under study shifted at some fixed distance. The value of the interference band deflection inside phase inhomogeneity depends on the gradient of the index of refraction in the direction of shift. It has been found that for studying the inner region of the laser plasma a small shift should be used, and for the external one - a large one. The version of a radial shift interferometry is shown to be optimum. For the inner region of the interferogram the error of the electron density restoration does not exceed 10%, and for the external one the error is comparable with that for the version of standard interferometry. A systematic analysis of the optimum type interferometers shows advantages of shearing interferometers. The maximum electron density recorded in experiments makes up approximately equal to 10 20 cm -3 , which is 3-5 times higher than the corresponding value obtained by a standard double-slit type interferometer at equal limiting parameters of the optical system applied

  1. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  2. On dielectric breakdown statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncer, Enis; James, D Randy; Sauers, Isidor; Ellis, Alvin R; Pace, Marshall O

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dielectric breakdown data of some insulating materials and focus on the applicability of the two- and three-parameter Weibull distributions. A new distribution function is also proposed. In order to assess the model distribution's trustworthiness, we employ the Monte Carlo technique and, randomly selecting data-subsets from the whole dielectric breakdown data, determine whether the selected probability functions accurately describe the breakdown data. The utility and strength of the proposed expression are illustrated distinctly by the numerical procedure. The proposed expression is shown to be a valuable alternative to the Weibull ones

  3. Radiation transport in statistically inhomogeneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukhminskij, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of radiation transfer in statistically inhomogeneous rocks. Account has been taken of the statistical character of rock composition through randomization of density. Formulas are summarized for sigma-distribution, homogeneous density, the Simpson and Cauchy distributions. Consideration is given to the statistics of mean square ranges in a medium, simulated by the jump Markov random function. A quantitative criterion of rock heterogeneity is proposed

  4. Diffusion MRI: Mitigation of Magnetic Field Inhomogeneities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcon, P.; Bartušek, Karel; Dokoupil, Zdeněk; Gescheidtová, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2012), s. 205-212 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP102/11/0318; GA ČR GAP102/12/1104 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : correction * diffusion * inhomogeneity * eddy currents * magnetic resonance Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2012

  5. Cliques in dense inhomogenous random graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Martin; Hladký, Jan; Máthé, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), s. 275-314 ISSN 1042-9832 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : inhomogeneous random graphs * clique number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.243, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ rsa .20715/abstract

  6. Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.

  7. Cliques in dense inhomogenous random graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Martin; Hladký, Jan; Máthé, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), s. 275-314 ISSN 1042-9832 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : inhomogeneous random graphs * clique number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.243, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rsa.20715/abstract

  8. Process Modeling With Inhomogeneous Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machorro, R.; Macleod, H. A.; Jacobson, M. R.

    1986-12-01

    Designers of optical multilayer coatings commonly assume that the individual layers will be ideally homogeneous and isotropic. In practice, it is very difficult to control the conditions involved in the complex evaporation process sufficiently to produce such ideal films. Clearly, changes in process parameters, such as evaporation rate, chamber pressure, and substrate temperature, affect the microstructure of the growing film, frequently producing inhomogeneity in structure or composition. In many cases, these effects are interdependent, further complicating the situation. However, this process can be simulated on powerful, interactive, and accessible microcomputers. In this work, we present such a model and apply it to estimate the influence of an inhomogeneous layer on multilayer performance. Presently, the program simulates film growth, thermal expansion and contraction, and thickness monitoring procedures, and includes the effects of uncertainty in these parameters or noise. Although the model is being developed to cover very general cases, we restrict the present discussion to isotropic and nondispersive quarterwave layers to understand the particular effects of inhomogeneity. We studied several coating designs and related results and tolerances to variations in evaporation conditions. The model is composed of several modular subprograms, is written in Fortran, and is executed on an IBM-PC with 640 K of memory. The results can be presented in graphic form on a monochrome monitor. We are currently installing and implementing color capability to improve the clarity of the multidimensional output.

  9. Inhomogeneities and the Modeling of Radio Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björnsson, C.-I.; Keshavarzi, S. T., E-mail: bjornsson@astro.su.se [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE–106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-05-20

    Observations of radio supernovae (SNe) often exhibit characteristics not readily accounted for by a homogeneous, spherically symmetric synchrotron model; e.g., flat-topped spectra/light curves. It is shown that many of these deviations from the standard model can be attributed to an inhomogeneous source structure. When inhomogeneities are present, the deduced radius of the source and, hence, the shock velocity, is sensitive to the details of the modeling. As the inhomogeneities are likely to result from the same mechanism that amplify the magnetic field, a comparison between observations and the detailed numerical simulations now under way may prove mutually beneficial. It is argued that the radio emission in Type Ib/c SNe has a small volume filling factor and comes from a narrow region associated with the forward shock, while the radio emission region in SN 1993J (Type IIb) is determined by the extent of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability emanating from the contact discontinuity. Attention is also drawn to the similarities between radio SNe and the structural properties of SN remnants.

  10. INHOMOGENEOUS NEARLY INCOMPRESSIBLE DESCRIPTION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    The nearly incompressible theory of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is formulated in the presence of a static large-scale inhomogeneous background. The theory is an inhomogeneous generalization of the homogeneous nearly incompressible MHD description of Zank and Matthaeus and a polytropic equation of state is assumed. The theory is primarily developed to describe solar wind turbulence where the assumption of a composition of two-dimensional (2D) and slab turbulence with the dominance of the 2D component has been used for some time. It was however unclear, if in the presence of a large-scale inhomogeneous background, the dominant component will also be mainly 2D and we consider three distinct MHD regimes for the plasma beta β > 1. For regimes appropriate to the solar wind (β 2 s δp is not valid for the leading-order O(M) density fluctuations, and therefore in observational studies, the density fluctuations should not be analyzed through the pressure fluctuations. The pseudosound relation is valid only for higher order O(M 2 ) density fluctuations, and then only for short-length scales and fast timescales. The spectrum of the leading-order density fluctuations should be modeled as k -5/3 in the inertial range, followed by a Bessel function solution K ν (k), where for stationary turbulence ν = 1, in the viscous-convective and diffusion range. Other implications for solar wind turbulence with an emphasis on the evolution of density fluctuations are also discussed.

  11. Rotational inhomogeneities from pre-big bang?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the rotational inhomogeneities is investigated in the specific framework of four-dimensional pre-big bang models. While minimal (dilaton-driven) scenarios do not lead to rotational fluctuations, in the case of non-minimal (string-driven) models, fluid sources are present in the pre-big bang phase. The rotational modes of the geometry, coupled to the divergenceless part of the velocity field, can then be amplified depending upon the value of the barotropic index of the perfect fluids. In the light of a possible production of rotational inhomogeneities, solutions describing the coupled evolution of the dilaton field and of the fluid sources are scrutinized in both the string and Einstein frames. In semi-realistic scenarios, where the curvature divergences are regularized by means of a non-local dilaton potential, the rotational inhomogeneities are amplified during the pre-big bang phase but they decay later on. Similar analyses can also be performed when a contraction occurs directly in the string frame metric

  12. Inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy and big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmire, Scott E.; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    We examine big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in the case of inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy, in the limit where the fluctuations are sufficiently small on large length scales that the present-day element abundances are homogeneous. We consider two representative cases: degeneracy of the electron neutrino alone and equal chemical potentials for all three neutrinos. We use a linear programming method to constrain an arbitrary distribution of the chemical potentials. For the current set of (highly restrictive) limits on the primordial element abundances, homogeneous neutrino degeneracy barely changes the allowed range of the baryon-to-photon ratio η. Inhomogeneous degeneracy allows for little change in the lower bound on η, but the upper bound in this case can be as large as η=1.1x10 -8 (only ν e degeneracy) or η=1.0x10 -9 (equal degeneracies for all three neutrinos). For the case of inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy, we show that there is no BBN upper bound on the neutrino energy density, which is bounded in this case only by limits from structure formation and the cosmic microwave background. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  13. Rotational inhomogeneities from pre-big bang?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2005-01-21

    The evolution of the rotational inhomogeneities is investigated in the specific framework of four-dimensional pre-big bang models. While minimal (dilaton-driven) scenarios do not lead to rotational fluctuations, in the case of non-minimal (string-driven) models, fluid sources are present in the pre-big bang phase. The rotational modes of the geometry, coupled to the divergenceless part of the velocity field, can then be amplified depending upon the value of the barotropic index of the perfect fluids. In the light of a possible production of rotational inhomogeneities, solutions describing the coupled evolution of the dilaton field and of the fluid sources are scrutinized in both the string and Einstein frames. In semi-realistic scenarios, where the curvature divergences are regularized by means of a non-local dilaton potential, the rotational inhomogeneities are amplified during the pre-big bang phase but they decay later on. Similar analyses can also be performed when a contraction occurs directly in the string frame metric.

  14. Numerical study of the lateral resolution in electrostatic force microscopy for dielectric samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, C; AlegrIa, A; Colmenero, J; Schwartz, G A; Saenz, J J

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the lateral resolution in electrostatic force microscopy for dielectric samples in both force and gradient modes. Whereas previous studies have reported expressions for metallic surfaces having potential heterogeneities (Kelvin probe force microscopy), in this work we take into account the presence of a dielectric medium. We introduce a definition of the lateral resolution based on the force due to a test particle being either a point charge or a polarizable particle on the dielectric surface. The behaviour has been studied over a wide range of typical experimental parameters: tip-sample distance (1-20) nm, sample thickness (0-5) μm and dielectric constant (1-20), using the numerical simulation of the equivalent charge method. For potential heterogeneities on metallic surfaces expressions are in agreement with the bibliography. The lateral resolution of samples having a dielectric constant of more than 10 tends to metallic behaviour. We found a characteristic thickness of 100 nm, above which the lateral resolution measured on the dielectric surface is close to that of an infinite medium. As previously reported, the lateral resolution is better in the gradient mode than in the force mode. Finally, we showed that for the same experimental conditions, the lateral resolution is better for a polarizable particle than for a charge, i.e. dielectric heterogeneities should always look 'sharper' (better resolved) than inhomogeneous charge distributions. This fact should be taken into account when interpreting images of heterogeneous samples.

  15. Numerical study of the lateral resolution in electrostatic force microscopy for dielectric samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, C; AlegrIa, A; Colmenero, J [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales UPV/EHU, Facultad de Quimica, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Schwartz, G A [Centro de Fisica de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Saenz, J J, E-mail: riedel@ies.univ-montp2.fr [Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    We present a study of the lateral resolution in electrostatic force microscopy for dielectric samples in both force and gradient modes. Whereas previous studies have reported expressions for metallic surfaces having potential heterogeneities (Kelvin probe force microscopy), in this work we take into account the presence of a dielectric medium. We introduce a definition of the lateral resolution based on the force due to a test particle being either a point charge or a polarizable particle on the dielectric surface. The behaviour has been studied over a wide range of typical experimental parameters: tip-sample distance (1-20) nm, sample thickness (0-5) {mu}m and dielectric constant (1-20), using the numerical simulation of the equivalent charge method. For potential heterogeneities on metallic surfaces expressions are in agreement with the bibliography. The lateral resolution of samples having a dielectric constant of more than 10 tends to metallic behaviour. We found a characteristic thickness of 100 nm, above which the lateral resolution measured on the dielectric surface is close to that of an infinite medium. As previously reported, the lateral resolution is better in the gradient mode than in the force mode. Finally, we showed that for the same experimental conditions, the lateral resolution is better for a polarizable particle than for a charge, i.e. dielectric heterogeneities should always look 'sharper' (better resolved) than inhomogeneous charge distributions. This fact should be taken into account when interpreting images of heterogeneous samples.

  16. Dielectric polarization and electric field distortion due to heavy ions impinging on silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlog, M.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Parlog, M.; Hamrita, H.; Borderie, B.; Lavergne, L.; Rivet, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The polarization of the electron-hole pairs induced by 80 MeV 12 C in a silicon detector was considered and connected to the relative dielectric permittivity, locally increased. The exact coordinate dependence of the modified electric field - inside and outside the ion range - was found as the solution of the one dimension Poisson's equation for the electric potential in this inhomogeneous medium. The improvement of the signal simulation is encouraging, as compared to an undisturbed electric field case. (authors)

  17. On Electron Hole Evolution in Inhomogeneous Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzichev, I.; Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.

    2017-12-01

    Electron holes (EHs) are the stationary localized non-linear structures in phase space existing due to an electron population trapped within EH electrostatic potential. EHs were found to be a common phenomenon in the Earth's magnetosphere. Such structures were observed in reconnecting current sheets, injection fronts in the outer radiation belt, and in many other situations. EHs usually propagate along magnetic field lines with velocities about electron thermal velocity, are localized on the scale of about 4-10 Debye lengths, and have the field amplitude up to hundreds of mV/m. Generation of these structures, evolution, and their role in relaxation of instabilities and energy dissipation, particle energization, supporting large-scale potential drops is under active investigation. In this report, we present the results of 1.5D gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell simulations of the EH evolution in plasmas with inhomogeneous magnetic field and inhomogeneous density. Our calculations show that the inhomogeneity has a critical effect on the EH dynamics. EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. During the deceleration of EH, the potential drop (weak double layer) along EH is generated. Such a potential drop might be experimentally observable even for single EH in the reconnecting current sheets. The same holds for the propagation in the plasma with inhomogeneous density. For some parameters of the system, the deceleration results in the turning of the hole. The interesting feature of this process is that the turning point depends only on the EH parameters, being independent of the average inhomogeneity scale. Our calculations also demonstrate the significant difference between "quasi-particle" concept and real evolution of the hole. Indeed, the EH is accelerated (decelerated) faster than it follows from a quasi-particle energy conservation law. It indicates

  18. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in stratified media with nonlinearity in both dielectric and magnetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihong; Phung, D K; Rotermund, F; Lim, H

    2008-01-21

    We develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method, which allows us to solve the electromagnetic wave equations in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified media where both the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability depend on the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields, in a numerically accurate and efficient manner. We apply our method to a uniform nonlinear slab and find that in the presence of strong external radiation, an initially uniform medium of positive refractive index can spontaneously change into a highly inhomogeneous medium where regions of positive or negative refractive index as well as metallic regions appear. We also study the wave transmission properties of periodic nonlinear media and the influence of nonlinearity on the mode conversion phenomena in inhomogeneous plasmas. We argue that our theory is very useful in the study of the optical properties of a variety of nonlinear media including nonlinear negative index media fabricated using wires and split-ring resonators.

  19. QCD under extreme conditions. Inhomogeneous condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Achim

    2014-10-15

    Almost 40 years after the first publication on the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) big progress has been made but many questions are still open. This work covers several aspects of low-energy QCD and introduces advanced methods to calculate selected parts of the QCD phase diagram. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking as well as its restoration is a major aspect of QCD. Two effective models, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model and the linear σ-model, are widely used to describe the QCD chiral phase transition. We study the large-N{sub c} behavior of the critical temperature T{sub c} for chiral symmetry restoration in the framework of both models. While in the NJL model T{sub c} is independent of N{sub c} (and in agreement with the expected QCD scaling), the scaling behavior in the linear σ-model reads T{sub c} ∝ N{sup 1/2}{sub c}. However, this mismatch can be corrected: phenomenologically motivated temperature-dependent parameters or the extension with the Polyakov-loop renders the scaling in the linear σ-model compatible with the QCD scaling. The requirement that the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry is constant in space is too restrictive. Recent studies on inhomogeneous chiral condensation in cold, dense quark matter suggest a rich crystalline structure. These studies feature models with quark degrees of freedom. In this thesis we investigate the formation of the chiral density wave (CDW) in the framework of the so-called extended linear sigma model (eLSM) at high densities and zero temperature. The eLSM is a modern development of the linear σ-model which contains scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, as well as axial-vector mesons, and in addition, a light tetraquark state. The nucleon and its chiral partner are introduced as parity doublets in the mirror assignment. The model describes successfully the vacuum phenomenology and nuclear matter ground-state properties. As a result we find that an inhomogeneous phase

  20. Strict calculation of electron energy distribution functions in inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.

    1996-01-01

    It is objective of the paper to report on strict calculations of the velocity or energy distribution function function and related macroscopic properties of the electrons from appropriate electron kinetic equations under various plasma conditions and to contribute to a better understanding of the electron behaviour in inhomogeneous plasma regions. In particular, the spatial relaxation of plasma electrons acted upon by uniform electric fields, the response of plasma electrons on spatial disturbances of the electric field, the electron kinetics under the impact of space charge field confinement in the dc column plasma and the electron velocity distribution is stronger field as occurring in the electrode regions of a dc glow discharge is considered. (author)

  1. Calculating observables in inhomogeneous cosmologies. Part I: general framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellaby, Charles; Walters, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    We lay out a general framework for calculating the variation of a set of cosmological observables, down the past null cone of an arbitrarily placed observer, in a given arbitrary inhomogeneous metric. The observables include redshift, proper motions, area distance and redshift-space density. Of particular interest are observables that are zero in the spherically symmetric case, such as proper motions. The algorithm is based on the null geodesic equation and the geodesic deviation equation, and it is tailored to creating a practical numerical implementation. The algorithm provides a method for tracking which light rays connect moving objects to the observer at successive times. Our algorithm is applied to the particular case of the Szekeres metric. A numerical implementation has been created and some results will be presented in a subsequent paper. Future work will explore the range of possibilities.

  2. Radioactive diffusion gaseous probe technique for study adsorbent structure inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyuzin, A.Yu.; Korobkov, V.I.; Bekman, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    One of the versions of the method of diffusion gaseous probe - method of longitudinal shear in combination with autoradiography (ARG) - was used for characterising sorbents and catalysts, which are considered to be promising for reprocessing of sulfur-containing natural gases. Hydrogen sulfide, labelled with 35 S was used as diffusion radioactive probe. Zeolite granules of 4A type and granulated adsorbents on the basis of CR and AM aluminium oxides, which are industrial catalysts of Clauss reaction developed at SNEA company, were used as objects under investigation. It is shown that technique for fabrication of 4A zeolite granules leads to asymmetrical pore distribution over the granule diameter. Technique for AM granule fabrication leads to occuRrence of local inhomogeneities of the structure in the form of narrow coaxial rings with decreased or increased local adsorption ability. Granules of adsorbent of CR type are characterized by rather homogeneous structure. It is recommended to use the mentioned method for industrial adsorbent diagnosis

  3. Medium-range dielectric order in systems with collectivized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismagilov, A.M.; Kopaev, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of formation of a medium-range dielectric order (on a scale much larger than the interatomic one) due to electron-electron correlations and to scattering by an impurity in a system near a phase transition into a long-range order state is solved by a microscopic approach. It is shown that for a weak impurity potential the effect of medium-range order formation is stronger than the effect of long-range order suppression related to scattering by an impurity. The influence of medium-range order on the one-particle excitation spectrum and on the density of states is considered. It is found that since the medium-range order in a system is due to correlations of electron and hole states open-quotes coupledclose quotes by a continuous set of inhomogeneity vectors (in contrast to the long-range order formed on a discrete set of such vectors), the density of states varies on an energy scale determined by the mean absolute value of these vectors. Therefore in a system undergoing phase transition into an inhomogeneous state with the modulus q 0 of inhomogeneity vectors the medium-range order forms in the density of states a pseudogap of scale length v F q 0 (v F is the Fermi velocity). This distinguishes such a system substantially from one, which tends to a phase transition into a homogeneous state (q 0 ≡0), where the medium-range order forms a pseudogap of scale length v F /ξ much-lt v F q 0 (ξ is the correlation length). The possible role of medium dielectric order effects in high-T c superconductors is discussed. 30 refs., 6 figs

  4. Spectroscopy and Raman imaging of inhomogeneous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at developing methodologies in Raman spectroscopy and imaging. After reviewing the statistical instruments which allow treating giant amount of data (multivariate analysis and classification), the study is applied to two families of well-known materials which are used as models for testing the limits of the implemented developments. The first family is a series of carbon materials pyrolyzed at various temperatures and exhibiting inhomogeneities at a nm scale which is suitable for Raman-X-ray diffraction combination. Another results concern the polishing effect on carbon structure. Since it is found to induce Raman artifacts leading to the overestimation of the local structural disorder, a method based on the use of the G band width is therefore proposed in order to evaluate the crystallite size in both unpolished and polished nano-graphites. The second class of materials presents inhomogeneities at higher (micrometric) scales by the example of uranium dioxide ceramics. Being well adapted in terms of spatial scale, Raman imaging is thus used for probing their surfaces. Data processing is implemented via an approach combining the multivariate (principal component) analysis and the classical fitting procedure with Lorentzian profiles. The interpretation of results is supported via electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) analysis which enables us to distinguish the orientation effects of ceramic grains from other underlying contributions. The last ones are mainly localized at the grain boundaries, that is testified by the appearance of a specific Raman mode. Their origin seems to be caused by stoichiometric oxygen variations or impurities, as well as strain inhomogeneities. The perspectives of this work include both the implementation of other mathematical methods and in-depth analysis of UO 2 structure damaged by irradiation (anisotropic effects, role of grain boundaries). (author) [fr

  5. Curvaton and the inhomogeneous end of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-01-01

    We study the primordial density perturbations and non-Gaussianities generated from the combined effects of an inhomogeneous end of inflation and curvaton decay in hybrid inflation. This dual role is played by a single isocurvature field which is massless during inflation but acquire a mass at the end of inflation via the waterfall phase transition. We calculate the resulting primordial non-Gaussianity characterized by the non-linearity parameter, f NL , recovering the usual end-of-inflation result when the field decays promptly and the usual curvaton result if the field decays sufficiently late

  6. Nature of inhomogeneous states in superconducting junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivlev, B.I.; Kopnin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting structure which arises in a superconducting film under a strong injection of a current through a tunnel junction is considered. If the current density in the film exceeds the critical Ginzburg-Landau value, an inhomogeneous resistive state with phase-slip centers can arise in it. This state is charcterized by the presence of regions with different chemical potentials of the Cooper pairs. These shifts of the pair chemical potential and the nonuniform structure of the order parameter may account for the so-called multigap states which have been observed experimentally

  7. Refractive index inhomogeneity within an aerogel block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellunato, T.; Calvi, M.; Da Silva Costa, C.F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musy, M.; Perego, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Evaluating local inhomogeneities of the refractive index inside aerogel blocks to be used as Cherenkov radiator is important for a high energy physics experiment where angular resolution is crucial. Two approaches are described and compared. The first one is based on the bending of a laser beam induced by refractive index gradients along directions normal to the unperturbed optical path. The second method exploits the Cherenkov effect itself by shooting an ultra-relativistic collimated electron beam through different points of the aerogel surface. Local refractive index variations result in sizable differences in the Cherenkov photons distribution

  8. Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.

  9. Metric inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation in positive characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    We obtain asymptotic formulae for the number of solutions to systems of inhomogeneous linear Diophantine inequalities over the field of formal Laurent series with coefficients from a finite fields, which are valid for almost every such system. Here `almost every' is with respect to Haar measure...... of the coefficients of the homogeneous part when the number of variables is at least two (singly metric case), and with respect to the Haar measure of all coefficients for any number of variables (doubly metric case). As consequences, we derive zero-one laws in the spirit of the Khintchine-Groshev Theorem and zero...

  10. Metric inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation in positive characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.

    We obtain asymptotic formulae for the number of solutions to systems of inhomogeneous linear Diophantine inequalities over the field of formal Laurent series with coefficients from a finite fields, which are valid for almost every such system. Here 'almost every' is with respect to Haar measure...... of the coefficients of the homogeneous part when the number of variables is at least two (singly metric case), and with respect to the Haar measure of all coefficients for any number of variables (doubly metric case). As consequences, we derive zero-one laws in the spirit of the Khintchine--Groshev Theorem and zero...

  11. Waves in inhomogeneous plasma of cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1966-01-01

    The conductivity tensor of a hot and inhomogeneous plasma has been calculated for a cylindrical geometry using Vlasov equations. The method used consists in a perturbation method involving the first integrals of the unperturbed movement. The conductivity tensor will be particularly useful for dealing with stability problems. In the case of a cold plasma the wave equation giving the electric fields as a function of the radius is obtained. This equation shows the existence of resonant layers which lead to an absorption analogous to the Landau absorption in a hot plasma. (author) [fr

  12. Fluctuations and transport in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, W.M.; Chen, L.

    1979-11-01

    A formalism is developed for calculating the equilibrium fluctuation level in an inhomogeneous plasma. This formalism is applied to the collisionless drift wave in a sheared magnetic field. The fluctuation level is found to be anomalously large due to both the presence of weakly damped normal modes and convective amplification. As the magnetic shear is reduced, the steady-state fluctuation spectrum is found to increase both in coherence and in amplitude. The transport associated with this mode is evaluated. The diffusion coefficient is found to scale as D is proportional to B 2 /nT/sup 1/2/

  13. Theoretical Modeling and Analysis of L- and P-band Radar Backscatter Sensitivity to Soil Active Layer Dielectric Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Du

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-thaw (FT and moisture dynamics within the soil active layer are critical elements of boreal, arctic and alpine ecosystems, and environmental change assessments. We evaluated the potential for detecting dielectric changes within different soil layers using combined L- and P-band radar remote sensing as a prerequisite for detecting FT and moisture profile changes within the soil active layer. A two-layer scattering model was developed and validated for simulating radar responses from vertically inhomogeneous soil. The model simulations indicated that inhomogeneity in the soil dielectric profile contributes to both L- and P-band backscatter, but with greater P-band sensitivity at depth. The difference in L- and P-band responses to soil dielectric profile inhomogeneity appears suitable for detecting associated changes in soil active layer conditions. Additional evaluation using collocated airborne radar (AIRSAR observations and in situ soil moisture measurements over alpine tundra indicates that combined L- and P-band SAR observations are sensitive to soil dielectric profile heterogeneity associated with variations in soil moisture and FT conditions.

  14. Full-wave solution of short impulses in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencz, Orsolya E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the problem of real impulse propagation in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media will be presented on a fundamentally new, general, theoretical way. The general problem of wave propagation of monochromatic signals in inhomogeneous media was enlightened. The earlier theoretical models for spatial inhomogeneities have some errors regarding the structure of the resultant signal originated from backward and forward propagating parts. The application of the method of inhomogeneous basic modes (MIBM) and the complete full-wave solution of arbitrarily shaped non-monochromatic plane waves in plasmas made it possible to obtain a better description of the problem, on a fully analytical way, directly from Maxwell's equations. The model investigated in this paper is inhomogeneous of arbitrary order (while the wave pattern can exist), anisotropic (magnetized), linear, cold plasma, in which the gradient of the one-dimensional spatial inhomogeneity is parallel to the direction of propagation. (author)

  15. OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giblin, John T. Jr. [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 N College Road Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D. [CERCA/ISO, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  16. OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, John T. Jr.; Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-01-01

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  17. Dielectric nanoresonators for light manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Jian; Jiang, Ruibin; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Xie, Ya-Ming; Wang, Jianfang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructures made of dielectric materials with high or moderate refractive indexes can support strong electric and magnetic resonances in the optical region. They can therefore function as nanoresonators. In addition to plasmonic metal nanostructures that have been widely investigated, dielectric nanoresonators provide a new type of building blocks for realizing powerful and versatile nanoscale light manipulation. In contrast to plasmonic metal nanostructures, nanoresonators made of appropriate dielectric materials are low-cost, earth-abundant and have very small or even negligible light energy losses. As a result, they will find potential applications in a number of photonic devices, especially those that require low energy losses. In this review, we describe the recent progress on the experimental and theoretical studies of dielectric nanoresonators. We start from the basic theory of the electromagnetic responses of dielectric nanoresonators and their fabrication methods. The optical properties of individual dielectric nanoresonators are then elaborated, followed by the coupling behaviors between dielectric nanoresonators, between dielectric nanoresonators and substrates, and between dielectric nanoresonators and plasmonic metal nanostructures. The applications of dielectric nanoresonators are further described. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in this field are discussed.

  18. Echo simulation of lunar penetrating radar: based on a model of inhomogeneous multilayer lunar regolith structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Shun; Su Yan; Xiao Yuan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Ding Chun-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) based on the time domain Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technique onboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover, has the goal of investigating the lunar subsurface structure and detecting the depth of lunar regolith. An inhomogeneous multi-layer microwave transfer inverse-model is established. The dielectric constant of the lunar regolith, the velocity of propagation, the reflection, refraction and transmission at interfaces, and the resolution are discussed. The model is further used to numerically simulate and analyze temporal variations in the echo obtained from the LPR attached on CE-3's rover, to reveal the location and structure of lunar regolith. The thickness of the lunar regolith is calculated by a comparison between the simulated radar B-scan images based on the model and the detected result taken from the CE-3 lunar mission. The potential scientific return from LPR echoes taken from the landing region is also discussed

  19. Echo simulation of lunar penetrating radar: based on a model of inhomogeneous multilayer lunar regolith structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shun; Su, Yan; Xiao, Yuan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Ding, Chun-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) based on the time domain Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technique onboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover, has the goal of investigating the lunar subsurface structure and detecting the depth of lunar regolith. An inhomogeneous multi-layer microwave transfer inverse-model is established. The dielectric constant of the lunar regolith, the velocity of propagation, the reflection, refraction and transmission at interfaces, and the resolution are discussed. The model is further used to numerically simulate and analyze temporal variations in the echo obtained from the LPR attached on CE-3's rover, to reveal the location and structure of lunar regolith. The thickness of the lunar regolith is calculated by a comparison between the simulated radar B-scan images based on the model and the detected result taken from the CE-3 lunar mission. The potential scientific return from LPR echoes taken from the landing region is also discussed.

  20. Center for dielectric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, L. E.; Newnham, R. E.; Biggers, J. V.

    1984-05-01

    This report focuses upon the parts of the Center program which have drawn most extensively upon Navy funds. In the basic study of polarization processes in high K dielectrics, major progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms in relaxor ferroelectric in the perovskite structure families. A new effort is also being mounted to obtain more precise evaluation of the internal stress effects in fine grained barium titanate. Related to reliability, studies of the effects of induced macro-defects are described, and preparation for the evaluation of space charge by internal potential distribution measurements discussed. To develop new processing methods for very thin dielectric layers, a new type of single barrier layer multilayer is discussed, and work on the thermal evaporation of oriented crystalline antimony sulphur iodide describe.

  1. Acoustic Streaming and Its Suppression in Inhomogeneous Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Qiu, Wei; Augustsson, Per

    2018-01-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in an inhomogeneous fluid with variations in density and compressibility. In a homogeneous fluid this streaming results from dissipation in the boundary layers (Rayleigh streaming). We show...... that in an inhomogeneous fluid, an additional nondissipative force density acts on the fluid to stabilize particular inhomogeneity configurations, which markedly alters and even suppresses the streaming flows. Our theoretical and numerical analysis of the phenomenon is supported by ultrasound experiments performed...

  2. Dielectric properties of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, S.; Riad, A.S.; El-Shabasy, M.

    2005-01-01

    The temperature dependence of dielectric properties in polyethylene was measured in the frequency range from 10 to 105 Hz. The frequency dependence of the complex impedance in the complex plane could be fitted by semicircles. The system could be represented by an equivalent circuit of a bulk resistance in series with parallel surface resistance-capacitance combination. The relaxation time, has been evaluated from experimental results. Results reveal that the temperature dependence, is a thermally activated process

  3. Dielectric Wakefield Researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Onishchenko, N.I.; Uskov, V.V.; Marshall, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Excitation of wakefield in cylindrical dielectric waveguide/resonator by a sequence of relativistic electron bunches was investigated using an electron linac 'Almaz-2' (4.5 MeV, 6·10 3 bunches of duration 60 ps and charge 0.32 nC each). Energy spectrum of electrons, radial topography and longitudinal distribution of wakefield, and total energy of excited wakefield were measured by means of magnetic analyzer, high frequency probe, and a sensitive calorimeter

  4. Dielectric lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1983-06-01

    Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)epsilong that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ),x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space g which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)osub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportionalosub(i)osub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the Euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI = 0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)

  5. Dielectric lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-01-01

    Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)element ofG that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ), x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space G which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)sigmasub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportional sigmasub(i)sigmasub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder-Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson-loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI=0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)

  6. Turbulent structure of stably stratified inhomogeneous flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Oaki

    2018-04-01

    Effects of buoyancy force stabilizing disturbances are investigated on the inhomogeneous flow where disturbances are dispersed from the turbulent to non-turbulent field in the direction perpendicular to the gravity force. Attaching the fringe region, where disturbances are excited by the artificial body force, a Fourier spectral method is used for the inhomogeneous flow stirred at one side of the cuboid computational box. As a result, it is found that the turbulent kinetic energy is dispersed as layered structures elongated in the streamwise direction through the vibrating motion. A close look at the layered structures shows that they are flanked by colder fluids at the top and hotter fluids at the bottom, and hence vertically compressed and horizontally expanded by the buoyancy related to the countergradient heat flux, though they are punctuated by the vertical expansion of fluids at the forefront of the layered structures, which is related to the downgradient heat flux, indicating that the layered structures are gravity currents. However, the phase between temperature fluctuations and vertical velocity is shifted by π/2 rad, indicating that temperature fluctuations are generated by the propagation of internal gravity waves.

  7. Robustness of inflation to inhomogeneous initial conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clough, Katy; Lim, Eugene A. [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, Kings College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); DiNunno, Brandon S.; Fischler, Willy; Flauger, Raphael; Paban, Sonia, E-mail: katy.clough@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com, E-mail: bsd86@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: fischler@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: flauger@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: paban@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We consider the effects of inhomogeneous initial conditions in both the scalar field profile and the extrinsic curvature on different inflationary models. In particular, we compare the robustness of small field inflation to that of large field inflation, using numerical simulations with Einstein gravity in 3+1 dimensions. We find that small field inflation can fail in the presence of subdominant gradient energies, suggesting that it is much less robust to inhomogeneities than large field inflation, which withstands dominant gradient energies. However, we also show that small field inflation can be successful even if some regions of spacetime start out in the region of the potential that does not support inflation. In the large field case, we confirm previous results that inflation is robust if the inflaton occupies the inflationary part of the potential. Furthermore, we show that increasing initial scalar gradients will not form sufficiently massive inflation-ending black holes if the initial hypersurface is approximately flat. Finally, we consider the large field case with a varying extrinsic curvature K , such that some regions are initially collapsing. We find that this may again lead to local black holes, but overall the spacetime remains inflationary if the spacetime is open, which confirms previous theoretical studies.

  8. Physical model of optical inhomogeneities of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shybanov, E. B.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to theoretical aspects of the light scattering of water that does not contain suspended particles. To be consistent with current physical point of view the water as far as any liquid is regarded as a complex unstable nonergodic media. It was proposed that at fixed time the water as a condensed medium had global inhomogeneities similar to linear and planar defects in a solid. Anticipated own global inhomogeneities of water have been approximated by the system randomly distributed spherical clusters filling the entire water bulk. An analytical expression for the single scattered light has been derived. The formula simultaneously describes both the high anisotropy of light scattering and the high degree of polarization which one close to those for molecular scattering. It is shown that at general angles there is a qualitative coincidence with the two-component Kopelevich's model for the light scattering by marine particles. On the contrary towards to forwards angles the spectral law becomes much more prominent i.e. it corresponds to results for model of optically soft particles.

  9. A theoretical description of inhomogeneous turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In this LDRD, we have developed a highly compact and descriptive formalism that allows us to broach the theoretically formidable morass of inhomogeneous turbulence. Our formalism has two novel aspects: (a) an adaptation of helicity basis functions to represent an arbitrary incompressible channel flow and (b) the invocation of a hypothesis of random phase. A result of this compact formalism is that the mathematical description of inhomogeneous turbulence looks much like that of homogeneous turbulence--at the moment, the most rigorously explored terrain in turbulence research. As a result, we can explore the effect of boundaries on such important quantities as the gradients of mean flow, mean pressure, triple-velocity correlations and pressure velocity correlations, all of which vanish under the conventional, but artificial, assumption that the turbulence is statistically spatially uniform. Under suitable conditions, we have predicted that a mean flow gradient can develop even when none is initially present

  10. Microstructural evolution in inhomogeneous elastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, H.J.; Leo, P.H.; Lowengrub, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    We simulate the diffusional evolution of microstructures produced by solid state diffusional transformations in elastically stressed binary alloys in two dimensions. The microstructure consists of arbitrarily shaped precipitates embedded coherently in an infinite matrix. The precipitate and matrix are taken to be elastically isotropic, although they may have different elastic constants (elastically inhomogeneous). Both far-field applied strains and mismatch strains between the phases are considered. The diffusion and elastic fields are calculated using the boundary integral method, together with a small scale preconditioner to remove ill-conditioning. The precipitate-matrix interfaces are tracked using a nonstiff time updating method. The numerical method is spectrally accurate and efficient. Simulations of a single precipitate indicate that precipitate shapes depend strongly on the mass flux into the system as well as on the elastic fields. Growing shapes (positive mass flux) are dendritic while equilibrium shapes (zero mass flux) are squarish. Simulations of multiparticle systems show complicated interactions between precipitate morphology and the overall development of microstructure (i.e., precipitate alignment, translation, merging, and coarsening). In both single and multiple particle simulations, the details of the microstructural evolution depend strongly o the elastic inhomogeneity, misfit strain, and applied fields. 57 refs., 24 figs

  11. The effect of inhomogeneity of microstructure on ducility in superplasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manonukul, A.; Dunne, F.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element cell models have been developed to represent inhomogeneous grain size fields that occur in commercial Ti-6Al-4V. The models are used to investigate the influence of microstructure on superplastic stress-strain behaviour, inhomogeneity of deformation, and on ductility in superplastic deformation. It is shown that increasing the level of initial microstructural inhomogeneity leads to increasing flow stress for given strain, and that the microstructural inhomogeneity leads to inhomogeneous deformation. As superplasticity proceeds, the level of microstructural inhomogeneity diminishes, but the inhomogeneity itself is preserved during the deformation. It is shown that the inhomogeneity of microstructure leads to strain localisation which increases in severity with deformation until material necking and failure occur. Increasing the initial microstructural inhomogeneity is shown to lead to a decrease in ductility, but the effect diminishes for grain size ranges in excess of 30 μm. An empirical relationship is presented that relates the ductility to the initial grain size range through a power law. (orig.)

  12. Acoustic Streaming and Its Suppression in Inhomogeneous Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Jonas T; Qiu, Wei; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik

    2018-02-02

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in an inhomogeneous fluid with variations in density and compressibility. In a homogeneous fluid this streaming results from dissipation in the boundary layers (Rayleigh streaming). We show that in an inhomogeneous fluid, an additional nondissipative force density acts on the fluid to stabilize particular inhomogeneity configurations, which markedly alters and even suppresses the streaming flows. Our theoretical and numerical analysis of the phenomenon is supported by ultrasound experiments performed with inhomogeneous aqueous iodixanol solutions in a glass-silicon microchip.

  13. Spatial inhomogeneity in spectra and exciton dynamics in porphyrin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inhomogeneity. This is elucidated by time-resolved confocal microscopy. ... dynamics of such supramolecular aggregates. Weisman ... protein scaffold and faithfully represents a biomimetic reminiscent .... increased intermolecular interactions.

  14. Dielectric properties of lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkova, O. V.; Kibardina, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the dielectric characteristics of lunar soil samples are analyzed in the context of dielectric theory. It has been shown that the real component of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of rocks greatly depend on the frequency of the interacting electromagnetic field and the soil temperature. It follows from the analysis that one should take into account diurnal variations in the lunar surface temperature when interpreting the radar-sounding results, especially for the gigahertz radio range.

  15. Nonlocal inhomogeneous broadening in plasmonic nanoparticle ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    Nonclassical effects are increasingly more relevant in plasmonics as modern nanofabrication techniques rapidly approach the extreme nanoscale limits, for which departing from classical electrodynamics becomes important. One of the largest-scale necessary corrections towards this direction...... is to abandon the local response approximation (LRA) and take the nonlocal response of the metal into account, typically through the simple hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM), which predicts a sizedependent deviation of plasmon modes from the quasistatic (QS) limit. While this behaviour has been explored for simple...... metallic nanoparticles (NPs) or NP dimers, the possibility of inhomogeneous resonance broadening due to size variation in a large NP collection and the resulting spectral overlap of modes (as depicted in Fig. 1), has been so far overlooked. Here we study theoretically the effect of nonlocality on ensemble...

  16. Measurable inhomogeneities in stock trading volume flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortines, A. A. G.; Riera, R.; Anteneodo, C.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the statistics of volumes of shares traded in stock markets. We show that the stochastic process of trading volumes can be understood on the basis of a mixed Poisson process at the microscopic time level. The beta distribution of the second kind (also known as q-gamma distribution), that has been proposed to describe empirical volume histograms, naturally results from our analysis. In particular, the shape of the distribution at small volumes is governed by the degree of granularity in the trading process, while the exponent controlling the tail is a measure of the inhomogeneities in market activity. Furthermore, the present case furnishes empirical evidence of how power law probability distributions can arise as a consequence of a fluctuating intrinsic parameter.

  17. Origin of Inhomogeneity in Glass Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The homogeneity of a glass plays a crucial role in many applications as the inhomogeneities can provide local changes in mechanical properties, optical properties, and thermal expansion coefficient. Homogeneity is not a single property of the glass, instead, it consists of several factors...... such as bubbles, striae, trace element concentration, undissolved species, and crystallised species. As it is not possible to address all the factors in a single study, this work focuses on one of the major factors: chemical striae. Up to now, the quantification of chemical striae in glasses, particularly......, in less transparent glasses, has been a challenge due to the lack of an applicable method. In this study, we have established a simple and accurate method for quantifying the extent of the striae, which is based on the scanning and picture processing through the Fourier transformation. By performing...

  18. Large sample neutron activation analysis of a reference inhomogeneous sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, T.; Athens National Technical University, Athens; Tzika, F.; Stamatelatos, I.E.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A benchmark experiment was performed for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of a large inhomogeneous sample. The reference sample was developed in-house and consisted of SiO 2 matrix and an Al-Zn alloy 'inhomogeneity' body. Monte Carlo simulations were employed to derive appropriate correction factors for neutron self-shielding during irradiation as well as self-attenuation of gamma rays and sample geometry during counting. The large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) results were compared against reference values and the trueness of the technique was evaluated. An agreement within ±10% was observed between LSNAA and reference elemental mass values, for all matrix and inhomogeneity elements except Samarium, provided that the inhomogeneity body was fully simulated. However, in cases that the inhomogeneity was treated as not known, the results showed a reasonable agreement for most matrix elements, while large discrepancies were observed for the inhomogeneity elements. This study provided a quantification of the uncertainties associated with inhomogeneity in large sample analysis and contributed to the identification of the needs for future development of LSNAA facilities for analysis of inhomogeneous samples. (author)

  19. MRI intensity inhomogeneity correction by combining intensity and spatial information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovk, Uros; Pernus, Franjo; Likar, Bostjan

    2004-01-01

    We propose a novel fully automated method for retrospective correction of intensity inhomogeneity, which is an undesired phenomenon in many automatic image analysis tasks, especially if quantitative analysis is the final goal. Besides most commonly used intensity features, additional spatial image features are incorporated to improve inhomogeneity correction and to make it more dynamic, so that local intensity variations can be corrected more efficiently. The proposed method is a four-step iterative procedure in which a non-parametric inhomogeneity correction is conducted. First, the probability distribution of image intensities and corresponding second derivatives is obtained. Second, intensity correction forces, condensing the probability distribution along the intensity feature, are computed for each voxel. Third, the inhomogeneity correction field is estimated by regularization of all voxel forces, and fourth, the corresponding partial inhomogeneity correction is performed. The degree of inhomogeneity correction dynamics is determined by the size of regularization kernel. The method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on simulated and real MR brain images. The obtained results show that the proposed method does not corrupt inhomogeneity-free images and successfully corrects intensity inhomogeneity artefacts even if these are more dynamic

  20. Collapse arresting in an inhomogeneous quintic nonlinear Schrodinger model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1999-01-01

    Collapse of (1 + 1)-dimensional beams in the inhomogeneous one-dimensional quintic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is analyzed both numerically and analytically. It is shown that in the vicinity of a narrow attractive inhomogeneity, the collapse of beams in which the homogeneous medium would blow up...

  1. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dec. 2001 physics pp. 969–979. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously doped fiber couplers. AJIT KUMAR. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India. Abstract. Switching between the bistable soliton states in a doubly and inhomogeneously doped.

  2. Scattering of a spherical pulse from a small inhomogeneity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    Perturbations in elastic constants and density distinguish a volume inhomogeneity from its homoge- neous surroundings. The equation of motion for the first order scattering is studied in the perturbed medium. The scattered waves are generated by the interaction between the primary waves and the inhomogeneity.

  3. Consideration of inhomogeneities in irradiation planning. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicker, H.; Felix, R.

    1976-01-01

    In radiation therapy, the focal doses during irradiation of a tumor are based on the values for water, since water has almost the same absorption coefficient as muscular tissue, even for different kinds and energies of radiation. But calculation of the tumor dose will become inaccurate if inhomogeneities in the ray path are not considered such as fat, bones, plaster, metal plates, Kuentscher nails, endoprotheses. These materials, having a density sigma different from water, represent inhomogeneities relative to water with regard to the absorption of high-energy radiation. The experiments yielded the following results: All measurements revealed that the change in the course of the depth dose curve caused by inhomogeneities in water depends essentially on the density sigma and on the thickness d of the inhomogeneity. If the density sigma of the inhomogeneity exceeds one, a shift of the depth dose curve in water results in the direction of the surface; if the density sigma is smaller than one, the depth dose curve will move towards greater depth because of the inhomogeneity. With Co-60 gamma radiation, the shift of the depth dose curve in water due to an inhomogeneity occurs almost parallel. A correlation obtained empirically allows a calculation of th extent of the shift the depth dose is subject to for different inhomogeneities. (orig./ORU) [de

  4. Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.

  5. Dielectric Properties Of Nanoferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankov, Stevan B.; Cvejic, Zeljka N.; Rakic, Srdjan; Srdic, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric properties: permittivity, loss factor, tan delta and ionic conductivity of nanostructured ferrites have been measured. Samples used were nickel, zinc and yttrium doped ferrites mixed in various ratios. The synthesis has been performed using precipitation method and obtained powders were pressed in pellets under varying pressure. X-ray diffractography approach for the refinement of structure and microstructural analysis has been performed. All parameters have been measured in 1 Hz to 100 kHz frequency range and 30 deg. C to 80 deg. C temperature range. Significant improvements in permittivity, loss factor and ionic conductivity comparing to bulk samples have been observed

  6. Dielectric materials and electrostatics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallot-Lavalle, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    An introduction to the physics of electrical insulation, this book presents the physical foundations of this discipline and the resulting applications. It is structured in two parts. The first part presents a mathematical and intuitive approach to dielectrics; various concepts, including polarization, induction, forces and losses are discussed. The second part provides readers with the keys to understanding the physics of solid, liquid and gas insulation. It comprises a phenomenological description of discharges in gas and its resulting applications. Finally, the main electrical properties

  7. Effects of nanoscale density inhomogeneities on shearing fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben, Dalton,; Peter, Daivis,; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that density inhomogeneities at the solid-liquid interface can have a strong effect on the velocity profile of a nanoconfined fluid in planar Poiseuille flow. However, it is difficult to control the density inhomogeneities induced by solid walls, making this type of system...... systems. Using the sinusoidal transverse force method to produce shearing velocity profiles and the sinusoidal longitudinal force method to produce inhomogeneous density profiles, we are able to observe the interactions between the two property inhomogeneities at the level of individual Fourier components....... This gives us a method for direct measurement of the coupling between the density and velocity fields and allows us to introduce various feedback control mechanisms which customize fluid behavior in individual Fourier components. We briefly discuss the role of temperature inhomogeneity and consider whether...

  8. Discharge ignition near a dielectric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobota, A.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Stoffels, W.W.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical breakdown in noble gas near a dielectric is an important issue in lighting industry. In order to investigate the influence of the dielectric on the ignition process, we perform measurements in argon, with pressure varying from 0.1 to 1 bar, using a pin–pin electrode geometry. Here, we

  9. Generalized dielectric permittivity tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdov, G.N.; Barkovskii, L.M.; Fedorov, F.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors deal with the question of what is to be done with the formalism of the electrodynamics of dispersive media based on the introduction of dielectric-permittivity tensors for purely harmonic fields when Voigt waves and waves of more general form exist. An attempt is made to broaden and generalize the formalism to take into account dispersion of waves of the given type. In dispersive media, the polarization, magnetization, and conduction current-density vectors of point and time are determined by the values of the electromagnetic field vectors in the vicinity of this point (spatial dispersion) in the preceding instants of time (time dispersion). The dielectric-permittivity tensor and other tensors of electrodynamic parameters of the medium are introduced in terms of a set of evolution operators and not the set of harmonic function. It is noted that a magnetic-permeability tensor and an elastic-modulus tensor may be introduced for an acoustic field in dispersive anisotropic media with coupling equations of general form

  10. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofan

    Dielectric polymers are widely used in a plurality of applications, such as electrical insulation, dielectric capacitors, and electromechanical actuators. Dielectric polymers with large strain deformations under an electric field are named dielectric elastomers (DE), because of their relative low modulus, high elongation at break, and outstanding resilience. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are superior to traditional transducers as a muscle-like technology: large strains, high energy densities, high coupling efficiency, quiet operation, and light weight. One focus of this dissertation is on the design of DE materials with high performance and easy processing. UV radiation curing of reactive species is studied as a generic synthesis methodology to provide a platform for material scientists to customize their own DE materials. Oligomers/monomers, crosslinkers, and other additives are mixed and cured at appropriate ratios to control the stress-strain response, suppress electromechanical instability of the resulting polymers, and provide stable actuation strains larger than 100% and energy densities higher than 1 J/g. The processing is largely simplified in the new material system by removal of the prestretching step. Multilayer stack actuators with 11% linear strain are demonstrated in a procedure fully compatible with industrial production. A multifunctional DE derivative material, bistable electroactive polymer (BSEP), is invented enabling repeatable rigid-to-rigid deformation without bulky external structures. Bistable actuation allows the polymer actuator to have two distinct states that can support external load without device failure. Plasticizers are used to lower the glass transition temperature to 45 °C. Interpenetrating polymer network structure is established inside the BSEP to suppress electromechanical instability, providing a breakdown field of 194 MV/m and a stable bistable strain as large as 228% with a 97% strain fixity. The application of BSEP

  11. Gaussian-Based Smooth Dielectric Function: A Surface-Free Approach for Modeling Macromolecular Binding in Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Chakravorty

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional modeling techniques to model macromolecular solvation and its effect on binding in the framework of Poisson-Boltzmann based implicit solvent models make use of a geometrically defined surface to depict the separation of macromolecular interior (low dielectric constant from the solvent phase (high dielectric constant. Though this simplification saves time and computational resources without significantly compromising the accuracy of free energy calculations, it bypasses some of the key physio-chemical properties of the solute-solvent interface, e.g., the altered flexibility of water molecules and that of side chains at the interface, which results in dielectric properties different from both bulk water and macromolecular interior, respectively. Here we present a Gaussian-based smooth dielectric model, an inhomogeneous dielectric distribution model that mimics the effect of macromolecular flexibility and captures the altered properties of surface bound water molecules. Thus, the model delivers a smooth transition of dielectric properties from the macromolecular interior to the solvent phase, eliminating any unphysical surface separating the two phases. Using various examples of macromolecular binding, we demonstrate its utility and illustrate the comparison with the conventional 2-dielectric model. We also showcase some additional abilities of this model, viz. to account for the effect of electrolytes in the solution and to render the distribution profile of water across a lipid membrane.

  12. Cordierite Glass-Ceramics for Dielectric Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Mazatul Azwa Saiyed Mohd Nurddin; Selamat, Malek; Ismail, Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the potential of using Malaysian silica sand deposit as SiO2 raw material in producing cordierite glass-ceramics (2MgO-2Al2O3-5SiO2) for dielectric materials. Upgraded silica sands from Terengganu and ex-mining land in Perak were used in the test-works. The glass batch of the present work has a composition of 45.00% SiO2, 24.00% Al2O3, 15.00% MgO and 8.50% TiO2 as nucleation agent. From the differential thermal analysis results, the crystallization temperature was found to start around 900 deg. C. The glass samples were heat-treated at 900 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. The X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) results showed glass-ceramics from Terengganu samples containing mainly cordierite and minor β-quartz crystals. However, glass-ceramics from ex-mining land samples contained mainly α-quartz and minor cordierite crystals. Glass-ceramics with different crystal phases exhibit different mechanical, dielectric and thermal properties. Based on the test works, both silica sand deposits, can be potentially used to produce dielectric material component

  13. Evolution of vacuum bubbles embedded in inhomogeneous spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannia, Florencia Anabella Teppa [Grupo de Astrofísica, Relatividad y Cosmología, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Bergliaffa, Santiago Esteban Perez, E-mail: fteppa@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: sepbergliaffa@gmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado de Rio de Janeiro, CEP 20550-013, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    We study the propagation of bubbles of new vacuum in a radially inhomogeneous background filled with dust or radiation, and including a cosmological constant, as a first step in the analysis of the influence of inhomogeneities in the evolution of an inflating region. We also compare the cases with dust and radiation backgrounds and show that the evolution of the bubble in radiation environments is notably different from that in the corresponding dust cases, both for homogeneous and inhomogeneous ambients, leading to appreciable differences in the evolution of the proper radius of the bubble.

  14. Inhomogeneity of epidemic spreading with entropy-based infected clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Jie, Zhou; Xing-Yuan, Wang

    2013-12-01

    Considering the difference in the sizes of the infected clusters in the dynamic complex networks, the normalized entropy based on infected clusters (δ*) is proposed to characterize the inhomogeneity of epidemic spreading. δ* gives information on the variability of the infected clusters in the system. We investigate the variation in the inhomogeneity of the distribution of the epidemic with the absolute velocity v of moving agent, the infection density ρ, and the interaction radius r. By comparing δ* in the dynamic networks with δH* in homogeneous mode, the simulation experiments show that the inhomogeneity of epidemic spreading becomes smaller with the increase of v, ρ, r.

  15. Microinstabilities in a moderately inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    We describe the onset of plasma instability due to heat conduction in a fully ionized hydrogen plasma with small temperature, pressure, and electric potential gradients. The effect of these gradients on plasma stability depends on a single inhomogeneity parameter B/sub t/, which is a measure of the ratio of the electron mean free path to the scale height of the plasma. A large value of vertical-barB/sub t/vertical-bar indicates that the plasma is collisionless. We find the least value of vertical-barB/sub t/vertical-bar needed to produce instability for the range of electron to hydrogen ion temperature ratios T and ion to magnetic pressure ratios β/sub i/, relevant to the solar wind and other plasmas. The wave parameters of the first unstable modes (the modes which become unstable for the least value of vertical-barB/sub t/vertical-bar) are described. The fast mode is the first unstable mode at high β/sub i/, the intermediate mode is the first unstable mode at low β/sub i/, and low temperature ratios, and the slow mode is the first unstable mode at low β/sub i/ and higher temperature ratios

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Extinction of Inhomogeneous Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karev, G.P.; Kareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models of population extinction have a variety of applications in such areas as ecology, paleontology and conservation biology. Here we propose and investigate two types of sub-exponential models of population extinction. Unlike the more traditional exponential models, the life duration of sub-exponential models is finite. In the first model, the population is assumed to be composed clones that are independent from each other. In the second model, we assume that the size of the population as a whole decreases according to the sub-exponential equation. We then investigate the “unobserved heterogeneity”, i.e. the underlying inhomogeneous population model, and calculate the distribution of frequencies of clones for both models. We show that the dynamics of frequencies in the first model is governed by the principle of minimum of Tsallis information loss. In the second model, the notion of “internal population time” is proposed; with respect to the internal time, the dynamics of frequencies is governed by the principle of minimum of Shannon information loss. The results of this analysis show that the principle of minimum of information loss is the underlying law for the evolution of a broad class of models of population extinction. Finally, we propose a possible application of this modeling framework to mechanisms underlying time perception. PMID:27090117

  17. Inhomogeneity and the foundations of concordance cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy

    2010-01-01

    The apparent accelerating expansion of the universe is forcing us to examine the foundational aspects of the standard model of cosmology-in particular, the fact that dark energy is a direct consequence of the homogeneity assumption. We discuss the foundations of the assumption of spatial homogeneity, in the case when the Copernican principle is adopted. We present results that show how (almost) homogeneity follows from (almost) isotropy of various observables. The analysis requires fully nonlinear field equations-i.e. it is not possible to use second- or higher-order perturbation theory, since one cannot assume a homogeneous and isotropic background. Then we consider what happens if the Copernican principle is abandoned in our Hubble volume. The simplest models are inhomogeneous but spherically symmetric universes which do not require dark energy to fit the distance modulus. Key problems in these models are to compute the CMB anisotropies and the features of large-scale structure. We review how to construct perturbation theory on a non-homogeneous cosmological background, and discuss the complexities that arise in using this to determine the growth of large-scale structure.

  18. Laser amplification in excited dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using...... these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently...

  19. Account of an optical beam spreading caused by turbulence for the problem of partially coherent wavefield propagation through inhomogeneous absorbing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudorov, Vadim V.; Kolosov, Valerii V.

    2003-04-01

    The propagation problem for partially coherent wave fields in inhomogeneous media is considered in this work. The influence of refraction, inhomogeneity of gain medium properties and refraction parameter fluctuations on target characteristics of radiation are taken into consideration. Such problems arise in the study of laser propagation on atmosphere paths, under investigation of directional radiation pattern forming for lasers which gain media is characterized by strong fluctuation of dielectric constant and for lasers which resonator have an atmosphere area. The ray-tracing technique allows us to make effective algorithms for modeling of a partially coherent wave field propagation through inhomogeneous random media is presented for case when the influecne of an optical wave refraction, the influence of the inhomogeiety of radiaitn amplification or absorption, and also the influence of fluctuations of a refraction parameter on target radiation parameters are basic. Novelty of the technique consists in the account of the additional refraction caused by inhomogeneity of gain, and also in the method of an account of turbulent distortions of a beam with any initial coherence allowing to execute construction of effective numerical algorithms. The technique based on the solution of the equation for coherence function of the second order.

  20. Optical and electrical phenomena in dielectric materials under irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Plaksin, O A; Stepanov, P A; Demenkov, P V; Chernov, V M; Krutskikh, A O

    2002-01-01

    Optical and acoustic properties of the materials based on Al sub 2 O sub 3 , SiO sub 2 and BN under 8 MeV proton irradiation (<10 sup 4 Gy/s) have been measured. Electric charge partitioning has been shown to result in charging the microscopic regions in the bulk of the dielectrics under irradiation, which is due to different mobility of free electrons and holes (sapphire), concentration inhomogeneity in the system of charge carrier traps (alumina), or thermodynamic instability of the homogeneous distribution of the filled traps (silica glasses). Prevalent charge carrier recombination in the grain boundaries causes re-crystallization of pyrolytic boron nitride under irradiation, which shows up as simultaneous decrease of the intensity of radiation-induced luminescence (RIL) of the centres in the grain boundaries and the BN. The local charging results in optical inhomogeneity of the silica glasses which is sustained by the optical loss spectra of the irradiated glasses, features of kinetics of bleaching, RI...

  1. Thermal quantum discord of spins in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinliang; Mi Yingjuan; Zhang Jian; Song Heshan

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with the thermal entanglement, we study the quantum discord and classical correlation in a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that the effects of the external magnetic fields, including the uniform and inhomogeneous magnetic fields, on the thermal entanglement, quantum discord and classical correlation behave differently in various aspects, which depend on system temperature and model type. We can tune the inhomogeneous magnetic field to enhance the entanglement or classical correlation and meanwhile decrease the quantum discord. In addition, taking into account the inhomogeneous magnetic field, the sudden change in the behaviour of quantum discord still survives, which can detect the critical points of quantum phase transitions at finite temperature, but not for a uniform magnetic field.

  2. Cyclotron spectra from inhomogeneous accretion columns. II. Polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Chanmugam, G.

    1989-01-01

    Circularly and linearly polarized radiation from inhomogeneous cyclotron emission regions with uniform magnetic field and temperature but different electron density profiles are studied. Calculations show that the inhomogeneous models generally produce larger polarization for low harmonics and smaller polarization for high harmonics compared to the homogeneous models. Polarization light curves for different inhomogeneous models with a wide variety of parameters are presented, providing handy theoretical results to compare with observations. The observed polarization light curves of ST LMi, EF Eri, and BL Hydri are fitted using an inhomogeneous model for the first time, and good fits are obtained, supporting the hypothesis that the cyclotron emission regions of AM Her systems have a complicated structure. 37 refs

  3. On the penetration of solar wind inhomogeneities into the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, V.P.; Senatorov, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were used as a basis to study the process of interaction between solar wind inhomogeneities and the Earth's magnetosphere. The given inhomogeneity represents a lump of plasma characterized by an increased concentration of particles (nsub(e) approximately 20-30 cm -3 ), a discrete form (characteristic dimensions of the lump are inferior to the magnetosphere diameter) and the velocity v approximately 350 km/s. It is shown that there is the possibility of penetration of solar wind inhomogeneities inside the Earth's magnetosphere because of the appearance in the inhomogeneity of an electric field of transverse polarization. The said process is a possible mechanism of the formation of the magnetopshere entrance layer

  4. Anomalous transient behavior from an inhomogeneous initial optical vortex density

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . However, the decay curves contain oscillatory features that are counterintuitive: for a short while, the inhomogeneity actually increases. The author provides numerical simulations and analytic calculations to study the appearance of the anomalous features...

  5. Large linear magnetoresistivity in strongly inhomogeneous planar and layered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgadaev, S.A.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2005-01-01

    Explicit expressions for magnetoresistance R of planar and layered strongly inhomogeneous two-phase systems are obtained, using exact dual transformation, connecting effective conductivities of in-plane isotropic two-phase systems with and without magnetic field. These expressions allow to describe the magnetoresistance of various inhomogeneous media at arbitrary concentrations x and magnetic fields H. All expressions show large linear magnetoresistance effect with different dependencies on the phase concentrations. The corresponding plots of the x- and H-dependencies of R(x,H) are represented for various values, respectively, of magnetic field and concentrations at some values of inhomogeneity parameter. The obtained results show a remarkable similarity with the existing experimental data on linear magnetoresistance in silver chalcogenides Ag 2+δ Se. A possible physical explanation of this similarity is proposed. It is shown that the random, stripe type, structures of inhomogeneities are the most suitable for a fabrication of magnetic sensors and a storage of information at room temperatures

  6. Investigation of local optical inhomogeneities in flashlamp photolysis lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, B V; Borovkov, V V; Lazhintsev, B V; Nor-Arenian, V A; Sukhanov, L V; Ustinenko, V A

    1979-09-01

    Local changes in the refractive index which occur in the active medium under flashlamp-excited photolysis laser action are examined experimentally. Under conditions of the inverse population storage and suppression of the laser action by a strong quencher, local inhomogeneities have been absent. It is shown that the stimulated emission is inhomogeneous over the active medium and features regular character with the radiation density modulation within 20-30 percent and with typical size of inhomogeneities of not greater than 0.5 mm. On the basis of experimental results and estimation, a conclusion is drawn that the local optical inhomogeneities are caused by gasdynamic displacements of the gas due to different heat evolutions in the regions of the radiation density maximum and minimum.

  7. Self-Focusing of Quadruple Gaussian Laser Beam in an Inhomogenous Magnetized Plasma with Ponderomotive Non-Linearity: Effect of Linear Absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Munish; Vij, Shivani; Kant, Niti

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of quadruple Gaussian laser beam in a plasma characterized by axial inhomogeneity and nonlinearity due to ponderomotive force in the paraxial ray approximation is investigated. An appropriate expression for the nonlinear dielectric constant has been developed in the presence of external magnetic field, with linear absorption and due to saturation effects for arbitrary large intensity. The effects of different types of plasma axial inhomogeneities on self-focusing of laser beam have been studied with the typical laser and plasma parameters. Self-focusing of quadruple Gaussian laser beam in the presence of externally applied magnetic field and saturating parameter is found significantly improved in the case of extraordinary mode. Our results reveal that initially converging beam shows oscillatory convergence whereas initially diverging beam shows oscillatory divergence. The beam is more focussed at lower intensity in both cases viz. extraordinary and ordinary mode. (paper)

  8. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio; Asami, Koji

    2008-01-01

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes

  9. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio [Life Science Laboratory, Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Sony Bioinformatics Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Asami, Koji [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Division of Multidisciplinary Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: Yoshihito.Hayashi@jp.sony.com

    2008-05-21

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes.

  10. Silicone-based Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Efficient conversion of energy from one form to another (transduction) is an important topic in our daily day, and it is a necessity in moving away from the fossil based society. Dielectric elastomers hold great promise as soft transducers, since they are compliant and light-weight amongst many...... energy efficient solutions are highly sought. These properties allow for interesting products ranging very broadly, e.g. from eye implants over artificial skins over soft robotics to huge wave energy harvesting plants. All these products utilize the inherent softness and compliance of the dielectric...... elastomer transducers. The subject of this thesis is improvement of properties of silicone-based dielectric elastomers with special focus on design guides towards electrically, mechanically, and electromechanically reliable elastomers. Strategies for improving dielectric elastomer performance are widely...

  11. Nonlinear interaction of waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istomin, Ya.N.

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear wave processes in a weakly inhomogeneous plasma are considered. A quasilinear equation is derived which takes into account the effect of the waves on resonance particles, provided that the inhomogeneity appreciably affects the nature of the resonance interaction. Three-wave interaction is investigated under the same conditions. As an example, the nonlinear interaction in a relativistic plasma moving along a strong curvilinear magnetic field is considered

  12. Radio frequency conductivity of plasma in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae; Nishikawa, Kyoji; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Kimitaka.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlocal conductivity tensor is obtained to study the kinetic effects on propagation and absorption of radio frequency (rf) waves in dispersive plasmas. Generalized linear propagator in the presence of the inhomogeneity of magnetic field strength along the field line is calculated. The influence of the inhomogeneity to the rf wave-energy deposition is found to be appreciable. Application to toroidal plasmas is shown. (author)

  13. Polymers undergoing inhomogeneous adsorption: exact results and Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliev, G K [Department of Mathematics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Orlandini, E [Dipartimento di Fisica, CNISM, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Whittington, S G, E-mail: giliev@yorku.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2011-10-07

    We consider several types of inhomogeneous polymer adsorption. In each case, the inhomogeneity is regular and resides in the surface, in the polymer or in both. We consider two different polymer models: a directed walk model that can be solved exactly and a self-avoiding walk model which we investigate using Monte Carlo methods. In each case, we compute the phase diagram. We compare and contrast the phase diagrams and give qualitative arguments about their forms. (paper)

  14. Solitons of an envelope in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilov, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Solutions of the Schroedinger nonlinear equation (SNE) used for the description of evolution of a wave packet envelope has been investigated in inhomogeneous and nonstationary media. It is shown that the SNE solution possessing two important properties exists. Firstly, the wave packet remains localized when propagating in an inhomogeneous medium. Secondly, the soliton width and amplitude are determined only with local characteristics of medium and don't depend on the prehistory. Problem of limits of obtained result applicability has been considered

  15. Off-center observers versus supernovae in inhomogeneous pressure universes

    OpenAIRE

    Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Exact luminosity distance and apparent magnitude formulas are applied to Union2 557 supernovae sample in order to constrain possible position of an observer outside of the center of symmetry in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous pressure Stephani universes which are complementary to inhomogeneous density Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) void models. Two specific models are investigated. The first which allows a barotropic equation of state at the center of symmetry with no scale factor function...

  16. Love waves in a structure with an inhomogeneous layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaryan, K.B.; Piliposyan, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of the propagation of Love type waves in a structure consisting of a finite inhomogeneous layer sandwiched between two isotropic homogeneous half spaces is investigated. Two types of inhomogeneity are considered. It is shown that in one case the amplitude of vibrations in the middle layer is a sinusoidal function of distance from the plane of symmetry, but that in the other case it may be non-sinusoidal for certain values of the parameters of the problem

  17. Minimum weight design of inhomogeneous rotating discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahed, Hamid; Farshi, Behrooz; Bidabadi, Jalal

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous applications for gas turbine discs in the aerospace industry such as in turbojet engines. These discs normally work under high temperatures while subjected to high angular velocities. Minimizing the weight of such items in aerospace applications results in benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. High speed of rotation causes large centrifugal forces in a disc and simultaneous application of high temperatures reduces disc material strength. Thus, the latter effects tend to increase deformations of the disc under the applied loads. In order to obtain a reliable disc analysis and arrive at the corresponding correct stress distribution, solutions should consider changes in material properties due to the temperature field throughout the disc. To achieve this goal, an inhomogeneous disc model with variable thickness is considered. Using the variable material properties method, stresses are obtained for the disc under rotation and a steady temperature field. In this paper this is done by modelling the rotating disc as a series of rings of different but constant properties. The optimum disc profile is arrived at by sequentially proportioning the thicknesses of each ring to satisfy the stress requirements. This method vis-a-vis a mathematical programming procedure for optimization shows several advantages. Firstly, it is simple iterative proportioning in each design cycle not requiring involved mathematical operations. Secondly, due to its simplicity it alleviates the necessity of certain simplifications that are common in so-called rigorous mathematical procedures. The results obtained, compared to those published in the literature show agreement and superiority. A further advantage of the proposed method is the independence of the end results from the initially assumed point in the iterative design routine, unlike most methods published so far

  18. Interconnect Between a Waveguide and a Dielectric Waveguide Comprising an Impedance Matched Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrossas, Emmanuel (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Chahat, Nacer (Inventor); Tang, Adrian J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A lens for interconnecting a metallic waveguide with a dielectric waveguide is provided. The lens may be coupled a metallic waveguide and a dielectric waveguide, and minimize a signal loss between the metallic waveguide and the dielectric waveguide.

  19. Inhomogeneous initial data and small-field inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, M. C. David; Barrow, John D.; Ganguly, Chandrima

    2018-05-01

    We consider the robustness of small-field inflation in the presence of scalar field inhomogeneities. Previous numerical work has shown that if the scalar potential is flat only over a narrow interval, such as in commonly considered inflection-point models, even small-amplitude inhomogeneities present at the would-be onset of inflation at τ = τi can disrupt the accelerated expansion. In this paper, we parametrise and evolve the inhomogeneities from an earlier time τIC at which the initial data were imprinted, and show that for a broad range of inflationary and pre-inflationary models, inflection-point inflation withstands initial inhomogeneities. We consider three classes of perturbative pre-inflationary solutions (corresponding to energetic domination by the scalar field kinetic term, a relativistic fluid, and isotropic negative curvature), and two classes of exact solutions to Einstein's equations with large inhomogeneities (corresponding to a stiff fluid with cylindrical symmetry, and anisotropic negative curvature). We derive a stability condition that depends on the Hubble scales H(τi) and H(τIC), and a few properties of the pre-inflationary cosmology. For initial data imprinted at the Planck scale, the absence of an inhomogeneous initial data problem for inflection-point inflation leads to a novel, lower limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  20. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  1. High-definition, single-scan 2D MRI in inhomogeneous fields using spatial encoding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Eliezer, Noam; Shrot, Yoav; Frydman, Lucio

    2010-01-01

    An approach has been recently introduced for acquiring two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance images in a single scan, based on the spatial encoding of the spin interactions. This article explores the potential of integrating this spatial encoding together with conventional temporal encoding principles, to produce 2D single-shot images with moderate field of views. The resulting "hybrid" imaging scheme is shown to be superior to traditional schemes in non-homogeneous magnetic field environments. An enhancement of previously discussed pulse sequences is also proposed, whereby distortions affecting the image along the spatially encoded axis are eliminated. This new variant is also characterized by a refocusing of T(2)(*) effects, leading to a restoration of high-definition images for regions which would otherwise be highly dephased and thus not visible. These single-scan 2D images are characterized by improved signal-to-noise ratios and a genuine T(2) contrast, albeit not free from inhomogeneity distortions. Simple postprocessing algorithms relying on inhomogeneity phase maps of the imaged object can successfully remove most of these residual distortions. Initial results suggest that this acquisition scheme has the potential to overcome strong field inhomogeneities acting over extended acquisition durations, exceeding 100 ms for a single-shot image.

  2. Data base of radiation-resistant dielectric and insulating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Yoshimasa; Sunazuka, Hideo; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kakuta, Tsunemi.

    1987-01-01

    In the data base of radiation-resistant dielectric and insulating materials, the data format contains such items as to give the summary; the data sheet contains the data in concrete form of respective properties from the references; the sheet of references contains the references in the former two. In the above three, there are attached code No., data sheet No., reference No. and key words. In the three areas as radiation-resistant dielectric and insulating materials, i.e., organic materials, inorganic materials and optical fibers, the following are explained: data format, data sheet and objectives. (Mori, K.)

  3. Modelling of dielectric hysteresis loops in ferroelectric semiconductors with charged defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozovska, Anna N; Eliseev, Eugene A

    2004-01-01

    We have proposed the phenomenological description of dielectric hysteresis loops in ferroelectric semiconductors with charged defects and prevailing extrinsic conductivity. We have modified the Landau-Ginsburg approach and shown that the macroscopic state of the aforementioned inhomogeneous system can be described by three coupled equations for three order parameters. Both the experimentally observed coercive field values well below the thermodynamic values and the various hysteresis-loop deformations (constricted and double loops) have been obtained in the framework of our model. The obtained results quantitatively explain the ferroelectric switching in such ferroelectric materials as thick PZT films

  4. SECTIONING METHOD APPLICATION AT ELLIPSOMETRY OF INHOMOGENEOUS REFLECTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gorlyak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of application peculiarities of ellipsometry methods and UF spectrophotometry at mechanical and chemical processing of optical engineering surface elements made of quartz glass. Ellipsometer LEF–3M–1, spectrophotometer SF–26 and interferometer MII–4 are used as experiment tools; they obtain widely known technical characteristics. Polarization characteristics of reflected light beam were measured by ellipsometry method; spectrophotometry method was used for measuring radiation transmission factor in UF spectrum area; by interference method surface layer thickness at quartz glass etching was measured. A method for HF–sectioning of inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass is developed based on ellipsometry equation for reflection system «inhomogeneous layer – inhomogeneous padding». The method makes it possible to carry out the measuring and analysis of optical characteristics for inhomogeneous layers system on inhomogeneous padding and to reconstruct optical profile of surface layers at quartz glass chemical processing. For definition of refractive index change along the layer depth, approximation of experimental values for polarization characteristics of homogeneous layers system is used. Inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass consists of an area (with thickness up to 20 nm and layer refractive index less than refractive index for quartz glass and an area (with thickness up to 0,1 μm and layer refractive index larger than refractive index for quartz glass. Ellipsometry and photometry methods are used for definition of technological conditions and optical characteristics of inhomogeneous layers at quartz glass chemical processing for optical elements with minimum radiation losses in UF spectrum area.

  5. Observation of modified radiative properties of cold atoms in vacuum near a dielectric surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V V; Cornelussen, R A; Heuvell, H B van Linden van den; Spreeuw, R J C

    2004-01-01

    We have observed a distance-dependent absorption linewidth of cold 87 Rb atoms close to a dielectric-vacuum interface. This is the first observation of modified radiative properties in vacuum near a dielectric surface. A cloud of cold atoms was created using a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and optical molasses cooling. Evanescent waves (EW) were used to observe the behaviour of the atoms near the surface. We observed an increase of the absorption linewidth by up to 25% with respect to the free-space value. Approximately half the broadening can be explained by cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) as an increase of the natural linewidth and inhomogeneous broadening. The remainder we attribute to local Stark shifts near the surface. By varying the characteristic EW length we have observed a distance dependence characteristic for CQED

  6. On guided circumferential waves in soft electroactive tubes under radially inhomogeneous biasing fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Su, Yipin; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2017-02-01

    Soft electroactive (EA) tube actuators and many other cylindrical devices have been proposed recently in literature, which show great advantages over those made from conventional hard solid materials. However, their practical applications may be limited because these soft EA devices are prone to various failure modes. In this paper, we present an analysis of the guided circumferential elastic waves in soft EA tube actuators, which has potential applications in the in-situ nondestructive evaluation (NDE) or online structural health monitoring (SHM) to detect structural defects or fatigue cracks in soft EA tube actuators and in the self-sensing of soft EA tube actuators based on the concept of guided circumferential elastic waves. Both circumferential SH and Lamb-type waves in an incompressible soft EA cylindrical tube under inhomogeneous biasing fields are considered. The biasing fields, induced by the application of an electric voltage difference to the electrodes on the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces of the EA tube in addition to an axial pre-stretch, are inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Dorfmann and Ogden's theory of nonlinear electroelasticity and the associated linear theory for small incremental motion constitute the basis of our analysis. By means of the state-space formalism for the incremental wave motion along with the approximate laminate technique, dispersion relations are derived in a particularly efficient way. For a neo-Hookean ideal dielectric model, the proposed approach is first validated numerically. Numerical examples are then given to show that the guided circumferential wave propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the inhomogeneous biasing fields and the geometrical parameters. Some particular phenomena such as the frequency veering and the nonlinear dependence of the phase velocity on the radial electric voltage are discussed. Our numerical findings demonstrate that it is feasible to use guided circumferential

  7. Electrical actuation of dielectric droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, N; Bahadur, V; Garimella, S V

    2008-01-01

    Electrical actuation of liquid droplets at the microscale offers promising applications in the fields of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip devices. Much prior research has targeted the electrical actuation of electrically conducting liquid droplets; however, the actuation of dielectric droplets has remained relatively unexplored, despite the advantages associated with the use of a dielectric droplet. This paper presents modeling and experimental results on the electrical actuation of dielectric droplets between two flat plates. A first-order analytical model, based on the energy-minimization principle, is developed to estimate the electrical actuation force on a dielectric droplet as it moves between two flat plates. Two versions of this analytical model are benchmarked for their suitability and accuracy against a detailed numerical model. The actuation force prediction is then combined with available semi-analytical expressions for predicting the forces opposing droplet motion to develop a model that predicts transient droplet motion under electrical actuation. Electrical actuation of dielectric droplets is experimentally demonstrated by moving transformer oil droplets between two flat plates under the influence of an actuation voltage. Droplet velocities and their dependence on the plate spacing and the applied voltage are experimentally measured and showed reasonable agreement with predictions from the models developed

  8. The inhomogeneous perfusion of the solitary pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shenjiang; Xiao Xiangsheng; Liu Shiyuan; Li Chengzhou; Zhang Chenshi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether the perfusion of the solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) is homogeneous derived with 16-slice spiral CT and 64-slice spiral CT. Methods: Eight-five patients with. SPNs (diameter≤4 cm; 57 maliagnant; 15 active inflammatory; 13 benign) underwent multi- location dynamic contrast material-enhanced serial CT. One scan was obtained every 1 seconds during 11-- 41 seconds without scanning interval after injection, one scan was obtained at 90 seconds. TOSHIBA AquilionMarconi 16: The section thickness was 8.0 mm for lesions 3.0-4.0 cm, 6.0 mm for 2.0- 3.0 cm, 4.0 mm for 1.5-2.0 cm, 3.0 mm for 1.0-1.5 cm and 2.0 mm for lesions -1 ·100 g -1 , the ratios of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (13.58±6.41)%, (10.95±5.76)%, (13.64± 6.20)% and the mean transit times (11.61±5.74), (11.97±3.55), (13.44±3.74) s. Statistically significant differences were found among three sections in the peak height (F=5.913, P=0.003), perfusion (F=6.464,P=0.002), ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta(F=5.333,P=0.005) and mean transit time (F=3.837, P=0.023). No statistically significant differences were found among three sections in precontrast attenuation (F=0.032, P=0.968). Conclusion: The volume perfusion of the SPNs is inhomogeneous, it is suggested to evaluate blood flow patterns of the solitary pulmonary nodules with CT volume perfusion imaging. (authors)

  9. Materials Fundamentals of Gate Dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Demkov, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    This book presents materials fundamentals of novel gate dielectrics that are being introduced into semiconductor manufacturing to ensure the continuous scalling of the CMOS devices. This is a very fast evolving field of research so we choose to focus on the basic understanding of the structure, thermodunamics, and electronic properties of these materials that determine their performance in device applications. Most of these materials are transition metal oxides. Ironically, the d-orbitals responsible for the high dielectric constant cause sever integration difficulties thus intrinsically limiting high-k dielectrics. Though new in the electronics industry many of these materials are wel known in the field of ceramics, and we describe this unique connection. The complexity of the structure-property relations in TM oxides makes the use of the state of the art first-principles calculations necessary. Several chapters give a detailed description of the modern theory of polarization, and heterojunction band discont...

  10. Laser amplification in excited dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian; Zielinski, Bastian; Götte, Nadine; Senftleben, Arne; Balling, Peter; Baumert, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400 nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently amplified inside an excited sapphire sample on a scale of a few micrometres. Simulations strongly support the proposed two-photon stimulated emission process, which is temporally and spatially controllable. Consequently, we expect applications in all fields that demand strongly localized amplification.

  11. Dielectric function of semiconductor superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guoyi.

    1990-08-01

    We present a calculation of the dielectric function for semiconductor GaAs/Ga 1-x Al x As superlattice taking account of the extension of the electron envelope function and the difference of both the dielectric constant and width between GaAs and Ga 1-x Al x As layers. In the appropriate limits, our results exactly reduce to the well-known results of the quasi two-dimensional electron gas obtained by Lee and Spector and of the period array of two-dimensional electron layers obtained by Das Sarma and Quinn. By means of the dielectric function of the superlattice, the dispersion relation of the collective excitation and the screening property of semiconductor superlattice are discussed and compared with the results of the quasi two-dimensional system and with the results of the periodic array of the two-dimensional electron layers. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs

  12. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  13. Dielectric behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    dielectric loss (tan δ) as functions of frequency and temperature. Ion core type ... Since the data on dielectric properties of strontium tartrate trihydrate (STT) do not ... through 'AE' make 15-amp dimmerstat, the rate of heating was maintained ...

  14. The Dielectric Constant of Lubrication Oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carey, A

    1998-01-01

    The values of the dielectric constant of simple molecules is discussed first, along with the relationship between the dielectric constant and other physical properties such as boiling point, melting...

  15. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on tunable functionalized copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    system, with respect to functionalization, is achieved. It is investigated how the different functionalization variables affect essential DE properties, including dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, elastic modulus and dielectric breakdown strength, and the optimal degree of chemical......%) was obtained without compromising other vital DE properties such as elastic modulus, gel fraction, dielectric and viscous loss and electrical breakdown strength....

  16. A study of low-dimensional inhomogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo Leon, Yesenia

    2009-01-01

    While the properties of homogeneous one-dimensional systems, even with disorder, are relatively well-understood, very little is known about the properties of strongly interacting inhomogeneous systems. Their high-energy physics is determined by the underlying chemistry which, in the atomic scale, introduces Coulomb correlations and local potentials. On the other hand, at large length scales, the physics has to be described by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) model. In order to establish a connection between the low-energy TLL and the quasi-one-dimensional systems synthesized in the laboratory, we investigate the density-density correlation function in inhomogeneous one-dimensional systems in the asymptotic region. To investigate homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous systems, we use the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present results for ground state properties, such as the density-density correlation function and the parameter K c , which characterizes its decay at large distances. (orig.)

  17. Solutions of the chemical kinetic equations for initially inhomogeneous mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilst, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Following the recent discussions by O'Brien (1971) and Donaldson and Hilst (1972) of the effects of inhomogeneous mixing and turbulent diffusion on simple chemical reaction rates, the present report provides a more extensive analysis of when inhomogeneous mixing has a significant effect on chemical reaction rates. The analysis is then extended to the development of an approximate chemical sub-model which provides much improved predictions of chemical reaction rates over a wide range of inhomogeneities and pathological distributions of the concentrations of the reacting chemical species. In particular, the development of an approximate representation of the third-order correlations of the joint concentration fluctuations permits closure of the chemical sub-model at the level of the second-order moments of these fluctuations and the mean concentrations.

  18. A study of low-dimensional inhomogeneous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo Leon, Yesenia

    2009-01-15

    While the properties of homogeneous one-dimensional systems, even with disorder, are relatively well-understood, very little is known about the properties of strongly interacting inhomogeneous systems. Their high-energy physics is determined by the underlying chemistry which, in the atomic scale, introduces Coulomb correlations and local potentials. On the other hand, at large length scales, the physics has to be described by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) model. In order to establish a connection between the low-energy TLL and the quasi-one-dimensional systems synthesized in the laboratory, we investigate the density-density correlation function in inhomogeneous one-dimensional systems in the asymptotic region. To investigate homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous systems, we use the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present results for ground state properties, such as the density-density correlation function and the parameter K{sub c}, which characterizes its decay at large distances. (orig.)

  19. Geometric phase from dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    2005-10-01

    The dielectric property of the anisotropic optical medium is found by considering the polarized photon as two component spinor of spherical harmonics. The Geometric Phase of a polarized photon has been evaluated in two ways: the phase two-form of the dielectric matrix through a twist and the Pancharatnam phase (GP) by changing the angular momentum of the incident polarized photon over a closed triangular path on the extended Poincare sphere. The helicity in connection with the spin angular momentum of the chiral photon plays the key role in developing these phase holonomies. (author)

  20. THE STRESS STATE OF THE RADIALLY INHOMOGENEOUS HEMISPHERICAL SHELL UNDER LOCALLY DISTRIBUTED VERTICAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev Vladimir Igorevich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject: one of the promising trends in the development of structural mechanics is the development of methods for solving problems in the theory of elasticity for bodies with continuous inhomogeneity of any deformation characteristics: these methods make it possible to use the strength of the material most fully. In this paper, we consider the two-dimensional problem for the case when a vertical, locally distributed load acts on the hemisphere and the inhomogeneity is caused by the influence of the temperature field. Research objectives: derive governing system of equations in spherical coordinates for determination of the stress state of the radially inhomogeneous hemispherical shell under locally distributed vertical load. Materials and methods: as a mechanical model, we chose a thick-walled reinforced concrete shell (hemisphere with inner and outer radii a and b, respectively, b > a. The shell’s parameters are a = 3.3 m, b = 4.5 m, Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.16; the load parameters are f = 10MPa - vertical localized load distributed over the outer face, θ0 = 30°, temperature on the internal surface of the shell Ta = 500 °C, temperature on the external surface of the shell Tb = 0 °C. The resulting boundary-value problem (a system of differential equations with variable coefficients is solved using the Maple software package. Results: maximal compressive stresses σr with allowance for material inhomogeneity are reduced by 10 % compared with the case when the inhomogeneity is ignored. But it is not so important compared with a 3-fold decrease in the tensile stress σθ on the inner surface and a 2-fold reduction in the tensile stress σθ on the outer surface of the hemisphere as concretes generally have a tensile strength substantially smaller than the compressive strength. Conclusions: the method presented in this article makes it possible to reduce the deformation characteristics of the material, i.e. it leads to a reduction in stresses

  1. Analysis of MUSIC-type imaging functional for single, thin electromagnetic inhomogeneity in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzes the well-known MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm to identify unknown support of thin penetrable electromagnetic inhomogeneity from scattered field data collected within the so-called multi-static response matrix in limited-view inverse scattering problems. The mathematical theories of MUSIC are partially discovered, e.g., in the full-view problem, for an unknown target of dielectric contrast or a perfectly conducting crack with the Dirichlet boundary condition (Transverse Magnetic-TM polarization) and so on. Hence, we perform further research to analyze the MUSIC-type imaging functional and to certify some well-known but theoretically unexplained phenomena. For this purpose, we establish a relationship between the MUSIC imaging functional and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This relationship is based on the rigorous asymptotic expansion formula in the existence of a thin inhomogeneity with a smooth supporting curve. Various results of numerical simulation are presented in order to support the identified structure of MUSIC. Although a priori information of the target is needed, we suggest a least condition of range of incident and observation directions to apply MUSIC in the limited-view problem.

  2. Charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Knøster; McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1999-01-01

    At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries such that the mat......At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries...

  3. Brownian motion probe for water-ethanol inhomogeneous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Judai, Ken

    2017-12-01

    Brownian motion provides information regarding the microscopic geometry and motion of molecules, insofar as it occurs as a result of molecular collisions with a colloid particle. We found that the mobility of polystyrene beads from the Brownian motion in a water-ethanol mixture is larger than that predicted from the liquid shear viscosity. This indicates that mixing water and ethanol is inhomogeneous in micron-sized probe beads. The discrepancy between the mobility of Brownian motion and liquid mobility can be explained by the way the rotation of the beads in an inhomogeneous viscous solvent converts the translational movement.

  4. Transformation instability of oscillations in inhomogeneous beam-plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsenko, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Wave transformation is studied in a plasma system which was weak-inhomogeneous along beam velocity, in absence of external magnetic field. For the case of small density beam formulae are obtained which have set a coupling between the charge density beam wave amplitudes and the Langmuir wave on both sides of transformation point. It is shown that in collisionless plasma the wave production is a cause of the absorption of the charge density beam waves. Transformation mechanism of the absolute instability in the weak-inhomogeneous beam-plasma system is revealed

  5. Reflection of oblique electron thermal modes in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sanuki, H.

    1980-04-01

    In an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, reflection of an oblique electron thermal mode radiated from a local source is investigated experimentally and theoretically near the electron plasma frequency layer. The experimental observation of reflection in the lower plasma density region than the f sub(p)-layer is found to be in qualitative accord with the theoretical reflection, which is obtained from a kinetic theory in an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma. The reflection of the thermal mode is also compared with that of an electromagnetic mode at the f sub(p)-layer. (author)

  6. Parallel application of plasma equilibrium fitting based on inhomogeneous platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Min; Zhang Jinhua; Chen Liaoyuan; Li Yongge; Pan Wei; Pan Li

    2008-01-01

    An online analysis and online display platform EFIT, which is based on the equilibrium-fitting mode, is inducted in this paper. This application can realize large data transportation between inhomogeneous platforms by designing a communication mechanism using sockets. It spends approximately one minute to complete the equilibrium fitting reconstruction by using a finite state machine to describe the management node and several node computers of cluster system to fulfill the parallel computation, this satisfies the online display during the discharge interval. An effective communication model between inhomogeneous platforms is provided, which could transport the computing results from Linux platform to Windows platform for online analysis and display. (authors)

  7. Baryon inhomogeneity from the cosmic quark-hadron phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurki-Suonio, H.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the generation of inhomogeneity in the baryon-number density during the cosmic quark-hadron phase transition. We use a simple model with thin-wall phase boundaries and ideal-gas equations of state. The nucleation of the phase transition introduces a new distance scale into the universe which will be the scale of the generated inhomogeneity. We review the estimate of this scale. During the transition baryon number is likely to collect onto a layer at the phase boundary. These layers may in the end be deposited as small regions of very high baryon density. 21 refs., 1 fig

  8. Forces and energy dissipation in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poluehktov, Yu.M.; Slezov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The phenomenological theory of volume forces and dissipation processes in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors near temperature transition from the normal to superconducting state is constructed. The approach is based on application of dynamic equations of superconductivity formulated on the basis of the Lagrangian formalism. These equations are generalized the Ginzburg-Landau theory in the nonstationary non-equilibrium case for ''foul'' superconductors. The value estimations of volume forces arising in inhomogeneities during relaxation of an order parameter and when the electrical field is penetrated into the superconductor, are given

  9. Phase synchronization in inhomogeneous globally coupled map lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Mingchung; Hung Yaochen; Jiang, I-M.

    2004-01-01

    The study of inhomogeneous-coupled chaotic systems has attracted a lot of attention recently. With simple definition of phase, we present the phase-locking behavior in ensembles of globally coupled non-identical maps. The inhomogeneous globally coupled maps consist of logistic map and tent map simultaneously. Average phase synchronization ratios, which are used to characterize the phase coherent phenomena, depend on different coupling coefficients and chaotic parameters. By using interdependence, the relationship between a single unit and the mean field is illustrated. Moreover, we take the effect of external noise and parameter mismatch into consideration and present the results by numerical simulation

  10. Nonlinear acoustic waves in micro-inhomogeneous solids

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarov, Veniamin

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear Acoustic Waves in Micro-inhomogeneous Solids covers the broad and dynamic branch of nonlinear acoustics, presenting a wide variety of different phenomena from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The introductory chapters, written in the style of graduate-level textbook, present a review of the main achievements of classic nonlinear acoustics of homogeneous media. This enables readers to gain insight into nonlinear wave processes in homogeneous and micro-inhomogeneous solids and compare it within the framework of the book. The subsequent eight chapters covering: Physical m

  11. Dose inhomogeneities at various levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Dose inhomogeneities in both tumor and normal tissue, inherent to the application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), can be the result not only of ununiform distribution of 10 B at various levels of biological organization, but also of the distribution of the thermal neutrons and of the energy depositions from more energetic neutrons and other radiations comprising the externally-applied beams. The severity of the problems resulting from such inhomogeneities, and approaches to evaluating them, are illustrated by three examples, at the macro, micro and intermediate levels

  12. Ray tracing for inhomogeneous media applied to the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gonzalez, G.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.; Juarez-Salazar, R.

    2017-08-01

    Inhomogeneous or gradient index media exhibit a refractive index varying with the position. This kind of media are very interesting because they can be found in both synthetic as well as real life optical devices such as the human lens. In this work we present the development of a computational tool for ray tracing in refractive optical systems. Particularly, the human eye is used as the optical system under study. An inhomogeneous medium with similar characteristics to the human lens is introduced and modeled by the so-called slices method. The useful of our proposal is illustrated by several graphical results.

  13. Cellulose Triacetate Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Cellulose triacetate investigated for use as dielectric material in high-energy-density capacitors for pulsed-electrical-power systems. Films of cellulose triacetate metalized on one or both sides for use as substrates for electrodes and/or as dielectrics between electrodes in capacitors. Used without metalization as simple dielectric films. Advantages include high breakdown strength and self-healing capability.

  14. Dependence of inhomogeneous vibrational linewidth broadening on attractive forces from local liquid number densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, S.M.; Harris, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of inhomogeneous vibrational linewidth broadening on attractive forces form slowly varying local liquid number densities is examined. The recently developed Schweizer--Chandler theory of vibrational dephasing is used to compute absolute inhomogeneous broadening linewidths. The computed linewidths are compared to measured inhomogeneous broadening linewidths determined using picosecond vibrational dephasing experiments. There is a similarity between correlations of the Schweizer--Chandler and George--Auweter--Harris predicted inhomogeneous broadening linewidths and the measured inhomogeneous broadening linewidths. For the methyl stretches under investigation, this correspondence suggests that the width of the number density distribution in the liquid determines the relative inhomogeneous broadening magnitudes

  15. Effect of Inhomogeneity correction for lung volume model in TPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Se Young; Lee, Sang Rok; Kim, Young Bum; Kwon, Young Ho

    2004-01-01

    The phantom that includes high density materials such as steel was custom-made to fix lung and bone in order to evaluation inhomogeneity correction at the time of conducting radiation therapy to treat lung cancer. Using this, values resulting from the inhomogeneous correction algorithm are compared on the 2 and 3 dimensional radiation therapy planning systems. Moreover, change in dose calculation was evaluated according to inhomogeneous by comparing with the actual measurement. As for the image acquisition, inhomogeneous correction phantom(Pig's vertebra, steel(8.21 g/cm 3 ), cork(0.23 g/cm 3 )) that was custom-made and the CT(Volume zoom, Siemens, Germany) were used. As for the radiation therapy planning system, Marks Plan(2D) and XiO(CMS, USA, 3D) were used. To compare with the measurement value, linear accelerator(CL/1800, Varian, USA) and ion chamber were used. Image, obtained from the CT was used to obtain point dose and dose distribution from the region of interest (ROI) while on the radiation therapy planning device. After measurement was conducted under the same conditions, value on the treatment planning device and measured value were subjected to comparison and analysis. And difference between the resulting for the evaluation on the use (or non-use) of inhomogeneity correction algorithm, and diverse inhomogeneity correction algorithm that is included in the radiation therapy planning device was compared as well. As result of comparing the results of measurement value on the region of interest within the inhomogeneity correction phantom and the value that resulted from the homogeneous and inhomogeneous correction, gained from the therapy planning device, margin of error of the measurement value and inhomogeneous correction value at the location 1 of the lung showed 0.8% on 2D and 0.5% on 3D. Margin of error of the measurement value and inhomogeneous correction value at the location 1 of the steel showed 12% on 2D and 5% on 3D, however, it is possible to

  16. Dielectric waveguide amplifiers and lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    The performance of semiconductor amplifiers and lasers has made them the preferred choice for optical gain on a micro-chip. In the past few years, we have demonstrated that also rare-earth-ion-doped dielectric waveguides show remarkable performance, ranging from a small-signal gain per unit length

  17. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    India's annual coal production is used in about 72 power- generating plants and ... performance of this material as cracking catalyst was investigated with ... Chemically, the FA was silica to an extent of 55–70%, followed by ... Cu, Pb, Cd, Ag, Mn, Fe, Ti, Na, Mo, S, P, Zn and Cl in different ... two-probe method. The dielectric ...

  18. Dielectric polarization in random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of dielectric polarization in random media is systematically formulated in terms of response kernels. The primary response kernel K(12) governs the mean dielectric response at the point r 1 to the external electric field at the point r 2 in an infinite system. The inverse of K(12) is denoted by L(12);. it is simpler and more fundamental than K(12) itself. Rigorous expressions are obtained for the effective dielectric constant epsilon( in terms of L(12) and K(12). The latter expression involves the Onsger-Kirkwood function (epsilon(-epsilon 0 (2epsilon(+epsilon 0 )/epsilon 0 epsilon( (where epsilon 0 is an arbitrary reference value), and appears to be new to the random medium context. A wide variety of series representations for epsilon( are generated by means of general perturbation expansions for K(12) and L(12). A discussion is given of certain pitfalls in the theory, most of which are related to the fact that the response kernels are long ranged. It is shown how the dielectric behavior of nonpolar molecular fluids may be treated as a special case of the general theory. The present results for epsilon( apply equally well to other effective phenomenological coefficients of the same generic type, such as thermal and electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and diffusion coefficients

  19. Improved di-electric composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R C

    1915-03-29

    An improved di-electric composition is disclosed composed of pitch or bitumen which is melted, and to which is added, while molten, a quantity of finely ground or pulverized spent shale, the whole being mixed or stirred to make a homogeneous composition, substantially as described.

  20. Investigation of the dielectric properties of shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martemyanov, Sergey M.

    2011-01-01

    The article is dedicated to investigation of the dielectric properties of oil shale. Investigations for samples prepared from shale mined at the deposit in Jilin Province in China were done. The temperature and frequency dependences of rock characteristics needed to calculate the processes of their thermal processing are investigated. Frequency dependences for the relative dielectric constant and dissipation factor of rock in the frequency range from 0,1 Hz to 1 MHz are investigated. The temperature dependences for rock resistance, dielectric capacitance and dissipation factor in the temperature range from 20 to 600°C are studied. Key words: shale, dielectric properties, relative dielectric constant, dissipation factor, temperature dependence, frequency dependence

  1. Inhomogeneous Spin Diffusion in Traps with Cold Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    increases. The inhomogeneity and the smaller nite trap size signicantly reduce the spin diusion rate at low temperatures. The resulting spin diusion rates and spin drag at longer time scales are compatible with measurements at low to high temperatures for resonant attractive interactions...

  2. Motoneuron membrane potentials follow a time inhomogeneous jump diffusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Patrick; Berg, Rune W; Hounsgaard, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    models can only be applied over short time windows. However, experimental data show varying time constants, state dependent noise, a graded firing threshold and time-inhomogeneous input. In the present study we build a jump diffusion model that incorporates these features, and introduce a firing...

  3. Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.

    1991-07-01

    Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.

  4. Material inhomogeneities and their evolution a geometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    Presents a unified treatment of the inhomogeneity theory using some of the tools of modern differential geometry. This book deals with the geometrical description of uniform bodies and their homogeneity conditions. It also develops a theory of material evolution and discusses its relevance in various applied contexts.

  5. Flux and polarization signals of spatially inhomogeneous gaseous exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karalidi, T.; Stam, D.M.; Guirado, D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We present numerically calculated, disk-integrated, spectropolarimetric signals of starlight that is reflected by vertically and horizontally inhomogeneous gaseous exoplanets. We include various spatial features that are present on Solar System’s gaseous planets: belts and zones, cyclonic

  6. Coherent excitonic nonlinearity versus inhomogeneous broadening in single quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    The coherent response of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures, as measured in four wave mixing (FWM) experiments, depends strongly on the inhomogeneous broadening of the exciton transition. We investigate GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells (SQW) of 4 nm to 25 nm well width. Two main mechanisms...

  7. Rate-optimal Bayesian intensity smoothing for inhomogeneous Poisson processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belitser, E.N.; Serra, P.; van Zanten, H.

    2015-01-01

    We apply nonparametric Bayesian methods to study the problem of estimating the intensity function of an inhomogeneous Poisson process. To motivate our results we start by analyzing count data coming from a call center which we model as a Poisson process. This analysis is carried out using a certain

  8. Rate-optimal Bayesian intensity smoothing for inhomogeneous Poisson processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belitser, E.; Andrade Serra, De P.J.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2013-01-01

    We apply nonparametric Bayesian methods to study the problem of estimating the intensity function of an inhomogeneous Poisson process. We exhibit a prior on intensities which both leads to a computationally feasible method and enjoys desirable theoretical optimality properties. The prior we use is

  9. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous bianisotropic media: Wave propagation and light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Shalin, Alexander S.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    We develop a technique for finding closed-form expressions for electromagnetic fields in radially inhomogeneous bianisotropic media, both the solutions of the Maxwell equations and material tensors being defined by the set of auxiliary two-dimensional matrices. The approach is applied to determine...

  10. An algorithm of computing inhomogeneous differential equations for definite integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Hiromasa; Nishiyama, Kenta

    2010-01-01

    We give an algorithm to compute inhomogeneous differential equations for definite integrals with parameters. The algorithm is based on the integration algorithm for $D$-modules by Oaku. Main tool in the algorithm is the Gr\\"obner basis method in the ring of differential operators.

  11. Energy transfer rates in inhomogeneous van der Waals clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desfrancois, C.; Schermann, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The internal energy exchange inside an inhomogeneous van der Waals cluster are investigated by means of molecular dynamic calculations. The very long time scales for relaxation of the high frequency degrees of freedom are examined within the framework of Nekhoroshev's theorem. (orig.)

  12. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally Bound ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-16

    Apr 16, 2012 ... on a gravitationally bound local system such as the solar system. We con- ... method to describe the large-scale inhomogeneity of the Universe. ..... is regular at the origin r = 0 where the central body is located, and that the test.

  13. Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    in the interplay between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings are measured. Based on these experiments, a coherent control model describing the optical fringe contrast using different detection schemes, such as photoluminescence or four-wave mixing, is established. Significant spectral modulation...

  14. Lower hybrid waves instability in a velocity–sheared inhomogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electrostatic linear kinetic analysis of velocity-sheared inhomogeneous charged dust streaming parallel to a magnetic field in plasma is presented. Excited mode and the growth rates are derived in the lower hybrid-like mode regime, with collisional effects included. In the case where the drift velocity u is very small the ...

  15. An inhomogeneous wave equation and non-linear Diophantine approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beresnevich, V.; Dodson, M. M.; Kristensen, S.

    2008-01-01

    A non-linear Diophantine condition involving perfect squares and arising from an inhomogeneous wave equation on the torus guarantees the existence of a smooth solution. The exceptional set associated with the failure of the Diophantine condition and hence of the existence of a smooth solution...

  16. Particle Production and Effective Thermalization in Inhomogeneous Mean Field Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, G.; Smit, J.

    2000-01-01

    As a toy model for dynamics in nonequilibrium quantum field theory we consider the abelian Higgs model in 1+1 dimensions with fermions. In the approximate dynamical equations, inhomogeneous classical (mean) Bose fields are coupled to quantized fermion fields, which are treated with a mode function

  17. Threshold of decay instability in an inhomogeneous plasma (Leningrad 1973)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piliia, A.D.

    It is shown that in a spatially inhomogeneous plasma there can exist an absolute decay instability with a threshold lower than that found earlier. This instability arises when two parametrically coupled waves have turning points inside the plasma layer. The cause of the instability is a positive inverse coupling, caused by a nonlinear conversion and a reflection of the waves

  18. Cluster tails for critical power-law inhomogeneous random graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, R.; Kliem, S.; van Leeuwaarden, J.S.H.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the scaling limit of cluster sizes for critical inhomogeneous random graphs of rank-1 type having finite variance but infinite third moment degrees was obtained in Bhamidi et al. (Ann Probab 40:2299–2361, 2012). It was proved that when the degrees obey a power law with exponent τ∈ (3 , 4)

  19. Spatial Inhomogeneity of Kinetic and Magnetic Dissipations in Thermal Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba university, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan)

    2017-08-20

    We investigate the inhomogeneity of kinetic and magnetic dissipations in thermal convection using high-resolution calculations. In statistically steady turbulence, the injected and dissipated energies are balanced. This means that a large amount of energy is continuously converted into internal energy via dissipation. As in thermal convection, downflows are colder than upflows and the inhomogeneity of the dissipation potentially changes the convection structure. Our investigation of the inhomogeneity of the dissipation shows the following. (1) More dissipation is seen around the bottom of the calculation domain, and this tendency is promoted with the magnetic field. (2) The dissipation in the downflow is much larger than that in the upflow. The dissipation in the downflow is more than 80% of the total at maximum. This tendency is also promoted with the magnetic field. (3) Although 2D probability density functions of the kinetic and magnetic dissipations versus the vertical velocity are similar, the kinetic and magnetic dissipations are not well correlated. Our result suggests that the spatial inhomogeneity of the dissipation is significant and should be considered when modeling a small-scale strong magnetic field generated with an efficient small-scale dynamo for low-resolution calculations.

  20. Jeans instability of an inhomogeneous streaming dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of a self-gravitating unmagnetized, inhomogeneous, streaming dusty plasma is studied in the present work. The presence of the shear flow causes the coupling between gravitational and electrostatic forces. In the absence of self-gravity, the fluctuations in the plasma may grow at the expense of the density ...

  1. Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    , the theory predicts a relocation of the inhomogeneities into stable field-dependent configurations, which are qualitatively different from the horizontally layered configurations due to gravity. Experimental validation is obtained by confocal imaging of aqueous solutions in a glass-silicon microchip....

  2. Electron-Bernstein Waves in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, R. J.; Frederiksen, Å.; Pécseli, Hans

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of small amplitude electron-Bernstein waves in different inhomogeneous magnetic field geometries is investigated experimentally. Wave propagation towards both cut-offs and resonances are considered. The experimental results are supported by a numerical ray-tracing analysis. Spatia...

  3. Measurements of weak localization of graphene in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvall, N.; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Yurgens, A.

    2015-01-01

    attribute this to the inhomogeneous field caused by vortices in the superconductor. The deviation, which depends on the carrier concentration in graphene, can be tuned by the gate voltage. In addition, collective vortex motion, known as vortex avalanches, is observed through magnetoresistance measurements...

  4. Multiple solutions for inhomogeneous nonlinear elliptic problems arising in astrophyiscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Calahorrano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Using variational methods we prove the existence and multiplicity of solutions for some nonlinear inhomogeneous elliptic problems on a bounded domain in $mathbb{R}^n$, with $ngeq 2$ and a smooth boundary, and when the domain is $mathbb{R}_+^n$

  5. Nonlinear Dielectric Response of Water Treed XLPE Cable Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidsten, Sverre

    1999-07-01

    Condition assessment of XLPE power cables is becoming increasingly important for the utilities, due to a large number of old cables in service with high probability of failure caused by water tree degradation. The commercial available techniques are generally based upon measurements of the dielectric response, either by time (polarisation/depolarisation current or return voltage) or frequency domain measurements. Recently it has been found that a high number of water trees in XLPE insulated cables causes the dielectric response to increase more than linearly with increasing test voltage. This nonlinear feature of water tree degraded XLPE insulation has been suggested to be of a great importance, both for diagnostic purposes, and for fundamental understanding of the water tree phenomenon itself. The main purpose of this thesis have been to study the nonlinear feature of the dielectric response measured on watertreed XLPE insulation. This has been performed by dielectric response measurements in both time and frequency domain, numerical calculations of losses of simplified water tree models, and fmally water content and water permeation measurements on single water trees. The dielectric response measurements were performed on service aged cable samples and laboratory aged Rogowski type objects. The main reason for performing laboratory ageing was to facilitate diagnostic testing as a function of ageing time of samples containing mainly vented water trees. A new method, based upon inserting NaC1 particles at the interface between the upper semiconductive screen and the insulation, was found to successfully enhance initiation and growth of vented water trees. AC breakdown strength testing show that it is the vented water trees that reduce the breakdown level of both the laboratory aged test objects and service aged cable samples. Vented water treeing was found to cause the dielectric response to become nonlinear at a relatively low voltage level. However, the measured

  6. Application of dielectric constant measurement in microwave sludge disintegration and wastewater purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Petra Veszelovszki; Lemmer, Balázs; Keszthelyi-Szabó, Gábor; Hodúr, Cecilia; Beszédes, Sándor

    2018-05-01

    It has been numerously verified that microwave radiation could be advantageous as a pre-treatment for enhanced disintegration of sludge. Very few data related to the dielectric parameters of wastewater of different origins are available; therefore, the objective of our work was to measure the dielectric constant of municipal and meat industrial wastewater during a continuous flow operating microwave process. Determination of the dielectric constant and its change during wastewater and sludge processing make it possible to decide on the applicability of dielectric measurements for detecting the organic matter removal efficiency of wastewater purification process or disintegration degree of sludge. With the measurement of dielectric constant as a function of temperature, total solids (TS) content and microwave specific process parameters regression models were developed. Our results verified that in the case of municipal wastewater sludge, the TS content has a significant effect on the dielectric constant and disintegration degree (DD), as does the temperature. The dielectric constant has a decreasing tendency with increasing temperature for wastewater sludge of low TS content, but an adverse effect was found for samples with high TS and organic matter contents. DD of meat processing wastewater sludge was influenced significantly by the volumetric flow rate and power level, as process parameters of continuously flow microwave pre-treatments. It can be concluded that the disintegration process of food industry sludge can be detected by dielectric constant measurements. From technical purposes the applicability of dielectric measurements was tested in the purification process of municipal wastewater, as well. Determination of dielectric behaviour was a sensitive method to detect the purification degree of municipal wastewater.

  7. Influence of color on dielectric properties of marinated poultry breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, D; Trabelsi, S

    2012-08-01

    The dielectric behavior of foods when exposed to radio-frequency and microwave electric fields is highly influenced by moisture content and the degree of water binding with constituents of the food materials. The ability to correlate specific food quality characteristics with the dielectric properties can lead to the development of rapid, nondestructive techniques for such quality measurements. Water-holding capacity is a critical attribute in meat quality. Up to 50% of raw poultry meat in the United States is marinated with mixtures of water, salts, and phosphates. The objective of this study was to determine if variations in breast meat color would affect the dielectric properties of marinated poultry meat over a broad frequency range from 500 MHz to 50 GHz. Poultry meat was obtained from a local commercial plant in Georgia (USA). Color and pH measurements were taken on the breast filets. Groups of breast filets were sorted into classes of pale and normal before adding marination pickup percentages of 0, 5, 10, and 15. Breast filets were vacuum-tumbled and weighed for pickup percentages. Dielectric properties of the filets were measured with a coaxial open-ended probe on samples equilibrated to 25°C. Samples from pale meat exhibited higher dielectric properties than samples from normal meat. No differences could be observed between samples from pale and normal meat after marination of the samples. Overall, dielectric properties increased as the marination pickup increased (α=0.05). Marination pickup strongly influenced the dielectric loss factor. Differences between samples marinated at different pickup levels were more pronounced at lower frequencies for the dielectric loss factor. As frequency increased, the differences between samples decreased. Differences in dielectric constant between samples were not as consistent as those seen with the dielectric loss factor.

  8. Two-phase mixed media dielectric with macro dielectric beads for enhancing resistivity and breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Meyer, Glenn A; Tang, Vincent; Guethlein, Gary

    2014-06-10

    A two-phase mixed media insulator having a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume, so that the packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed media insulator to insulate between electrical components of different electrical potentials. And a method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite, so that the macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume and interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

  9. Hybrid energy harvesting systems, using piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornogolub, Alexandru; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Petit, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    Interest in energy harvesting applications has increased a lot during recent years. This is especially true for systems using electroactive materials like dielectric polymers or piezoelectric materials. Unfortunately, these materials despite multiple advantages, present some important drawbacks. For example, many dielectric polymers demonstrated high energy densities; they are cheap, easy to process and can be easily integrated in many different structures. But at the same time, dielectric polymer generators require an external energy supply which could greatly compromise their autonomy. Piezoelectric systems, on the other hand, are completely autonomous and can be easily miniaturized. However, most common piezoelectric materials present a high rigidity and are brittle by nature and therefore their integration could be difficult. This paper investigates the possibility of using hybrid systems combining piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers for mechanical energy harvesting applications and it is focused mainly on the problem of electrical energy transfer. Our objective is to show that such systems can be interesting and that it is possible to benefit from the advantages of both materials. For this, different configurations were considered and the problem of their optimization was addressed. The experimental work enabled us to prove the concept and identify the main practical limitations.

  10. Stimulated light emission in a dielectrically disordered composite porous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, E.; Künzner, N.; Diener, J.; Fujii, Minoru; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kovalev, D.

    2005-06-01

    We report on a medium exhibiting extremely efficient light scattering properties: a liquid network formed in a porous matrix. Liquid fragments confined in the solid matrix result in a random fluctuation of the dielectric function and act as scattering objects for photons. The optical scattering efficiency is defined by the filling factor of the liquid in the pores and its dielectric constant. The spectral dependence of the scattering length of photons indicates that the phenomenon is governed by a Mie-type scattering mechanism. The degree of the dielectric disorder of the medium, i.e. the level of opacity is tunable by the ambient vapor pressure of the dielectric substance. In the strongest scattering regime the scattering length of photons is found to be in the micrometer range. By incorporation of dye molecules in the voids of the porous layer a system exhibiting optical gain is realized. In the multiple scattering regime the optical path of diffusively propagating photons is enhanced and light amplification through stimulated emission occurs: a strong intensity enhancement of the dye emission accompanied by significant spectral narrowing is observed above the excitation threshold for a layer being in the opalescence state.

  11. Dielectric coatings on metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaros, S.S.; Baker, P.; Milam, D.

    1976-01-01

    Large aperture, beryllium substrate-based mirrors have been used to focus high intensity pulsed laser beams. Finished surfaces have high reflectivity, low wavefront distortion, and high laser damage thresholds. This paper describes the development of a series of metallic coatings, surface finishing techniques, and dielectric overcoatings to meet specified performance requirements. Beryllium substrates were coated with copper, diamond-machined to within 5 micro-inches to final contour, nickel plated, and abrasively figured to final contour. Bond strengths for several bonding processes are presented. Dielectric overcoatings were deposited on finished multimetallic substrates to increase both reflectivity and the damage thresholds. Coatings were deposited using both high and low temperature processes which induce varying stresses in the finished coating substrate system. Data are presented to show the evolution of wavefront distortion, reflectivity, and damage thresholds throughout the many steps involved in fabrication

  12. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  13. Asymmetric Dielectric Elastomer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a dielectric elastomer composite material comprising a plurality of elastomer-coated electrodes arranged in an assembly. Embodiments of the invention provide improved force output over prior DEs by producing thinner spacing between electrode surfaces. This is accomplished by coating electrodes directly with uncured elastomer in liquid form and then assembling a finished component (which may be termed an actuator) from coated electrode components.

  14. Coherent multimoded dielectric wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J.

    1998-01-01

    There has recently been a study of the potential uses of multimode dielectric structures for wakefield acceleration [1]. This technique is based on adjusting the wakefield modes of the structure to constructively interfere at certain delays with respect to the drive bunch, thus providing an accelerating gradient enhancement over single mode devices. In this report we examine and attempt to clarify the issues raised by this work in the light of the present state of the art in wakefield acceleration

  15. Energy storage in ceramic dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    Historically, multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLC's) have not been considered for energy storage applications for two primary reasons. First, physically large ceramic capacitors were very expensive and, second, total energy density obtainable was not nearly so high as in electrolytic capacitor types. More recently, the fabrication technology for MLC's has improved significantly, permitting both significantly higher energy density and significantly lower costs. Simultaneously, in many applications, total energy storage has become smaller, and the secondary requirements of very low effective series resistance and effective series inductance (which, together, determine how efficiently the energy may be stored and recovered) have become more important. It is therefore desirable to reexamine energy storage in ceramics for contemporary commercial and near-commercial dielectrics. Stored energy is proportional to voltage squared only in the case of paraelectric insulators, because only they have capacitance that is independent of bias voltage. High dielectric constant materials, however, are ferroics (that is ferroelectric and/or antiferroelectric) and display significant variation of effective dielectric constant with bias voltage

  16. Dielectric-filled radiofrequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehl, R J; Keinigs, R K; Pogue, E W [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    High current, high brightness electron beam accelerators promise to open up dramatic new applications. Linear induction accelerators are currently viewed as the appropriate technology for these applications. A concept by Humphries and Hwang may permit radiofrequency accelerators to fulfill the same functions with greater simplicity and enhanced flexibility. This concept involves the replacement of vacuum rf cavities with dielectric filled ones. Simple analysis indicates that the resonant frequencies are reduced by a factor of ({epsilon}{sub 0}/{epsilon}){sup 1/2} while the stored energy is increased by {epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0}. For a high dielectric constant like water, this factor can approach 80. A series of numerical calculations of simple pill-box cavities was performed. Eigenfunctions and resonant frequencies for a full system configuration, including dielectric material, vacuum beamline, and a ceramic window separating the two have been computed. These calculations are compared with the results of a small experimental cavity which have been constructed and operated. Low power tests show excellent agreement. (author). 4 figs., 8 refs.

  17. Formation of a Refracted Electromagnetic Wave at the Output from a Plane-Parallel Dielectric Layer and Interference Nature of Fermat's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbukh, B. B.; Averbukh, I. B.

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that a transition layer representing a spatial region in which field propagation is analogous to refraction in an inhomogeneous medium exists after a dielectric layer. In this region located within the near field zone the direction of the wave vector of the transmitted field varies smoothly, and with increasing distance from the layer, approaches to that of the wave incident on the layer. It is shown that such behavior of the field and occurrence of the transition layer are caused by the interference of the incident wave field and the fields of secondary sources excited in the dielectric by the incident wave field. It is shown that the refraction of the field in a homogeneous medium after the dielectric corresponds to Fermat's principle, and the interference nature of Fermat's principle is justified.

  18. Terahertz-frequency dielectric response of liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Møller, Uffe; Cooke, David

    The dielectric response of liquids spans many decades in frequency. The dielectric response of a polar liquid is typically determined by relaxational dynamics of the dipolar moments of the liquid. In contrast, the dielectric response of a nonpolar liquid is determined by much weaker collision......-induced dipole moments. In the polar liquid water the fastest relaxational dynamics is found at terahertz frequencies, just below the first intermolecular vibrational and librational modes. In this presentation we will discuss optical terahertz spectroscopic techniques for measurement of the full dielectric...... function of liquids at terahertz frequencies. We will review the current understanding of the high-frequency dielectric spectrum of water, and discuss the relation between the dielectric spectrum and the thermodynamic properties of certain aqueous solutions....

  19. Big bang nucleosynthesis with Gaussian inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Spencer D.; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the effect of inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy on big bang nucleosynthesis for the case where the distribution of neutrino chemical potentials is given by a Gaussian. The chemical potential fluctuations are taken to be isocurvature, so that only inhomogeneities in the electron chemical potential are relevant. Then the final element abundances are a function only of the baryon-photon ratio η, the effective number of additional neutrinos ΔN ν , the mean electron neutrino degeneracy parameter ξ-bar, and the rms fluctuation of the degeneracy parameter, σ ξ . We find that for fixed η, ΔN ν , and ξ-bar, the abundances of 4 He, D, and 7 Li are, in general, increasing functions of σ ξ . Hence, the effect of adding a Gaussian distribution for the electron neutrino degeneracy parameter is to decrease the allowed range for η. We show that this result can be generalized to a wide variety of distributions for ξ

  20. Dissipation of Alfven waves in compressible inhomogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, F.; Primavera, L.; Veltri, P.

    1997-01-01

    In weakly dissipative media governed by the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, any efficient mechanism of energy dissipation requires the formation of small scales. Using numerical simulations, we study the properties of Alfven waves propagating in a compressible inhomogeneous medium, with an inhomogeneity transverse to the direction of wave propagation. Two dynamical effects, energy pinching and phase mixing, are responsible for the small-scales formation, similarly to the incompressible case. Moreover, compressive perturbations, slow waves and a static entropy wave are generated; the former are subject to steepening and form shock waves, which efficiently dissipate their energy, regardless of the Reynolds number. Rough estimates show that the dissipation times are consistent with those required to dissipate Alfven waves of photospheric origin inside the solar corona

  1. Study of the thermal noise caused by inhomogeneously distributed loss

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Ando, M; Kawabe, K; Tsubono, K

    2002-01-01

    The normal modal expansion is the most frequently used method to estimate the thermal noise of interferometric gravitational wave detectors. However, the method does not agree with new estimation methods, direct approaches, when the loss is distributed inhomogeneously. We have checked the modal expansion and direct approaches experimentally using a mechanical oscillator, such as a mirror. The experiments showed that the modal expansion is invalid. On the other hand, the measured spectra are consistent with the direct approaches. We calculated the thermal noise of a real mirror with inhomogeneous loss using the direct approaches. This calculation showed that the thermal motions caused by loss in the reflective coating and at coil-magnet actuators are comparable with the sensitivity goals of future gravitational wave detector projects. In addition, according to our calculation, a mechanical loss may cause much larger or much smaller thermal motion than is expected in modal expansion, depending on the loss distr...

  2. Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. ...... simulations on both a linear four-point probe array on a large circular disc and a van der Pauw square geometry. Furthermore, the results also agree well with Náhlík et al. published experimental results for physical holes in a circular copper foil disc.......We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. We...

  3. Toroidal inhomogeneity of the vertical field in a tokamak apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sometani, Taro; Takashima, Hidekazu

    1977-01-01

    An experiment with a model device has been made on the toroidal inhomogeneity of the vertical field in a Tokamak with an iron core. The D.C. vertical field is increased near the yokes of the iron core, while the gross plasma image field (consisting of the components due to the plasma current, the primary current, and its image) is reduced there. These two vertical fields, when superposed, exert force on the plasma as a less inhomogeneous external vertical field. The vertical field can be homogenized satisfactorily by using a compensation winding wound at a proper position on the iron core even if the shielding plates, which are mounted on some Tokamaks, are dispensed with. (auth.)

  4. The Prediction of Wave Competitions in Inhomogeneous Brusselator Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xiao-Hua; Dong Yun-Xia; Huang Xiao-Qing; Li Ning

    2015-01-01

    The competition of waves has remained a hot topic in physics over the past few decades, especially the area of pattern control. Because of improved understanding of various dynamic behaviors, many practical applications have sprung up recently. The prediction of wave competitions is also very important and quite useful in these fields. This paper considers the behaviors of wave competitions in simple, inhomogeneous media which is modeled by Brusselator equations. We present a simple rule to judge the results of wave competitions utilizing the dispersion relation curves and the waves coming from different wave sources. Moreover, this rule can also be used to predict the results of wave propagation. It provides methods of obtaining the desired waves with given frequencies in inhomogeneous media. All our results are concluded and verified by computer simulations. (paper)

  5. Effects of dipole magnet inhomogeneities on the beam ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Colman, J.; Levine, M.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.; Ward, T.; Grand, P.

    1986-01-01

    The RAYTRACE computer code has been modified to accept magnetic fields measured in the median plane of a dipole magnet. This modification allows one to study the effects of a non-ideal dipole magnet on the beam ellipsoid (as defined by the TRANSPORT code manual). The effects on the beam ellipsoid are due to: field inhomogeneities in the interior region of the dipole, and discrepancies from design conditions of the magnetic field values in the fringe field region. The results of the RAYTRACE code calculations based on experimentally measured fields will be compared with the results derived using both an ideal (no inhomogeneities) dipole with SCOFF boundaries and an ideal dipole with perfect (according to design) fringe fields

  6. Spin diffusion from an inhomogeneous quench in an integrable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubotina, Marko; Žnidarič, Marko; Prosen, Tomaž

    2017-07-13

    Generalized hydrodynamics predicts universal ballistic transport in integrable lattice systems when prepared in generic inhomogeneous initial states. However, the ballistic contribution to transport can vanish in systems with additional discrete symmetries. Here we perform large scale numerical simulations of spin dynamics in the anisotropic Heisenberg XXZ spin 1/2 chain starting from an inhomogeneous mixed initial state which is symmetric with respect to a combination of spin reversal and spatial reflection. In the isotropic and easy-axis regimes we find non-ballistic spin transport which we analyse in detail in terms of scaling exponents of the transported magnetization and scaling profiles of the spin density. While in the easy-axis regime we find accurate evidence of normal diffusion, the spin transport in the isotropic case is clearly super-diffusive, with the scaling exponent very close to 2/3, but with universal scaling dynamics which obeys the diffusion equation in nonlinearly scaled time.

  7. Negative refraction of inhomogeneous waves in lossy isotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V Yu; Nakajima, T

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically study negative refraction of inhomogeneous waves at the interface of lossy isotropic media. We obtain explicit (up to the sign) expressions for the parameters of a wave transmitted through the interface between two lossy media characterized by complex permittivity and permeability. We show that the criterion of negative refraction that requires negative permittivity and permeability can be used only in the case of a homogeneous incident wave at the interface between a lossless and lossy media. In a more general situation, when the incident wave is inhomogeneous, or both media are lossy, the criterion of negative refraction becomes dependent on an incidence angle. Most interestingly, we show that negative refraction can be realized in conventional lossy materials (such as metals) if their interfaces are properly oriented. (paper)

  8. TRANSMISSION AND ABSORPTION OF MICROWAVES BY AN INHOMOGENEOUS SPHERE PLASMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Falun; CAO Jinxiang; WANG Ge

    2004-01-01

    The numerical calculation of the transmission and absorption of microwaves at an arbitrarily incident angle to the inhomogeneous spherically symmetric plasma is presented.The nonuniform sphere is modeled by a series of concentric spherical shells, and the electron density is constant in each shell. The overall density profile follows any given distribution function. By using the geometrical optics approximation and considering the propagation coefficient is complex, as well as the attenuation and phase coefficients are vectors, the detailed evaluation shows that the transmission and absorption of microwaves in the inhomogeneous spherically symmetric plasma depend on the electron and neutral particle collision frequency, central density, incident angle of the microwaves and density distribution profiles.

  9. Parametric trapping of electromagnetic waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, V.P.; Starodub, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    Considered is parametric instability in an inhomogeneous plasma at which a pumping wave is transformed to an electromagnetic wave and aperiodically in-time-growing disturbances. It is shown that after achievement of some boundary pumping value by electric field intensity an absolute parametric instability evolution becomes possible. In-time growing plasma disturbances are localized near electric field extremums of a pumping wave. Such localization areas are small as compared to characteristic size of pumping inhomogeneity in a plasma. The secondary electromagnetic waves stay within the localization areas and, therefore, are not scattered by a plasma. As following from this it has been established, that due to parametric instability electromagnetic radiation trapping by a plasma occurs. Such a trapping is considerably connected with a spatial structure of a pumping field and it cannot arise within the field of a running wave in the theoretical model considered. However parametric trapping turns out to be possible even with very small reflection coefficients

  10. Glauber theory and the quantum coherence of curvature inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2017-01-12

    The curvature inhomogeneities are systematically scrutinized in the framework of the Glauber approach. The amplified quantum fluctuations of the scalar and tensor modes of the geometry are shown to be first-order coherent while the interference of the corresponding intensities is larger than in the case of Bose-Einstein correlations. After showing that the degree of second-order coherence does not suffice to characterize unambiguously the curvature inhomogeneities, we argue that direct analyses of the degrees of third and fourth-order coherence are necessary to discriminate between different correlated states and to infer more reliably the statistical properties of the large-scale fluctuations. We speculate that the moments of the multiplicity distributions of the relic phonons might be observationally accessible thanks to new generations of instruments able to count the single photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background in the THz region.

  11. Friction, slip and structural inhomogeneity of the buried interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Y; Wu, J; Martini, A; Li, Q

    2011-01-01

    An atomistic model of metallic contacts using realistic interatomic potentials is used to study the connection between friction, slip and the structure of the buried interface. Incommensurability induced by misalignment and lattice mismatch is modeled with contact sizes that are large enough to observe superstructures formed by the relative orientations of the surfaces. The periodicity of the superstructures is quantitatively related to inhomogeneous shear stress distributions in the contact area, and a reduced order model is used to clarify the connection between friction and structural inhomogeneity. Finally, the movement of atoms is evaluated before, during and after slip in both aligned and misaligned contacts to understand how the interfacial structure affects the mechanisms of slip and the corresponding frictional behavior

  12. General solution to inhomogeneous dephasing and smooth pulse dynamical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Junkai; Deng, Xiu-Hao; Russo, Antonio; Barnes, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    In order to achieve the high-fidelity quantum control needed for a broad range of quantum information technologies, reducing the effects of noise and system inhomogeneities is an essential task. It is well known that a system can be decoupled from noise or made insensitive to inhomogeneous dephasing dynamically by using carefully designed pulse sequences based on square or delta-function waveforms such as Hahn spin echo or CPMG. However, such ideal pulses are often challenging to implement experimentally with high fidelity. Here, we uncover a new geometrical framework for visualizing all possible driving fields, which enables one to generate an unlimited number of smooth, experimentally feasible pulses that perform dynamical decoupling or dynamically corrected gates to arbitrarily high order. We demonstrate that this scheme can significantly enhance the fidelity of single-qubit operations in the presence of noise and when realistic limitations on pulse rise times and amplitudes are taken into account.

  13. Determination of critical exponents of inhomogeneous Gd films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Rivera, A., E-mail: arosalesr@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Salazar, N.A. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Hovorka, O.; Idigoras, O.; Berger, A. [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    The role of inhomogeneity on the critical behavior is studied for non-epitaxial Gd films. For this purpose, the film inhomogeneity was varied experimentally by annealing otherwise identical samples at different temperatures T{sub AN}=200, 400, and 500 Degree-Sign C. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) was used for magnetization M vs. T measurements at different external fields H. A method based upon the linear superposition of different sample parts having different Curie temperatures T{sub C} was used to extract the critical exponents and the intrinsic distribution of Curie temperatures. We found that this method allows extracting reliable values of the critical exponents for all annealing temperatures, which enabled us to study the effects of disorder onto the universality class of Gd films.

  14. Control of inhomogeneous atomic ensembles of hyperfine qudits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischuck, Brian Edward; Merkel, Seth T.; Deutsch, Ivan H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the ability to control d-dimensional quantum systems (qudits) encoded in the hyperfine spin of alkali-metal atoms through the application of radio- and microwave-frequency magnetic fields in the presence of inhomogeneities in amplitude and detuning. Such a capability is essential...... to the design of robust pulses that mitigate the effects of experimental uncertainty and also for application to tomographic addressing of particular members of an extended ensemble. We study the problem of preparing an arbitrary state in the Hilbert space from an initial fiducial state. We prove...... that inhomogeneous control of qudit ensembles is possible based on a semianalytic protocol that synthesizes the target through a sequence of alternating rf and microwave-driven SU(2) rotations in overlapping irreducible subspaces. Several examples of robust control are studied, and the semianalytic protocol...

  15. Determination of critical exponents of inhomogeneous Gd films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales-Rivera, A.; Salazar, N.A.; Hovorka, O.; Idigoras, O.; Berger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The role of inhomogeneity on the critical behavior is studied for non-epitaxial Gd films. For this purpose, the film inhomogeneity was varied experimentally by annealing otherwise identical samples at different temperatures T AN =200, 400, and 500 °C. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) was used for magnetization M vs. T measurements at different external fields H. A method based upon the linear superposition of different sample parts having different Curie temperatures T C was used to extract the critical exponents and the intrinsic distribution of Curie temperatures. We found that this method allows extracting reliable values of the critical exponents for all annealing temperatures, which enabled us to study the effects of disorder onto the universality class of Gd films.

  16. Neutrino emission in inhomogeneous pion condensed quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xuguang; Wang, Qun; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that quark matter can exist in neutron star interior if the baryon density is high enough. When there is a large isospin density, quark matter could be in a pion condensed phase. We compute neutrino emission from direct Urca processes in such a phase, particularly in the inhomogeneous Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell (LOFF) states. The neutrino emissivity and specific heat are obtained, from which the cooling rate is estimated. (author)

  17. Electron acoustic vortices in the presence of inhomogeneous current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Q; Masood, W; Saleem, H [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: qamar@pinstech.org.pk

    2008-03-15

    Linear and nonlinear dynamics of an electron acoustic wave in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma are studied in the presence of non-uniform background current. The modified Rayleigh instability condition is found due to shear in the magnetic field and the current. A nonlinear stationary solution is also obtained in the form of tripolar vortices. The relevance of the present study to auroral and magnetotail plasmas is pointed out.

  18. Characterization of residual stresses generated during inhomogeneous plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T.; Faurholdt, T.; Clausen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses generated by macroscopic inhomogeneous plastic deformation are predicted by an explicit finite element (FE) technique. The numerical predictions are evaluated by characterizing the residual elastic strains by neutron diffraction using two different (hkl) reflections. Intergranular...... compare well and verify the capability of the numerical technique as well as the possibilities of experimental validation using neutron diffraction. The presented experimental and numerical approach will subsequently be utilized for the evaluation of more complicated plastic deformation processes...

  19. Matrix product solution of an inhomogeneous multi-species TASEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Mallick, Kirone

    2013-03-01

    We study a multi-species exclusion process with inhomogeneous hopping rates and find a matrix product representation for the stationary state of this model. The matrices belong to the tensor algebra of the fundamental quadratic algebra associated with the exclusion process. We show that our matrix product representation is equivalent to a graphical construction proposed by Ayyer and Linusson (2012 arXiv:1206.0316), which generalizes an earlier probabilistic construction due to Ferrari and Martin (2007 Ann. Prob. 35 807).

  20. Ion-optical properties of Wien's filters with inhomogeneous fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, Yu.K.; Matyshev, A.A.; Solov'ev, K.V.

    1991-01-01

    Common conditions of beam stigmatic focusing in the Wien filters with direct axial trajectory in arbitrary two-dimensional inhomogeneous crossed electrical magnetic fields are obtained. Coefficients for geometrical aberrations of the second order of the crossed field system, characterized by stigmatic focusing properties, are found. Possibility of synthesis on the basis of the developed field system theory with required ion-optical properties is shown

  1. Scattering cross-section of an inhomogeneous plasma cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiaming Shi; Lijian Qiu; Ling, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Scattering of em waves by the plasma cylinder is of significance in radar target detection, plasma diagnosis, etc. This paper discusses the general method to calculate the scattering cross-section of em waves from a plasma cylinder which is radially inhomogeneous and infinitely long. Numerical results are also provided for several plasma density profiles. The effect of the electron density distribution on the scattering cross-section is investigated

  2. Hydromagnetic modes in an inhomogeneous collisionless plasma of finite pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimushkin, D.Yu.

    2006-01-01

    One studied three-dimensional structure and rate of growth of hydromagnetic waves. The mode is shown to be the Alfven modified inhomogeneity, finite pressure and plasma anisotropy. The mode structure transverse the magnetic shells may be of two types. Under some specific conditions one may observe image-drift waves in the magnetosphere. The described modes may be responsible for some types of geomagnetic field oscillations [ru

  3. Inhomogeneous critical nonlinear Schroedinger equations with a harmonic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Daomin; Han Pigong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Cauchy problem of the inhomogeneous nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a harmonic potential: i∂ t u=-div(f(x)∇u)+|x| 2 u-k(x)|u| 4/N u, x is an element of R N , N≥1, which models the remarkable Bose-Einstein condensation. We discuss the existence and nonexistence results and investigate the limiting profile of blow-up solutions with critical mass.

  4. Pair creation in inhomogeneous fields from worldline instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, Gerald V.; Schubert, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We show how to do semiclassical nonperturbative computations within the worldline approach to quantum field theory using ''worldline instantons''. These worldline instantons are classical solutions to the Euclidean worldline loop equations of motion, and are closed spacetime loops parametrized by the proper-time. Specifically, we compute the imaginary part of the one loop effective action in scalar and spinor QED using worldline instantons, for a wide class of inhomogeneous electric field backgrounds

  5. Inhomogeneous effects in the quantum free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piovella, N.; Bonifacio, R.

    2006-01-01

    We include inhomogeneous effects in the quantum model of a free electron laser taking into account the initial energy spread of the electron beam. From a linear analysis, we obtain a generalized dispersion relation, from which the exponential gain can be explicitly calculated. We determine the maximum allowed initial energy spread in the quantum exponential regime and we discuss the limit of large energy spread

  6. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, A.; Cesareo, R.; Buccolieri, G.; Donativi, M.; Palama, F.; Quarta, S.; De Nunzio, G.; Brunetti, A.; Marabelli, M.; Santamaria, U.

    2005-01-01

    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the 'Raphael's stanze'

  7. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesareo, R. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari (Italy)]. E-mail: cesareo@uniss.it; Buccolieri, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Donativi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Palama, F. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Quarta, S. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); De Nunzio, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Marabelli, M. [Istituto Centrale del Restauro, P.zza S. Francesco di Paola, 00184 Rome (Italy); Santamaria, U. [Laboratori dei Musei Vaticani, Citta del Vaticano, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the 'Raphael's stanze'.

  8. Two-step estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Guan, Yongtao

    This paper is concerned with parameter estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes with a regression model for the intensity function and tractable second order properties (K-function). Regression parameters are estimated using a Poisson likelihood score estimating function and in a second...... step minimum contrast estimation is applied for the residual clustering parameters. Asymptotic normality of parameter estimates is established under certain mixing conditions and we exemplify how the results may be applied in ecological studies of rain forests....

  9. Non-Linear Instabilities in an Inhomogeneous Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Laval, G.; Pellat, R.; Khiet, Tu

    1969-01-01

    The low-frequency drift modes of a low-pressure isothermal inhomogeneous plasma can be stabilized if the shear of the magnetic field lines exceeds a critical value given by the expression r/L s = (1/2 √2) (a/r), where L s is the shear length, r the characteristic length of density variation, and a the ion Larmor radius. The authors first show that, even if r/L s [fr

  10. On the motion of incompressible inhomogeneous Euler-Korteweg fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulíček, M.; Feireisl, Eduard; Málek, J.; Shvydkoy, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2010), s. 497-515 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06052; GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Korteweg fluid * inhomogeneous Euler fluid * Korteweg stress * local-in-time well-posedness * smooth solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=5226

  11. Multiple scattering theory of radiative transfer in inhomogeneous atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanal, M.

    1973-01-01

    In this paper we treat the multiple scattering theory of radiative transfer in plane-parallel inhomogeneous atmospheres. The treatment presented here may be adopted to model atmospheres characterized by an optical depth dependent coherent scattering phase function. For the purpose of illustration we consider the semi-infinite medium in which the absorption property of the atmosphere is characterized by an exponential function. The methodology employed here is the extension of the case treated previously by the author for homogeneous atmospheres.

  12. Numerical treatment of linearized equations describing inhomogeneous collisionless plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    The equations governing the small-signal response of spatially inhomogeneous collisionless plasmas have practical significance in physics, for example in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. Although the solutions are very complicated and the equations are different to solve numerically, effective methods for them are being developed which are applicable when the equilibrium involves only one nonignorable coordinate. The general theoretical framework probably will provide a basis for progress when there are two or three nonignorable coordinates

  13. Development of a dielectric ceramic based on diatomite-titania part two: dielectric properties characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Jamilson Pinto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric properties of sintered diatomite-titania ceramics are presented. Specific capacitance, dissipation factor, quality factor and dielectric constant were determined as a function of sintering temperature, titania content and frequency; the temperature coefficient of capacitance was measured as a function of frequency. Besides leakage current, the dependence of the insulation resistance and the dielectric strength on the applied dc voltage were studied. The results show that diatomite-titania compositions can be used as an alternative dielectric.

  14. Inhomogeneous ensembles of radical pairs in chemical compasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    The biophysical basis for the ability of animals to detect the geomagnetic field and to use it for finding directions remains a mystery of sensory biology. One much debated hypothesis suggests that an ensemble of specialized light-induced radical pair reactions can provide the primary signal for a magnetic compass sensor. The question arises what features of such a radical pair ensemble could be optimized by evolution so as to improve the detection of the direction of weak magnetic fields. Here, we focus on the overlooked aspect of the noise arising from inhomogeneity of copies of biomolecules in a realistic biological environment. Such inhomogeneity leads to variations of the radical pair parameters, thereby deteriorating the signal arising from an ensemble and providing a source of noise. We investigate the effect of variations in hyperfine interactions between different copies of simple radical pairs on the directional response of a compass system. We find that the choice of radical pair parameters greatly influences how strongly the directional response of an ensemble is affected by inhomogeneity.

  15. The phase transition to an inhomogeneous condensate state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskresensky, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Lagrangian (free energy) of the model with a complex scalar order parameter in which the phase transition to an inhomogeneous condensate state exists is constructed in the coordinate representation. In the case of condensation of charged particles (for example paired electrons) interaction with the electromagnetic field is included. The excitation spectrum in the presence of the condensate is found. The oscillations are strongly anisotropic. It is shown that superfluidity is absent for an uncharged system but that the charged one has the property of superconductivity. The important role of thermal fluctuations is demonstrated. They drastically change the behaviour of the condensate system. The condensation in a finite system is considered. A study is carried out for the behaviour of an inhomogeneous condensate in magnetic field. It is shown that the inhomogeneous condensate is a type II superconductor with Ginzburg-Landau parameter kappa >> 1, but that the structure of the mixed state of the system is unusual - consisting of plane layers of the normal phase, when Hsub(c1)< H< H'sub(c2). The distribution of condensate in the strong magnetic field H'sub(c2)< H< Hsub(c2) is also studied. (Auth.)

  16. Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples are very well characterized and understood in samples with uniform internal magnetic fields. More recently interest has shifted to the study of magnetization modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields. The present work shows that under the magnetostatic approximation and for samples of arbitrary shape and/or arbitrary inhomogeneous internal magnetic fields the modes can be classified as elliptic or hyperbolic, and their associated frequency spectrum can be delimited. This results from the analysis of the character of the second order partial differential equation for the magnetostatic potential under these general conditions. In general, a sample with an inhomogeneous internal field and at a given frequency, may have regions of elliptic and hyperbolic character separated by a boundary. In the elliptic regions the magnetostatic modes have a smooth monotonic character (generally decaying form the surfaces (a ``tunneling'' behavior)) and in hyperbolic regions an oscillatory wave-like character. A simple local criterion distinguishes hyperbolic from elliptic regions: the sign of a susceptibility parameter. This study shows that one may control to some extent magnetostatic modes via external fields or geometry. R.E.A. acknowledges Financiamiento Basal para Centros Cientificos y Tecnologicos de Excelencia under Project No. FB 0807 (Chile), Grant No. ICM P10-061-F by Fondo de Innovacion para la Competitividad-MINECON, and Proyecto Fondecyt 1130192.

  17. Large Scale Cosmological Anomalies and Inhomogeneous Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros Perivolaropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of large scale observations hint towards possible modifications on the standard cosmological model which is based on a homogeneous and isotropic universe with a small cosmological constant and matter. These observations, also known as “cosmic anomalies” include unexpected Cosmic Microwave Background perturbations on large angular scales, large dipolar peculiar velocity flows of galaxies (“bulk flows”, the measurement of inhomogenous values of the fine structure constant on cosmological scales (“alpha dipole” and other effects. The presence of the observational anomalies could either be a large statistical fluctuation in the context of ΛCDM or it could indicate a non-trivial departure from the cosmological principle on Hubble scales. Such a departure is very much constrained by cosmological observations for matter. For dark energy however there are no significant observational constraints for Hubble scale inhomogeneities. In this brief review I discuss some of the theoretical models that can naturally lead to inhomogeneous dark energy, their observational constraints and their potential to explain the large scale cosmic anomalies.

  18. Electron-positron pair production in inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlfürst, C.

    2015-01-01

    The process of electron-positron pair production is investigated within the phase-space Wigner formalism. The similarities between atomic ionization and pair production for homogeneous, but time-dependent linearly polarized electric fields are examined mainly in the regime of multiphoton absorption (field-dependent threshold, above-threshold pair production). Characteristic signatures in the particle spectra are identified (effective mass, channel closing). The non-monotonic dependence of the particle yield on the carrier frequency is discussed as well. The investigations are then extended to spatially inhomogeneous electric fields. New effects arising due to the spatial dependence of the effective mass are discussed in terms of a semi-classical interpretation. An increase in the normalized particle yield is found for various field configurations.Pair production in inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields is also studied. The influence of a time-dependent spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field on the momentum spectrum and the particle yield is investigated. The Lorentz invariants are identified to be crucial in order to understand pair production by strong electric fields in the presence of strong magnetic fields. (author) [de

  19. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  20. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Silicone elastomers have been heavily investigated as candidates for dielectric elastomers and are as such almost ideal candidates with their inherent softness and compliance but they suffer from low dielectric permittivity. This shortcoming has been sought optimized by many means during recent...... years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we investigate the electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers. Two types...... of silicone elastomers are investigated and different types of breakdown are discussed. Furthermore the use of voltage stabilizers in silicone-based dielectric elastomers is investigated and discussed....

  1. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on dipolar copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DES) are a promising new transducer technology, but high driving voltages limit their current commercial potential. One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric...

  2. Performance Optimization of a Conical Dielectric Elastomer Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongjing Cao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs are known as ‘artificial muscles’ due to their large actuation strain, high energy density and self-sensing capability. The conical configuration has been widely adopted in DEA applications such as bio-inspired locomotion and micropumps for its good compactness, ease for fabrication and large actuation stroke. However, the conical protrusion of the DEA membrane is characterized by inhomogeneous stresses, which complicate their design. In this work, we present an analytical model-based optimization for conical DEAs with the three biasing elements: (I linear compression spring; (II biasing mass; and (III antagonistic double-cone DEA. The optimization is to find the maximum stroke and work output of a conical DEA by tuning its geometry (inner disk to outer frame radius ratio a/b and pre-stretch ratio. The results show that (a for all three cases, stroke and work output are maximum for a pre-stretch ratio of 1 × 1 for the Parker silicone elastomer, which suggests the stretch caused by out-of-plane deformation is sufficient for this specific elastomer. (b Stroke maximization is obtained for a lower a/b ratio while a larger a/b ratio is required to maximize work output, but the optimal a/b ratio is less than 0.3 in all three cases. (c The double-cone configuration has the largest stroke while single cone with a biasing mass has the highest work output.

  3. Elegant objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bugayenko, Yegor

    2017-01-01

    There are 23 practical recommendations for object-oriented programmers. Most of them are completely against everything you've read in other books. For example, static methods, NULL references, getters, setters, and mutable classes are called evil. Compound variable names, validators, private static literals, configurable objects, inheritance, annotations, MVC, dependency injection containers, reflection, ORM and even algorithms are our enemies.

  4. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  5. Ferroelectric dielectrics integrated on silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Defay, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    This book describes up-to-date technology applied to high-K materials for More Than Moore applications, i.e. microsystems applied to microelectronics core technologies.After detailing the basic thermodynamic theory applied to high-K dielectrics thin films including extrinsic effects, this book emphasizes the specificity of thin films. Deposition and patterning technologies are then presented. A whole chapter is dedicated to the major role played in the field by X-Ray Diffraction characterization, and other characterization techniques are also described such as Radio frequency characterizat

  6. Broadband cloaking using composite dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Bing Hwang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel cloaking structure that is able to make a metallic block invisible in a metallic waveguide. Such a cloak is made up of a stack of commonly used dielectric slabs. We carry out the numerical simulation and observe the detour of the vector Poynting power through the cloak. Moreover, the experiment is conducted for measuring the scattering characteristics including the reflection and transmission coefficients. The great improvement in the transmission coefficient in a broad bandwidth after cloaking is demonstrated. Significantly, the theory of mode conversion is developed for explaining the cloaking phenomenon.

  7. High thermal conductivity lossy dielectric using a multi layer configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    2003-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for loss dielectrics. A loss dielectric includes at least one high dielectric loss layer and at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. A method of manufacturing a loss dielectric includes providing at least one high dielectric loss layer and providing at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. The systems and methods provide advantages because the loss dielectrics are less costly and more environmentally friendly than the available alternatives.

  8. Thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2001-10-09

    Oct 9, 2001 ... Measurements of TSDC and dielectric constant, ε′, have been ... Keywords. Semiconducting glass; TSDC; trap energy; dielectric constant. 1. ... determination of mean depth of the internal charge, activation ... thermal charging, viz. (i) internal ... the basis of d.c. conductivity and short range Na+ ion motion.

  9. Dielectric spectroscopy of watermelons for quality sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Stuart O.; Guo, Wen-chuan; Trabelsi, Samir; Kays, Stanley J.

    2007-07-01

    Dielectric properties of four small-sized watermelon cultivars, grown and harvested to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and an impedance analyser over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Probe measurements were made on the external surface of the melons and also on tissue samples from the edible internal tissue. Moisture content and soluble solids content (SSC) were measured for internal tissue samples, and SSC (sweetness) was used as the quality factor for correlation with the dielectric properties. Individual dielectric constant and loss factor correlations with SSC were low, but a high correlation was obtained between the SSC and permittivity from a complex-plane plot of dielectric constant and loss factor, each divided by SSC. However, SSC prediction from the dielectric properties by this relationship was not as high as expected (coefficient of determination about 0.4). Permittivity data (dielectric constant and loss factor) for the melons are presented graphically to show their relationships with frequency for the four melon cultivars and for external surface and internal tissue measurements. A dielectric relaxation for the external surface measurements, which may be attributable to a combination of bound water, Maxwell-Wagner, molecular cluster or ion-related effects, is also illustrated. Coefficients of determination for complex-plane plots, moisture content and SSC relationship, and penetration depth are also shown graphically. Further studies are needed for determining the practicality of sensing melon quality from their dielectric properties.

  10. Dielectric material options for integrated capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhl, G.; Lehnert, W.; Lukosius, M.; Wenger, C.; Baristiran Kaynak, C.; Blomberg, T.; Haukka, S.; Baumann, P.K.; Besling, W.F.A.; Roest, A.L.; Riou, B.; Lhostis, S.; Halimaou, A.; Roozeboom, F.; Langereis, E.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Zauner, A.; Rushworth, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Future MIM capacitor generations will require significantly increased specific capacitances by utilization of high-k dielectric materials. In order to achieve high capacitance per chip area, these dielectrics have to be deposited in three-dimensional capacitor structures by ALD or AVD (atomic vapor

  11. Analysis of electron interactions in dielectric gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivet, Aurelio; Duque, Daniel; Vega, Lourdes F.

    2007-01-01

    We present and discuss results concerning electron interactions processes of dielectric gases and their relationship with the macroscopic behavior of these gases, in particular, with their dielectric strength. Such analysis is based on calculating energies of reactions for molecular ionization, dissociative ionization, parent negative ion formation, and dissociative electron attachment processes. We hypothesize that the estimation of the required energy for a reduced number of processes that take place in electrically stressed gases could be related to the gas' capability to manage the electron flow during an electrical discharge. All calculations were done with semiempirical quantum chemistry methods, including an initial optimization of molecular geometry and heat of formation of the dielectric gases and all of species that appear during electron interaction reactions. The performance of semiempirical methods Austin model 1 and Parametric model 3 (PM3) was compared for several compounds, PM3 being superior in most cases. Calculations performed for a sample of nine dielectric gases show that electron attachment and detachment processes occur in different energy bands that do not overlap for any value of the dielectric strength. We have also analyzed the relationship between dielectric strength and two physical properties: electron affinity and ionization energy. Calculations performed for 43 dielectric gases show no clear correlation between them, although certain guidelines for the qualitative estimation of dielectric strength can still be assessed

  12. Aging of Dielectric Properties below Tg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    The dielectric loss at 1Hz in TPP is studied during a temperature step from one equilibrium state to another. In the applied cryostate the temperature can be equilibrated on a timescale of 1 second. The aging time dependence of the dielectric loss is studied below Tg applying temperature steps...

  13. Development of inhomogeneous {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} turbulence model for 3D flow analysis of SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. H.; Whang, Y. D.; Yoon, H. Y.; Kim, H. C

    2003-07-01

    The objective of the present report is to select and develop a turbulence model that will be implemented in TASS-3D code for 3-D heat and fluid analysis on the integral reactor, SMART-P primary coolant system. The turbulence model was selected with the consideration on the economy, accuracy, theorization and applicability for the complex three dimensional flow, natural convection and the high Reynolds number turbulent flow of SMART-P.On the models investigated in this present study, the standard {kappa}-{epsilon} model of high Reynolds model, the {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} model and ERRSM of low Reynolds model were selected out of them finally. The {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} model was selected as the applicable turbulence model for three dimensional flow analysis of SMART-P. The problem of original {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} model is the amplification of the pressure strain rate in the log region. The amplification is caused by Elliptic Relaxation Equation(ERE). The present model approaches inhomogeneous for the source term of the ERE to reduce the pressure-strain amplification. The source term was decomposed into homogeneous part and inhomogeneous part and derived as a form of variable coefficients of the ERE. The pressure strain and dissipation terms were fully coupled with the source term of the ERE. The pressure diffusion was modified to treat the boundary conditions indirectly and the pressure strain of the inhomogeneous correction ERE was noticeably decreased in both log layer and outer layer. The results of the inhomogeneous correction {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} model showed a good agreement with DNS results for channel flows and estimated improved results on the turbulent components in comparison with other models.

  14. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  15. Microscopic resolution broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S; Watson, P; Prance, R J

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented for a non-contact measurement system capable of micron level spatial resolution. It utilises the novel electric potential sensor (EPS) technology, invented at Sussex, to image the electric field above a simple composite dielectric material. EP sensors may be regarded as analogous to a magnetometer and require no adjustments or offsets during either setup or use. The sample consists of a standard glass/epoxy FR4 circuit board, with linear defects machined into the surface by a PCB milling machine. The sample is excited with an a.c. signal over a range of frequencies from 10 kHz to 10 MHz, from the reverse side, by placing it on a conducting sheet connected to the source. The single sensor is raster scanned over the surface at a constant working distance, consistent with the spatial resolution, in order to build up an image of the electric field, with respect to the reference potential. The results demonstrate that both the surface defects and the internal dielectric variations within the composite may be imaged in this way, with good contrast being observed between the glass mat and the epoxy resin.

  16. Microscopic resolution broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Watson, P.; Prance, R. J.

    2011-08-01

    Results are presented for a non-contact measurement system capable of micron level spatial resolution. It utilises the novel electric potential sensor (EPS) technology, invented at Sussex, to image the electric field above a simple composite dielectric material. EP sensors may be regarded as analogous to a magnetometer and require no adjustments or offsets during either setup or use. The sample consists of a standard glass/epoxy FR4 circuit board, with linear defects machined into the surface by a PCB milling machine. The sample is excited with an a.c. signal over a range of frequencies from 10 kHz to 10 MHz, from the reverse side, by placing it on a conducting sheet connected to the source. The single sensor is raster scanned over the surface at a constant working distance, consistent with the spatial resolution, in order to build up an image of the electric field, with respect to the reference potential. The results demonstrate that both the surface defects and the internal dielectric variations within the composite may be imaged in this way, with good contrast being observed between the glass mat and the epoxy resin.

  17. Trusted Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  18. Nearly incompressible fluids: Hydrodynamics and large scale inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Shaikh, D.

    2006-01-01

    A system of hydrodynamic equations in the presence of large-scale inhomogeneities for a high plasma beta solar wind is derived. The theory is derived under the assumption of low turbulent Mach number and is developed for the flows where the usual incompressible description is not satisfactory and a full compressible treatment is too complex for any analytical studies. When the effects of compressibility are incorporated only weakly, a new description, referred to as 'nearly incompressible hydrodynamics', is obtained. The nearly incompressible theory, was originally applied to homogeneous flows. However, large-scale gradients in density, pressure, temperature, etc., are typical in the solar wind and it was unclear how inhomogeneities would affect the usual incompressible and nearly incompressible descriptions. In the homogeneous case, the lowest order expansion of the fully compressible equations leads to the usual incompressible equations, followed at higher orders by the nearly incompressible equations, as introduced by Zank and Matthaeus. With this work we show that the inclusion of large-scale inhomogeneities (in this case time-independent and radially symmetric background solar wind) modifies the leading-order incompressible description of solar wind flow. We find, for example, that the divergence of velocity fluctuations is nonsolenoidal and that density fluctuations can be described to leading order as a passive scalar. Locally (for small lengthscales), this system of equations converges to the usual incompressible equations and we therefore use the term 'locally incompressible' to describe the equations. This term should be distinguished from the term 'nearly incompressible', which is reserved for higher-order corrections. Furthermore, we find that density fluctuations scale with Mach number linearly, in contrast to the original homogeneous nearly incompressible theory, in which density fluctuations scale with the square of Mach number. Inhomogeneous nearly

  19. On the kinetic collisional theory of beam-plasma system (relativistic dielectric tensor). Vol. 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Sh M; Sayed, Y A; Zaki, N G [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Calculation of the dielectric tensor is useful for calculating and oscillations the stability of an inhomogeneous plasma. If the dielectric tensor is known, the problem of oscillations is reduced the derivation of the Maxwellian equations. In this case, there is no need to derive the equations of the motion of charged particles every time. The properties of the plasma, especially those connected to its instability, may be equally well specified through permittivity as through conductivity. The features of plasma instabilities and the plasma dielectric tensor are essentially affected by the presence of collision. Coloumb collisions (C.C.) are very important in the process of no linear saturation of some plasma instabilities (e.g., ion cyclotron instability, electron-ion two stream instability). For C.C., two basic properties are considered; (i) the cross section decreases rapidly as the particle velocity increases, (ii) the dominate contribution arises from a commutative effect of small-angle scattering or small-momentum transfer processes. If allowance is made for C.C. to derive the kinetic wave equations in a homogeneous plasma, it will remove the divergance in the matrix elements describing nonlinear interactions. In this paper, the collisional kinetic wave equation in cylindrical hot plasma is studied. The dielectric and polarizing tensor elements which describes the kinetic relativistic electron beam (REB) interaction with magnetized plasma into consideration the effect of pair C.C. is derived. Most research carried out in this direction has neglected the effect of C.C. In the absence of collisions, a `plauste` is formed on the distribution function, and the adsorption of the energy by the plasma stops. 1 fig.

  20. Numerical investigation of dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing

    1997-12-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is a transient discharge occurring between two electrodes in coaxial or planar arrangements separated by one or two layers of dielectric material. The charge accumulated on the dielectric barrier generates a field in a direction opposite to the applied field. The discharge is quenched before an arc is formed. It is one of the few non-thermal discharges that operates at atmospheric pressure and has the potential for use in pollution control. In this work, a numerical model of the dielectric barrier discharge is developed, along with the numerical approach. Adaptive grids based on the charge distribution is used. A self-consistent method is used to solve for the electric field and charge densities. The Successive Overrelaxation (SOR) method in a non-uniform grid spacing is used to solve the Poisson's equation in the cylindrically-symmetric coordinate. The Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) method is modified to solve the continuity equations in the non-uniform grid spacing. Parametric studies of dielectric barrier discharges are conducted. General characteristics of dielectric barrier discharges in both anode-directed and cathode-directed streamer are studied. Effects of the dielectric capacitance, the applied field, the resistance in external circuit and the type of gases (O2, air, N2) are investigated. We conclude that the SOR method in an adaptive grid spacing for the solution of the Poisson's equation in the cylindrically-symmetric coordinate is convergent and effective. The dielectric capacitance has little effect on the g-factor of radical production, but it determines the strength of the dielectric barrier discharge. The applied field and the type of gases used have a significant role on the current peak, current pulse duration and radical generation efficiency, discharge strength, and microstreamer radius, whereas the external series resistance has very little effect on the streamer properties. The results are helpful in

  1. Examples of backreaction of small-scale inhomogeneities in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

    2013-06-01

    In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large-scale backreaction effects due to small-scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small-scale inhomogeneities on large-scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. The first, based on previous work of Berger, is a family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus, which satisfies all of the assumptions of our framework. As the parameter approaches its limiting value, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth background metric, but spacetime derivatives of the deviation of the metric from the background metric do not converge uniformly to zero. The limiting metric has nontrivial backreaction from the small-scale inhomogeneities, with an effective stress energy that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition, in accord with our theorems. Our second one-parameter family consists of metrics which have a uniform Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker limit. This family satisfies all of our assumptions with the exception of the weak energy condition for matter. In this case, the limiting metric has an effective stress-energy tensor which is not traceless. We emphasize the importance of imposing energy conditions on matter in studies of backreaction.

  2. Compression behavior of cellular metals with inhomogeneous mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroughi, B.

    2001-05-01

    Mechanical behavior of two types of closed cell metals (ALULIGHT and ALPORAS) is investigated experimentally and numerically. Compressive tests performed on prismatic specimens indicate that inhomogeneities in the mass density distribution are a key factor in the deformation behavior of cellular metals. The three dimensional cellular structure of the investigated specimens is recorded using x-ray medical computed tomography (CT). A special procedure called density mapping method has been used to transfer the recorded CT data into a continuum by averaging over a certain domain (averaging domain). This continuum model is implemented using finite elements to study the effect of variations in local mass densities. The finite element model is performed by a simple regular discretization of a specimen's volume with elements which have constant edge length. Mechanical properties derived from compression tests of ALPORAS samples are assigned to the corresponding mesoscopic density value of each element. The effect of averaging domain size is studied to obtain a suitable dimension which fulfils the homogenization requirements and allows the evaluation of inhomogenities in the specimens. The formation and propagation of deformation band(s) and stress-strain responses of tested cellular metals are modeled with respect to their mass distribution. It is shown that the inhomogeneous density distribution leads to plastic strain localization and causes a monotonically increase of the stress in the plateau regime although no hardening response was considered for homogeneous material in this regime. The simulated plastic strain localization and the calculated stress-strain responses are compared with the experimental results. The stiffness values of experiment and simulation agree very well for both cellular materials. The values of plateau strength as well, but it differs in some cases of ALULIGHT samples, where the hardening response can be predicted at least qualitatively

  3. Reaction-diffusion fronts with inhomogeneous initial conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bena, I [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Droz, M [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Martens, K [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Racz, Z [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eoetvoes University, 1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2007-02-14

    Properties of reaction zones resulting from A+B {yields} C type reaction-diffusion processes are investigated by analytical and numerical methods. The reagents A and B are separated initially and, in addition, there is an initial macroscopic inhomogeneity in the distribution of the B species. For simple two-dimensional geometries, exact analytical results are presented for the time evolution of the geometric shape of the front. We also show using cellular automata simulations that the fluctuations can be neglected both in the shape and in the width of the front.

  4. Ventilation inhomogeneity in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik F; Marthin, June Kehlet

    2012-01-01

    The lung clearance index (LCI) derived from the multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) test reflects global ventilation distribution inhomogeneity. It is more sensitive than forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) for detecting abnormal airway function and correlates closely with structural lung...... damage in children with cystic fibrosis, which shares features with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Normalised phase III slope indices S(cond) and S(acin) reflect function of the small conducting and acinar airways, respectively. The involvement of the peripheral airways assessed by MBW tests has...

  5. Discharge characteristics in inhomogeneous fields under air flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Holbøll, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    the frequency and magnitude of partial discharges in the vicinity of the electrode due to an increased rate of space charge removal around the tip of the needle and in the gap. The positive polarity shows higher dependency on air flow compared to the negative polarity. It is shown that positive breakdown......This research investigates the impact of high velocity air flow on Partial Discharge (PD) patterns generated in strongly inhomogeneous fields. In the laboratory, a needle plane electrode configuration was exposed to a high electrical DC-field and a laminar air flow up to 22 ms. The needle...

  6. Two-step estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Guan, Yongtao

    2009-01-01

    The paper is concerned with parameter estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes with a regression model for the intensity function and tractable second-order properties (K-function). Regression parameters are estimated by using a Poisson likelihood score estimating function and in the ...... and in the second step minimum contrast estimation is applied for the residual clustering parameters. Asymptotic normality of parameter estimates is established under certain mixing conditions and we exemplify how the results may be applied in ecological studies of rainforests....

  7. Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, M.; Eisert, J.; Illuminati, F.

    2004-01-01

    We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices

  8. Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F

    2004-11-05

    We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices.

  9. Gaussian beam diffraction in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Yu.A., E-mail: kravtsov@am.szczecin.p [Institute of Physics, Maritime University of Szczecin, Szczecin 70-500 (Poland); Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117 997 (Russian Federation); Berczynski, P., E-mail: pawel.berczynski@ps.p [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin 70-310 (Poland); Bieg, B., E-mail: b.bieg@am.szczecin.p [Institute of Physics, Maritime University of Szczecin, Szczecin 70-500 (Poland)

    2009-08-10

    Combination of quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA) of geometric optics with paraxial complex geometric optics (PCGO) is suggested, which allows describing both diffraction and polarization evolution of Gaussian electromagnetic beams in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media. Combination QIA/PCGO reduces Maxwell equations to the system of the ordinary differential equations of the first order and radically simplifies solution of various problems, related to microwave plasma diagnostics, including plasma polarimetry, interferometry and refractometry in thermonuclear reactors. Efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the example of electromagnetic beam diffraction in a linear layer of magnetized plasma with parameters, modeling tokamak plasma in the project ITER.

  10. Gaussian beam diffraction in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, Yu.A.; Berczynski, P.; Bieg, B.

    2009-01-01

    Combination of quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA) of geometric optics with paraxial complex geometric optics (PCGO) is suggested, which allows describing both diffraction and polarization evolution of Gaussian electromagnetic beams in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media. Combination QIA/PCGO reduces Maxwell equations to the system of the ordinary differential equations of the first order and radically simplifies solution of various problems, related to microwave plasma diagnostics, including plasma polarimetry, interferometry and refractometry in thermonuclear reactors. Efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the example of electromagnetic beam diffraction in a linear layer of magnetized plasma with parameters, modeling tokamak plasma in the project ITER.

  11. Quantum quench in one dimension: coherent inhomogeneity amplification and "supersolitons".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Matthew S; Yuzbashyan, Emil A; Altshuler, Boris L

    2010-09-24

    We study a quantum quench in a 1D system possessing Luttinger liquid (LL) and Mott insulating ground states before and after the quench, respectively. We show that the quench induces power law amplification in time of any particle density inhomogeneity in the initial LL ground state. The scaling exponent is set by the fractionalization of the LL quasiparticle number relative to the insulator. As an illustration, we consider the traveling density waves launched from an initial localized density bump. While these waves exhibit a particular rigid shape, their amplitudes grow without bound.

  12. Linearized theory of inhomogeneous multiple 'water-bag' plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, H. W.; Berk, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Equations are derived for describing the inhomogeneous equilibrium and small deviations from the equilibrium, giving particular attention to systems with trapped particles. An investigation is conducted of periodic systems with a single trapped-particle water bag, taking into account the behavior of the perturbation equations at the turning points. An outline is provided concerning a procedure for obtaining the eigenvalues. The results of stability calculations connected with the sideband effects are considered along with questions regarding the general applicability of the multiple water-bag approach in stability calculations.

  13. Super-high magnetic fields in spatially inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastoyashchiy, Anatoly F.

    2012-01-01

    The new phenomenon of a spontaneous magnetic field in spatially inhomogeneous plasma is found. The criteria for instability are determined, and both the linear and nonlinear stages of the magnetic field growth are considered; it is shown that the magnetic field can reach a considerable magnitude, namely, its pressure can be comparable with the plasma pressure. Especially large magnetic fields can arise in hot plasma with a high electron density, for example, in laser-heated plasma. In steady-state plasma, the magnetic field can be self-sustaining. The considered magnetic fields may play an important role in thermal insulation of the plasma. (author)

  14. Dynamic modeling of presence of occupants using inhomogeneous Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Iversen, Anne; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    on time of day, and by use of a filter of the observations it is able to capture per-employee sequence dynamics. Simulations using this method are compared with simulations using homogeneous Markov chains and show far better ability to reproduce key properties of the data. The method is based...... on inhomogeneous Markov chains with where the transition probabilities are estimated using generalized linear models with polynomials, B-splines, and a filter of passed observations as inputs. For treating the dispersion of the data series, a hierarchical model structure is used where one model is for low presence...

  15. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses in the inhomogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Huang, Long-Gang; Pan, Nan; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Pulse interactions affect pulse qualities during the propagation. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated to improve pulse qualities in the inhomogeneous media. In order to describe the interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses, analytic two-soliton solutions are derived. Based on those solutions, influences of corresponding parameters on pulse interactions are discussed. Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. - Highlights: • Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated. • Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. • Analytic two-soliton solutions for butterfly-shaped pulses are derived

  16. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses in the inhomogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wen-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, School of Science, P. O. Box 91, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Huang, Long-Gang; Pan, Nan [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, School of Science, P. O. Box 91, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Lei, Ming, E-mail: mlei@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, School of Science, P. O. Box 91, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Pulse interactions affect pulse qualities during the propagation. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated to improve pulse qualities in the inhomogeneous media. In order to describe the interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses, analytic two-soliton solutions are derived. Based on those solutions, influences of corresponding parameters on pulse interactions are discussed. Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. - Highlights: • Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated. • Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. • Analytic two-soliton solutions for butterfly-shaped pulses are derived.

  17. REB-instability with magneto-active inhomogeneous warm plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shorbagy, K.H.

    2000-07-01

    The beam-plasma heating due to a relativistic electron beam (REB) under the effect of an external static magnetic field is investigated. It is considered that a longitudinal 1-D oscillations exist in the plasma, which is inhomogeneous and bounded in the direction of the beam propagation. It is found that the variation in the plasma density has a profound effect on the spatial beam-plasma instability. Besides, the external static magnetic field and warmness of plasma electron leads to more power absorption from the electron beam, and consequently an auxiliary plasma heating. (author)

  18. REB-Instability with Magneto-Active Inhomogeneous Warm Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shorbagy, Kh.H.

    2000-01-01

    The beam-plasma heating due to a relativistic electron beam (REB) under the effect of an external static magnetic field is investigated. It is considered that a longitudinal 1-D oscillations exist in the plasma, which is inhomogeneous and bounded in the direction of the beam propagation. It is found that the variation in the plasma density has a profound effect on the spatial beam-plasma instability. Besides, the external static magnetic field and warmness of plasma electron leads to more power absorption from the electron beam, and consequently an auxiliary plasma heating

  19. Estimation of geometrically undistorted B0 inhomogeneity maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matakos, A; Balter, J; Cao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Geometric accuracy of MRI is one of the main concerns for its use as a sole image modality in precision radiation therapy (RT) planning. In a state-of-the-art scanner, system level geometric distortions are within acceptable levels for precision RT. However, subject-induced B 0 inhomogeneity may vary substantially, especially in air-tissue interfaces. Recent studies have shown distortion levels of more than 2 mm near the sinus and ear canal are possible due to subject-induced field inhomogeneity. These distortions can be corrected with the use of accurate B 0 inhomogeneity field maps. Most existing methods estimate these field maps from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at two different echo-times under the assumption that the GRE images are practically undistorted. However distortion that may exist in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate correction of clinical images. This work proposes a method for estimating undistorted field maps from GRE acquisitions using an iterative joint estimation technique. The proposed method yields geometrically corrected GRE images and undistorted field maps that can also be used for the correction of images acquired by other sequences. The proposed method is validated through simulation, phantom experiments and applied to patient data. Our simulation results show that our method reduces the root-mean-squared error of the estimated field map from the ground truth by ten-fold compared to the distorted field map. Both the geometric distortion and the intensity corruption (artifact) in the images caused by the B 0 field inhomogeneity are corrected almost completely. Our phantom experiment showed improvement in the geometric correction of approximately 1 mm at an air-water interface using the undistorted field map compared to using a distorted field map. The proposed method for undistorted field map estimation can lead to improved geometric

  20. Estimation of geometrically undistorted B0 inhomogeneity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matakos, A.; Balter, J.; Cao, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Geometric accuracy of MRI is one of the main concerns for its use as a sole image modality in precision radiation therapy (RT) planning. In a state-of-the-art scanner, system level geometric distortions are within acceptable levels for precision RT. However, subject-induced B0 inhomogeneity may vary substantially, especially in air-tissue interfaces. Recent studies have shown distortion levels of more than 2 mm near the sinus and ear canal are possible due to subject-induced field inhomogeneity. These distortions can be corrected with the use of accurate B0 inhomogeneity field maps. Most existing methods estimate these field maps from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at two different echo-times under the assumption that the GRE images are practically undistorted. However distortion that may exist in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate correction of clinical images. This work proposes a method for estimating undistorted field maps from GRE acquisitions using an iterative joint estimation technique. The proposed method yields geometrically corrected GRE images and undistorted field maps that can also be used for the correction of images acquired by other sequences. The proposed method is validated through simulation, phantom experiments and applied to patient data. Our simulation results show that our method reduces the root-mean-squared error of the estimated field map from the ground truth by ten-fold compared to the distorted field map. Both the geometric distortion and the intensity corruption (artifact) in the images caused by the B0 field inhomogeneity are corrected almost completely. Our phantom experiment showed improvement in the geometric correction of approximately 1 mm at an air-water interface using the undistorted field map compared to using a distorted field map. The proposed method for undistorted field map estimation can lead to improved geometric

  1. Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S.S., E-mail: Shoukryhassan@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Manchester Metropolitan University, Dept. of Computing, Maths. and Digital Technology, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Sharaby, Y.A., E-mail: Yasser_Sharaby@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Ali, M.F.M., E-mail: dr.mona.fathy@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics: Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: ajoshi@eiu.edu [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.

  2. Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.S.; Sharaby, Y.A.; Ali, M.F.M.; Joshi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.

  3. Tailoring diffuse reflectance of inhomogeneous films containing microplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovick, Brian A., E-mail: brian.slovick@sri.com; Baker, John M.; Flom, Zachary; Krishnamurthy, Srini [Applied Optics Laboratory, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    We develop an analytical model for calculating the diffuse reflectance of inhomogeneous films containing aligned microplatelets with diameters much greater than the wavelength. The scattering parameters are derived by modeling the platelets as one-dimensional thin films, and the overall diffuse reflectance of the slab is calculated using the Kubelka-Munk model. Our model predicts that reflection minima and maxima arising from coherent interference within the platelets are preserved in the diffuse reflectance of the disordered slab. Experimental validation of the model is provided by reflectance measurements (0.3–15 μm) of a solid aerosol film of aligned hexagonal boron nitride platelets.

  4. Study of water mass transfer dynamics in frescoes by dielectric spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmi, R.; Riminesi, C.

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of moisture content (M C) is essential for determining the state of preservation of various types of hand-work: from building materials such as bricks and concrete, to objects of artistic value, in particular frescoes and mural paintings. In all above, moisture is the primary source of damages, as it affects the durability of porous materials. Dielectric properties of porous materials are strongly affected by the presence of water, suggesting dielectric spectroscopy as a suitable non-invasive diagnostic technique. The development of a quantitative relationship between M C and permittivity requires to investigate the dynamics of water mass transfer in porous media, and to determine its effect on the dielectric properties. In this paper a coupled mass transfer/dielectric problem is introduced and solved numerically, based on a finite element model. Results are compared to experimental dielectric measurements performed on plaster samples by the open coaxial method. The application of the dielectric technique to frescoes monitoring is proposed, showing the results obtained is an on-site study.

  5. The dynamics of spiral tip adjacent to inhomogeneity in cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Tang, Jun; Ma, Jun; Luo, Jin Ming; Yang, Xian Qing

    2018-02-01

    Rotating spiral waves in cardiac tissue are implicated in life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Experimental and theoretical evidences suggest the inhomogeneities in cardiac tissue play a significant role in the dynamics of spiral waves. Based on a modified 2D cardiac tissue model, the interaction of inhomogeneity on the nearby rigidly rotating spiral wave is numerically studied. The adjacent area of the inhomogeneity is divided to two areas, when the initial rotating center of the spiral tip is located in the two areas, the spiral tip will be attracted and anchor on the inhomogeneity finally, or be repulsed away. The width of the area is significantly dependent on the intensity and size of the inhomogeneity. Our numerical study sheds some light on the mechanism of the interaction of inhomogeneity on the spiral wave in cardiac tissue.

  6. Disclosed dielectric and electromechanical properties of hydrogenated nitrile–butadiene dielectric elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dan; Tian, Ming; Dong, Yingchao; Liu, Haoliang; Yu, Yingchun; Zhang, Liqun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effects of acrylonitrile content, crosslink density and plasticization on the dielectric and electromechanical performances of hydrogenated nitrile–butadiene dielectric elastomer. It was found that by increasing the acrylonitrile content of hydrogenated nitrile–butadiene dielectric elastomer, the dielectric constant will be improved accompanied with a sharp decrease of electrical breakdown strength leading to a small actuated strain. At a fixed electric field, a high crosslink density increased the elastic modulus of dielectric elastomer, but it also enhanced the electrical breakdown strength leading to a high actuated strain. Adding a plasticizer into the dielectric elastomer decreased the dielectric constant and electrical breakdown strength slightly, but reduced the elastic modulus sharply, which was beneficial for obtaining a large strain at low electric field from the dielectric elastomer. The largest actuated strain of 22% at an electric field of 30 kV mm −1 without any prestrain was obtained. Moreover, the hydrogenated nitrile–butadiene dielectric actuator showed good history dependence. This proposed material has great potential to be an excellent dielectric elastomer. (paper)

  7. Optically levitating dielectrics in the quantum regime: Theory and protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Isart, O.; Pflanzer, A. C.; Cirac, J. I.; Juan, M. L.; Quidant, R.; Kiesel, N.; Aspelmeyer, M.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a general quantum theory to describe the coupling of light with the motion of a dielectric object inside a high-finesse optical cavity. In particular, we derive the total Hamiltonian of the system as well as a master equation describing the state of the center-of-mass mode of the dielectric and the cavity-field mode. In addition, a quantum theory of elasticity is used to study the coupling of the center-of-mass motion with internal vibrational excitations of the dielectric. This general theory is applied to the recent proposal of using an optically levitating nanodielectric as a cavity optomechanical system [see Romero-Isart et al., New J. Phys. 12, 033015 (2010); Chang et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1005 (2010)]. On this basis, we also design a light-mechanics interface to prepare non-Gaussian states of the mechanical motion, such as quantum superpositions of Fock states. Finally, we introduce a direct mechanical tomography scheme to probe these genuine quantum states by time-of- flight experiments.

  8. Light Scattering by a Dielectric Sphere: Perspectives on the Mie Resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tzarouchis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Light scattering by a small spherical particle, a central topic for electromagnetic scattering theory, is here considered. In this short review, some of the basic features of its resonant scattering behavior are covered. First, a general physical picture is described by a full electrodynamic perspective, the Lorenz–Mie theory. The resonant spectrum of a dielectric sphere reveals the existence of two distinctive types of polarization enhancement: the plasmonic and the dielectric resonances. The corresponding electrostatic (Rayleigh picture is analyzed and the polarizability of a homogeneous spherical inclusion is extracted. This description facilitates the identification of the first type of resonance, i.e., the localized surface plasmon (plasmonic resonance, as a function of the permittivity. Moreover, the electrostatic picture is linked with the plasmon hybridization model through the case of a step-inhomogeneous structure, i.e., a core–shell sphere. The connections between the electrostatic and electrodynamic models are reviewed in the small size limit and details on size-induced aspects, such as the dynamic depolarization and the radiation reaction on a small sphere are exposed through the newly introduced Mie–Padé approximative perspective. The applicability of this approximation is further expanded including the second type of resonances, i.e., the dielectric resonances. For this type of resonances, the Mie–Padé approximation reveals the main character of the two different cases of resonances of either magnetic or electric origin. A unified picture is therefore described encompassing both plasmonic and dielectric resonances, and the resonant conditions of all three different types are extracted as functions of the permittivity and the size of the sphere. Lastly, the directional scattering behavior of the first two dielectric resonances is exposed in a simple manner, namely the Kerker conditions for maximum forward and

  9. The color dielectric model of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirner, H.-J.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1992-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the emergence of valence gluons and their bound states, the glueballs from perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). We discuss the phenomenological constraints and theoretical method needed to generate effective glueballs actions. We show how color dielectric confinement works naively and in the lattice model of color dielectrics. This lattice model is derived for SU(2) color by a blockspinning Monte Carlo renormalization group procedure. We interpret the resulting long-distance as a strongly interacting lattice string theory where the valence link gluon fields randomize in the color dielectric background which mimics the integrated out high-frequency gluon modes in the vacuum. The fluctuations of the color dielectric fields are related to color neutral glueballs modes. We give the extension of this color dielectric SU(2) theory for general SU(N) with quarks and address the problems associated with combining confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. Finally we prove the efficiency of the effective theory in applications to the heavy quark system, the the baryon, to the nucleon-nucleon interaction, to baryon models and the gluon plasma transition. In all those cases the behavior of the higher energy gluons can be monitored via the color dielectric fields. An increase in the energy density from ''deconfining'' the higher frequency modes inside the flux tube or in thermally excited matter shows up as an increase in the value of the color dielectric field and its associated energy density. (Author)

  10. Silicon qubit performance in the presence of inhomogeneous strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, N. Tobias; Ward, Daniel R.; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Gamble, John K.; Montano, Ines; Rudolph, Martin; Nielsen, Erik; Carroll, Malcolm

    While gate electrode voltages largely define the potential landscape experienced by electrons in quantum dot (QD) devices, mechanical strain also plays a role. Inhomogeneous strain established over the course of device fabrication, followed by mismatched contraction under cooling to cryogenic temperatures, may significantly perturb this potential. A recent investigation by Thorbeck & Zimmerman suggests that unintentional QDs may form as a result of the latter thermal contraction mismatch mechanism. In this work, we investigate the effects of inhomogeneous strain on QD tunnel barriers and other properties, from the perspective of QD and donor-based qubit performance. Through semiconductor process simulation, we estimate the relative magnitude of strain established during fabrication as compared with thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. Combining these predictions with multi-valley effective mass theory modeling of qubit characteristics, we identify whether strain effects may compel stricter than expected constraints on device dimensions. Finally, we investigate the degree to which strain and charge disorder effects may be distinguished. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Radiance intensity enhanced by thin inhomogeneous lossy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Ni Bo

    2004-01-01

    Basically, the classical radiative transfer theory assumes that the coherent component of the radiation field is equal to zero and heuristic considerations about energy conservation are used in the phenomenological derivation of the RTE. Here a self-consistent theory is presented to investigate radiative transport in the presence of diffraction processes within thin inhomogeneous films. The problem of linear optics about the transport of scalar radiation within film is solved, a new definition of the radiance is introduced in agreement with earlier definitions and a corresponding radiative transfer equation is derived. The influence of spatial variations of the bulk properties on the propagating mode is described in detail. It is analytically predicted that, unlike homogeneous media, an inhomogeneous film can enhance the radiance intensity in spite of the diffraction and the local extinction. From a practical point of view, the results of this work should be useful to perform the optimal design for many thermoelectric devices such as the new generations of photovoltaiec cells

  12. Cluster Tails for Critical Power-Law Inhomogeneous Random Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Kliem, Sandra; van Leeuwaarden, Johan S. H.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the scaling limit of cluster sizes for critical inhomogeneous random graphs of rank-1 type having finite variance but infinite third moment degrees was obtained in Bhamidi et al. (Ann Probab 40:2299-2361, 2012). It was proved that when the degrees obey a power law with exponent τ \\in (3,4), the sequence of clusters ordered in decreasing size and multiplied through by n^{-(τ -2)/(τ -1)} converges as n→ ∞ to a sequence of decreasing non-degenerate random variables. Here, we study the tails of the limit of the rescaled largest cluster, i.e., the probability that the scaling limit of the largest cluster takes a large value u, as a function of u. This extends a related result of Pittel (J Combin Theory Ser B 82(2):237-269, 2001) for the Erdős-Rényi random graph to the setting of rank-1 inhomogeneous random graphs with infinite third moment degrees. We make use of delicate large deviations and weak convergence arguments.

  13. Inhomogeneous magnetic phase in Co–Al–O spinel nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K., E-mail: sato.koichi@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Naka, T., E-mail: naka.takashi@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Nakane, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Rangappa, D. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur PO, Hyderabad 500-005 (India); Takami, S. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Ohara, S. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Adschiri, T. [WPI, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    We report on the crystallographic structure and magnetism of 5-nm Co–Al–O spinel nanocrystals synthesized under supercritical hydrothermal conditions. Structural examination using powder X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis showed the composition of the sample to be Co{sub 0.47}Al{sub 2.36}O{sub 4} rather than the stoichiometric composition of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The site occupancy of Co on the A-site forming the diamond lattice was 0.47, which is slightly larger than the site percolation limit. Magnetization measurements showed that magnetic clusters emerged below 40 K. At temperatures below 40 K, a Griffiths-phase-like inhomogeneous state appeared in the sample in which magnetic clusters and paramagnetic spins coexisted. The dc-paramagnetic and ac-susceptibilities exhibited an anomaly below 7 K. - Highlights: • The synthesized sample had an Al-rich structure described by Co{sub 0.47}Al{sub 2.36}O{sub 4}. • The site occupancy of Co at the A-site is larger than the site percolation limit of the A-site. • The non-linearity of the magnetization appeared at T<40 K. • The paramagnetic component showed a peak at 7 K. • An inhomogeneous state is established in our Co–Al oxide nanocrystals.

  14. Plasmons in inhomogeneously doped neutral and charged graphene nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveiro, Iván [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Javier García de Abajo, F., E-mail: javier.garciadeabajo@icfo.es [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-31

    We study plasmons in graphene nanodisks including the effect of inhomogeneity in the distribution of the doping charge. Specifically, we discuss the following two configurations: charged disks containing a fixed amount of additional carriers, which are self-consistently distributed along the surface to produce a uniform DC potential; and neutral disks exposed to a neighboring external point charge. A suitable finite-element method is elaborated to compute the charge density associated with the plasmons in the electrostatic limit. For charged disks, we find dipolar plasmons similar to those of uniformly doped graphene structures, in which the plasmon induced charge piles up near the edges. In contrast, in neutral disks placed near an external point charge, plasmons are strongly localized away from the edges. Surprisingly, a single external electron is enough to trap plasmons. The disks also display axially symmetric dark-plasmons, which can be excited through external illumination by coupling them to a neighboring metallic element. Our results have practical relevance for graphene nanophotonics under inhomogeneous doping conditions.

  15. The Optimal Inhomogeneity for Superconductivity: Finite Size Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, W-F.

    2010-04-06

    We report the results of exact diagonalization studies of Hubbard models on a 4 x 4 square lattice with periodic boundary conditions and various degrees and patterns of inhomogeneity, which are represented by inequivalent hopping integrals t and t{prime}. We focus primarily on two patterns, the checkerboard and the striped cases, for a large range of values of the on-site repulsion U and doped hole concentration, x. We present evidence that superconductivity is strongest for U of order the bandwidth, and intermediate inhomogeneity, 0 < t{prime} < t. The maximum value of the 'pair-binding energy' we have found with purely repulsive interactions is {Delta}{sub pb} = 0.32t for the checkerboard Hubbard model with U = 8t and t{prime} = 0.5t. Moreover, for near optimal values, our results are insensitive to changes in boundary conditions, suggesting that the correlation length is sufficiently short that finite size effects are already unimportant.

  16. The cosmic microwave background in an inhomogeneous universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, Chris; Regis, Marco, E-mail: chris.clarkson@uct.ac.za, E-mail: regis.mrc@gmail.com [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2011-02-01

    The dimming of Type Ia supernovae could be the result of Hubble-scale inhomogeneity in the matter and spatial curvature, rather than signaling the presence of a dark energy component. A key challenge for such models is to fit the detailed spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We present a detailed discussion of the small-scale CMB in an inhomogeneous universe, focusing on spherically symmetric 'void' models. We allow for the dynamical effects of radiation while analyzing the problem, in contrast to other work which inadvertently fine tunes its spatial profile. This is a surprisingly important effect and we reach substantially different conclusions. Models which are open at CMB distances fit the CMB power spectrum without fine tuning; these models also fit the supernovae and local Hubble rate data which favour a high expansion rate. Asymptotically flat models may fit the CMB, but require some extra assumptions. We argue that a full treatment of the radiation in these models is necessary if we are to understand the correct constraints from the CMB, as well as other observations which rely on it, such as spectral distortions of the black body spectrum, the kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect or the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations.

  17. NONLINEAR EVOLUTION OF BEAM-PLASMA INSTABILITY IN INHOMOGENEOUS MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Pavan, J.; Yoon, P. H.; Gaelzer, R.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of electron-beam propagation in inhomogeneous solar wind is intimately related to the solar type II and/or type III radio bursts. Many scientists have addressed this issue in the past by means of quasi-linear theory, but in order to fully characterize the nonlinear dynamics, one must employ weak-turbulence theory. Available numerical solutions of the weak-turbulence theory either rely on only one nonlinear process (either decay or scattering), or when both nonlinear terms are included, the inhomogeneity effect is generally ignored. The present paper reports the full solution of weak-turbulence theory that includes both decay and scattering processes, and also incorporating the effects of density gradient. It is found that the quasi-linear effect sufficiently accounts for the primary Langmuir waves, but to properly characterize the back-scattered Langmuir wave, which is important for eventual radiation generation, it is found that both nonlinear decay and scattering processes make comparable contributions. Such a finding may be important in the quantitative analysis of the plasma emission process with application to solar type II and/or type III radio bursts.

  18. Stable dissipative optical vortex clusters by inhomogeneous effective diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huishan; Lai, Shiquan; Qui, Yunli; Zhu, Xing; Xie, Jianing; Mihalache, Dumitru; He, Yingji

    2017-10-30

    We numerically show the generation of robust vortex clusters embedded in a two-dimensional beam propagating in a dissipative medium described by the generic cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with an inhomogeneous effective diffusion term, which is asymmetrical in the two transverse directions and periodically modulated in the longitudinal direction. We show the generation of stable optical vortex clusters for different values of the winding number (topological charge) of the input optical beam. We have found that the number of individual vortex solitons that form the robust vortex cluster is equal to the winding number of the input beam. We have obtained the relationships between the amplitudes and oscillation periods of the inhomogeneous effective diffusion and the cubic gain and diffusion (viscosity) parameters, which depict the regions of existence and stability of vortex clusters. The obtained results offer a method to form robust vortex clusters embedded in two-dimensional optical beams, and we envisage potential applications in the area of structured light.

  19. Trace element evidence for a laterally inhomogeneous moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A number of trace element interrelations support the concept of a laterally inhomogeneous moon based orginally in Cl/sub r//P 2 O 5 ratios. The correspondence between Cl/sub r//P 2 O 5 and Rb/Sr ratios in basalts are of special interest since the isotopic evolution of the latter pair of elements relates to the earliest history of the moon. This implies the times when the Cl/sub r//P 2 O 5 relations were established. The early magma ocean is conjectured to have been made up of nonintermixing seas resulting either from large convection cells or large body accretion. These mutually exclusive regions could be lunar geological provinces. It is proposed that the diversity of basalts from the Apollo 17 site is related to the lateral inhomogeneity of the moon. Ca/Na ratios in basalts show a trend which parallels that of Ru/Os and in a corresponding fashion may serve as a depth indicator. 4 figures, 4 tables, 12 references

  20. Size effects on magnetoelectric response of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Y.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Xu, K.Y., E-mail: kyxu@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Chen, T. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Aifantis, E.C. [Laboratory of Mechanics and Materials (LMM), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); School of Mechanics and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); International Laboratory for Modern Functional Materials, ITMO University, St. Petersburg 191002 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the influence of size effects on the magnetoelectric performance of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities. Based on a simple model of gradient elasticity for multiferroic materials, the governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained from an energy variational principle. The general formulation is applied to consider an anti-plane problem of multiferroic composites with inhomogeneities. This problem is solved analytically and the effective magnetoelectric coefficient is obtained. The influence of the internal length (grain size or particle size) on the effective magnetoelectric coefficients of piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nanoscale fibrous composite is numerically evaluated and analyzed. The results suggest that with the increase of the internal length of piezoelectric matrix (PZT and BaTiO{sub 3}), the magnetoelectric coefficient increases, but the rate of increase is ratcheting downwards. If the internal length of piezoelectric matrix remains unchanged, the magnetoelectric coefficient will decrease with the increase of internal length scale of piezomagnetic nonfiber (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). In a composite consisiting of a piezomagnetic matrix (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) reinforced with piezoelectric nanofibers (BaTiO{sub 3}), an increase of the internal length in the piezomagnetic matrix, results to a decrease of the magnetoelectric coefficient, with the rate of decrease diminishing.

  1. Size effects on magnetoelectric response of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Y. M.; Xu, K. Y.; Chen, T.; Aifantis, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the influence of size effects on the magnetoelectric performance of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities. Based on a simple model of gradient elasticity for multiferroic materials, the governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained from an energy variational principle. The general formulation is applied to consider an anti-plane problem of multiferroic composites with inhomogeneities. This problem is solved analytically and the effective magnetoelectric coefficient is obtained. The influence of the internal length (grain size or particle size) on the effective magnetoelectric coefficients of piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nanoscale fibrous composite is numerically evaluated and analyzed. The results suggest that with the increase of the internal length of piezoelectric matrix (PZT and BaTiO3), the magnetoelectric coefficient increases, but the rate of increase is ratcheting downwards. If the internal length of piezoelectric matrix remains unchanged, the magnetoelectric coefficient will decrease with the increase of internal length scale of piezomagnetic nonfiber (CoFe2O3). In a composite consisiting of a piezomagnetic matrix (CoFe2O3) reinforced with piezoelectric nanofibers (BaTiO3), an increase of the internal length in the piezomagnetic matrix, results to a decrease of the magnetoelectric coefficient, with the rate of decrease diminishing.

  2. EBL Inhomogeneity and Hard-Spectrum Gamma-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, Hassan; Böttcher, Markus [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)

    2017-02-01

    The unexpectedly hard very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ -ray spectra of a few distant blazars have been interpreted as evidence of a reduction of the γγ opacity of the universe due to the interaction of VHE γ -rays with the extragalactic background light (EBL) compared to the expectation from current knowledge of the density and cosmological evolution of the EBL. One of the suggested solutions to this problem involves the inhomogeneity of the EBL. In this paper, we study the effects of such inhomogeneity on the energy density of the EBL (which then also becomes anisotropic) and the resulting γγ opacity. Specifically, we investigate the effects of cosmic voids along the line of sight to a distant blazar. We find that the effect of such voids on the γγ opacity, for any realistic void size, is only of the order of ≲1% and much smaller than expected from a simple linear scaling of the γγ opacity with the line-of-sight galaxy underdensity due to a cosmic void.

  3. The two-qubit quantum Rabi model: inhomogeneous coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Lijun; Huai, Sainan; Zhang, Yunbo

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the analytic solution of the two-qubit quantum Rabi model with inhomogeneous coupling and transition frequencies using a displaced oscillator basis. This approach enables us to apply the same truncation rules and techniques adopted in the Rabi model to the two qubits system. The derived analytical spectra match perfectly with the numerical solutions in the parameter regime where the qubits’ transition frequencies are far off-resonance with the field frequency and the interaction strengths reach the ultrastrong coupling regime. We further explore the dynamical behavior of the two qubits as well as the evolution of entanglement. The analytical methods provide unexpectedly accurate results in describing the dynamics of the two qubits in the present experimentally accessible coupling regime. The time evolutions of the probability for the qubits show that the collapse-revival phenomena emerge, survive and finally disappear when one coupling strength increases from weak to strong coupling regimes and the other coupling strength is well into the ultrastrong coupling regime. The inhomogeneous coupling system exhibits new dynamics, which are different from the homogeneous coupling case. (paper)

  4. Percolation for a model of statistically inhomogeneous random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintanilla, J.; Torquato, S.

    1999-01-01

    We study clustering and percolation phenomena for a model of statistically inhomogeneous two-phase random media, including functionally graded materials. This model consists of inhomogeneous fully penetrable (Poisson distributed) disks and can be constructed for any specified variation of volume fraction. We quantify the transition zone in the model, defined by the frontier of the cluster of disks which are connected to the disk-covered portion of the model, by defining the coastline function and correlation functions for the coastline. We find that the behavior of these functions becomes largely independent of the specific choice of grade in volume fraction as the separation of length scales becomes large. We also show that the correlation function behaves in a manner similar to that of fractal Brownian motion. Finally, we study fractal characteristics of the frontier itself and compare to similar properties for two-dimensional percolation on a lattice. In particular, we show that the average location of the frontier appears to be related to the percolation threshold for homogeneous fully penetrable disks. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  5. Inhomogeneity of optical turbulence over False Bay (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullwer, Carmen; Sprung, Detlev; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Gunter, Willi; Stein, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulence impacts on the propagation of electro-optical radiation. Typical manifestations of optical turbulence are scintillation (intensity fluctuations), beam wander and (for laser systems) reduction of beam quality. For longer propagation channels, it is important to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution (inhomogeneity) of the optical turbulence. In the framework of the First European South African Transmission ExpeRiment (FESTER) optical turbulence was measured between June 2015 and February 2016 on a 2 km over-water link over False Bay. The link ran from the Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT) in Simons Town to the lighthouse at Roman Rock Island. Three Boundary layer scintillometers (BLS900) allowed assessing the vertical distribution of optical turbulence at three different heights between 5 and 12 m above the water surface. The expected decrease of Cn2 with height is not always found. These results are analyzed in terms of the meteorological scenarios, and a comparison is made with a fourth optical link providing optical turbulence data over a 8.7 km path from IMT to Kalk Bay, roughly 36° to the north of the three 2 km paths. The results are related to the inhomogeneous meteorological conditions over the Bay as assessed with the numerical weather prediction tool, the Weather Forecast and Research model WRF.

  6. Spatially inhomogeneous acceleration of electrons in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Duncan J.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2018-04-01

    The imaging spectroscopy capabilities of the Reuven Ramaty high energy solar spectroscopic imager (RHESSI) enable the examination of the accelerated electron distribution throughout a solar flare region. In particular, it has been revealed that the energisation of these particles takes place over a region of finite size, sometimes resolved by RHESSI observations. In this paper, we present, for the first time, a spatially distributed acceleration model and investigate the role of inhomogeneous acceleration on the observed X-ray emission properties. We have modelled transport explicitly examining scatter-free and diffusive transport within the acceleration region and compare with the analytic leaky-box solution. The results show the importance of including this spatial variation when modelling electron acceleration in solar flares. The presence of an inhomogeneous, extended acceleration region produces a spectral index that is, in most cases, different from the simple leaky-box prediction. In particular, it results in a generally softer spectral index than predicted by the leaky-box solution, for both scatter-free and diffusive transport, and thus should be taken into account when modelling stochastic acceleration in solar flares.

  7. Modelling of the inhomogeneous interior of polymer gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shew, C-Y; Iwaki, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    A simple model has been investigated to elucidate the mean squared displacement (MSD) of probe molecules in cross-linked polymer gels. In the model, we assume that numerous cavities distribute in the inhomogeneous interior of a gel, and probe molecules are confined within these cavities. The individual probe molecules trapped in a gel are treated as Brownian particles confined to a spherical harmonic potential. The harmonic potential is chosen to model the effective potential experienced by the probe particle in the cavity of a gel. Each field strength is corresponding to the characteristic of one type of effective cavity. Since the statistical distribution of different effective cavity sizes is unknown, several distribution functions are examined. Meanwhile, the calculated averaged MSDs are compared to the experimental data by Nisato et al (2000 Phys. Rev. E 61 2879). We find that the theoretical results of the MSD are sensitive to the shape of the distribution function. For low cross-linked gels, the best fit is obtained when the interior cavities of a gel follow a bimodal distribution. Such a result may be attributed to the presence of at least two distinct classes of cavity in gels. For high cross-linked gels, the cavities in the gel can be depicted by a single-modal uniform distribution function, suggesting that the range of cavity sizes becomes smaller. These results manifest the voids inside a gel, and the shape of distribution functions may provide the insight into the inhomogeneous interior of a gel

  8. Effective Ohm's law for magnetized plasmas with anisotropic inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamma, S.E.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Louis, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Reduction formulae for the effective, or macroscopic, Ohm's law parameters are derived for inhomogeneous plasmas with anisotropic conductivity fluctuations having two general types of geometry: (a) elongated or shortened in the direction of the magnetic field and (b) two-dimensional, with the direction of constant properties lying in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. In each case, two approaches are used: (a) a small perturbation method and (b) an approximate method where each region in the plasma is considered separately, and consistency conditions are used to relate the results corresponding to each separate region to the effective properties of the whole plasma. Both methods are found to agree well when the fluctuations are weak, but differences appear at high fluctuation levels and, for nonuniformities very elongated along B, when the Hall parameter β is high. Comparison with available exact solutions valid at high β and strong fluctuation levels indicates that the self-consistency method gives accurate results even in these cases. The results of these analyses are used to evaluate the performance reduction in magnetohydrodynamic channels with plasma nonuniformities of several geometries, including axial streamers, perfectly isotropic fluctuations, and fluctuations elongated along B; the power density is reduced most strongly when β and the rms of the fluctuations are high, and also when the inhomogeneities are stretched along the magnetic field

  9. Controlling translational motion of neutral molecules in inhomogeneous electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakita, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen molecules are excited to Rydberg states with n=16, 17 in the presence of inhomogeneous field of an electric dipole by a vacuum ultraviolet-ultraviolet double resonance scheme. The large dipole moment produced in Stark eigenstates leads to strong forces on the molecules in the inhomogeneous electric field. Deflection and deceleration are demonstrated for a pulsed supersonic beam containing the H 2 molecules in the n=16, 17, N + =2, M J =0 Rydberg states. The Rydberg states are found to survive for over 100 μs after the dipole field is switched off. The Rydberg states have a special stability with respect to decay by predissociation. Complete deceleration to the zero mean velocity is numerically demonstrated for H 2 molecules in the higher linear low-field-seeking n=16, M J =0 Rydberg states by using a symplectic integrator of the fourth order. The calculations show that the initial velocity of 900 ms -1 with translational temperature 1 K is decelerated to 0 ms -1 with 13 mK. (author)

  10. Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics in Parabolic LTB Inhomogeneous Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheykhi, A.; Moradpour, H.; Sarab, K. Rezazadeh; Wang, B.

    2015-01-01

    We study thermodynamics of the parabolic Lemaitre–Tolman–Bondi (LTB) cosmology supported by a perfect fluid source. This model is the natural generalization of the flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) universe, and describes an inhomogeneous universe with spherical symmetry. After reviewing some basic equations in the parabolic LTB cosmology, we obtain a relation for the deceleration parameter in this model. We also obtain a condition for which the universe undergoes an accelerating phase at the present time. We use the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon together with the Einstein field equations to get a relation for the apparent horizon entropy in LTB cosmology. We find out that in LTB model of cosmology, the apparent horizon's entropy could be feeded by a term, which incorporates the effects of the inhomogeneity. We consider this result and get a relation for the total entropy evolution, which is used to examine the generalized second law of thermodynamics for an accelerating universe. We also verify the validity of the second law and the generalized second law of thermodynamics for a universe filled with some kinds of matters bounded by the event horizon in the framework of the parabolic LTB model. (paper)

  11. Fermionic renormalization group methods for transport through inhomogeneous Luttinger liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meden, V; Schoeller, H; Andergassen, S; Enss, T; Schoenhammer, K

    2008-01-01

    We compare two fermionic renormalization group (RG) methods which have been used to investigate the electronic transport properties of one-dimensional metals with two-particle interaction (Luttinger liquids) and local inhomogeneities. The first one is a poor man's method set-up to resum 'leading-log' divergences of the effective transmission at the Fermi momentum. Generically the resulting equations can be solved analytically. The second approach is based on the functional RG (fRG) method and leads to a set of differential equations which can only for certain set-ups and in limiting cases be solved analytically, while in general it must be integrated numerically. Both methods are claimed to be applicable for inhomogeneities of arbitrary strength and to capture effects of the two-particle interaction, such as interaction dependent exponents, up to leading order. We critically review this for the simplest case of a single impurity. While on first glance the poor man's approach seems to describe the crossover from the 'perfect' to the 'open chain fixed point' we collect evidence that difficulties may arise close to the 'perfect chain fixed point'. Due to a subtle relation between the scaling dimensions of the two fixed points this becomes apparent only in a detailed analysis. In the fRG method the coupling of the different scattering channels is kept which leads to a better description of the underlying physics

  12. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  13. Standards for dielectric elastomer transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpi, Federico; Frediani, Gabriele; Anderson, Iain; Bauer, Siegfried; Gallone, Giuseppe; Gei, Massimiliano; Graaf, Christian; Jean-Mistral, Claire; Kaal, William; Kofod, Guggi; Kollosche, Matthias; Kornbluh, Roy; Pelrine, Ron; Lassen, Benny; Rechenbach, Björn; Matysek, Marc; Michel, Silvain; Nowak, Stephan; O’Brien, Benjamin; Pei, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers consist of thin electrically insulating elastomeric membranes coated on both sides with compliant electrodes. They are a promising electromechanically active polymer technology that may be used for actuators, strain sensors, and electrical generators that harvest mechanical energy. The rapid development of this field calls for the first standards, collecting guidelines on how to assess and compare the performance of materials and devices. This paper addresses this need, presenting standardized methods for material characterisation, device testing and performance measurement. These proposed standards are intended to have a general scope and a broad applicability to different material types and device configurations. Nevertheless, they also intentionally exclude some aspects where knowledge and/or consensus in the literature were deemed to be insufficient. This is a sign of a young and vital field, whose research development is expected to benefit from this effort towards standardisation. (paper)

  14. Standards for dielectric elastomer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Anderson, Iain; Bauer, Siegfried; Frediani, Gabriele; Gallone, Giuseppe; Gei, Massimiliano; Graaf, Christian; Jean-Mistral, Claire; Kaal, William; Kofod, Guggi; Kollosche, Matthias; Kornbluh, Roy; Lassen, Benny; Matysek, Marc; Michel, Silvain; Nowak, Stephan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Pei, Qibing; Pelrine, Ron; Rechenbach, Björn; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers consist of thin electrically insulating elastomeric membranes coated on both sides with compliant electrodes. They are a promising electromechanically active polymer technology that may be used for actuators, strain sensors, and electrical generators that harvest mechanical energy. The rapid development of this field calls for the first standards, collecting guidelines on how to assess and compare the performance of materials and devices. This paper addresses this need, presenting standardized methods for material characterisation, device testing and performance measurement. These proposed standards are intended to have a general scope and a broad applicability to different material types and device configurations. Nevertheless, they also intentionally exclude some aspects where knowledge and/or consensus in the literature were deemed to be insufficient. This is a sign of a young and vital field, whose research development is expected to benefit from this effort towards standardisation.

  15. A dielectric approach to high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanty, J.; Das, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The dielectric response of an electron-ion system to the presence of a pair of charges is investigated. From the nature of the dielectric function, it is shown that a strong attractive pair formation is possible depending on the dispersion of the ion branches. The latter brings a reduction to the sound velocity which is used as a criterion for the superconductivity. By solving the BCS equation with the above dielectric function, we obtain a reasonable value of T/sub c/. 17 refs., 1 fig

  16. Radiation pressure on a dielectric surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, A.

    2010-01-01

    The radiation pressure on an insulating dielectric medium should be calculable from the force acting on the polarization vector P. The well-known force proposed by Gordon (Phys. Rev. A, 8, 14 (1973) disappears in the case of a steady-state plane wave. A new form of force explicitly involving the polarization vector is proposed and applied to determine the partition of the incident momentum among the reflected and transmitted wave, and the dielectric medium. The momentum of electromagnetic wave in a dielectric medium thus found is consistent with the classical relationship, wave momentum flux density = wave intensity/wave velocity. (author)

  17. A simple method for reducing inevitable dielectric loss in high-permittivity dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    elastomer matrix, with high dielectric permittivity and a low Young's modulus, aligned with no loss of mechanical stability, was prepared through the use of commercially available chloropropyl-functional silicone oil mixed into a tough commercial liquid silicone rubber silicone elastomer. The addition...... also decreased the dielectric losses of an elastomer containing dielectric permittivity-enhancing TiO2 fillers. Commercially available chloropropyl-functional silicone oil thus constitutes a facile method for improved silicone DEs, with very low dielectric losses.......Commercial viability of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is currently limited by a few obstacles, including high driving voltages (in the kV range). Driving voltage can be lowered by either decreasing the Young's modulus or increasing the dielectric permittivity of silicone elastomers, or a combination...

  18. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    -- an outline which at the same time indicates the need for transformations of the Durkheimian model on decisive points. Thus, thirdly, it returns to Durkheim and undertakes to develop his concepts in a direction suitable for a sociological theory of fashion. Finally, it discusses the theoretical implications......This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...

  19. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  20. NMR of dielectrically oriented molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruessink, B.H.

    1986-01-01

    General information on experimental aspects of EFNMR is given. It is shown that the complete 14 N quadrupole tensor (qct) of pyridine and pyrimidine in the liquid state is accessible to EFNMR. Information obtained about 17 O qct in liquid nitromethane, is compared with results from other techniques. The 33 S qct in liquid sulfolane is investigated. The EFNMR results, combined with those from spin-lattice relaxation time measurements and from Hartree-Fock-Slater MO calculations, allowed the complete assignment of the 33 S qct. The quadrupole coupling of both 10 B and 11 B in a carborane compound is investigated and, together with the results of spin-lattice relaxation time measurements, detailed information about the assignment of the boron qct's could be derived. EFNMR studies of apolar molecules are described. A limitation in EFNMR is the inhomogeneity (delta B) of the magnetic field, which is introduced by the use of non-spinning sample cells. A way out is the detection of zero quantum transitions, their widths being independent of delta B. The results and prospectives of this approach are shown for the simple three spin 1/2 system of acrylonitrile in which the small dipolar proton-proton couplings could be revealed via zero quantum transitions. (Auth.)

  1. Numerical Investigation of Scattering from a Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge Actuator under Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD, which is widely used to control turbulence in aerodynamics, has a significant effect on the radar cross-section (RCS. A four-way linearly synthesized SDBD air plasma actuator is designed to bolster the plasma effects on electromagnetic waves. The diffraction angle is calculated to predict the RCS because of the periodic structure of staggered electrodes. The simplified plasma modeling is utilized to calculate the inhomogeneous surface plasma distribution. Monostatic RCS shows the diffraction in the plane perpendicular to the electrode array and the notable distortion by plasma. In comparison, the overall pattern is maintained in the parallel plane with minor plasma effects. The trends also appear in the bistatic RCS, which has a significant difference in the observation plane perpendicular to the electrodes. The peaks by Bragg’s diffraction are shown, and the RCS is reduced by 10 dB in a certain range by the plasma effect. The diffraction caused by the actuator and the inhomogeneous air plasma should be considered in designing an SDBD actuator for a wide range of application.

  2. Identification of structural relaxation in the dielectric response of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Kisliuk, Alexander; Solokov, Alexei P.

    2016-01-01

    One century ago pioneering dielectric results obtained for water and n-alcohols triggered the advent of molecular rotation diffusion theory considered by Debye to describe the primary dielectric absorption in these liquids. Comparing dielectric, viscoelastic, and light scattering results, we...... unambiguously demonstrate that the structural relaxation appears only as a high-frequency shoulder in the dielectric spectra of water. In contrast, the main dielectric peak is related to a supramolecular structure, analogous to the Debye-like peak observed in monoalcohols....

  3. Dielectric determination of the glass transition temperature (T sub g)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Heidi R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to determine the glass transition temperature of a polymer using a dielectric dissipation technique. A peak in the dissipation factor versus temperature curve is expected near the glass transition temperature T sub g. It should be noted that the glass transition is gradual rather than abrupt, so that the glass transition temperature T sub g is not clearly identifiable. In this case, the glass transition temperature is defined to be the temperature at the intersection point of the tangent lines to the dissipation factor versus temperature curve above and below the transition region, as illustrated.

  4. Computation of Dielectric Response in Molecular Solids for High Capacitance Organic Dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzer, Henry M; Marks, Tobin J; Ratner, Mark A

    2016-09-20

    The dielectric response of a material is central to numerous processes spanning the fields of chemistry, materials science, biology, and physics. Despite this broad importance across these disciplines, describing the dielectric environment of a molecular system at the level of first-principles theory and computation remains a great challenge and is of importance to understand the behavior of existing systems as well as to guide the design and synthetic realization of new ones. Furthermore, with recent advances in molecular electronics, nanotechnology, and molecular biology, it has become necessary to predict the dielectric properties of molecular systems that are often difficult or impossible to measure experimentally. In these scenarios, it is would be highly desirable to be able to determine dielectric response through efficient, accurate, and chemically informative calculations. A good example of where theoretical modeling of dielectric response would be valuable is in the development of high-capacitance organic gate dielectrics for unconventional electronics such as those that could be fabricated by high-throughput printing techniques. Gate dielectrics are fundamental components of all transistor-based logic circuitry, and the combination high dielectric constant and nanoscopic thickness (i.e., high capacitance) is essential to achieving high switching speeds and low power consumption. Molecule-based dielectrics offer the promise of cheap, flexible, and mass producible electronics when used in conjunction with unconventional organic or inorganic semiconducting materials to fabricate organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The molecular dielectrics developed to date typically have limited dielectric response, which results in low capacitances, translating into poor performance of the resulting OFETs. Furthermore, the development of better performing dielectric materials has been hindered by the current highly empirical and labor-intensive pace of synthetic

  5. Dielectric properties of nanosilica filled epoxy nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G Veena

    Polymer nanocomposites are the 21st century engineering materials with wide range of ... the electronic industry for dielectric materials in electrical insulation ..... be ascribed to the interface barriers and chain entangle- ments towards the ...

  6. imide, crystal structure, thermal and dielectric studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methyl imidazolium methylidene bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, crystal structure, thermal and dielectric studies. BOUMEDIENE HADDAD1,2,3,∗, TAQIYEDDINE MOUMENE2, DIDIER VILLEMIN1,. JEAN-FRANÇOIS LOHIER1 and EL-HABIB ...

  7. Multiscale dipole relaxation in dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Dipole relaxation from thermally induced perturbations is investigated on different length scales for dielectric materials. From the continuum dynamical equations for the polarisation, expressions for the transverse and longitudinal dipole autocorrelation functions are derived in the limit where ...

  8. Photoconductivity and dielectric studies of potassium pentaborate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal of potassium pentaborate (KB5) has been grown by solution growth ... equipped with the Gunn Oscillator guided with rectangular wave-guide. ... its dielectric behaviour with the change of frequency has also been investigated.

  9. Organic dielectrics in high voltage cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeer, J

    1962-03-01

    It appears that the limit has been reached in the applicability of oil-impregnated paper as the dielectric for ehv cables, as with rising voltages the prevention of conductor losses becomes increasingly difficult, while the dielectric losses of the insulation, increasing as the square of the voltage, contribute to a greater extent to the temperature rise of the conductor. The power transmitting capacity of ehv cables reaches a maximum at 500 to 600 kV for these reasons. Apart from artificial cooling, a substantial improvement can be obtained only with the use of insulating materials with much lower dielectric losses; these can moreover be applied with a smaller wall thickness, but this means higher field strengths. Synthetic polymer materials meet these requirements but can be used successfully only in the form of lapped film tapes impregnated with suitable liquids. The electrical properties of these heterogeneous dielectrics, in particular, their impulse breakdown strengths are studied in detail.

  10. Effective medium theories of inhomogeneous media from modern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    In the study of disordered alloys, theorists have stated the physics of the problem in terms of an integral equation and analyzed this equation by techniques developed in the quantum mechanical theory of scattering. The application of the scattering theory approach to the computation of the effective dielectric constant of a polycrystal is discussed. The problem is framed in the form of an integral equation. Several well-known intuitive approximations are recovered, and the connection of the approximations to perturbation theory is indicated

  11. Confinement in the color dielectric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirner, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper consists of several parts. In Section 2, I give an introduction to the main physics of lattice gauge theory. Section 3 gives an outline of the colour dielectric model and first numerical results on the effective action after one block-spinning step. Section 4 reviews some new work on the generalization of the colour dielectric model to SU3 colour . (orig./HSI)

  12. In-beam dielectric properties of alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.; Hodgson, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    The dielectric properties (permittivity and loss tangent) of a 99.7% purity alumina grade have been measured over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 GHz) before and after 2 MeV electron irradiation at different temperatures. The dielectric properties at 15 GHz were measured during irradiation. Both prompt and fluence effects are observed together with permanent changes which continue to evolve following irradiation. The behaviour is complex, consistent with both radiation induced electronic effects and aggregation processes. ((orig.))

  13. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2009: Measurement Analysis and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alun; Williams, Graham

    2009-07-01

    The conference Dielectrics 2009: Measurements, Analysis and Applications represents a significant milestone in the evolution of dielectrics research in the UK. It is reasonable to state that the academic study of dielectrics has led to many fundamental advances and that dielectric materials underpin the modern world in devices ranging from field effect transistors, which operate at extremely high fields, albeit low voltages, to the high voltage plants that provide the energy that powers our economy. The origins of the Dielectrics Group of the Institute of Physics (IOP), which organized this conference, can be traced directly back to the early 1960s, when Professor Mansel Davies was conducting research into the dielectric relaxation behaviour of polar liquids and solids at The Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. He was already well-known internationally for his studies of molecular structure and bonding of small molecules, using infra-red-spectroscopy, and of the physical properties of hydrogen-bonded liquids and solids, using thermodynamic methods. Dielectric spectroscopy was a fairly new area for him and he realized that opportunities for scientists in the UK to gather together and discuss their research in this developing area of physical chemistry/chemical physics were very limited. He conceived the idea of forming a Dielectrics Discussion Group (DDG), which would act as a meeting point and provide a platform for dielectrics research in the UK and beyond and, as a result, a two-day Meeting was convened in the spring of 1968 at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales, near Newtown, Montgomeryshire. It was organized by Mansel Davies, Alun Price and Graham Williams, all physical chemists from the UCW, Aberystwyth. Fifty scientists attended, being a mix of physical chemists, theoretical chemists, physicists, electrical engineers, polymer and materials scientists, all from the UK, except Dr Brendan Scaife of Trinity

  14. Dielectric properties of PMMA/Soot nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Lanetra M; Cinke, Martin; Meyyappan, M; Harmon, Julie P

    2007-07-01

    Dielectric analysis (DEA) of relaxation behavior in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) soot nanocomposites is described herein. The soot, an inexpensive material, consists of carbon nanotubes, amorphous and graphitic carbon and metal particles. Results are compared to earlier studies on PMMA/multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) composites and PMMA/single-walled nanotube (SWNT) composites. The beta relaxation process appeared to be unaffected by the presence of the soot, as was noted earlier in nanotube composites. The gamma relaxation region in PMMA, normally dielectrically inactive, was "awakened" in the PMMA/soot composite. This occurrence is consistent with previously published data on nanotube composites. The dielectric permittivity, s', increased with soot content. The sample with 1% soot exhibited a permittivity (at 100 Hz and 25 degrees C) of 7.3 as compared to 5.1 for neat PMMA. Soot increased the dielectric strength, deltaE, of the composites. The 1% soot sample exhibited a dielectric strength of 6.38, while the neat PMMA had a value of 2.95 at 40 degrees C. The symmetric broadening term (alpha) was slightly higher for the 1% composite at temperatures near the secondary relaxation and near the primary relaxation, but all samples deviated from symmetrical semi-circular behavior (alpha = 1). The impact of the soot filler is seen more clearly in dielectric properties than in mechanical properties studies conducted earlier.

  15. Dielectric loss against piezoelectric power harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrui; Shu-Hung Chung, Henry; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2014-09-01

    Piezoelectricity is one of the most popular electromechanical transduction mechanisms for constructing kinetic energy harvesting systems. When a standard energy harvesting (SEH) interface circuit, i.e., bridge rectifier plus filter capacitor, is utilized for collecting piezoelectric power, the previous literature showed that the power conversion can be well predicted without much consideration for the effect of dielectric loss. Yet, as the conversion power gets higher by adopting power-boosting interface circuits, such as synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI), the neglect of dielectric loss might give rise to deviation in harvested power estimation. Given the continuous progress on power-boosting interface circuits, the role of dielectric loss in practical piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems should receive attention with better evaluation. Based on the integrated equivalent impedance network model, this fast track communication provides a comprehensive study on the susceptibility of harvested power in PEH systems under different conditions. It shows that, dielectric loss always counteracts piezoelectric power harvesting by causing charge leakage across piezoelectric capacitance. In particular, taking corresponding ideal lossless cases as references, the counteractive effect might be aggravated under one of the five conditions: larger dielectric loss tangent, lower vibration frequency, further away from resonance, weaker electromechanical coupling, or using power-boosting interface circuit. These relationships are valuable for the study of PEH systems, as they not only help explain the role of dielectric loss in piezoelectric power harvesting, but also add complementary insights for material, structure, excitation, and circuit considerations towards holistic evaluation and design for practical PEH systems.

  16. Dielectric silicone elastomers with mixed ceramic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiubianu, George; Bele, Adrian; Cazacu, Maria; Racles, Carmen; Vlad, Stelian; Ignat, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Composite ceramics nanoparticles (MCN) with zirconium dioxide and lead zirconate. • Dielectric elastomer films wDith PDMS matrix and MCN as dielectric filler. • Hydrophobic character—water resistant and good flexibility specific to siloxanes. • Increased value of dielectric constant with the content of MCN in dielectric films. • Increased energy output from uniaxial deformation of the dielectric elastomer films. - Abstract: A ceramic material consisting in a zirconium dioxide-lead zirconate mixture has been obtained by precipitation method, its composition being proved by wide angle X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average diameter of the ceramic particles ranged between 50 and 100 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy images. These were surface treated and used as filler for a high molecular mass polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diol (Mn = 450,000) prepared in laboratory, the resulted composites being further processed as films and crosslinked. A condensation procedure, unusual for polydimethylsiloxane having such high molecular mass, with a trifunctional silane was approached for the crosslinking. The effect of filler content on electrical and mechanical properties of the resulted materials was studied and it was found that the dielectric permittivity of nanocomposites increased in line with the concentration of ceramic nanoparticles

  17. Dielectric silicone elastomers with mixed ceramic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiubianu, George, E-mail: george.stiubianu@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Bele, Adrian; Cazacu, Maria; Racles, Carmen; Vlad, Stelian [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Ignat, Mircea [National R& D Institute for Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA Bucharest, Splaiul Unirii 313, District 3, Bucharest 030138 (Romania)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Composite ceramics nanoparticles (MCN) with zirconium dioxide and lead zirconate. • Dielectric elastomer films wDith PDMS matrix and MCN as dielectric filler. • Hydrophobic character—water resistant and good flexibility specific to siloxanes. • Increased value of dielectric constant with the content of MCN in dielectric films. • Increased energy output from uniaxial deformation of the dielectric elastomer films. - Abstract: A ceramic material consisting in a zirconium dioxide-lead zirconate mixture has been obtained by precipitation method, its composition being proved by wide angle X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average diameter of the ceramic particles ranged between 50 and 100 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy images. These were surface treated and used as filler for a high molecular mass polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diol (Mn = 450,000) prepared in laboratory, the resulted composites being further processed as films and crosslinked. A condensation procedure, unusual for polydimethylsiloxane having such high molecular mass, with a trifunctional silane was approached for the crosslinking. The effect of filler content on electrical and mechanical properties of the resulted materials was studied and it was found that the dielectric permittivity of nanocomposites increased in line with the concentration of ceramic nanoparticles.

  18. Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A

    2014-03-01

    While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere.

  19. Spatial inhomogeneous barrier heights at graphene/semiconductor Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Dushyant

    Graphene, a semimetal with linear energy dispersion, forms Schottky junction when interfaced with a semiconductor. This dissertation presents temperature dependent current-voltage and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements performed on graphene Schottky junctions formed with both three and two dimensional semiconductors. To fabricate Schottky junctions, we transfer chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto Si- and C-face SiC, Si, GaAs and MoS2 semiconducting substrates using polymer assisted chemical method. We observe three main type of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneities, graphene ripples, ridges and semiconductor steps in STM imaging that can exist at graphene/semiconductor junctions. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal fluctuations in graphene Dirac point position, which is directly related to the Schottky barrier height. We find a direct correlation of Dirac point variation with the topographic undulations of graphene ripples at the graphene/SiC junction. However, no such correlation is established at graphene/Si and Graphene/GaAs junctions and Dirac point variations are attributed to surface states and trapped charges at the interface. In addition to graphene ripples and ridges, we also observe atomic scale moire patterns at graphene/MoS2 junction due to van der Waals interaction at the interface. Periodic topographic modulations due to moire pattern do not lead to local variation in graphene Dirac point, indicating that moire pattern does not contribute to fluctuations in electronic properties of the heterojunction. We perform temperature dependent current-voltage measurements to investigate the impact of topographic inhomogeneities on electrical properties of the Schottky junctions. We observe temperature dependence in junction parameters, such as Schottky barrier height and ideality factor, for all types of Schottky junctions in forward bias measurements. Standard thermionic emission theory which assumes a perfect

  20. Nonlocal Free Energy of a Spatially Inhomogeneous Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorishin, K.V.; Lev, B.I.

    2012-01-01

    The microscopic approach is developed for obtaining of the free energy of a superconductor based on direct calculation of the vacuum amplitude. The free energy functional of the spatially inhomogeneous superconductor in a magnetic field is obtained with help of the developed approach. The obtained functional is generalization of Ginzburg-Landau functionals for any temperature, for arbitrary spatial variations of the order parameter and for the nonlocality of a magnetic response and the order parameter. Moreover, the nonlocality of the magnetic response is the consequence of order parameter's nonlocality. The extremals of this functional are considered in the explicit form in the low- and high-temperature limit at the condition of slowness of spatial variations of the order parameter. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Inhomogeneous electrochemiluminescence. II Markovian encounter theory of the phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, V.; Burshtein, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    The free energy dependence of the electro-chemiluminescence quantum yield is specified, with the Markovian encounter theory accounting for the reversibility of triplet production competing with the irreversible recombination to the ground state. It is shown that diffusional ion recombination is highly inhomogeneous in space. It proceeds at either large positive ionization free energy (mainly to the triplet product) or at large negative free energy when recombination to the ground state dominates. On the contrary at medium free energies, the quasi-resonant generation of triplets is under kinetic control and therefore much more homogeneous. In this case, both recombination products are generated in comparable amounts. The multiple reversible ionization is shown to act as an independent quenching mechanism previously unknown. The role of the triplet quenching at the electrode is also specified. These effects reduce noticeably the luminescence quantum yield but only at larger triplet life times and in different free energy regions

  2. Two-point correlation functions in inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcori, Oton H.; Pereira, Thiago S.

    2017-01-01

    Two-point correlation functions are ubiquitous tools of modern cosmology, appearing in disparate topics ranging from cosmological inflation to late-time astrophysics. When the background spacetime is maximally symmetric, invariance arguments can be used to fix the functional dependence of this function as the invariant distance between any two points. In this paper we introduce a novel formalism which fixes this functional dependence directly from the isometries of the background metric, thus allowing one to quickly assess the overall features of Gaussian correlators without resorting to the full machinery of perturbation theory. As an application we construct the CMB temperature correlation function in one inhomogeneous (namely, an off-center LTB model) and two spatially flat and anisotropic (Bianchi) universes, and derive their covariance matrices in the limit of almost Friedmannian symmetry. We show how the method can be extended to arbitrary N -point correlation functions and illustrate its use by constructing three-point correlation functions in some simple geometries.

  3. Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2013-01-01

    We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities in a specimen's material properties in the combined linear limit of a weak perturbation over an infinitesimal area in a small magnetic field. We apply these expressions both to four-point...... probe measurements on an infinite plane and to symmetric, circular van der Pauw discs, obtaining functions consistent with published results. These new expressions speed up calculation of the sensitivity for a specimen of arbitrary shape to little more than the solution of two Laplace equation boundary......-value problems of the order of N3 calculations, rather than N2 problems of total order N5, and in a few cases produces an analytic expression for the sensitivity. These functions provide an intuitive, visual explanation of how, for example, measurements can predict the wrong carrier type in n-type ZnO....

  4. Study of plasma-maser instability in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahinder

    2006-01-01

    The plasma-maser, an interesting nonlinear process in plasmas, is an effective means of energy up-conversion in frequency from low-frequency turbulence to a high-frequency wave. A theoretical study is made of the amplification mechanism of an electrostatic Bernstein mode wave in presence of Langmuir wave turbulence in a magnetized inhomogeneous plasma on the basis of a plasma-maser interaction. It is shown that a test high-frequency electrostatic Bernstein mode wave is unstable in the presence of low-frequency Langmuir wave turbulence. The growth rate of a test high-frequency Bernstein mode wave is calculated with the involvement of a spatial density gradient parameter. A comparative study on the role of density gradient in the generation of the Bernstein mode on the basis of the plasma-maser effect is presented

  5. Non-Hermitian spin chains with inhomogeneous coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytsko, Andrei G. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Inst. Matematiki; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie

    2009-11-15

    An open U{sub q}(sl{sub 2})-invariant spin chain of spin S and length N with inhomogeneous coupling is investigated as an example of a non-Hermitian (quasi-Hermitian) model. For several particular cases of such a chain, the ranges of the deformation parameter {gamma} are determined for which the spectrum of the model is real. For a certain range of {gamma}, a universal metric operator is constructed and thus the quasi-Hermiticity of the model is established. The constructed metric operator is non-dynamical, its structure is determined only by the symmetry of the model. The results apply, in particular, to all known homogeneous U{sub q}(sl{sub 2})-invariant integrable spin chains with nearest-neighbour interaction. In addition, the most general form of a metric operator for a quasi-Hermitian operator in finite dimensional space is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Large-scale brightness inhomogeneities in the solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, W.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The intensity residuals are analyzed from a series of solar limb-darkening measurements in the wavelength range 5656 to 2997 A. The lengths of residual strings of the same sign exceed expectation by several orders of magnitude. The power spectrum fo the residuals shows a weak excess around 6000 km. For further study the 34000 limb-darkening residuals are subdivided into 5100 bright and faint cells. The frequency distribution of cell sizes peaks around 4500 km and increases from center to limb, the faint cells showing the greater center-limb effect. The cells are also studied as to contrast. A synoptic view indicates that only 12% of the cells are identifiable after a half hour. Phenomena that may combine to produce the observed wide spectrum of brightness inhomogeneities are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  7. Inhomogeneous oscillatory electric field time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    The mass-to-charge ratio of an ion can be determined from the measurement of its flight time in an inhomogeneous, oscillatory electric field produced by the potential distribution V(x, y, t) = Vsub(DC) + Vsub(AC) cos ωt) (αsub(x)X 2 + αsub(y)Y 2 + αsub(z)Z 2 ). The governing equation of motion is the Mathieu equation. The principle of operation of this novel mass spectrometer is described and results of computer calculations of the flight time and resolution are reported. An experimental apparatus and results and results demonstrating the feasibility of this mass spectrometer principle are described. (author)

  8. Improved MR imaging in extremely inhomogenous radiofrequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, N.; Nunnally, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    A previous study developed a method for acquiring images in extremely inhomogeneous radio-frequency fields with use of adiabatic pulses. Since adiabatic pulses most suited to section selection are the inversion type, the method is prone to artifacts from receiver and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) saturation and subtraction errors. These problems are substantially reduced by using a pseudo-noise-modulated selective (PNMS) prepulse to randomize the unwanted spin magnetization. To compute the PNMS pulse shape, the frequency spectrum of a wave form with constant amplitude and random phase was determined by means of Fourier transformation and then inverted after a consecutive number of points were set to zero in the center. The performance of the prepulse with the imaging sequence was tested on a 1.8-T system. Results are presented

  9. Diamagnetic susceptibility of a confined donor in inhomogeneous quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, K; Zorkani, I; Jorio, A

    2011-01-01

    The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility χ dia are estimated for a shallow donor confined to move in GaAs-GaAlAs inhomogeneous quantum dots. The calculation was performed within the effective mass approximation and using the variational method. The results show that the binding energy and the diamagnetic susceptibility χ dia depend strongly on the core radius and the shell radius. We have demonstrated that there is a critical value of the ratio of the inner radius to the outer radius which may be important for nanofabrication techniques. The binding energy E b shows a minimum for a critical value of this ratio depending on the value of the outer radius and shows a maximum when the donor is placed at the center of the spherical layer. The diamagnetic susceptibility is more sensitive to variations of the radius for a large spherical layer. The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility depend strongly on the donor position.

  10. Superconductivity in an Inhomogeneous Bundle of Metallic and Semiconducting Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Grigorenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism for inhomogeneous systems, we have studied superconducting properties of a bundle of packed carbon nanotubes, making a triangular lattice in the bundle's transverse cross-section. The bundle consists of a mixture of metallic and doped semiconducting nanotubes, which have different critical transition temperatures. We investigate how a spatially averaged superconducting order parameter and the critical transition temperature depend on the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes in the bundle. Our simulations suggest that the superconductivity in the bundle will be suppressed when the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes will be less than 0.5, which is the percolation threshold for a two-dimensional triangular lattice.

  11. Collisions of Two Spatial Solitons in Inhomogeneous Nonlinear Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Weiping; Yi Lin; Yang Zhengping; Xie Ruihua; Milivoj, Belic; Chen Goong

    2008-01-01

    Collisions of spatial solitons occurring in the nonlinear Schroeinger equation with harmonic potential are studied, using conservation laws and the split-step Fourier method. We find an analytical solution for the separation distance between the spatial solitons in an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium when the light beam is self-trapped in the transverse dimension. In the self-focusing nonlinear media the spatial solitons can be transmitted stably, and the interaction between spatial solitons is enhanced due to the linear focusing effect (and also diminished for the linear defocusing effect). In the self-defocusing nonlinear media, in the absence of self-trapping or in the presence of linear self-defocusing, no transmission of stable spatial solitons is possible. However, in such media the linear focusing effect can be exactly compensated, and the spatial solitons can propagate through

  12. Magnetomigration of rare-earth ions in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczak, Agnieszka; Binnemans, Koen; Jan Fransaer

    2016-10-05

    The effects of external inhomogenous (gradient) magnetic fields on the movement of the rare-earth ions: Dy 3+ , Gd 3+ and Y 3+ , in initially homogeneous aqueous solutions have been investigated. Differences in the migration of rare-earth ions in gradient magnetic fields were observed, depending on the magnetic character of the ions: paramagnetic ions of Dy 3+ and Gd 3+ move towards regions of the sample where the magnetic field gradient is the strongest, while diamagnetic ions of Y 3+ move in the opposite direction. It has been showed that the low magnetic field gradients, such the ones generated by permanent magnets, are sufficient to observe the magnetomigration effects of the ions in solution. The present work clearly establishes the behavior of magnetically different ions in initially homogeneous aqueous solutions exposed to magnetic field gradients. To this avail, a methodology for measuring the local concentration differences of metal ions in liquid samples was developed.

  13. Collisionless emission of radiation by an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejerovich, B.Eh.

    1976-01-01

    Collisionless emission of radiation by an inhomogeneous plasma due to the finite motion of charges in the field of external forces and collective interaction forces is studied. The intensity of the radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the transverse dimensions of the plasma. It apparently makes the main contribution to the radiation from a vacuum spark and other relativitstic beams compressed to a small size by collective interaction forces. The intensity of the collisionless radiation is calculated by taking into account Fermi statistics of the electrons. The spectral radiance in the low frequency range increases with frequency, reaches a maximum at the frequency of the finite motion of the emitters and then decreases. Measurement of collisionless radiation emission by a plasma compressed to a small size by the pinch effect is a natural way of diagnosing the plasma

  14. Microinstabilities in a radially contracting inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, R.; Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1980-07-01

    In order to study the development of microinstabilities in a collapsing cylindrical plasma sheath, corresponding to the situations in a z-pinch or a plasma focus, the dispersion relation for electromagnetic perturbations is derived with the aid of a newly established slab-model for an inhomogeneous, radially contracting plasma. In contrast to previously used slab-models, the orientation of the electric field is in direction of the cylinder axis and the azimuthal magnetic field is induced by the current flowing through the cylindrical plasma slab. The Vlasov equation is used together with the Krook collision term in order to include the influence of collisions. The results of this theory presented in this report will be used to calculate the growth of drift instabilities in the compression phase of a plasma focus, and shall serve as a basis for further development of a more general dispersion relation including runaway-effects. (orig.)

  15. Modeling molecular mixing in a spatially inhomogeneous turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel W.; Deb, Rajdeep

    2012-02-01

    Simulations of spatially inhomogeneous turbulent mixing in decaying grid turbulence with a joint velocity-concentration probability density function (PDF) method were conducted. The inert mixing scenario involves three streams with different compositions. The mixing model of Meyer ["A new particle interaction mixing model for turbulent dispersion and turbulent reactive flows," Phys. Fluids 22(3), 035103 (2010)], the interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model and its velocity-conditional variant, i.e., the IECM model, were applied. For reference, the direct numerical simulation data provided by Sawford and de Bruyn Kops ["Direct numerical simulation and lagrangian modeling of joint scalar statistics in ternary mixing," Phys. Fluids 20(9), 095106 (2008)] was used. It was found that velocity conditioning is essential to obtain accurate concentration PDF predictions. Moreover, the model of Meyer provides significantly better results compared to the IECM model at comparable computational expense.

  16. Two-point correlation functions in inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcori, Oton H.; Pereira, Thiago S., E-mail: otonhm@hotmail.com, E-mail: tspereira@uel.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86057-970, Londrina PR (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    Two-point correlation functions are ubiquitous tools of modern cosmology, appearing in disparate topics ranging from cosmological inflation to late-time astrophysics. When the background spacetime is maximally symmetric, invariance arguments can be used to fix the functional dependence of this function as the invariant distance between any two points. In this paper we introduce a novel formalism which fixes this functional dependence directly from the isometries of the background metric, thus allowing one to quickly assess the overall features of Gaussian correlators without resorting to the full machinery of perturbation theory. As an application we construct the CMB temperature correlation function in one inhomogeneous (namely, an off-center LTB model) and two spatially flat and anisotropic (Bianchi) universes, and derive their covariance matrices in the limit of almost Friedmannian symmetry. We show how the method can be extended to arbitrary N -point correlation functions and illustrate its use by constructing three-point correlation functions in some simple geometries.

  17. Photoacoustic monitoring of inhomogeneous curing processes in polystyrene emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Luna, M.; Gutierrez-Juarez, G.; Rodriguez-Vizcaino, J.M.; Varela-Nsjera, J.B.; Rodriguez-Palencia, J.M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Sosa, M.; Alvarado-Gil, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The time evolution of the inhomogeneous curing process of polystyrene emulsions is studied using a variant of the conventional photoacoustic (PA) technique. The thermal effusivity, as a function of time, is determined in order to monitor the sintering process of a styrene emulsion in different steps of the manufacturing procedure. PA measurements of thermal effusivity show a sigmoidal growth as a function of time during the curing process. The parameterization of these curves permits the determination of the characteristic curing time and velocity of the process. A decreasing of the curing time and an increasing curing velocity for the final steps of the manufacturing process are observed. The feasibility of our approach and its potentiality for the characterization of other curing process are discussed. (author)

  18. Design of three-dimensional nonimaging concentrators with inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minano, J. C.

    1986-09-01

    A three-dimensional nonimaging concentrator is an optical system that transforms a given four-parametric manifold of rays reaching a surface (entry aperture) into another four-parametric manifold of rays reaching the receiver. A procedure of design of such concentrators is developed. In general, the concentrators use mirrors and inhomogeneous media (i.e., gradient-index media). The concentrator has the maximum concentration allowed by the theorem of conservation of phase-space volume. This is the first known concentrator with such properties. The Welford-Winston edge-ray principle in three-dimensional geometry is proven under several assumptions. The linear compound parabolic concentrator is derived as a particular case of the procedure of design.

  19. Diffuse spreading of inhomogeneities in the ionospheric dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalimov, S. L., E-mail: pmsk7@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth (Russian Federation); Kozlovsky, A. [Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (Finland)

    2015-08-15

    According to results of sounding of the lower ionosphere at altitudes of about 100 km, the duration of radio reflections from sufficiently dense ionized meteor trails, which characterizes their lifetime, can reach a few tens of seconds to several tens of minutes. This is much longer than the characteristic spreading time (on the order of fractions of a second to several seconds) typical in meteor radar measurements. The presence of dust in the lower ionosphere is shown to affect the ambipolar diffusion coefficient, which determines the spreading of plasma inhomogeneities. It is found that the diffusion coefficient depends substantially on the charge and size of dust grains, which allows one to explain the results of ionospheric sounding.

  20. Dynamic dielectric properties of a wood liquefaction system using polyethylene glycol and glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengchao Zhou; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Bo Cai; Chung-Yun Hse; Hui Pan

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction has shown potential for rapid thermal processing of lignocellulosic biomass. The efficiency of microwave heating depends largely on the dielectric properties of the materials being heated. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic interactions between microwave energy and the reaction system during the liquefaction of a...

  1. Estimating functions for inhomogeneous spatial point processes with incomplete covariate data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    and this leads to parameter estimation error which is difficult to quantify. In this paper we introduce a Monte Carlo version of the estimating function used in "spatstat" for fitting inhomogeneous Poisson processes and certain inhomogeneous cluster processes. For this modified estimating function it is feasible...

  2. Estimating functions for inhomogeneous spatial point processes with incomplete covariate data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    and this leads to parameter estimation error which is difficult to quantify. In this paper, we introduce a Monte Carlo version of the estimating function used in spatstat for fitting inhomogeneous Poisson processes and certain inhomogeneous cluster processes. For this modified estimating function, it is feasible...

  3. On the radio source scintillations caused by plasma inhomogeneities behind a shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenov, S.F.

    1984-01-01

    The turbulence in the interplanetary and interstellar medium is shown to become anisotropic and statistically inhomogeneous after a shock wave passing. Scintillation intensity spectra of radio sources are estimated. The possibilities to derive the inhomogeneity spectra and source brightness distribution from scintillation changes are discussed

  4. Inhomogeneity of the grain size of aircraft engine turbine polycrystalline blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chmiela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the behaviour of inhomogeneous materials with a complex microstructure requires taking into account the inhomogeneity of the grain size, as it is the basis for the process of designing and modelling effective behaviours. Therefore, the functional description of the inhomogeneity is becoming an important issue. The paper presents an analytical approach to the grain size inhomogeneity, based on the derivative of a logarithmic-logistic function. The solution applied enabled an effective evaluation of the inhomogeneity of two macrostructures of aircraft engine turbine blades, characterized by a high degree of diversity in the grain size. For the investigated single-modal and bimodal grain size distributions on a perpendicular projection and for grains with a non-planar surface, we identified the parameters that describe the degree of inhomogeneity of the constituents of weight distributions and we also derived a formula describing the overall degree of inhomogeneity of bimodal distributions. The solution presented in the paper is of a general nature and it can be used to describe the degree of inhomogeneity of multi-modal distributions. All the calculations were performed using the Mathematica® package.

  5. Magnetic response of localized spins coupled to itinerant electrons in an inhomogeneous crystal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannarella, L.; Guimaraes, A.P.; Silva, X.A. da.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic behavior at T = O K of a system consisting of conduction electrons coupled to localized electrons, the latter submitted to an inhomogeneous crystal field distribution, is studied. The study implies that the inhomogeneity of the crystal field attenuates the quenching effects. The model is interesting to the study of disordered rare-earth intermetallic compounds. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  6. Two-step estimation procedures for inhomogeneous shot-noise Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokesová, Michaela; Dvorák, Jirí; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    In the present paper we develop several two-step estimation procedures for inhomogeneous shot-noise Cox processes. The intensity function is parametrized by the inhomogeneity parameters while the pair-correlation function is parametrized by the interaction parameters. The suggested procedures...

  7. Distinguishing different types of inhomogeneity in Neyman-Scott point processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrkvička, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2014), s. 385-395 ISSN 1387-5841 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : clustering * growing clusters * inhomogeneous cluster centers * inhomogeneous point process * location dependent scaling * Neyman-Scott point process Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.913, year: 2014

  8. Nonlocality and optics of inhomogeneous systems : The role of quantum induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C.M.J.; de Boeij, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal interactions play a prominent role in the optics of inhomogeneous systems. Classical discrete dipole descriptions take into account only electro-magnetic nonlocality. This is insufficient to describe correctly the inhomogeneous optical response (e.g., reflectance anisotropy) for covalently

  9. Collapse arresting in an inhomogeneous two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2001-01-01

    Collapse of (2 + 1)-dimensional beams in the inhomogeneous two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is analyzed numerically and analytically. It is shown that in the vicinity of a narrow attractive inhomogeneity, the collapse of beams that in a homogeneous medium would collapse may...

  10. geometric optics and WKB method for electromagnetic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma near cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Max Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-04-13

    This report outlines the theory underlying electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in an unmagnetized, inhomogeneous plasma. The inhomogeneity is given by a spatially nonuniform plasma electron density ne(r), which will modify the wave propagation in the direction of the gradient rne(r).

  11. Impact of inhomogeneity on SH-type wave propagation in an initially stressed composite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Singh, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    The present analysis has been made on the influence of distinct form of inhomogeneity in a composite structure comprised of double superficial layers lying over a half-space, on the phase velocity of SH-type wave propagating through it. Propagation of SH-type wave in the said structure has been examined in four distinct cases of inhomogeneity viz. when inhomogeneity in double superficial layer is due to exponential variation in density only (Case I); when inhomogeneity in double superficial layers is due to exponential variation in rigidity only (Case II); when inhomogeneity in double superficial layer is due to exponential variation in rigidity, density and initial stress (Case III) and when inhomogeneity in double superficial layer is due to linear variation in rigidity, density and initial stress (Case IV). Closed-form expression of dispersion relation has been accomplished for all four aforementioned cases through extensive application of Debye asymptotic analysis. Deduced dispersion relations for all the cases are found in well-agreement to the classical Love-wave equation. Numerical computation has been carried out to graphically demonstrate the effect of inhomogeneity parameters, initial stress parameters as well as width ratio associated with double superficial layers in the composite structure for each of the four aforesaid cases on dispersion curve. Meticulous examination of distinct cases of inhomogeneity and initial stress in context of considered problem has been carried out with detailed analysis in a comparative approach.

  12. Striation formation associated with barium clouds in an inhomogeneous ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, S.R.; Baker, L.; Ossakow, S.L.; Scannapieco, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    The present study investigates, via linear theory, how striations (treated as perturbations) created in a plasma cloud centered at 200 km will penetrate into the background inhomogeneous (real) ionosphere as a function of wavelength, integrated Pedersen conductivity ratio of the cloud to ionosphere (Σ/sub p/ /sub b//Σ/sub p/ /sub i/), and ambient ionospheric conditions. The study is posed as an eigenvalue problem which, while determining the potential variation (eigenmode) along magnetic field lines, self-consistently solves for the growth rate (eigenvalue) in the coupled cloud-inhomogeneous ionosphere system. Perturbed particle densities, fluxes parallel to the magnetic field B, and electrostatic potential are presented as a function of altitude. The results show the importance of the transport parameter the magnitude of imaging and aspect angle of striations with respect to B (i.e., striations take on a parallel component of wave number). Our results show that clouds with smaller conductivity ratios produce image striations further down into the background E region ionosphere with a more uniform coupling as a function of wavelength. It is further shown that there is a slight dependence of the E region coupling of the perturbations on the level of solar activity (solar maximum or minimum conditions) and also that this E region coupling shows a slight dependence on the extent of F region coupling above the cloud. Finally, with a fully self-consistent treatment of F region coupling, the growth rates show negligible short-wavelength damping due to ionospheric coupling for the Σ/sub p/ /sub b//Σ/sub p/ /sub i/=4 case

  13. Traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with an inhomogeneous background

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2011-05-01

    A transversely isotropic (TI) model with a tilted symmetry axis is regarded as one of the most effective approximations to the Earth subsurface, especially for imaging purposes. However, we commonly utilize this model by setting the axis of symmetry normal to the reflector. This assumption may be accurate in many places, but deviations from this assumption will cause errors in the wavefield description. Using perturbation theory and Taylor\\'s series, I expand the solutions of the eikonal equation for 2D TI media with respect to the independent parameter θ, the angle the tilt of the axis of symmetry makes with the vertical, in a generally inhomogeneous TI background with a vertical axis of symmetry. I do an additional expansion in terms of the independent (anellipticity) parameter in a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. These new TI traveltime solutions are given by expansions in and θ with coefficients extracted from solving linear first-order partial differential equations. Pade approximations are used to enhance the accuracy of the representation by predicting the behavior of the higher-order terms of the expansion. A simplification of the expansion for homogenous media provides nonhyperbolic moveout descriptions of the traveltime for TI models that are more accurate than other recently derived approximations. In addition, for 3D media, I develop traveltime approximations using Taylor\\'s series type of expansions in the azimuth of the axis of symmetry. The coefficients of all these expansions can also provide us with the medium sensitivity gradients (Jacobian) for nonlinear tomographic-based inversion for the tilt in the symmetry axis. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. Degradation of the Bragg peak due to inhomogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urie, M; Goitein, M; Holley, W R; Chen, G T

    1986-01-01

    The rapid fall-off of dose at the end of range of heavy charged particle beams has the potential in therapeutic applications of sparing critical structures just distal to the target volume. Here we explored the effects of highly inhomogeneous regions on this desirable depth-dose characteristic. The proton depth-dose distribution behind a lucite-air interface parallel to the beam was bimodal, indicating the presence of two groups of protons with different residual ranges, creating a step-like depth-dose distribution at the end of range. The residual ranges became more spread out as the interface was angled at 3 degrees, and still more at 6 degrees, to the direction of the beam. A second experiment showed little significant effect on the distal depth-dose of protons having passed through a mosaic of teflon and lucite. Anatomic studies demonstrated significant effects of complex fine inhomogeneities on the end of range characteristics. Monoenergetic protons passing through the petrous ridges and mastoid air cells in the base of skull showed a dramatic degradation of the distal Bragg peak. In beams with spread out Bragg peaks passing through regions of the base of skull, the distal fall-off from 90 to 20% dose was increased from its nominal 6 to well over 32 mm. Heavy ions showed a corresponding degradation in their ends of range. In the worst case in the base of skull region, a monoenergetic neon beam showed a broadening of the full width at half maximum of the Bragg peak to over 15 mm (compared with 4 mm in a homogeneous unit density medium). A similar effect was found with carbon ions in the abdomen, where the full width at half maximum of the Bragg peak (nominally 5.5 mm) was found to be greater than 25 mm behind gas-soft-tissue interfaces. We address the implications of these data for dose computation with heavy charged particles.

  15. Traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with an inhomogeneous background

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2011-01-01

    A transversely isotropic (TI) model with a tilted symmetry axis is regarded as one of the most effective approximations to the Earth subsurface, especially for imaging purposes. However, we commonly utilize this model by setting the axis of symmetry normal to the reflector. This assumption may be accurate in many places, but deviations from this assumption will cause errors in the wavefield description. Using perturbation theory and Taylor's series, I expand the solutions of the eikonal equation for 2D TI media with respect to the independent parameter θ, the angle the tilt of the axis of symmetry makes with the vertical, in a generally inhomogeneous TI background with a vertical axis of symmetry. I do an additional expansion in terms of the independent (anellipticity) parameter in a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. These new TI traveltime solutions are given by expansions in and θ with coefficients extracted from solving linear first-order partial differential equations. Pade approximations are used to enhance the accuracy of the representation by predicting the behavior of the higher-order terms of the expansion. A simplification of the expansion for homogenous media provides nonhyperbolic moveout descriptions of the traveltime for TI models that are more accurate than other recently derived approximations. In addition, for 3D media, I develop traveltime approximations using Taylor's series type of expansions in the azimuth of the axis of symmetry. The coefficients of all these expansions can also provide us with the medium sensitivity gradients (Jacobian) for nonlinear tomographic-based inversion for the tilt in the symmetry axis. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Influence of interface inhomogeneities in thin-film Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joshua; Zhang, Jiawei; Li, Yunpeng; Wang, Yiming; Xin, Qian; Song, Aimin

    2017-11-01

    The scalability of thin-film transistors has been well documented, but there have been very few investigations into the effects of device scalability in Schottky diodes. Indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) Schottky diodes were fabricated with IGZO thicknesses of 50, 150, and 250 nm. Despite the same IGZO-Pt interface and Schottky barrier being formed in all devices, reducing the IGZO thickness caused a dramatic deterioration of the current-voltage characteristics, most notably increasing the reverse current by nearly five orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the forward characteristics display an increase in the ideality factor and a reduction in the barrier height. The origins of this phenomenon have been elucidated using device simulations. First, when the semiconductor layer is fully depleted, the electric field increases with the reducing thickness, leading to an increased diffusion current. However, the effects of diffusion only offer a small contribution to the huge variations in reverse current seen in the experiments. To fully explain this effect, the role of inhomogeneities in the Schottky barrier height has been considered. Contributions from lower barrier regions (LBRs) are found to dominate the reverse current. The conduction band minimum below these LBRs is strongly dependent upon thickness and bias, leading to reverse current variations as large as several orders of magnitude. Finally, it is demonstrated that the thickness dependence of the reverse current is exacerbated as the magnitude of the inhomogeneities is increased and alleviated in the limit where the LBRs are large enough not to be influenced by the adjacent higher barrier regions.

  17. The inhomogeneous MUSIG model for the simulation of polydispersed flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepper, Eckhard; Lucas, Dirk; Frank, Thomas; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Zwart, Phil J.

    2008-01-01

    A generalized inhomogeneous multiple size group (MUSIG) model based on the Eulerian modeling framework was developed in close cooperation of ANSYS-CFX and Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and implemented into the CFD code CFX. The model enables the subdivision of the dispersed phase into a number of size groups regarding the mass balance as well as regarding the momentum balance. In this work, the special case of polydispersed bubbly flow is considered. By simulating such flows, the mass exchanged between bubble size classes by bubble coalescence and bubble fragmentation, as well as the momentum transfer between the bubbles and the surrounding liquid due to bubble size dependent interfacial forces have to be considered. Particularly the lift force has been proven to play an important role in establishing a certain bubble size distribution dependent flow regime. In a previous study [Krepper, E., Lucas, D., Prasser, H.-M., 2005. On the modeling of bubbly flow in vertical pipes. Nucl. Eng. Des. 235, 597-611] the application of such effects were considered and justified and a general outline of such a model concept was given. In this paper the model and its validation for several vertical pipe flow situations is presented. The experimental data were obtained from the TOPFLOW test facility at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). The wire-mesh technology measuring local gas volume fractions, bubble size distributions and velocities of gas and liquid phases were employed. The inhomogeneous MUSIG model approach was shown as capable of describing bubbly flows with higher gas content. Particularly the separation phenomenon of small and large bubbles is well described. This separation has been proven as a key phenomenon in the establishment of the corresponding flow regime. Weaknesses in this approach can be attributed to the characterization of bubble coalescence and bubble fragmentation, which must be further investigated

  18. Quantification of inhomogeneities in malignancy grading of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, S.; Sperber, G.O.; Nyman, R.; Glimelius, B.; Hagberg, H.; Hemmingsson, A.

    1993-01-01

    In a previous study of 50 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) it was shown that the inhomogeneous appearance of a tumor at MR imaging strongly indicated a high malignancy grade. In this study of 33 patients with NHL, the administration of an i.v. contrast medium, Gadolinium-DTPA, improved the subjective detectability of the inhomogeneities. A method of quantifying the degree of inhomogeneity in the tumors (inhomogeneity index, IH-index) was developed and tested. The mean value of IH-index in the T2-weighted image before contrast medium administration, and of the T1-weighted image after contrast medium administration, as well as the IH-index value in the T2-weighted image before contrast medium administration alone, was able to discriminate well between low- and high-grade NHL. This method of quantifiying the degree of inhomogeneity in tumors improved sensitivity in detecting high-grade NHL. (orig.)

  19. Line broadening interference for high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra under inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhiliang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Youhe

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy serves as an important tool for analyzing chemicals and biological metabolites. However, its performance is subject to the magnetic-field homogeneity. Under inhomogeneous fields, peaks are broadened to overlap each other, introducing difficulties for assignments. Here, we propose a method termed as line broadening interference (LBI) to provide high-resolution information under inhomogeneous magnetic fields by employing certain gradients in the indirect dimension to interfere the magnetic-field inhomogeneity. The conventional spectral-line broadening is thus interfered to be non-diagonal, avoiding the overlapping among adjacent resonances. Furthermore, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to recover the high-resolution information from LBI spectra. Theoretical deductions are performed to offer systematic and detailed analyses on the proposed method. Moreover, experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method for yielding high-resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

  20. Porous (Ba,SrTiO3 ceramics for tailoring dielectric and tunability properties: Modelling and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana E. Stanculescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D Finite Element Method simulations were employed in order to describe tunability properties in anisotropic porous paraelectric structures. The simulations predicted that properties of a ceramic can be tailored by using various levels of porosity. Porous Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST ceramics have been studied in order to investigate the influence of porosity on their functional properties. The BST ceramics with various porosity levels have been obtained by solid-state reaction. Lamellar graphite in different concentration of 10, 20 and 35 vol.% was added as sacrificial pore forming agent. The structural, microstructural, dielectric and tunability properties were investigated. By comparison with dense BST ceramic, porous samples present a fracture mode transformation from intragranular to an intergranular fracture and a decrease of grain size. Lower dielectric constants, low dielectric losses, but higher values of tunability than in the dense material were obtained in the porous BST structures as a result of local field inhomogeneity generated by the presence of air pores-ceramic interfaces.