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Sample records for inhibits neointimal hyperplasia

  1. Augmentation of wall shear stress inhibits neointimal hyperplasia after stent implantation - Inhibition through reduction of inflammation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, SG; van Damme, LCA; Blommerde, CP; Wentzel, JJ; van Langehove, G; Verheye, S; Kockx, MM; Knaapen, MWM; Cheng, C; Gijsen, F; Duncker, DJ; Stergiopulos, N; Slager, CJ; Serruys, PW; Krams, R

    2003-01-01

    Background - Low wall shear stress (WSS) increases neointimal hyperplasia (NH) in vein grafts and stents. We studied the causal relationship between WSS and NH formation in stents by locally increasing WSS with a flow divider (Anti-Restenotic Diffuser, Endoart SA) placed in the center of the stent.

  2. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway inhibits neointimal hyperplasia by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress

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    Dong-Jie Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Neointimal hyperplasia as a consequence of vascular injury is aggravated by inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR is a orchestrator of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP, which refers to a physiological neuro-immune mechanism that restricts inflammation. Here, we investigated the potential role of CAP in neointimal hyperplasia using α7nAChR knockout (KO mice. Male α7nAChR-KO mice and their wild-type control mice (WT were subjected to wire injury in left common carotid artery. At 4 weeks post injury, the injured aortae were isolated for examination. The neointimal hyperplasia after wire injury was significantly aggravated in α7nAChR-KO mice compared with WT mice. The α7nAChR-KO mice had increased collagen contents and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs amount. Moreover, the inflammation was significantly enhanced in the neointima of α7nAChR-KO mice relative to WT mice, evidenced by the increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α/interleukin-1β, and macrophage infiltration. Meanwhile, the chemokines chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 and chemokine (CXC motif ligand 2 expression was also augmented in the neointima of α7nAChR-KO mice compared with WT mice. Additionally, the depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD and reduced glutathione (GSH, and the upregulation of 3-nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were more pronounced in neointima of α7nAChR-KO mice compared with WT mice. Accordingly, the protein expression of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4, was also higher in neointima of α7nAChR-KO mice compared with WT mice. Finally, pharmacologically activation of CAP with a selective α7nAChR agonist PNU-282987, significantly reduced neointima formation, arterial inflammation and oxidative stress after vascular injury in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that α7nAChR-mediated CAP is a neuro-physiological mechanism that inhibits neointima

  3. Human SolCD39 Inhibits Injury-induced Development of Neointimal Hyperplasia

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    Drosopoulos, Joan H. F.; Kraemer, Rosemary; Shen, Hao; Upmacis, Rita K.; Marcus, Aaron J.; Musi, Elgilda

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood platelets provide the initial response to vascular endothelial injury, becoming activated as they adhere to the injured site. Activated platelets recruit leukocytes, and initiate proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) within the injured vessel wall, leading to development of neointimal hyperplasia. Endothelial CD39/NTPDase1 and recombinant solCD39 rapidly metabolize nucleotides, including stimulatory ADP released from activated platelets, thereby suppressing additional platelet reactivity. Using a murine model of vascular endothelial injury, we investigated whether circulating human solCD39 could reduce platelet activation and accumulation, thus abating leukocyte infiltration and neointimal formation following vascular damage. Intraperitoneally-administered solCD39 ADPase activity in plasma peaked 1 hr post-injection, with an elimination half-life of 43 hr. Accordingly, mice were administered solCD39 or saline 1 hr prior to vessel injury, then either sacrificed 24 hr post-injury or treated with solCD39 or saline (3X weekly) for an additional 18 days. 24 hr post-injury, solCD39-treated mice displayed a reduction in platelet activation and recruitment, P-selectin expression, and leukocyte accumulation in the arterial lumen. Furthermore, repeated administration of solCD39 modulated the late stage of vascular injury by suppressing leukocyte deposition, macrophage infiltration and SMC proliferation/migration, resulting in abrogation of neointimal thickening. In contrast, injured femoral arteries of saline-injected mice exhibited massive platelet thrombus formation, marked P-selectin expression, and leukocyte infiltration. Pronounced neointimal growth with macrophage and SMC accretion was also observed (intimal-to-medial area ratio 1.56±0.34 at 19 days). Thus, systemic administration of solCD39 profoundly affects injury-induced cellular responses, minimizing platelet deposition and leukocyte recruitment, and suppressing

  4. External beam irradiation inhibits neointimal hyperplasia after injury-induced arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, U.; Micke, O.; Dorszewski, A.; Breithardt, G.; Willich, N.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Restenosis after catheter-based revascularization has been demonstrated to be primarily caused by smooth muscle cell proliferation. This study examines the effects of external beam irradiation on neointimal proliferation after external injury to the central artery of the rabbit ear. Materials and Methods: 30 male New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study. Crush lesions were performed on each ear under general anesthesia and bilateral auricular nerve blockade. A single dose of 12 Gy (n=10), 16 Gy (n=10), or 20 Gy (n=10) gamma radiation was delivered to the left or right central artery of the ear 24 hours after injury; the contralateral central artery served as control. All rabbits were sacrificed after twenty-one days and the central arteries of the ear were fixed for morphometric measurements. Results: Mean (± SD) neointimal area was 0.062 ± 0.005 mm 2 (12 Gy), 0.022 ± 0.005 mm 2 (16 Gy) and 0.028 ± 0.006 mm 2 in irradiated arteries compared with 0.081 ± 0.009 mm 2 in the control group. Mean (± SD) luminal area was 0.049 ± 0.004 mm 2 (12 Gy), 0.059 ± 0.002 mm 2 (16 Gy) and 0.072 ± 0.006 mm 2 (24 Gy) in irradiated arteries compared with 0.043 ± 0.008 mm 2 in the control group. The difference in neointimal and luminal area between control and irradiated arteries was significant (p<0.05) only for the 16 and 20 Gy group compared to control. Conclusion: We conclude that in this model, external beam X-ray irradiation was successful in reducing neointimal proliferation after injury of the central artery of the rabbit ear. Marked reductions in neointimal proliferation were demonstrated in vessels subjected to 16 and 20 Gy radiation, a less prominent effect was noted for 12 Gy. Whether this approach can be used successfully to inhibit restenosis in the clinical setting requires further investigation

  5. Histone Demethylase JMJD2A Inhibition Attenuates Neointimal Hyperplasia in the Carotid Arteries of Balloon-Injured Diabetic Rats via Transcriptional Silencing: Inflammatory Gene Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

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    Hu Qi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetic patients suffer from severe neointimal hyperplasia following angioplasty. The epigenetic abnormalities are increasingly considered to be relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiovascular complications. But the epigenetic mechanisms linking diabetes and coronary restenosis have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we explored the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of demethylases JMJD2A inhibition in balloon-injury induced neointimal formation in diabetic rats. Methods: JMJD2A inhibition was achieved by the chemical inhibitor 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA and small interfering RNA (siRNA. In vitro, we investigated the proliferation, migration and inflammation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs in response to high glucose (HG. In vivo, diabetic rats induced using high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (35mg/kg underwent carotid artery balloon injury. Morphometric analysis was performed using hematein eosin and immumohistochemical staining. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP was conducted to detect modification of H3K9me3 at inflammatory genes promoters. Results: The global JMJD2A was increased in HG-stimulated VSMCs and balloon-injured arteries of diabetic rats, accompanied by decreased H3K9me3. The inhibition of JMJD2A suppressed VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammation induced by high glucose (HG in vitro. And JMJDA2A inhibition attenuated neointimal formation in balloon-injured diabetic rats. The underlying mechanisms were relevant to the restoration of H3K9me3 levels at the promoters of MCP-1 and IL-6, and then the suppressed expression of MCP-1 and IL-6. Conclusion: The JMJD2A inhibition significantly attenuated neointimal formation in balloon injured diabetic rats via the suppression of VSMCs proliferation, migration, and inflammation by restoring H3K9me3.

  6. MicroRNA-24 Attenuates Neointimal Hyperplasia in the Diabetic Rat Carotid Artery Injury Model by Inhibiting Wnt4 Signaling Pathway

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    Jian Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term stimulation of hyperglycemia greatly increases the incidence of vascular restenosis (RS after angioplasty. Neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury is the pathological cause of RS, but its mechanism has not been elucidated. MicroRNA-24 (miR-24 has low expression in the injured carotid arteries of diabetic rats. However, the role of miR-24 in the vascular system is unknown. In this study, we explore whether over-expression of miR-24 could attenuate neointimal formation in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Adenovirus (Ad-miR-24-GFP was used to deliver the miR-24 gene to injured carotid arteries in diabetic rats. The level of neointimal hyperplasia was examined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation in the neointima was evaluated by immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. The mRNA levels of miR-24, PCNA, wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 4 (Wnt4, disheveled-1 (Dvl-1, β-catenin and cell cycle-associated molecules (Cyclin D1, p21 were determined by Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR. PCNA, Wnt4, Dvl-1, β-catenin, Cyclin D1 and p21 protein levels were measured by Western blotting analysis. STZ administration decreased plasma insulin and increased fasting blood glucose in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. The expression of miR-24 was decreased in the carotid artery after a balloon injury in diabetic rats, and adenoviral transfection (Ad-miR-24-GFP increased the expression of miR-24. Over-expression of miR-24 suppressed VSMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia in diabetic rats at 14 days. Furthermore, compared with Sham group, the mRNA and protein levels of PCNA, Wnt4, Dvl-1, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 were strikingly up-regulated in the carotid arteries of diabetic rats after a balloon injury. Interestingly, up-regulation of miR-24 significantly reduced the mRNA and protein levels of these above molecules. In contrast, the change trend in p21 m

  7. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae

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    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H.

    2014-01-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

  8. The experimental study of 32P and diallyl trisulfide coating stent for inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a canine model of coronary restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shanghua; Jiang Hong; Li Gengshan; Jiang Xuejun; Li Xiaoyan; Chen Yuanxiu; Wang Hairong; Wu Kegui; Nie Xiaomin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assesses the efficiency of 32 P and diallyl trisulfide (DT)-coated coronary stents on neointimal proliferation in a canine model of restenosis. Methods: 32 P (740 kBq/stent), DT (210 μg/stent) alone and jointly coated stents were deployed with mild oversizing in both the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) and the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of 10 dogs. The implantation of protein-coated stents was used as the control. The therapeutic effect was assessed 6 months after the intervention. The dogs were sacrificed and the vessels were excised. For morphologic examinations the tissue sections were stained with HE and Van Gieson. Results: Compared with the control stents, the neointimal area reduced in stents coated with 32 P, DT alone and 32 P+DT [ 32 P: (2.63±0.48) mm 2 , DT: (2.50±0.49) mm 2 , 32 P+DT: (1.42±0.41) mm 2 vs control group: (4.87±0. 80) mm 2 , P=0.001]. 32 P+DT was more effective than either of them alone for reducing the neointimal area (P≤0.005). Both jointly and alone coated stents of 32 P, DT decreased the percent area stenosis [ 32 P: (32.48±4.79)%, DT: (30.04±5.43)%, 32 P+DT: (17.21±4.05)% vs control group: (54.62±6.82)%, P 32 P+DT group compared with 32 P or DT-coated stents group (P≤0.001). Angiographic restenosis (diameter stenosis) was lighter in stents coated with 32 P, DT and 32 P+DT compared with control stents (P 32 P+DT was more effective than 32 P or DT alone for reducing diameter stenosis (P≤0.005). No evidence of 'edge effect' was seen in adjacent, nonstented coronary segments. Conclusion: Coronary stents coated with 32 P plus DT produced a significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis rate in the canine LCX and LAD 6 months after stents implantation

  9. Improving arteriovenous fistula patency: Transdermal delivery of diclofenac reduces cannulation-dependent neointimal hyperplasia via AMPK activation.

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    MacAskill, Mark G; Watson, David G; Ewart, Marie-Ann; Wadsworth, Roger; Jackson, Andrew; Aitken, Emma; MacKenzie, Graeme; Kingsmore, David; Currie, Susan; Coats, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Creation of an autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for vascular access in haemodialysis is the modality of choice. However neointimal hyperplasia and loss of the luminal compartment result in AVF patency rates of ~60% at 12months. The exact cause of neointimal hyperplasia in the AVF is poorly understood. Vascular trauma has long been associated with hyperplasia. With this in mind in our rabbit model of AVF we simulated cannulation autologous to that undertaken in vascular access procedures and observed significant neointimal hyperplasia as a direct consequence of cannulation. The neointimal hyperplasia was completely inhibited by topical transdermal delivery of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) diclofenac. In addition to the well documented anti-inflammatory properties we have identified novel anti-proliferative mechanisms demonstrating diclofenac increases AMPK-dependent signalling and reduced expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1. In summary prophylactic transdermal delivery of diclofenac to the sight of AVF cannulation prevents adverse neointimal hyperplasic remodelling and potentially offers a novel treatment option that may help prolong AVF patency and flow rates. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving arteriovenous fistula patency: Transdermal delivery of diclofenac reduces cannulation-dependent neointimal hyperplasia via AMPK activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAskill, Mark G.; Watson, David G.; Ewart, Marie-Ann; Wadsworth, Roger; Jackson, Andrew; Aitken, Emma; MacKenzie, Graeme; Kingsmore, David; Currie, Susan; Coats, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Creation of an autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for vascular access in haemodialysis is the modality of choice. However neointimal hyperplasia and loss of the luminal compartment result in AVF patency rates of ~ 60% at 12 months. The exact cause of neointimal hyperplasia in the AVF is poorly understood. Vascular trauma has long been associated with hyperplasia. With this in mind in our rabbit model of AVF we simulated cannulation autologous to that undertaken in vascular access procedures and observed significant neointimal hyperplasia as a direct consequence of cannulation. The neointimal hyperplasia was completely inhibited by topical transdermal delivery of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) diclofenac. In addition to the well documented anti-inflammatory properties we have identified novel anti-proliferative mechanisms demonstrating diclofenac increases AMPK-dependent signalling and reduced expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1. In summary prophylactic transdermal delivery of diclofenac to the sight of AVF cannulation prevents adverse neointimal hyperplasic remodelling and potentially offers a novel treatment option that may help prolong AVF patency and flow rates. PMID:25866325

  11. Mir-22-3p Inhibits Arterial Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration and Neointimal Hyperplasia by Targeting HMGB1 in Arteriosclerosis Obliterans

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    Shui-chuan Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aberrant vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation and migration contribute to the development of vascular pathologies, such as atherosclerosis and post-angioplasty restenosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether miR-22-3p plays a role in regulating human artery vascular smooth muscle cell (HASMC function and neointima formation. Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH were used to detect miR-22-3p expression in human arteries. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 and EdU assays were performed to assess cell proliferation, and transwell and wound closure assays were performed to assess cell migration. Moreover, luciferase reporter assays were performed to identify the target genes of miR-22-3p. Finally, a rat carotid artery balloon-injury model was used to determine the role of miR-22-3p in neointima formation. Results: MiR-22-3p expression was downregulated in arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO arteries compared with normal arteries, as well as in platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB-stimulated HASMCs compared with control cells. MiR-22-3p overexpression had anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects and dual-luciferase assay showed that high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is a direct target of miR-22-3p in HASMCs. Furthermore, miR-22-3p expression was negatively correlated with HMGB1 expression in ASO tissue specimens. Finally, LV-miR-22-3p-mediated miR-22-3p upregulation significantly suppressed neointimal hyperplasia specifically by reducing HMGB1 expression in vivo. Conclusions: Our results indicate that miR-22-3p is a key molecule in regulating HASMC proliferation and migration by targeting HMGB1 and that miR-22-3p and HMGB1 may be therapeutic targets in the treatment of human ASO.

  12. Suppressive activities and mechanisms of ugonin J on vascular smooth muscle cells and balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal hyperplasia.

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    Pan, Chun-Hsu; Li, Pei-Chuan; Chien, Yi-Chung; Yeh, Wan-Ting; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Wu, Chieh-Hsi

    2018-02-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia (or restenosis) is primarily attributed to excessive proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of ugonin J on VSMC proliferation and migration as well as neointimal formation. Cell viability and the cell-cycle distribution were, respectively, analyzed using an MTT assay and flow cytometry. Cell migration was examined using a wound-healing analysis and a transwell assay. Protein expressions and gelatinase activities were, respectively, measured using Western blot and gelatin zymography. Balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal formation was induced in a rat carotid artery model and then examined using immunohistochemical staining. Ugonin J induced cell-cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 phase and apoptosis to inhibit VSMC growth. Ugonin J also exhibited marked suppressive activity on VSMC migration. Ugonin J significantly reduced activations of focal adhesion kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 proteins. Moreover, ugonin J obviously reduced expressions and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. In vivo data indicated that ugonin J prevented balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal hyperplasia. Our study suggested that ugonin J has the potential for application in the prevention of balloon injury-induced neointimal formation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Beta irradiation inhibits neo-intimal formation in vein grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang Xiaoou; Ji Shenquan; Zeng Ke; Li Jun; Liu Bingbing; Ma Wenfeng; Zhang Qiang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study was to evaluate the effect of beta irradiation on intimal proliferation response in vein grafts. Methods: An autogenous vein graft model was established in 40 rats by transplanting internal branch of jugular vein to carotid artery by end-to-end anastomosis. The vein was irradiated by 32 P before anastomosis. Four dose schedules were studied: (1) control graft (nonirradiated); (2) irradiated with 8 Gy; (3) 18 Gy; and (4) 36 Gy. The grafted veins were harvested at 2 weeks after the operation. IH (intimal hyperplasia) and SMC (smooth muscle cell) proliferation were histologically and immuno-histochemically observed and analyzed by a computer digitalising system. Results: In 18 Gy and 36 Gy-irradiated grafts compared with the control, there was a significant decrease in the average intimal thickness (P 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis of PCNA indicated decrease of positive cells in both 18 Gy and 36 Gy groups compared with 8 Gy and the control group (P 0.05) groups, and there was also no significant difference between 8 Gy and the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: These preliminary results demonstrate that proper dose of beta irradiation in vein graft inhibits smooth muscle cells proliferation and neo-intimal hyperplasia in rat

  14. Brachytherapy for the prevention of neointimal hyperplasia in the canine inferior vena cava after stent placement

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    Isota, Masayuki; Kaminou, Toshio; Sakai, Yukimasa; Nakamura, Kenji; Yamada, Ryusaku [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of brachytherapy for preventing neointimal hyperplasia in the inferior vena cava (IVC) after stent placement. Sixteen beagles underwent Z-stent placement in the IVC and the aorta. For 8 of 16 beagles, irradiation (15 Gy) was delivered endoluminally to the stented segments of each vessel immediately after stent placement using the {sup 192}Ir. All animals were sacrificed after 6 weeks for morphometric and histopathologic examination. Morphometrically, neointimal thickness in the IVC of the radiation group was significantly decreased compared with the control group as well as that in the aorta (p<0.05). Histopathologic findings showed the neointima in the IVC of the control group contained markedly organization of thrombus and neovascularization though that in the IVC of the radiation group consisted mainly of smooth muscle cells without organization of thrombus and neovascularization. From these data intravenous irradiation may prevent clinical restenosis after stent placement. (author)

  15. PDGF-D contributes to neointimal hyperplasia in rat model of vessel injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingzhou; Han Yu; Lin Chunxia; Zhen Yisong; Song Xiaodong; Teng Siyong; Chen Chen; Chen Yu; Zhang Yinhui; Hui Rutai

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we determined the role of PDGF-D, a new member of the PDGF family, in a rat model of balloon injured artery made with a 2F catheter in Sprague-Dawley male rats. PDGF-D expression was studied in the injured and control segments of abdominal aorta. The function of PDGF-D was evaluated in rat vascular smooth muscle cells stably transfected with PDGF-D gene. We found that in normal abdominal aorta, PDGF-D was highly expressed in adventia, moderate in endothelia, and unidentified in media. Stable transfection of PDGF-D gene into vascular smooth muscle cells increased the cell migration by 2.2-fold, and the proliferation by 2.3-fold, respectively, and MMP-2 production and activity as well. These results support the fact that PDGF-D is involved in the formation of neointimal hyperplasia induced by balloon catheter injury and may serve as a target in preventing vascular restenosis after coronary angioplasty

  16. The influence of stent design on neointimal hyperplasia of an aortic stent covering the visceral arterial ostia: an experimental study in dogs using a self-expandable nitinol stent

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    Yin, Yong Hu; Chung, Jin Wook; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Kwang Gi; Kim, Hyo Cheol; So, Young Ho; Jae, Hwan Jun; Lee, Whal; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    To assess the influence of stent design [interlacing (type A) vs. crossing method (type B)] on neointimal hyperplasia using a self-expandable nitinol stent, which crosses the side branches of the abdominal aorta. In seven mongrel dogs, nitinol stents with type A and B intersections were placed in the abdominal aorta across the main branches: 4 Niti-Ms and 3 Niti-Ds. Two months after the stent placement, a DSA was performed for a stent patency evaluation, followed by the extraction of the aortas. The degree of neointimal formation along the wire was evaluated by calculating the area ratio of intimal hyperplasia (type A vs. B). A Student's t-test was employed to investigate the differences in the neointimal hyperplasia between blood types A and B. The total number of wire intersections overlain at the ostia branch ostia was 23 for type A and 36 for type B. The area ratio of the neointimal hyperplasia, for a given area, was 29.09 {+-} 10.82% (type A) and 13.80 {+-} 6.94% (type B) ({rho} < 0.0001)]. Furthermore, the area ratios of the neointimal hyperplasia per area of stent-wire in the given area were 138.38 {+-} 10.84% (type A). 87.58 {+-} 7.36% (type B) ({rho} = 0.0002). In conclusion the interlacing pattern vs. the crossing pattern showed a higher level of neointimal formation than the crossing pattern.

  17. The influence of stent design on neointimal hyperplasia of an aortic stent covering the visceral arterial ostia: an experimental study in dogs using a self-expandable nitinol stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yong Hu; Chung, Jin Wook; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Kwang Gi; Kim, Hyo Cheol; So, Young Ho; Jae, Hwan Jun; Lee, Whal; Park, Jae Hyung

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of stent design [interlacing (type A) vs. crossing method (type B)] on neointimal hyperplasia using a self-expandable nitinol stent, which crosses the side branches of the abdominal aorta. In seven mongrel dogs, nitinol stents with type A and B intersections were placed in the abdominal aorta across the main branches: 4 Niti-Ms and 3 Niti-Ds. Two months after the stent placement, a DSA was performed for a stent patency evaluation, followed by the extraction of the aortas. The degree of neointimal formation along the wire was evaluated by calculating the area ratio of intimal hyperplasia (type A vs. B). A Student's t-test was employed to investigate the differences in the neointimal hyperplasia between blood types A and B. The total number of wire intersections overlain at the ostia branch ostia was 23 for type A and 36 for type B. The area ratio of the neointimal hyperplasia, for a given area, was 29.09 ± 10.82% (type A) and 13.80 ± 6.94% (type B) (ρ < 0.0001)]. Furthermore, the area ratios of the neointimal hyperplasia per area of stent-wire in the given area were 138.38 ± 10.84% (type A). 87.58 ± 7.36% (type B) (ρ = 0.0002). In conclusion the interlacing pattern vs. the crossing pattern showed a higher level of neointimal formation than the crossing pattern

  18. Effect of cilostazol on in-stent neointimal hyperplasia after coronary artery stenting. A quantitative coronary angiography and volumetric intravascular ultrasound study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Pil-Ki; Jung, Jae-Hun; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Shim, Won-Heum

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of cilostazol on the prevention of in-stent neointimal hyperplasia as measured by both quantitative coronary angiography (CAG) and volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Fifty-nine patients (39 men, age 62 years) undergoing elective coronary stenting were randomly assigned to receive aspirin plus clopidogrel or ticlopidine (Group I, n=28, 30 lesions) or aspirin plus clopidogrel or ticlopidine plus cilostazol (Group II, n=31, 35 lesions). CAG and IVUS were performed and repeated at 6 months to assess the primary endpoints of minimal luminal diameter (MLD) and in-stent neointimal hyperplasia volume. Follow-up CAG was performed on all patients and follow-up IVUS study was available for 50 lesions in 48 patients (24 lesions in Group I, 26 in Group II). There were no significant differences in the baseline angiographic data between the 2 groups. At 6 months follow-up, in-stent MLD was 1.90±0.76 mm in Group I and 2.41±0.85 mm in Group II (p=0.006). Volumetric IVUS at 6 months demonstrated that in-stent intimal hyperplasia volume per stent length was 2.2±1.4 mm 3 /mm in Group I and 1.0±0.5 mm 3 /mm in Group II (p=0.001). Triple antiplatelet therapy including cilostazol seems to be more effective at preventing in-stent neointimal hyperplasia than a dual antiplatelet regimen. (author)

  19. Hypoxia induces a phenotypic switch of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts through a MMP-2/TIMP mediated pathway: Implications for venous neointimal hyperplasia in hemodialysis access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sanjay; Fu, Alex A.; Misra, Khamal D.; Shergill, Uday M.; Leof, Edward B; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Hemodialysis grafts fail because of venous neointimal hyperplasia formation caused by adventitial fibroblasts which have become myofibroblasts (α-smooth muscle actin positive cells) and migrate to the neointima. There is increased expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α in venous neointimal hyperplasia formation in experimental animal model and clinical samples. We hypothesized that under hypoxic stimulus (HIF-1α fibroblasts will convert to myofibroblasts through a matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mediated pathway. Materials and methods Murine AKR-2B fibroblasts were made hypoxic or normoxic for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Protein expression for HIF-1α, α-smooth muscle actin, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 was performed to determine the kinetic changes of these proteins. Immunostaining for α-smooth muscle actin, collagen, and fibronectin was performed. Results At all time points, there was significantly increased expression of HIF-1α in the hypoxic fibroblasts when compared to normoxic fibroblasts (P<0.05). There was significantly increased expression α-smooth muscle actin at all time points which peaked by 48 hours in hypoxic fibroblasts when compared to normoxic fibroblasts (P<0.05). There was a significant increase in the expression of active MMP-2 by 48-72 hours and a significant increase in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) by 48-72 hours by hypoxic fibroblasts (P<0.05). By 72 hours, there was significant increase in TIMP-2 expression (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated increased expression for α-smooth muscle actin, collagen, and fibronectin as the length of hypoxia increased. Conclusions Under hypoxia, fibroblasts will convert to myofibroblasts through a MMP-2 mediated pathway which may provide insight into the mechanism of venous neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:20434368

  20. Epothilones Suppress Neointimal Thickening in the Rat Carotid Balloon-Injury Model by Inducing Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis through p53-Dependent Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong Ju; Jung, Jae Chul; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule stabilizing agents (MTSA) are known to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, and effectively reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Epothilones (EPOs), non-taxane MTSA, have been found to be effective in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation by cell cycle arrest. However, effect of EPOs on apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs as a possible way to reduce neointimal formation and its action mechanism related to VSMC viability has not been suited yet. Thus, the purposes of the present study was to investigate whether EPOs are able to inhibit neointimal formation by inducing apoptosis within the region of neointimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery, as well as underlying action mechanism. Treatment of EPO-B and EPO-D significantly induced apoptotic cell death and mitotic catastrophe in hyper-proliferated VSMCs, resulting in cell growth inhibition. Further, EPOs significantly suppressed VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis by activation of p53-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway, Bax/cytochrome c/caspase-3. We further demonstrated that the local treatment of carotid arteries with EPOs potently inhibited neointimal lesion formation by induction of apoptosis in rat carotid injury model. Our findings demonstrate a potent anti-neointimal hyperplasia property of EPOs by inducing p53-depedent apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs.

  1. Neointimal Hyperplasia after Silverhawk Atherectomy versus Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) in Femoropopliteal Stent Reobstructions: A Controlled, Randomized Pilot Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodmann, Marianne; Rief, Peter; Froehlich, Harald; Dorr, Andreas; Gary, Thomas; Eller, Philipp; Hafner, Franz; Deutschmann, Hannes; Seinost, Gerald; Pilger, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Due to intimal hyperplasia instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment is still an unsolved problem. Different techniques have been discussed in case of reintervention to guarantee longlasting patency rate. We conducted a randomized, controlled, pilot trial comparing Silverhawk atherectomy with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with a first instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment, to evaluate intima media thickness (IMT) within the treated segment, as a parameter of recurrence of intimal hyperplasia. In a total 19 patients were included: 9 patients in the atherectomy device and 10 patients in the PTA arm. IMT within the treated segment was statistically significantly elevated in all patients treated with the Silverhawk device versus the patients treated with PTA. The obvious differentiation in elevation of IMT in nonfavor for patients treated with the Silverhawk device started at month 2 (max IMT SH 0.178 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.1 mm, p = 0.001) with a spike at month 5 (max IMT SH 0.206 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.145 mm, p = 0.003) and a decline once again at month 6 (max IMT SH 0.177 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.121 mm, p = 0.02). The values for mean IMT performed the same way. Although Silverhawk atherectomy provides good results at first sight, in the midterm follow-up of treatment of first instent restenosis it did not perform better than PTA as it showed elevated reoccurrence of intimal media hyperplasia.

  2. Neointimal Hyperplasia after Silverhawk Atherectomy versus Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) in Femoropopliteal Stent Reobstructions: A Controlled, Randomized Pilot Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodmann, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.brodmann@medunigraz.at; Rief, Peter; Froehlich, Harald; Dorr, Andreas; Gary, Thomas; Eller, Philipp; Hafner, Franz [Medical University of Graz, Division of Angiology (Austria); Deutschmann, Hannes [Medical University Graz, Division of Interventional Radiology (Austria); Seinost, Gerald; Pilger, Ernst [Medical University of Graz, Division of Angiology (Austria)

    2013-02-15

    Due to intimal hyperplasia instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment is still an unsolved problem. Different techniques have been discussed in case of reintervention to guarantee longlasting patency rate. We conducted a randomized, controlled, pilot trial comparing Silverhawk atherectomy with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with a first instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment, to evaluate intima media thickness (IMT) within the treated segment, as a parameter of recurrence of intimal hyperplasia. In a total 19 patients were included: 9 patients in the atherectomy device and 10 patients in the PTA arm. IMT within the treated segment was statistically significantly elevated in all patients treated with the Silverhawk device versus the patients treated with PTA. The obvious differentiation in elevation of IMT in nonfavor for patients treated with the Silverhawk device started at month 2 (max IMT SH 0.178 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.1 mm, p = 0.001) with a spike at month 5 (max IMT SH 0.206 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.145 mm, p = 0.003) and a decline once again at month 6 (max IMT SH 0.177 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.121 mm, p = 0.02). The values for mean IMT performed the same way. Although Silverhawk atherectomy provides good results at first sight, in the midterm follow-up of treatment of first instent restenosis it did not perform better than PTA as it showed elevated reoccurrence of intimal media hyperplasia.

  3. Neointimal hyperplasia after silverhawk atherectomy versus percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in femoropopliteal stent reobstructions: a controlled, randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Marianne; Rief, Peter; Froehlich, Harald; Dorr, Andreas; Gary, Thomas; Eller, Philipp; Hafner, Franz; Deutschmann, Hannes; Seinost, Gerald; Pilger, Ernst

    2013-02-01

    Due to intimal hyperplasia instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment is still an unsolved problem. Different techniques have been discussed in case of reintervention to guarantee longlasting patency rate. We conducted a randomized, controlled, pilot trial comparing Silverhawk atherectomy with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with a first instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment, to evaluate intima media thickness (IMT) within the treated segment, as a parameter of recurrence of intimal hyperplasia. In a total 19 patients were included: 9 patients in the atherectomy device and 10 patients in the PTA arm. IMT within the treated segment was statistically significantly elevated in all patients treated with the Silverhawk device versus the patients treated with PTA. The obvious differentiation in elevation of IMT in nonfavor for patients treated with the Silverhawk device started at month 2 (max IMT SH 0.178 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.1 mm, p = 0.001) with a spike at month 5 (max IMT SH 0.206 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.145 mm, p = 0.003) and a decline once again at month 6 (max IMT SH 0.177 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.121 mm, p = 0.02). The values for mean IMT performed the same way. Although Silverhawk atherectomy provides good results at first sight, in the midterm follow-up of treatment of first instent restenosis it did not perform better than PTA as it showed elevated reoccurrence of intimal media hyperplasia.

  4. A Novel Stent Coated with Antibodies to Endoglin Inhibits Neointimal Formation of Porcine Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoglin/CD105 is an accessory protein of the transforming growth factor-β receptor system that plays a critical role in proliferation of endothelial cells and neovasculature. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of novel stents coated with antibodies to endoglin (ENDs on coronary neointima formation. Thirty ENDs, thirty sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs, and thirty bare metal stents (BMSs were randomly assigned and placed in the coronary arteries in 30 juvenile pigs. Histomorphometric analysis and scanning electron microscopy were performed after stent implantation. Our results showed that after 7 days, there was no difference in the neointimal area and percent area stenosis in ENDs compared with SMSs or BMSs. After 14 days, the neointima area and percent area stenosis in ENDs were markedly decreased than those in BMSs or SESs (P<0.05. Moreover, the percentage of reendothelialization was significantly higher in ENDs than that in SESs or BMSs (P<0.01 at 7 and 14 days. The artery injury and the inflammation scores were similar in all groups at 7 and 14 days. In conclusion, our results demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge that endoglin antibody-coated stents can markedly reduce restenosis by enhancing reendothelialization in the porcine model and potentially offer a new approach to prevent restenosis.

  5. Quantificação volumétrica da hiperplasia neointimal em artérias ilíacas após implante de suporte intravascular metálico Volumetric assessment of neointimal hyperplasia in iliac arteries after metal stent implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Martins Moreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar a hiperplasia neointimal em artérias ilíacas após stent, correlacionando fatores clínicos, arteriais e materiais dos stents. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: De junho de 2003 a agosto de 2005, 60 pacientes realizaram angioplastia transluminal percutânea e stent. Desses, 30 foram reestudados com ultrassonografia intravascular. Os dados foram analisados no laboratório de análise quantitativa. RESULTA-DOS: Dezesseis pacientes eram do sexo masculino (53,3% e 14 (46,7%, do sexo feminino. A média de idade foi de 60,3 anos. Apresentaram hipertensão arterial 22 pacientes (73,3%, tabagismo, 18 (62,1%, hiperlipidemia, 20 (66,7%, e diabetes, 9 (30%. Foram implantados 20 stents de nitinol (66,7% e 10 de aço inoxidável (33,3%. Quatro pacientes eram TASC A (13,3%, 15 eram TASC B (50% e 11, TASC C (36,7%. O volume da hiperplasia variou de 49,02 mm³ a 112,87 mm³ (média de 80,33 mm³. O percentual de obstrução intra-stent variou de 18% a 47% (média de 27,4%. Os resultados clínicos obtidos com stent se mantiveram até o reestudo. CONCLUSÃO: A hiperplasia neointimal sempre ocorre após a angioplastia transluminal percutânea e stent, porém os percentuais de obstrução não foram superiores a 50% em nenhum caso. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante dos percentuais de obstrução intra-stent quanto aos materiais dos stents, aos fatores clínicos e aos fatores arteriais.OBJECTIVE: To quantify neointimal hyperplasia in iliac arteries after stent implantation, correlating clinical, arterial factors and stent material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from June/2003 to August/ 2005, 60 patients were submitted to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting. Among these patients, 30 were followed-up with intravascular ultrasonography. Data were analyzed in a laboratory of quantitative analysis by means of a specific software. RESULTS: Sixteen (53.3% patients were men, and 14 (46.7%, women, and the mean age was 60

  6. Dominant negative insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibits neointimal formation through suppression of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyun-Joung; Park, Hyun-Young; Ko, Young-Guk; Lee, Sea-Hyoung; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Lee, Eun Jig; Jameson, J. Larry; Jang, Yangsoo

    2004-01-01

    Blocking of the IGF-1 signaling pathway targeting the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) provides a potential treatment strategy for restenosis. In this study, we have examined the effects of a dominant negative IGF-1R (IGF-1Rt) on primary rat VSMCs in vitro and on injured rat carotid artery in vivo. Ad/IGF-1Rt infection inhibited VSMC migration and proliferation, and it also induced apoptosis by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Consistent with the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in vitro, the Ad/IGF-1Rt infection markedly reduced neointimal formation in carotid injury model. Ad/IGF-1Rt treated carotid arteries exhibited a suppressed proliferation index, PCNA expression, and also were stained positive for TUNEL assay. These results indicate that a dominant negative IGF-1R has the potential to reduce neointimal formation of injured rats' carotid arteries. The delivery of dominant negative IGF-1R by adenoviral or other vectors may provide a useful strategy for inhibiting restenosis after angioplasty

  7. The inhibiting effects of Urtica dioica root extracts on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Muth, C

    1997-08-01

    Extracts of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We established a BPH-model by directly implanting an urogenital sinus (UGS) into the ventral prostate gland of an adult mouse. Five differently prepared stinging nettle root extracts were tested in this model. The 20% methanolic extract was the most effective with a 51.4% inhibition of induced growth.

  8. GHSR deficiency suppresses neointimal formation in injured mouse arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Man; Wang, Mo; Wang, Zhipeng; Liu, Yahan; Zhang, Weizhen; Wang, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) is involved in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. In the present study, we examined the role of GHSR in neointimal formation following vascular injury. In the mouse model of femoral artery wire injury, we found that vessel intima-to-media ratio was significantly reduced in GHSR deficiency (GHSR −/− ) mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the smooth muscle cell (SMCs) in the neointima were significantly decreased in the injured arteries of GHSR −/− mice which was associated with decreased SMC proliferation and migration. Furthermore, immunoblotting demonstrated that, in cultured rat aortic SMCs, small interfering RNA-mediated GHSR knockdown suppressed the activation of Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These findings suggested a novel role of GHSR in neointimal formation likely via promoting the proliferation and migration of SMCs involving Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, GHSR may be a potential therapeutic target in restenosis and vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • GHSR deficiency inhibits neointimal formation after vascular injury. • GHSR deficiency suppresses SMCs numbers in vivo. • Knockdown GHSR represses SMCs proliferation and migration in vitro. • Knockdown GHSR inhibited Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in SMCs.

  9. [Effects of soy bean isoflavone on inhibition of benign prostatic hyperplasia and the expressions of NO and NOS of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aiqing; Ren, Guofeng; Tang, Ling; Jiang, Weiwei

    2009-03-01

    To explore the inhibitive effect of soybean isoflavone on the prostatic hyperplasia on the expressions of nitric oxid and nitric oxide synthase in the prostatic hyperplasia rats. Subcutaneously injected testosterone propionate were to induce prostate hyperplasia in rats. The changes of prostate wet weight, prostatic index, liver index, the changes of some biochemical indexes in rat prostate tissue in the control and the treatment, the low, moderate, high dose groups of soybean isoflavone groups were observed. The prostate wet weight and prostatic index in all dose groups were merely lower than those in the treatment and the moderate groups were lowest in all dose group. There were no significant differences in liver index, urea nitrogen, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase of each group. Acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in all dose groups were merely lower than those in the treatment group. Nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase in all dose groups were merely higher than those in the treatment group. Soybean isoflavone could inhibit prostate hyperplasia and increase the expressions of nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase in rats.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition reduces intimal hyperplasia in a porcine arteriovenous-graft model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotmans, Joris I.; Velema, Evelyn; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Blankensteijn, Jan D.; de kleijn, Dominique P. V.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Background: The patency of arteriovenous (AV) polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis is impaired by intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous outflow tract. IH mainly consists of vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix proteins. Because matrix metalloproteinases

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition reduces intimal hyperplasia in a porcine arteriovenous-graft model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotmans, J.I.; Velema, E.; Verhagen, H.J.; Blankensteijn, J.D.; Kleijn, D.P. de; Stroes, E.S.; Pasterkamp, G.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The patency of arteriovenous (AV) polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis is impaired by intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous outflow tract. IH mainly consists of vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix proteins. Because matrix metalloproteinases

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition reduces intimal hyperplasia in a porcine arteriovenous-graft model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotmans, JI; Velema, E; Verhagen, HJM; Blankensteijn, JD; de Kleijn, DPV; Stroes, ESG; Pasterkamp, G

    Background: The patency of arteriovenous (AV) polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis is impaired by intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous outflow tract. IH mainly consists of vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix proteins. Because matrix metalloproteinases

  13. Increased Expression of FoxM1 Transcription Factor in Respiratory Epithelium Inhibits Lung Sacculation and Causes Clara Cell Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Ching; Zhang, Yufang; Snyder, Jonathan; Sutherland, Mardi J.; Burhans, Michael S.; Shannon, John M.; Park, Hyun Jung; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    Foxm1 is a member of the Forkhead Box (Fox) family of transcription factors. Foxm1 (previously called Foxm1b, HFH-11B, Trident, Win, or MPP2) is expressed in multiple cell types and plays important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis. Genetic deletion of Foxm1 from mouse respiratory epithelium during initial stages of lung development inhibits lung maturation and causes respiratory failure after birth. However, the role of Foxm1 during postnatal lung morphogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, Foxm1 expression was detected in epithelial cells of conducting and peripheral airways and changing dynamically with lung maturation. To discern the biological role of Foxm1 in the prenatal and postnatal lung, a novel transgenic mouse line that expresses a constitutively active form of FoxM1 (FoxM1 N-terminal deletion mutant or FoxM1-ΔN) under the control of lung epithelial-specific SPC promoter was produced. Expression of the FoxM1-ΔN transgene during embryogenesis caused epithelial hyperplasia, inhibited lung sacculation and expression of the type II epithelial marker, pro-SPC. Expression of FoxM1-ΔN mutant during the postnatal period did not influence alveologenesis but caused focal airway hyperplasia and increased proliferation of Clara cells. Likewise, expression of FoxM1-ΔN mutant in conducting airways with Scgb1a1 promoter was sufficient to induce Clara cell hyperplasia. Furthermore, FoxM1-ΔN cooperated with activated K-Ras to induce lung tumor growth in vivo. Increased activity of Foxm1 altered lung sacculation, induced proliferation in the respiratory epithelium and accelerated lung tumor growth, indicating that precise regulation of Foxm1 is critical for normal lung morphogenesis and development of lung cancer. PMID:20816795

  14. Endometrial Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperplasia? The most common sign of hyperplasia is abnormal uterine bleeding. If you have any of the following, you ... endometrial hyperplasia diagnosed? There are many causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. If you have abnormal bleeding and you are ...

  15. Mifepristone inhibits MPA-and FGF2-induced mammary tumor growth but not FGF2-induced mammary hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Cerliani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a crosstalk between fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 and progestins inducing experimental breast cancer growth. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of FGF2 and of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA on the mouse mammary glands and to investigate whether the antiprogestin RU486 was able to reverse the MPA- or FGF2-induced effects on both, mammary gland and tumor growth. We demonstrate that FGF2 administered locally induced an intraductal hyperplasia that was not reverted by RU486, suggesting that FGF2-induced effects are progesterone receptor (PR-independent. However, MPA-induced paraductal hyperplasia was reverted by RU486 and a partial agonistic effect was observed in RU486-treated glands. Using C4-HD tumors which only grow in the presence of MPA, we showed that FGF2 administered intratumorally was able to stimulate tumor growth as MPA. The histology of FGF2-treated tumors showed different degrees of gland differentiation. RU486 inhibited both, MPA or FGF2 induced tumor growth. However, only complete regression was observed in MPA-treated tumors. Our results support the hypothesis that stromal FGF2 activates PR inducing hormone independent tumor growth.

  16. The imperatorin derivative OW1, a new vasoactive compound, inhibits VSMC proliferation and extracellular matrix hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Tao; He, Jianyu; He, Huaizhen; He, Langchong, E-mail: helc@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Chronic hypertension induces vascular remodeling. The most important factor for hypertension treatment is reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. OW1 is a novel imperatorin derivative that exhibits vasodilative activity and antihypertensive effects in two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats. It also inhibited vascular remodeling of the thoracic aorta in a previous study. Here, the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of OW1 on arterial vascular remodeling were investigated in vitro and in 2K1C hypertensive rats in vivo. OW1 (20 μM, 10 μM, 5 μM) inhibited Ang II-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and ROS generation in vitro. OW1 also reversed the Ang II-mediated inhibition of α-SMA levels and stimulation of OPN levels. Histology results showed that treatment of 2K1C hypertensive rats with OW1 (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg per day, respectively for 5 weeks) in vivo significantly decreased the number of VSMCs, the aortic cross-sectional area (CSA), the media to lumen (M/L) ratio, and the content of collagen I and III in the mesenteric artery. Western blot results also revealed that OW1 stimulated the expression of α-SMA and inhibited the expression of collagen I and III on the thoracic aorta of 2K1C hypertensive rats. In mechanistic studies, OW1 acted as an ACE inhibitor and affected calcium channels. The suppression of MMP expression and the MAPK pathway may account for the effects of OW1 on vascular remodeling. OW1 attenuated vascular remodeling in vitro and in vivo. It could be a novel candidate for hypertension intervention. - Highlights: • OW1, an imperatorin derivative, attenuates vascular remodeling caused by hypertension. • OW1 inhibits VSMC proliferation and media layer hypertrophy. • OW1 acts as an ACE inhibitor and affects calcium channels. • Suppression of MMPs expression and MAPK pathway may account for the effects of OW1 on vascular remodeling.

  17. Vanillic acid attenuates testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats and inhibits proliferation of prostatic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Lim, Seona; Jeong, Mi-Young; Sethi, Gautam; Park, Sung-Joo; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2017-10-20

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in the male population, especially in elderly men. Vanillic acid (VA), a dihydroxybenzoic derivative used as a flavoring agent, is reported to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, there are no reports of its effects on BPH to date. BPH was induced with a pre-4-week treatment of daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP), and the normal control group received injections of ethanol with corn oil instead. Six weeks of further injections were done with (a) ethanol with corn oil, (b) TP only, (c) TP + finasteride, and (d) TP + VA. Finasteride was used as a positive control group. VA had protective effects on the TP-induced BPH. In the VA treatment group, the prostate weight was reduced, and the histological changes including the epithelial thickness and lumen area were restored like in the normal control group. Furthermore, in the VA treatment group, two proliferation related factors, high molecular weight cytokeratin 34βE12 and α smooth muscle actin, were significantly down-regulated compared to the TP-induced BPH group. The expressions of dihydrotestosterone and 5α-reductase, the most crucial factors in BPH development, were suppressed by VA treatment. Expressions of the androgen receptor, estrogen receptor α and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were also significantly inhibited by VA compared to the TP-induced BPH group. In addition, we established an in vitro model for BPH by treating a normal human prostatic epithelial cell line RWPE-1 with TP. VA successfully inhibited proliferation and BPH-related factors in a concentration-dependent manner in this newly established model. These results suggest a new and potential pharmaceutical therapy of VA in the treatment of BPH.

  18. Decreased expression of vitamin D receptors in neointimal lesions following coronary artery angioplasty in atherosclerotic swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav K Gupta

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, play a key role in the pathogenesis of occlusive vascular diseases. Activation of vitamin D receptors (VDR elicits both growth-inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the expression of TNF-α and VDR in post-angioplasty coronary artery neointimal lesions of hypercholesterolemic swine and examined the effect of vitamin D deficiency on the development of coronary restenosis. We also examined the effect of calcitriol on cell proliferation and effect of TNF-α on VDR activity and expression in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (PCASMCs in-vitro.Expression of VDR and TNF-α and the effect of vitamin D deficiency in post-angioplasty coronary arteries were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry. Cell proliferation was examined by thymidine and BrdU incorporation assays in cultured PCASMCs. Effect of TNF-α-stimulation on the activity and expression of VDR was analyzed by luciferase assay, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. In-vivo, morphometric analysis of the tissues revealed typical lesions with significant neointimal proliferation. Histological evaluation showed expression of smooth muscle α-actin and significantly increased expression of TNF-α in neointimal lesions. Interestingly, there was significantly decreased expression of VDR in PCASMCs of neointimal region compared to normal media. Indeed, post-balloon angioplasty restenosis was significantly higher in vitamin D-deficient hypercholesterolemic swine compared to vitamin D-sufficient group. In-vitro, calcitriol inhibited both serum- and PDGF-BB-induced proliferation in PCASMCs and TNF-α-stimulation significantly decreased the expression and activity of VDR in PCASMCs.These data suggest that significant downregulation of VDR in proliferating smooth muscle cells in neointimal lesions could be due to atherogenic cytokines, including TNF-α. Vitamin D deficiency potentiates the development of coronary

  19. Smooth Muscle Endothelin B Receptors Regulate Blood Pressure but Not Vascular Function or Neointimal Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eileen; Czopek, Alicja; Duthie, Karolina M; Kirkby, Nicholas S; van de Putte, Elisabeth E Fransen; Christen, Sibylle; Kimmitt, Robert A; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Castellan, Raphael F P; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V; Kuc, Rhoda E; Davenport, Anthony P; Dhaun, Neeraj; Webb, David J; Hadoke, Patrick W F

    2017-02-01

    The role of smooth muscle endothelin B (ET B ) receptors in regulating vascular function, blood pressure (BP), and neointimal remodeling has not been established. Selective knockout mice were generated to address the hypothesis that loss of smooth muscle ET B receptors would reduce BP, alter vascular contractility, and inhibit neointimal remodeling. ET B receptors were selectively deleted from smooth muscle by crossing floxed ET B mice with those expressing cre-recombinase controlled by the transgelin promoter. Functional consequences of ET B deletion were assessed using myography. BP was measured by telemetry, and neointimal lesion formation induced by femoral artery injury. Lesion size and composition (day 28) were analyzed using optical projection tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Selective deletion of ET B was confirmed by genotyping, autoradiography, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. ET B -mediated contraction was reduced in trachea, but abolished from mesenteric veins, of knockout mice. Induction of ET B -mediated contraction in mesenteric arteries was also abolished in these mice. Femoral artery function was unaltered, and baseline BP modestly elevated in smooth muscle ET B knockout compared with controls (+4.2±0.2 mm Hg; P<0.0001), but salt-induced and ET B blockade-mediated hypertension were unaltered. Circulating endothelin-1 was not altered in knockout mice. ET B -mediated contraction was not induced in femoral arteries by incubation in culture medium or lesion formation, and lesion size was not altered in smooth muscle ET B knockout mice. In the absence of other pathology, ET B receptors in vascular smooth muscle make a small but significant contribution to ET B -dependent regulation of BP. These ET B receptors have no effect on vascular contraction or neointimal remodeling. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Efficacy of a dexamethasone-eluting nitinol stent on the inhibition of pseudointimal hyperplasia in a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: an experimental study in a swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Tae Seok [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Joo Hyeogn; Park, Young Koo [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Joon [Hallym University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yuk, Sun Hong [Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    We wanted to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of using a dexamethasone (DM)-eluting nitinol stent to inhibit the pseudointimal hyperplasia following stent placement in the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (TIPS) of a swine. Fifteen stents were constructed using 0.15 mm-thick nitinol wire; they were 60 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. The metallic stents were then classified into three types; type 1 and 2 was coated with the mixture of 12% and 20%, respectively, of DM solution and polyurethane (PU), while type 3 was a bare stent that was used for control study. In fifteen swine, each type of stent was implanted in the TIPS tract of 5 swine, and each animal was sacrificed 2 weeks after TIPS creation. The proliferation of the pseudointima was evaluated both on follow-up portogram and pathologic examination. One TIPS case, using the type 1 stent, and two TIPS cases, using the type 2 stent, maintained their luminal patency while the others were all occluded. On the histopathologic analysis, the mean of the maximum pseudointimal hyperplasia was expressed as the percentage of the stent radius that was patent, and these values were 51.2%, 50% and 76% for the type 1, 2, and 3 stents, respectively. The DM-eluting stent showed a tendency to reduce the development of pseudointimal hyperplasia in the TIPS tract of a swine model with induced-portal hypertension.

  1. Lipoplex gene transfer of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibits the reactive intimal hyperplasia after expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Tomas; Wallich, Martina; Sandmann, Wilhelm; Schrader, Jürgen; Gödecke, Axel

    2006-05-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) is most commonly the cause of graft occlusion in infrainguinal bypass grafting for arterial occlusive disease. We investigated the influence of nitric oxide on the IH of the arterial vessel wall at the region of prosthetic bypass anastomoses. Experiments were performed in 10 Foxhound dogs. We used a technique of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) overexpression by a non-virus-mediated, liposome-based iNOS gene transfer. The plasmid pSCMV-iNOS, which drives the expression of iNOS under control of the cytomegalovirus promoter, was complexed with cationic liposomes (lipoplexes). Segments of both carotid arteries were pretreated by intramural injection of a lipoplex solution by using an infiltrator balloon catheter (Infiltrator Drug Delivery Balloon System). In each dog, iNOS was administered at one side, and a control vector (pSCMV2) was administered at the contralateral side. Carotid arteries were ligated, and bypass grafts (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, 6-mm, ring enforced) were implanted on both sides. The proximal and distal anastomoses (end-to-side fashion; running nonabsorbable sutures) were placed in the pretreated regions. After 6 months, the prostheses were excised, and the intimal thicknesses of 50 cross sections (orcein staining) of each anastomosis were measured planimetrically. The average reduction of the neointima thickness of the iNOS side in proximal anastomoses at the prosthetic wall, suture region, and arterial wall was 43%, 52%, and 81%, respectively. In distal anastomoses, the average reduction was 40%, 47%, and 52%, respectively. All differences of neointima thickness between the iNOS and control sides were statistically significant (Wilcoxon test; P < or = .05). Inducible NOS expression is an efficient approach for inhibition of IH. In contrast to earlier studies, which investigated the efficacy of gene therapeutic NOS expression at 3 to 4 weeks after intervention, the novelty of our findings is that a single

  2. Inhibition of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemically-Induced Skin Hyperplasia in Mice by Traditional Chinese Medicinal Formula Si-Wu-Tang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy M. Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploring traditional medicines may lead to the development of low-cost and non-toxic cancer preventive agents. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT, comprising the combination of four herbs, Rehmanniae, Angelica, Chuanxiong, and Paeoniae, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines for women’s diseases. In our previous studies, the antioxidant Nrf2 pathways were strongly induced by SWT in vitro and in vivo. Since Nrf2 activation has been associated with anticarcinogenic effects, the purpose of this study is to evaluate SWT’s activity of cancer prevention. In the Ames test, SWT demonstrated an antimutagenic activity against mutagenicity induced by the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA. In JB6 P+ cells, a non-cancerous murine epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, SWT inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced neoplastic transformation. The luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that SWT suppressed EGF-induced AP-1 and TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation, which are essential factors involved in skin carcinogenesis. In a DMBA-induced skin hyperplasia assay in ‘Sensitivity to Carcinogenesis’ (SENCAR mice, both topical and oral SWT inhibited DMBA-induced epidermal hyperplasia, expression of the proliferation marker Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and H-ras mutations. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that SWT prevents tumor promoter and chemical-induced carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo, partly by inhibiting DNA damage and blocking the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB.

  3. Simvastatin Inhibits Goblet Cell Hyperplasia and Lung Arginase in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma: A Novel Treatment for Airway Remodeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki, Amir A.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Rabowsky, Michelle; Last, Jerold A.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    Airway remodeling in asthma contributes to airway hyperreactivity, loss of lung function, and persistent symptoms. Current therapies do not adequately treat the structural airway changes associated with asthma. The statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that inhibit the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step of cholesterol biosynthesis in the mevalonate pathway. These drugs have been associated with improved respiratory health and ongoing clinical trials are testing their therapeutic potential in asthma. We hypothesized that simvastatin treatment of ovalbumin-exposed mice would attenuate early features of airway remodeling, by a mevalonate-dependent mechanism. BALB/c mice were initially sensitized to ovalbumin, and then exposed to 1% ovalbumin aerosol for 2 weeks after sensitization for a total of six exposures. Simvastatin (40 mg/kg) or simvastatin plus mevalonate (20 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally before each ovalbumin exposure. Treatment with simvastatin attenuated goblet cell hyperplasia, arginase-1 protein expression, and total arginase enzyme activity, but did not alter airway hydroxyproline content or transforming growth factor-β1. Inhibition of goblet cell hyperplasia by simvastatin was mevalonate-dependent. No appreciable changes to airway smooth muscle cells were observed in any of the control or treatment groups. In conclusion, in an acute mouse model of allergic asthma, simvastatin inhibited early hallmarks of airway remodeling, indicators that can lead to airway thickening and fibrosis. Statins are potentially novel treatments for airway remodeling in asthma. Further studies utilizing sub-chronic or chronic allergen exposure models are needed to extend these initial findings. PMID:21078495

  4. HO-1 inhibits IL-13-induced goblet cell hyperplasia associated with CLCA1 suppression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishina, Kei; Shinkai, Masaharu; Shimokawaji, Tadasuke; Nagashima, Akimichi; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Inoue, Yoriko; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Rubin, Bruce K; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Mucus hypersecretion and goblet cell hyperplasia are common features that characterize asthma. IL-13 increases mucin (MUC) 5AC, the major component of airway mucus, in airway epithelial cells. According to the literature, IL-13 receptor activation leads to STAT6 activation and consequent induction of chloride channel accessory 1 (CLCA1) gene expression, associated with the induction of MUC5AC. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of heme to biliverdin, and has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. We examined the effects of HO-1 on mucin production and goblet cell hyperplasia induced by IL-13. Moreover, we assessed the cell signaling intermediates that appear to be responsible for mucin production. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were grown at air liquid interface (ALI) in the presence or absence of IL-13 and hemin, a HO-1 inducer, for 14 days. Protein concentration was analyzed using ELISA, and mRNA expression was examined by real-time PCR. Histochemical analysis was performed using HE staining, andWestern blotting was performed to evaluate signaling transduction pathway. Hemin (4 μM) significantly increased HO-1 protein expression (p b 0.01) and HO-1 mRNA expression (p b 0.001). IL-13 significantly increased goblet cells, MUC5AC protein secretion (p b 0.01) and MUC5AC mRNA (p b 0.001), and these were decreased by hemin by way of HO-1. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)-IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, blocked the effect of hemin restoring MUC5AC protein secretion (p b 0.05) and goblet cell hyperplasia. Hemin decreased the expression of CLCA1 mRNA (p b 0.05) and it was reversed by SnPP-IX, but could not suppress IL-13-induced phosphorylation of STAT6 or SAM pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) and Forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) mRNA expression. In summary, HO-1 overexpression suppressed IL-13-induced goblet cell hyperplasia and MUC5AC production, and involvement of CLCA1 in the mechanism was suggested.

  5. Neointimal responses 3 months after 32P β-emitting stent placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farb, Andrew; Tang, Anita L.; Shroff, Sweta; Sweet, William; Virmani, Renu

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown a potential benefit of brachytherapy in preventing restenosis. However, the effects of intravascular radiation on arterial healing have not been well-established. The purpose of this study was to explore the histologic changes following placement of β-emitting radioactive stents in arteries focusing on intimal responses and endothelialization. Methods and Materials: 3.0-mm β-emitting 32 P stents (6-μCi and 24-μCi) were placed in rabbit iliac arteries with nonradioactive stents serving as controls. Animals were euthanized at 3 months and histologic assessment, morphometry, and analysis of endothelialization were performed. Results: The lumen areas of 24-μCi stents (4.24 ± 0.22 mm 2 , p 2 , p 2 ). The mean lumen percent stenosis was 11.4 ± 3.0% in the 24-μCi stents (p 32 P β-emitting stents reduce neointimal growth, but healing is incomplete with poor endothelialization at 3 months. Longer-term studies with complete arterial healing are needed to determine whether there is sustained neointimal inhibition by stent-delivered brachytherapy

  6. Electroacupuncture ameliorating post-stroke cognitive impairments via inhibition of peri-infarct astroglial and microglial/macrophage P2 purinoceptors-mediated neuroinflammation and hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; You, Xiaofang; Liu, Weilin; Song, Changming; Lin, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xiufeng; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2017-10-10

    During ischemic stroke (IS), adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is released from damaged nerve cells of the infract core region to the extracellular space, invoking peri-infarct glial cellular P2 purinoceptors singling, and causing pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, which is likely to initiate or aggravate motor and cognitive impairment. It has been proved that electroacupuncture (EA) is an effective and safe strategy used in anti-inflammation. However, EA for the role of purine receptors in the central nervous system has not yet been reported. Ischemia-reperfusion injured rat model was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R). EA treatment at the DU 20 and DU 24 acupoints treatment were conducted to rats from the 12 h after MCAO/R injury for consecutive 7 days. The neurological outcomes, infarction volumes and the level of astroglial and microglial/macrophage hyperplasia, inflammatory cytokine and P2X7R and P2Y1R expression in the peri-infarct hippocampal CA1and sensorimotor cortex were investigated after IS to evaluate the MCAO/R model and therapeutic mechanism of EA treatment. EA effectively reduced the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as evidenced by reduction in astroglial and microglial/macrophage hyperplasia and the levels of P2X7R and ED1, P2X7R and GFAP, P2Y1R and ED1, P2Y1R and GFAP co-expression in peri-infarct hippocampal CA1 and sensorimotor cortex compared with that of MCAO/R model and Non-EA treatment, accompanied by the improved neurological deficit and the motor and memory impairment outcomes. Therefore, our data support the hypothesis that EA could exert its anti-inflammatory effect via inhibiting the astroglial and microglial/macrophage P2 purinoceptors (P2X7R and P2Y1R)-mediated neuroinflammation after MCAO/R injury. Astroglial and microglial/macrophage P2 purinoceptors-mediated neuroinflammation and hyperplasia in peri-infarct hippocampal CA1 and sensorimotor cortex were attenuated by EA

  7. Novel nanocrystalline diamond coating of coronary stents reduces neointimal hyperplasia in pig model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočka, V.; Jirásek, T.; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, František; Rezek, Bohuslav; Šimůnková, Z.; Mrázová, I.; Toušek, P.; Mistrík, J.; Mandys, V.; Nesládek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2014), s. 65-76 ISSN 1205-6626 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : stents * nanotechnology * restenosis * optical coherence tomography * diamond Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.758, year: 2013

  8. The local transfer of plasmid-mediated human inducible nitric oxide synthase gene with protein-coated metallic stents inhibits intimal hyperplasia following coronary angioplasty in mini-swine model%蛋白涂层支架携带质粒介导的一氧化氮 合酶基因预防冠状动脉球囊扩张后 再狭窄的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴军; 高润霖; 宋来凤; 阮英茆; 陈纪林; 李永力; 孟亮; 唐承君; 史瑞文; 汤键

    2001-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of local transfer ofplasmid-mediated inducible Nitric Oxide synthase gene using protein-coated metallic stents of inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia after coronary angioplasty. Methods The metallic stent was coated by cross-linked gelatin and mounted on 3.0 mm PTCA balloon,then endotoxin-free ultrapure plasmid pcDNA3hepiNOS was absorbed on the stent. Protein-coated stainless steel stents were used as controls. All stents were implanted into the middle segment of LAD. The ratio of balloon to vessel diameter was 1.1-1.3:1. Results At the 7th day after stenting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the expression of iNOS mRNA and presence of its protein at gene transferred vessels (n=2), but there was no expression in remote organs. After 3 months of stenting coronary angiograms showed that there was no restenosis in all animals transferred plasmid pcDNA3hepiNOS(n=5) while restenosis developed in all animals of the control group (n=5). Morphometric analysis showed that lumen diameter loss (0.61±0.30) mm vs (1.58±0.31) mm (P<0.001), residual lumen diameter (1.00±0.51) mm vs (0.36±0.32) mm (P<0.05), neointimal area (1.65±0.83) mm2 vs (2.83±0.83) mm2 (P<0.05), mean percentage of area stenosis (26.45±7.45) mm2 vs (94.2±14.3) mm2 (P<0.001) were significantly less than those in control group. The proportion of the neointimal area to media area(I/M) reduced to 59.84% in pcDNA3hepiNOS group. Conclusions Local plasmid-mediated human iNOS gene transferred with protein-coated metallic stents significantly inhibited intimal hyperplasia,which was usually a causative factor of retenosis after coronary angioplasty, in mini-swine model.%目的 为评价蛋白涂层金属支架携带质粒介导的诱导性一氧化氮合酶(iNOS)基因局部转染血管壁,预防冠状动脉内血管成形术后再狭窄的效果。方法 金属支架涂层为胶联明胶制成。载体为去内毒素纯化pcDNA3。采用标准球囊导管技

  9. Late lumen loss and intima hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting and zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic patients: the diabetes and drug-eluting stent (DiabeDES III) angiography and intravascular ultrasound trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Mæng, Michael; Thayssen, Per

    2011-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation due to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). The aim of this study was to use quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to evaluate the effects...... of the sirolimus-eluting Cypher® stent (SES) and the zotarolimus-eluting Endeavor® stent (ZES) on angiographic late lumen loss and intima hyperplasia in diabetic patients....

  10. Yongdamsagan-tang, a traditional herbal formula, inhibits cell growth through the suppression of proliferation and inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunsook; Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Jeon, Woo-Young; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2017-09-14

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called benign enlargement of the prostate, is a progressive disease that is observed in most elderly men. Yongdamsagan-tang, a traditional herbal formula, is used commonly for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. Although the therapeutic efficacy of Yongdamsagan-tang against BPH in vivo was reported previously, its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Yongdamsagan-tang water extract (YSTE) and its mechanism on the growth of human BPH epithelial BPH-1 cells. YSTE was extracted from 11 herbaceous plants and its chemical composition was analyzed by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). YSTE was treated in the epithelial BPH-1 cell line and then cell lysates or supernant were used to evaluate cell viability, cell cycle, proliferation and cytokine production. HPLC revealed that Baicalin and gentiopicroside were involved as the major compounds of YSTE. YSTE treatment in BPH-1 cells repressed cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Regarding the inhibitory mechanisms of YSTE on cell growth, YSTE inhibited cell proliferation via a decrease in endogenous cyclin D1 protein levels and arrest at the S phase during cell-cycle progression. Furthermore, YSTE treatment in BPH-1 cells suppressed prostaglandin E 2 production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels. The secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-8 and interleukin-6, was also reduced by YSTE treatment. YSTE in BPH-1 cells showed antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities via cell-cycle arrest and downregulation of COX-2 expression, respectively. Taken together, the results of the present study will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effect of YSTE in BPH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Kir2.1 regulates rat smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and post-injury carotid neointimal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Yong; Tang, Chengchun; Wang, Qingjie; Wang, Dong; Yan, Gaoliang; Zhu, Boqian

    2016-01-01

    Phenotype switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the contractile type to the synthetic type is a hallmark of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. Inward rectifier K"+ channel 2.1 (Kir2.1) has been identified in VSMC. However, whether it plays a functional role in regulating cellular transformation remains obscure. In this study, we evaluated the role of Kir2.1 on VSMC proliferation, migration, phenotype switching, and post-injury carotid neointimal formation. Kir2.1 knockdown significantly suppressed platelet-derived growth factor BB-stimulated rat vascular smooth muscle cells (rat-VSMC) proliferation and migration. Deficiency in Kir2.1 contributed to the restoration of smooth muscle α-actin, smooth muscle 22α, and calponin and to a reduction in osteopontin expression in rat-VSMC. Moreover, the in vivo study showed that rat-VSMC switched to proliferative phenotypes and that knockdown of Kir2.1 significantly inhibited neointimal formation after rat carotid injury. Kir2.1 may be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention.

  12. Kir2.1 regulates rat smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and post-injury carotid neointimal formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Yong; Tang, Chengchun, E-mail: tangchengchun@medmail.com.cn; Wang, Qingjie; Wang, Dong; Yan, Gaoliang; Zhu, Boqian

    2016-09-02

    Phenotype switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the contractile type to the synthetic type is a hallmark of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. Inward rectifier K{sup +} channel 2.1 (Kir2.1) has been identified in VSMC. However, whether it plays a functional role in regulating cellular transformation remains obscure. In this study, we evaluated the role of Kir2.1 on VSMC proliferation, migration, phenotype switching, and post-injury carotid neointimal formation. Kir2.1 knockdown significantly suppressed platelet-derived growth factor BB-stimulated rat vascular smooth muscle cells (rat-VSMC) proliferation and migration. Deficiency in Kir2.1 contributed to the restoration of smooth muscle α-actin, smooth muscle 22α, and calponin and to a reduction in osteopontin expression in rat-VSMC. Moreover, the in vivo study showed that rat-VSMC switched to proliferative phenotypes and that knockdown of Kir2.1 significantly inhibited neointimal formation after rat carotid injury. Kir2.1 may be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention.

  13. Adrenal medullary hyperplasia. Hyperplasia-pheochromocytoma sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, K; Mizuseki, K; Kondo, T; Ohoka, H; Mannami, M; Kawai, K

    1990-09-01

    We present a case of unilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia in a 63-year-old woman with clinical signs and symptoms of pheochromocytoma unassociated with multiple endocrine neoplasia. The surgically removed adrenal gland revealed diffuse medullary hyperplasia with multiple micronodules measuring up to 2 mm. The micronodules were composed of enlarged chromaffin cells with atypia, histologically similar to those of pheochromocytoma, forming small solid alveolar patterns separated by a fibrovascular stroma. Removal of the hyperplastic adrenal gland resulted in disappearance of paroxysmal nocturnal hypertension and palpitation. These results suggest that diffuse and nodular medullary hyperplasia is the precursor of pheochromocytoma.

  14. SHP-1 activation inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia in a rodent model of insulin resistance and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Weier; Li, Qian; Liew, Chong Wee

    2017-01-01

    . However, the role of SHP-1 in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis has not been clarified in insulin resistance and diabetes. METHODS: We used a femoral artery wire injury mouse model, rodent models with insulin resistance and diabetes, and patients with type 2 diabetes. Further, we modulated SHP-1...... expression using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses SHP-1 in VSMCs (Shp-1-Tg). SHP-1 agonists were also employed to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of SHP-1 by oxidised lipids. RESULTS: Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) exhibited increased femoral artery intimal hyperplasia...... and decreased arterial SHP-1 expression compared with mice fed a regular diet. Arterial SHP-1 expression was also decreased in Zucker fatty rats, Zucker diabetic fatty rats and in patients with type 2 diabetes. In primary cultured VSMCs, oxidised LDL suppressed SHP-1 expression by activating Mek-1 (also known...

  15. Resident Arterial Cells and Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived Cells both Contribute to Intimal Hyperplasia in a Rat Allograft Carotid Transplantation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neointimal formation following vascular injury remains a major mechanism of restenosis, whereas the precise sources of neointimal cells are still uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that both injured arterial cells and non-arterial cells contribute to intimal hyperplasia. Methods: Following allograft transplantation of the balloon-injured carotid common artery (n = 3-6, the cellular composition of the transplant grafts and the origins of neointimal cells were measured by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Results: Smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive and CD68-positive cells were clearly observed 14 days later in the neointima after allograft transplantation of the balloon-injured carotid common artery, where re-endothelialization was not yet complete. Green fluorescent protein (GFP and wild-type (WT allograft transplantation revealed that the majority of the neointima cells were apparently from the recipient (≈85% versus the donor (≈15%. Both monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCR2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling were involved in intimal hyperplasia, with bone marrow-derived cells also playing a role. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that intimal hyperplasia could develop in our novel rat allograft transplantation model of arterial injury, where neointima is attributable not only to local arterial cells but also non-arterial cells including the bone marrow.

  16. Assessment of Novel Anti-thrombotic Fusion Proteins for Inhibition of Stenosis in a Porcine Model of Arteriovenous Graft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi M Terry

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis arteriovenous synthetic grafts (AVG provide high volumetric blood flow rates shortly after surgical placement. However, stenosis often develops at the vein-graft anastomosis contributing to thrombosis and early graft failure. Two novel fusion proteins, ANV-6L15 and TAP-ANV, inhibit the tissue factor/factor VIIa coagulation complex and the factor Xa/factor Va complex, respectively. Each inhibitor domain is fused to an annexin V domain that targets the inhibitor activity to sites of vascular injury to locally inhibit thrombosis. This study's objective was to determine if these antithrombotic proteins are safe and effective in inhibiting AVG stenosis.A bolus of either TAP-ANV or ANV-6L15 fusion protein was administered intravenously immediately prior to surgical placement of a synthetic graft between the external jugular vein and common carotid artery in a porcine model. At surgery, the vein and artery were irrigated with the anti-thrombotic fusion protein. Control animals received intravenous heparin. At 4 weeks, MRI was performed to evaluate graft patency, the pigs were then euthanized and grafts and attached vessels were explanted for histomorphometric assessment of neointimal hyperplasia at the vein-graft anastomosis. Blood was collected at surgery, immediately after surgery and at euthanasia for serum metabolic panels and coagulation chemistries.No acute thrombosis occurred in the control group or in either experimental group. No abnormal serum chemistries, activated clotting times or PT, PTT values were observed after treatment in experimental or control animals. However, at the vein-graft anastomosis, there was no difference between the control and experimental groups in cross-sectional lumen areas, as measured on MRI, and no difference in hyperplasia areas as determined by histomorphometry. These results suggest that local irrigation of TAP-ANV or ANV-6L15 intra-operatively was as effective in inhibiting acute graft thrombosis

  17. Valsartan attenuates intimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat aortic arteries through modulating the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Cai, Shanglang; Wang, Qixin; Zhou, Jingwei; Hou, Bo; Yu, Haichu; Ge, Zhiming; Guan, Renyan; Liu, Xu

    2016-05-15

    The role of the Mas receptor in the activity of valsartan against intimal hyperplasia is unclear. Herein, we investigated the role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis on the activity of valsartan against intimal hyperplasiain balloon-injured rat aortic arteries. Wistar rats were randomized equally into the sham control group, injured group, and injured plus valsartan (20 mg/kg/d)-treated group. Valsartan significantly attenuated the vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal and medial thickening on days 14 and 28 after injury. The angiotensin-(1-7) levels as well as ACE2 and Mas receptor mRNA/protein expression were significantly decreased in the injured rats, compared to the uninjured rats; meanwhile, the angiotensin II level as well as the ACE and AT1 receptor mRNA/protein expression were increased (all P valsartan significantly increased the angiotensin-(1-7) levels as well as ACE2 and Mas receptor mRNA/protein expression but decreased the angiotensin II level, ACE and AT1 receptor mRNA/protein expression, as well as the p-ERK protein expression, compared to the injured group (all P valsartan attenuates neointimal hyperplasiain balloon-injured rat aortic arteries through activation of the ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis as well as inhibition of the ACE-angiotensin II-AT1 and p-ERK pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia With Eosinophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rath Namita

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a disease of the occident. It is mainly seen in middle aged women. It presents as multiple small pink or purple popular or nodular eruptions, in the head and neck area. Lesions of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia are often confused with lesions of Kimura’s disease, which is more common in young males. We report a case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia in a 34 year old female. The patient is responding to monthly intralesional triamcinolone acetate along with cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. This case is being reported due to its rarity in Indian patients.

  19. Subareolar Sclerosing Ductal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Esther; D'Alfonso, Timothy M; Arafah, Maria; Marrero Rolon, Rebecca; Ginter, Paula S; Hoda, Syed A

    2017-02-01

    Subareolar sclerosing duct hyperplasia (SSDH) remains to be fully characterized nearly 20 years after initial description. Thirty-five SSDH cases diagnosed over a 16-year period (January 2000 to December 2015) were reviewed. All patients were female (mean age = 59 years, range = 18-80) who had presented with a unilateral solitary lesion (left 22, right 13) with a mean size of 1.3 cm (range = 0.4-3.0 cm), and showed florid and papillary epithelial hyperplasia with dense sclerosis without involvement of nipple or areolar epidermis. Significant lesions concurrent within SSDH included low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma (n = 1), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; n = 1), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS; n = 1), and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH; n = 13). No case of SSDH recurred in a mean follow-up of 44 months (range = 6-189). Subsequent significant lesions occurred in 6 patients: DCIS (n = 3; ipsilateral 2, contralateral 1), ipsilateral ADH (n = 2), and ipsilateral atypical lobular hyperplasia (n = 1). Long-term follow-up for patients with SSDH is indicated as DCIS can occur subsequently in either breast.

  20. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Caitlin; Alexander, Sherene; Prabhu, Neeta

    2017-01-15

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease associated with human papilloma virus types 13 and 32. Diagnosis is based on clinical and histopathological findings, and most lesions are asymptomatic and regress spontaneously with time. The purpose of this paper is to describe a five-year-old girl who presented with multiple intraoral lesions on the buccal mucosa and tongue, which regressed spontaneously in 15 months.

  1. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Feldman Witchel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH.

  2. Papillary tubal hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurman, Robert J; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette

    2011-01-01

    , designated "papillary tubal hyperplasia (PTH)," characterized by small rounded clusters of tubal epithelial cells and small papillae, with or without associated psammoma bodies, that are present within the tubal lumen and which are frequently associated with APSTs. Twenty-two cases in this study were...... with an ovarian tumor. PTH was found in 20 (91%) of the 22 cases in the Danish study. On the basis of this association of PTH with APSTs with implants and the close morphologic resemblance of PTH, not only to primary ovarian APSTs but also to noninvasive epithelial implants and endosalpingiosis, we speculate...... of ovarian and extraovarian low-grade serous proliferations (APST, noninvasive epithelial implants, and endosalpingiosis) that postulates that all of these lesions are derived from PTH, which appears to be induced by chronic inflammation. If this hypothesis is confirmed, it can be concluded that low...

  3. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia in angiokeratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anurag; Sayal, Satish Kumar; Raman, Deep Kumar; Sood, Aradhana

    2003-01-01

    Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumour) is a reactive proliferation of endothelium producing papillary structures with fibrovascular cores. Dilatation, stasis and accompanying inflammation have been incriminated as the inciting events, evident by the presence of this lesion in haemorrhoids, urethral caruncles and laryngeal polyps. We present here a case of papillary endothelial hyperplasia in angiokeratoma hitherto undescribed despite sharing common etiopathogenetic features of dilatation and stasis with other aforementioned lesions.

  4. Mandibular pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warter, A; Walter, P; Meyer, C; Barrière, P; Galatir, L; Wilk, A

    2000-08-01

    Three unusual cases of pseudocarcinomatous (pseudoepitheliomatous) hyperplasia (PH) affecting chronic osteomyelitic mandibular sequestra are reported to highlight the differences with the various squamous neoplasms which occur in that site. In two patients carrying a mandibular graft following the excision of an ameloblastoma, mucosal ulcers resulted in chronic osteomyelitis. In a third patient, an apical dental infection was associated with fistulated osteomyelitis. Histology of the three sequestra showed an intraosseous squamous proliferation. It was characterized by a peripheral involvement of medullary spaces, the more mature epithelial layer covering the bone trabeculae without intervening stroma, and the basal type epithelial layer surrounding a central fibrovascular core. There were no histological or cytological signs of malignancy. PH shows an inverted pattern when compared with the centro-medullary tumoural islands seen in the various oral or odontogenic squamous neoplasms which occur in the jaws. The lack of signs of malignancy distinguish PH from common squamous cell carcinomas. A short clinical course is an important feature in the distinction of PH from the well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas which may develop in fistulated chronic osteomyelitis.

  5. Cyclooxygenase 2 Promotes Parathyroid Hyperplasia in ESRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Qiu, Junsi; Li, Haiming; Lu, Yanwen; Wang, Xiaoyun; Yang, Junwei; Wang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Liyin; Gu, Yong; Hao, Chuan-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the PTG underlies the secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) observed in CKD, but the mechanism underlying this hyperplasia is incompletely understood. Because aberrant cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression promotes epithelial cell proliferation, we examined the effects of COX2 on the parathyroid gland in uremia. In patients with ESRD who underwent parathyroidectomy, clusters of cells within the parathyroid glands had increased COX2 expression. Some COX2-positive cells exhibited two nuclei, consistent with proliferation. Furthermore, nearly 78% of COX2-positive cells expressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In the 5/6-nephrectomy rat model, rats fed a high-phosphate diet had significantly higher serum PTH levels and larger parathyroid glands than sham-operated rats. Compared with controls, the parathyroid glands of uremic rats exhibited more PCNA-positive cells and greater COX2 expression in the chief cells. Treatment with COX2 inhibitor celecoxib significantly reduced PCNA expression, attenuated serum PTH levels, and reduced the size of the glands. In conclusion, COX2 promotes the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism in ESRD, suggesting that inhibiting the COX2 pathway could be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21335517

  6. Genetics Home Reference: primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support and Research Foundation: Genetic Changes Found in Cushing's Disease, Adrenal Tumors, and Adrenal Hyperplasia MalaCards: acth-independent ... macronodular adrenal hyperplasia 2 Merck Manual (Home Edition): Cushing ... Adrenal Diseases Foundation: Cushing's Syndrome Orphanet: Cushing syndrome due to ...

  7. Irradiation inhibits vascular anastomotic stenosis in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takeshi; Iguchi, Atsushi; Tabayashi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    The graft patency rate after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) correlates with anastomotic stenosis. Intracoronary radiation therapy is effective for preventing restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We postulated that intracoronary radiation therapy could prevent anastomotic stenosis and tested this hypothesis in an animal model. Femoral arteries and veins of beagle dogs were harvested, and composite arterioarterial and arteriovenous grafts were prepared. After external irradiation of the anastomotic sites, these composite grafts were transplanted into femoral arteries. Histomorphometric and immunohistological analyses of the anastomotic sites were performed. The study groups consisted of controls and animals exposed to 10 Gy, 20 Gy, and 30 Gy (n=5, in each group). In the artery graft model, the ratio of negative remodeling was significantly increased in all groups exposed to ≥10 Gy. The ratio of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly decreased in all groups exposed to ≥10 Gy. Cell density of anti-α-actin antibody-positive cells and anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibody-positive cells was highest in the adventitial layer, and the density decreased as the dosage increased. Experimental results were almost the same in the vein graft models as in the artery graft models. With double immunohistostaining, the anti-PCNA antibody-positive cells expressed α-actin. Irradiation can inhibit anastomotic stenosis in a canine model. Adventitia is a factor in the creation of stenosis, and irradiation appears to target the adventitia. We speculate that there might be a possible role for intracoronary irradiation in the future to prevent anastomotic stenosis. (author)

  8. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of lower lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaganjot Kaur Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid hyperplasia (AH is an uncommon, non-neoplastic swelling on the palate caused due to hyperplasia of the mucinous acini. The lesion clinically presents as a sessile tumor-like nodule resembling pleomorphic adenoma. Histopathologic findings include lobules of enlarged mucinous acini which are filled with secretory granules. The nuclei are squeezed to the basal portions, associated with focal inflammation and ductal dilatation, and a history of trauma is often elicited. Here, we report a rare case of AH of the lower lip in a 20-year-old male patient, which mimics a mucous retention cyst or mucocele.

  9. Thymic hyperplasia in Graves′ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kotwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ disease is an autoimmune thyroid condition characterized by the production of autoantibodies against the thyrotropin receptor. It is known to be associated with autoimmune conditions such as myasthenia gravis, Addison′s disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and vitiligo. We present a case of rare autoimmune association of Graves′ disease with thymic hyperplasia which regressed after treatment with antithyroid drugs. Exact pathophysiology of thymic hyperplasia in Graves′ is not well understood; it is likely to be the result of rather than the cause of Graves′ disease.

  10. Florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of terminal ileum

    OpenAIRE

    Kanakala, Venkatesh; Birch, Peter; Kasaraneni, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Florid lymphoid hyperplasia in the terminal ileum can present to surgeons as an acute abdominal pain. Only few cases were reported in the literature. Our case illustrates that a rare case of florid lymphoid hyperplasia can present to surgeons as acute appendicitis. During the operation the gross appearance may mimic Crohn’s disease. A limited resection is sufficient to clinch the diagnosis of florid lymphoid hyperplasia / Crohn’s disease. In florid lymphoid hyperplasia limited resection may b...

  11. Sarpogrelate hydrochloride reduced intimal hyperplasia in experimental rabbit vein graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Akio; Komori, Kimihiro; Hattori, Keisuke; Yamanouchi, Dai; Kajikuri, Junko; Itoh, Takeo

    2009-05-01

    The selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist sarpogrelate has been clinically used for treatment in atherosclerotic diseases. However, it remains unknown whether administration of sarpogrelate inhibits intimal hyperplasia seen in autologous vein grafts. Therefore, we sought to clarify this question using an experimental rabbit vein graft model. Male rabbits were divided into two groups: a control group and a sarpogrelate-treated group. The jugular vein was interposed in the carotid artery in reversed fashion for 4 weeks and intimal hyperplasia of the grafted vein was measured (n = 8, in each group). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was tested by precontraction with prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha), 5 muM) (n = 5, in each). endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and superoxide production of these veins were also assessed. The suppression of intimal hyperplasia was significantly greater in the sarpogrelate-treated group than in the control group. ACh induced an endothelium-dependent relaxation in the sarpogrelate-treated group (but not in the control group). In endothelium-intact strips from the sarpogrelate-treated group, the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor nitroarginine enhanced the PGF(2alpha)-induced contraction and blocked the ACh-induced relaxation. Immunoreactive eNOS protein expression was similar between the two groups but superoxide production (estimated from ethidium fluorescence) in endothelial cells was significantly smaller in the sarpogrelate-treated group. The present results indicate that in vivo blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors leads to an inhibition of intimal hyperplasia in rabbit vein graft. It is suggested that an increased function of endothelium-derived NO through a reduction in endothelial superoxide production may be a possible underlying mechanism for this. These novel findings support the clinical usefulness of sarpogrelate for preventing intimal hyperplasia in vein graft after bypass

  12. Dotted collar placed around carotid artery induces asymmetric neointimal lesion formation in rabbits without intravascular manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivelä Antti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neointimal formation in atherosclerosis has been subject for intense research. However, good animal models mimicking asymmetrical lesion formation in human subjects have been difficult to establish. The aim of this study was to develop a model which would lead to the formation of eccentric lesions under macroscopically intact non-denuded endothelium. Methods We have developed a new collar model where we placed two cushions or dots inside the collar. Arterial lesions were characterized using histology and ultrasound methods. Results When this dotted collar was placed around carotid and femoral arteries it produced asymmetrical pressure on adventitia and a mild flow disturbance, and hence a change in shear stress. Our hypothesis was that this simple procedure would reproducibly produce asymmetrical lesions without any intraluminal manipulations. Intima/media ratio increased towards the distal end of the collar with the direction of blood flow under macroscopically intact endothelium. Macrophages preferentially accumulated in areas of the thickest neointima thus resembling early steps in human atherosclerotic plaque formation. Proliferating cells in these lesions and underlying media were scarce at eight weeks time point. Conclusion The improved dotted collar model produces asymmetrical human-like atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits. This model should be useful in studies regarding the pathogenesis and formation of eccentric atherosclerotic lesions.

  13. Real-Time Electrical Bioimpedance Characterization of Neointimal Tissue for Stent Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rivas-Marchena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To follow up the restenosis in arteries stented during an angioplasty is an important current clinical problem. A new approach to monitor the growth of neointimal tissue inside the stent is proposed on the basis of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS sensors and the oscillation-based test (OBT circuit technique. A mathematical model was developed to analytically describe the histological composition of the neointima, employing its conductivity and permittivity data. The bioimpedance model was validated against a finite element analysis (FEA using COMSOL Multiphysics software. A satisfactory correlation between the analytical model and FEA simulation was achieved in most cases, detecting some deviations introduced by the thin “double layer” that separates the neointima and the blood. It is hereby shown how to apply conformal transformations to obtain bioimpedance electrical models for stack-layered tissues over coplanar electrodes. Particularly, this can be applied to characterize the neointima in real-time. This technique is either suitable as a main mechanism for restenosis follow-up or it can be combined with proposed intelligent stents for blood pressure measurements to auto-calibrate the sensibility loss caused by the adherence of the tissue on the micro-electro-mechanical sensors (MEMSs.

  14. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with follicular mucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular mucinosis occurring along with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils (ALHE has been described in a 54-year-old female. The patient presented with pruritic erythematous papules on the left frontoparietal scalp. Histopathological examination showed prominent blood vessels in the dermis lined by plump histiocytoid endothelial cells that were surrounded by a dense lymphoid infiltrate with numerous eosinophils; these findings are typical of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils. Features of follicular mucinosis were observed in the same section with several hyperplastic follicular infundibula containing pools of mucin in the infundibular epithelium. The concurrent occurrence of these two distinct histopathological patterns in the same biopsy specimen has been described in only three cases to date.

  15. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Avaria E.; María José Vargas F.; Loreto Triviño F.; Andrea Gleisner E.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease whose main cause is the deficiency of 21-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone. There are two forms of CAH, a classical and nonclassical form, being the first objective of analysis in the clinical case. Its clinical manifestations vary in severity, depending on the level of hormone deficiency. Within the classic is described the salt-wasting form, whose consequences are ...

  16. Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia of the Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malachovsky I

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Condylar hyperplasia (CH of the mandible is a rare pathology that occurs at the head of the condyle and can lead to facial asymmetry affecting occlusion and possible association with pain and dysfunction. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia is an uncommon condition of unknown aetiology, proper diagnosis of which has to be established, as the patients may look for surgical help. A rare case of unilateral condylar hyperplasia of the mandible is reported here.

  17. Lipomatosis: a diverse form of hemifacial hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Preeti Chawla; Umarji, Hemant R.; Arora, Aman; Ramaswami, Easwaran

    2012-01-01

    A case of hemifacial hyperplasia that presented with muscular, skeletal, and dental hyperplasia along with lipomatous infiltration was described. Advanced imaging was useful in identifying the lipomatous infiltration present in the lesion, which raises the possibility of lipomatosis having a diverse presentation in hemifacial hyperplasia. As there was a scarcity of related literature in the field of dentomaxillofacial radiology, this report would make us familiar with its computed tomographic and magnetic resonance image findings.

  18. Decreased Neointimal Extracellular Matrix Formation in RAGE-Knockout Mice After Microvascular Denudation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groezinger, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.groezinger@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Schmehl, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.schmehl@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Bantleon, Ruediger, E-mail: ruediger.bantleon@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Kehlbach, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.kehlbach@uni-tuebingen.de [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Mehra, Tarun, E-mail: tarun.mehra@med.uni-tuebingen.de [University of Tuebingen, Department of Dermatology (Germany); Claussen, Claus, E-mail: gerd.groezinger@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Wiesinger, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.wiesinger@med.uni-tuebingen.de [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate in vivo the role of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycated end products) in the development of restenosis and neointimal proliferation in RAGE-deficient knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Sixteen WT and 15 RAGE-deficient mice underwent microvascular denudation of the common femoral artery under general anaesthesia. Contralateral arteries underwent a sham operation and served as controls. Four weeks after the intervention, all animals were killed, and paraformaldehyde-fixed specimens of the femoral artery were analysed with different stains (hematoxylin and eosin and Elastica van Gieson) and several different types of immunostaining (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, {alpha}-actin, collagen, von Willebrand factor, RAGE). Luminal area, area of the neointima, and area of the media were measured in all specimens. In addition, colony-formation assays were performed, and collagen production by WT smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and RAGE-KO SMCs was determined. For statistical analysis, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Four weeks after denudation, WT mice showed a 49.6% loss of luminal area compared with 14.9% loss of luminal area in RAGE-deficient mice (sham = 0% loss) (P < 0.001). The neointima was 18.2 (*1000 {mu}m{sup 2} [n = 15) in the WT group compared with only 8.4 (*1000 {mu}m{sup 2} [n = 16]) in the RAGE-KO group. RAGE-KO SMCs showed significantly decreased proliferation activity and production of extracellular matrix protein. Conclusion: RAGE may be shown to play a considerable role in the formation of neointima leading to restenosis after vascular injury.

  19. Effect of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves on neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Adel A.; Zakaria, Zaiton; Othman, Faizah; Das, Srijit; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Raj, Santhana; Nordin, Nor-Anita MM

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s) on atherosclerosis. The first stage in atherosclerosis is the formation of foam cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the methanol extract of P.s on fatty streaks by calculating neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Thirty six male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into six groups: (i) C: control group fed normal rabbit chow; (ii) CH: cholesterol diet (1 % cholesterol); (iii) PM1: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg); (iv) PM2: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (125 mg/kg); (v) PM3: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (250 mg/kg); (vi) SMV group fed 1 % cholesterol supplemented with Simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the rabbits were fasted and sacrificed and the aortic tissues were collected for histological studies to measure the area of the neointimal foam cell infiltration using software. The thickening of intima ratio of atherosclerosis and morphological changes by scanning electron microscope were measured. The results showed that the atherosclerotic group had significantly bigger area of fatty streak compared to the control group. The area of fatty streak in the abdominal aorta was significantly reduced in the treatment groups which were similar with the SMV group. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of foam cell in the treatment groups compared to the atherosclerotic group as seen under scanning microscope. In conclusion, histological study demonstrated that the methanol extract of the P.s could reduce the neointimal foam cell infiltration in the lumen of the aorta and the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:27366140

  20. Impact of polymer formulations on neointimal proliferation after zotarolimus-eluting stent with different polymers: insights from the RESOLUTE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseda, Katsuhisa; Ako, Junya; Yamasaki, Masao; Koizumi, Tomomi; Sakurai, Ryota; Hongo, Yoichiro; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Ormiston, John; Worthley, Stephen G; Whitbourn, Robert J; Walters, Darren L; Meredith, Ian T; Fitzgerald, Peter J; Honda, Yasuhiro

    2011-06-01

    Polymer formulation may affect the efficacy of drug-eluting stents. Resolute, Endeavor, and ZoMaxx are zotarolimus-eluting stents with different stent platforms and different polymer coatings and have been tested in clinical trials. The aim of this analysis was to compare the efficacy of zotarolimus-eluting stents with different polymers. Data were obtained from the first-in man trial or first randomized trials of each stent, The Clinical RESpOnse EvaLUation of the MedTronic Endeavor CR ABT-578 Eluting Coronary Stent System in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions (RESOLUTE), Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of the Medtronic AVE ABT-578 Eluting Driver Coronary Stent in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions (ENDEAVOR II), and ZoMaxx I trials. Follow-up intravascular ultrasound analyses (8 to 9 months of follow-up) were possible in 353 patients (Resolute: 88, Endeavor: 98, ZoMaxx: 82, Driver: 85). Volume index (volume/stent length) was obtained for vessel, stent, lumen, peristent plaque, and neointima. Cross-sectional narrowing was defined as neointimal area divided by stent area (%). Neointima-free frame ratio was calculated as the number of frames without intravascular ultrasound-detectable neointima divided by the total number of frames within the stent. At baseline, vessel, lumen, and peristent plaque volume index were not significantly different among the 4 stent groups. At follow-up, percent neointimal obstruction was significantly lower in Resolute compared with Endeavor, ZoMaxx, and Driver (Resolute: 3.7±4.0, Endeavor: 17.5±10.1, ZoMaxx: 14.6±8.1, Driver: 29.4±17.2%; Ppolymer used in Resolute independently correlated with neointimal suppression among 3 zotarolimus-eluting stents. The different polymer formulations significantly affect the relative amount of neointima for zotarolimus-eluting stents. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00248079.

  1. Allium sativum Compared to Cilostazol as an Inhibitor of Myointimal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Roberto da Silva; Bandeira, Francisco Chavier Vieira; Rolim, Janio Cipriano; Nogueira, Manuel Ricardo Sena; Pordeus, Mizael Armando Abrantes; de Oliveira, Andressa Feitosa Bezerra; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão

    2016-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is associated with graft failure and vascular sutures in the first year after surgery and in postangioplasty restenosis. Allium sativum (common garlic) lowers cholesterol and has antioxidant effects; it also has antiplatelet and antitumor properties and, therefore, has great potential to reduce or inhibit intimal hyperplasia of the arteries. Our objective is to determine if the garlic has an efficacy to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia compared to cilostazol. Female New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups (n=10 each) according to treatment: group A, garlic, 800 µg×kg-1×day-1, orally; group C, cilostazol, 50 mg.day-1, orally; group PS, 10 ml of 0.9% physiological saline solution, orally. Our primary is the difference of the mean of myointimal hyperplasia. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests, as well as the Chi-square test. We calculated the 95% confidence interval for each point estimate, and the P value was set as Allium sativum had the same efficacy in inhibiting myointimal hyperplasia when compared to the positive control, cilostazol.

  2. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    2001-02-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L.

    2001-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia: Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.F. Kotb

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia is one of rare causes of adrenocortical hyperplasia. The disease usually presents bilaterally. Few publications discussed the possibility of unilateral disease, in association with hyperaldosteronism or Cushing syndrome. Case series: We are reporting 3 ...

  5. Proteus syndrome: association with gingival hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendorf, T M; Hanslo, B

    1995-09-01

    A 9-year old Black boy with gigantism of the hands and feet, and recurrent gingival hyperplasia, diagnosed as Proteus syndrome is presented. The oral manifestations of this syndrome are described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of gingival hyperplasia associated with Proteus syndrome.

  6. Neuronal hyperplasia in the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Schrøder, H D

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of minor surgical specimens from the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was found in nine of 56 haemorrhoidectomy specimens and in four of 23 fibrous polyps. In an additional series of 14 resections of the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was present in six cases, of which f...

  7. Favorable effect of optimal lipid-lowering therapy on neointimal tissue characteristics after drug-eluting stent implantation: qualitative optical coherence tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Yong; Kim, Jung-Sun; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2015-10-01

    Serial follow-up optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to evaluate the effect of optimal lipid-lowering therapy on qualitative changes in neointimal tissue characteristics after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. DES-treated patients (n = 218) who received statin therapy were examined with serial follow-up OCT. First and second follow-up OCT evaluations were performed approximately 6 and 18 months after the index procedure, respectively. Patients were divided into two groups, based on the level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), which was measured at the second follow-up. The optimal lipid-lowering group (n = 121) had an LDL-C reduction of ≥50% or an LDL-C level ≤70 mg/dL, and the conventional group (n = 97). Neointimal characteristics were qualitatively categorized as homogeneous or non-homogeneous patterns using OCT. The non-homogeneous group included heterogeneous, layered, or neoatherosclerosis patterns. Qualitative changes in neointimal tissue characteristics between the first and second follow-up OCT examinations were assessed. Between the first and second follow-up OCT procedures, the neointimal cross-sectional area increased more substantially in the conventional group (0.4 mm(2) vs. 0.2 mm(2) in the optimal lipid-lowering group, p = 0.01). The neointimal pattern changed from homogeneous to non-homogeneous less often in the optimal lipid-lowering group (1.3%, 1/77, p < 0.001) than in the conventional group (15.3%, 11/72, p = 0.44). Optimal LDL-C reduction was an independent predictor for the prevention of neointimal pattern change from homogeneous to non-homogeneous (odds ratio: 0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.01∼0.46, p = 0.008). Our findings suggest that an intensive reduction in LDL-C levels can prevent non-homogeneous changes in the neointima and increases in neointimal cross-sectional area compared with conventional LDL-C controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of occlusive neointimal lesions in distal pulmonary arteries of endothelin B receptor-deficient rats: a new model of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D Dunbar; McMurtry, Ivan F; Colvin, Kelley; Imamura, Masatoshi; Oka, Masahiko; Lee, Dong-Seok; Gebb, Sarah; Jones, Peter Lloyd

    2005-06-07

    Human pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and, in its more severe form, by the development of occlusive neointimal lesions. However, few animal models of pulmonary neointimal proliferation exist, thereby limiting a complete understanding of the pathobiology of PAH. Recent studies of the endothelin (ET) system demonstrate that deficiency of the ET(B) receptor predisposes adult rats to acute and chronic hypoxic PAH, yet these animals fail to develop neointimal lesions. Herein, we determined and thereafter showed that exposure of ET(B) receptor-deficient rats to the endothelial toxin monocrotaline (MCT) leads to the development of neointimal lesions that share hallmarks of human PAH. The pulmonary hemodynamic and morphometric effects of 60 mg/kg MCT in control (MCT(+/+)) and ET(B) receptor-deficient (MCT(sl/sl)) rats at 6 weeks of age were assessed. MCT(sl/sl) rats developed more severe PAH, characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, diminished cardiac output, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In MCT(sl/sl) rats, morphometric evaluation revealed the presence of neointimal lesions within small distal pulmonary arteries, increased medial wall thickness, and decreased arterial-to-alveolar ratio. In keeping with this, barium angiography revealed diminished distal pulmonary vasculature of MCT(sl/sl) rat lungs. Cells within neointimal lesions expressed smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers. Moreover, cells within neointimal lesions exhibited increased levels of proliferation and were located in a tissue microenvironment enriched with vascular endothelial growth factor, tenascin-C, and activated matrix metalloproteinase-9, factors already implicated in human PAH. Finally, assessment of steady state mRNA showed that whereas expression of ET(B) receptors was decreased in MCT(sl/sl) rat lungs, ET(A) receptor expression increased. Deficiency of the ET(B) receptor markedly accelerates the progression of

  9. Development of Occlusive Neointimal Lesions in Distal Pulmonary Arteries of Endothelin B Receptor–Deficient Rats: A New Model of Severe Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. Dunbar; McMurtry, Ivan F.; Colvin, Kelley; Imamura, Masatoshi; Oka, Masahiko; Lee, Dong-Seok; Gebb, Sarah; Jones, Peter Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Background Human pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and, in its more severe form, by the development of occlusive neointimal lesions. However, few animal models of pulmonary neointimal proliferation exist, thereby limiting a complete understanding of the pathobiology of PAH. Recent studies of the endothelin (ET) system demonstrate that deficiency of the ETB receptor predisposes adult rats to acute and chronic hypoxic PAH, yet these animals fail to develop neointimal lesions. Herein, we determined and thereafter showed that exposure of ETB receptor–deficient rats to the endothelial toxin monocrotaline (MCT) leads to the development of neointimal lesions that share hallmarks of human PAH. Methods and Results The pulmonary hemodynamic and morphometric effects of 60 mg/kg MCT in control (MCT+/+) and ETB receptor–deficient (MCTsl/sl) rats at 6 weeks of age were assessed. MCTsl/sl rats developed more severe PAH, characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, diminished cardiac output, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In MCTsl/sl rats, morphometric evaluation revealed the presence of neointimal lesions within small distal pulmonary arteries, increased medial wall thickness, and decreased arterial-to-alveolar ratio. In keeping with this, barium angiography revealed diminished distal pulmonary vasculature of MCTsl/sl rat lungs. Cells within neointimal lesions expressed smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers. Moreover, cells within neointimal lesions exhibited increased levels of proliferation and were located in a tissue microenvironment enriched with vascular endothelial growth factor, tenascin-C, and activated matrix metalloproteinase-9, factors already implicated in human PAH. Finally, assessment of steady state mRNA showed that whereas expression of ETB receptors was decreased in MCTsl/sl rat lungs, ETA receptor expression increased. Conclusions Deficiency of the ETB receptor markedly

  10. gamma-tocopherol, but not alpha-tocopherol, potently inhibits neointimal formation induced by vascular injury in insulin resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Katsuaki; Komaru, Tatsuya; Takeda, Satoru; Takeda, Morihiko; Koshida, Ryoji; Nakayama, Masaharu; Kokusho, Yasunori; Kawakami, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Nobuhiro; Miyazawa, Teruo; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Shirato, Kunio

    2006-09-01

    Insulin resistance may enhance the neointima formation via increased oxidative stress. However, clinical trials investigating the benefit of antioxidant therapy with alpha-tocopherol showed negative results. Recent studies showed that chemical characteristics of gamma-tocopherol are distinct from those of alpha-tocopherol. We hypothesized that gamma-tocopherol is superior to alpha-tocopherol in preventing the neointima growth after arterial injury in insulin resistance. Male rats were fed with standard chow or a high fructose diet for induction of insulin resistance. Thereafter, the left carotid artery was injured with a balloon catheter. After 2 weeks, the carotid arteries were harvested and histomorphometrically analyzed. The neointima-media ratio of the injured artery was significantly greater in insulin resistance group (n=8, 1.33+/-0.12) than in normal group (n=10, 0.76+/-0.11, pinsulin resistance group), while alpha-tocopherol was without effect (n=7, 1.08+/-0.14). The quantification of plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, an indicator of systemic oxidative stress, and dihydroethidium fluorescence staining of the carotid artery, an indicator of the local superoxide production, showed that oxidative stress in the systemic circulation and local arterial tissue was increased in insulin resistance. Both tocopherols decreased plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, but failed to suppress the superoxide production in the carotid arteries. Increased 3-nitrotyrosine in neointima by insulin resistance was greatly reduced only by gamma-tocopherol. In conclusion, gamma-tocopherol, but not alpha-tocopherol, reduces the neointima proliferation in insulin resistance, independently of its effects on superoxide production. The beneficial effect may be related with its inhibitory effects on nitrosative stress.

  11. Prevention of Bronchial Hyperplasia by EGFR Pathway Inhibitors in an Organotypic Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangsoon; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Kang, Shin Myung; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Gold, Kathryn Ann; Kim, Edward S.; Hittelman, Walter N.; Hong, Waun Ki; Koo, Ja Seok

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection or prevention strategies are urgently needed to increase survival. Hyperplasia is the first morphologic change that occurs in the bronchial epithelium during lung cancer development, followed by squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive tumor. The current study was designed to determine the molecular mechanisms that control bronchial epithelium hyperplasia. Using primary normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells cultured using the 3-dimensional organotypic method, we found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha, and amphiregulin induced hyperplasia, as determined by cell proliferation and multilayered epithelium formation. We also found that EGF induced increased cyclin D1 expression, which plays a critical role in bronchial hyperplasia; this overexpression was mediated by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Erlotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, completely inhibited EGF-induced hyperplasia. Furthermore, a promoter analysis revealed that the activator protein-1 transcription factor regulates EGF-induced cyclin D1 overexpression. Activator protein-1 depletion using siRNA targeting its c-Jun component completely abrogated EGF-induced cyclin D1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that bronchial hyperplasia can be modeled in vitro using primary NHTBE cells maintained in a 3-dimensional (3-D) organotypic culture. EGFR and MEK inhibitors completely blocked EGF-induced bronchial hyperplasia, suggesting that they have a chemopreventive role. PMID:21505178

  12. Prognostic significance of atypical papillary urothelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierczynski, Sharon L; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2002-05-01

    Typical papillary hyperplasia, a recently recognized precursor lesion to low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms, consists of undulating folds of cytologically benign urothelium. Well-developed, branching fibrovascular cores of a papillary neoplasm are not evident. We have noted lesions with the architectural pattern of papillary hyperplasia; however, the overlying urothelium demonstrated varying degrees of cytologic atypia. We identified 15 cases of atypical papillary hyperplasia (13 males, 2 females, age 55 to 92) with overlying urothelium showing cytologic atypia. Of these cases, 8 (53%) were received in consultation. Of the 15 cases, 8 exhibited overlying flat carcinoma in situ (CIS), 4 had overlying dysplasia, and 3 were transitional between papillary hyperplasia with atypia and the earliest lesions of papillary neoplasia. Of these cases, 5 patients had multiple specimens with atypical papillary hyperplasia (range, 2 to 8) over time. Concurrent to the diagnosis of atypical papillary hyperplasia, there were 25 different urothelial lesions: CIS (n = 11), papilloma (n = 1), papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential with CIS (n = 1), high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (n = 10; 3 with CIS), small-cell carcinoma (n = 1), and infiltrating urothelial carcinoma (n = 1). Of 11 patients with known prior history, 2 had 12 prior urothelial neoplasms (9 low-grade papillary neoplasms, 2 papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential, and 1 high-grade papillary cancer). Of 10 patients with atypical papillary hyperplasia and a minimum of 1 year of follow-up, 9 had 19 recurrences: CIS (n = 4), papilloma (n = 1), papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential (n = 1), infiltrating urothelial carcinoma (n = 3; 1 with CIS), and high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (n = 10; 5 with invasion and 2 with CIS). Whether the papillary hyperplasia had overlying CIS or dysplasia did not affect the correlation with urothelial neoplasms. Immunohistochemical analysis

  13. [Immunomorphologic features of epithelial-stromal relationships at hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantysh, B B; Paukov, v S; Kogan, E A

    2012-01-01

    The results of a immunomorphologic comprehensive study of epithelial-stromal relationships in the uterus hyperplasia and endometrial cancer suggest that the suppressor gene of cancer (PTEN) plays a key role in the process of neoplastic transformation of endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma development. For the first time the existence of two highly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma immunophenotype were detected The first one is a PTEN-negative endometrial aedenocarcinoma, characterized by an almost complete inhibition of tumor suppressor gene PTEN in the epithelium of the glands and stromal cell of the tumor The second type is a PTEN-positive endometrial adenocarcinoma, in which epithelial and stromal tumor suppressor gene PTEN activity has retained Based on these results we have formulated a hypothesis about the different types of endometrial hyperplasia morphogenesis and its possible transfer to cervical cancer associated with features of tumor suppressor gene PTEN.

  14. Nocturia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laketić Darko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nocturia often occurs in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of nocturia in patients with BPH. Nocturia and other factors associated with it were also investigated. Methods. Forty patients with the confirmed diagnosis of BPH were studied. Transurethral and transvesical prostatectomy were performed in all the patients. Symptoms were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score before, as well as three and six months after the surgery. All the results were compared with the control group. Results. There was no statistically significant difference between the patients before and after the surgery regarding nocturia. There was, however, a statistically significant difference between the operated patients and the control group regarding nocturia, as well as a statistically significant correlation between noctruia and the age of the patients in both the investigated and the control group. A correlation also existed between nocturia and the prostatic size. Conclusion. There was no statistically significant improvement in symptoms of nocturia after the surgery. It is necessary to be very careful in decision making in patients with nonabsolute indiction for surgery and isolated bothersome symptom of nocturia. Age of a patient should also be considered in the evaluation of favorable result of the surgery because of a significant correlation between noctura and the age of a patient.

  15. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Unresolved Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; Poppas, Dix; Ghizzoni, Lucia; New, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a family of disorders that comes from enzymatic deficiencies in cortisol production, with 21-hydroxylase deficiency causing ∼90% of cases. Distinction is made between the severe classical form and milder nonclassical form of CAH. Molecular genetic analysis is used to confirm the hormonal diagnosis. A high rate of genotype-phenotype disconcordance has been found in 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The goal of treatment is to replace with synthetic glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and suppress adrenal androgen production. The treatment of patients affected with nonclassical CAH, particularly males, remains controversial. Variable synthetic glucocorticoids are used and new modes of glucocorticoid delivery are under investigation. To improve height, growth hormone and other adjuvant therapies are employed. Long-term outcomes of genital surgery using modern techniques in females affected with classical CAH continue to be investigated. Prenatal treatment with dexamethasone is available to avoid ambiguous genitalia in these females. Although studies have shown its safety to mother and fetus, prenatal treatment is still regarded as experimental. Currently, prenatal diagnosis of CAH can only be obtained through invasive methods. Recently, the detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has made it possible to make this diagnosis earlier and noninvasively. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Kinetics of vein graft hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwolak, R.M.; Adams, M.C.; Clowes, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Human aortocoronary vein grafts fail due to accelerated occlusive disease. The possibility that this is related to cellular hyperplasia was investigated in a rabbit model where kinetics of vein graft thickening, endothelial (EC) repair, and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation were measured from 2 days to 24 weeks after implanting jugular vein segments in the carotid artery. Immediately after graft placement focal EC denudation was observed. These defects were repaired within 1 week and did not recur. By 4 weeks intimal area had increased 30 fold from 0.028 +/- 0.004 to 0.705 +/- 0.021 mm 2 , and a 24 weeks was 0.93 +/- 0.21 mm 2 . This response did not produce a reduction in graft lumen area. EC and SMC thymidine-labeling index were measured by en face and cross-section autoradiography after injection of 3 H-thymidine and perfusion fixation. Despite rapid EC surface repair EC labeling index remained elevated and only returned to normal levels at 12 weeks; SMC labeling was 10 fold greater than baseline even at 24 weeks (0.22% vs 0.02%). SMC mass demonstrated morphometrically increased between 2 and 12 weeks. Intimal thickening in vein grafts is due to SMC proliferation and develops after the EC layer has been restored. In contrast, intimal SMC proliferate in damaged arteries when the EC layer is absent and cease when the EC layer is regenerated

  17. Incidence and classification of neointimal proliferation and in-stent restenosis in post-stenting patients at 1-year interval: Findings from non-invasive coronary computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Nan, E-mail: southmuch@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, No. 150, Jimo Road, Shanghai 200120 (China); Zhang, Jiayin, E-mail: andrewssmu@msn.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, No. 600, Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Li, Minghua, E-mail: drliminghua@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, No. 600, Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Pan, Jingwei, E-mail: drpanjingwei@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, No. 600, Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Lu, Zhigang, E-mail: drluzhigang@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, No. 600, Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The incidence of silent in-stent restenosis at 1-year as revealed by CT is 7.6%. • The incidence of neointimal proliferation at 1-year as revealed by CT is 12.6%. • Diabetes are associated with higher incidence of neointimal proliferation. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of coronary in-stent restenosis (ISR) and neointimal proliferation by coronary CT angiography (CCTA) at 1-year follow-up in asymptomatic patients. Methods: 234 patients (mean age: 67 ± 10.2 years, range 39–88 years, 180 males and 54 females) with 379 stents were prospectively enrolled in this study. Binary ISR was classified by CCTA into 4 types using Mehran classification. Neointimal proliferation was similarly classified into focal and diffuse types. All patients with CCTA-revealed ISR or neointimal proliferation underwent further invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for validation. Fisher's exact test was used for comparison. Results: ICA revealed patent stents with neointimal proliferation in 39 patients (16.7%, 39/234) and binary ISR in 23 patients (9.8%, 23/234). Lesion-based analysis showed 12 type I ISR lesions, 4 type II ISR lesions, 1 type III ISR lesion and 7 type IV ISR lesions. Among cases with neointimal proliferation, 27 lesions were classified as focal type whereas 13 lesions were classified as diffuse type. Patients with diabetes mellitus were associated with higher incidence of CCTA-revealed neointimal proliferation (21/77 vs. 18/157, p = 0.002) as well as ISR (12/77 vs. 11/157, p = 0.038), compared to patients without diabetes. CCTA was found to have good diagnostic performance for neointimal proliferation and ISR detection as well as classification, with an overall accuracy of 84.4% (54/64). Conclusions: Silent ISR as well as neointimal proliferation is not uncommon findings in asymptomatic post-stenting patients at 1-year interval, as revealed by CCTA. Patients with diabetes are prone to have higher incidence of neointimal

  18. Inhibitory effect of Coffea arabica bean in testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Alfonso G. Cueto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH has been described as the uncontrolled prostate gland growth which leads to difficulty in urination. One of the treatment of BPH is saw palmetto lipid extracts which has been shown to inhibit prostate 5 α-reductase and some of its components (lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid also inhibit the enzyme. Coffee was also rich in fatty acids namely linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid. The aim of this research is to investigate whether coffee is effective in preventing testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats using testosterone propionate and estradiol valerate. After and before the induction, the rats were tested for prostate specific antigen (PSA . The condition of the prostate gland of the test animals were correlated with the results of the said test and in the histopathologic results. After 14 days of experimentation, animals in the test group significantly decreased their PSA levels as compared to the BPH group. The histomorphology showed that Coffea arabica bean oil inhibited testosterone propionate while estradiol valerate induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that Coffee arabica bean oil effectively inhibited the development of BPH. With the proven safety of coffee oil, these findings strongly support the feasibility of using Coffea arabica bean oil therapeutically in treating BPH.

  19. Tablets or scalpel: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Imran Siddiqi, MBBS, MRCP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. Pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary masses cannot be reliably differentiated on imaging alone, despite significant improvement in imaging quality in recent years.

  20. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  1. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  2. Thymic hyperplasia - clinical course and imaging diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drebov, R.; Panov, M.; Totev, M.; Deliverski, T.; Tcandev, I.; Velkovski, I.

    2006-01-01

    The real thymic hyperplasia is benign disease sometimes simulating malignant tumours. The aim of this study is to analyse the clinical symptoms of real thymic hyperplasia and the results from imaging diagnostic based on our clinical material. Clinical material include 27 children, aged from two months to 15 years, admitted in department of thoracic surgery, for a period of 20 years (1985 - 2004). We retrospectively analyze the clinical signs and results from X-ray investigation, CT (Siemens Somatom DRG and Philips Secura) and echocardiography (Acuson TX, 5 and 7 MHz). We discuss the diagnostic value of different methods as well as typical and atypical findings. (authors)

  3. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  4. Anoctamin 1 (TMEM16A) is essential for testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Joo Young; Wee, Jungwon; Jung, Jooyoung; Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Byeongjun; Hong, Gyu-Sang; Chang, Beom Chul; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee; Min, Hye-Young; Lee, Ho-Young; Na, Tae-Young; Lee, Mi-Ock; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-08-04

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by an enlargement of the prostate, causing lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that mediates various physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate that it is essential for testosterone-induced BPH. ANO1 was highly amplified in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated prostate epithelial cells, whereas the selective knockdown of ANO1 inhibited DHT-induced cell proliferation. Three androgen-response elements were found in the ANO1 promoter region, which is relevant for the DHT-dependent induction of ANO1. Administration of the ANO1 blocker or Ano1 small interfering RNA, inhibited prostate enlargement and reduced histological abnormalities in vivo. We therefore concluded that ANO1 is essential for the development of prostate hyperplasia and is a potential target for the treatment of BPH.

  5. Radix bupleuri Extract Inhibits Hyperplasia of Mammary Gland in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golden Section, Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Haerbin 150010, ... lactation, occupation, sex hormone use, diet, and ... organ weight divided by body weight. .... Figure 1: Histologic images of mammary gland tissues.

  6. Simvastatin reduces neointimal thickening in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice after experimental angioplasty without changing plasma lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiping; Fukutomi, Tatsuya; Zago, Alexandre C; Ehlers, Raila; Detmers, Patricia A; Wright, Samuel D; Rogers, Campbell; Simon, Daniel I

    2002-07-02

    Statins exert antiinflammatory and antiproliferative actions independent of cholesterol lowering. To determine whether these actions might affect neointimal formation, we investigated the effect of simvastatin on the response to experimental angioplasty in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice, a model of hypercholesterolemia in which changes in plasma lipids are not observed in response to simvastatin. Carotid artery dilation (2.5 atm) and complete endothelial denudation were performed in male C57BL/6J LDLR-/- mice treated with low-dose (2 mg/kg) or high-dose (20 mg/kg) simvastatin or vehicle subcutaneously 72 hours before and then daily after injury. After 7 and 28 days, intimal and medial sizes were measured and the intima to media area ratio (I:M) was calculated. Total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were similar in simvastatin- and vehicle-treated mice. Intimal thickening and I:M were reduced significantly by low- and high-dose simvastatin compared with vehicle alone. Simvastatin treatment was associated with reduced cellular proliferation (BrdU), leukocyte accumulation (CD45), and platelet-derived growth factor-induced phosphorylation of the survival factor Akt and increased apoptosis after injury. Simvastatin modulates vascular repair after injury in the absence of lipid-lowering effects. Although the mechanisms are not yet established, additional research may lead to new understanding of the actions of statins and novel therapeutic interventions for preventing restenosis.

  7. Hereditary pituitary hyperplasia with infantile gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläsker, Sven; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Lafferty, Antony R A; Hofman, Paul L; Li, Jie; Weil, Robert J; Zhuang, Zhengping; Oldfield, Edward H

    2011-12-01

    We report hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. The objective of the study was to describe the results of the clinical and laboratory analysis of this rare instance of hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. The study is a retrospective analysis of three cases from one family. The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health, a tertiary referral center. A mother and both her sons had very early-onset gigantism associated with high levels of serum GH and prolactin. The condition was treated by total hypophysectomy. We performed clinical, pathological, and molecular evaluations, including evaluation basal and provocative endocrine testing, neuroradiological assessment, and assessment of the pituitary tissue by microscopic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. All three family members had very early onset of gigantism associated with abnormally high serum levels of GH and prolactin. Serum GHRH levels were not elevated in either of the boys. The clinical, radiographic, surgical, and histological findings indicated mammosomatotroph hyperplasia. The pituitary gland of both boys revealed diffuse mammosomatotroph hyperplasia of the entire pituitary gland without evidence of adenoma. Prolactin and GH were secreted by the same cells within the same secretory granules. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of GHRH in clusters of cells distributed throughout the hyperplastic pituitary of both boys. This hereditary condition seems to be a result of embryonic pituitary maldevelopment with retention and expansion of the mammosomatotrophs. The findings suggest that it is caused by paracrine or autocrine pituitary GHRH secretion during pituitary development.

  8. Pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Guerra, Yohani; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Mas Ferreiro, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in over 50 years-old men consisting in uncontrolled and benign growth of prostatic gland that leads to lower urinary tract symptoms. The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia is multifactoral involving the increased conversion of testosterone in dihydrotestosterone by the prostatic 5α-reductase action, which brought about events that encourage the prostate growth (static component) and the increase of the bladder and prostate smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) regulated by the aα 1 -adrenoceptors (ADR). The pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia includes the prostatic 5aα-reductase inhibitors, the aα 1 -adrenoreceptor blockers, their combined therapy and the phytotherapy. This paper was aimed at presenting the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of drugs used for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia, and providing elements to analyze their efficacy, safety and tolerability. To this end, a review was made of the different drugs for the treatment of this pathology and they were grouped according to their mechanism of action. Natural products were included as lipid extracts from Serenoa repens and Pygeum africanum as well as D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, with proved beneficial effects on the main etiological factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. D-004 is a prostatic 5a-reductase inhibitor, an aα 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist, aα 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor and has antioxidant action, all of which reveals a multifactoral mechanism. The results achieved till now indicate that D-004 is a safe and well-tolerated product

  9. IL-17 suppresses immune effector functions in human papillomavirus-associated epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmann, Christina; Mattarollo, Stephen R; Bridge, Jennifer A; Frazer, Ian H; Blumenthal, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) causes epithelial hyperplasia that can progress to cancer and is thought to depend on immunosuppressive mechanisms that prevent viral clearance by the host. IL-17 is a cytokine with diverse functions in host defense and in the pathology of autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. We analyzed biopsies from patients with HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and murine skin displaying HPV16 E7 protein-induced epithelial hyperplasia, which closely models hyperplasia in chronic HPV lesions. Expression of IL-17 and IL-23, a major inducer of IL-17, was elevated in both human HPV-infected and murine E7-expressing lesions. Using a skin-grafting model, we demonstrated that IL-17 in HPV16 E7 transgenic skin grafts inhibited effective host immune responses against the graft. IL-17 was produced by CD3(+) T cells, predominantly CD4(+) T cells in human, and CD4(+) and γδ T cells in mouse hyperplastic lesions. IL-23 and IL-1β, but not IL-18, induced IL-17 production in E7 transgenic skin. Together, these findings demonstrate an immunosuppressive role for IL-17 in HPV-associated epithelial hyperplasia and suggest that blocking IL-17 in persistent viral infection may promote antiviral immunity and prevent progression to cancer. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Study design of the influence of SErotonin inhibition on patients with RENAl impairment or diabetes undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation (SERENADE) study: A multicenter, open-label, prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ah; Suh, Jung-Won; Park, Jin Joo; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Cho, Young-Suk; Youn, Tae-Jin; Chae, In-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Dong-Ju

    2015-07-01

    The rates of stent failure after percutaneous coronary intervention have decreased since the introduction of the drug-eluting stent (DES). However, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) remain strong clinical predictors of poor prognosis despite DES implantation. Sarpogrelate, a selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2a [5-HT2A]) receptor antagonist, has antiproliferative effects, reducing neointimal hyperplasia and smooth muscle cell proliferation, as well as potent antiplatelet action, inhibiting 5-HT-induced platelet aggregation. However, efficacy and safety data for sarpogrelate in patients with CKD or DM are limited. We aim to determine whether sarpogrelate has beneficial effects in patients with CDK or DM treated with DES implantation. The SERENADE trial is a multicenter, open-label, prospective, randomized study that will test the superiority of triple anti-platelet therapy (TAT; aspirin, clopidogrel, and sarpogrelate) to conventional dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT; aspirin and clopidogrel) in preventing late lumen loss 9 months after the index procedure in patients with CKD or DM. A total of 220 patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease with DM or CKD will be randomized to the TAT or DAT groups (1:1 ratio) after DES implantation. The primary endpoint is late lumen loss at 9 months assessed by quantitative coronary angiography. Secondary efficacy endpoints are composites of major adverse cardiovascular events including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization. Secondary safety endpoints are major bleeding events and hepatic or renal impairment. The SERENADE trial will provide insight on the efficacy of adjunctive therapy with sarpogrelate after DES implantation for patients with high-risk profiles such as CKD or DM. National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02294643). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia: carcinoma underestimation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingegnoli, Anna; d'Aloia, Cecilia; Frattaruolo, Antonia; Pallavera, Lara; Martella, Eugenia; Crisi, Girolamo; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the underestimation rate of carcinoma upon surgical biopsy after a diagnosis of flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia and 11-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. A retrospective review was conducted of 476 vacuum-assisted breast biopsy performed from May 2005 to January 2007 and a total of 70 cases of atypia were identified. Fifty cases (71%) were categorized as pure atypical ductal hyperplasia, 18 (26%) as pure flat epithelial atypia and two (3%) as concomitant flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Each group were compared with the subsequent open surgical specimens. Surgical biopsy was performed in 44 patients with atypical ductal hyperplasia, 15 patients with flat epithelial atypia, and two patients with flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Five cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia were upgraded to ductal carcinoma in situ, three cases of flat epithelial atypia yielded one ductal carcinoma in situ and two cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, and one case of flat epithelial atypia/atypical ductal hyperplasia had invasive ductal carcinoma. The overall rate of malignancy was 16% for atypical ductal hyperplasia (including flat epithelial atypia/atypical ductal hyperplasia patients) and 20% for flat epithelial atypia. The presence of flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia at biopsy requires careful consideration, and surgical excision should be suggested.

  12. Epidemiology of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Bin Lim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is one of the most common diseases in ageing men and the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. The prevalence of BPH increases after the age of 40 years, with a prevalence of 8%–60% at age 90 years. Some data have suggested that there is decreased risk among the Asians compared to the western white population. Genetics, diet and life style may play a role here. Recent reports suggest the strong relationship of clinical BPH with metabolic syndrome and erectile dysfunction, as well as the possible role of inflammation as a cause of the prostatic hyperplasia. Lifestyle changes including exercise and diet are important strategies in controlling this common ailment.

  13. Fibro-epithelial hyperplasia mimicking mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K; Singh, B D; Dubey, A; Avinash, A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chronic local irritation have been seen commonly in the form of fibroma or mucocele in children. We report a ten year old girl with the chief complaint of swelling in the lower right region of labial mucosa which was diagnosed clinically as mucocele and histologically as fibro-epithelial hyperplasia. Surgical excision was done under local anesthesia with no post-operative complication.

  14. Conditional Deletion of Pten Causes Bronchiolar Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Davé, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E.; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R.; Loudy, Dave E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (PtenΔ/Δ) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as in...

  15. Metformin for endometrial hyperplasia: a Cochrane protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Naomi S; Oliver, Thomas R W; Shiwani, Hunain; Saner, Juliane R F; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Atiomo, William

    2016-08-16

    Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous lesion of the endometrium, commonly presenting with uterine bleeding. If managed expectantly, it frequently progresses to endometrial carcinoma, rates of which are increasing dramatically worldwide. However, the established treatment for endometrial hyperplasia (progestogens) involves multiple side effects and leaves the risk of recurrence. Metformin is the most commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agent in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has also been linked to the reversal of endometrial hyperplasia and may therefore contribute to decreasing the prevalence of endometrial carcinoma without the fertility and side effect consequences of current therapies. However, the efficacy and safety of metformin being used for this therapeutic target is unclear and, therefore, this systematic review will aim to determine this. We will search the following trials and databases with no language restrictions: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; PubMed; Google Scholar; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO International Trials Registry Platform portal; OpenGrey and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). We will include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of use of metformin compared with a placebo or no treatment, conventional medical treatment (eg, progestogens) or any other active intervention. Two review authors will independently assess the trial eligibility, risk of bias and extract appropriate data points. Trial authors will be contacted for additional data. The primary review outcome is the regression of endometrial hyperplasia histology towards normal histology. Secondary outcomes include hysterectomy rate; abnormal uterine bleeding; quality of life scores and adverse reactions to treatments. Dissemination of the completed review will be through the Cochrane

  16. Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Kane, Christopher; Shinohara, Katsuto; Neuhaus, John; Hudes, Esther S; Goldberg, Harley; Avins, Andrew L

    2006-02-09

    Saw palmetto is used by over 2 million men in the United States for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and is commonly recommended as an alternative to drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration. In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 225 men over the age of 49 years who had moderate-to-severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia to one year of treatment with saw palmetto extract (160 mg twice a day) or placebo. The primary outcome measures were changes in the scores on the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) and the maximal urinary flow rate. Secondary outcome measures included changes in prostate size, residual urinary volume after voiding, quality of life, laboratory values, and the rate of reported adverse effects. There was no significant difference between the saw palmetto and placebo groups in the change in AUASI scores (mean difference, 0.04 point; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.93 to 1.01), maximal urinary flow rate (mean difference, 0.43 ml per minute; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.52 to 1.38), prostate size, residual volume after voiding, quality of life, or serum prostate-specific antigen levels during the one-year study. The incidence of side effects was similar in the two groups. In this study, saw palmetto did not improve symptoms or objective measures of benign prostatic hyperplasia. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00037154.). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  17. [Primary hyperaldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal hyperplasia with surgical resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Puchol, O; Garzón-Pastor, S; Salom-Vendrell, C; Hernández-Mijares, A

    Unilateral adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of primary hyperaldosteronism (around a 3%) that has surgical treatment. A case of a patient with hypertension resistant to conventional therapy in treatment with 7 drugs who presented with primary hyperaldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal hyperplasia is presented. A left adrenalectomy was performed, and the patient had a good clinical response, with no need of any drug after 2 years of surgery. Unilateral adrenal hyperplasia is a different entity and it is not an asymmetric variant of the bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. In the study of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism and imaging tests with absence of adenoma is a diagnosis that must be considered before cataloguing patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and start a medical treatment, because unilateral adrenal hyperplasia would have a surgical resolution. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Denture hyperplasia with areas simulating oral inverted ductal papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz; Jorge, Jacks; Rangel, Ana Lúcia Carrinho Ayrosa; León, Jorge Esquiche; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2005-07-01

    Denture hyperplasia is a reactive lesion of the oral mucosa, usually associated to an ill-fitting denture. This lesion is easily diagnosed and in some cases distinct microscopic variations such as osseous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia may be found. These metaplastic alterations probably are associated with the lymphocytic infiltrate usually present in denture hyperplasia. We present a case of denture hyperplasia containing salivary gland tissue with ductal alterations mimicking an oral inverted ductal papilloma.

  19. Hypophysiary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Jorge; Polania, Diana Ligia; Builes, Carlos Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    This is a 43 years old woman, complaining of galactorhea, headache and hyperprolactinaemia. A large macro adenoma of the pituitary with extensive suprasellar extension and displacement of the optic chiasm was detected on MRI and primary hypothyroidism was found. After treatment with levothyroxine for four months, her TSH and prolactin levels returned to normal, her symptoms improved and a marked shrinkage of the selar lesion was observed. The visual fields returned to normal. This is a case of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

  20. Urodynamic implications of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K M; Andersen, J T

    1990-01-01

    By the age of 60, about 70% of men have developed benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and 85%-95% of these have symptomatic dysfunction of the lower urinary tract, 10%-20% undergoing prostatectomy. Although transurethral resection of the prostate is generally considered to be a safe and effective...... instability has no bearing on the postoperative result. Measurement of urinary flow, in contrast, is of predictive value in BPH, patients in whom the maximum urinary flow before surgery is more than 15 ml/s having significantly worse results of surgery than those with a maximum urinary flow of less than 15 ml...

  1. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia: Case series | Kot | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia is one of rare causes of adrenocortical hyperplasia. The disease usually presents bilaterally. Few publications discussed the possibility of unilateral disease, in association with hyperaldosteronism or Cushing syndrome. Case series: We are reporting 3 cases of radiologically ...

  3. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in chronic renal failure: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is used in the management of both hypertension and angina. Amlodipine induced side effects are headache, dizziness, edema, flushing, palpitations, and rarely gingival hyperplasia. The exact reason of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia is not known.

  4. An extensive denture‑induced hyperplasia of maxilla | Veena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elimination of the inflammation and excision of the lesion is the treatment of choice. Denture induced hyperplasia in right maxillary buccal vestibule in a middle age old female patient was presented. Surgical excision was done and new denture was fabricated. Keywords: Denture hyperplasia, Denture, Epulis fissuratum ...

  5. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of Orbit in Young Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of Orbit in Young Male. Somen Misra, Akshay Bhandari, Sagar Chaudhari, Neeta Misra, Pratik Gogri, Parag Tupe. Abstract. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon benign clinical entity characterized by the presence of a variable number of ...

  6. Case Report: Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (GBPH) is an uncommon pathology of the prostate gland. Up to date, only 17 cases have been described with specimen weights exceeding 500 g in the world literature. We report the successful removal of the largest ever benign prostatic hyperplasia (800 g) via transvesical prostatectomy ...

  7. CD8+ T cells induce thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shiguang; Fang, Yujiang; Sharav, Tumenjargal; Sharp, Gordon C; Braley-Mullen, Helen

    2011-02-15

    CD8(+) T cells can be important effector cells in autoimmune inflammation, generally because they can damage target cells by cytotoxicity. This study shows that activated CD8(+) T cells induce thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation and fibrosis in IFN-γ(-/-) NOD.H-2h4 SCID mice in the absence of CD4(+) T cells. Because CD8(+) T cells induce proliferation rather than cytotoxicity of target cells, these results describe a novel function for CD8(+) T cells in autoimmune disease. In contrast to the ability of purified CD8(+) T cells to induce thyrocyte proliferation, CD4(+) T cells or CD8 T cell-depleted splenocytes induced only mild thyroid lesions in SCID recipients. T cells in both spleens and thyroids highly produce TNF-α. TNF-α promotes proliferation of thyrocytes in vitro, and anti-TNF-α inhibits development of thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation in SCID recipients of IFN-γ(-/-) splenocytes. This suggests that targeting CD8(+) T cells and/or TNF-α may be effective for treating epithelial cell hyperplasia and fibrosis.

  8. Laparoscopic Partial Hepatectomy of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Sakata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver lesion incidentally discovered with increasing frequency because of the proliferation of imaging studies. Radiographic characterization can diagnose this pathologic lesion and nonoperative therapy is the standard of care. However, surgical resection may be required for diagnostic reasons or symptomatic patients. Depending on the anatomic location of the lesion, biopsy and/or resection can be performed laparoscopically. We herein report the case of a 26-year-old Japanese woman with a hepatic tumor who required a medical examination. Her medical history was negative for alcohol abuse, oral contraceptive administration and trauma. Clinical examination showed no significant symptoms. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass located in the left lateral segment of the liver with a diameter of about 40 mm. It was difficult to diagnose the tumor definitively from these imaging studies, so we performed laparoscopic partial hepatectomy with successive firing of endoscopic staplers. The histopathological diagnosis was focal nodular hyperplasia. Surgical procedures and postoperative course were uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5.

  9. Conditional deletion of Pten causes bronchiolar hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R; Loudy, Dave E; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2008-03-01

    Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (Pten(Delta/Delta)) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as indicated by beta-tubulin and FOXJ1 expression in ciliated cells and by CCSP expression in nonciliated cells, cell proliferation (detected by expression of Ki-67, phospho-histone-H3, and cyclin D1) was increased and associated with activation of the AKT/mTOR survival pathway. Deletion of Pten caused papillary epithelial hyperplasia characterized by a hypercellular epithelium lining papillae with fibrovascular cores that protruded into the airway lumens. Cell polarity, as assessed by subcellular localization of cadherin, beta-catenin, and zonula occludens-1, was unaltered. PTEN is required for regulation of epithelial cell proliferation in the lung and for the maintenance of the normal simple columnar epithelium characteristics of bronchi and bronchioles.

  10. Detecting DNA synthesis of neointimal formation after catheter balloon injury in GK and in Wistar rats: using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jingsheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neointimal formation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. Recently, some studies have shown that 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU incorporation can serve as a novel alternative to the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU antibody detection method for detection of DNA synthesis in regenerating avian cochlea, chick embryo and the adult nervous system. However, few studies have been performed to assess the suitability of EdU for detecting DNA synthesis in vascular neointima. Methods The carotid artery balloon injury model was established in Goto-Kakizaki (GK and Wistar rats. A Cell-LightTM EdU Kit was used to detect EdU-labeled cell nuclei of common carotid arteries at day 7 after catheter balloon injury. Different methods of injecting EdU were tested. The protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and p-Akt (Ser473, as well as the mRNA levels of PCNA were evaluated by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining was also employed to visualize PCNA-positive cells. Results At day 7 after catheter balloon injury, far more EdU-positive and PCNA-positive cells were observed in GK rats. When comparing groups that received different EdU doses, it was found that the percentage of EdU-positive cells at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was than at doses of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg. The number of positive cells was significantly higher in the repeated injection group compared to the single injection group. Further, after balloon injury DNA synthesis in GK rats was more notable than in Wistar rats. Neointimal formation in GK rats was more obvious than in Wistar rats. The protein levels of PCNA and p-Akt (Ser473 and the mRNA levels of PCNA were increased in injured rats as compared to uninjured rats, and were significantly higher in GK rats than in Wistar rats

  11. Each individual isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor protects from lactotroph hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Daniela; De Mei, Claudia; Chen, Eric; Lee, Hyuna; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2013-06-01

    Dopamine acting through D2 receptors (D2Rs) controls lactotroph proliferation and prolactin (PRL) levels. Ablation of this receptor in mice results in lactotroph hyperplasia and prolactinomas in aged females. Alternative splicing of the Drd2 gene generates 2 independent isoforms, a long (D2L) and a short (D2S) isoform, which are present in all D2R-expressing cells. Here, we addressed the role of D2L and D2S on lactotroph physiology through the generation and analysis of D2S-null mice and their comparison with D2L-null animals. These mice represent a valuable tool with which to investigate dopamine-dependent isoform-specific signaling in the pituitary gland. We sought to assess the existence of a more prominent role of D2L or D2S in controlling PRL expression and lactotroph hyperplasia. Importantly, we found that D2L and D2S are specifically linked to independent transduction pathways in the pituitary. D2L-mediated signaling inhibits the AKT/protein kinase B kinase activity whereas D2S, in contrast, is required for the activation of the ERK 1/2 pathway. Under normal conditions, presence of only 1 of the 2 D2R isoforms in vivo prevents hyperprolactinemia, formation of lactotroph's hyperplasia, and tumorigenesis that is observed when both isoforms are deleted as in D2R-/- mice. However, the protective function of the single D2R isoforms is overridden when single isoform-knockout mice are challenged by chronic estrogen treatments as they show increased PRL production and lactotroph hyperplasia. Our study indicates that signaling from each of the D2R isoforms is sufficient to maintain lactotroph homeostasis in physiologic conditions; however, signaling from both is necessary in conditions simulating pathologic states.

  12. Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia with silodosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Yamanishi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tomonori Yamanishi1, Tomoya Mizuno1, Takao Kamai1, Ken-ichiro Yoshida1, Ryuji Sakakibara2, Tomoyuki Uchiyama31Department of Urology, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Sakura Hospital, Toho University, Toho, Japan; 3Department of Neurology, Chiba University, Chiba, JapanAbstract: It has been reported that blockade of α1A-adrenoceptor (AR relieves bladder outlet obstruction, while blockade of α1D-AR is believed to alleviate storage symptoms due to detrusor overactivity. Silodosin, (--1-(3-hydroxypropyl-5-[(2R-2-({2-[2-(2,2,2trifluoroethoxy phenoxy]ethyl}aminopropyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-7- carboxamide, is a new α1A-AR selective antagonist. Silodosin is highly selective for the α1A-AR subtype, showing an affinity for the α1A-AR that is 583- and 55.5-fold higher than its affinity for the α1B- and α1D-ARs, respectively. In randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III studies performed in Japan and the United States, silodosin has been shown to be effective for both storage and voiding symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Early effects of silodosin (after 2–6 hours or day 1 on lower urinary tract symptoms have also been reported. In urodynamic studies, detrusor overactivity disappeared in 40% and improved in 35% of patients after administration. In pressure flow studies, the grade of obstruction on the International Continence Society nomogram showed improvement in 56% of patients. The rate of adverse events in the silodosin, tamsulosin and placebo groups was 88.6%, 82.3%, and 71.6%, respectively. The most common adverse event was (mostly mild abnormal ejaculation (28.1%. However, few patients (2.8% discontinued silodosin because of abnormal ejaculation. Orthostatic hypotension showed a similar incidence in the silodosin (2.6% and placebo (1.5% groups. In conclusion, silodosin improves detrusor overactivity and obstruction and thus may be effective for both storage and voiding

  13. Experimental study on the clinical effects of Xiaoru Sanjie Jiaonang on mammary glands hyperplasia and ki-67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zi-Hao; Liu, Lin; Zou, Shi-Fang; Xu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Cui-Cui; Liang, Wen-Long; Guo, Bao-Liang; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Kai-Yuan; Liu, Jie-Na; Xu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Ji-Yan; Lin, Jia-Yan; Liu, Li; Zhang, Jian Guo; Chen, Xi

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to observe the effect and mechanism of Xiaoru Sanjie Jiaonang (XRSJ) on the treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, and provide a theoretical basis and clinical evidence for clinical expansion. Methods: Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: high-, middle- and low-dose groups; Xiaoyao Pill group; model control group; normal control group. The observation points were as follows: before XRSJ administration, three months after XRSJ administration, and three months after XRSJ discontinuance. Changes in breast height, morphological changes of the mammary gland under a light and electron microscope, and the expression of ki-67 were observed. At the same time, patients diagnosed with mammary gland hyperplasia at an Outpatient Clinic were selected and divided into treatment groups. These patients received XRSJ and Xiaoyao Pills, respectively, for one month, while patients in the control group did not receive any drug treatment. Clinical efficacy was observed while rechecking at the Outpatient Clinic after three months. Treatment with a therapeutic dose of XRSJ could significantly reduce breast height, decrease the number of lobules and acini in hyperplastic mammary glands and the layer number of ductal glandular epithelial cells, substantially lower the content of serum estradiol (E2), significantly downregulate the expression of ki-67 protein in mammary tissues, and inhibit mammary gland hyperplasia. Conclusion: XRSJ treatment can relieve mammary tissue hyperplastic lesions, reduce E2 levels and downregulate the expression of ki-67. It has a significant therapeutic effect on mammary gland hyperplasia. PMID:29636873

  14. Ultraviolet Type B-Radiation-Induced Hyperplasia and Seborrheic Keratosis is Reduced by Application of Commercial Sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad K Saeed1*, Snur MA Hassan1 and Nali A Maaruf2

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six mice were classified into four groups; Group A (control group, n=8, Group B (exposure group, n=16, Group C (n=16 treated with sunscreen 15 minutes before UVB irradiations and group D (n=16 sunscreen treated 60 minutes before UVB exposure. Mice were irradiated 30 minutes 5days/week (12 weeks, and group C-D treated five days/week (12 weeks. Skin samples were taken in the mid and end of the experiment. The result of this study revealed that, epidermal thickness in group A was 7.155µm. At the mid-period of the experiment, severe epidermal hyperplasia was observed in group B with epidermal thickness 118.712µm, while in group C and D mild to moderate epidermal hyperplasia were noted with decreasing epidermal thickness to 64.154 and 90.042µm respectively. At the end of the experiment in Group B epidermal thickness reached to 281.35µm with seborrheic keratosis development, whereas in group C and D totally inhibited the development of seborrheic keratosis and epidermal thickness decreased again into 42.347 and 55.915µm. In conclusion, chronic UVB radiation-led to epidermal hyperplasia and seborrheic keratosis, sunscreen prevented the development of seborrheic keratosis and decreased the UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia.

  15. Preventive effects of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Plant extracts are useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigates whether ACTICOA (Barry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP), a cocoa polyphenolic extract, could prevent prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of corn oil and treated with vehicle and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments were given orally and started 2 weeks before the induction of prostate hyperplasia. The influence of TP and AP on body weights and food and water consumption of rats was examined. On day 36, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumption, while AP at both doses tested reduced significantly these differences. TP significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .001), and this induced increase was significantly inhibited in AP-treated rats in comparison with positive controls (P < .001) in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that AP can prevent TP-induced prostate hyperplasia and therefore may be beneficial in the management of BPH.

  16. Giant fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia of the breast: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xin-Lu; Ren, Wei-Dong; Shi, Tie-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia of the breast (FAHB) is a rare benign breast lesion and its clinical features are similar to fibroadenoma and fibrocystic changes. FAHB has been previously termed sclerosing lobular hyperplasia, fibroadenomatosis, fibroadenomatoid change, or fibroadenomatoid mastopathy. Typically, FAHB is derived from stroma and epithelia. The pathologic characteristics of FAHB are microfocal lobulocentric proliferation of stroma accompanied by epithelial and myoepithelial components resembling similar histological changes, as found in fibroadenoma, apocrine hyperplasia, intraductal hyperplasia, and lobular hyperplasia. FAHB could be present as a localized or diffused pattern in pathology. Most cases show no well-circumscribed mass lesions and no apparent capsules; it is usually identified as an incidental finding in other benign lesions or in random sampling in cancerous breast tissues. FAHB is categorized as a benign proliferative breast disease and it has previously been reported; however, the authors believe this study may be the first case with two giant masses reported. Fiber adenoma hyperplasia is a rare cystic hyperplasia of breast pathology and its ultrasonographic manifestations are easily confused with breast cancer. Comparative MRI ultrasound analysis will help make the differential diagnosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Saw palmetto and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Edward M; Gerber, Glenn S

    2004-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common health issue that affects 8% of all men at the age of 40, 60% of men in their 70s, and 90% of those greater than 80 years of age. One-fourth of these men will develop moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms that greatly affect their quality of life. Recent evidence suggests that the use of saw palmetto leads to improvements in urinary function for those suffering from BPH. The favorable comparison of saw palmetto with tamsulosin, a well-known first line agent in the treatment of urinary tract symptoms, demonstrates promise towards a beneficial effect of this herbal agent, with very few, if any, adverse effects. However, what degree of this beneficial activity is due to placebo effects is yet to be determined. In addition, the precise mechanism of action of saw palmetto in men with BPH remains unclear.

  18. Cardiac mesothelial papillary hyperplasia in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirejczyk, Shannon G; Burnum, Anne L; Brown, Corrie C; Sakamoto, Kaori; Rissi, Daniel R

    2018-05-01

    Mesothelial papillary hyperplasia (MPH) has been described as an incidental finding on the epicardial surface of clinically normal laboratory Beagle dogs. We describe MPH in 4 dogs diagnosed with acute cardiac tamponade (1 case) or chronic cardiac disease (3 cases). Cardiac MPH appeared as distinct, soft, irregular villous plaques on the epicardial surface of the auricles and occasionally the ventricles. Histologically, areas of MPH were composed of multiple papillary fronds arising from the epicardial surface and projecting into the pericardial space. Fronds were covered by cuboidal and occasionally vacuolated mesothelial cells and were supported by loose fibrovascular stroma with various degrees of edema and inflammation. Although these may represent incidental findings with no clinical significance, the gross appearance warrants differentiation from other conditions. Additional insight into the pathogenesis of MPH is needed to fully understand its significance in the face of concurrent cardiac disease.

  19. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Treatment and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Kamoun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH describes a group of autosomal recessive disorders where there is impairment of cortisol biosynthesis. CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 95% of cases and shows a wide range of clinical severity. Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapies are the mainstays of treatment of CAH. The optimal treatment for adults with CAH continues to be a challenge. Important long-term health issues for adults with CAH affect both men and women. These issues may either be due to the disease or to steroid treatment and may affect final height, fertility, cardiometabolic risk, bone metabolism, neuro-cognitive development and the quality-of-life. Patients with CAH should be regularly followed-up from childhood to adulthood by multidisciplinary teams who have knowledge of CAH. Optimal replacement therapy, close clinical and laboratory monitoring, early life-style interventions, early and regular fertility assessment and continuous psychological management are needed to improve outcome.

  20. Epithelial hyperplasia in human polycystic kidney diseases. Its role in pathogenesis and risk of neoplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, J.; Evan, A. P.; Gardner, K. D.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of tubular epithelial hyperplasia in polycystic kidney diseases has become apparent during the last decade. Micropapillary hyperplasia occurs in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, in localized cystic disease, and in acquired cystic disease. Neoplastic or severely dysplastic epithelial hyperplasia occurs in von Hippel-Lindau disease. A histopathologically distinctive epithelial hyperplasia occurs in tuberous sclerosis. In each of these conditions, epithelial hyperplas...

  1. Lymphangioma circumscriptum, angiokeratoma, or superficial vascular ectasia with epithelial hyperplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulas, Nikolaos; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Argyris, Prokopios; Koutlas, Ioannis G; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of lymphangioma circumscriptum (cavernous lymphangioma with epithelial hyperplasia) in a 12-year-old girl, presenting as a papillary tumor on the right dorsal side of her tongue. Microscopic examination found cavernous vascular channels lined by a single layer of CD31(+), podoplanin-positive, CD34(-) endothelial cells that occupied the papillary lamina propria and were accompanied by epithelial hyperplasia. A review of the literature on oral vascular tumors with epithelial hyperplasia, namely, lymphangioma circumscriptum and angiokeratoma, provided information that draws into question the use of these terms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endometrial hyperplasia in hysteroscopy, Report of 363 cases of hysteroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghahosseyni M

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Hysteroscopy is a new and precise method for evaluating of uterus, so it is valuable in evaluating infertile women. In 18 months, 363 hysteroscopies were done on patients who were visited in IVF center of Shariati Hospital for treatment of infertility. Incidence of abnormal hysteroscopy was 18%. 32% of these abnormal hysteroscopies was endometrial hyperplasia. In evaluating of laparoscopy and other factors of these patients there was a statistically significant relation between diagnosis of PCOD (polycystic ovary disease and endometrial hyperplasia (P<0.008, but there is no significant relation between other diagnoses like endometriosis and endometrial hyperplasia (P<0.4.

  3. Maxillary sinus marrow hyperplasia in sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.; Slovis, T.L.; Whitten-Shurney, W.

    1995-01-01

    Marrow hyperplasia is a sequela of sickle cell anemia (SCA) and may be seen in the skull in children after 5 years of age. The facial bones, except for the mandible and orbits, are usually not involved. We report an unusual case of a 28-month-old black boy with SCA who presented with extensive marrow hyperplasia of the maxillary sinuses in addition to severe calvarial and mandibular changes. The imaging characteristics on CT (similar to other sites of marrow hyperplasia) and MR (low signal on both T 1 and T 2 sequences) should aid in making the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Maxillary sinus marrow hyperplasia in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M; Slovis, T L; Whitten-Shurney, W

    1995-11-01

    Marrow hyperplasia is a sequela of sickle cell anemia (SCA) and may be seen in the skull in children after 5 years of age [1]. The facial bones, except for the mandible and orbits, are usually not involved [1-3]. We report an unusual case of a 28-month-old black boy with SCA who presented with extensive marrow hyperplasia of the maxillary sinuses in addition to severe calvarial and mandibular changes. The imaging characteristics on CT (similar to other sites of marrow hyperplasia) and MR (low signal on both T1 and T2 sequences) should aid in making the correct diagnosis.

  5. Maxillary sinus marrow hyperplasia in sickle cell anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M. [Dept. of Imaging, Children`s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Slovis, T.L. [Dept. of Imaging, Children`s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Whitten-Shurney, W. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Marrow hyperplasia is a sequela of sickle cell anemia (SCA) and may be seen in the skull in children after 5 years of age. The facial bones, except for the mandible and orbits, are usually not involved. We report an unusual case of a 28-month-old black boy with SCA who presented with extensive marrow hyperplasia of the maxillary sinuses in addition to severe calvarial and mandibular changes. The imaging characteristics on CT (similar to other sites of marrow hyperplasia) and MR (low signal on both T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} sequences) should aid in making the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Fibroadenoma with "immature-like" type of usual ductal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezić, Joško; Karaman, Ivana; Kunac, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of the breast fibroadenoma with foci of so-called immature variant of the conventional ductal hyperplasia. This type of usual ductal hyperplasia is histologically characterised by encircling intraductal proliferation of large cells with pale to amphophilic cytoplasm and large nuclei which vary in shape and in staining quality of the chromatin. We showed here, using the cytokeratin immunohistochemistry, that the proliferating cells were not of immature but rather mature immunohistochemical phenotype. Because of the presented discordance between immature histology and mature immunohistological profile we suggest that this rare type of usual ductal hyperplasia should be called "immature-like".

  7. Inflammatory Responses in a Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epithelial Cell Line (BPH-1) Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Su; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

  8. The therapeutic effects of docosahexaenoic acid on oestrogen/androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Luo, Fei; Zhou, Ying; Du, Xiaoling; Shi, Jiandang; Zhao, Xiaoling; Xu, Yong; Zhu, Yan; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the major disorders of the urinary system in elderly men. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the main component of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and has nerve protective, anti-inflammatory and tumour-growth inhibitory effects. Here, the therapeutic potential of DHA in treating BPH was investigated. Seal oil effectively prevented the development of prostatic hyperplasia induced by oestradiol/testosterone in a rat model by suppressing the increase of the prostatic index (PI), reducing the thickness of the peri-glandular smooth muscle layer, inhibiting the proliferation of both prostate epithelial and stromal cells, and downregulating the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor α (ERα). An in vitro study showed that DHA inhibited the growth of the human prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1 and the epithelial cell line RWPE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In both cell lines, the DHA arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. In addition, DHA also reduced the expression of ERα and AR in the WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 cells. These results indicate that DHA inhibits the multiplication of prostate stromal and epithelial cells through a mechanism that may involve cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of ERα and AR expression. - Highlights: • Seal oil prevents oestradiol/testosterone (E2/T)-induced BPH in castrated rats. • Seal oil downregulates the expression of oestrogen receptor α(ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) in rat BPH tissues. • DHA inhibits the growth of human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in vitro. • DHA arrests human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in the G2/M phase and downregulates the expression of cyclin B1. • DHA inhibits the expression of ERα and AR in human prostate stromal and epithelial cells.

  9. The therapeutic effects of docosahexaenoic acid on oestrogen/androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Luo, Fei [Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin 300211 (China); Zhou, Ying; Du, Xiaoling; Shi, Jiandang; Zhao, Xiaoling [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Xu, Yong [Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin 300211 (China); Zhu, Yan [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193 (China); Hong, Wei, E-mail: hongwei@tijmu.edu.cn [Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhang, Ju, E-mail: zhangju@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the major disorders of the urinary system in elderly men. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the main component of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and has nerve protective, anti-inflammatory and tumour-growth inhibitory effects. Here, the therapeutic potential of DHA in treating BPH was investigated. Seal oil effectively prevented the development of prostatic hyperplasia induced by oestradiol/testosterone in a rat model by suppressing the increase of the prostatic index (PI), reducing the thickness of the peri-glandular smooth muscle layer, inhibiting the proliferation of both prostate epithelial and stromal cells, and downregulating the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor α (ERα). An in vitro study showed that DHA inhibited the growth of the human prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1 and the epithelial cell line RWPE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In both cell lines, the DHA arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. In addition, DHA also reduced the expression of ERα and AR in the WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 cells. These results indicate that DHA inhibits the multiplication of prostate stromal and epithelial cells through a mechanism that may involve cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of ERα and AR expression. - Highlights: • Seal oil prevents oestradiol/testosterone (E2/T)-induced BPH in castrated rats. • Seal oil downregulates the expression of oestrogen receptor α(ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) in rat BPH tissues. • DHA inhibits the growth of human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in vitro. • DHA arrests human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in the G2/M phase and downregulates the expression of cyclin B1. • DHA inhibits the expression of ERα and AR in human prostate stromal and epithelial cells.

  10. The anti-hyperplasia, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of Qing Ye Dan and swertiamarin in testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinying; Gu, Ye; Li, Lun

    2017-01-04

    Qing Ye Dan (QYD) is the whole plant of Swertia mileensis and used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and so on. This study was to investigate the effects of QYD and its main component swertiamarin on BPH induced by testosterone in rats. The prostatic expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (βFGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected by immunohistochemistry assay. Prostatic levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory-related factors were also analyzed. Additionally, the prostatic expressions of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-β, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, B-cell CLL/lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured by western blot. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated factors were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. It showed that QYD and swertiamarin ameliorated the testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia and collagen deposition, attenuated the over-expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF, EGF, βFGF, PCNA, AR and ER-α, reduced the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, enhanced the expression of ER-β, inhibited the oxidative stress and local inflammation, as well as relieved prostatic EMT. It suggested that QYD and swertiamarin had prostatic protective potential against BPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  12. A Case of Adenomyomatous Hyperplasia of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakatsu Numata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Adenomyomatous hyperplasia is rarely found in the extrahepatic bile duct. A 54-year-old man was referred to our center with a diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct stenosis which had been detected by endoscopic retrograde choloangiopancreatography. Abdominal computed tomography revealed thickening of the wall of the middle extrahepatic bile duct, however no malignant cells were detected by cytology. Since bile duct carcinoma could not be ruled out, we performed resection of the extrahepatic duct accompanied by lymph node dissection. Histopathologically, the lesion was diagnosed as adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the extrahepatic bile duct. Present and previously reported cases showed the difficulty of making a diagnosis of adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the extrahepatic bile duct preoperatively or intraoperatively. Therefore, when adenomyomatous hyperplasia is suspected, a radical surgical procedure according to malignant disease may be necessary for definitive diagnosis.

  13. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in chronic renal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Keywords: Amlodipine, gingival hyperplasia, chronic renal failure. African Health ... for the treatment of hypertension and angina. Pharmacokinetic ... patient appealed to the dentist at first. ... Am Heart J. 1989 Nov; 118(5 Pt 2):. 1100-1103. 2.

  14. MRI evaluation of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chunjing; Shu Jin'er; Li Huimin; Sheng Sanlan; Lu Jinhua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the MRI manifestations of the pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism and to improve the differential diagnosis of secondary pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary tumors. Methods: The MRI findings of pituitary hyperplasia in 10 documented primary hypothyroidism patients (male 3, female 7; age range: 9-15 years) were reviewed. The pulse sequences using a 1.0T MR scanner included coronal and sagittal T 1 W, coronal T 2 W and coronal contrast-enhanced T 1 W in all patients. Results: The pituitary gland was markedly enlarged with mean height of 15.5 mm (11-23 mm). Central bulging of pituitary gland was seen in all 10 patients with mild displacement of the infundibulum in 3 and sellar enlargement in 5. All glands had homogeneous MR signal intensities and contrast enhancement. Conclusion: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism has characteristic MR features of central bulging with homogeneous signal intensities and contrast enhancement. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of Ovarian Lesions Inducing Endometrial Hyperplasia or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    ovaries featured stromal hyperplasia and 7.7% showed granulosa cell tumor. Only one (1.9%) ... oligomenorrhea and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.[1] Later. Smith et ..... Magnetic resonance imaging findings of ovarian stromal hyperthecosis.

  16. Paediatric cyclical Cushing's disease due to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E

    2015-06-01

    Cushing\\'s disease is very rare in the paediatric population. Although uncommon, corticotroph hyperplasia causing Cushing\\'s syndrome has been described in the adult population, but appears to be extremely rare in children. Likewise, cyclical cortisol hypersecretion, while accounting for 15 % of adult cases of Cushing\\'s disease, has only rarely been described in the paediatric population. Here, we describe a very rare case of a 13-year old boy with cyclical cortisol hypersecretion secondary to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

  17. Dutasteride reduces prostate size and prostate specific antigen in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T; Hirano, Lianne; Gilchriest, Janet; Dighe, Manjiri; Amory, John K; Marck, Brett T; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2011-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and hypogonadism are common disorders in aging men. There is concern that androgen replacement in older men may increase prostate size and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We examined whether combining dutasteride, which inhibits testosterone to dihydrotestosterone conversion, with testosterone treatment in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia reduces androgenic stimulation of the prostate compared to testosterone alone. We conducted a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of 53 men 51 to 82 years old with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate volume 30 cc or greater and serum total testosterone less than 280 ng/dl (less than 9.7 nmol/l). Subjects were randomized to daily transdermal 1% T gel plus oral placebo or dutasteride for 6 months. Testosterone dosing was adjusted to a serum testosterone of 500 to 1,000 ng/dl. The primary outcomes were prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging, serum prostate specific antigen and androgen levels. A total of 46 subjects completed all procedures. Serum testosterone increased similarly into the mid-normal range in both groups. Serum dihydrotestosterone increased in the testosterone only but decreased in the testosterone plus dutasteride group. In the testosterone plus dutasteride group prostate volume and prostate specific antigen (mean ± SEM) decreased 12% ± 2.5% and 35% ± 5%, respectively, compared to the testosterone only group in which prostate volume and prostate specific antigen increased 7.5% ± 3.3% and 19% ± 7% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.008), respectively, after 6 months of treatment. Prostate symptom scores improved in both groups. Combined treatment with testosterone plus dutasteride reduces prostate volume and prostate specific antigen compared to testosterone only. Coadministration of a 5α-reductase inhibitor with testosterone appears to spare the prostate from androgenic stimulation during testosterone replacement in older

  18. Improved Patency of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: The Efficacy of Cilostazol for the Prevention of Pseudointimal Hyperplasia in Swine TIPS Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Woo; Cha, In Ho; Kim, Chul Hwan; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Park, Jeong Hee; Hong, Suk Joo; Lee, In Sik

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the efficacy of oral administration of cilostazol to inhibit pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in swine TIPS models. Methods. Successful TIPS creation was carried out in 11 of 12 healthy young pigs (20-25 kg). In the treatment group (n = 6), both cilostazol and aspirin were administered daily, from the first day of TIPS creation. The control group (n = 5) was administered only aspirin. The animals were followed-up for 2 weeks and then killed. The specimen (including portal vein, hepatic parenchymal tract, hepatic vein, and inferior vena cava) and stents were carefully bisected in a longitudinal fashion. The control group was compared with the treatment group by means of a gross and histologic evaluation of the degree of pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in the shunt. Results. At the gross evaluation, the control group showed considerably more pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia than the treatment group. Using microscopic evaluation, there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mean maximum pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia thickness between the control group (2.97 ± 0.33 mm) and treatment group (0.73 ± 0.27 mm). Conclusion. Oral administration of cilostazol may have been effective in reducing pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in swine TIPS models

  19. Clinical and pathological aspects of epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gîrtan, Mihaela; Stăniceanu, Florica; Zurac, Sabina; Laba, Elisabeta; Forna, Norina

    2008-01-01

    In many cases, the oral health status indicates the general status of the body. 90% of the disorders of the body also manifest at the level of the oral cavity, which means that the dentist can draw the attention of a certain health problem. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a high prevalence of the lesions of the oral mucous, especially lichen planus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis or oral candidiasis. We present here a case of diabetes mellitus with hyperplasic lesion at the level of the inferior vestibule, extended to the right jugal mucosa. The lesion appeared pursuant to the application of removable prosthetics. The biopsy specimen was examined using normal and special staining (HE Hematoxiline - eosine, Van Gieson VG) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In the HE stain, an epithelial hyperplasia was noticed as a result of the proliferation of the basal cells, associated with hyperkeratosis (parakeratosis or orthokeratosis). A moderated inflammatory limphoplasmocitary infiltrate, composed by lymphocytes and plasma cells, was present within the hyperplasic chorion. The immunohistochemical reactions revealed Ki-67 positive nuclei in the basal and suprabasal strata (indicating an increased proliferating activity); rare p53 positive nuclei in the basal stratum (indicating a suppressive action on the cell proliferation); CD3/CD8 positive cells in the inflammatory infiltrate (indicating an important number of T suppressor lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate). In conclusion, diabetes mellitus is a disease which frequently determines major modifications at the level of the oral cavity. Interdisciplinary collaboration between the pathologist and the dentist is necessary for adequate diagnosis and successful treatment.

  20. New technologies in benign prostatic hyperplasia management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William W

    2016-05-01

    Surgical debulking of the adenoma/transition zone has been the fundamental principle which underpins transurethral resection of the prostate - still acknowledged to be the gold-standard therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, there has been a recent resurgence in development of new BPH technologies driven by enhanced understanding of prostate pathophysiology, development of new ablative technologies, and the need for less morbid alternatives as the mean age and complexity of the treatment population continues to increase. The objective of this review is to highlight new BPH technologies and review their available clinical data with specific emphasis on unique features of the technology, procedural effectiveness and safety, and potential impact on current treatment paradigms. New technologies have emerged that alter the shape of the prostate to decrease urinary obstruction and enhance delivery of a lethal thermal dose by steam injection into the transition zone of the prostate. Energy can be delivered to the prostate via a beam of high-pressure saline or focused acoustic energy to mechanically disintegrate prostate tissue. Methods of cell death are being targeted with selectivity by the arterial supply with embolization and specific to prostate cells via injectable biological therapies. A number of new technologies are at various stages of development and improve on the transurethral resection of the prostate paradigm by moving closer to the ideal BPH therapy which is definitive, can be performed in minutes, in the office setting, with only local anesthesia and oral sedation.

  1. Cutaneous Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, M; Katori, Y; Sasaki, H; Obara, R D; Furumoto, R; Kato, M; Nakahira, R; Yoshimura, H; Soeta, S; Ishiwata, T; Takahashi, K

    2017-07-01

    A 5-year-old male miniature dachshund was presented with a dermal nodule on the left forelimb that increased to 5 mm in diameter over a 2-month period. Grossly, the nodule was firm, and both the external and cut surfaces were homogeneously pale pink in colour. Microscopically, the nodule was comprised of mainly plump endothelial cells and inflammatory cells; among the latter, lymphocytes were predominant, with few scattered plasma cells, mast cells and macrophages. Lymphoid follicles with germinal centres were often observed. Mitotic figures were not observed amongst the endothelial cells. Immunohistochemically, the endothelial cells were positive for vimentin, factor VIII-related antigen and CD31, and the surrounding cells were positive for smooth muscle actin. Lymphocytes expressed CD3 or BLA36. These findings led to a diagnosis of cutaneous angiolymphoid hyperplasia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cutaneous proliferative disorder comprising an admixture of proliferating vascular endothelial cells and lymphocytic infiltration with follicle formation in a dog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Brook, Charles G D; Hindmarsh, Peter C

    2004-11-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders resulting from deficiency of one of the five enzymes required for synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal cortex. The most common form of the disease is classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by decreased synthesis of glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids, adrenal hyperandrogenism and impaired development and function of the adrenal medulla. The clinical management of classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency is often suboptimal, and patients are at risk of developing in tandem iatrogenic hypercortisolism and/or hyperandogenism. Limitations of current medical therapy include the inability to control hyperandrogenism without employing supraphysiologic doses of glucocorticoid, hyperresponsiveness of the hypertrophied adrenal glands to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and difficulty in suppressing ACTH secretion from the anterior pituitary. Puberty imposes increased difficulty in attaining adrenocortical suppression despite optimal substitution therapy and adherence to medical treatment. Alterations in the endocrine milieu at puberty may influence cortisol pharmacokinetics and, consequently, the handling of hydrocortisone used as replacement therapy. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant increase in cortisol clearance at puberty and a shorter half-life of free cortisol in pubertal females compared with males. Furthermore, children with classic CAH have elevated fasting serum insulin concentrations and insulin resistance. The latter may further enhance adrenal and/or ovarian androgen secretion, decrease the therapeutic efficacy of glucocorticoids and contribute to later development of the metabolic syndrome and its complications.

  3. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Yau, Mabel; Barhan, Ariella; Zaidi, Mone; Lo, Y M Dennis; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is genital ambiguity noted at birth in affected females, which leads to psychological and psychosexual issues in adult life. Attempts to correct genital ambiguity through surgical intervention have been partially successful. Fetal hyperandrogenemia and genital ambiguity have been shown to be preventable by prenatal administration of low-dose dexamethasone initiated before the 9th week of gestation. In 7 of 8 at-risk pregnancies, the unaffected fetus is unnecessarily exposed to dexamethasone for weeks until the diagnosis of classical CAH is ruled out by invasive procedures. This therapeutic dilemma calls for early prenatal diagnosis so that dexamethasone treatment can be directed to affected female fetuses only. We describe the utilization of cell-free fetal DNA in mothers carrying at-risk fetuses as early as 6 gestational weeks by targeted massively parallel sequencing of the genomic region including and flanking the CYP21A2 gene. Our highly personalized and innovative approach should permit the diagnosis of CAH before genital development begins, therefore restricting the purposeful administration of dexamethasone to mothers carrying affected females. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Nonclassical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Cuhaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH deficiency due to mutation of the CYP21A2 gene. Patients with nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH are usually asymptomatic at birth and typically present in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood with symptoms of excessive androgen secretion. Subfertility is relative in NC-CAH, but the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is higher. Here, we report a previously undiagnosed female who gave birth to a normal male child and is planning to become pregnant again. Case Report. A 32-year-old female was referred to our clinic for obesity. Her medical history revealed that she had had three pregnancies. She was planning to become pregnant again. Her laboratory results revealed that she had NC-CAH. Since her husband is the son of her aunt and she had miscarriages and intrauterin exitus in her history, their genetic analyses were performed. Conclusion. Since most patients with NC-CAH have a severe mutation, these patients may give birth to a child with the classical CAH (C-CAH if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Females with NC-CAH who desire pregnancy must be aware of the risk of having an infant with C-CAH.

  5. Conjunctival lymphoma arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuhara Junichi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extra nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL of the conjunctiva typically arises in the marginal zone of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The pathogenesis of conjunctival EMZL remains unknown. We describe an unusual case of EMZL arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH of the conjunctiva. A 35-year-old woman had fleshy salmon-pink conjunctival tumors in both eyes, oculus uterque (OU. Specimens from conjunctival tumors in the right eye, oculus dexter (OD, revealed a collection of small lymphoid cells in the stroma. Immunohistochemically, immunoglobulin (Ig light chain restriction was not detected. In contrast, diffuse atypical lymphoid cell infiltration was noted in the left eye, oculus sinister (OS, and positive for CD20, a marker for B cells OS. The tumors were histologically diagnosed as RLH OD, and EMZL OS. PCR analysis detected IgH gene rearrangement in the joining region (JH region OU. After 11 months, a re-biopsy specimen demonstrated EMZL based on compatible pathological and genetic findings OD, arising from RLH. This case suggests that even if the diagnosis of the conjunctival lymphoproliferative lesions is histologically benign, confirmation of the B-cell clonality by checking IgH gene rearrangement should be useful to predict the incidence of malignancy.

  6. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumor) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liné, A; Sanchez, J; Jayyosi, L; Birembaut, P; Ohl, X; Poli-Mérol, M-L; François, C

    2017-06-01

    The intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH/Masson's tumor) is a rare benign tumor of the skin and subcutaneous vessels. We report, in four pediatric cases, clinical presentation, care (diagnostic and surgical) of Masson's tumor in children. Two boys (two years) and two girls (four and six years) showed a pain subcutaneous tumor (one to five centimeters). They were in the transverse abdominal muscle, between two metatarsals, at the front of thigh and in the axilla. Imaging performed (MRI, Doppler ultrasound) evoked either a hematoma, a lymphangioma or hemangioma. The indication for removal was selected from pain and/or parental concern. The diagnosis was histologically. A lesion persisted in residual form (incomplete initial resection), and is currently not scalable for eleven years. This tumor is characterized by excessive proliferation and papillary endothelial cells in the vessels, following a thrombotic event. It is found mainly in adults (no specific age), and preferentially localizes in the face and limbs. The clinical differential diagnosis of this tumor is angiosarcoma. The imagery has not allowed in our series to diagnose but still essential to eliminate differential diagnoses. Only surgical excision with histological examination can differentiate. Our study emphasizes the possibility of pediatric cases with two cases of unusual locations (abdominal and axilla). Clinical presentations we met, now lead us to direct our histologist looking for a Masson tumor in any child with a subcutaneous tumor and/or intramuscular pain, sudden onset, and vascular appearance (after excluding an arteriovenous malformation). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of arterial intimal hyperplasia: review and hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbotin Vladimir M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a prodigious investment of funds, we cannot treat or prevent arteriosclerosis and restenosis, particularly its major pathology, arterial intimal hyperplasia. A cornerstone question lies behind all approaches to the disease: what causes the pathology? Hypothesis I argue that the question itself is misplaced because it implies that intimal hyperplasia is a novel pathological phenomenon caused by new mechanisms. A simple inquiry into arterial morphology shows the opposite is true. The normal multi-layer cellular organization of the tunica intima is identical to that of diseased hyperplasia; it is the standard arterial system design in all placentals at least as large as rabbits, including humans. Formed initially as one-layer endothelium lining, this phenotype can either be maintained or differentiate into a normal multi-layer cellular lining, so striking in its resemblance to diseased hyperplasia that we have to name it "benign intimal hyperplasia". However, normal or "benign" intimal hyperplasia, although microscopically identical to pathology, is a controllable phenotype that rarely compromises blood supply. It is remarkable that each human heart has coronary arteries in which a single-layer endothelium differentiates early in life to form a multi-layer intimal hyperplasia and then continues to self-renew in a controlled manner throughout life, relatively rarely compromising the blood supply to the heart, causing complications requiring intervention only in a small fraction of the population, while all humans are carriers of benign hyperplasia. Unfortunately, this fundamental fact has not been widely appreciated in arteriosclerosis research and medical education, which continue to operate on the assumption that the normal arterial intima is always an "ideal" single-layer endothelium. As a result, the disease is perceived and studied as a new pathological event caused by new mechanisms. The discovery that normal

  8. Perivascular delivery of Notch 1 siRNA inhibits injury-induced arterial remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M Redmond

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy of perivascular delivery of Notch 1 siRNA in preventing injury-induced arterial remodeling.Carotid artery ligation was performed to induce arterial remodeling. After 14 days, morphometric analysis confirmed increased vSMC growth and subsequent media thickening and neointimal formation. Laser capture microdissection, quantitative qRT-PCR and immunoblot analysis of medial tissue revealed a significant increase in Notch1 receptor and notch target gene, Hrt 1 and 2 expression in the injured vessels. Perivascular delivery of Notch 1 siRNA by pluronic gel inhibited the injury-induced increase in Notch 1 receptor and target gene expression when compared to scrambled siRNA controls while concomitantly reducing media thickening and neointimal formation to pre-injury, sham-operated levels. Selective Notch 1 knockdown also reversed the injury-induced inhibition of pro-apoptotic Bax expression while decreasing injury-induced anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL expression to sham-operated control levels. In parallel experiments, proliferative cyclin levels, as measured by PCNA expression, were reversed to sham-operated control levels following selective Notch 1 knockdown.These results suggest that injury-induced arterial remodeling can be successfully inhibited by localized perivascular delivery of Notch 1 siRNA.

  9. Topical Application of Glycolipids from Isochrysis galbana Prevents Epidermal Hyperplasia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azahara Rodríguez-Luna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis have a significant impact on society. Currently, the major topical treatments have many side effects, making their continued use in patients difficult. Microalgae have emerged as a source of bio-active molecules such as glycolipids with potent anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to investigate the effects of a glycolipid (MGMG-A and a glycolipid fraction (MGDG obtained from the microalga Isochrysis galbana on a TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia murine model. In a first set of experiments, we examined the preventive effects of MGMG-A and MGDG dissolved in acetone on TPA-induced hyperplasia model in mice. In a second step, we performed an in vivo permeability study by using rhodamine-containing cream, ointment, or gel to determinate the formulation that preserves the skin architecture and reaches deeper. The selected formulation was assayed to ensure the stability and enhanced permeation properties of the samples in an ex vivo experiment. Finally, MGDG-containing cream was assessed in the hyperplasia murine model. The results showed that pre-treatment with acetone-dissolved glycolipids reduced skin edema, epidermal thickness, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 in epidermal tissue. The in vivo and ex vivo permeation studies showed that the cream formulation had the best permeability profile. In the same way, MGDG-cream formulation showed better permeation than acetone-dissolved preparation. MGDG-cream application attenuated TPA-induced skin edema, improved histopathological features, and showed a reduction of the inflammatory cell infiltrate. In addition, this formulation inhibited epidermal expression of COX-2 in a similar way to dexamethasone. Our results suggest that an MGDG-containing cream could be an emerging therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory skin pathologies such as psoriasis.

  10. Exophytic oral verrucous hyperplasia: a new entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Raj, Thirumal; Sanketh, D S; Rao, Roopa S

    2016-11-01

    Exophytic oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) is a new entity described by an expert working group from South Asia. First reported in Taiwan, there are no reports so far from an Indian population. The aim was to use the microscopic features described by the expert group to differentiate OVH from other oral verruco-papillary lesions in an Indian archive. In a retrospective multicentre study, using pathology archives, 188 verruco-papillary lesions were retrieved from pathology archives. A proforma listing histopathological criteria for OVH based on published guidelines (Annals of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 2013) was used. Patients' demographic and clinical data were transcribed from patient charts. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine associations between clinical and histopathological features. Of 188 oral verruco-papillary lesions that were evaluated, based on microscopic features the cases were reclassified as OVH (57), verrucous carcinoma (VC) (84), oral squamous cell carcinoma (16), and other verruco-papillary lesions (31). Both OVH (70%) and VC (60%) showed male predominance and commonly affected buccal mucosa (OVH 74% and VC 57%). Absence of downward growth of the hyperplastic epithelium into lamina propria when compared with the level of the basement membrane of the adjacent normal epithelium was a distinct feature in OVH. Keratin plugging, epithelial dysplasia and subepithelial lymphocytic infiltration were found to be significantly different (P < 0.05) in OVH versus VC. The sample size of other verruco-papillary lesions was insufficient for statistical comparison. Apart from the absence of an endophytic growth pattern in OVH, we noted the presence of dysplasia in OVH. This significant observation does institute a debate as to whether this enigmatic lesion could possibly be a precedent of oral squamous or verrucous carcinoma. We propose OVH is a distinct entity in our Indian population and should be considered in the classification of oral

  11. Chromosomal aberrations in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Altok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the chromosomal changes in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 patients diagnosed with clinical BPH underwent transurethral prostate resection to address their primary urological problem. All patients were evaluated by use of a comprehensive medical history and rectal digital examination. The preoperative evaluation also included serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA measurement and ultrasonographic measurement of prostate volume. Prostate cancer was detected in one patient, who was then excluded from the study. We performed conventional cytogenetic analyses of short-term cultures of 53 peripheral blood samples obtained from the BPH patients. Results: The mean (±standard deviation age of the 53 patients was 67.8±9.4 years. The mean PSA value of the patients was 5.8±7.0 ng/mL. The mean prostate volume was 53.6±22.9 mL. Chromosomal abnormalities were noted in 5 of the 53 cases (9.4%. Loss of the Y chromosome was the most frequent chromosomal abnormality and was observed in three patients (5.7%. There was no statistically significant relationship among age, PSA, prostate volume, and chromosomal changes. Conclusions: Loss of the Y chromosome was the main chromosomal abnormality found in our study. However, this coexistence did not reach a significant level. Our study concluded that loss of the Y chromosome cannot be considered relevant for the diagnosis of BPH as it is for prostate cancer. Because BPH usually occurs in aging men, loss of the Y chromosome in BPH patients may instead be related to the aging process.

  12. CT findings of lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia in adult myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fugeng; Wei Jiahu; Pan Jishu; Zhou Cheng; Chen Qihang; Yu Jingying; Wu Guogeng; Xu Xianhao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT findings of lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia in adult myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: The CT findings of thymus area of 134 adult patients with lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia in MG were reviewed, all of them with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis, and compared with the CT findings of 165 normal subjects. Results: In the group of patient, CT showed enlargement of thymus in 31 patients, 5 patients had nodule or mass ( 3 cm) and 9 patients (6.7%) had normal size thymus with soft-tissue density, it can considered with thymic hyperplasia. The spotty or streak shadow showed in other patients, though it could not be certain diagnosed as thymic hyperplasia, but could not be except it. The thymus area tissue complete replacement by fatty density were not found in patient group. The CT findings of patients had marked difference when compared with group of normal subjects (P<0.01), except the spotty or streak shadows. Conclusion: CT scan is an important method in diagnosing thymic lymphofollicular hyperplasia of MG in adult. (authors)

  13. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation by histone deacetylase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Qing, Hua; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Jones, Karrie L; Cohn, Dianne; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-04-01

    Proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to vascular injury is central to neointimal vascular remodeling. There is accumulating evidence that histone acetylation constitutes a major epigenetic modification for the transcriptional control of proliferative gene expression; however, the physiological role of histone acetylation for proliferative vascular disease remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in SMC proliferation and neointimal remodeling. We demonstrate that mitogens induce transcription of HDAC 1, 2, and 3 in SMC. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either HDAC 1, 2, or 3 and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC prevented mitogen-induced SMC proliferation. The mechanisms underlying this reduction of SMC proliferation by HDAC inhibition involve a growth arrest in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle that is due to an inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. HDAC inhibition resulted in a transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip). Furthermore, HDAC inhibition repressed mitogen-induced cyclin D1 mRNA expression and cyclin D1 promoter activity. As a result of this differential cell cycle-regulatory gene expression by HDAC inhibition, the retinoblastoma protein retains a transcriptional repression of its downstream target genes required for S phase entry. Finally, we provide evidence that these observations are applicable in vivo by demonstrating that HDAC inhibition decreased neointima formation and expression of cyclin D1 in a murine model of vascular injury. These findings identify HDAC as a critical component of a transcriptional cascade regulating SMC proliferation and suggest that HDAC might play a pivotal role in the development of proliferative vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis.

  14. miRNA Regulation Network Analysis in Qianliening Capsule Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanism by which Qianliening capsule (QC treats benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Methods. Benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line BPH-1 was treated with 0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/mL QC for 48 h, respectively. Evaluation of cell viability and observation of morphologic changes of BPH-1 cell gene expression and miRNA expression profiles were analyzed. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to confirm changes in miRNA and gene expression. GO and KEGG pathway-based approaches were used to investigate biological functions and signaling pathways affected by differentially expressed mRNAs. Results. QC inhibited BPH-1 cell proliferation. Differential expression of 19 upregulated and 2 downregulated miRNAs was observed in QC-treated BPH-1 cells compared to untreated control cells. 107 upregulated and 71 downregulated genes were identified between the two groups. Significantly enriched signaling pathways based on deregulated mRNAs were mainly involved in regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and so on. Additionally, miRNA-mRNA network analysis integrated these miRNAs and genes by outlining interactions of miRNA and related genes. Conclusion. The study was the first report of differentially expressed miRNA and mRNA in QC-treated BPH-1 cells.

  15. Role of GPR30 in estrogen-induced prostate epithelial apoptosis and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Liang; Xu, Jia-Wen; Zhu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Lin; Xu, Jian-Bang; Sun, Qing; Cao, Xiao-Nian; Zuo, Wu-Lin; Xu, Ruo-Shui; Huang, Jie-Hong; Jiang, Fu-Neng; Zhuo, Yang-Jia; Xiao, Bai-Quan; Liu, Yun-Zhong; Yuan, Dong-Bo; Sun, Zhao-Lin; He, Hui-Chan; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhong, Wei-De; Zhou, Wen-Liang

    2017-06-03

    Several studies have implicated estrogen and the estrogen receptor (ER) in the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); however, the mechanism underlying this effect remains elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated that estrogen (17β-estradiol, or E2)-induced activation of the G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) triggered Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, increased the mitochondrial Ca 2+ concentration, and thus induced prostate epithelial cell (PEC) apoptosis. Both E2 and the GPR30-specific agonist G1 induced a transient intracellular Ca 2+ release in PECs via the phospholipase C (PLC)-inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate (IP 3 ) pathway, and this was abolished by treatment with the GPR30 antagonist G15. The release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3 in response to GPR30 activation were observed. Data generated from the analysis of animal models and human clinical samples indicate that treatment with the GPR30 agonist relieves testosterone propionate (TP)-induced prostatic epithelial hyperplasia, and that the abundance of GPR30 is negatively associated with prostate volume. On the basis of these results, we propose a novel regulatory mechanism whereby estrogen induces the apoptosis of PECs via GPR30 activation. Inhibition of this activation is predicted to lead to abnormal PEC accumulation, and to thereby contribute to BPH pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. STAT6 deficiency ameliorates Graves' disease severity by suppressing thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuechao; Zha, Bingbing; Liu, Xiaoming; Liu, Ronghua; Liu, Jun; Huang, Enyu; Qian, Tingting; Liu, Jiajing; Wang, Zhiming; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Luman; Chu, Yiwei

    2016-12-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) is involved in epithelial cell growth. However, little is known regarding the STAT6 phosphorylation status in Graves' disease (GD) and its role in thyroid epithelial cells (TECs). In this study, we found that STAT6 phosphorylation (p-STAT6) was significantly increased in TECs from both GD patients and experimental autoimmune Graves' disease mice and that STAT6 deficiency ameliorated GD symptoms. Autocrine IL-4 signalling in TECs activated the phosphorylation of STAT6 via IL-4 R engagement, and the downstream targets of STAT6 were Bcl-xL and cyclin D1. Thus, the IL-4-STAT6-Bcl-xL/cyclin D1 pathway is crucial for TEC hyperplasia, which aggravates GD. More importantly, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that STAT6 phosphorylation inhibited by AS1517499 decreased TEC hyperplasia, thereby reducing serum T3 and T4 and ameliorating GD. Thus, our study reveals that in addition to the traditional pathogenesis of GD, in which autoantibody TRAb stimulates thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors and consequently produces T3, T4, TRAb could also trigger TECs producing IL-4, and IL-4 then acts in an autocrine manner to activate p-STAT6 signalling and stimulate unrestricted cell growth, thus aggravating GD. These findings suggest that STAT6 inhibitors could be potent therapeutics for treating GD.

  17. Hyperplasia of elastic tissue in hepatic schistosomal fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Elastic tissue hyperplasia, revealed by means of histological, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural methods, appeared as a prominent change in surgical liver biopsies taken from 61 patients with schistosomal periportal and septal fibrosis. Such hyperplasia was absent in ecperimental murine schistosomiasis, including mice with "pipe-stem" fibrosis. Displaced connective tissue cells in periportal areas, such as smooth muscle cells, more frequently observed in human material, could be the site of excessive elastin synthesis, and could explain the differences observed in human and experimental materials. Elastic tissue, sometimes represented by its microfibrillar components, also appeared to be more condensed in areas of matrix (collagen degradation, suggesting a participation of this tissue in the remodelling of the extracellular matrix. By its rectratile properties elastic tissue hyperplasia in hepatic schistosomiasis can cause vascular narrowing and thus play a role in the pathogenesis of portal hypeertension.

  18. Mutations of the KRAS oncogene in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Niklińska

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and clinicopathological significance of KRAS point mutation in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. We analysed KRAS in 11 cases of complex atypical hyperplasia and in 49 endometrial carcinomas using polymerase chain reaction associated with restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFPL. Point mutations at codon 12 of KRAS oncogene were identified in 7 of 49 (14,3% tumor specimens and in 2 of 11 (18,2% hyperplasias. No correlation was found between KRAS gene mutation and age at onset, histology, grade of differentiation and clinical stage. We conclude that KRAS mutation is a relatively common event in endometrial carcinogenesis, but with no prognostic value.

  19. [Effect of tranilast on wound healing and administration time on scar hyperplasia of deep partial-thickness burn in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Bin; Li, Yang; Jiang, Wei; Wen, Lihong; Ji, Fukang; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Jinhuang; Liu, Dalie

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of tranilast on wound healing and the mechanism of inhibiting scar hyperplasia in mice, and to study the relationship between the inhibiting ability of tranilast on scar hyperplasia and administration time. Sixty-six Kunming mice were selected to build deep II degree burn model, and were randomly divided into the control group (18 mice), the early intervention group (18 mice), the medium intervention group (18 mice), and the late intervention group (12 mice). The mice in the early intervention group, the medium-term intervention group, and the late intervention group were given tranilast 200 mg/(kg·d) by gastrogavage at immediate, 7 days, and 14 days after burn respectively, and the mice in the control group were managed with same amount of normal saline every day. The wound healing was observed regularly. At 14, 28, and 42 days in the early and medium intervention groups and at 28 and 42 days in the late intervention group, fresh tissues were taken from 6 mice to observe the shape of mast cells by toluidine blue staining, collagen content by Masson staining; the collagen type I and collagen type III content were measured to calculate the I/III collagen content ratio by immunohistochemistry method, the contents of transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β 1 ) and histamine were detected by ELISA; and the ultrastructure of fibroblasts was observed under transmission electron microscope. There was no significant difference in wound healing time between groups ( F =1.105, P =0.371). The mast cells number, collagen content, TGF-β 1 content, histamine content, and the I/III collagen content ratio in the early intervention group were significantly less than those in the other groups ( P 0.05). Compared with the control group, the activity of fibroblasts in the early intervention group was obviously inhibited, and the arrangement of the fibers was more regular; the fibroblast activity in the medium and late intervention groups was also inhibited

  20. DOES HYPOGONADISM ON RESULTS TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sigaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of hypogonadism on the results of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH remains unexplored. At the survey included 98 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent TURP. Revealed that the postoperative period in patients characterized by a significant decrease in the level of performance testosteronemii in all cases, and against the background of hypogonadism accompanied by the development of more complications. Preoperative correction of hypogonadism for 2 weeks prior to surgery allows a 2-3 times lower risk of postoperative complications. 

  1. The prevention of benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, W G

    2017-03-01

    Barry Marshall and Robin Warren were the first to show that the chronic diseases (gastric ulcer and chronic gastritis) were caused by an infection (Helicobacter pylori). The chronic disease benign prostatic hyperplasia belongs to the same ilk, except that the infection process is much more subtle and complex. The enzyme Phospholipase D (PLD) which is attached to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli (E. coli) has now been almost completely proven to be the basic cause of BPH. The evidence for this process is now extremely strong and compelling. PLD obtained from the organism Streptomyces chromofuscus has been used in past research because of its PLD content. It is commercially available. In vitro, on a culture of prostatic smooth muscle, PLD stimulated the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) which acted on and caused substantial growth of that muscle in accordance with the quantity of PLD/ LPA generated. It has been asserted that repeated colonization by E. coli of the transitional zone of the prostate gland and the release of PLD following repeated destruction of these colonized bacteria, is the basic cause of BPH. The evidence for colonizing and re-colonizing infection is now overwhelming. PLD is a simple lipid consisting of a phosphate, glycerol and a fatty acid. After absorption into the prostatic stroma (which consists of connective tissue and of smooth muscle), it stimulates the production of LPA which, in turn, apart from directly stimulating prostatic smooth muscle, also acts on the connective tissue in the prostate and induces a complex mixture of growth regulatory proteins, which include members of the fibroblast, insulin-like and growth transforming factor families and implicates autocrine hormones acting on the stroma and paracrine hormones acting on epithelium. Also involved, are a variety of interleukins and other inflammatory cell cytokines, secreted by the stroma, which may further promote autocrine/paracrine proliferation of BPH cells

  2. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of Orbit in Young Male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3] The etiology of. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of Orbit in Young Male. Somen Misra, Akshay Bhandari, Sagar Chaudhari, Neeta Misra, Pratik Gogri, Parag Tupe. Department of Ophthalmology, Rural Medical .... blood eosinophilia, and nephrotic syndrome due to IgE deposition in the renal glomeruli.

  3. Epidemiology and management of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBenign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common non-cancerous form of cell growth in men and usually begins with the formation of microscopic nodules in younger men. As BPH progresses, overgrowth occurs in the central area of the prostate, called the transition zone, which wraps

  4. High condylectomy for the treatment of mandibular condylar hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghawsi, Sodaba; Aagaard, Esben; Thygesen, Torben Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular condylar hyperplasia (MCH) is a rare, idiopathic disorder, which can cause both functional and aesthetic problems. MCH has often been described in the literature, but a comprehensive analysis of the current literature on MCH has not been undertaken. This study presents a systematic rev...

  5. Two Cases of. Cushing's Syndrome tumour and bilateral hyperplasia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two patients, one with Cushing's syndrome and one with Cushing's disease, are presented. In the first case the syndrome was caused by a tumour of the right suprarenal gland which was treated by unilateral adrenalectomy, and the second case was diagnosed as hyperplasia of the left suprarenal gland, eventually leading ...

  6. A mouse model of mammary hyperplasia induced by oral hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and Materials: To address the mechanism, we developed a mouse model of mammary hyperplasia. We gave mice estradiol valerate tablets and progesterone capsules sequentially for one month by intragastric administration. Results: Mice treated by this method had a series of pathological changes which are ...

  7. Effect of Prunella vulgaris L extract on hyperplasia of mammary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p < 0.01) in rats treated with highdose PVE. Conclusion: These results suggest that PVE exerts anti-HMG effect in rats induced by estrogen and progestogen. Keywords: Prunella vulgaris L; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-hyperplasia of mammary gland ...

  8. Management of experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of diet containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds, in managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was studied. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups. BPH was induced by sub-cutaneous injection of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate (ratio, 10:1) every other day for ...

  9. Pituitary hyperplasia secondary to hypothyroidism in an adolescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capiel, Carlos A. h; Bouzas, Carlos A.; Mondino, Ana

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of a 14 years old patient with growth arrest and laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism. MR revealed pituitary enlargement simulating macro adenoma. Thyroid replacement therapy resulted in regression of the pituitary size. Awareness of MR appearance of pituitary hyperplasia in children and juvenile patients with laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism might avoid misdiagnosis for pituitary tumor. (author)

  10. Gingival hyperplasia induced by diphenylhydantoin in a gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, D; Oosterhuis, J

    1979-11-01

    An adult male lowland gorilla had been treated with diphenylhydantoin for 6 months following several acute convulsive episodes. The gorilla remained clinically normal during that period. Then, for no apparent reason, it refused its usual diet. Physical examination revealed acute inflammatory gingival hyperplasia. Full mouth gingivectomy and antibiotic and analgesic therapy resolved the oral inflammation and the anorexia.

  11. Radiological findings of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Shin, Joo Yong; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Jin Hee; Sohn, Cheol Ho; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji

    2001-01-01

    Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the marked accumulation of lipids and cholesterol in the adrenal cortex, and the failure of adrenal steroids to synthesise. We report the ultrasound (US), computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a four-day-old female neonate with CLAH

  12. Thymic hyperplasia in a patient with Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Amira A; Klii, Rim R; Salem, Randa R; Kochtali, Ines I; Golli, Mondher M; Mahjoub, Silvia S

    2012-02-09

    Hyperplastic changes of the thymus may be found in patients with Graves' disease. However, this rarely presents as an anterior mediastinal mass, particularly among adults. In this report, we describe a 46-year old woman with Graves' disease and thymic hyperplasia.

  13. Thymic hyperplasia in a patient with Grave's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzaoui Amira A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperplastic changes of the thymus may be found in patients with Graves' disease. However, this rarely presents as an anterior mediastinal mass, particularly among adults. In this report, we describe a 46-year old woman with Graves' disease and thymic hyperplasia.

  14. reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-02

    Feb 2, 2009 ... cases(0.9%) were those of denture irritation hyperplasia. The age ... reported to have recurred and all of them were gingival lesions. ... grade chronic irritations to the oral mucosa such as ..... J. Periodontal.1980; 51: 55-61. 7.

  15. Role of Hyperplasia of Gingival Lymphatics in Periodontal Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakou, P; Bletsa, A; Yassin, M A; Karlsen, T V; Wiig, H; Berggreen, E

    2017-04-01

    Lymphatic vessels are important for maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis and afferent antigen transport. In chronic inflammation, lymphangiogenesis takes place and is characterized by lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and lymphatic hyperplasia. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is the main known lymphangiogenic growth factor, and its expression is increased in periodontitis, a common chronic infectious disease that results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. The role of lymphangiogenesis during development of periodontitis is unknown. Here, we test if transgenic overexpression of epithelial VEGFC in a murine model is followed by hyperplasia of lymphatic vessels in oral mucosa and if the lymphatic drainage capacity is altered. We also test if lymphatic hyperplasia protects against periodontal disease development. Transgenic keratin 14 (K14)-VEGFC mice had significant hyperplasia of lymphatics in oral mucosa, including gingiva, without changes in blood vessel vasculature. The basal lymph flow was normal but slightly lower than in wild-type mice when oral mucosa was challenged with lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Under normal conditions, K14-VEGFC mice exhibited an increased number of neutrophils in gingiva, demonstrated enhanced phagocyte recruitment in the cervical lymph nodes, and had more alveolar bone when compared with their wild-type littermates. After induction of periodontitis, no strain differences were observed in the periodontal tissues with respect to granulocyte recruitment, bone resorption, angiogenesis, cytokines, and bone-related protein expressions or in draining lymph node immune cell proportions and vascularization. We conclude that overexpression of VEGFC results in hyperplastic lymphatics, which do not enhance lymphatic drainage capacity but facilitate phagocyte transport to draining lymph nodes. Hyperplasia of lymphatics does not protect against development of ligature-induced periodontitis.

  16. Stent coverage and neointimal proliferation in bare metal stents postdilated with a Paclitaxel-eluting balloon versus everolimus-eluting stents: prospective randomized study using optical coherence tomography at 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerner, Tudor C; Otto, Sylvia; Gassdorf, Johannes; Nitsche, Kristina; Janiak, Florian; Scheller, Bruno; Goebel, Björn; Jung, Christian; Figulla, Hans R

    2014-12-01

    In this randomized trial, strut coverage and neointimal proliferation of a therapy of bare metal stents (BMSs) postdilated with the paclitaxel drug-eluting balloon (DEB) was compared with everolimus drug-eluting stents (DESs) at 6-month follow-up using optical coherence tomography. We hypothesized sufficient stent coverage at follow-up. A total of 105 lesions in 90 patients were treated with either XIENCE V DES (n=51) or BMS postdilated with the SeQuent Please DEB (n=54). At follow-up, comparable results on the primary optical coherence tomography end point (percentage uncovered struts 5.64±9.65% in BMS+DEB versus 4.93±9.29% in DES; P=0.366) were found. Thus, BMS+DEB achieved the prespecified noninferiority margin of 5% uncovered struts versus DES (difference between treatment means, 0.71%; one-sided upper 95% confidence interval, 4.14%; noninferiority P=0.04). Optical coherence tomography analysis showed significantly more global neointimal proliferation in the BMS+DEB group (15.7±7.8 versus 11.0±5.2 mm(3) proliferation volume/cm stent length; P=0.002). No significant focal in-stent stenosis analyzed with angiography (percentage diameter stenosis at follow-up, 22.8±11.9 versus 16.9±10.4; P=0.014) and optical coherence tomography (peak local area stenosis, 39.5±13.8% versus 36.8±15.6%; P=0.409) was found. Good stent strut coverage of >94% was found in both therapy groups. Despite greater suppression of global neointimal growth in DES, both DES and BMS+DEB effectively prevented clinically relevant focal restenosis at 6-month follow-up. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01056744. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Sclerosing lobular hyperplasia of breast: cytomorphologic and histomorphologic features: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapur Payal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary sclerosing lobular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign lesion of adolescent and young women. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of mammary sclerosing lobular hyperplasia is said to show characteristic features that include an absence of stromal fragments. Case presentation In this article, we describe a case of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia that occurred in the right breast of a 12-year-old girl. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed some fibroadenoma-like features including the presence of stromal fragments, while branched tubular fragments were not seen. The diagnosis of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia was made on histologic examination that showed preserved acinar architecture with lobular hyperplasia and sclerosis of intralobular and interlobular stroma. Conclusion Fine-needle aspiration cytology features of mammary sclerosing lobular hyperplasia are not diagnostic and overlap with those of fibroadenoma; however, a distinction between the two benign entities is of no clinical significance. The definitive diagnosis of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia requires histopathologic evaluation.

  18. Epithelial tissue hyperplasia induced by the RAF inhibitor PF-04880594 is attenuated by a clinically well-tolerated dose of the MEK inhibitor PD-0325901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torti, Vince R; Wojciechowicz, Donald; Hu, Wenyue; John-Baptiste, Annette; Evering, Winston; Troche, Gabriel; Marroquin, Lisa D; Smeal, Tod; Yamazaki, Shinji; Palmer, Cynthia L; Burns-Naas, Leigh Ann; Bagrodia, Shubha

    2012-10-01

    Clinical trials of selective RAF inhibitors in patients with melanoma tumors harboring activated BRAFV600E have produced very promising results, and a RAF inhibitor has been approved for treatment of advanced melanoma. However, about a third of patients developed resectable skin tumors during the course of trials. This is likely related to observations that RAF inhibitors activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, stimulate proliferation, and induce epithelial hyperplasia in preclinical models. Because these findings raise safety concerns about RAF inhibitor development, we further investigated the underlying mechanisms. We showed that the RAF inhibitor PF-04880594 induces ERK phosphorylation and RAF dimerization in those epithelial tissues that undergo hyperplasia. Hyperplasia and ERK hyperphosphorylation are prevented by treatment with the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD-0325901 at exposures that extrapolate to clinically well-tolerated doses. To facilitate mechanistic and toxicologic studies, we developed a three-dimensional cell culture model of epithelial layering that recapitulated the RAF inhibitor-induced hyperplasia and reversal by MEK inhibitor in vitro. We also showed that PF-04880594 stimulates production of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 in HL-60 cells, suggesting a possible mechanism for the skin flushing observed in dogs. The complete inhibition of hyperplasia by MEK inhibitor in epithelial tissues does not seem to reduce RAF inhibitor efficacy and, in fact, allows doubling of the PF-04880594 dose without toxicity usually associated with such doses. These findings indicated that combination treatment with MEK inhibitors might greatly increase the safety and therapeutic index of RAF inhibitors for the treatment of melanoma and other cancers. ©2012 AACR.

  19. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalayani, Parichehr; Tavakoli, Payam; Eftekhari, Mehdi; Haghighi, Mohammad Akhondzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is an infrequent asymptomatic condition caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32 affecting the mucous membrane of the mouth and is commonly seen in young individuals. Firstly, it was described in Indians and Eskimos, but it exists in various populations. We present three cases of Heck's disease in an Afghan immigrant family group living in Iran that seem to have familial predominance. The disease was identified as oral focal epithelial hyperplasia on the basis of histopathologic and clinical findings. The lesions were reduced significantly after 4 months of good oral hygiene. Dentists should be familiar with the clinical manifestations of these types of lesions that affect the oral cavity. In fact, histopathologic assessment and clinical observation are necessary to establish the diagnosis.

  20. Atypical epithelial hyperplasia of the breast: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Ludivine; Racin, Adelaïde; Brousse, Susie; Beltjens, Françoise; Cauchois, Aurélie; Levêque, Jean; Coutant, Charles; Lavoué, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Atypical epithelial hyperplasia (AEH) of the breast is considered benign histological lesions with breast cancer risk. This review focuses on clinical signification and management of AEH that remains controversial. A review of published studies was performed using medline database. In this review, we fully describe the current evidence available. In particular, we describe 1) data from immunohistochemistry and molecular studies that suggest AEH is a precursor of breast cancer; 2) epidemiological studies demonstrate low rate of breast cancer in women with AEH; 3) surgical excision is necessary after diagnosis of AEH, such as lobular carcinoma in situ or atypical ductal hyperplasia, on core needle biopsy; 4) although current recommendations are evolving to fewer (if not no) excisions for flat epithelial with atypia and classic lobular neoplasia found on percutaneous biopsy (without radiologic indications for excision). Expert commentary: HEA management steel need prospective evidences, but recent retrospective data give some clue for less invasive management for some of HEA.

  1. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia: a forgotten condition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Nafiseh; Mortazavi, Hamed; Taghavi, Nasim; Baharvand, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (MEH), also known as focal epithelial hyperplasia and Heck disease, is a relatively rare condition caused by the human papillomavirus. This case report describes a 92-year-old man who presented with multiple, asymptomatic, circumscribed, soft, flattened papules in different sizes on the retrocommissure of his lower lip. The lesions were of 2 months' duration and had the same coloration as the adjacent normal mucosa. Histopathologic examination showed orthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium with acanthosis, some areas of club-shaped rete ridges, and a few superficial epithelial cells with koilocytic changes and a mitosoid-like appearance. A diagnosis of MEH was established. Although MEH tends to occur in the first 2 decades of life, it can be encountered in elderly patients as well.

  2. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years

  3. Neointimal Healing Evaluated by Optical Coherence Tomography after Drug-Eluting Absorbable Metal Scaffold Implantation in de novo Native Coronary Lesions: Rationale and Design of the Magmaris-OCT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Pasi; Paana, Tuomas; Sia, Jussi; Nammas, Wail

    We sought to explore neointimal healing assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) following implantation of the Magmaris sirolimus-eluting absorbable metal scaffold. The Magmaris-OCT is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm observational clinical study, intended to enrol 60 consecutive patients with up to 2 de novo native coronary lesions, each located in different major epicardial vessels, with a reference vessel diameter of 2.5-3.5 mm, and a maximum lesion length of 20 mm. Patients will undergo Magmaris scaffold implantation in the target lesion, according to the standard practice. Clinical follow-up will take place at 30 days, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. For invasive-imaging follow-up, patients will be classified into 3 groups: cohort A will be scheduled for follow-up at 3 months, cohort B at 6 months, and cohort C at 12 months. Invasive imaging will include quantitative coronary angiography, OCT evaluation, and coronary flow reserve measurement. The primary end point will be the percentage of uncovered scaffold struts assessed by OCT at the prespecified follow-up. This study will provide insight into the short- and mid-term healing properties following Magmaris scaffold implantation, with special emphasis on the neointimal coverage of scaffold struts. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Intra-stent tissue evaluation within bare metal and drug-eluting stents > 3 years since implantation in patients with mild to moderate neointimal proliferation using optical coherence tomography and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabata, Hironori; Loh, Joshua P; Pendyala, Lakshmana K; Omar, Alfazir; Ota, Hideaki; Minha, Sa'ar; Magalhaes, Marco A; Torguson, Rebecca; Chen, Fang; Satler, Lowell F; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to compare neointimal tissue characteristics between bare-metal stents (BMS) and drug-eluting stents (DES) at long-term follow-up using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). Neoatherosclerosis in neointima has been reported in BMS and in DES. Thirty patients with 36 stented lesions [BMS (n=17) or DES (n=19)] >3years after implantation were prospectively enrolled. OCT and VH-IVUS were performed and analyzed independently. Stents with ≥70% diameter stenosis were excluded. The median duration from implantation was 126.0months in the BMS group and 60.0months in the DES group (p 3years to stents had evidence of intimal disruption. The percentage volume of necrotic core (16.1% [9.7, 20.3] vs. 9.7% [7.0, 16.5], p=0.062) and dense calcium (9.5% [3.8, 13.6] vs. 2.7% [0.4, 4.9], p=0.080) in neointima tended to be greater in BMS-treated lesions. Intra-stent VH-TCFA (BMS vs. DES 45.5% vs. 18.2%, p=0.361) did not differ significantly. At long-term follow-up beyond 3 years after implantation, the intra-stent neointimal tissue characteristics appeared similar for both BMS and DES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. US findings of fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia of the breast

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    Yi, Mi Gyung; Hwang, Mi Soo; Lee, Jae Kyo; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic appearance of fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia of the breast. We retrospectively reviewed US findings including size, shape, border, boundary echo, internal echo, posterior echo, lateral echo, and transverse/anteroposterior diameter of 19 patients (mean age 36.6 years) with pathologically proven fibrodenomatoid hyperplasia. Mammogramas were available in 18 patients. On US size, shape, border, internal echo, boundary echo, posterior echo, lateral echo, the ratio of transverse to anteroposterior diameter were analyzed by two radiologist in agreement. Fifteen of 19 patients presented with palpable masses. On US, the mean size of the masses was 13 mm (range, 4-26 mm). The shape of lesions were round to oval in 10 cases (53%), lobulated in 6 cases (32%), irregular in 3 cases (15%). The borders of the lesions were sharp-well defined in 11 cases (58%), unsharp-ill defined in 8 cases (42%). Fourteen cases(74%) showed fine homogeneous internal echo and 5 cases (26%) showed coarse heterogeneous internal echo. Nonexistent or regular fine boundary echo was shown in 11 cases (58%) and irregular thick boundary echo was shown in 8 cases (42%).Posterior sonic enhancement was shown in 10 cases (53%), posterior sonic shadowing in 6 cases (32%). And three cases (15%) showed no posterior echo. Marked lateral echo was demonstrated in 11 cases (58%). The transverse/anteroposterior diameter ratio ranged between 1.0 and 1.5 in 1 case (5.5%), below 1.0 in 1 case (5.5%), and above 1.5 and 17 cases (89%). Mammogram showed no abnormality in ten patients with dense breast, mass like density in seven patients, and clustered microcalcification in one patient. Fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia was usually presented in fourth decade as a palpable breast mass and common US findings were similar to fibroadenoma. However, histopathologic confirmation was needed for the diagnosis because fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia sometimes showed the US features of malignancy.

  6. Clinical, chromosomal and endocrine studies for congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.E.; Shousha, M.; Hafez, M.

    2006-01-01

    Severe forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are potentially fatal if unrecognized and untreated. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical presentation together with the chromosomal and laboratory associations in this syndrome. Twenty four patients diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia were referred from Children's Hospital, Cairo University, Egypt, for hormonal and chromosomal workup. The age ranged from eight months to 19 years with mean age of 3.18 years. Twenty two patients were diagnosed as classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) syndrome. Severe salt wasting form was present in ten patients whereas simple virilisation was the presenting manifestation in twelve patients. Two patients presented as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH). The sex of rearing was female in 18 cases and male in six cases. Genitography and sonography confirmed the presence of female internal organs in all cases. Advanced bone age was evident by radiographic studies. Although the karyotyping was 46,XX in all cases, the diagnosed correct sex was delayed in six cases. Serum concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17.OH.P), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), delta, 4-androstenedione (D4A), testosterone (T) and 11-deoxycortisol were all elevated as compared to controls. It was found that the adrenal androgens DHEAS, D4A and T were more elevated in salt losers when compared to simple virilising patients. However, this difference was statistically non-significant. The present study demonstrates that the clinical examination and laboratory investigations are necessary for the early detection and treatment of these cases to avoid major medical and psychological problems for the patients and their parents

  7. Clinical, Chromosomal and Endocrine Studies for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Somaya, E.T.; Attia, M.

    2007-01-01

    Several forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are potentially fatal if unrecognized and untreated. The aim of this study is to throw light on the clinical presentation together with chromosomal and laboratory associations in this syndrome. Twenty four patients diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia were referred from the Diabetic Endocrine Metabolic Pediatric Unit [DEMPU], Children's Hospital, Cairo University for hormonal and chromosomal workup. Twenty two patients were diagnosed as classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) syndrome. Sever salt wasting form was present in ten patients whereas simple virilization was the presenting manifestation in twelve patients. Two patients presented as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH). The mean age was 3.18 years, ranging from eight months to 19 years. The sex of rearing was Female in 18 cases and male in six cases. Genitography and sonography confirmed the presence of female internal organs in all cases. Advanced bone age was evident by radiographic studies. Although the karyotyping was (46,XX) in all cases, the correct sex diagnosis was delayed in 6 cases. Serum concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17.OH.P); Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); Delta,4-androstenedione (D 4 A); Testosterone and 11-deoxycortisol were all elevated in relation to controls. We found that the adrenal androgens DHEAS, delta 4A, and T were more elevated in salt losers when compared to simple virilizing patients. However, this difference was not of statistical significance. The present study demonstrates that clinical examination and laboratory investigations are necessary for early detection and treatment of hese cases to avoid major medical and psychological problems for the patients and their parents.

  8. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia with localized aggressive periodontitis and amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlan, Sumaiah Abdulbaqi

    2015-11-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an inherited medical condition that implies defects in steroid biosynthesis. The dental findings of a female patient with CAH are reported. The patient suffered from severe periodontal tissue destruction, obvious enamel defects, as well as some occlusal problems. The management approach is presented and the possibility of interrelation of her dental findings with her medical condition is discussed. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  9. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under clinical trial.

  10. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under ...

  11. Pituitary hyperplasia: a complication of the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary-Anne Doyle, Heather A Lochnan Division of Endocrinology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objective: “The pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine” has been used to describe patients with hypothyroidism who fail to comply with their treatment. We describe a unique case of a 32-year-old with hypothyroidism who developed pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia secondary to the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine. Investigations and treatment: After baseline thyroid-function tests were performed, the patient was administered levothyroxine 0.5 mg under the supervision of a registered nurse. Thyroid function testing was repeated at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Arrangements were made for further daily supervised loading of levothyroxine 0.1 mg. Results: With the administration of 0.5 mg levothyroxine, free thyroxine levels increased by 120 minutes, and with daily supervised dosing of 0.1 mg there was normalization of the thyroid hormone levels and a reduction of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Maintenance of thyroid-stimulating hormone < 15 mU/L for 2 weeks led to a reduction in prolactin levels and regression in the size of the pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion: If left untreated, these patients face significant morbidity and are at risk of developing pituitary hyperplasia, complications from an increase in pituitary size, hyperprolactinemia, and potentially myxedema coma. Recognizing pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia as a complication from the pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine may prevent the potential of a misdiagnosis of a prolactinoma leading to unnecessary investigations and inappropriate treatment. Patient awareness of this serious complication and the rapid, demonstrable resolution with adequate thyroid hormone replacement may provide motivation to comply with supervised dosing of levothyroxine. It has also been suggested that supervised treatment enables the individual to maintain their patient

  12. SPDEF regulates goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwon-Sik; Korfhagen, Thomas R.; Bruno, Michael D.; Kitzmiller, Joseph A.; Wan, Huajing; Wert, Susan E.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.; Chen, Gang; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Goblet cell hyperplasia and mucous hypersecretion contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases including cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the present work, mouse SAM pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) mRNA and protein were detected in subsets of epithelial cells lining the trachea, bronchi, and tracheal glands. SPDEF interacted with the C-terminal domain of thyroid transcription factor 1, activating transcription of genes expressed selectively in airway epithelial cells, including Sftpa, Scgb1a1, Foxj1, and Sox17. Expression of Spdef in the respiratory epithelium of adult transgenic mice caused goblet cell hyperplasia, inducing both acidic and neutral mucins in vivo, and stainined for both acidic and neutral mucins in vivo. SPDEF expression was increased at sites of goblet cell hyperplasia caused by IL-13 and dust mite allergen in a process that was dependent upon STAT-6. SPDEF was induced following intratracheal allergen exposure and after Th2 cytokine stimulation and was sufficient to cause goblet cell differentiation of Clara cells in vivo. PMID:17347682

  13. Reactive thymic hyperplasia following treatment of ACTH-producing tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, S.; Klose, K.J.; Iwinska-Zelder, J.; Frank, M.; Ehlenz, K.; Kisker, O.

    1997-01-01

    Surgical or conservative treatment of ACTH-producing tumors results in acute drop of the previously excessively high cortisol levels. The following associated pathophysiological changes also occur in the organism's recovery from stress, such as trauma, operation or chemotherapy of tumors. Both cases result in a regeneration of the immune system, which might even be exalted. The corresponding radiographic feature is the 'rebound' enlargement of the thymus occuring about six months after remission of hypercortisolism. Histological examination reveals benign thymus hyperplasia. Especially in cases of still unkown primary tumor the apperance of this anterior mediastinal mass can lead to misdiagnosis. We present the cases of two patients with diffuse thymic hyperplasia following surgical and medical correction of hypercortisolism. One patient suffered from classic Cushing's disease responding to transsphenoidal resection of an ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma. Six monsths later CT of the chest incidentally demonstrated an anterior mediastinal mass known as thymic hyperplasia. The second patient presented with an ectopic, still unknown source of ACTH-production. (orig./AJ) [de

  14. Refractory Cushing's disease caused by multinodular ACTH-cell hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, P E; Koppelman, M C; Metcalf, D; Quindlen, E; Kornblith, P L; Strott, C A; Howard, R; Smith, B H

    1982-09-01

    A patient with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism, unresponsive to resection of nodules in the anterior lobe, is described. Histochemical stains of the nodules showed multiple, focal, cellular expansions of the fibrovascular stroma. Transitions between normal and expanded adenohypophysial acini were present. Immunoperoxidase stains for ACTH and other pituitary hormones revealed that these multiple foci contained an excess of ACTH-positive cells. Less than 10% of the cells in these foci were negative for ACTH and positive for other hormones. Serial sections showed that these foci of predominantly ACTH-producing acini were not connected. Clinical, morphological, and immunohistochemical data indicated that ACTH-cell hyperplasia caused Crushing's disease in this patient. Pathologic study of individual cases should concentrate on determining whether hyperplasia or adenoma exist at the time of surgical exploration of the pituitary gland, since this determination is important to proper treatment. Tentative criteria to recognize ACTH-cell hyperplasia are: 1. Multiple foci of ACTH laden cells. 2. A minor subpopulation of cells of alternate hormone series. 3. Expansion without destruction of acini in the adenohypophysis.

  15. Gastrointestinal hyperplasia with altered expression of DNA polymerase beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Yoshizawa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Altered expression of DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta has been documented in a large percentage of human tumors. However, tumor prevalence or predisposition resulting from Pol beta over-expression has not yet been evaluated in a mouse model.We have recently developed a novel transgenic mouse model that over-expresses Pol beta. These mice present with an elevated incidence of spontaneous histologic lesions, including cataracts, hyperplasia of Brunner's gland and mucosal hyperplasia in the duodenum. In addition, osteogenic tumors in mice tails, such as osteoma and osteosarcoma were detected. This is the first report of elevated tumor incidence in a mouse model of Pol beta over-expression. These findings prompted an evaluation of human gastrointestinal tumors with regard to Pol beta expression. We observed elevated expression of Pol beta in stomach adenomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas, but reduced Pol beta expression in esophageal adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas.These data support the hypothesis that balanced and proficient base excision repair protein expression and base excision repair capacity is required for genome stability and protection from hyperplasia and tumor formation.

  16. Prognosis of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Liu, Chanchan; Li, Tao; Li, Chengyan

    2017-09-01

    To compare the post-thymectomy prognosis in different conditions of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with thymus hyperplasia. Collecting medical record and carrying out the follow-up study of 123 myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia who have underwent thymectomy during the period between 2003 and 2013. Dividing into different groups based on gender, age of onset, duration of disease and Myasthenia Gravis Association of America (MGFA) clinical classification to analyze different prognosis in different groups. Complete stable remission (CSR) was achieved in 71 of 123 patients (59.5%). There is no gender-related difference in achieving CSR. Patients with early onset of MG (≤40 years old) or disease duration less than 12 months had significantly higher CSR rates than those with late onset of MG (>40 years old) or disease duration more than 12 months respectively, while no difference was found in remission rate between MGFA clinical classification I and MGFA II. Myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia who had thymectomy are proved to possess greater chance of achieving CSR. The onset age of disease and duration are the prognostic factors.

  17. Silodosin for the treatment of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia: safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho HJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hee Ju Cho, Tag Keun Yoo Department of Urology, Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, KoreaAbstract: α1-Adrenergic receptor antagonists are commonly used to treat male lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. We performed a literature search using PubMed, Medline via Ovid, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify studies on the treatment of BPH by silodosin. Silodosin is a novel α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist whose affinity for the α1A-adrenergic receptor is greater than that for the α1B-adrenergic receptor. Therefore, silodosin does not increase the incidence of blood pressure-related side effects, which may result from the inhibition of the α1B-adrenergic receptor. Patients receiving silodosin at a daily dose of 8 mg showed a significant improvement in the International Prostate Symptom Score and maximum urinary flow rate compared with those receiving a placebo. Silodosin also improved both storage and voiding symptoms, indicating that silodosin is effective, even during early phases of BPH treatment. Follow-up extension studies performed in the United States, Europe, and Asia demonstrated its long-term safety and efficacy. In the European study, silodosin significantly reduced nocturia compared to the placebo. Although retrograde or abnormal ejaculation was the most commonly reported symptom in these studies, only a few patients discontinued treatment. The incidence of adverse cardiovascular events was also very low. Evidence showing solid efficacy and cardiovascular safety profiles of silodosin will provide a good solution for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH in an increasingly aging society. Keywords: α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, silodosin, benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms

  18. Apoptotic Pathways Linked to Endocrine System as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Letteria; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Marini, Herbert; Irrera, Natasha; Crea, Giovanni; Lorenzini, Cesare; Puzzolo, Domenico; Valenti, Andrea; Pisani, Antonina; Adamo, Elena B; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco; Micali, Antonio

    2016-08-11

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a chronic condition common in older men that can result in bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. The molecular mechanisms and networks underlying the development and the progression of the disease are still far from being fully understood. BPH results from smooth muscle cell and epithelial cell proliferation, primarily within the transition zone of the prostate. Apoptosis and inflammation play important roles in the control of cell growth and in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Disturbances in molecular mechanisms of apoptosis machinery have been linked to BPH. Increased levels of the glycoprotein Dickkopf-related protein 3 in BPH cause an inhibition of the apoptosis machinery through a reduction in B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 associated X protein (Bax) expression. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins influence cell death by direct inhibition of caspases and modulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Current pharmacotherapy targets either the static component of BPH, including finasteride and dutasteride, or the dynamic component of BPH, including α-adrenoceptor antagonists such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin. Both these classes of drugs significantly interfere with the apoptosis machinery. Furthermore, phytotherapic supplements and new drugs may also modulate several molecular steps of apoptosis.

  19. Apoptotic Pathways Linked to Endocrine System as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Letteria; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Marini, Herbert; Irrera, Natasha; Crea, Giovanni; Lorenzini, Cesare; Puzzolo, Domenico; Valenti, Andrea; Pisani, Antonina; Adamo, Elena B.; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco; Micali, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a chronic condition common in older men that can result in bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. The molecular mechanisms and networks underlying the development and the progression of the disease are still far from being fully understood. BPH results from smooth muscle cell and epithelial cell proliferation, primarily within the transition zone of the prostate. Apoptosis and inflammation play important roles in the control of cell growth and in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Disturbances in molecular mechanisms of apoptosis machinery have been linked to BPH. Increased levels of the glycoprotein Dickkopf-related protein 3 in BPH cause an inhibition of the apoptosis machinery through a reduction in B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 associated X protein (Bax) expression. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins influence cell death by direct inhibition of caspases and modulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Current pharmacotherapy targets either the static component of BPH, including finasteride and dutasteride, or the dynamic component of BPH, including α-adrenoceptor antagonists such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin. Both these classes of drugs significantly interfere with the apoptosis machinery. Furthermore, phytotherapic supplements and new drugs may also modulate several molecular steps of apoptosis. PMID:27529214

  20. Apoptotic Pathways Linked to Endocrine System as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letteria Minutoli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is a chronic condition common in older men that can result in bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. The molecular mechanisms and networks underlying the development and the progression of the disease are still far from being fully understood. BPH results from smooth muscle cell and epithelial cell proliferation, primarily within the transition zone of the prostate. Apoptosis and inflammation play important roles in the control of cell growth and in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Disturbances in molecular mechanisms of apoptosis machinery have been linked to BPH. Increased levels of the glycoprotein Dickkopf-related protein 3 in BPH cause an inhibition of the apoptosis machinery through a reduction in B cell lymphoma (Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax expression. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins influence cell death by direct inhibition of caspases and modulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Current pharmacotherapy targets either the static component of BPH, including finasteride and dutasteride, or the dynamic component of BPH, including α-adrenoceptor antagonists such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin. Both these classes of drugs significantly interfere with the apoptosis machinery. Furthermore, phytotherapic supplements and new drugs may also modulate several molecular steps of apoptosis.

  1. Thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia in IFN-gamma deficient NOD.H-2h4 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shiguang; Sharp, Gordon C; Braley-Mullen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The role of inflammatory cells in thyroid epithelial cell (thyrocyte) hyperplasia is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that thyrocyte hyperplasia in IFN-gamma-/- NOD.H-2h4 mice has an autoimmune basis. After chronic exposure to increased dietary iodine, 60% of IFN-gamma-/- mice had severe thyrocyte hyperplasia with minimal or moderate lymphocyte infiltration, and thyroid dysfunction with reduced serum T4. All mice produced anti-thyroglobulin autoantibody. Some wild-type NOD.H-2h4 mice had isolated areas of thyrocyte hyperplasia with predominantly lymphocytic infiltration, whereas IL-4-/- and 50% of wild-type NOD.H-2h4 mice developed lymphocytic thyroiditis but no thyrocyte hyperplasia. Both thyroid infiltrating inflammatory cells and environmental factors (iodine) were required to induce thyrocyte hyperplasia. Splenocytes from IFN-gamma-/- mice with thyrocyte hyperplasia, but not splenocytes from naïve IFN-gamma-/- mice, induced hyperplasia in IFN-gamma-/- NOD.H-2h4.SCID mice. These results may provide clues for understanding the mechanisms underlying development of epithelial cell hyperplasia not only in thyroids but also in other tissues and organs.

  2. The Functional Role of Reactive Stroma in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Isaiah G.; Rowley, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The human prostate gland is one of the only internal organs that continue to enlarge throughout adulthood. The specific mechanisms that regulate this growth, as well as the pathological changes leading to the phenotype observed in the disease benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are essentially unknown. Recent studies and their associated findings have made clear that many complex alterations occur, involving persistent and chronic inflammation, circulating hormonal level deregulation, and aberrant wound repair processes. BPH has been etiologically characterized as a progressive, albeit discontinuous, hyperplasia of both the glandular epithelial and stromal cell compartments coordinately yielding an expansion of the prostate gland and clinical symptoms. Interestingly, the inflammatory and repair responses observed in BPH are also key components of general wound repair in post-natal tissues. These responses include altered expression of chemokines, cytokines, matrix remodeling factors, chronic inflammatory processes, altered immune surveillance and recognition, as well as the formation of a prototypical ‘reactive’ stroma which is similar to that observed across various fibroplasias and malignancies of a variety of tissue sites. Stromal tissue, both embryonic mesenchyme, and adult reactive stroma myofibroblasts, has been shown to exert potent and functional regulatory control over epithelial proliferation and differentiation as well as immunoresponsive modulation. Thus, the functional biology of a reactive stroma, within the context of an adult disease typified by epithelial and stromal aberrant hyperplasia, is critical to understand within the context of prostate disease and beyond. The mechanisms that regulate reactive stroma biology in BPH represent targets of opportunity for new therapeutic approaches that may extend to other tissue contexts. Accordingly, this review seeks to address the dissection of important factors, signaling pathways, genes, and other

  3. Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodmane, Puttappa R.; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rats and mice orally administered with nicotine tartrate for total of 4 weeks. • No treatment-related death or whole body toxicity observed in any of the groups. • Urothelium showed simple hyperplasia in treated rats and mice. • No significant change in BrdU labeling index or SEM classification of urothelium. - Abstract: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a

  4. Long-term surgical-orthodontic management of hemimandibular hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Samuel C; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2016-05-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH), also known as hemimandibular hypertrophy, is characterised by excessive unilateral three-dimensional growth of the mandible after birth. Vertical unilateral elongation of the mandible becomes clinically evident as a rare form of vertical facial asymmetry. Aberrant growth of the facial skeleton affects the developing dentition and the dental compensatory mechanism is usually unable to maintain optimal occlusal relationships. The resulting malocclusion is effectively managed by combined surgical-orthodontic care to address the facial, skeletal and dental problems that confront clinicians. Orthodontists are advised to assess patients with HH during the post-treatment retention stage for continuing mandibular growth and assess the stability of treatment outcomes with long-term follow-up and records as required. To present a case of hemimandibular hyperplasia treated successfully by combined surgical-orthodontic care and evaluated for stability over a seven-year follow-up period. Surgical-orthodontic management was accomplished in four stages: 1) pre-surgical orthodontic; 21 surgical; 3) post-surgical orthodontic; and 4) post-treatment orthodontic retention. Complete orthodontic records, including extra- and intra-oral photographs, study models, and cephalograms plus panoramic radiographs were taken at the pretreatment, post-treatment, and seven-year orthodontic retention time-points. Facial, skeletal and dental goals were achieved in the three planes of space and the long-term stability of the treatment results was shown during a post-treatment orthodontic retention period of seven years. Hemimandibular hyperplasia is a true growth anomaly which may be managed effectively. Clinicians may expect successful long-term correction and stability by utilising a comprehensive surgical-orthodontic treatment approach.

  5. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia – A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE is an uncommon, reactive vaso-proliferative disease, presenting with painless, vascular nodules in the dermal and subcutaneous tissues, sually seen in the head and neck region. It is characterized clinically by single to multiple red brown dome shaped papules or subcutaneous nodules. Its etiology is unknown and the histology is characterized by hyperplastic blood vessels lined by a hypertrophic endothelium with an inflammatory infiltrate rich in eosinophils. We report three cases of ALHE presenting over the ears and scalp.

  6. [Bushen Huoxue Fang promotes the apoptosis of epithelial cells in the prostatic ductal system of rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Li, Qiu-Fen; Tian, Dai-Zhi; Jiang, Shao-Bo; Wu, Xian-De; Qiu, Shun-An; Ren, Xiao-Gang; Li, Yu-Bing

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects of Bushen Huoxue Fang (BSHX) on the apoptosis of epithelial cells in the prostatic ductal system of rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and its possible action mechanism. One hundred 3- month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of equal number (control, castrated, BPH model, and BSHX). BPH models were made by subcutaneous injection of testosterone following castration; the rats in the BSHX group were treated intragastrically with BSHX at 2.34 g/ml after modeling, while those in the other two groups with equal volume of saline, all for 37 days. On the 38th day, all the rats were sacrificed and their prostates harvested for detection of the distribution of TGF-beta1 and alpha-actin and the count of positive cells in the prostatic ductal system by immunohistochemical staining. The apoptosis rate of epithelial cells in the prostatic ductal system was determined by TUNEL assay. The expression of TGF-beta1 was significantly increased in the rats of the BSHX group as compared with the BPH models in both the proximal prostatic duct ([15.28 +/- 4.30]% vs [36.42 +/- 8.10]%, P epithelial cells in the proximal prostatic duct ([39.42 +/- 9.20]% vs [3.86 +/- 1.34]%, P epithelial cells in the prostatic ductal system was significantly higher in the BSHX-treated rats than in the BPH models (P epithelial cells, and thus effectively inhibit benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  7. Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II antagonist receptor on neointima hyperplasia after vascular balloon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yeling; Zhao Lihua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril) and angiotensin II antagonist receptor (valsartan) on neointima hyperplasia after vascular balloon injury. Methods: Thirty-six rabbit models were randomly divided into three groups: injuried group, captopril group and valsartan group. Captopril (2 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 po) and valsartan (10 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 po) were given to twelve rabbits respectively from 1 day before the right carotidarteries were injuried by 2.0 mm ballon cathether to 14 days after injury in captopil group and valsartan group. The medicine was not administered in the injuried group. The tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plaminogen activor inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen level and plasma endothelin (ET) levels were measured before injury, and 7, 14 days after vascular injury. The pathomorphoiogical examination were carried out 14 days after angioplasty. Results: The levels of plasma PAI-1 and ET in captopril group and valsartan group were significantly lower than those in the injuried group (P<0.05). The intimal thickness and extent of lumen stenosis in captopril and valsartan groups were significantly lower than those in the injuried group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Captopril and valsartan can inhibit neointima hyperplasia after vascular ballon injury. (authors)

  8. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Costa Neves

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder.

  9. Nodular Hyperplasia Arising from the Lateral Aberrant Thyroid Tissue: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Min Hye; Park, Jeong Seon; Lee, Young Jun

    2012-01-01

    The presence of aberrant thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is very rare. In addition, nodular hyperplasia in ectopic thyroid has rarely been reported. Due to the unusual location, the presence of lateral aberrant thyroid tissue could be misdiagnosed as a lymphadenopathy, neurogenic tumor, etc. We report on a case of nodular hyperplasia arising from the right lateral aberrant thyroid tissue.

  10. Incidence of endometrial hyperplasia in 100 cases presenting with polymenorrhagia/menorrhagia in perimenupausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takreem, A.; Razaq, S.

    2009-01-01

    To study the Incidence of endometrial hyperplasia in perimenupausal women presenting with polymenorrhagia/menorrhagia. This observational study was conducted at Gynae 'B' unit of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar from January 2000 to December 2001. One hundred consecutive patients who presented at Gynaecology OPD with Polymenorrhagia/ Menorrhagia were registered and incidence of endometrial hyperplasia evaluated in them. All women were above 45 years of age. Post-menopausal bleeding cases were excluded from the study. Out of 100 patients, 15 patients were found to have endometrial hyperplasia, 10 patients (66.6%) simple cystic hyperplasia, 3 patients (20.0%) had adenomotous hyperplasia, 2 patients (13.3%) had atypical hyperplasia, 8 patients (53.3%) with menorrhagia, 1 (6.6%) with polymenorrhagia, and 6 patients (40.0%) with polymenorrhoea. Duration of symptoms was from 4 months to 1 year. Thirteen (86.6%) patients were treated medically, 5 patients (33.33%) needed surgical treatment following medical treatment, 2 patients (13.3%) underwent Total Abdominal Hysterectomy (TAH) and Bilateral Salpingooophorectomy (BSO) who were 51-53 years of age with atypical hyperplasia. endometrial hyperplasia is a pre-malignant condition; if treated in time, incidence can be reduced and early treatment can increase life expectancy and quality in women over age of 45 years. (author)

  11. Periostin contributes to epidermal hyperplasia in psoriasis common to atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Arima

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Periostin plays an important role during epidermal hyperplasia in IMQ-induced skin inflammation, independently of the IL-23–IL-17/IL-22 axis. Periostin appears to be a mediator for epidermal hyperplasia that is common to AD and psoriasis.

  12. The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or hyperandrogenism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Nina Sofie Lillegaard; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome may be associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, but substantial evidence for this remains to be established. We investigated the prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in a well characterized group of women...... with polycystic ovary syndrome and/or clinical/biochemical hyperandrogenism....

  13. Adrenomegaly and septic adrenal hemorrhage (Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome) in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Amin F.; Ford, Kenneth L.; dePrisco, Gregory; Smerud, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia refers to a spectrum of autosomal recessive inherited disorders of steroidogenesis most commonly identified on newborn screenings. We describe a young woman who presented with abdominal pain and on subsequent imaging was found to have features of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Imaging findings, treatment, and potential complications are discussed.

  14. Adrenomegaly and septic adrenal hemorrhage (Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome) in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Amin F; Ford, Kenneth L; Deprisco, Gregory; Smerud, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia refers to a spectrum of autosomal recessive inherited disorders of steroidogenesis most commonly identified on newborn screenings. We describe a young woman who presented with abdominal pain and on subsequent imaging was found to have features of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Imaging findings, treatment, and potential complications are discussed.

  15. A Rare Case of Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Ofikwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH is a rare clinical condition with only about 100 cases reported in the literature. It is characterized by primary hyperplasia of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs which are specialized epithelial cells located throughout the entire respiratory tract, from the trachea to the terminal airways. DIPNECH appears in various forms that include diffuse proliferation of scattered neuroendocrine cells, small nodules, or a linear proliferation. It is usually seen in middle-aged, nonsmoking women with symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. We present a 45-year-old, nonsmoking woman who presented with symptoms of DIPNECH associated with bilateral pulmonary nodules and left hilar adenopathy. Of interest, DIPNECH in our patient was associated with metastatic pulmonary carcinoids, papillary carcinoma of the left breast, oncocytoma and angiomyolipoma of her left kidney, and cortical nodules suggestive of tuberous sclerosis. She had video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS, modified radical mastectomy with reconstruction, and radical nephrectomy. She is currently symptom-free most of the time with over two years of follow-up.

  16. Atypical hyperplasia, proliferative fibrocystic change, and exogenous hormone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zera, R T; Danielson, D; Van Camp, J M; Schmidt-Steinbrunn, B; Hong, J; McCoy, M; Anderson, W R; Linzie, B M; Rodriguez, J L

    2001-10-01

    The association between breast cancer development and exogenous hormone use (EHU) is suggested by indirect clinical evidence. We undertook this study to better define the relationship that EHU has with proliferative fibrocystic change (PFC) and atypical hyperplasia (AH). Women diagnosed with AH without associated carcinoma from January 1990 to December 1999 were compared with control subjects who underwent breast biopsy procedures during the same interval and who were diagnosed with either a proliferative fibrocystic change (PFC) or a nonproliferative fibrocystic change (NPFC). EHU was defined as the use of estrogen or progesterone taken together or separately within 3 months of biopsy. EHU was significantly higher in patients with AH compared with women with NPFC (P =.01). This observation was also significant if all proliferative change (both AH and PFC) was compared with NPFC (P =.03); it was not significant when PFC alone was compared with NPFC. No significant difference in EHU was demonstrated between women with AH and those with PFC. There is strong association between AH and EHU. These results support the theory that a continuum exists between hyperplasia and carcinoma and that EHU may influence the transition from one to the other in an undefined subset of women. We encourage our patients with AH to discontinue EHU.

  17. Cutaneous papillomatous hyperplasia in cyclosporine-A treated beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, W; Sundberg, J P; Lesko, L J; Sauk, J J; McCleary, L B; Hassell, T M

    1989-08-01

    All twelve Beagle dogs undergoing long-term therapy (26 weeks) with the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine-A (30 mg/kg), developed cutaneous papillomatous hyperplasia. By week 7 all dogs developed generalized lesions distributed over the entire body. These occurred as irregular, oval, sessile, unpigmented, firm masses. The incidence and severity of the skin lesions varied among dogs and anatomic site, with no correlation to the blood level of cyclosporine. Microscopic analysis revealed that the epidermis formed short papillary folds on broad fibrovascular stalks and was hyperkeratotic and acanthotic. Mild hyperplasia of hair follicles and sebaceous glands was also evident. A mild diffuse infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells was present in the papillary dermis. No histopathologic changes typical of papillomavirus infection were identified, nor were papillomavirus group-specific antigens or viral DNA detected. Other cutaneous side effects included hyperkeratosis of footpads, increased growth of hair and nails, and hyperkeratinization of the haired skin of the prepuce. All cutaneous lesions regressed spontaneously within 8 weeks following termination of cyclosporine administration. The hyperplastic lesions may have resulted from the action of cyclosporine via the T-lymphocyte system. Conversely a direct action of this drug on epithelial cells may have stimulated proliferation and keratinization.

  18. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical treatment can complicate cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Facio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH regarding potential risks of complications in the setting of cataract surgery. AIM: To address recommendations, optimal control therapy, voiding symptoms and safety within the setting of cataract surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed using MEDLINE with MeSH terms and keywords "benign prostatic hyperplasia", "intraoperative floppy iris syndrome", "adrenergic alpha-antagonist" and "cataract surgery". In addition, reference lists from identified publications were reviewed to identify reports and studies of interest from 2001 to 2009. RESULTS: The first report of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS was observed during cataract surgery in patients taking systemic alpha-1 AR antagonists in 2005. It has been most commonly seen related to use of tamsulosin. Changes of medication and washout periods of up to 2 weeks have been attempted to reduce the risk of complications in the setting of cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: Patients under clinical treatment for BPH should be informed about potential risks of this drug class so that it can be discuss with their healthcare providers, in particular urologist and ophthalmologist, prior to cataract surgery.

  19. Claudin-4 Deficiency Results in Urothelial Hyperplasia and Lethal Hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Harumi; Hamazaki, Yoko; Noda, Yumi; Oshima, Masanobu; Minato, Nagahiro

    2012-01-01

    Claudin (Cld)-4 is one of the dominant Clds expressed in the kidney and urinary tract, including selective segments of renal nephrons and the entire urothelium from the pelvis to the bladder. We generated Cldn4 −/− mice and found that these mice had increased mortality due to hydronephrosis of relatively late onset. While the renal nephrons of Cldn4 −/− mice showed a concomitant diminution of Cld8 expression at tight junction (TJ), accumulation of Cld3 at TJ was markedly enhanced in compensation and the overall TJ structure was unaffected. Nonetheless, Cldn4 −/− mice showed slightly yet significantly increased fractional excretion of Ca2+ and Cl−, suggesting a role of Cld4 in the specific reabsorption of these ions via a paracellular route. Although the urine volume tended to be increased concordantly, Cldn4 −/− mice were capable of concentrating urine normally on dehydration, with no evidence of diabetes insipidus. In the urothelium, the formation of TJs and uroplaques as well as the gross barrier function were also unaffected. However, intravenous pyelography analysis indicated retarded urine flow prior to hydronephrosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse hyperplasia and a thickening of pelvic and ureteral urothelial layers with markedly increased BrdU uptake in vivo. These results suggest that progressive hydronephrosis in Cldn4 −/− mice arises from urinary tract obstruction due to urothelial hyperplasia, and that Cld4 plays an important role in maintaining the homeostatic integrity of normal urothelium. PMID:23284964

  20. Retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease (giant lymph node hyperplasia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques Waisberg

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Castleman's disease, or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is a rare disorder of the lymphoid tissue that causes lymph node enlargement. It is considered benign in its localized form, but aggressive in the multicentric type. The definitive diagnosis is based on postoperative pathological findings. The aim here was to describe a case of retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease in the retroperitoneum. CASE REPORT: A 61-year old white male with weight loss and listlessness presented with moderate arterial hypertension and leukopenia. Abdominal tomography revealed a 5 x 4 x 5 cm oval mass of low attenuation, with inner calcification and intense enhancement on intravenous contrast, located in the retroperitoneal region, between the left kidney and the aorta, at the renal hilus. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a non-pulsatile solid oval mass situated in the retroperitoneum, adjacent to the left renal hilus. The retroperitoneal lesion was removed in its entirety. Examination of frozen samples revealed benign lymph node tissue and histopathological examination of the surgical sample revealed hyaline-vascular giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease. The patient was discharged on the 12th day without significant events. Two months after the operation, the patient was readmitted with severe cardiac insufficiency, acute renal failure and bronchopneumonia, which progressed to acute respiratory insufficiency, sepsis and death.

  1. Fermented dairy products modulate Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Chervaux, Christian; Raymond, Benoit; Derrien, Muriel; Brazeilles, Rémi; Kosta, Artemis; Chambaud, Isabelle; Crepin, Valerie F; Frankel, Gad

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of fermented dairy products (FDPs) in an infection model, using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Treatment of mice with FDP formulas A, B, and C or a control product did not affect CR colonization, organ specificity, or attaching and effacing lesion formation. Fermented dairy product A (FDP-A), but neither the supernatant from FDP-A nor β-irradiated (IR) FDP-A, caused a significant reduction in colonic crypt hyperplasia and CR-associated pathology. Profiling the gut microbiota revealed that IR-FDP-A promoted higher levels of phylotypes belonging to Alcaligenaceae and a decrease in Lachnospiraceae (Ruminococcus) during CR infection. Conversely, FDP-A prevented a decrease in Ruminococcus and increased Turicibacteraceae (Turicibacter). Importantly, loss of Ruminococcus and Turicibacter has been associated with susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that viable bacteria in FDP-A reduced CR-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and prevented the loss of key bacterial genera that may contribute to disease pathology. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Downstream anastomotic hyperplasia. A mechanism of failure in Dacron arterial grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoGerfo, F W; Quist, W C; Nowak, M D; Crawshaw, H M; Haudenschild, C C

    1983-01-01

    The precise location and progression of anastomotic hyperplasia and its possible relationship to flow disturbances was investigated in femoro-femoral Dacron grafts in 28 dogs. In 13 grafts, the outflow from the end-to-side downstream anastomosis was bidirectional (BDO), and in 15 it was unidirectional (UDO) (distally). Grafts were electively removed at intervals of two to 196 days or at the time of thrombosis. Each anastomosis and adjacent artery was perfusion-fixed and sectioned sagittally. The mean sagittal section was projected onto a digitized pad, and the total area of hyperplasia internal to the arterial internal elastic lamina and within the adjacent graft was integrated by computer. The location of the hyperplasia was compared with previously established sites of flow separation and stagnation. The observation was made that hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream, as compared with the upstream, anastomosis in both groups (BDO = p less than 0.001 and UDO = p less than 0.001) (analysis of variance for independent groups). Furthermore, this downstream hyperplasia was progressive with time (BDO p less than 0.01) (UDO p less than 0.01); Spearman Rank Correlation. There was no significant increase in the extent of downstream hyperplasia where flow separation was known to be greater (BDO). Five grafts failed (three BDO, two UDO), as a result of complete occlusion of the downstream anastomosis by fibrous hyperplasia. Transmission electron microscopy showed the hyperplasia to consist of collagen-producing smooth muscle cells. Anastomotic hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream anastomosis, is progressive with time, and is the primary cause of failure of Dacron arterial grafts in this model. Quantitative analysis of downstream anastomotic hyperplasia may be a valuable measure of the biocompatibility of Dacron grafts. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6219641

  3. Hyperplasia of epithelium adjacent to transitional cell carcinoma can be induced by growth factors through paracrine pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.I. de Boer (Pim); J.M.J. Rebel (Annemarie); C.D.E.M. Thijssen (C. D E M); M. Vermey; Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); A.J.M. van den Eijnden-van Raaij (Janny)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractHyperplasia of transitional cell epithelium adjacent to human transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) is a common finding in pathology. This hyperplasia may be a precancerous aberration. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the hyperplasia is due to paracrine action of tumour-derived

  4. The inhibiting effects of components of stinging nettle roots on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Renneberg, H; Blaschek, W; Aumüller, G; Muth, C

    1999-10-01

    Direct implanting of fetal urogenital sinus (UGS) tissue into the ventral prostate gland of adult mice led to a 4-fold weight increase of the manipulated prostatic lobe. The induced growth could be reduced by the polysaccharide fraction (POLY-M) of the 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots by 33.8%.

  5. Local Inhibition of HSP90 to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia after Balloon Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    IACUC documents. Cell culture and viability testing, optimizing proliferation and migration assays, perfecting microRNA extraction, perfecting cDNA ...4) qrtPCR: cDNA was prepared using the High Capacity cDNA Revers Transcription kit (Applied Biosystems. Grand Island, NY). qPCR was performed...and actions or plans to resolve them  We have had some difficulty in optimizing the protocol for creating cDNA from MicroRNA. We have tried three

  6. Anti-Proliferation Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Shin, Su-Jin; Lee, Na Young; Cheon, Se-Yun; Park, Wansu; Sun, Seung-Ho; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a urologic disease that affects most of men over the age 50. But until now there is no such perfect cure without side effects. Because of diverse adverse effects, it is desirable to develop effective and long term-safety-herbal medicines to inhibit the progress of BPH. In spite of garlic's large use and a wide spectrum of studies, including anti-hyperlipidemic, cardio-protective, and anti-inflammatory activities, there was none to prove efficacy for BPH. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of garlic to prove its suppressing effects on BPH. Garlic administration decreased relative prostate weight ratio, suppressed mRNA expression level of AR, DHT serum levels, and the growth of prostatic tissue in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, garlic administration decreased the levels of inflammatory proteins, iNOS, and COX-2 in prostatic tissue. Further investigation showed that garlic induced accumulation of death-inducing signal complex and activation of AMPK and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. These results suggest that garlic may have suppressing effects on BPH and it has great potential to be developed as treatment for BPH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Culture promotes transfer of thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation by reducing regulatory T cell numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayes, Timothy D; Braley-Mullen, Helen

    2013-01-01

    IFN-γ(-/-) NOD.H-2h4 mice develop a spontaneous autoimmune thyroid disease, thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation (TEC H/P) when given NaI in their water for 7+ mo. TEC H/P can be transferred to IFN-γ(-/-) SCID mice by splenocytes from mice with severe (4-5+) disease, and transfer of TEC H/P is improved when splenocytes are cultured prior to transfer. Older (9+ mo) IFN-γ(-/-) NOD.H-2h4 mice have elevated numbers of FoxP3(+) T reg cells, up to 2-fold greater than younger (2 mo) mice. During culture, the number of T reg decreases and this allows the improved transfer of TEC H/P. Co-culture with IL-2 prior to transfer prevents the decrease of T reg and improves their in vitro suppressive ability resulting in reduced TEC H/P in recipient mice. Therefore, culturing splenocytes improves transfer of TEC H/P by reducing the number of T reg and IL-2 inhibits transfer by preserving T reg number and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Corn silk extract improves benign prostatic hyperplasia in experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Ra; Ha, Ae Wha; Choi, Hyun Ji; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a corn silk extract on improving benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The experimental animals, 6-week-old male Wistar rats, were divided into sham-operated control (Sham) and experimental groups. The experimental group, which underwent orchiectomy and received subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of testosterone propionate to induce BPH, was divided into a Testo Only group that received only testosterone, a Testo+Fina group that received testosterone and 5 mg/kg finasteride, a Testo+CSE10 group that received testosterone and 10 mg/kg of corn silk extract, and a Testo+CSE100 group that received testosterone and 100 mg/kg of corn silk extract. Prostate weight and concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5α-reductase 2 (5α-R2), and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum or prostate tissue were determined. The mRNA expressions of 5α-R2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in prostate tissue were also measured. Compared to the Sham group, prostate weight was significantly higher in the Testo Only group and decreased significantly in the Testo+Fina, Testo+CSE10, and Testo+CSE100 groups ( P corn silk extract treatment improved BPH symptoms by inhibiting the mRNA expression of 5α-R2 and decreasing the amount of 5α-R2, DHT, and PSA in serum and prostate tissue.

  9. Silodosin for the treatment of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia: safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee Ju; Yoo, Tag Keun

    2014-01-01

    α1-Adrenergic receptor antagonists are commonly used to treat male lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We performed a literature search using PubMed, Medline via Ovid, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify studies on the treatment of BPH by silodosin. Silodosin is a novel α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist whose affinity for the α1A-adrenergic receptor is greater than that for the α1B-adrenergic receptor. Therefore, silodosin does not increase the incidence of blood pressure-related side effects, which may result from the inhibition of the α1B-adrenergic receptor. Patients receiving silodosin at a daily dose of 8 mg showed a significant improvement in the International Prostate Symptom Score and maximum urinary flow rate compared with those receiving a placebo. Silodosin also improved both storage and voiding symptoms, indicating that silodosin is effective, even during early phases of BPH treatment. Follow-up extension studies performed in the United States, Europe, and Asia demonstrated its long-term safety and efficacy. In the European study, silodosin significantly reduced nocturia compared to the placebo. Although retrograde or abnormal ejaculation was the most commonly reported symptom in these studies, only a few patients discontinued treatment. The incidence of adverse cardiovascular events was also very low. Evidence showing solid efficacy and cardiovascular safety profiles of silodosin will provide a good solution for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH in an increasingly aging society.

  10. Progesterone receptor in the prostate: A potential suppressor for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, RuiQi; Yu, Yue; Dong, Xuesen

    2017-02-01

    Advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen receptor pathway inhibition (ARPI) eventually progresses to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), suggesting that (i) androgen receptor (AR) blockage is incomplete, and (ii) there are other critical molecular pathways contributing to prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Although most PCa occurs in the epithelium, prostate stroma is increasingly believed to play a crucial role in promoting tumorigenesis and facilitating tumor progression. In the stroma, sex steroid hormone receptors such as AR and estrogen receptor-α are implicated to have important functions, whereas the progesterone receptor (PR) remains largely under-investigated despite the high sequence and structural similarities between PR and AR. Stromal progesterone/PR signaling may play a critical role in PCa development and progression because not only progesterone is a critical precursor for de novo androgen steroidogenesis and an activator of mutant androgen receptors, but also PR functions in a ligand-independent manner in various important pathways. In fact, recent progress in our understanding of stromal PR function suggests that this receptor may exert an inhibitory effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), reactive stroma development, and PCa progression. These early findings of stromal PR warrant further investigations as this receptor could be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in PCa management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. LILRA3 Is Associated with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Risk in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent prostate cancer (PCa genome-wide association study (GWAS identified rs103294, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP located on LILRA3, a key component in the regulation of inflammatory inhibition, to be significantly associated with PCa risk in a Chinese population. Because inflammation may be a common etiological risk factor between PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, the current study was conducted to investigate the association of rs103294 with BPH risk. rs103294 was genotyped in a Chinese population of 426 BPH cases and 1,008 controls from Xinhua Hospital in Shanghai, China. Association between rs103294, BPH risk and clinicopathological traits were tested with adjustment for age. rs103294 was significantly associated with BPH risk with a p-value of 0.0067. Individuals with risk allele “C” had increased risk for BPH (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.09–1.66. Stratified analysis revealed a stronger association risk for younger patients who are below 72 years old (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06–2.16. Our study represents the first effort to demonstrate that LILRA3 gene is significantly associated with BPH risk in a Chinese population. Our results support a common role of inflammation in the development of PCa and BPH. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate our results.

  12. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...... therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological...... studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH...

  13. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia: a clinicopathologic study of 9 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinovart, R M; Bassas-Vila, J; Morell, L; Ferrándiz, C

    2014-03-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a rare disease characterized by single or multiple angiomatous lesions typically located on the scalp and the face. We present a retrospective analysis of 9 cases of ALHE. The lesions appeared largely as multiple grouped papules or, in some cases, subcutaneous nodules, located mainly on the scalp, particularly around the ear. We also observed lesions in atypical locations, such as areas of the head other than the scalp, and the shoulder, neck, and forearm. At these sites the lesions had an atypical clinical appearance that made diagnosis difficult; this should be borne in mind in patients with single, well-delimited lesions with a vascular appearance and superficial ulceration or crusting. Surgery was the most common treatment in our series, and even though ALHE is considered a benign condition, recurrence was common. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  14. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fontán, Eva; Blanco Ramos, Montserrat; García, Jose Soro; Carrasco, Rommel; Cañizares, Miguel Ángel; González Piñeiro, Ana

    2018-05-19

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare disorder characterized by a proliferation of neuroendocrine cells within the lung. It is classically described as a disease with persistent cough, dyspnea and wheezing in non-smoker middle aged females. CT of the chest reveals diffuse air trapping with mosaic pattern. We present two cases of DIPNECH that were sent to our department to perform a lung biopsy with the diagnostic suspicion of diffuse interstitial disease. Both cases were women with a history of chronic cough and moderate effort dyspnea. The aim of this paper is that physicians take into account this diagnostic entity before treating as an asthmatic a patient with these characteristics, not forgetting that they are prenoplastic lesions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of canine benign prostatic hyperplasia with medroxyprogesterone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg-Thalen, B.; Linde-Forsberg, C.

    1993-01-01

    Nineteen dogs with clinical signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were given a subcutaneous injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). At the first follow-up four to six weeks after treatment, 16 (84%) showed no signs of prostatic disease, and in 10 (53%) radiography revealed that the prostate had decreased in size. The dogs were followed for an average of 17 months. Twelve (64%) showed no signs of prostatic disease for at least 10 months. Relapses occurred in 10 between 10 and 24 months after treatment. Based on the results of this study and an earlier study on the effects of estrogen on BPH, it was concluded that MPA was a good alternative for treatment of canine BPH

  16. The role of imaging in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Andrade, Marco Tulio Soares; Melo, Andrea Farias; Elias Junior, Jorge; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli

    2014-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autossomic recessive disorder caused by impaired steroidogenesis. Patients with CAH may present adrenal insufficiency with or without salt-wasting, as well as various degrees of virilization and fertility impairment, carrying a high incidence of testicular adrenal rest tumors and increased incidence of adrenal tumors. The diagnosis of CAH is made based on the adrenocortical profile hormonal evaluation and genotyping, in selected cases. Follow-up is mainly based on hormonal and clinical evaluation. Utility of imaging in this clinical setting may be helpful for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the patients, although recommendations according to most guidelines are weak when present. Thus, the authors aimed to conduct a narrative synthesis of how imaging can help in the management of patients with CAH, especially focused on genitography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  17. Surgical treatment of unilateral condylar hyperplasia with piezosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Luigi; Albanese, Massimo; Anesi, Alexandre; Galzignato, Pier-Francesco; Mortellaro, Carmen; Nocini, Pierfrancesco; Bertossi, Dario

    2014-05-01

    Unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) is a disorder of unknown etiology mainly seen in growing patients, which results in facial asymmetry. High condylectomy alone or in association with orthognathic surgery can improve the occlusion and the facial aesthetics. Between 2005 and 2012, a total of 5 patients underwent high condylectomy for UCH using a piezoelectric cutting device. All patients were treated postoperatively with functional rehabilitation. The long-term follow-up showed that all patients had a satisfactory temporomandibular joint articular function associated with stable occlusion without any recurrence of further condylar growth. High condylectomy in the surgical treatment of unilateral UCH seems to be the procedure of choice in growing patients. The use of a piezoelectric cutting device allows a safe and less invasive high condylectomy.

  18. The role of imaging in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Andrade, Marco Tulio Soares; Melo, Andrea Farias; Elias Junior, Jorge, E-mail: jejunior@fmrp.usp.br [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Radiology, Clinical Hospital, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo (FMRP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Clinical Hospital, FMRP-USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autossomic recessive disorder caused by impaired steroidogenesis. Patients with CAH may present adrenal insufficiency with or without salt-wasting, as well as various degrees of virilization and fertility impairment, carrying a high incidence of testicular adrenal rest tumors and increased incidence of adrenal tumors. The diagnosis of CAH is made based on the adrenocortical profile hormonal evaluation and genotyping, in selected cases. Follow-up is mainly based on hormonal and clinical evaluation. Utility of imaging in this clinical setting may be helpful for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the patients, although recommendations according to most guidelines are weak when present. Thus, the authors aimed to conduct a narrative synthesis of how imaging can help in the management of patients with CAH, especially focused on genitography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  19. Diagnosis and management of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumudi, Eunice; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Surana, Vineet; Shabir, Iram; Joseph, Angela; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2013-08-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is among the most common genetic disorders. Deficiency of adrenal steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene accounts for about 95% cases of CAH. This disorder manifests with androgen excess with or without salt wasting. It also is a potentially life threatening disorder; neonatal screening with 17-hydroxyprogesterone measurement can diagnose the condition in asymptomatic children. Carefully monitored therapy with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid supplementation will ensure optimal growth and development for children with CAH. Genital surgery may be required for girls with CAH. Continued care is required for individuals with CAH as adults to prevent long-term adverse consequences of the disease, including infertility, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of hyperplasia on the increase of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Maciel Meloni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is resulted from the individual increase of the fiber cross-sectional area. This adaptative phenomenon is normally observed in the muscle tissue submitted to a regimen of physical exercises, like strength training. The degree of muscular hypertrophy is directly related to the type of exercise and its intensity. Strength training normally produces a hypertrophy of greater magnitude when compared to other types of physical exercise. However, it is possible that there is another adaptive mechanism contributing for increasing skeletal muscle size. This mechanism is called hyperplasia, and can be defined as an increase in the cells, or fibers, number in the muscle. This brief review aims to verify the role of hyperplasia in the increase of skeletal muscle size. RESUMO A hipertrofia do músculo esquelético é resultado do aumento individual da área transversal da fibra. Este fenômeno adaptativo é comumente observado no tecido muscular submetido à um regime de exercícios físicos, como o treinamento de força. O grau de hipertrofia muscular está diretamente relacionado ao tipo de exercício e sua intensidade. O treinamento de força normalmente produz uma hipertrofia de maior magnitude, quando comparada aos outros tipos de exercício físico. Todavia, é provável que haja outro mecanismo adaptativo contribuindo para a hipertrofia do músculo esquelético. Este mecanismo chama-se hiperplasia, e pode ser traduzida por um aumento no número de células, ou fibras musculares em relação ao número original. Este breve resumo tem por objetivo verificar qual é o papel da hiperplasia na hipertrofia do músculo esquelético.

  1. MR imaging of pituitary hyperplasia in a child with growth arrest and primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papakonstantinou, O.; Bakantaki, A.; Papadaki, E.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.; Bitsori, M.; Mamoulakis, D.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary hyperplasia has been rarely described in children with primary hypothyroidism. We report a case of pituitary hyperplasia in a child presented with significant growth arrest and laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed symmetrical pituitary enlargement simulating macroadenoma. After thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the child's height increased and pituitary enlargement regressed to normal. Awareness of MRI appearance of pituitary hyperplasia in children with laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism might avoid misdiagnosis for pituitary tumor, which may also manifest as growth disorder, obviating unnecessary surgery. (orig.)

  2. A Recurrence of Bilateral Diffuse Sclerosing Lobular Hyperplasia of Breast: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfituri, Osama; Sonawane, Snehal; Xu, Haoliang; Warso, Michael A; Wiley, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Mammary sclerosing lobular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign fibroproliferative lesion of adolescent and young women, often of African American heritage with an incidence of ~3%. Patients generally complain of a palpable, painless, or slightly tender and well-defined lump in breast. Very rarely, this lesion may be bilateral and diffuse. The definitive diagnosis of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia requires histopathologic evaluation. Here, we describe a case of diffuse sclerosing lobular hyperplasia in a 29-year-old African American woman that required bilateral mastectomy and recurred bilaterally requiring second resections. This appears to be the first report of this phenomenon.

  3. Antihypertensive treatment with telmisartan in a cat with amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Desmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Systemic arterial hypertension is commonly reported in middle-aged-to-older cats. Amlodipine is recommended as the initial antihypertensive drug in cats. In this case report, gingival hyperplasia secondary to the use of amlodipine in a cat is described. Benazepril as a monotherapy was unsuccessful in reducing blood pressure in this cat. After replacement of benazepril by telmisartan, gingival hyperplasia disappeared and blood pressure was well controlled. Relevance and novel information This case report describes the first reported case of reversible gingival hyperplasia as a result of the treatment with amlodipine. It also contains the first published data on the effect of telmisartan in a hypertensive cat.

  4. Transformation and mass hyperplasia technique of the garden plant (lily) by radiation and so forth. Mass hyperplasia of the lily using tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Koji; Hamada, Yutaka

    1997-01-01

    For an aim of more uniform child bulb production and good quality kind conservation using tissue culture of the lily, some hyperplasia from organs over ground of the lily were tried. In particular, optimum culture media with higher hyperplasia rate of the child bulb, redifferentiation due to difference among kinds of the lilies, and difference of hyperplasia of the child bulbs were investigated. As a result, it was found that pollution due to various germs attached to used materials often occurs, that efficiency obtainable for initial child bulb by redifferentiation from the organs was low at 20%, and that pollution due to various germs was often found at 25degC of cultivation temperature, which was inferior to that at 20degC. And, when conducting mass hyperplasia of the lily using tissue culture, an optimum culture medium of formation and hyperplasia of child bulb could be obtained for its each kind. As a result of conducting some investigations on configuration of the lily nourished from its child bulb and flowered by the tissue culture, it was also found that cultured bulb had the same character as its parent bulb had. (G.K.)

  5. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the fallopian tube mimicking tubal cancer: a radiological and pathological diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Choi, Kyung Un; Han, Ga Jin; Kwon, Byung Su; Song, Yong Jung; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hyung

    2016-11-14

    Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the fallopian tube is a rare, benign disease characterized by florid epithelial hyperplasia. The authors present the history and details of a 22-year-old woman with bilateral pelvic masses and a highly elevated serum CA-125 level (1,056 U/ml). Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis showed bilateral adnexal complex cystic masses with a fusiform or sausage-like shape. Contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images showed enhancement of papillary projections of the right adnexal mass and enhancement of an irregular thick wall on the left adnexal mass, suggestive of tubal cancer. Based on MRI and laboratory findings, laparotomy was performed under a putative preoperative diagnosis of tubal cancer. The final pathologic diagnosis was pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of tubal epithelium associated with acute and chronic salpingitis in both tubes. The authors report a rare case of pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the fallopian tubes mimicking tubal cancer.

  6. Unilateral Bimaxillary Idiopathic Fibrous Gingival Hyperplasia with Alveolar Bone Loss- Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Sathawane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargements are of many types and vary according to the etiologic factors and pathologic processes that produce them. Though there are many classifications of gingival enlargement, the most practical one is as follows: 1 Inflammatory gingival enlargement 2 Fibrous gingival hyperplasia 3 Combination of inflammatory and fibrous hyperplasia. Gingival hyperplasia is a heterogeneous group of disorder, which appears clinically as diffuse, firm, and massive enlargement of the gingiva covering most of the crown of the teeth. Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition of undetermined etiology, although some cases have definite hereditary basis. A case of unilateral idiopathic fibrous gingival hyperplasia on left side of both the jaws with severe bone resorption is presented.

  7. Concurrent Endometrial Carcinoma in Patients with a Curettage Diagnosis of Endometrial Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Chen

    2009-06-01

    Conclusion: When patients are diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia, surgical intervention should be performed in those with cytological atypia and higher BMI because of the possibility of coexisting endometrial carcinoma.

  8. Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa: bilocated epithelial hyperplasia with very different sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Laffert, M; Stadie, V; Wohlrab, J; Marsch, W C

    2011-02-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa is a chronic, inflammatory, scarring disease in the terminal hair follicle and apocrine gland-bearing areas (skin folds). There is considerable histological evidence that perifolliculitis and follicular hyperkeratosis precede the rupture of the follicle. The timing of the epithelial hyperplasia at the infundibula of inflamed terminal follicles has not yet been clarified. To clarify the early histopathological life of lesions ('chronology') in hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa, focusing on the terminal follicle structure and its surrounding tissue (hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia of follicular epithelium, perifolliculitis and rupture). In total, 485 operative specimens obtained from 128 patients with diagnosed hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (all surgically treated by wide excision) were examined histologically. Two to five histological preparations (total 485) per operation area (total 196) were prepared by multiple slicing. Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa showed a heterogeneous histological pattern: hyperkeratosis of the terminal follicles (89%), hyperplasia of follicular epithelium (80%), pronounced perifolliculitis (68%) and follicle rupture (24%). Perifolliculitis, follicular hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia occurred prior to the rupture of the follicle. Other histological criteria were: subepidermal cellular inflammatory infiltrate (82%), epidermal psoriasiform hyperplasia (56%), pronounced acute dermal inflammation (28%), pronounced chronic dermal inflammation (49%), and involvement of apocrine glands (52%) and subcutis (31%). Infundibular hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia of the follicular epithelium and perifolliculitis are major histopathological characteristics of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa. These apparently precede rupture of the follicle. In particular, hyperplasia of the follicular epithelium probably marks the beginning of sinus formation, which usually spreads horizontally. Psoriasiform hyperplasia

  9. Malignant transformation of nodular hyperplasia in the thyroid: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Hyun Sin; Kim, Dong Wook; Yoon, Hye Kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid carcinogenesis is traditionally thought to originate 'de novo'. However, it is debatable whether a malignant transformation can possibly arise from a benign thyroid nodule, as suggested for the malignant transformation of a thyroid adenoma. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have been performed addressing the malignant transformation of nodular hyperplasia in the thyroid gland. Here, we report a case of nodular hyperplasia with focally malignant degeneration

  10. Reversible pituitary hyperplasia at birth in a macrosomic full-term baby boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipoff, Jennifer; Wilson, Thomas A. [State University of New York, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Peyster, Robert [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Pituitary hyperplasia is generally associated with end-organ failure such as primary hypothyroidism, physiological changes such as puberty and pregnancy, or neoplasms secreting releasing factors. We present a full-term infant with an enlarged pituitary height of 8 mm at age 3 days despite a normal endocrinological evaluation. Repeat imaging at 5 months of age revealed a normal-size pituitary gland. To our knowledge, pituitary hyperplasia has not been described in a neonate with normal pituitary function. (orig.)

  11. A Study of Using Massage Therapy Accompanied with Stretching Exercise for Rehabilitation of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pin; Chong, Yuping; Zou, Huagang; Chen, Xiangxian

    2016-01-01

    To apply massage therapy accompanied with stretching exercises for treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, evaluate the clinical outcome in patients, and estimate the therapy as a novel treatment method for mammary hyperplasia. 28 adult female patients were selected and treated with massage therapy and stretching exercises focusing on skeleton muscles of chest, abdomen, and axilla. The mammary gland oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb) levels were detected before and after treatment after 15, 30, and 45 days. In this cohort, pretreatment OxyHb (mean ± SD) is 1.32 ± 0.14 (medium-high), and DeoxyHb is 0.87 ± 0.13 (normal). All patients were clinically diagnosed with benign mammary gland hyperplasia and mastitis. The posttreatment OxyHb levels are 1.23 ± 0.09 (normal-medium, 15-day), 1.16 ± 0.08 (normal, 30-day), and 1.05 ± 0.04 (normal, 45-day), and DeoxyHb levels are 0.90 ± 0.11 (normal, 15-day), 0.94 ± 0.18 (normal, 30-day), and 0.98 ± 0.12 (normal, 45-day). Patients were diagnosed with decreased hyperplasia 15 and 30 days after treatment and with no symptom of hyperplasia in mammary gland 45 days after treatment. Mammary gland hyperplasia is closely correlated with pathological changes of skeletal muscles and could be significantly improved by massage therapy and stretching exercises targeting neighboring skeletal muscles.

  12. Usefulness of MRI in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma and endometrial hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Mayumi; Moriai, Kayo; Murai, Shinya; Imai, Toshihiko; Iida, Hajime; Suzuki, Hiroshi (Iwate Prefectural Central Hospital, Morioka (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    The study was to assess the usefulness of T2-weighted and enhanced T1-weighted MR images in differentiating endometrial adenocarcinoma and hyperplasia. The subjects were 21 patients with endometrial hyperplasia (Group A), consisting of 15 with cystic glandular hyperplasia and 6 with atypical hyperplasia, and 7 with endometrial adenocarcinoma (Group B). Six other patients with no evidence of abnormal endometrial findings served as controls. In Group A, the endometrium had a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and was 10 mm or over in thickness before menopause and 6 mm after menopause. It was also a high or intermediate signal intensity on enhanced T1-weighted images. In patiemts with cystic glandular hyperplasia, the junctional zone was 10 mm or over on T2-weighted images. Similar findings were seen on enhanced T1-weighted images. In patients with atypical hyperplasia, the junctional zone disappeared or decreased on enhanced images compared with those on T2-weighted images. In group B, the endometrium had an intermediate or high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with the junctional zone being 10 mm or more. Enhanced T1-weighted images showed lower signal intensities in the tumorous area than in the normal endometrium and muscular layer. These findings indicated that enhanced MR imaging may be useful in diagnosing endometrial lesions. (N.K.).

  13. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

  14. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia: A potentially precancerous disease? (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASCONES-MARTÍNEZ, A.; COK, S.; BASCONES-ILUNDÁIN, C.; ARIAS-HERRERA, S.; GOMEZ-FONT, R.; BASCONES-ILUNDÁIN, J.

    2012-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (MEH), also known as Heck’s disease, manifests as a papulonodular lesion in the oral mucosa and has been associated with the human papillomavirus, a virus related to various precancerous diseases in the oral cavity. It has a predisposition for the female gender and for children. Although the majority of reported cases have been among American Indians and Eskimos, it has been described in multiple ethnic groups in various geographical locations. The objective of this review was to report on the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of MEH and its possible correlation with oral cancer. It is based on a search of articles in international journals published prior to April 2011, using the PubMed database and selecting articles related to the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MEH. The review revealed a higher number of cases in individuals of American Indian origin and a predilection of the disease for the female gender and for patients between the 1st and 2nd decades of life. The most frequent lesion site was the lower lip. The disease has been associated with socio-economic and genetic factors, among others. No cases of malignant transformation have been reported. PMID:22740890

  15. Baldness, benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate cancer and androgen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faydaci, Gökhan; Bilal, Eryildirim; Necmettin, Penpegül; Fatih, Tarhan; Asuman, Orçun; Uğur, Kuyumcuoğlu

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. BPH, prostate cancer and androgenic alopecia (AA) were somehow androgen dependent and affect large population of elderly men. A total of 152 patients, 108 patients with BPH and 44 patients with prostate cancer were included in the study. We measured serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone, FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, albumin and SHBG levels. Baldness classification was based on Norwood's classification and we categorised baldness as vertex and frontal baldness. The frequency of AA in BPH and prostate cancer groups were not different. We looked for some correlation between the two groups with respect to AA and hormone levels. We did not find any correlation between AA and total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone or SHBG levels in both groups. This prospective study with selected small group of patients showed that there is no difference of male pattern baldness in BPH and prostate cancer patients and also there is no correlation between pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels.

  16. The epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, L B; Tzonou, A; Lagiou, P; Samoli, E; Zavitsanos, X; Trichopoulos, D

    1999-08-01

    To assess the epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a case-control study in greater Athens, Greece. The study comprised 184 patients surgically treated for BPH within one year of its diagnosis (cases) and 246 patients with no symptoms of BPH who were treated in the same hospitals for minor diseases or conditions (controls). All cases and controls were permanent residents of the greater Athens area, Greece. The data were assessed using unconditional logistic regression. After controlling for age and education, cases and controls had similar distributions for height, body mass index, sibship size and birth order in the parental family, marital status, number of offspring and a series of previous medical diagnoses or surgical operations. The sole exception was surgery for haemorrhoids, that appeared to be related to the incidence of BPH, possibly by chance. There was no evidence that vertex baldness, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption or coffee drinking increased the risk for BPH. Men who had spent most of their lives in a rural rather than an urban environment appeared to be at reduced risk for BPH. The lifestyle factors assessed here have no major effect on the aetiology of BPH.

  17. Bilateral coronoid hyperplasia causing painless limitation of mandibular movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghazizadeh, DDS, MS

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The coronoid process is a beaklike process in the ramus of the mandible. Coronoid process hyperplasia (CPH is a rare possible cause of reduced mouth opening. An overgrown process interferes with mandibular rotation and lateral excursion and hence leads to restricted mouth opening (RMO. Although some factors are suggested, etiology of CPH is not completely known. Prescription of suitable radiography is necessary for an accurate diagnosis. This article reports a 30-year-old man with bilateral CPH and progressive RMO since childhood. This disorder affected his oral hygiene and quality of life. With the help of different types of radiography, CPH was diagnosed and coronoidectomy was the only treatment option. The patient showed normal jaw movements after the surgery and postoperative physiotherapy. General dentists have an important role in noticing RMO and referring the patients to maxillofacial radiologists. Although it is a rare phenomenon, general dentists need to keep CPH in mind as a possible cause. Panoramic imaging accompanied by computed tomography or cone beam computed tomography is the best imaging option in such cases.

  18. MRI findings of multiple focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Yu Qingtai; Jing Yu; Wang Haiyi; Pan Jingjing; Duan Weidong; Wang Dianjun; Ye Huiyi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of MRI on multiple focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver. Methods: MR images of 9 cases with pathological-confirmed multiple FNH were retrospectively analyzed. MRI features of the lesions were correlated with pathological findings. Results: Multiple FNH was considered in all these 9 cases. Among them, the primary diagnosis was FNH in 5, hepatic adenoma in 3 and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma in 1 case. A total of 31 lesions were detected in the 9 cases. On T 2 WI, 19 lesions presented slightly high-signal intensity, and the other 12 presented iso-signal intensity. On T 1 WI, 12 lesions presented slightly low-signal intensity, 7 presented iso-signal intensity, and the other 12 presented high-signal intensity. On opposed-phase, the signal intensity of 1 lesion dropped unevenly. After bolus injection of contrast agent Gd-DTPA, in hepatic arterial phase 18 lesions showed mild to marked heterogeneous enhancement, 11 showed marked homogeneous enhancement, 1 showed moderate ring-like enhancement, and the last one did not have obvious enhancement. In portal venous and delayed phase, all the lesions turned to iso- or slightly high-signal intensity gradually. Sixteen of 31 lesions presented central scar, which demonstrated mild star-like enhancement in delayed phase. Conclusion: Multiple FNH presented certain MRI features, which contributed to the preoperative diagnosis. (authors)

  19. MSCT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haitao; Xu Qinsha; Chen Yutang; Song Yupiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MSCT findings of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver, and to improve the diagnostic standard. Methods: The MSCT findings were analyzed retrospectively in 25 patients pathologically approved with FNH. All patients underwent 16 detector row spiral CT scanning with and without contrast enhancement. Results: 28 lesions were discovered by CT, with single lesion showed in 22 cases, 2 lesions showed in 3 cases. All lesions showed a solitary nodules or lobulated mass in the liver. On plain CT, FNH showed equal or slightly low density. In the arterial phase, 27 lesions were vigorously and homogeneously enhanced, except the central scars with CT value of 99∼149HU and the mean CT-number of 124 HU. 1 lesion ws enhanced inter-homogeneously. Tortuous and enlarged arteries were seen at the center or periphery in 8 of the 28 lesions. In the portal venous phase, 16 lesions remained slightly hyperdense, 8 lesions turned to isodense, and 1 lesion turned to slightly hypodense. The typical central scar was showed in 8 lesions and 2 lesions showed delayed enhancement. 21 cases were correctly diagnosed by MSCT, with the diagnostic accuracy of 84.0%. Conclusion: MSCT scanning can fully show the pathologic and the blood supplying characteristics of FNH. The typical FNH can be easily diagnosed by CT, while the atypical cases should be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma, hemangioma of liver, liver cell adenoma and fibrolamellar hepatocarcinoma. (authors)

  20. Sonographic pattern of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, A.; Gratz, K.F.; Broelsch, C.; Gebel, M.

    1984-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver (FNH) is a histologically defined benign hepatic tumour, possibly associated with the use of oral contraceptives. The present study deals with the question whether FNH can be distinguished from other lesions of the liver by ultrasonography alone or by a combination of realtime sonography and radiologic procedures. Therefore 18 cases of FNH, 16 females and 2 males, are presented. We retrospectively reviewed the diagnostic results of real-time sonography, hepatic scintigraphy, computed tomography with dynamic CT-densitometry, and angiography on these 18 patients. Ultrasonography enables the identification of the lesion in all of the 18 cases. FNH appears to show varying degrees of echogenicity (slight hypoechoic in 6 cases, isoechoic in 6 cases, and slight hyperechoic in 4 cases). In most of the patients the tumour had similar acoustic characteristics at the surrounding normal liver. By ultrasonography alone there is no possible differentation of FNH from other hepatic tumours. Both the echo pattern of FNH and the results of the ultrasonically guided cytopuncture are unspecific. (orig.)

  1. Combination therapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

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    Bojan Tršinar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of observational program of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS because of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH (LUTS/BPH was to acquire additional pharmaco-epidemiological data on the safety and efficacy of combination therapy with finasteride and tamsulosin.Methods: Observational program of men with BPH was conducted in urological outpatient clinics in Slovenia from April 2004 until November 2005. In open-label, non-interventional program 1173 patients were observed, who had been treated because of LUTS/BPH with combination therapy with finasteride and tamsulosin, in the framework of common treatment. At baseline and after six months of treatment for each patient the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS questionnaire and assessment of quality of life (QL were filled in. In addition, urinary flow rate and prostate volume were determined. Adverse effects of drugs were reported spontaneously. For statistical analysis the Student’s t-test was performed.Results: Combination therapy with finasteride and tamsulosin was well tolerated. 89 (7.6 % patients discontinued with medication because of lack of efficacy or because of adverse effects of drugs. Symptom score, assessment of quality of patients’ lives and volume of prostates were significantly lower (p < 0.0001, while urinary flow rate was significantly higher (p < 0.0001 after six months of treatment with finasteride and tamsulosin.Conclusions: Combination therapy of patients with LUTS/BPH with finasteride and tamsulosin is effective and safe.

  2. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) management in the primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Anil

    2012-10-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in up to 50% of men by age 50, and the incidence increases with age. This common clinical problem is diagnosed by history, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and physical examination by digital rectal examination (DRE). Initial management for BPH includes lifestyle modification, and smooth muscle relaxant alpha blocker therapy. Alpha blockers usually take effect quickly within 3-5 days, and have minimal side effects. Current commonly used alpha blockers include the selective alpha blockers tamsulosin (Flomax), alfusosin (Xatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo). For patients with larger prostates, the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor class (finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart)) work effectively to shrink prostate stroma resulting in improved voiding. The 5-ARI class of drugs, in addition to reducing prostate size, also reduce the need for future BPH-related surgery, and reduce the risk of future urinary retention. Drugs from the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor class may now be considered for treating BPH. Once daily 5 mg tadalafil has been shown to improve BPH-related symptoms and is currently approved to treat patients with BPH. Referral to a urologist can be considered for patients with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA), especially while on 5-ARI, failure of urinary symptom control despite maximal medical therapy, suspicion of prostate cancer, hematuria, recurrent urinary infections, urinary retention, or renal failure. Currently the primary care physician is armed with multiple treatment options to effectively treat men with symptomatic BPH.

  3. Fibronectin Pattern in Benign Hyperplasia and Cancer of the Prostate

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    Miroslava M. Janković

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibronectin (FN is a multifunctional glycoprotein involved in cell-matrix interactions. It exhibits a complex pattern of forms differing in respect to aminoacid and oligosaccharide composition. In this study we examined glycobiochemical and functional properties of the FN in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostatic cancer (PCa, attempting to resolve disease-related differences. Two BPH sera pools and three PCa sera pools were used as the FN source. The affinity-purified molecule was characterized by SDS-PAGE, immuno- and lectin blot, lectin-affinity chromatography and adhesion assay. BPH FN existed as intact molecule, giving the main immunoreactive band at 220 kDa. In contrast, PCa FN comprised three main immunoreactive fragments of 140, 110 and 90 kDa. As for glycosylation the ratio of altogether lectin-reactive PCa FN was different from that of BPH FN manifested as a decrease of Con A- and an increase of LCA-reactive moieties. Fibroblasts adhered to both FN preparations in a concentration dependent manner, but with a significantly lower efficiency to PCa FN. The results obtained showing distinct structural characteristics of PCa FN compared to BPH FN could be important for modulation of its ligand and recognition properties expressed as gain or loss of functions or as specific markers of its origin.

  4. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome

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    Vineet V Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed during puberty. The diagnosis of mosaic Turner could not explain the virilization. Therefore, we repeated the karyotype, which revealed 46, XX in more than 100 metaphases and was sufficient to exclude mosaicism. Furthermore, the endocrinological evaluation revealed high testosterone level with a normal 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP. The presence of pubertal onset virilization with a karyotype of 46, XX and raised testosterone level with normal 17-OHP level, raised the suspicion of NCAH for which adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was done which confirmed the diagnosis of NCAH.

  5. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Classification of Studies Employing Psychological Endpoints

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    Sandberg DavidE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1 catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2 classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as the research design and conceptual model guiding analysis and interpretation of data. The majority of studies (68% investigated endpoints related to psychosexual differentiation. The preponderance of studies (76% examined a direct relationship (i.e., inferring causality between prenatal androgen exposure and psychological outcomes. Findings are discussed in relation to the observed imbalance between theoretical interest in the role of prenatal androgens in shaping psychosexual differentiation and a broader conceptual model that examines the role of other potential factors in mediating or moderating the influence of CAH pathophysiology on psychological outcomes in both affected females and males. The latter approach offers to identify factors amenable to clinical intervention that enhance both health and quality of life outcomes in CAH as well as other disorders of sex development.

  6. Multifocal Adenomatous Oncocytic Hyperplasia of the Parotid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Harada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tadao K.; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuri, Takashi; Takasu, Kosho; Tsubura, Airo; Shikata, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH) is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected. PMID:25580104

  7. Multifocal Adenomatous Oncocytic Hyperplasia of the Parotid Gland

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    Yuichi Kinoshita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected.

  8. Prostatic hyperplasia in the mummy of an italian renaissance prince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciranni, R; Giusti, L; Fornaciari, G

    2000-12-01

    Pandolfo III Malatesta (1370-1427) was a leading figure of the Italian Renaissance. He was a valiant soldier and horseman with a very active life style. Historical sources report that he died of a fever in 1427. The tomb, containing his mummified body, has recently been discovered in Fano (Marche, Central Italy). After careful X-ray and videographic examination, autopsy was performed to diagnose possible pathologies. Samples of different tissues were collected and rehydrated by Sandison's method and submitted to routine histology processes. Sections of treated tissue were fixed on clean slides, stained with hematoxylin-eosin or Gardner's Trichromic and observed at light microscope. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The autopsy showed good preservation of the skeletal muscles, cartilage, internal and external organs included prostate gland and penis. Macroscopic examination revealed stag-horn calculi (calcium urate) of the left kidney and a severe enlargement of the prostate, with calcifications detectable by X-ray and a large nodule protruding in the lumen of an ectatic urethra. Histology shows fibrous bands of connective and muscular tissue surrounding some circular and oblong lacunae, with no preservation of epithelial structures. The macroscopic and histological picture, showing clear prostatic nodular hyperplasia, makes this the first case described in paleopathology. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Altered Peptidase Activities in Thyroid Neoplasia and Hyperplasia

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    Gorka Larrinaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA, and thyroid nodular hyperplasia (TNH are the most frequent diseases of the thyroid gland. Previous studies described the involvement of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26 in the development of thyroid neoplasia and proposed it as an additional tool in the diagnosis/prognosis of these diseases. However, very little is known about the involvement of other peptidases in neoplastic and hyperplastic processes of this gland. Methods. The catalytic activity of 10 peptidases in a series of 30 PTC, 10 FTA, and 14 TNH was measured fluorimetrically in tumour and nontumour adjacent tissues. Results. The activity of DPPIV/CD26 was markedly higher in PTC than in FTA, TNH, and nontumour tissues. Aspartyl aminopeptidase (AspAP, alanyl aminopeptidase (AlaAP, prolyl endopeptidase, pyroglutamyl peptidase I, and aminopeptidase B activities were significantly increased in thyroid neoplasms when compared to nontumour tissues. AspAP and AlaAP activities were also significantly higher in PTC than in FTA and TNH. Conclusions. These data suggest the involvement of DPPIV/CD26 and some cytosolic peptidases in the neoplastic development of PTC and FTA. Further studies will help to define the possible clinical usefulness of AlaAP and AspAP in the diagnosis/prognosis of thyroid neoplasms.

  10. Altered peptidase activities in thyroid neoplasia and hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrinaga, Gorka; Blanco, Lorena; Errarte, Peio; Beitia, Maider; Sanz, Begoña; Perez, Itxaro; Irazusta, Amaia; Sánchez, Clara E; Santaolalla, Francisco; Andrés, Leire; López, José I

    2013-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), and thyroid nodular hyperplasia (TNH) are the most frequent diseases of the thyroid gland. Previous studies described the involvement of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) in the development of thyroid neoplasia and proposed it as an additional tool in the diagnosis/prognosis of these diseases. However, very little is known about the involvement of other peptidases in neoplastic and hyperplastic processes of this gland. The catalytic activity of 10 peptidases in a series of 30 PTC, 10 FTA, and 14 TNH was measured fluorimetrically in tumour and nontumour adjacent tissues. The activity of DPPIV/CD26 was markedly higher in PTC than in FTA, TNH, and nontumour tissues. Aspartyl aminopeptidase (AspAP), alanyl aminopeptidase (AlaAP), prolyl endopeptidase, pyroglutamyl peptidase I, and aminopeptidase B activities were significantly increased in thyroid neoplasms when compared to nontumour tissues. AspAP and AlaAP activities were also significantly higher in PTC than in FTA and TNH. These data suggest the involvement of DPPIV/CD26 and some cytosolic peptidases in the neoplastic development of PTC and FTA. Further studies will help to define the possible clinical usefulness of AlaAP and AspAP in the diagnosis/prognosis of thyroid neoplasms.

  11. Growth and development in children with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfig, Walter

    2017-02-01

    Final height outcome in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) has been of interest for many years. With analysis of growth patterns and used glucocorticoid regimens, enhanced treatment strategies have been developed and are still under development. Most of the current reports on final height outcome are confirmative of previous results. Final height data is still reported in cohorts that were diagnosed clinically and not by newborn screening. Clinical diagnosis of CAH leads to delayed diagnosis especially of simple virilizing CAH with significantly advanced bone age resulting in early pubertal development and reduced final height. In contrast salt-wasting CAH is diagnosed at an earlier stage in most cases resulting in better final height outcome in some cohorts. Nevertheless, final height outcome in patients with CAH treated with glucocorticoids is lower than the population norm and also at the lower end of genetic potential. Achievement of regular adult height is still a challenge with conventional glucocorticoid treatment in patients with CAH, which is why new hydrocortisone formulations and new treatment options for CAH are underway.

  12. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a 3-dimensional quantification of asymmetry.

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    Tim J Verhoeven

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Objective quantifications of facial asymmetry in patients with Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia (UCH have not yet been described in literature. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify soft-tissue asymmetry in patients with UCH and to compare the findings with a control group using a new method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty 3D photographs of patients diagnosed with UCH were compared with 30 3D photographs of healthy controls. As UCH presents particularly in the mandible, a new method was used to isolate the lower part of the face to evaluate asymmetry of this part separately. The new method was validated by two observers using 3D photographs of five patients and five controls. RESULTS: A significant difference (0.79 mm between patients and controls whole face asymmetry was found. Intra- and inter-observer differences of 0.011 mm (-0.034-0.011 and 0.017 mm (-0.007-0.042 respectively were found. These differences are irrelevant in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: After objective quantification, a significant difference was identified in soft-tissue asymmetry between patients with UCH and controls. The method used to isolate mandibular asymmetry was found to be valid and a suitable tool to evaluate facial asymmetry.

  13. Metabolic syndrome and benign prostatic hyperplasia: An update

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    Ho-Yin Ngai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities related to central adiposity and insulin resistance. Its importance is increasingly recognized as it associates with increased risks of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. These metabolic aberrations of MetS may lead to development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men. A 26.5%–55.6% prevalence of MetS in men with LUTS was reported in worldwide studies. Although the exact biological pathway is not clear yet, insulin resistance, increased visceral adiposity, sex hormone alterations and cellular inflammatory reactions played significant roles in the related pathophysiological processes. Clinician should recognize the cardiovascular and metabolic impacts of MetS in men with LUTS, early risk factors optimization and use of appropriate medical therapy may possibly alter or slower the progression of LUTS/BPH, and potentially avoid unnecessary morbidities and mortalities from cardiovascular and metabolic diseases for those men.

  14. Slow and sustained nitric oxide releasing compounds inhibit multipotent vascular stem cell proliferation and differentiation without causing cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Brandon M.; Leix, Kyle Alexander [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ji, Yajing [Department of Biomedical Science and Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Glaves, Richard Samuel Elliot [Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ash, David E. [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Mohanty, Dillip K., E-mail: Mohan1dk@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) proliferate and differentiate. • Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of MVSCs. • Nitric oxide inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs). • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) neither de-differentiate nor proliferate. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cerebral and myocardial infarction. It is believed that neointimal growth common in the later stages of atherosclerosis is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation in response to endothelial injury. However, the claims of the SMC de-differentiation theory have not been substantiated by monitoring the fate of mature SMCs in response to such injuries. A recent study suggests that atherosclerosis is a consequence of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) differentiation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known mediator against atherosclerosis, in part because of its inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation. Using three different NO-donors, we have investigated the effects of NO on MVSC proliferation. Results indicate that NO inhibits MVSC proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. A slow and sustained delivery of NO proved to inhibit proliferation without causing cell death. On the other hand, larger, single-burst NO concentrations, inhibits proliferation, with concurrent significant cell death. Furthermore, our results indicate that endogenously produced NO inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) and subsequently to SMC as well.

  15. Slow and sustained nitric oxide releasing compounds inhibit multipotent vascular stem cell proliferation and differentiation without causing cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Brandon M.; Leix, Kyle Alexander; Ji, Yajing; Glaves, Richard Samuel Elliot; Ash, David E.; Mohanty, Dillip K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) proliferate and differentiate. • Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of MVSCs. • Nitric oxide inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs). • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) neither de-differentiate nor proliferate. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cerebral and myocardial infarction. It is believed that neointimal growth common in the later stages of atherosclerosis is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation in response to endothelial injury. However, the claims of the SMC de-differentiation theory have not been substantiated by monitoring the fate of mature SMCs in response to such injuries. A recent study suggests that atherosclerosis is a consequence of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) differentiation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known mediator against atherosclerosis, in part because of its inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation. Using three different NO-donors, we have investigated the effects of NO on MVSC proliferation. Results indicate that NO inhibits MVSC proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. A slow and sustained delivery of NO proved to inhibit proliferation without causing cell death. On the other hand, larger, single-burst NO concentrations, inhibits proliferation, with concurrent significant cell death. Furthermore, our results indicate that endogenously produced NO inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) and subsequently to SMC as well

  16. Ethanol Extract of Evodia rutaecarpa Attenuates Cell Growth through Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsook Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The dried fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham have been used widely as a herbal medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and abdominal pain. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is a nonmalignant disease characterized by overgrowth of prostates. Despite the pharmacological efficacy of the fruits of E. rutaecarpa against various diseases, their effects against BPH have not been reported. Here, we investigated the inhibitory activity of a 70% ethanol extract of E. rutaecarpa (EEER against BPH, and its underlying mechanisms regarding cell growth of BPH using BPH-1 cells. An in vitro 5α-reductase activity assay showed that EEER exhibited inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase. In BPH-1 cells, EEER treatment inhibited cell viability and reduced the expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cyclin D1, and phosphor-ERK1/2 proteins. Moreover, EEER also induced apoptosis, with chromatin condensation, apoptotic bodies, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Regarding its underlying mechanisms, EEER exacerbated the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 in a concentration-dependent manner and eventually caused the cleavage of PARP. Taken together, these data demonstrated that EEER had a potent 5α-reductase inhibitory activity and that EEER treatment in BPH-1 cells inhibited cell viability via caspase-8- and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, EEER may be a potential phytotherapeutic agent for the treatment of BPH.

  17. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: an unusual association with diabetes mellitus in a child and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trizzino Antonino

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatic hemangioma, adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia are the most frequent benign lesions of the liver, but they are all infrequent among pediatric population. The reports of focal nodular hyperplasia in children have recently increased in number, with many cases associated to drug intake, particularly to chemotherapy. We here describe, to our knowledge, the first case of focal nodular hyperplasia in association with diabetes mellitus in childhood.

  18. Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia in Core Needle Biopsies of Breast Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelten Talu, Canan; Boyaci, Ceren; Leblebici, Cem; Hacihasanoglu, Ezgi; Bozkurt, Erol Rustu

    2017-02-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign lesion of myofibroblasts that is composed of a network of slit-like channels that resemble vascular spaces. The aims of this study were to document the frequency of PASH in core needle biopsy specimens (CNBS) of the breast, to describe which histopathologic findings coexist with PASH and to examine any endothelial cell differentiation. We reevaluated hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all CNBS that were obtained during a 1-year period. First, we performed CD34 and CD31 immunostainings to highlight the areas of PASH, then performed D2-40/podoplanin (lymphatic endothelial marker) and Fli-1 (vascular endothelial cell marker) immunostains. The total number of CNBS was 412. Areas of PASH were noted in 37 of the 412 cases (9%), with a mean age of 38.5 years. The lesions that were described in association with PASH were "benign breast parenchyma with stromal fibrosis" (17/37; 46%), "fibroepithelial tumors" (17/37; 46%), "columnar cell changes (CCC)" (2/37; 5%), and "invasive carcinoma" (1/37; 3%). There were 2 cases of CCC within the foci of PASH (direct contact with PASH), and 8 additional cases of CCC that coexisted in the same specimen but were not in direct contact. There was no staining for D2-40 or Fli-1 within PASH foci. PASH lesions occurred with a frequency of 9% in CNBS and were mostly in association with benign breast lesions in premenopausal women. CCC was determined as an accompanying epithelial lesion within or near PASH areas. No obvious immunopositivity compatible with endothelial cell differentiation was revealed.

  19. [The imaging diagnosis of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzocchi, M; Macorig, D; Cecconi, P; Gozzi, G

    1991-12-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a rare benign hepatocellular tumor occurring in noncirrhotic patients, mostly females, 20-50 years of age. It is usually asymptomatic. The authors took the lead from 5 cases of FNH studied over last year to analyze the different patterns exhibited by the condition on the various imaging techniques currently available. At scintigraphy with 99mTc DISIDA or with TcSC, FNH can be hyper, normal, or hypocaptating. On US scans, the lesion is often homogeneous and isoechoic, but it can also be hyper/hypoechoic. With Doppler US, high-flow signals can be observed. On unenhanced CT scans the lesion is solid, well-demarcated, isodense or slightly hyperdense; sometimes it shows a central hypodense area corresponding to fibrovascular scar. On postcontrast scans it appears hyper/isodense. At dynamic CT the lesion density, which is high during the arterial phase, decreases quickly in the parenchymal and the venous phases and reaches equal/inferior values to surrounding liver parenchyma. On liver angio-CT it is sometimes possible to visualize the bile ducts in the central scar. At angiography, FNH is hypervascular and homogeneous. On MR scans, in T1-weighted SE sequences, the condition is isointense or slightly hypointense, whereas on T2-weighted pulse sequences it is slightly hyperintense; the central scar is hypointense on T1, and hyperintense on T2, weighted scans. As we have no pathognomonic patterns but only orientative ones, a reliable differential diagnosis with hepatocellular adenoma (HA) and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) must be based on biopsy or cytology or, even better, histology. The differential diagnosis is nevertheless necessary because, while FNH does not usually require a surgical approach but only a radiological follow-up, both HA (due to possible bleeding and degeneration) and FL-HCC require surgery.

  20. Surgical management of Cushing Syndrome secondary to micronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anathea C.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Batista, Dalia; Alexander, H. Richard; Pingpank, James F.; Keil, Meg; Bartlett, David L.; Libutti, Steven K.

    2008-01-01

    Background We reviewed our experience with micronodular adrenal hyperplasia (MAH), its pigmented variant primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), and the association with Carney’s Complex (CNC) in order to better characterize the disorders. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of clinical data and operative reports of 34 patients identified with MAH and/or PPNAD who underwent resection between 1969 and 2006 at the Clinical Research Center, an inpatient research hospital, at the National Institutes of Health. Symptoms and anthropometric and biochemical data were used to evaluate effect of resection. Results Fifteen patients (44%) presented as adults and 19 (56%) as children. Twenty five patients (74%) presented with non-cyclic Cushing syndrome and nine patients (26%) presented with cyclic Cushing Syndrome. Thirty one patients underwent bilateral resection; this was curative biochemically in 30 patients. Fourteen operations were performed laparoscopically (41%), and 20 were perfomed as open resections (59%). There was one post-operative complication in the laparoscopic group (7%) and 6 complications in the open group (30%) (p=0.20). Follow-up was available for 25 patients (74%). Statistically significant improvements in anthropometrics were observed for both adults and children. The most frequent manifestation of CNC requiring additional operation was cardiac myxoma which was associated strongly with an atypical (cyclic) presentation of Cushing Syndrome (p=0.009). Conclusion Cushing Syndrome due to MAH and PPNAD may be cured by bilateral adrenal resection. All patients should be screened for manifestations of CNC at the time of adrenal diagnosis with particular attention to cardiac disease. PMID:18549891

  1. Radiological and clinical observation on benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jai Hee; Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Yeon; Han, Jung Suh [College of Medicine, Cho-Sun University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    A radiological and clinical observation was made on 77 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia admitted to the department of Urology, Cho-Sun University Hospital during the period from January 1972 to December 1979 and following results were obtained. 1. Incidence of PBH was 8.1% to 953 total inpatients, 11.3% to 679 male inpatients, and 34.5% to male inpatients of 50 years more. 2. Majority of cases was found in 7th and 8th decades (80.5%) with mean age of 69.4 years old. 3. A gradual tendency of annual increase of the cases was observed and the mean interval elapsed from initial symptoms to visit was 29.9 months. Common symptoms were dysuria in 72 cases (93.5%), hematuria in 53 cases (68.8%), frequency in 51 cases (66.2%) and 12 cases (15.6%) were acute urinary retention. 4. I. V. P. findings of BPH were elevation of the bladder base in 71 cases (92.2%), trabeculation of the bladder wall in 58 cases (75.3%), hypertrophy of the bladder in 24 cases (31.2%) and the complications-hydronephrosis and hydroureter 16 cases (20.8%), bladder diverticula 9 cases (11.7%) and bladder stone were 5 cases (6.5%). 5. Cystourethrographic findings of the posterior urethra with 33 cases of PBH were smooth, gentle sloping in 28 cases 84.8%), widening in sagittal plane in 23 cases (69.7%), elongation and narrowing of the urethra in 26 cases (78.8%)

  2. Radiological and clinical observation on benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jai Hee; Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Yeon; Han, Jung Suh

    1980-01-01

    A radiological and clinical observation was made on 77 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia admitted to the department of Urology, Cho-Sun University Hospital during the period from January 1972 to December 1979 and following results were obtained. 1. Incidence of PBH was 8.1% to 953 total inpatients, 11.3% to 679 male inpatients, and 34.5% to male inpatients of 50 years more. 2. Majority of cases was found in 7th and 8th decades (80.5%) with mean age of 69.4 years old. 3. A gradual tendency of annual increase of the cases was observed and the mean interval elapsed from initial symptoms to visit was 29.9 months. Common symptoms were dysuria in 72 cases (93.5%), hematuria in 53 cases (68.8%), frequency in 51 cases (66.2%) and 12 cases (15.6%) were acute urinary retention. 4. I. V. P. findings of BPH were elevation of the bladder base in 71 cases (92.2%), trabeculation of the bladder wall in 58 cases (75.3%), hypertrophy of the bladder in 24 cases (31.2%) and the complications-hydronephrosis and hydroureter 16 cases (20.8%), bladder diverticula 9 cases (11.7%) and bladder stone were 5 cases (6.5%). 5. Cystourethrographic findings of the posterior urethra with 33 cases of PBH were smooth, gentle sloping in 28 cases 84.8%), widening in sagittal plane in 23 cases (69.7%), elongation and narrowing of the urethra in 26 cases (78.8%)

  3. Is early benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presicce, Fabrizio; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The medical armamentaria for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have been extensively implemented over the past decade. Nevertheless, the timeliest moment for a possible treatment has not been fully established. A systematic literature search in January 1996 until June 2016 was performed to answer the following question: in men with LUTS due to BPH, does early treatment result in better outcome? An ad hoc Population/patient Intervention/indicator Comparator/control Outcome (PICO) was developed.The Medline, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched. Each article title and abstract were reviewed for relevance and appropriateness with regard to the topic of this review. Overtime, the introduction of novel medications and the implementation of surgical techniques have significantly improved the treatment outcomes and markedly reduced the rate of BPH surgery. Early treatments in patients at risk of disease progression may result in better clinical outcomes than a delayed approach. However, the evidence to support early intervention remains weak and criteria to identify the patient phenotype that could best benefit from immediate treatment remain ill-defined.On the contrary, the patients who ultimately undergo surgery following prolonged pharmacological treatment present with larger prostates, older age and comorbidities. At the same time, the technological progress has partly compensated this critical scenario, and commonly, a nonpejorative trend has been recorded in perioperative complications. The ideal moment to begin a treatment in LUTS/BPH patients is still uncertain, and surprisingly, rare good quality studies are available on this topic.

  4. Outcome of Transurethral Plasmakinetic Vaporization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy El-Tabey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the outcome of transurethral plasmakinetic vaporization (PKVP in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Patients and methods From August 2010 to May 2012, 60 patients with obstructive LUTS due to BPH were included in the study. All patients were evaluated by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, general examination, digital rectal examination, PSA, routine laboratory examinations, pelvi-abdominal ultrasound, trans-rectal ultrasound, and uroflowmetry. Patients with Qmax of 8 and a prostate volume of >40 mL underwent transurethral PKVP. Results Mean age of the patients was 66.8±4.5 years. The mean times of the operation, post-operative bladder irrigation, and post-operative catheterization were 63.8±13.9 minutes, 15.2±5.7 hours, and 23.9±5.2 hours, respectively. At 3 months of follow-up, there were significant reductions in the mean IPSS from 23.4±3.5 to 9.2±3.7 (P=0.4, mean PSA from 3.03±2.2 ng/mL to 1.2±1.04 ng/mL (P value=0.02, mean post voiding residual urine from 149.8±59.5 mL to 46.9±24.1 mL (P value <0.01, and mean prostate volume from 72.8±10.3 mL to 22.7±6.1 mL (P value <0.01. Also, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean Q max. from 8.7±2.4 mL/s to 19.5±3.5 mL/s (P value <0.01. Conclusion PKVP is an effective and safe treatment option in the management of symptomatic BPH.

  5. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia: magnetic resonance imaging of finger lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jinkyeong; Kim, Jee-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Changyoung [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Hospital Pathology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), to identify findings differentiating IPEH of the finger from that of other locations, and to correlate these with pathology. Nineteen patients with 20 I.E. masses of the finger (n = 13) and other locations (n = 7) were evaluated. All patients underwent MRI, and the results were correlated with pathology. Seventeen IPEHs, including all IPEHs of the finger, were located in the subcutis, the three other lesions in the muscle layer. On T1WI, all masses were isointense or slightly hyperintense. IPEHs of the finger (n = 13) revealed focal hyperintense nodules (n = 2) or central hypointensity (n = 2) on T1WI, hypointensity with a hyperintense rim (n = 7), hyperintensity with hypointense nodules (n = 5), or isointensity with a hypointense rim (n = 1) on T2WI, and rim enhancement (n = 5), heterogeneous enhancement with nodular nonenhanced areas (n = 6), peripheral nodular enhancement (n = 1), or no enhancement (n = 1) on gadolinium-enhanced T1WI. IPEHs of other locations (n = 7) demonstrated focal hyperintense nodules (n = 5) on T1WI, hyperintensity with hypointense nodules (n = 5) or heterogeneous signal intensity (n = 2) on T2WI, and rim or rim and septal enhancement (n = 6) or peripheral nodular enhancement (n = 1). Microscopically, IPEHs were composed of thrombi that were hypointense on T2WI and papillary endothelial proliferations that showed T2 hyperintensity and enhancement. MRI of finger IPEH reveals well-demarcated subcutaneous masses with hypointensity or hypointense nodules with peripheral hyperintensity on T2WI, as well as peripheral enhancement. T1 hyperintense nodules, internal heterogeneity on T2WI, and septal enhancement are more common in IPEH of other locations. (orig.)

  6. Gender Identity in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Karimi, Sakineh; Shirazi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Sex assignment in infancy for patients with disorder of sex development (DSD) is a challenging problem. Some of the patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have DSD that may affect their gender identity. The study aimed to assess gender identity in patients with CAH. In this study, 52 patients with CAH, including 22 prepubertal children and 30 adolescents and adults, were assessed using two separate gender identity questionnaires for children and adults based on the criteria of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition. In the children group, compatibility was seen between gender identity and rearing gender. In the adult group, there were three cases of mismatching between gender identity and sex assignment composed of two females with poor control and one male with good control with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). Three girls with 11-hydroxylase deficiency (11-OHD) were reared as boy. Two of them with late diagnosis at 5 and 6 years of age had pseudoprecocious puberty. Parents and children did not accept to change the gender. One of them is 36 years old now, is depressed and unsatisfied with her gender, another girl is still child and has male sexual identity. One girl with 11-OHD and early diagnosis at birth with Prader 5 virilization but with good hormonal control was changed to female gender at 12 years of age when female sexual characteristics appeared; she is 34-years-old now, married, and with two children, and she is satisfied with her gender. In patients with CAH, gender identity disorder is a rare finding. Hormonal control, social, familial, and religious beliefs have impacts on gender identity of these patients.

  7. Effects of stinging nettle root extracts and their steroidal components on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of the benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, T; Homma, M; Oka, K

    1994-02-01

    The effects of organic-solvent extracts of Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of the tissue of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were investigated. The membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase fraction was prepared from a patient with BPH by a differential centrifugation of the tissue homogenate. The enzyme activity was inhibited by 10(-4)-10(-5) M of ouabain. The hexane extract, the ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract, and the butanol extract of the roots caused 27.6-81.5% inhibition of the enzyme activity at 0.1 mg/ml. In addition, a column extraction of stinging nettle roots using benzene as an eluent afforded efficient enzyme inhibiting activity. Steroidal components in stinging nettle roots, such as stigmast-4-en-3-one, stigmasterol, and campesterol inhibited the enzyme activity by 23.0-67.0% at concentrations ranging from 10(-3)-10(-6) M. These results suggest that some hydrophobic constituents such as steroids in the stinging nettle roots inhibited the membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of the prostate, which may subsequently suppress prostate-cell metabolism and growth.

  8. Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohammad A. Jalil; Begum, D.; Islam, F.

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)

  9. Photocarcinogenesis and persistent hyperplasia in UV-irradiated SENCAR mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    Susceptibility to photocarcinogenesis has been examined in several mouse strains and stocks including SENCAR, CD-1, BALB/c, C3H, C57Bl, and NZB. SENCAR mice are hypersusceptible to tumorigenesis caused by single high dose exposures to ultraviolet (UV) radiation but not by chronic low-dose exposures. SENCAR mice also exhibit an exaggerated and persistent epidermal hyperplasia in response to UV-induced tissue damage. The persistent hyperplasia is apparently due to a sustained proliferation of the epithelial basal cells, rather than to delayed cell differentiation. SENCAR mice did not exhibit persistent hyperplasia following other forms of tissue damage (surgical or thermal). In related studies, the levels of thymine dimers induced in SENCAR epidermis by UV radiation were comparable to those observed in BALB/c epidermis. In addition, no differences were found in the tissue distribution or persistence of thymine dimers in SENCAR and BALB/c skin

  10. Interleukin-Driven Insulin-Like Growth Factor Promotes Prostatic Inflammatory Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Alana M.; Myers, Jason D.; McFarland, Eliza K.; Lee, Sanghee

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic inflammation is of considerable importance to urologic research because of its association with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. However, the mechanisms by which inflammation leads to proliferation and growth remain obscure. Here, we show that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), previously known as critical developmental growth factors during prostate organogenesis, are induced by inflammation as part of the proliferative recovery to inflammation. Using genetic models and in vivo IGF receptor blockade, we demonstrate that the hyperplastic response to inflammation depends on interleukin-1–driven IGF signaling. We show that human prostatic hyperplasia is associated with IGF pathway activation specifically localized to foci of inflammation. This demonstrates that mechanisms of inflammation-induced epithelial proliferation and hyperplasia involve the induction of developmental growth factors, further establishing a link between inflammatory and developmental signals and providing a mechanistic basis for the management of proliferative diseases by IGF pathway modulation. PMID:25292180

  11. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of 3 cases with human papillomavirus DNA sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, S E; Tokman Yildirim, Benay; Sarisoy, S

    2011-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a benign proliferative viral infection of the oral mucosa that is related to Human Papil-lomavirus (HPV), mainly subtypes 13 and 32. Although this condition is known to exist in numerous populations and ethnic groups, the reported cases among Caucasians are relatively rare. It presents as asymptomatic papules or nodules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Histopathologically, it is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, fusion, and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges and the cells named mitozoids. The purpose of this case report was to present 3 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a pediatric age group. Histopathological and clinical features of cases are discussed and DNA sequencing analysis is reported in which HPV 13, HPV 32, and HPV 11 genomes are detected.

  12. Interleukin-33 induces mucin gene expression and goblet cell hyperplasia in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishinaga, Hajime; Kitano, Masako; Toda, Masaaki; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Gabazza, Esteban C; Shah, Said Ahmad; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    We investigated whether IL-33 is involved in mucus overproduction and goblet cell hyperplasia in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS). IL-33 mRNA was significantly higher in the eosinophilic CRS group than in the non-eosinophilic CRS group from human nasal polyps. IL-33 induced MUC5AC mRNA and MUC5AC protein, and also goblet cell hyperplasia at air liquid interface culture in human nasal epithelial cells. In addition to that, IL-33 induced MUC5B and FOXA3, and reduces FOXJmRNA. In conclusion, our present study demonstrated that the direct evidence of IL-33 which lead to increase mucin gene and protein expression, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia. This study provides novel insights into the role of IL-33 on mucus overproduction in eosinophilic inflammation of human airways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diffuse choroid plexus hyperplasia: an under-diagnosed cause of hydrocephalus in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Azian Abd.; Coleman, Lee [Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Morokoff, Andrew; Maixner, Wirginia [Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Department of Neurosurgery, Parkville (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder in children and the result of a variety of causes. However, with the advancement of imaging modalities, particularly MRI, previously reported rarer causes of hydrocephalus in children are now being more readily appreciated. We report an 11-year-old boy with diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus. He had a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt in-situ and a prior diagnosis from infancy of congenital aqueduct stenosis as the cause of his hydrocephalus. His current presentation was with further shunt dysfunction. CT and MRI demonstrated enlarged choroid plexuses but did not confirm aqueduct stenosis. CSF overproduction was demonstrated from the externalized ventricular drain. The enlarged choroid plexuses were surgically resected and histology confirmed choroid plexus hyperplasia. Identification of choroid plexus hyperplasia is important since the neurosurgical management of hydrocephalus is not VP shunt insertion, but resection of the hyperplastic choroid plexus. (orig.)

  14. Multiple osteoblastomas in a child with Cushing syndrome due to bilateral adrenal micronodular hyperplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeoh Won Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocorticotropin-independent adrenal hyperplasias are rare diseases, which are classified into macronodular (>1 cm and micronodular (≤1 cm hyperplasia. Micronodular adrenal hyperplasia is subdivided into primary pigmented adrenocortical disease and a limited or nonpigmented form 'micronodular adrenocortical disease (MAD', although considerable morphological and genetic overlap is observed between the 2 groups. We present an unusual case of a 44-month-old girl who was diagnosed with Cushing syndrome due to MAD. She had presented with spotty pigmentation on her oral mucosa, lips and conjunctivae and was diagnosed with multiple bone tumors in her femur, pelvis and skull base at the age of 8 years. Her bone tumor biopsies were compatible with osteoblastoma. This case highlights the importance of verifying the clinicopathologic correlation in Cushing syndrome and careful follow-up and screening for associated diseases.

  15. Chondroitin sulfate iron colloid as MR contrast agent in differentiation between hepatocellular carcinoma and adenomatous hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Y. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Kato, T. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Matsuo, T. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Kamba, M. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Shimatani, Y. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Ohuchi, Y. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Nakamura, K. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Ohta, Y. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Using a 1.5 T MR imaging unit, T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained before and after i.v. administration of chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) in order to differentiate hepatocellular carcinoma (n=20) from adenomatous hyperplasia without atypia (n=16). Differentiation was made from the tumor-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and visual evaluation of the nodule, with reference to signal intensity relative to that of the surrounding liver. The CNR of adenomatous hyperplasia was on T1-weighted images significantly decreased after CSIC administration (p<0.01). On T2-weighted images, there was no significant difference in CNR after CSIC administration. On the other hand, the CNR of hepatocellular carcinoma was significantly increased after CSIC administration on both T1- and T2-weighted images (p<0.01). CSIC reflects intratumor reticuloendothelial cellular functions, and is therefore useful in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from adenomatous hyperplasia without atypia. (orig.).

  16. Diffuse choroid plexus hyperplasia: an under-diagnosed cause of hydrocephalus in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Azian Abd.; Coleman, Lee; Morokoff, Andrew; Maixner, Wirginia

    2005-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder in children and the result of a variety of causes. However, with the advancement of imaging modalities, particularly MRI, previously reported rarer causes of hydrocephalus in children are now being more readily appreciated. We report an 11-year-old boy with diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus. He had a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt in-situ and a prior diagnosis from infancy of congenital aqueduct stenosis as the cause of his hydrocephalus. His current presentation was with further shunt dysfunction. CT and MRI demonstrated enlarged choroid plexuses but did not confirm aqueduct stenosis. CSF overproduction was demonstrated from the externalized ventricular drain. The enlarged choroid plexuses were surgically resected and histology confirmed choroid plexus hyperplasia. Identification of choroid plexus hyperplasia is important since the neurosurgical management of hydrocephalus is not VP shunt insertion, but resection of the hyperplastic choroid plexus. (orig.)

  17. A rear case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia; Radiologic and histopathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Cha, Eun Jung [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Multilocular thymic cysts are rare and acquired lesions induced by an inflammatory arising within the thymus. We report a rare case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia in a 59-year-old female. Chest CT and MRI revealed a large multilocular cystic mass, which contains thick septa and nodules in the thymus. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed almost no FDG uptake of the multilocular cystic mass but moderate FDG uptake of the solid nodules. Extended total thymectomy was performed. Histopathological findings revealed follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of thymic tissue but no neoplastic lesion. Based on these findings, diagnosis of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia was made. This is a rare case that preoperatively was difficult to diagnose.

  18. Estimated costs of treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haylton J. Suaid

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH presents 2 options: medical or surgical, and there are doubts about what is the best treatment since 80% of patients who undergo surgery become asymptomatic and 10 to 40% of those under medical regimen undergo surgery within a 5 years period. It is difficult to assess the actual costs of treating BPH in Brazil due to several factors, among them regional particularities and the scarcity of current statistical data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Recently, in the Ribeirão Preto area, São Paulo, Brazil, the IPSS (International Prostatic Symptoms Score and quality of life were verified in 934 volunteers. It was determined the percentage of individuals with ages ranging from 40 to 79 years with moderate symptoms (score 8-19 and with severe symptoms (score 20-35, values for which are indicated medical and surgical treatment, respectively, according to the Brazilian Society of Urology consensus on BPH. Data on Brazilian population in that age range were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics referent to the year of 2000. It was determined the number of patients, according to the criteria above, subjected to either one of the treatments mentioned. Surgical costs of prostate transurethral resection were researched according to Unified Health System - SUS tables (US$ 173 and of Brazilian Medical Society - AMB with a mean cost in 3 hospitals of US$ 933. Drug costs were calculated by the annual mean price (US$ 355 of 4 alpha-blockers (tamsulosin, alfuzosin, doxazosin and terazosin. RESULTS: The estimated population for medical treatment was 5,397,321 individuals, with a cost corresponding to US$ 1,916,489,055.00. The estimated population for surgical treatment was 2,040,299 men, what would represent a cost of US$ 353,291,204.00 based on the SUS table and of US$ 1,904,279,066.00 based on AMB with hospital expenses included. CONCLUSION: All theses facts induce us to predict

  19. Atypical ductal hyperplasia of the breast: radiologic and histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Jung Hyck; Oh, Yu Whan; Cho, Kyu Ran; Choi, Eun Jeong; Je, Bo Kyoung; Lee, Ji Hae; Seo, Bo Kyoung

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiologic findings of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) using mammography and ultrasonography, and to correlate the radiologic and histopathologic findings. Sixty-four pathologically proven lesions in 64 patients who were examined between March 2000 and March 2003 were the subject of this study. Mammography was performed in all 64 cases, and ultrasonography in 30. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated the radiologic findings, classifying them as one of four types: mass, microcalcification, other finding, and no detected lesion. At mammography, masses were classified according to their shape, margin, and density and microcalcifications according to their shape and distribution. At ultrasonography, masses were evaluated in terms of their shape, margin, internal and posterior echotexture, ductal extension, and parallelism to skin. Geographic correlation between the radiologic and histopathologic findings was classified as direct, near direct, or remote correlation. Mammography demonstrated 37 cases of microcalcification (57.8%), 14 in which masses were present (21.9%), two in which there were other findings (3.1%), and 11 in which lesions were not detected (17.2%). The 'other finding' was ductectasia. Microcalcifications were round in 19 cases, pleomorphic heterogeneous in 16, and branching linear in one. The most common distribution of microcalcification was clustered (29 cases; 78.4%). Masses were oval or round in nine cases and irregular in three, and in seven cases their margin was ill-defined. In 13 cases, the density of the masses was equal to that of breast tissue. Ultrasonography showed that the masses were round or oval in 15 cases and irregular in 14, and that the margin was ill-defined in 16 cases and circumscribed in ten. In 19 cases, the echotexture of the masses was low, and in 20 cases, heterogeneous. Parallel orientation was seen in 25 cases, and ductal extension in 22. Category 4 was the most common final assessed BI

  20. The epigenetic factor PCAF regulates vascular inflammation and is essential for intimal hyperplasia development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob C M de Jong

    Full Text Available Genetic P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF variation affects restenosis-risk in patients. PCAF has lysine acetyltransferase activity and promotes nuclear factor kappa-beta (NFκB-mediated inflammation, which drives post-interventional intimal hyperplasia development. We studied the contributing role of PCAF in post-interventional intimal hyperplasia.PCAF contribution to inflammation and intimal hyperplasia was assessed in leukocytes, macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs in vitro and in a mouse model for intimal hyperplasia, in which a cuff is placed around the femoral artery. PCAF deficiency downregulate CCL2, IL-6 and TNF-alpha expression, as demonstrated on cultured vSMCs, leukocytes and macrophages. PCAF KO mice showed a 71.8% reduction of vSMC-rich intimal hyperplasia, a 73.4% reduction of intima/media ratio and a 63.7% reduction of luminal stenosis after femoral artery cuff placement compared to wild type (WT mice. The association of PCAF and vascular inflammation was further investigated using the potent natural PCAF inhibitor garcinol. Garcinol treatment reduced CCL2 and TNF-alpha expression, as demonstrated on cultured vSMCs and leukocytes. To assess the effect of garcinol treatment on vascular inflammation we used hypercholesterolemic ApoE*3-Leiden mice. After cuff placement, garcinol treatment resulted in reduced arterial leukocyte and macrophage adherence and infiltration after three days compared to untreated animals.These results identify a vital role for the lysine acetyltransferase PCAF in the regulation of local inflammation after arterial injury and likely the subsequent vSMC proliferation, responsible for intimal hyperplasia.

  1. The common parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces prostatic inflammation and microglandular hyperplasia in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinot, Darrelle L; Garbuz, Tamila; Bosland, Maarten C; Wang, Liang; Rice, Susan E; Sullivan, William J; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Jerde, Travis J

    2017-07-01

    Inflammation is the most prevalent and widespread histological finding in the human prostate, and associates with the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Several factors have been hypothesized to cause inflammation, yet the role each may play in the etiology of prostatic inflammation remains unclear. This study examined the possibility that the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces prostatic inflammation and reactive hyperplasia in a mouse model. Male mice were infected systemically with T. gondii parasites and prostatic inflammation was scored based on severity and focality of infiltrating leukocytes and epithelial hyperplasia. We characterized inflammatory cells with flow cytometry and the resulting epithelial proliferation with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. We found that T. gondii infects the mouse prostate within the first 14 days of infection and can establish parasite cysts that persist for at least 60 days. T. gondii infection induces a substantial and chronic inflammatory reaction in the mouse prostate characterized by monocytic and lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate. T. gondii-induced inflammation results in reactive hyperplasia, involving basal and luminal epithelial proliferation, and the exhibition of proliferative inflammatory microglandular hyperplasia in inflamed mouse prostates. This study identifies the common parasite T. gondii as a new trigger of prostatic inflammation, which we used to develop a novel mouse model of prostatic inflammation. This is the first report that T. gondii chronically encysts and induces chronic inflammation within the prostate of any species. Furthermore, T. gondii-induced prostatic inflammation persists and progresses without genetic manipulation in mice, offering a powerful new mouse model for the study of chronic prostatic inflammation and microglandular hyperplasia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Altered protein expression in serum from endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma patients

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    Cong Qing

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in women. The diagnosis of the disease at early or premalignant stages is crucial for the patient's prognosis. To date, diagnosis and follow-up of endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia require invasive procedures. Therefore, there is considerable demand for the identification of biomarkers to allow non-invasive detection of these conditions. Methods In this study, we performed a quantitative proteomics analysis on serum samples from simple endometrial hyperplasia, complex endometrial hyperplasia, atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and endometrial carcinoma patients, as well as healthy women. Serum samples were first depleted of high-abundance proteins, labeled with isobaric tags (iTRAQ™, and then analyzed via two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification and quantitation information were acquired by comparing the mass spectrometry data against the International Protein Index Database using ProteinPilot software. Bioinformatics annotation of identified proteins was performed by searching against the PANTHER database. Results In total, 74 proteins were identified and quantified in serum samples from endometrial lesion patients and healthy women. Using a 1.6-fold change as the benchmark, 12 proteins showed significantly altered expression levels in at least one disease group compared with healthy women. Among them, 7 proteins were found, for the first time, to be differentially expressed in atypical endometrial hyperplasia. These proteins are orosomucoid 1, haptoglobin, SERPINC 1, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, apolipoprotein A-IV, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, and histidine-rich glycoprotein. Conclusions The differentially expressed proteins we discovered in this study may serve as biomarkers in the diagnosis and follow-up of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma.

  3. A Study of Using Massage Therapy Accompanied with Stretching Exercise for Rehabilitation of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia

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    Pin Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To apply massage therapy accompanied with stretching exercises for treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, evaluate the clinical outcome in patients, and estimate the therapy as a novel treatment method for mammary hyperplasia. Methods. 28 adult female patients were selected and treated with massage therapy and stretching exercises focusing on skeleton muscles of chest, abdomen, and axilla. The mammary gland oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb levels were detected before and after treatment after 15, 30, and 45 days. Results. In this cohort, pretreatment OxyHb (mean ± SD is 1.32±0.14 (medium-high, and DeoxyHb is 0.87±0.13 (normal. All patients were clinically diagnosed with benign mammary gland hyperplasia and mastitis. The posttreatment OxyHb levels are 1.23±0.09 (normal-medium, 15-day, 1.16±0.08 (normal, 30-day, and 1.05±0.04 (normal, 45-day, and DeoxyHb levels are 0.90±0.11 (normal, 15-day, 0.94±0.18 (normal, 30-day, and 0.98±0.12 (normal, 45-day. Patients were diagnosed with decreased hyperplasia 15 and 30 days after treatment and with no symptom of hyperplasia in mammary gland 45 days after treatment. Conclusion. Mammary gland hyperplasia is closely correlated with pathological changes of skeletal muscles and could be significantly improved by massage therapy and stretching exercises targeting neighboring skeletal muscles.

  4. Ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shcherbyina, O.V.; Yatsik, V.Yi.; Gladka, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the work is analysis of diagnostic possibilities of transrectal ultrasonography and PSA in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 142 patients have been investigated by transrectal ultrasonography. he transrectal ultrasonography and PSA are sensible tests in diagnosis of prostate cancer and in differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

  5. Study of radionuclide 90Sr-90Y on cell proliferation and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tong; Wei Wei; Zou Benjie; Liu Fang; Xu Zhishun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 90 Sr- 90 Yon cell proliferation and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods: The apoptosis and expression of Ki-67 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after irradiation 90 Sr- 90 Y were detected by transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical technique, respectively. Results: The proliferation index (PI) of BPH after 90 Sr- 90 Y irradiation was much lower than that before irradiation, but there was no significant change in apoptosis index (AI). Conclusion: Irradiation with 90 Sr- 90 Y could restrain cell proliferation of BPH, but could not induce apoptosis

  6. Imaging Findings of Localized Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Pancreas: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Shin, Sang Soo; Choi, Yoo Duk

    2011-01-01

    We report here on a case of localized lymphoid hyperplasia of the pancreas in a 70-year-old man which manifested as double lesions (uncinate process and tail) in the organ. The lesions were incidentally detected as hypoechoic lesions on ultrasonography and they appeared as delayed enhancing lesions on the contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and MRI. Total pancreatectomy was performed, because malignant tumor could not be excluded according to the preoperative imaging studies and the endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy failed. Pathology revealed localized lymphoid hyperplasia. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. He has been alive for 18 months after surgery.

  7. The Medical Home Concept and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: a Comfortable Habitat!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witchel SelmaFeldman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centered interdisciplinary health care for children with chronic medical disorders represents an evolution from the traditional "stop and go" treatment for acute illnesses. This model for health care delivery has been called the "medical home," a concept that was originally developed in pediatrics for the care of children with special needs. Patient and family-centered, comprehensive, interdisciplinary, culturally effective, and readily accessible health care delivery is desirable for the care of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. As children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH become adolescents and young adults, transfer of this health care delivery model to adult endocrinologists is appropriate.

  8. The Medical Home Concept and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Comfortable Habitat!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Feldman Witchel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centered interdisciplinary health care for children with chronic medical disorders represents an evolution from the traditional “stop and go” treatment for acute illnesses. This model for health care delivery has been called the “medical home,” a concept that was originally developed in pediatrics for the care of children with special needs. Patient and family-centered, comprehensive, interdisciplinary, culturally effective, and readily accessible health care delivery is desirable for the care of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. As children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH become adolescents and young adults, transfer of this health care delivery model to adult endocrinologists is appropriate.

  9. Imaging Findings of Localized Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Pancreas: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital and Medical School, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Soo; Choi, Yoo Duk [Chonnam National University Hospital and Medical School, Gwangju (KR)

    2011-08-15

    We report here on a case of localized lymphoid hyperplasia of the pancreas in a 70-year-old man which manifested as double lesions (uncinate process and tail) in the organ. The lesions were incidentally detected as hypoechoic lesions on ultrasonography and they appeared as delayed enhancing lesions on the contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and MRI. Total pancreatectomy was performed, because malignant tumor could not be excluded according to the preoperative imaging studies and the endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy failed. Pathology revealed localized lymphoid hyperplasia. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. He has been alive for 18 months after surgery.

  10. Ultrasonography, angiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance in nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarche, C.; Pelletier, G.; Attali, P.; Ladouch-Badre, A.; Fabre, M.; Roche, A.; Etienne, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Ultrasonographic, computed tomographic, and angiographic abnormalities of nodular regenerative hyperplasia have been described in very few cases. We report here the case of a 50-year-old man with round, well-limited hypoechogenic lesions involving the two lobes of the liver, and hypervascular, poorly delineated angiographic lesions. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance of the liver were normal. Histological examination of large liver specimens provided by intraoperative biopsy allowed the diagnosis of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Such a pseudo-tumoral ultrasonographic and angiographic pattern must be recognized in order to avoid diagnostic and therapeutic mistakes, especially since percutaneous liver biopsy usually fails to diagnose this disease. (author)

  11. Corrosion inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A O

    1965-12-29

    An acid corrosion-inhibiting composition consists essentially of a sugar, and an alkali metal salt selected from the group consisting of iodides and bromides. The weight ratio of the sugar to the alkali metal salt is between 2:1 and about 20,000:1. Also, a corrosion- inhibited phosphoric acid composition comprising at least about 20 wt% of phosphoric acid and between about 0.1 wt% and about 10 wt% of molasses, and between about 0.0005 wt% and about 1 wt% of potassium iodide. The weight ratio of molasses to iodide is greater than about 2:1. (11 claims)

  12. Protective Effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Aqueous Extract and Lycopene on Testosterone Propionate-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Aboshora, Waleed; Li, Jing; Xiao, Tiancun; Zhang, Lianfu

    2017-08-01

    The inhibitory effect of maca extractant, lycopene, and their combination was evaluated in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) mice induced by testosterone propionate. Mice were divided into a saline group, solvent control group and testosterone propionate-induced BPH mice [BPH model group, solvent BPH model group, benzyl glucosinolate group (1.44 mg/kg), maca group (60 mg/kg), lycopene treated (15, 5, and 2.5 mg/kg), maca (30 mg/kg) combine lycopene treated (7.5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/kg), and finasteride treated]. Benzyl glucosinolate was used in order to evaluate its pharmacological activity on BPH to find out whether it is the major active component of maca aqueous extract. Finasteride was used as positive control. The compounds were administered once for 30 successive days. Compared with solvent BPH model group, BPH mice fed with maca (30 mg/kg) and lycopene (7.5 mg/kg) combination exhibited significant reductions in the prostatic index, prostatic acid phospatase, estradiol, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone levels in serum. They also had similar histological compared with those aspects observed in the mice in the solvent control group. The results indicated that combination of maca and lycopene synergistically inhibits BPH in mice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Expression of activated PIK3CA in ovarian surface epithelium results in hyperplasia but not tumor formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Liang

    Full Text Available The Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase is a key regulator in various cancer-associated signal transduction pathways. Genetic alterations of its catalytic subunit alpha, PIK3CA, have been identified in ovarian cancer. Our in vivo data suggests that PIK3CA activation is one of the early genetic events in ovarian cancer. However, its role in malignant transformation of ovarian surface epithelium (OSE is largely unclear.Using the Müllerian inhibiting substance type II receptor (MISIIR promoter, we generated transgenic mice that expressed activated PIK3CA in the Müllerian epithelium. Overexpression of PIK3CA in OSE induced remarkable hyperplasia, but was not able to malignantly transform OSE in vivo. The consistent result was also observed in primary cultured OSEs. Although enforced expression of PIK3CA could not induce OSE anchorage-independent growth, it significantly increased anchorage-independent growth of OSE transformed by mutant K-ras.While PIK3CA activation may not be able to initiate OSE transformation, we conclude that activation of PIK3CA may be an important molecular event contributing to the maintenance of OSE transformation initiated by oncogenes such as K-ras.

  14. Regulation of Prostate Development and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Autocrine Cholinergic Signaling via Maintaining the Epithelial Progenitor Cells in Proliferating Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naitao Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of prostate epithelial progenitor cells is important in prostate development and prostate diseases. Our previous study demonstrated a function of autocrine cholinergic signaling (ACS in promoting prostate cancer growth and castration resistance. However, whether or not such ACS also plays a role in prostate development is unknown. Here, we report that ACS promoted the proliferation and inhibited the differentiation of prostate epithelial progenitor cells in organotypic cultures. These results were confirmed by ex vivo lineage tracing assays and in vivo renal capsule recombination assays. Moreover, we found that M3 cholinergic receptor (CHRM3 was upregulated in a large subset of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH tissues compared with normal tissues. Activation of CHRM3 also promoted the proliferation of BPH cells. Together, our findings identify a role of ACS in maintaining prostate epithelial progenitor cells in the proliferating state, and blockade of ACS may have clinical implications for the management of BPH.

  15. Cyclosporine a inhibits apoptosis of rat gingival epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Su; Liu, Peihong; Li, Yanwu; Hou, Lin; Chen, Li; Qin, Chunlin

    2014-08-01

    The use of cyclosporine A (CsA) induces hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in a site-specific response manner, but the molecular mechanism via which the lesion occurs is unclear. The present research aims to investigate the site-specific effect of CsA on the apoptosis of gingival epithelium associated with gingival hyperplasia. Forty Wistar rats were divided into CsA-treated and non-treated groups. Paraffin-embedded sections of mandibular first molars were selected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry analyses of bcl-2 and caspase-3, and the staining of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The area of the whole gingival epithelium and the length of rete pegs were measured, and the number of bcl-2- and caspase-3-positive cells in the longest rete peg were counted. The analysis of variance for factorial designs and Fisher least significant difference test for post hoc analysis were used to determine the significance levels. In CsA-treated rats, bcl-2 expression was significantly upregulated, whereas caspase-3 expression was downregulated, along with a reduced number of TUNEL-positive cells. The site-specific distribution of bcl-2 was consistent with the site-specific hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in CsA-treated rats. CsA inhibited gingival epithelial apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and common pathway. The antiapoptotic protein bcl-2 might play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the site-specific hyperplasia of gingival epithelium induced by CsA. There were mechanistic differences in the regulation of apoptosis for cells in the attached gingival epithelium, free gingival epithelium, and junctional epithelium.

  16. Nodular Epithelial Hyperplasia after Photorefractive Keratectomy Followed by Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoni, Ayla; Salerno, Liberdade Cezaro; Ghanem, Vinícius Coral; Ghanem, Ramon Coral

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a case of nodular epithelial hyperplasia and stromal alterations in a patient with keratoconus who was submitted to topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) followed by corneal collagen cross-linking. Debridement of the epithelial nodule was performed. After a 2-year followup, a new topography-guided PRK was indicated.

  17. Changes in keratin expression during the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Y.; Smedts, F.; Umbas, R.; Aalders, T. W.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Schalken, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between different types of epithelial cells in the prostate and the regulatory mechanism underlying benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are still obscure as is the association between BPH and prostate carcinoma (PCa.) On the basis of keratin immunophenotyping, a subpopulation of

  18. p53 alterations in atypical alveolar hyperplasia of the human lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, R. J.; Baas, I. O.; Clement, M. J.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Askin, F. B.; Hruban, R. H.; Westra, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Atypical alveolar hyperplasia (AAH) is a potential precursor lesion from which lung adenocarcinomas arise and may be a good target for studying the early events of lung tumorigenesis. We have previously shown that AAHs are neoplastic epithelial proliferations that often harbor activating mutations

  19. High prevalence of atypical hyperplasia in the endometrium of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingels, Marjanka J J M; Masadah, Rina; Geels, Yvette P; Otte-Höller, Irene; de Kievit, Ineke M; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of endometrial premalignancies in women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Endometrial and ovarian specimens of 186 patients with EOC were retrospectively selected using the nationwide pathology network and registry, and sections were comprehensively reviewed: 136 (73%) serous, 19 (10%) endometrioid, 15 (8%) mucinous, seven (4%) clear cell, and nine (5%) undifferentiated. Immunohistochemical phenotypes were compared for patients with serous EOC with concurrent endometrial pathology. In 31%, endometrial (pre)malignancy was found: carcinoma in 3%, endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) in 4%, and atypical hyperplasia in 24%. Atypical hyperplasia was found in 47% of endometrioid EOCs but in 7% to 33% of other subtypes. Body mass index was higher concurrent to atypical hyperplasia (P=.001). Serous EOC and EIC immunophenotypes were comparable, whereas atypical hyperplasia was expressed differently. Apart from synchronous endometrial carcinoma, endometrial premalignancies should be taken into account when determining optimal treatment for women diagnosed with EOC. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  20. Microbiota facilitates dietary heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia by breaking the mucus barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, Noortje; Belzer, Clara; Hooiveld, Guido; Dekker, Jan; Muller, Michael; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Meer, van der Roelof

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer risk is associated with diets high in red meat. Heme, the pigment of red meat, induces cytotoxicity of colonic contents and elicits epithelial damage and compensatory hyperproliferation, leading to hyperplasia. Here we explore the possible causal role of the gut microbiota in

  1. Unusually high incidence of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia in children of the Nahuatl population of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, Constantino; Mendez-Mendoza, Amilcar

    2017-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia is an uncommon disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus. To study the clinical and pathological findings of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia detected during an oral examination of 343 Mexican Nahuatl children from a single primary school in El Paso de Cupilco, Mexico. A thorough oral examination was performed in all children and clinical data (age, gender, location and number of lesions) were documented and analyzed. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia was diagnosed in 110 of the 343 children (32.3%). The ages of the children varied from 5 to 15 years, and of these, 56.3% were girls. The lesions were asymptomatic, 0.2 to 3.0 cm in diameter, soft, round to oval, smooth surfaced, sessile papulonodules, similar in colour to that of the surrounding mucosa. The lesions were commonly seen on the buccal mucosa and tongue, and most affected children (85%) had less than 5 lesions. Children in the 7 to 10 years age group were most often affected. Human papillomavirus typing was not done owing to a lack of facilities. There is a high incidence of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia in Nahuatl children with a predilection for females.

  2. Conjunctival reactive epithelial hyperplasia in a black African patient– a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedolapo Olaopa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hyperplasia can occur in any part of the body but of concern is occurrence adjacent to certain neoplasm such as cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma, granular cell tumor, spitz nevus and melanoma. Ocular reactive epithelial hyperplasia is not as common as ocular reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. This is the first reported case in our environment. The patient was concerned about his cosmetic appearance, comments of friends and fear of eye problem in future. We report the case of a 32 year old patient with painless, progressive swelling of the conjunctiva following stone injury to the eye while on a bike 5 years earlier. A traumatic conjunctival cyst to rule out melanoma was the initial diagnosis. We therefore, managed the case by excision biopsy and histology report was in keeping with conjunctival reactive epithelial hyperplasia. One year after removal, he was free of any swelling and had no complaints. Conclusion: Excision biopsy is effective and it will assist in ruling out neoplasm and taking care of the patient’s cosmetic problem.

  3. Mandibular Movement Restoration in a Child with Bilateral Coronoid Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Popovik Monevska

    2016-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The article presents a clinical and surgical case of bilateral coronoidectomy in a 3-year-old girl, with retrognathic mandible. The diagnosis of bilateral coronoid process hyperplasia was confirmed, and the surgical treatment was under general anesthesia, with nasotracheal intubation guided by a nasofiber endoscope, using an intraoral approach.

  4. [Rapidly-growing nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elıyatkin, Nuket; Karasu, Başak; Selek, Elif; Keçecı, Yavuz; Postaci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is a benign proliferative lesion of the mammary stroma that rarely presents as a localized mass. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is characterized by a dense, collagenous proliferation of the mammary stroma, associated with capillary-like spaces. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia can be mistaken with fibroadenoma on radiological examination or with low-grade angiosarcoma on histological examination. Its main importance is its distinction from angiosarcoma. The presented case was a 40-year-old woman who was admitted with a rapidly growing breast tumor. Physical examination revealed an elastic-firm, well-defined, mobile and painless mass in her right breast. Mammograms revealed a 6.7 x 3.7 cm, lobulated, well-circumscribed mass in her right breast but no calcification. Sonographic examination showed a well-defined and homogenous mass, not including any cyst. Based on these findings, a provisional diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. Considering the rapid growth history of the mass, tumor excision was performed. The excised tumor was well demarcated and had a smooth external surface. Histological examination revealed the tumor to be composed of markedly increased fibrous stroma and scattered epithelial components (cystic dilatation of the ducts, blunt duct adenosis). The fibrous stroma contained numerous anastomosing slit-like spaces. Isolated spindle cells appeared intermittently at the margins of the spaces resembled endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the spindle cells were positive for CD34 and negative for Factor VIII-related antigen. The lesion was diagnosed as nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.

  5. PTEN Sequence Analysis in Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Carcinoma in Slovak Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gbelcová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN is a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Loss of PTEN function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different tumors, particularly endometrial carcinoma (ECa. ECa is the most common neoplasia of the female genital tract. Our study evaluates an association between the morphological appearance of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma and the degree of PTEN alterations. A total of 45 endometrial biopsies from Slovak women were included in present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples with simple hyperplasia (3, complex hyperplasia (5, atypical complex hyperplasia (7, endometrioid carcinomas G1 (20 and G3 (5, and serous carcinoma (5 were evaluated for the presence of mutations in coding regions of PTEN gene, the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in endometrial carcinoma. 75% of the detected mutations were clustered in exons 5 and 8. Out of the 39 mutations detected in 24 cases, 20 were frameshifts and 19 were nonsense, missense, or silent mutations. Some specimens harboured more than one mutation. The results of current study on Slovak women were compared to a previous study performed on Polish population. The two sets of results were similar.

  6. Usefulness of Technetium 99 m- Sestamibi (MIBI) scintigraphy in the detection of parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, Maria F.; Yelin, Enrique G.; Aparicio, Rocio; Marino, Juan M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate parathyroid substration scintigraphy with Tc99m-pertechnetate-Tc99m-MIBI, for detection of parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Materials and methods: Thirty patients were studied by Tc99m-pertechnetate-Tc99m-MIBI scintigraphy, 24 with primary hyperparathyroidism, 2 with hypo echogenic nodular image behind the thyroid gland, 1 with bone fracture history, 1 with hypophosphataemia and 2 with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The initial image was made with pertechnetate, the next one and the late (2-3 hs) with Tc99m-MIBI, making digital substration with the first image. Six patients were excluded (difficult follow-up n=5, death n=1). Results: The final 24 patients series showed: 10 positive and 12 negative for adenomas; 1 positive and 1 negative for hyperplasia. The correlation between the scintigraphic study and the clinical, biochemical and anatomicopathological data, showed a high sensitivity (90%), and specificity (92%), for parathyroid adenomas and/or hyperplasia. Conclusions: The Tc99m-pertechnetate-Tc99m-MIBI shows high sensitivity and high specificity for the detection of adenomas and hyperplasia in patient with hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  7. Gastric hyperplasia in mice with targeted disruption of the carbonic anhydrase gene Car9

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortova-Gut, M.; Parkkila, S.; Vernerová, Z.; Rohde, E.; Závada, Jan; Hocker, M.; Pastorek, J.; Karttunen, T.; Gibadulinová, A.; Závadová, Zuzana; Knobeloch, K.-P.; Wiedernmann, B.; Svoboda, Jan; Horak, I.; Pastoreková, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 6 (2002), s. 1889-1903 ISSN 0016-5085 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/96/K205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse carbonic anhydrase Car9 * gastric hyperplasia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 13.440, year: 2002

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Vocal Folds in Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Virilized Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Ulrika; Isberg, Bengt; Arver, Stefan; Hertegård, Stellan; Södersten, Maria; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) may develop a virilized voice due to late diagnosis or suboptimal suppression of adrenal androgens. Changes in the vocal folds due to virilization have not been studied in vivo. The purpose was to investigate if the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle is affected by virilization and correlate…

  9. Immunohistochemical differentiation of atypical hyperplasia vs. carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, S; Sim, S J; Lu, L

    1992-01-01

    The distinction between atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ in breast lesions can be difficult. The identification of myoepithelial cell layers may be helpful in establishing a diagnosis of proliferative breast disease vs. intraepithelial neoplasia. We reviewed pathologic material on 20 cases of atypical hyperplasia and 29 cases of carcinoma in situ. Immunohistochemical stains were employed against muscle-specific actin, S-100 protein, and cytokeratin to identify myoepithelial cells and to recognize different staining patterns. In atypical hyperplasia, muscle-specific actin staining identified myoepithelial cells in fine branching fibrovascular layers or as scattered cells between other proliferating cells. This pattern was absent in carcinoma in situ. S-100 protein showed more positive staining in atypical hyperplasia than in carcinoma in situ with patterns distinct from muscle-specific actin. Immunostaining for cytokeratin demonstrated distinctly different patterns between the two lesions. This study suggests that muscle-specific actin, S-100 protein, and cytokeratin in combination may assist in distinguishing proliferative breast disease with atypia from carcinoma in situ.

  10. Transurethral microwave thermotherapy: The gold standard for minimally invasive therapies for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Laguna, M. Pilar; Gravas, Stavros; de Wildt, Michel J. A. M.

    2003-01-01

    From all available minimally invasive methods for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) has gained a firm position as the most attractive option. Recent research has produced innovations in high-energy TUMT, including new

  11. Tamsulosin and Solifenacin in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in combination with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Chang, Yanhua; Liang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the clinical effect of tamsulosin and Solifenacin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with overactive bladder and its safety. Another objective was to investigate the clinical effect and safety of mega dose of tamsulosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with overactive bladder. One hundred and twenty-four patients who were admitted to the Dept. of Urology at Binzhou People's Hospital, , China with confirmed benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with overactive bladder were randomly divided into two groups. Sixty-two patients in the control group were treated with tamsulosin, while sixty-two patients in the observation group were treated with tamsulosin in combination with solifenacin. The treatment of both groups lasted for 12 weeks. The effect and adverse reaction were compared between the two groups. The international prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL), and overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS), Q max , pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), daytime urination frequency, urgent urination frequency, urge urinary incontinence frequency and night urinary frequency of both groups improved after treatment, and the difference had statistical significance (P0.05). Treating benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with overactive bladder with tamsulosin in combination with solifenacin is more effective than tamsulosin, without significantly increasing adverse reactions. Thus the therapy is worth clinical promotion.

  12. Delta Cell Hyperplasia in Adult Goto-Kakizaki (GK/MolTac) Diabetic Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alán, Lukáš; Olejár, Tomáš; Cahová, M.; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Berková, Z.; Smětáková, M.; Saudek, F.; Matěj, R.; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 2015 (2015), s. 385395 ISSN 2314-6745 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06666S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Goto Kakizaki rats * diabetes * delta cell hyperplasia * somatostatin * pancreatic polypeptide deficiency Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.431, year: 2015

  13. Female-type fibrocystic disease with papillary hyperplasia in a male breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K E; Kazmi, S A; Jordan, L B

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic disease is a common benign finding in the female breast and often presents as a palpable mass. It is much less commonly found in the male breast. A case is reported of a young man with female-type fibrocystic disease associated with papillary hyperplasia in the right breast.

  14. The role of prostatic arterial embolization in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, S. M.; Scholtens, A. E.; Reekers, J. A.; Bipat, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to summarize the evidence on clinical outcomes and complications of prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We searched Medline and Embase for PAE trials of patients with BPH upto November 2013. Two reviewers independently

  15. High energy transurethral thermotherapy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: criteria to predict treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Ancona, F. C. H.; Francisca, E. A. E.; Hendriks, J. C. M.; Debruyne, F. M. J.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the individual value of baseline parameters to predict the outcome of high energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy in the treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Two hundred and forty-seven patients with symptomatic

  16. Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.; Cabezón, T.

    2007-01-01

    ) with apocrine metaplasia. The latter is a benign proliferative lesion of the breast that exhibits an increase in the size of the TDLUs and characterized by retained two-cell lining, and myoepithelial (ME) and stromal hyperplasia. SA with apocrine metaplasia, i.e. apocrine adenosis (AA), presents with a higher...

  17. Increased Antioxidant Quality Versus Lower Quantity Of High Density Lipoprotein In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Ozgur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of every human disease. To understand its possible role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, we measured the overall oxidative status of patients with BPH and the serum activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-related antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and arylesterase (ARE.

  18. Regenerative nodular hyperplasia, portal vein thrombosis and primary myelofibrosis: an unusual triple association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sández Montagut, Víctor Manuel; Giráldez Gallego, Álvaro; Ontanilla Clavijo, Guilermo

    2018-03-01

    We report a case of a regenerative nodular hyperplasia with a portal vein cavernomatosis with a subsequent progression to symptomatic, occlusive thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein. A thorough investigation resulted in a final diagnosis of primary myelofibrosis associated with the V617F mutation in the JAK2 gene.

  19. Ultrasound Findings of Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Appendix in Children: Differentiation from Acute Appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Jae; Seo, Jung Wook; Lee, Byung Hoon

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound (US) findings that can help differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis. A total of 1230 patients (below 20 years old) suspected of having appendicitis received an appendectomy between November, 1999, and March, 2008, with US findings in 27 patients with pathologically proven lymphoid hyperplasia of the appendix. Of 167 patients that received an appendectomy from January, 2007, to December, 2007, 52 patients with acute appendicitis were retrospectively reviewed as a control group. Retrospective review of US images was performed by two radiologists who were blinded to the pathologic results. The review was based on 12 ultrasonographic criteria derived from reports on the diagnostic findings of the appendicitis. Compared with acute appendicitis, lymphoid hyperplasia in appendix had a smaller diameter (7.14±1.22 mm vs 9.37±1.80 mm, p < 0.001) and less wall thickening(1.38±0.36 mm vs 1.74 ± 0.56 mm, p =0.001). Periappendicular inflammation (p < 0.001), intraluminal air (p = 0.006), round shape in transverse scan (p = 0.002),increased blood flow on color Doppler US (p = 0.03) were also different. US is a useful modality to differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis

  20. Long-term followup after electrocautery transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F.; Hossack, T. A.; Woo, H. H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. For decades, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) has been the "gold standard" operation for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) but is based mainly on historic data. The historic data lacks use of validated measures and current TURP differs significantly from that performed

  1. Ultrasound Findings of Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Appendix in Children: Differentiation from Acute Appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Jae; Seo, Jung Wook; Lee, Byung Hoon [Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Koyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate the ultrasound (US) findings that can help differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis. A total of 1230 patients (below 20 years old) suspected of having appendicitis received an appendectomy between November, 1999, and March, 2008, with US findings in 27 patients with pathologically proven lymphoid hyperplasia of the appendix. Of 167 patients that received an appendectomy from January, 2007, to December, 2007, 52 patients with acute appendicitis were retrospectively reviewed as a control group. Retrospective review of US images was performed by two radiologists who were blinded to the pathologic results. The review was based on 12 ultrasonographic criteria derived from reports on the diagnostic findings of the appendicitis. Compared with acute appendicitis, lymphoid hyperplasia in appendix had a smaller diameter (7.14{+-}1.22 mm vs 9.37{+-}1.80 mm, p < 0.001) and less wall thickening(1.38{+-}0.36 mm vs 1.74 {+-} 0.56 mm, p =0.001). Periappendicular inflammation (p < 0.001), intraluminal air (p = 0.006), round shape in transverse scan (p = 0.002),increased blood flow on color Doppler US (p = 0.03) were also different. US is a useful modality to differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis

  2. Part 1: MRI features of focal nodular hyperplasia with an emphasis on hepatobiliary contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, Tom; Seale, Melanie; Yap, Yap

    2014-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign liver tumour and typically do not require any treatment. An accurate non-invasive diagnosis is therefore vital to avoid unnecessary intervention and to reassure patients. This article discusses the demographics and pathology of FNH and reviews the appearance of FNH at MRI using liver-specific contrast agents.

  3. Management of mastitis and abscessation of mammary glands secondary to fibroadenomatous hyperplasia in a primiparturient cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, Uri

    2010-02-01

    A 1-year-old sexually intact female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of an 8-week history of pronounced mammary gland hyperplasia that had progressed to mastitis and abscessation of the mammary glands since parturition 7 days earlier. The cat was anorectic, was febrile, and had signs of discomfort. Its kittens were weak and appeared to have difficulty nursing. Physical examination revealed pyrexia, mastitis with abscessation in the 6 caudal mammary glands, skin ulceration over the nipples, and areas of skin necrosis over the abscessed mammary glands. A CBC revealed nonregenerative anemia and leukocytosis with a left shift (2.160 x 10(9) band cells/L) and toxic changes. Mastitis and incipient septicemia were considered the most likely causes. The history of mammary gland hyperplasia since the second week of pregnancy suggested a diagnosis of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia that predisposed the cat to subsequent mastitis. Surgical drainage of the abscessed mammary glands, debridement of necrotic skin, and placement of a Penrose drain resulted in rapid improvement in clinical status. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) was prescribed, and the cat was discharged from the hospital. Mastitis and fibroadenomatous mammary gland hyperplasia resolved rapidly afterward. Management of abscessed mammary glands through surgical drainage and drain placement is an option for treatment of cats with complications of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. In the cat of this report, the treatment approach resulted in rapid resolution of mastitis, was less invasive than mastectomy, and avoided the potential complications of treatment with a progesterone-receptor antagonist.

  4. Pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia; Tratamiento farmacologico en la hiperplasia prostatica benigna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Guerra, Yohani; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Mas Ferreiro, Rosa, E-mail: yohani.perez@cnic.edu.c [Centro de Productos Naturales, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas (CNIC), La Habana (Cuba)

    2011-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in over 50 years-old men consisting in uncontrolled and benign growth of prostatic gland that leads to lower urinary tract symptoms. The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia is multifactoral involving the increased conversion of testosterone in dihydrotestosterone by the prostatic 5{alpha}-reductase action, which brought about events that encourage the prostate growth (static component) and the increase of the bladder and prostate smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) regulated by the a{alpha}{sub 1} -adrenoceptors (ADR). The pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia includes the prostatic 5a{alpha}-reductase inhibitors, the a{alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoreceptor blockers, their combined therapy and the phytotherapy. This paper was aimed at presenting the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of drugs used for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia, and providing elements to analyze their efficacy, safety and tolerability. To this end, a review was made of the different drugs for the treatment of this pathology and they were grouped according to their mechanism of action. Natural products were included as lipid extracts from Serenoa repens and Pygeum africanum as well as D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, with proved beneficial effects on the main etiological factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. D-004 is a prostatic 5a-reductase inhibitor, an a{alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor antagonist, a{alpha} 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor and has antioxidant action, all of which reveals a multifactoral mechanism. The results achieved till now indicate that D-004 is a safe and well-tolerated product

  5. Comparison of the clinical parameters of benign prostate hyperplasia in diabetic and non diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Ozcan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated the correlation between benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH measures and diabetes mellitus in men with benign prostate hyperplasia in a prospective study. Materials and methods: Between 2008-2012, 100 diabetic and 200 non diabetic patients undergoing surgery due to benign prostate hyperplasia were enrolled in the study. The parameters evaluated for each patients included prostate volume, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, total testosterone, total prostatic specific antigen (T-PSA, triglicerides, total cholesterol and body mass index (BMI. A questionnaire including international prostate symptom score (IPSS was sdministered and uroflow test measuring the peak urinary flow rate was performed to appreciate the complaints of the patients objectively. Results: Diabetic patients are more likely to have larger prostate volume. The symptom score evaluated by IPSS and post micturition residual volume were also significantly higher in diabetic groups. The other statistically significant different parameter between two groups was total testosterone that diabetic patients tend to have lower levels. Diabetic counterparts were established to have higher BMI. No statistically significant differentiation was observed about trigliceryde and total cholesterol levels and uroflow rates. Conclusions: Our study suggests a positive correlation between high prostate volume and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We also observed a positive correlation between symptom scores and post micturion residual volumes and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus suggesting that the presence of diabetes is related to both static and dynamic components of benign prostate hyperplasia. Additionally testosterone levels were lower in diabetic patients. Further studies need to confirm these relationship in a larger population.

  6. Analysis of methylation profiling data of hyperplasia and primary and metastatic endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xihai; Miao, Jilan; Jiang, Jingyan; Liu, Fangmei

    2017-10-01

    Endometrial cancer is a prevalent cancer, and its metastasis causes low survival rate. This study aims to utilize DNA methylation data to investigate the mechanism of the development and metastasis of endometrial cancer. Methylation profiling data were down-loaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including 8 hyperplasias, 33 primary and 53 metastatic endometrial cancers. COHCAP package and annotation files were utilized to identify differentially methylated genes (DMGs) and CpG islands between the three different endometrial diseases. STRING database and Cytoscape were used to analyze and visualize protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between DMGs. CytoNCA plugin was utilized to identify key nodes in PPI network. A total of 610, 1076, and 501 DMGs were identified between primary endometrial cancer and hyperplasia, metastatic endometrial cancer and hyperplasia, as well as metastatic and primary endometrial cancers, respectively. For the three DMG sets, 53 common hypermethylated DMGs (e.g. PAX6 and INSR) and 6 common hypomethylated DMGs (e.g. PRDM8, KLHL14, and DUSP6) were found. For primary-hyperplasia DMG set and metastasis-hyperplasia DMG set, 527 common DMGs were found. For these common DMGs, a PPI network involving 692 PPIs was constructed. For DMGs between metastatic and primary endometrial cancers, a PPI network involving 673 PPIs was established, with PAX6 and INSR in the top 20 DMGs in both networks. PRDM8, KLHL14, and DUSP6 had hypomethylated CpG islands. DMGs comparison, PPI network analysis, and analysis of differentially methylated CpG islands indicated that PAX6, INSR, PRDM8, KLHL14, and DUSP6 might participate in the development and metastasis of endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Changes in initial expenditures for benign prostatic hyperplasia evaluation in the Medicare population: a comparison to overall Medicare inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Adam S; Elliott, Sean P; Yang, Liu; Wei, John T; Saigal, Christopher S; Smith, Alexandria; Wilt, Timothy J; Strope, Seth A

    2012-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia creates significant expenses for the Medicare program. We determined expenditure trends for benign prostatic hyperplasia evaluative testing after urologist consultation and placed these trends in the context of overall Medicare expenditures. Using a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2007 we developed a cohort of 40,253 with claims for new visits to urologists for diagnoses consistent with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. We assessed trends in initial inflation and geography adjusted expenditures within 12 months of diagnosis by evaluative test categories derived from the 2003 American Urological Association guideline on the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Using governmental reports on Medicare expenditure trends for benign prostatic hyperplasia we compared expenditures to overall and imaging specific Medicare expenditures. Comparisons were assessed by the Z-test and regression analysis for linear trends, as appropriate. Between 2000 and 2007 inflation adjusted total Medicare expenditures per patient for the initial evaluation of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia seen by urologists increased from $255.44 to $343.98 (p inflation adjusted expenditures increased for benign prostatic hyperplasia related evaluations. This growth was slower than the overall growth in Medicare expenditures. The increase in BPH related imaging expenditures was restrained compared to that of the Medicare program as a whole. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Budd-Chiari syndrome and secondary nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver. Case report with special reference to diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutze, A.; Rueckert, R.; Rudolph, B.; Paris, S.; Podrabski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Nodular regenerative hyperplasia is a benign epithelial proliferation of the liver with unknown etiology. We observed a female patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome and secondary nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver over a period of five years. Patient history, diagnostic imaging (sonography, CT, MR imaging, angiography), and clinical course are demonstrated along with results of macroscopic and microscopic studies of explanted liver prior to liver transplantation. The patient presented with various predisposing factors in combination that favour the development of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. (orig.) [de

  9. Developing appropriate criteria for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Surgery Using RAND Appropriateness Method (RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ostovar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Results of different studies show that a relatively large number of healthcare services offered are inappropriate or unnecessary. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a benign enlargement of the prostate gland. Clinical features of this disease are one of the most common problems encountered by elderly males. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery. Materials & Methods: In this qualitative study which was conducted in 2008-9, in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, the RAN/UCLA method was used, which was designed in 1980 by the RAND institute and the University of California in Los Angeles. Regarding the stages of our method, scenarios and indications for benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery were chosen from the latest approved scientific resources and subsequently sent to urology specialists, who were chosen as members of the specialized panel. Panel members gave scores ranging from 1 to 9 to each indication and scenario based on scientific resources, clinical experiences and patient’s condition in two separate panel sessions. After compilation, the indications were finally grouped as appropriate, equivocal, and inappropriate so that they could be used to determine appropriateness of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery in hospitals. In this study, the most suitable and most approved clinical guidelines related to benign prostatic hyperplasia, the Guidelines Evaluation and Research Appraisal (AGREE were used.The selected guidelines were used as scientific resources for choosing the indications of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery. SPSS version 16 and kappa weighted value were used in analysis process of the study. Results: Out of 282 scenarios grouped as 9 conditions related to benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery, which were extracted from scientific sources, 73 cases (25.9% were considered as appropriate, 14 cases (5% as equivocal and 7 cases (2

  10. Advanced intimal hyperplasia without luminal narrowing of leptomeningeal arteries in CADASIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hairong; Ding, Haixia; Young, Kelly; Blaivas, Mila; Christensen, Paul J; Wang, Michael M

    2013-05-01

    Leptomeningeal artery abnormalities in Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) have not been extensively characterized. We quantified substructure and diameter of leptomeningeal arteries in CADASIL compared with age-matched controls and the very old; in addition, we characterized intimal thickening in CADASIL using immunohistochemistry. Frontal and temporal cortex of 6 genetically proven CADASIL brains (average age, 66 years), 6 controls without symptoms of cerebrovascular disease, and 6 very old brains (average age, 89 years) were examined for leptomeningeal artery intimal, medial, and adventitial thickness; inner diameter; and sclerotic index and for smooth muscle markers. The intima of CADASIL arteries was thickened 5-fold compared with controls and the very aged (PMedial thickness was lower in CADASIL compared with controls and the very old (PArterial diameters were not smaller in CADASIL compared with controls. Sclerotic index was significantly increased in CADASIL compared with other groups (Parteries in CADASIL include intimal thickening and medial thinning, but not luminal narrowing. Smooth muscle-like cells participate in neointimal thickening of CADASIL arteries.

  11. Diffuse Muscular Pain, Skin Tightening, and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia Revealing Paraneoplastic Amyopathic Dermatomyositis due to Testicular Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Norrenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM associated with testicular cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with skin tightening, polymyalgia, hypereosinophilia, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealing seminoma and associated paraneoplastic DM.

  12. Intraprostatic testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Part I: concentrations and methods of determination in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, T.M.; Vis, A.N.; van Moorselaar, R.J.A.; Bui, H.N.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Owing to inconsistencies and methodological differences, the present peer-reviewed literature lacks conclusive data on the intraprostatic levels of androgens, in particular dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in untreated benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. To date, no difference has been

  13. Ectopic adrenal rests in congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a cause of androgen excess after adrenalectomy detected by pelvic venous sampling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Bulten, J.; Heyer, M. den

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to CYP21 deficiency are treated with supraphysiological doses of glucocorticoids to suppress elevated androgen production. This implies also side effects of high-dose glucocorticoids, possibly leading to iatrogenic Cushing's

  14. Alopecia universalis, hypothyroidism and pituitary hyperplasia: polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III in a patient in remission from treated Hodgkin lymphoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quintyne, K I

    2010-10-01

    We herein report a case of a 33-year-old man in remission from Hodgkin lymphoma, who presented with reduced potency and hair loss. Initial endocrine tests revealed autoimmune hypothyroidism. An MRI of his pituitary gland at onset revealed hyperplasia. He tolerated replacement endocrine therapy with good response, but with no improvement in his alopecia universalis. A repeat MRI, 6 months after his initial endocrine manipulation, showed resolution of his pituitary hyperplasia.

  15. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia of oral mucosa in a child treated with imiquimod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandan Venkatesan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE is a rare and idiopathic disorder of blood vessels which is common in head and neck area of middle-aged women. We report a case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia of lower lip in a 7-year-old child, confirmed by histopathological findings of hyperplastic lymphoid follicles, eosinophilia, and proliferation of vessels and positive staining with CD3 and CD20 in immunohistochemistry. Lesion was treated with imiquimod for 16 weeks following which it resolved completely. We present this case for the rarity of the case in this age group on an atypical rare site. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ALHE on oral mucosa of a male child.

  16. Feminising genitoplasty: one-stage genital reconstruction in congenital adrenal hyperplasia: 30 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, M F; Kneppo, C; Roth, H; Bettendorf, M; Waag, K-L; Holland-Cunz, S

    2006-10-01

    The study objective is to evaluate the results of our surgical technique for children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia at the University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Paediatric Surgery. The records of 19 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia treated between 1972 and 2004 were reviewed with respect to age at surgery, operative procedures and outcome. We describe the recession clitoroplasty technique currently used in our hospital and highlight the importance of short and long-term follow-up results with respect to appearance, position and size of the clitoris and quality of the vagina. One-stage recession clitoroplasty and vaginoplasty gives very satisfactory cosmetic and functional results, with few complications and a reduced need for secondary surgical interventions. The results of this study support the assumption that total correction can be achieved through a single-stage operation, performed in infancy.

  17. Unilateral hyperplasia of the left posterior arch and associated vertebral schisis at C6 level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Bonis, Pasquale de; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Massimi, Luca; Rocco, Concezio di [Catholic University, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy); Byvaltsev, Vadim [Irkutsk Railway Clinical Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Leone, Antonio [Catholic University, School of Medicine, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We report on a 5-year-old girl with unilateral hyperplasia of the left posterior arch of C6 associated with spina bifida occulta at the same level. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the cervical spine showed hypertrophy of the left lamina as well as overgrowth and elongation of the left spinous process of the sixth cervical vertebra. Computed tomography (CT) examination better depicted this congenital variant and clearly showed the associated schisis of the posterior arch at the same level. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination ruled out other spinal anomalies. The neck pain, the young age of the patient and the local aesthetic abnormality contributed to the surgical indication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the English literature of unilateral hyperplasia of a posterior cervical arch. Only one previous study has reported a similar congenital anomaly, but it was limited to the left side of the spinous process. (orig.)

  18. Ultrasound follow up of testicular adrenal rest tumors with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Dong Won; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Dong-A University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    While testicular adrenal rest tumor is generally a rare intratesticular tumor, it is frequent in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The tumors are diagnosed and followed up by ultrasound examination because these tumors are non-palpable and symptomless in most cases and always benign. Ultrasound imaging features change depending on how congenital adrenal hyperplasia is controlled. We herein report three cases of testicular adrenal rest tumors with different usual and unusual imaging findings and follow-up imaging. Patient 1 was a 14-year-old boy who presented with poor compliance to medication. Patient 2 and 3 were a 10-year-old and 13-year-old boy who presented with precocious puberty and short stature, respectively. Ultrasound examinations demonstrated oval hypoechoic masses and irregular speculated hyperechoic masses in the testes and different serial imaging findings.

  19. Ultrasound follow up of testicular adrenal rest tumors with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Dong Won; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2014-01-01

    While testicular adrenal rest tumor is generally a rare intratesticular tumor, it is frequent in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The tumors are diagnosed and followed up by ultrasound examination because these tumors are non-palpable and symptomless in most cases and always benign. Ultrasound imaging features change depending on how congenital adrenal hyperplasia is controlled. We herein report three cases of testicular adrenal rest tumors with different usual and unusual imaging findings and follow-up imaging. Patient 1 was a 14-year-old boy who presented with poor compliance to medication. Patient 2 and 3 were a 10-year-old and 13-year-old boy who presented with precocious puberty and short stature, respectively. Ultrasound examinations demonstrated oval hypoechoic masses and irregular speculated hyperechoic masses in the testes and different serial imaging findings

  20. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia Associated with Venous Pool Arising in the Lower Lip: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisanobu Yonezawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia is a benign nonneoplastic vascular lesion that consists of endothelial cells with abundant vascular tissue with papillary proliferation. An adult female had a painless growing dark red nodule on the left side of the lower lip and often touched and gnawed at it for more than 4 years. The lesion was a tender, smooth mass approximately 1 cm in diameter without discoloration reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lesion showed specific findings. She was diagnosed clinically as having mimicked hemangioma, and the lesion was totally excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological examination revealed that papillary proliferated endothelial cells with venous pool, and the lesion was diagnosed as intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia associated with venous pool. There has been no recurrence for more than 1 year. Despite the benign nature of this lesion, it could have been mistaken for a malignant tumor because of its clinical course and radiologic findings.

  1. The effect of 90Sr/90Y β-rays on benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Xiangbo; Ma Qingjie; Gu Xinquan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 90Sr/90Y β-rays on Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: In order to carry out β intracavitary irradiation, the active area of the applicator was located into prostate gland section of urethra in 37 patients. The dose was controlled 30∼50Gy in each patient and the patients were observed for 3 months. Results: After two weeks 26 cases were remarkably improved, 7 cases were improved and 4 cases were ineffective. There was significant difference on MFR, PVR, I-PSS and volume of prostate gland before and after treatment (P<0.01=. Conclusion: Clinical tests indicate that the 90Sr/90Y prostatic hyperplasia applicators provide a safe, effective ,non-invasive and economical therapeutic method for BPH. It is especially applicable for old and high-risk patients. (authors)

  2. Reversible thyrotroph hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia: A rare presenting manifestation of primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Rajput

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary thyrotroph hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia has been described as a rare presentation of primary hypothyroidism. Premenopausal females with this disorder can present with features of hypothyroidism, menstrual disturbances, galactorrhea, and visual field defects because of enlarged pituitary. Here we describe a 32-year-old female presenting to her gynecologist primarily with galactorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. She was found to have raised serum prolactin, and MRI brain showed enlarged pituitary. She was referred for pituitary surgery when she came to us. Clinical examination and biochemistry were suggestive of primary hypothyroidism. She was prescribed levothyroxine replacement. At 6 weeks follow-up, serum prolactin came down to normal, galactorrhea subsided, and spontaneous menstrual cycles resumed. In 12 weeks, pituitary enlargement completely regressed and in another month after that, she conceived. Hence, primary hypothyroidism can present with thyrotroph hyperplasia, where correct diagnosis and levothyroxine therapy can prevent unnecessary pituitary surgery. Hyperprolactinemia in this setting is of no clinical significance.

  3. Esophageal Cancer with Bone Marrow Hyperplasia Mimicking Bone Metastasis: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Yasuda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old man visited the clinic with numbness in the right hand. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple low-intensity lesions in the cervical vertebrae and sacrum, which was suspicious of cervical bone metastasis. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed areas of increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the thoracic esophagus, sternum and sacrum. A flat, elevated esophageal cancer was identified by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and the macroscopic appearance indicated early-stage disease. From the cervical, thoracic and abdominal computed tomography images, there were no metastatic lesions except for the bone lesions. To confirm whether the bone lesions were metastatic, we performed bone biopsy. The histopathological diagnosis was bone marrow hyperplasia. It was crucial for treatment planning to establish whether the lesions were distant metastases. Here, we report a case of esophageal cancer with bone marrow hyperplasia mimicking bone metastasis.

  4. Unilateral hyperplasia of the left posterior arch and associated vertebral schisis at C6 level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Bonis, Pasquale de; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Massimi, Luca; Rocco, Concezio di; Byvaltsev, Vadim; Leone, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    We report on a 5-year-old girl with unilateral hyperplasia of the left posterior arch of C6 associated with spina bifida occulta at the same level. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the cervical spine showed hypertrophy of the left lamina as well as overgrowth and elongation of the left spinous process of the sixth cervical vertebra. Computed tomography (CT) examination better depicted this congenital variant and clearly showed the associated schisis of the posterior arch at the same level. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination ruled out other spinal anomalies. The neck pain, the young age of the patient and the local aesthetic abnormality contributed to the surgical indication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the English literature of unilateral hyperplasia of a posterior cervical arch. Only one previous study has reported a similar congenital anomaly, but it was limited to the left side of the spinous process. (orig.)

  5. Long-term engraftment of bone marrow-derived cells in the intimal hyperplasia lesion of autologous vein grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yanpeng; Guthrie, Steve; Xia, Shen-Ling; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Zhang, Li; Xue, Jing; Lee, Pui; Grant, Maria; Scott, Edward; Segal, Mark S

    2008-03-01

    Intimal hyperplasia of autologous vein grafts is a critical problem affecting the long-term patency of many types of vascular reconstruction. Within intimal hyperplasia lesions, smooth muscle cells are a major component, playing an essential role in the pathological process. Given that bone marrow-derived cells may differentiate into smooth muscle cells in the neointima of injured arteries, we hypothesized that the bone marrow may serve as a source for some of the smooth muscle cells within intimal hyperplasia lesions of vein grafts. To test this hypothesis, we used an established mouse model for intimal hyperplasia in wild-type mice that had been transplanted with bone marrow from a green fluorescent protein (GFP+/+) transgenic mouse. High-resolution confocal microscopy analysis performed 2 and 8 weeks after grafting demonstrated expression of GFP in 5.4 +/- 0.8% and 11.9 +/- 2.3%, respectively, of smooth muscle cells within intimal hyperplasia lesions. By 16 weeks, GFP expression in smooth muscle cells was not detected by immunohistochemistry; however, real-time PCR revealed that 20.2 +/- 1.7% of the smooth muscle cells captured from the neointima lesion by laser capture microdissection at 16 weeks contained GFP DNA. Our results suggest that bone marrow-derived cells differentiated into smooth muscle cells within the intimal lesion and may provide a novel clinical approach for decreasing intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts.

  6. Flow cytometric analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain expression in B-cell lymphoma and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, David D; Al-Quran, Samer Z; Cardona, Diana M; Li, Ying; Braylan, Raul C

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma (BCL) is often dependent on the detection of clonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain expression. In some BCLs, the determination of clonality based on Ig light chain restriction may be difficult. The aim of our study was to assess the utility of flow cytometric analysis of surface Ig heavy chain (HC) expression in lymphoid tissues in distinguishing lymphoid hyperplasias from BCLs, and also differentiating various BCL subtypes. HC expression on B-cells varied among different types of hyperplasias. In follicular hyperplasia, IgM and IgD expression was high in mantle cells while germinal center cells showed poor HC expression. In other hyperplasias, B cell compartments were blurred but generally showed high IgD and IgM expression. Compared to hyperplasias, BCLs varied in IgM expression. Small lymphocytic lymphomas had lower IgM expression than mantle cell lymphomas. Of importance, IgD expression was significantly lower in BCLs than in hyperplasias, a finding that can be useful in differentiating lymphoma from reactive processes. PMID:22400070

  7. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signalling promotes goblet cell hyperplasia in airway epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Cates, Justin M; Lawson, William E; Milstone, Aaron P; Matafonov, Anton G; Massion, Pierre P; Lee, Jae Woo; Randell, Scott H; Blackwell, Timothy S

    2018-01-01

    Goblet cell hyperplasia is a common feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) airways, but the mechanisms that underlie this epithelial remodelling in COPD are not understood. Based on our previous finding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) nuclear localization in large airways from patients with COPD, we investigated whether hypoxia-inducible signalling could influence the development of goblet cell hyperplasia. We evaluated large airway samples obtained from 18 lifelong non-smokers and 13 former smokers without COPD, and 45 former smokers with COPD. In these specimens, HIF-1α nuclear staining occurred almost exclusively in COPD patients in areas of airway remodelling. In COPD patients, 93.2 ± 3.9% (range 65 – 100%) of goblet cells were HIF-1α positive in areas of goblet cell hyperplasia, whereas nuclear HIF-1α was not detected in individuals without COPD or in normal-appearing pseudostratified epithelium from COPD patients. To determine the direct effects of hypoxia-inducible signalling on epithelial cell differentiation in vitro, human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were grown in air-liquid interface cultures under hypoxia (1% O2) or following treatment with a selective HIF-1α stabilizer, (2R)-[(4-biphenylylsulphonyl)amino]-N-hydroxy-3-phenyl-propionamide (BiPS). HBECs grown in hypoxia or with BiPS treatment were characterized by HIF-1α activation, carbonic anhydrase IX expression, mucus-producing cell hyperplasia and increased expression of MUC5AC. Analysis of signal transduction pathways in cells with HIF-1α activation showed increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation without activation of epidermal growth factor receptor, Ras, PI3K-Akt or STAT6. These data indicate an important effect of hypoxia-inducible signalling on airway epithelial cell differentiation and identify a new potential target to limit mucus production in COPD. PMID:21557221

  8. Study of some invasiveness markers as pathogenic factors in oral pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Roxana Maria; Mărgăritescu, Claudiu; CrăiŢoiu, Monica Mihaela; Florescu, Alma Maria; Croitoru, Ileana Cristiana; Bobic, Adelina Gabriela; Pătru, Ciprian LaurenŢiu; Mălăescu, Gheorghe Dan; CrăiŢoiu, Ştefania

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is a benign reactivated epithelial lesion secondary to another pathology, whose incidence is difficult to establish. There still exist controversies regarding the origin and pathogenesis of these lesions. For this purpose, we performed an immuno-histochemical study upon 20 cases of oral pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia associated with inflammatory and neoplastic conditions, investigating a series of markers with a possible pathogenic potential in developing this type of lesions. Thus, the immunoreactivity study for β-catenin showed the presence of a membrane reactivity in all the stratum spinosum and a predominantly cytoplasmatic reactivity, more rarely a nuclear one, in the cells of the basal stratum cells, especially in the epithelial apices that descend deeply in the chorion. Instead, in the case of vimentin, the reactivity was present only in the epithelial apices, especially in the peripheral cells, in comparison to the central ones, and especially in the cases where the epithelial apices descended deeply in the sublesional chorion. Moreover, we observed that the MMP9 reactivity in pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia lesions was present in the cells at the epithelium-chorion interface and especially in the epithelial apices that descend deeply into the chorion, and also in the epithelial chorion and networks. The study for CXCR4 immuno-reactivity showed a good reactivity in almost all layers of this hyperplastic lesion, with a maximum reactivity especially inside the epithelial apices that descend deeply in the sublesional chorion. Such an immunoprofile suggests the ability of the oral epithelial cells to undergo an epithelial mesenchymal transition process, thus acquiring mesenchymal characteristics through which it deeply migrates in the subadjacent chorion and contributes to the formation of epithelial apices in pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. Moreover, the invasive ability of these lesions is also given by the average

  9. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat?s prostate hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg-1 testosterone subcutan...

  10. Ramelteon combined with an ?1-blocker decreases nocturia in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Takashi; Morita, Satoshi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Sakata, Ryoko; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Junichi; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Uemura, Hiroji

    2013-01-01

    Background Nocturia is defined as waking one or more times during the night due to the urge to void. Recently, the effectiveness of several sedatives and analgesics for nocturia has been reported. We herein investigated the effects of ramelteon, an antioxidant and sleep inducer, on nocturia unresponsive to ?1-blocker monotherapy in males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as a pilot study. Methods Subjects were 19 patients who had LUTS suggestive of benign prostate hyperplasia, received...

  11. Silodosin for the treatment of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia: safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hee Ju; Yoo, Tag Keun

    2014-01-01

    Hee Ju Cho, Tag Keun Yoo Department of Urology, Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, KoreaAbstract: α1-Adrenergic receptor antagonists are commonly used to treat male lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We performed a literature search using PubMed, Medline via Ovid, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify studies on the treatment of BPH by silodosin. Silodosin is a novel α1-adrenergic receptor antagoni...

  12. Panhypopituitarism with empty sella a sequel of pituitary hyperplasia due to chronic primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic reversible pituitary hyperplasia is common in patients with untreated primary hypothyroidism. Occurrence of empty sella (ES in this scenario is extremely rare (only three reports till the date and panhypopituitarism has not been reported in such patients. We report a 27 year man with severe short stature (height-133 cm; standard deviation score-7.36 and delayed puberty who had symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism along with chronic persistent headache since 6 years of age. Pituitary imaging done for headache at 11 years age showed pituitary hyperplasia. He was diagnosed of primary hypothyroidism for the 1 st time at 21 year age, a diagnosis which was likely missed for 15 years. Levothyroxine therapy leads to resolution of all symptoms and a height gain of 28 cm over last 6 years. Evaluation for lack of progression of puberty along with chronic nausea, vomiting, fatigue and weight loss for the last 1 year revealed secondary hypocortisolism (9 am cortisol-4.8 mcg/dl; ACTH-3.2 pg/ml, growth hormone deficiency (IGF-1: 65 ng/ml; normal: 117-325 ng/ml and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (9 am testosterone: 98 ng/dl; [280-1500] LH-0.01 mIU/L [1.14-5.75] with ES on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain. Uncontrolled thyrotroph hyperplasia due to chronic untreated primary hypothyroidism for 15 years may have been damaging the adjacent corticotrophs, somatotrophs and gonadotrophs resulting in panhypopituitarism and empty sella. This is perhaps the first report of panhypopituitarism with empty sella syndrome developing in a patient with pituitary hyperplasia, a sequel of chronic untreated primary hypothyroidism.

  13. Panhypopituitarism with empty sella a sequel of pituitary hyperplasia due to chronic primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Deep; Maisnam, Indira; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2012-12-01

    Asymptomatic reversible pituitary hyperplasia is common in patients with untreated primary hypothyroidism. Occurrence of empty sella (ES) in this scenario is extremely rare (only three reports till the date) and panhypopituitarism has not been reported in such patients. We report a 27 year man with severe short stature (height-133 cm; standard deviation score-7.36) and delayed puberty who had symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism along with chronic persistent headache since 6 years of age. Pituitary imaging done for headache at 11 years age showed pituitary hyperplasia. He was diagnosed of primary hypothyroidism for the 1(st) time at 21 year age, a diagnosis which was likely missed for 15 years. Levothyroxine therapy leads to resolution of all symptoms and a height gain of 28 cm over last 6 years. Evaluation for lack of progression of puberty along with chronic nausea, vomiting, fatigue and weight loss for the last 1 year revealed secondary hypocortisolism (9 am cortisol-4.8 mcg/dl; ACTH-3.2 pg/ml), growth hormone deficiency (IGF-1: 65 ng/ml; normal: 117-325 ng/ml) and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (9 am testosterone: 98 ng/dl; [280-1500] LH-0.01 mIU/L [1.14-5.75]) with ES on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain. Uncontrolled thyrotroph hyperplasia due to chronic untreated primary hypothyroidism for 15 years may have been damaging the adjacent corticotrophs, somatotrophs and gonadotrophs resulting in panhypopituitarism and empty sella. This is perhaps the first report of panhypopituitarism with empty sella syndrome developing in a patient with pituitary hyperplasia, a sequel of chronic untreated primary hypothyroidism.

  14. Alterations in Hydrocortisone Pharmacokinetics in a Patient With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Following Bariatric Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mallappa, Ashwini; Nella, Aikaterini A.; Kumar, Parag; Brooks, Kristina M.; Perritt, Ashley F.; Ling, Alexander; Liu, Chia-Ying; Merke, Deborah P.

    2017-01-01

    Management of adult patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is challenging and often complicated by obesity, metabolic syndrome, and adverse cardiovascular risk. Alterations in weight can influence cortisol kinetics. A 19-year-old woman with classic CAH and morbid obesity experienced persistent elevations of androgen levels while receiving oral glucocorticoid therapy. Control of adrenal androgens was improved with continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion therapy, but...

  15. Spectrum of lymphoid hyperplasia: colonic manifestations of sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, S.R.; Frank, P.H.

    1981-10-15

    The radiographic pattern of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, perhaps better called the lymphoid follicular pattern, has variously been described as an indication of disease and as a normal variant in the adult, with current opinion favoring the latter. We report 3 cases wherein this pattern resulted from definite pathologic processes: sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease. Although usually of no pathological significance, the benign follicular pattern may reflect a variety of diseases.

  16. Spectrum of lymphoid hyperplasia: Colonic manifestations of sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ell, S.R.; Frank, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic pattern of nodular lmyphoid hyperplasia, perhaps better called the lymphoid follicular pattern, has variously been described as an indication of disease and as a normal variant in the adult, with current opinion favoring the latter. We report 3 cases wherein this pattern resulted from definite pathologic processes: sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease. Although usually of no pathological significance, the benign follicular pattern may reflect a variety of diseases. (orig.)

  17. p27kip1 expression distinguishes papillary hyperplasia in Graves' disease from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, L A; Yousef, O M; Jin, L; Lohse, C M; Pankratz, V S; Lloyd, R V

    2000-09-01

    In most cases, the histopathologic and cytologic distinction between Graves' disease and papillary thyroid carcinoma is relatively easy, but on occasion Graves' disease may simulate a thyroid papillary carcinoma. For example, papillary fronds with fibrovascular cores may be present in both Graves' disease and papillary carcinoma. p27kip1 (p27) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory protein that has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor in a variety of human tumors. Our previous studies of p27 expression in hyperplastic and neoplastic endocrine lesions showed that the level of p27 was quite different in these two conditions. To determine if this distinction could also be made between Graves' disease and papillary carcinoma, we analyzed expression of p27 and other cell cycle proteins in a series of cases of Graves' disease with papillary hyperplasia and a series of papillary thyroid carcinomas. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 61 randomly selected patients with thyroid disease, including 29 cases of Graves' disease with papillary architectural features and 32 cases of papillary carcinoma, were analyzed for expression of p27, Ki-67, and DNA topoisomerase II alpha (topo II alpha) by immunostaining. The distribution of immunoreactivity was analyzed by quantifying the percentage of positive nuclei that was expressed as the labeling index (LI) plus or minus the standard error of the mean. The papillary hyperplasia of Graves' disease had a p27 LI of 68.2 +/- 3.1 (range, 24 to 88), whereas papillary carcinomas had a LI of 25.6 +/- 2.5 (range, 12 to 70) (P hyperplasia in Graves' disease and papillary carcinoma. These results indicate that p27 protein expression is significantly higher in papillary hyperplasia of Graves' disease compared to papillary carcinoma, which may be diagnostically useful in difficult cases.

  18. Efficacy and Tolerability of Tamsulosin 0.4 mg in Patients with Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jae-Wook; Choi, Seock Hwan; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoo, Eun Sang; Kim, Chun Il; Lee, Kyung Seop; Kwon, Tae Gyun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of tamsulosin 0.4 mg once daily in Korean patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and investigate whether tamsulosin 0.4 mg can improve symptoms in patients with refractory lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) who were previously receiving tamsulosin 0.2 mg once daily. Materials and Methods A total of 116 patients from 3 urology centers participated. All study subjects entered a nonblind phase consisting of 8 weeks of tamsu...

  19. Diagnosis of adrenal adenoma and hyperplasia by CT and adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kentaro; Itami, Jun; Nawano, Shigeru; Okada, Junichi; Ogino, Takashi; Uno, Koichi; Arimizu, Noboru

    1985-01-01

    The evaluation of X-CT and adrenal scintigraphy in diagnosis of Cushing syndrome and primary aldosteronism was studied in 18 patients. In Cushing syndrome, CT appearance of adenoma is commonly larger than that of primary aldosteronism and cleary deliniated by surrounding fat. So, in Cushing syndrome, diagnosis of adenoma on CT is much easier than that of primary aldosteronism, and absence of adenoma on CT suggests adrenal hyperplasia. In primary aldosteronism both of CT and scintigraphy must be performed. (author)

  20. Pharmacological and nutritive support of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Bat'ko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The articles presents a view of the pharmacological and nutritive therapy of the most frequent diseases of males, which are benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis. A modern man is in constant deficiency of various biologically active substances, with the lack of them in food and without generating of sufficient quantity of coenzymes and enzymes. In the author,s opinion, complex drugs that contain highquality biological extracts may provide the substances required for prevention and slowing down the progress of benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis to the male organism. Study of biological activity of food supplement Andro-PRO (Russia that contain the elements required for normalization of the functional state of the prostate was performed. Application of the drug favors positive dynamics of clinical symptoms of the studied nosological entities and has restorative effect on the function of the glandular tissue of the prostate. Analysis of modern references, primary results of clinical studies show the necessity of pharmacological and nutritive support of patients with asymptomatic progress of benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis with the drug. Application of drug studied is efficient and safe, which is confirmed with improvement of indicators and life quality assessment, positive clinical dynamics, and absence of side effects. 

  1. [Atypical epithelial hyperplasia of the breast: current state of knowledge and clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoué, V; Bertel, C; Tas, P; Bendavid, C; Rouquette, S; Foucher, F; Audrain, O; Bouriel, C; Levêque, J

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of atypical epithelial hyperplasia (AEH) increases with breast cancer screening. AEH is divided in three groups: atypical ductal hyperplasia, columnar cell lesions with atypia, lobular neoplasia. The management of women with AEH is not consensual because of uncertainty about their diagnosis related to the type of the biopsy sampling (core needle biopsy or surgical excision) and their controversial clinical signification between risk marker and true precursor of breast cancer. A systematic review of published studies was performed. Medline baseline interrogation was performed with the following keywords: atypical ductal hyperplasia, columnar cell lesions with atypia, lobular neoplasia, core needle biopsy, breast cancer, precursor lesion, hormonal replacement therapy. For each breast lesion, identified publications (English or French) were assessed for clinical practise in epidemiology, diagnosis and patient management. With immunohistochemistry and molecular studies, AEH seems to be precursor of breast cancer. But, epidemiological studies show low rate of breast cancer in women with AEH. AEH were still classified as risk factor of breast cancer. Because of high rate of breast cancer underestimation, surgical excision is necessary after the diagnosis of AEH at core needle biopsy. Surgical oncology rules and collaboration with radiologist are required for this surgery. A second operation was not required due to involved margins by AEH (except with pleiomorphic lobular neoplasia) because local control of breast cancer seems to be unchanged. Besides, hormonal replacement therapy for patient with AEH is not recommended because of lack of studies about this subject. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Lymphomatoid papulosis with pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia in a 7-year-old girl: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jingshu; Ma, Yiping; Chen, Hao; Xu, Xiulian; Sun, Jianfang

    2016-05-01

    Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) belongs to the group of cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia has rarely been reported in patients with LyP. In this report, we describe a case of LyP presenting as pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia. The patient was a 7-year-old girl who presented with a recurrent papulonodular eruption on her face and trunk for 2 months. Histopathologic examination revealed an irregular growth of hyperkeratotic epidermis into the whole dermal layer with marked nests of squamous cells in the background of diffuse atypical lymphoid cells, eosinophils and neutrophils. The large atypical cells were positive for CD30 and CD3, but negative for CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20 and CD56. A TCR-γ clone was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The correct diagnosis in cases of LyP with overlying pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia can be very difficult both clinically and histopathologically. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics should be integrated to avoid an erroneous diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast with associated atypical lobular hyperplasia: a previously unrecognized association with management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Huo, Lei; Arribas, Elsa; Middleton, Lavinia P

    2015-02-01

    Adenomyoepitheliomas of breast are rare tumors. We report for the first time a case of an adenomyoepithelioma of the breast with associated lobular neoplasia. A 53-year-old woman had an annual screening mammogram, which identified areas of asymmetry in her left breast at 4-5-o'clock position. Resection of the masses revealed a well-circumscribed, gray-white, firm discrete nodule (0.8 × 0.4 × 0.3 cm). The tumor was composed of both adenomyoepithelial cell hyperplasia and focal atypical lobular hyperplasia. The 2 cell populations had some overlapping histologic features. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a biphasic proliferation with approximately equal parts of luminal epithelial cells with clear and rounded appearance and myoepithelial cells. The myoepithelial component of the proliferation expressed myosin, p63, CK5/6, S-100, and dimly expressed E-cadherin. The epithelial component of the proliferation strongly expressed E-cadherin. In the areas of atypical lobular hyperplasia, there was distinct loss E-cadherin expression. Awareness of this association is highly important to provide these patients adequate follow-up and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Targeted overexpression of EZH2 in the mammary gland disrupts ductal morphogenesis and causes epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gonzalez, Maria E; Toy, Katherine; Filzen, Tracey; Merajver, Sofia D; Kleer, Celina G

    2009-09-01

    The Polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), which has roles during development of numerous tissues, is a critical regulator of cell type identity. Overexpression of EZH2 has been detected in invasive breast carcinoma tissue samples and is observed in human breast tissue samples of morphologically normal lobules up to 12 years before the development of breast cancer. The function of EZH2 during preneoplastic progression in the mammary gland is unknown. To investigate the role of EZH2 in the mammary gland, we targeted the expression of EZH2 to mammary epithelial cells using the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat. EZH2 overexpression resulted in aberrant terminal end bud architecture. By the age of 4 months, 100% of female mouse mammary tumor virus-EZH2 virgin mice developed intraductal epithelial hyperplasia resembling the human counterpart accompanied by premature differentiation of ductal epithelial cells and up-regulation of the luminal marker GATA-3. In addition, remodeling of the mammary gland after parturition was impaired and EZH2 overexpression caused delayed involution. Mechanistically, we found that EZH2 physically interacts with beta-catenin, inducing beta-catenin nuclear accumulation in mammary epithelial cells and activating Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. The biological significance of these data to human hyperplasias is demonstrated by EZH2 up-regulation and colocalization with beta-catenin in human intraductal epithelial hyperplasia, the earliest histologically identifiable precursor of breast carcinoma.

  5. Suitable reference genes for the analysis of direct hyperplasia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Soichi; Ohashi, Kazuo; Utoh, Rie; Tatsumi, Kohei; Shima, Midori; Okano, Teruo

    2008-01-01

    The liver is capable of undergoing a proliferative growth, known as direct hyperplasia, in which the naive liver increases in size due to stimulation with primary mitogens. To produce accurate gene expression data, housekeeping genes (HKGs) that are stably expressed need to be determined. In the present study, liver regeneration was promoted via the direct hyperplasia mode by inducing mice with 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene. Gene expression levels of nine commonly used HKGs were analyzed in the liver of different timing during the regeneration. The stability of gene expression was assessed using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder. Using these analyses, we identified that PPIA and RPL4 showed the most stable expression regardless of the status of the liver regeneration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the use of PPIA and RPL4 were the most optimal in providing reliable normalization of gene expression when assessing liver regeneration attributed to direct hyperplasia.

  6. Diabetic fetopathy associated with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantbirojn Patou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Many fetal malformations can occur because of maternal diabetes. However, ambiguous genital organs have never been reported as an associated finding in the literature. This is the first report of associated ambiguous genital organ and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in a case of diabetic fetopathy. Case presentation A 19-year-old Thai primigravida with familial history of diabetes mellitus (DM was diagnosed as having gestational DM type 2, based on 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, and was poorly controlled with insulin injections. Delayed targeted ultrasonography at 28 weeks gestation revealed multiple fetal anomalies. The woman underwent low transverse cesarean section at 30 weeks gestation due to preterm labor and transverse lie. The newborn with ambiguous genitalia was delivered but expired after birth. Autopsy findings revealed alobar holoprosencephaly, a prominent forehead, hypotelorism, an absent nose, absent bilateral ears, median cleft lip and palate, preaxial polydactyly of the right hand, accessory spleens, single umbilical artery, markedly enlarged adrenal glands and ambiguous external genitalia The subsequent fetal chromosomal study revealed 46,XX. Conclusion We describe a case of diabetic fetopathy with classic facial malformation and preaxial hallucal polydactyly which has been proposed as a marker of diabetic embryopathy. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with ambiguous genitalia, an uncommon associated anomaly, was also identified. It is controversial whether adrenal hyperplasia can be a novel feature of diabetic fetopathy or just a coincidental finding. Further observation and adequate investigation are needed in such cases.

  7. Diode laser surgery versus scalpel surgery in the treatment of fibrous hyperplasia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, M B F; de Ávila, J M S; Abreu, M H G; Mesquita, R A

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous hyperplasia is treated by surgical incision using a scalpel, together with removal of the source of chronic trauma. However, scalpel techniques do not provide the haemostasis that is necessary when dealing with highly vascular tissues. Diode laser surgery can be used in the management of oral tissues due to its high absorption by water and haemoglobin, and has provided good results in both periodontal surgery and oral lesions. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of diode laser surgery to those of the conventional technique in patients with fibrous hyperplasia. A randomized clinical trial was performed in which surgical and postoperative evaluations were analyzed. On comparison of the laser-treated (study group) patients to those treated with a scalpel (control group), significant differences were observed in the duration of surgery and the use of analgesic medications. Over a 3-week period, clinical healing of the postoperative wound was significantly faster in the control group as compared to the study group. In conclusion, diode laser surgery proved to be more effective and less invasive when compared to scalpel surgery in the management of fibrous hyperplasia. However, wound healing proved to be faster when using scalpel surgery. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effectiveness of reducing the daily dose of finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geller Jack

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finasteride, a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor, is an established treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The recommended dosage is 5 mg a day, however case reports have show effectiveness with lower doses. The objective of the current study was to determine in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, previously treated for at least one year with finasteride 5 mg daily, if they will maintain subjective and objective improvements in urinary obstruction when treated with 2.5 mg of finasteride daily for one year. Methods In an open label, prospective study, 40 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, previously treated for at least one year with 5 mg of finasteride, took 2.5 mg of finasteride daily for one year. Measurements included AUA symptom score, maximum flow rate, voided volume and PSA. Results There were no significant changes in maximum flow rate, voided volume, or AUA symptom score after one year of finasteride 2.5 mg daily therapy. PSA increased significantly, p Conclusions The daily dose of finasteride can be reduced to 2.5 mg daily without significant effect on subjective and objective measures of urinary obstruction. Although statistically significant increases in PSA are noted when reducing the daily finasteride dose from 5 mg to 2.5 mg, the clinical significance of a mean .6 ng/ml increase in PSA is questionable.

  9. Iliac artery myointimal hyperplasia in rabbits submitted to angioplasty and treated with Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Jânio Cipriano; Nogueira, Manoel Ricardo Sena; Lima, Paulo Roberto da Silva; Bandeira, Francisco Chavier Vieira; Pordeus, Mizael Armando Abrantes; Castro, Aldemar Araújo; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto

    2016-02-01

    to assess post-angioplasty myointimal hyperplasia in iliac artery of rabbits treated with extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. we conducted a randomized trial in laboratory animals for five weeks of follow-up, developed in the Vivarium of Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba. We used rabbits from the New Zealand breed, subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet and angioplasty of the external iliac artery, randomized into two groups: M200 Group (n=10) - rabbits treated with 200mg/kg/day of Moringa oleifera leaves extract orally; SF group (n=10) - rabbits treated with 0.9% saline orally. After five weeks, the animals were euthanized and the iliac arteries prepared for histology. Histological sections were analyzed by digital morphometry. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t test. The significance level was 0.05. there was no significant difference in myointimal hyperplasia between M200 and SF groups when comparing the iliac arteries submitted to angioplasty. there was no difference of myointimal hyperplasia between groups treated with saline and Moringa oleifera after angioplasty.

  10. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device versus dydrogesterone for management of endometrial hyperplasia without atypia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Behery, Manal M; Saleh, Hend S; Ibrahiem, Moustafa A; Kamal, Ebtesam M; Kassem, Gamal A; Mohamed, Mohamed El Sayed

    2015-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) with dydrogesterone applied for the same duration in patients having endometrial hyperplasia (EH) without atypia. One hundred thirty eight women aged between 30 and 50 years with abnormal uterine bleeding and diagnosed as EH by transvaginal ultrasound were randomized to receive either LNG-IUD or dydrogesterone for 6 months. Primary outcome measures were regression of hyperplasia after 6 months of therapy. Secondary outcome measures were occurrence of side effects during treatment or recurrence of hyperplasia during follow-up period. After 6 months of treatment, regression of EH occurs in 96% of women in the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) group versus 80% of women in the oral group (P < .001). Adverse effects were relatively common with minimal differences between the 2 groups. Intermenstrual vaginal spotting and amenorrhea were more common in the LNG-IUD group (P value .01 and .0001). Patient satisfaction was significantly higher in the LNG-IUS group (P value .0001). Hysterectomy rates were lower in the LNG-IUS group than in the oral group (P = .001). Recurrence rate was 0% in the LNG-IUD group compared to 12.5% in the oral group. In management of EH without atypia, LNG-IUS achieves a higher regression and a lower hysterectomy rate than oral progesterone and could be used as a first-line therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Iliac artery myointimal hyperplasia in rabbits submitted to angioplasty and treated with Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jânio Cipriano Rolim

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess post-angioplasty myointimal hyperplasia in iliac artery of rabbits treated with extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Methods : we conducted a randomized trial in laboratory animals for five weeks of follow-up, developed in the Vivarium of Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba. We used rabbits from the New Zealand breed, subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet and angioplasty of the external iliac artery, randomized into two groups: M200 Group (n=10 - rabbits treated with 200mg/kg/day of Moringa oleifera leaves extract orally; SF group (n=10 - rabbits treated with 0.9% saline orally. After five weeks, the animals were euthanized and the iliac arteries prepared for histology. Histological sections were analyzed by digital morphometry. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t test. The significance level was 0.05. Results : there was no significant difference in myointimal hyperplasia between M200 and SF groups when comparing the iliac arteries submitted to angioplasty. Conclusion : there was no difference of myointimal hyperplasia between groups treated with saline and Moringa oleifera after angioplasty.

  12. Ovarian Leydig Cell Hyperplasia: An Unusual Case of Virilization in a Postmenopausal Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya M. Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report an unusual case of ovarian Leydig cell hyperplasia resulting in virilization in a postmenopausal woman. Methods. Patient’s medical history and pertinent literature were reviewed. Results. A 64-year-old woman presented with virilization with worsening hirsutism, deepening of her voice, male musculature, and male pattern alopecia. Her pertinent past medical history included type 1 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Her pertinent past surgical history included hysterectomy due to fibroids. On further work-up, her serum total testosterone was 506 ng/dL (nl range: 2–45 and free testosterone was 40 pg/mL (nl range: 0.1–6.4. After ruling out adrenal causes, the patient underwent an empiric bilateral oophorectomy that showed Leydig cell hyperplasia on pathology. Six weeks postoperatively, serum testosterone was undetectable with significant clinical improvement. Conclusion. Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism can be the result of numerous etiologies ranging from normal physiologic changes to ovarian or rarely adrenal tumors. Our patient was found to have Leydig cell hyperplasia of her ovaries, a rarely reported cause of virilization.

  13. TGF-β Signaling May Play a Role in the Development of Goblet Cell Hyperplasia in a Mouse Model of Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Ouyang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background: Transforming growth factor-p (TGF-β levels are elevated in the nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis. However, because TGF-β is secreted extracellulary in latent complexes, it remains unclear whether the local TGF-β expression actually drives active signaling and affects the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. The objective of this study is to investigate whether TGF-β signaling is activated in allergic rhinitis and plays a role in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. Methods: An ovabumin (OVA-sensitized and -nasally challenged mouse model of allergic rhinitis was established and phosphorylation of Smad2 in the nasal mucosa was examined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the effects of the pharmacological inhibition of endogenous TGF-β signaling on the allergic rhinitis model were histologically examined. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Smad2 in the nasal mucosa samples obtained from patients with allergic rhinitis was also evaluated. Results: In the mouse model of allergic rhinitis, OVA challenge induced phosphorylation of Smad2 predominantly in epithelial cells in the nasal mucosa. In addition, the administration of an inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor kinase activity during OVA challenge suppressed goblet cell hyperplasia in the nasal mucosa. Furthermore, phosphorylated Smad2 expression increased in nasal epithelial cells in patients with allergic rhinitis. Conclusions: These results suggest that TGF-β signaling is activated in epithelial cells in the nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis and may contribute to the development of goblet cell hyperplasia. KEY WORDS: allergic rhinitis, epithelial cells, Smad, TGF-p

  14. Histologic evaluation of human benign prostatic hyperplasia treated by dutasteride: a study by xenograft model with improved severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Nonomura, Norio; Adachi, Shigeki; Tokita, Yoriko; Nomura, Taisei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate histologic change in human prostate samples treated with dutasteride and to elucidate direct effects of dutasteride on human prostate tissue, the present study was conducted by using a xenograft model with improved severe combined immunodeficient (super-SCID) mice, although it is well known that dutasteride reduces prostate volume. After establishment of a xenograft model of human benign prostatic hyperplasia in morphology and function, samples implanted into super-SCID mice with and without dutasteride were evaluated pathohistologically at 2 and 6 months after initiation of dutasteride administration. The proliferative index evaluated by Ki-67 staining was significantly lower in the dutasteride group than the control at 2 and 6 months after administration. Apoptotic index evaluated by the terminal transferase TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining was higher in the dutasteride group than the control at 2 and 6 months after administration. Quick scores in the dutasteride group for staining of both cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) were significantly lower than those in the control group at 2 and 6 months after administration. Dutasteride inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of prostatic cells, causing a reduced prostate volume. Furthermore, decreased expression of Cox-2 and RhoA within benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue by dutasteride may induce an early effect on improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms, probably by attenuating inflammation reaction of the prostate and decreasing intraurethral pressure, other than the mechanism of reduced prostate volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary heme injures surface epithelium resulting in hyperproliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and crypt hyperplasia in rat colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vogel, Johan; van-Eck, Wytske Boersma; Sesink, Aloys L. A.; Jonker-Termont, Denise S. M. L.; Kleibeuker, Jan; van der Meer, Roelof

    Epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that a high intake of heme, present in red meat, is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of dietary heme on colonic cell homeostasis in rats. Rats were fed a purified, humanized, control

  16. [Effect of dutasteride on reduction of plasma DHT following finasteride therapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, Henry; Lan, Olivier; Poulain, Jean-Eudes; Comenducci, Andrea

    2005-12-01

    Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a steroid hormone derived from testosterone, by the action of two distinct isoenzymes (type 1 and 2) of 5-alpha-reductase. Dutasteride is a specific selective inhibitor of the two isoenzymes, while finasteride is a selective inhibitor of type 2 -alpha-reductase. The working hypothesis is that the double 5-alpha-reductase inhibition induced by dutasteride therapy for 6 weeks should induce a supplementary reduction of plasma DHT levels compared to a parallel patient group continuing finasteride therapy over the same period. In this prospective, two-centre, double-blind study, 21 patients previously treated by finasteride 5 mg for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) for at least 6 months were randomized to receive either dutasteride 0.5 mg, or finasteride 5 mg daily for 6 weeks. The mean relative variation of plasma DHT was 67.3% +/- 16.16% in the dutasteride group and 30.3% +/- 59.8% in the finasteride group. The reduction of DHT was numerically greater and more constant in the dutasteride group than in the finasteride group at 6 weeks; such a tendency was already observed after two weeks of treatment with dutasteride. Nevertheless, these differences were not statistically significant. Both medications were well tolerated and the only treatment-related adverse event (epigastric pain) was reported in the finasteride group. The working hypothesis was therefore not statistically confirmed. It is difficult to conclude whether this reflects poor patient compliance with long-term finasteride for BPH or variability of response in patients with good compliance with treatment.

  17. ADME studies and preliminary safety pharmacology of LDT5, a lead compound for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Noël

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME properties and safety of LDT5, a lead compound for oral treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia that has previously been characterized as a multi-target antagonist of α1A-, α1D-adrenoceptors and 5-HT1A receptors. The preclinical characterization of this compound comprised the evaluation of its in vitro properties, including plasma, microsomal and hepatocytes stability, cytochrome P450 metabolism and inhibition, plasma protein binding, and permeability using MDCK-MDR1 cells. De-risking and preliminary safety pharmacology assays were performed through screening of 44 off-target receptors and in vivo tests in mice (rota-rod and single dose toxicity. LDT5 is stable in rat and human plasma, human liver microsomes and hepatocytes, but unstable in rat liver microsomes and hepatocytes (half-life of 11 min. LDT5 is highly permeable across the MDCK-MDR1 monolayer (Papp ∼32×10-6 cm/s, indicating good intestinal absorption and putative brain penetration. LDT5 is not extensively protein-bound and is a substrate of human CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 but not of CYP3A4 (half-life >60 min, and did not significantly influence the activities of any of the human cytochrome P450 isoforms screened. LDT5 was considered safe albeit new studies are necessary to rule out putative central adverse effects through D2, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B receptors, after chronic use. This work highlights the drug-likeness properties of LDT5 and supports its further preclinical development.

  18. PREVALENCE OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA AND PROSTATE CANCER IN AFRICANS AND AFRICANS IN THE DIASPORA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, E D

    2016-01-01

    There have been several publications on population or community prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer from various countries and races but few reports are from Africa on Africans. A review on the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer in Africans and other races. The current literature on prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PC), and benign prostatic hyperplasia co-existing with prostate cancer in Africans and other races is reviewed. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) prevalence in Ghana is responsible for 60% acute retention of urine and 28.6% of haematuria. Worldwide prevalence of BPH varies from 20 - 62% in men over 50 years and this includes USA, UK, Japan and Ghana. Reports from South Africa indicate prevalence of over 50% in adult males of 60 years. BPH co-existing with PC - Reports from USA, UK and Japan and Ghana reveal moderate association of BPH and PC. The co-existence of PC in patients being treated for BPH is 3 - 20% Prostate Cancer prevalence - There is high prevalence in USA, Scandinavian Countries, African Americans (AA) and Caribbean blacks. Ghana, Trinidad & Tobago have reported high prevalence of 6 -10% in men aged 50 years and above but others reported low prevalence in Africans from Africa. The low reporting from Africa of 10 - 40:100,000 is attributable to under reporting, absence of PSA screening/testing, lack of reliable cancer registries and poor medical facilities. Economic Costs of BPH and PC: BPH in the USA national direct costs are estimated at U$4Billion and individual costs of US$1536 annually. In Ghana, individual costs for BPH medications range from US$300 - 550 per year and cost for simple prostatectomy/TURP is estimated at US$1100. For prostate cancer, individual direct costs from Europe range from 6,575 - 12,000 euros, £2818.00 UK and over U$12,000 - 20,000 in USA per annum. In Ghana, individual direct costs ranges, for radical prostatectomy and

  19. Blockade of the intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel as a new therapeutic strategy for restenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ralf; Wulff, Heike; Eichler, Ines

    2003-01-01

    hyperplasia was accompanied by decreased neointimal cell content, with no change in the rate of apoptosis or collagen content. CONCLUSIONS: The switch toward IKCa1 expression may promote excessive neointimal VSMC proliferation. Blockade of IKCa1 could therefore represent a new therapeutic strategy to prevent...

  20. Characterization of acute biliary hyperplasia in Fisher 344 Rats administered the Indole-3-Carbinol Analog, NSC-743380

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, Sandy R.; Covey, Joseph; Morris, Joel [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, 20892 (United States); Fang, Bingliang [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030 (United States); Horn, Thomas L. [IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL, 60616 (United States); Elsass, Karen E. [Battelle Columbus, Columbus, OH, 43201 (United States); Hamre, John R. [Investigative Toxicology Laboratory, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); McCormick, David L. [IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL, 60616 (United States); Davis, Myrtle A., E-mail: myrtledavis@mail.nih.gov [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, 20892 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    NSC-743380 (1-[(3-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-1H-indole-3-carbinol) is in early stages of development as an anticancer agent. Two metabolites reflect sequential conversion of the carbinol functionality to a carboxaldehyde and the major metabolite, 1-[(3-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid. In an exploratory toxicity study in rats, NSC-743380 induced elevations in liver-associated serum enzymes and biliary hyperplasia. Biliary hyperplasia was observed 2 days after dosing orally for 2 consecutive days at 100 mg/kg/day. Notably, hepatotoxicity and biliary hyperplasia were observed after oral administration of the parent compound, but not when major metabolites were administered. The toxicities of a structurally similar but pharmacologically inactive molecule and a structurally diverse molecule with a similar efficacy profile in killing cancer cells in vitro were compared to NSC-743380 to explore scaffold versus target-mediated toxicity. Following two oral doses of 100 mg/kg/day given once daily on two consecutive days, the structurally unrelated active compound produced hepatic toxicity similar to NSC-743380. The structurally similar inactive compound did not, but, lower exposures were achieved. The weight of evidence implies that the hepatotoxicity associated with NSC-743380 is related to the anticancer activity of the parent molecule. Furthermore, because biliary hyperplasia represents an unmanageable and non-monitorable adverse effect in clinical settings, this model may provide an opportunity for investigators to use a short-duration study design to explore biomarkers of biliary hyperplasia. - Highlights: • NSC-743380 induced biliary hyperplasia in rats. • Toxicity of NSC-743380 appears to be related to its anticancer activity. • The model provides an opportunity to explore biomarkers of biliary hyperplasia.

  1. Comparison of 99mTc-MDP SPECT qualitative vs quantitative results in patients with suspected condylar hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Buitrago, D F; Ruiz Botero, J; Corral, C M; Carmona, A R; Sabogal, A

    To compare qualitative vs quantitative results of Single Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT), calculated from percentage of 99m Tc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) uptake, in condyles of patients with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of condylar hyperplasia. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on the 99m Tc-MDP SPECT bone scintigraphy reports from 51 patients, with clinical impression of facial asymmetry related to condylar hyperplasia referred by their specialist in orthodontics or maxillofacial surgery, to a nuclear medicine department in order to take this type of test. Quantitative data from 99m Tc-MDP condylar uptake of each were obtained and compared with qualitative image interpretation reported by a nuclear medicine expert. The concordances between the 51 qualitative and quantitative reports results was established. The total sample included 32 women (63%) and 19 men (37%). The patient age range was 13-45 years (21±8 years). According to qualitative reports, 19 patients were positive for right side condylar hyperplasia, 12 for left side condylar hyperplasia, with 8 bilateral, and 12 negative. The quantitative reports diagnosed 16 positives for right side condylar hyperplasia, 10 for left side condylar hyperplasia, and 25 negatives. Nuclear medicine images are an important diagnostic tool, but the qualitative interpretation of the images is not as reliable as the quantitative calculation. The agreement between the two types of report is low (39.2%, Kappa=0.13; P>.2). The main limitation of quantitative reports is that they do not register bilateral condylar hyperplasia cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  2. Perforating elastic fibers ('elastic fiber trapping') in the differentiation of keratoacanthoma, conventional squamous cell carcinoma and pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kabeer; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Lal, Karan; Molina, David; Elston, Dirk M

    2014-02-01

    Keratoacanthoma (KA), an epithelial neoplasm occurring in sun-exposed skin of the elderly, is considered a well-differentiated form of conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that often follows a course of spontaneous regression. Distinguishing KA from conventional SCC or pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia ensures proper diagnosis, treatment and management. For some time, perforating elastic fibers have been utilized in differentiating KA from SCC. This phenomenon may also occur in association with scars and hypertrophic lupus erythematosus (LE). To assess the diagnostic utility of perforating elastic fibers, we compared their incidence in KA, SCC, scars with overlying pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia, hypertrophic LE, hypertrophic lichen planus (LP) and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC). A retrospective case search identified 359 lesions and the presence of perforating elastic fibers was evaluated using routinely stained sections. This phenomenon was documented in all studied groups except hypertrophic LP. The incidence was found to be 71% in KA, 37% in SCC, and was lowest in inflammatory conditions with associated pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia (hypertrophic LP 0%, hypertrophic LE 5.9% and LSC 28.2%). The observed frequency in pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia overlying scars (57.8%) vs. KA (71%) was not statistically different. Although elastic fiber trapping has potential value as a diagnostic criterion for KA, dermatopathologists should consider its limitations. Its diagnostic utility was greatest in distinguishing KA from hypertrophic LE and hypertrophic LP. Conversely, elastic trapping is not helpful differentiating pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia from recurrent/persistent KA following surgery. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Comparison of Intra-Articular Cavernous Synovial Hemangioma and Cystic Synovial Hyperplasia of the Knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Filippo, M.; Rovani, C.; Sudberry, J. J.; Rossi, F.; Pogliacomi, F.; Zompatori, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, with and without intravenous contrast medium, of cavernous synovial hemangiomas and cystic synovial hyperplasia. Material and Methods: Four cases of cavernous synovial hemangioma and five of cystic synovial hyperplasia of the knee were studied retrospectively. The patients (5 F and 4 M; 15-25 years of age) all had long-standing knee pain. At clinical examination we observed elastic swelling and pain without significant joint effusion. The patients underwent conventional radiography and MRI without and following intravenous contrast medium before arthroscopic biopsy. Results: The radiographs were interpreted as negative in all patients. MRI examination without contrast medium revealed a similar multicystic appearance for both lesions. Following intravenous contrast agent administration, cavernous synovial hemangiomas demonstrated avid, rather homogenous enhancement, whereas cystic synovial hyperplasia demonstrated less intense, peripheral enhancement only. Arthroscopy with histological examination of the lesions confirmed the MRI diagnosis in every case. Conclusion: In our experience, cavernous synovial hemangioma and cystic synovial hyperplasia have a similar appearance on unenhanced MRI, but can be reliably differentiated on the basis of enhancement characteristics following intravenous contrast administration. Keywords: Cavernous synovial hemangioma; cystic synovial hyperplasia; knee; MRI

  4. An observational analysis of provider adherence to AUA guidelines on the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffenberg, Gregory B; Gonzalez, Chris M; Wolf, J Stuart; Clemens, J Quentin; Meeks, William; McVary, Kevin T

    2014-11-01

    We retrospectively evaluated urologist adherence to the AUA guidelines on the management of new patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia related lower urinary tract symptoms in a large university urology group. All first time benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptom visits to the urology clinic at the Northwestern Medical Faculty Foundation between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 were evaluated using an institutionally managed electronic medical record data repository. Clinical documentation and orders from each encounter were assessed to determine the rate of performance of guideline measures. Approximately 1% of all results were manually reviewed in a validation process designed to determine the reliability of the electronic medical record based system. A total of 3,494 eligible encounters were evaluated in the final analysis. Provider adherence rates with the 9 measures recommended in the guidelines varied by measure from 53.0% to 92.8%. The rate of performance of 5 not routinely recommended measures was 10.2% or less. Post-void residual and urinary flow measurement were optional measures, and were performed on 68.1% and 4.6% of new encounters respectively. Manual validation revealed the electronic medical record data extraction was concordant with manual review in 96.7% of cases (95% CI 94.8-98.5). Using electronic medical record based data extraction techniques, we reliably document a baseline adherence rate with AUA guidelines on the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Establishing this benchmark will be important for future investigation into patient outcomes related to guideline adherence and into methods for improving provider adherence. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sousa VP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Valeria Pereira de Sousa,1 Joanne Crean,2 Vinícius Raphael de Almeida Borges,1 Carlos Rangel Rodrigues,1 Lidia Tajber,2 Fabio Boylan,2 Lucio Mendes Cabral1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS. BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Keywords: babassu oil, nanocomposite, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, nanoparticles, benign prostatic hyperplasia, treatment, nanotechnology

  6. Comparison of Anti BPH capsule (herbal) and Terazosin HCl in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Hafiz Mohammad Rashid; Mohiuddin, Ejaz; UdDin, Shahab; Daniyal, Muhammad; Usmanghani, Khan

    2017-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a disease of senile age, usually occurring> 60 years of age. BPH is a disease that involves cell proliferation of the prostate. Pathological hyperplasia affects the elements of the glandular and connective tissue of the prostate. This study is designed to scrutinize the efficacy and tolerability of herbal drug Anti BPH capsule for the management of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), in this study we select the 100 patients in which 50 received the Anti BPH capsule and 50 received the Terazosin HCl. We use the American Urological Association BPH Symptom Score Index Questionnaire to measure the quality of life of the patients. We compare the before treatment and after treatment results for each symptom. We record the following symptoms, incomplete emptying of bladder, Frequency, Intermittency, Urgency, Weak stream, Straining, Nocturia and weight of prostate gland by USG. We compare the both drug by using paired sample t-test. The level of significance of incomplete emptying of bladder before treatment and after treatment is 0.013 in test group and 0.032 in control group. Similarly the level of significance of Frequency before treatment and after treatment in test groups in, intermittency, Urgency, Weak stream, staining, Nocturia and mean weight of prostate gland are 0.007, 0.015, 0.044, 0.012, 0.017, 0.004 and 0.020; where as in control group afford as 0.031, 0.044, 0.044, 0.032, 0.024, 0.009 and 0.035 respectively. The herbal drug Anti BPH capsule is more effective in the treatment of BPH than Allopathic medicine Terazosin HCl.

  7. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Health Seeking Behaviour of patients at a tertiary care hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Deep

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a widely prevalent conditionaffecting elderly men throughout the world. With increasinglife expectancy, there has been a rise in the percentage ofelderly men and so for this disease across the globe. There islack of information about health seeking behaviour of patientswith Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Therefore the study wasdesigned with the objectives of assessing health-seekingbehaviour and the effect of literacy on it among adult andolder subjects suffering from Benign Prostatic Hyperplasiaattending a tertiary care hospital.MethodA series of 81 patients suffering from Benign ProstaticHyperplasia above the age of 50 years, attending surgical OutPatient Department of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, wereassessed for their health seeking behaviour using a pre-testedand a modified questionnaire designed for assessing healthseeking behaviour.ResultsPositive health seeking behaviour of patients was observed in44%, who reported to a doctor within a month of noticingtheir problem. A greater proportion of the literates was awareabout the symptoms suggestive of enlarged prostate andconsulted a qualified health care practitioner as their firstaction. More literates approached the higher level of healthcare facility on being referred and had maximum faith inallopathic system of medicine. Also, lesser number of literateshad performed pooja (Hindi word for worship or othertraditional rituals for relief of their problems.ConclusionWe concluded that majority of subjects suffering fromBenign Prostatic Hypertrophy were not aware of theirdisease and their health-seeking behaviour was poor andcould be related to literacy. Our data highlights the needfor public awareness program targeting the younger malepopulation so that early detection and treatment can beoffered.

  8. The Role of gsp Mutations on the Development of Adrenal Cortical Tumors and Adrenal Hyperplasias

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    Maria Candida Barisson Villares Fragoso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Somatic GNAS point mutations, commonly known as gsp mutations, are involved in the pathogenesis of McCune Albright syndrome and have also been described in autonomous hormone-producing tumors, such as somatotropinoma, corticotrophoma, thyroid cancer, ovarian and testicular Leydig cell tumors and primary macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PMAH. [1-3]The involvement of gsp mutations in adrenal tumors was first described by Lyons et al. in 1990. Since then, several studies have detected the presence of gsp mutations in adrenal tumors, but none of them could explain its presence along or the mechanism that leads to tumor formation and hormone hypersecretion. As a result, the molecular pathogenesis of the majority of sporadic adrenocortical tumors remains unclear. [3] PMAH has also been reported with gsp somatic mutations in a few cases. Fragoso et al. in 2003 identified two distinct gsp somatic mutations affecting arginine residues on codon 201 of GNAS in a few patients with PMAH who lacked any features or manifestations of McCune Albright syndrome. Followed by this discovery, other studies have continued looking for gsp mutations based on strong prior evidence demonstrating that increased cAMP signaling is sufficient for cell proliferation and cortisol production. [2, 4] With consideration for the previously reported findings, we conjecture that although somatic activating mutations in GNAS are a rare molecular event, these mutations could probably be sufficient to induce the development of macronodule hyperplasia and variable cortisol secretion.In this manuscript, we revised the presence of gsp mutations associated with adrenal cortical tumors and hyperplasia.

  9. Impact of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgical treatment on voiding and urinary bladder filling symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Snježana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP is one of the most common diseases of elderly men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia to voiding and urinary bladder filling symptoms. Quantification of voiding and filling symptoms was done with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS. Method. The study included 80 patients with BHP, of whom 40 were treated with open prostatectomy (group A, and other 40 with transurethral resection of prostate gland (group B. All the patients were under 80 years old (average age in the group A was 70.23 years with a variation interval of 21 years, and in the group B 69.37 years with a variation interval of 22 years, with a value of IPSS > 19 points, quantity of residual urine higher than 150 mL, the weight of benign prostatic gland hyperplasia tissue over 30 grams for the method of prostate transurethral resection, and over 80 grams for the method of open prostatectomy. To all patients, for two times, the value of IPSS was determined, and then in a postoperative period in time intervals of 4 and 12 weeks. Results. Arithmetic mean of IPSS preoperatively was 32.05 points in the group A and 31.75 points in the group B. During the postoperative check-ups in time intervals of 4 and 12 weeks, arithmetic means of IPSS in the group A were 5.4 and 1.85 points, respectively, and in the group B 11.425 and 9.025 points, respectively. Surgical treatment had better effect on voiding symptoms than on urinary bladder filling ones. Conclusion. After the mentioned surgical procedures a significant reduction of the lower urinary tract symptoms quantified by the IPSS was observed. Surgical treatment of BHP had a more pronounced effect on the voiding symptoms in relation to filling ones.

  10. Pitfalls in molecular diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Kolahdouz, Mahsa; Mohammadi, Zahra; Kolahdouz, Parisa; Tajamolian, Masoud; Khanahmad, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a putative error of metabolism with autosomal recessive heredity pattern. The main manifestations of classic form of CAH are salt-wasting, dehydration and simple virilization in both sexes and ambiguous genitalia in female gender. 21-hyroxylase (CYP21A2) impairment with prevalence value of 1 in 10,000?15,000 live births is the most common etiology of CAH. Because of consanguineous marriages, the frequency of the CAH in Iran is very high. A wide range of...

  11. What do I tell patients about saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Christopher J; Raheem, Omer A; Bent, Stephen; Avins, Andrew L

    2011-08-01

    Saw palmetto is widely used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although there is passionate support for herbal and complementary therapies for LUTS, clinical evidence is mixed. Because there is a well-recognized, profound placebo effect in tests of efficacy for agents treating LUTS, it is imperative that all therapies be tested in placebo-controlled trials. This article reviews evidence of the efficacy and safety of saw palmetto for men with LUTS caused by BPH, with particular emphasis on published randomized clinical trials and the upcoming Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urologic Symptoms (CAMUS) trial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Alegre, M. L.; Casanova, A.; Delgado, J.; Relanzon, S.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a case of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in a woman with severe combined immunodeficiency disease. the patient complained of constipation and episodes of abdominal pain, and examination revealed the presence of a large abdominal mass. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of the initial radiological studies, but intestinal biopsy was necessary to rule out lymphomatous involvement. We point out the radiological features of this entity which, despite the fact that it may be a chance finding of no pathological significance, requires special attention, especially in immuno deficient individuals. (Author) 10 refs

  13. Pancreatic α-cell hyperplasia and hyperglucagonemia due to a mutation of the glucagon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larger, Etienne; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Hansen, L.H.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production by activating specific glucagon receptors in the liver, which in turn increase hepatic glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from amino acids. Conversely, glucagon secretion is regulated by concentrations of glucose and amino acids...... to hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia, as well as elevated plasma amino acid levels. Together with the glucagon-induced hypoaminoacidemia in glucagonoma patients, our case supports recent suggestions that amino acids may provide the feedback link between the liver and the pancreatic α-cells....

  14. Role of transvaginal ultrasonography in diagnosing endometrial hyperplasia in pre- and post-menopause women

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhi, Behrooz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the most common presenting symptom of endometrial hyperplasia (EH). Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) is a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of AUB and EH with various sensitivity and specificity. However, the exact accuracy of TVS in diagnosing EH had not been evaluated. In this study, we aim to evaluate the accuracy of TVS in detecting EH. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 120 women (mean age of 48.64 ± 6.74 years) with AUB w...

  15. Hybrid Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Sulphur Colloid Scintigraphy in Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoil, Amit; Gayana, Shankramurthy; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2013-01-01

    It is important to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), a benign condition of liver most commonly affecting women, from other neoplasm such as hepatic adenoma and metastasis. The functional reticuloendothelial features of FNH can be demonstrated by scintigraphy. We present a case of breast cancer in whom fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (CT) showed a homogenous hyperdense lesion in liver, which on Tc99m sulfur colloid single-photon emission computed tomography/CT was found to have increased focal tracer uptake suggestive of FNH

  16. Urinary prostate-specific antigen: predictor of benign prostatic hyperplasia progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcic, Tomislav P; Tulic, Cane Dz; Lalic, Natasa V; Glisic, Biljana D; Ignjatovic, Svetlana D; Markovic, Biljana B; Hadzi-Djokic, Jovan B

    2013-04-01

    Urinary prostate-specific antigen (uPSA) can be used as additional parameter of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. From January 2001 to December 2011, uPSA was determined in 265 patients with benign prostate. Based on total prostate volume (TPV), the patients with benign prostate were divided in two groups: TPV specificity of 0.83 and sensitivity of 0.67. The level of uPSA reflects prostatic hormonal activity and correlates with TPV, PSA and age. UPSA level ≥ 150 ng/mL can be used as additional predictive parameter of BPH progression.

  17. Radiologic Imaging Findings of Bilateral Infiltrating Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breasts:A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, Hee Sun; Jeh, Su Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), a rare benign lesion, shows the proliferation of the breast stromal tissue mimicking the low grade angiosarcoma (1-7). The most common mammographic and ultrasound finding of PASH is a circumscribed mass without calcification and it is difficult to distinguish from the phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma (1-4, 8). Up to our knowledge, PASH presenting as rapid bilateral breast enlargement, as seen in our case, is very rare. In addition, several English medical literature were reported in this kind of manifestation of PASH (3, 4, 8). We described imaging findings of diffuse, infiltrating, and bilateral manifectation of PASH.

  18. Pharmacologic Therapy in Men's Health: Hypogonadism, Erectile Dysfunction, and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkseth, Kathryn E; Thirumalai, Arthi; Amory, John K

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews current pharmacologic treatment options for 3 common men's health concerns: hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction (ED), and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Specific topics addressed include: management of male hypogonadism using testosterone replacement therapy, use of oral phosphodiesterase inhibitors as first-line therapy for men with ED and the utility of intraurethral and intrapenile alprostadil injections for patients who do not respond to oral medications, and the role of alpha1-adrenergic antagonists, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, anticholinergic agents, and herbal therapies in the management of BPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Angiofollicular Lymph Node Hyperplasia(=Castleman's Disease)-Report of A Case-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Hak Jun; Oh, Yoon Kyung; Yoon, Sei Chul; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (AFLNH) with well marginated lymphoid masses, is a rare benign disease of unknown etiology. The majority of the disease develop intrathoracically. Histologically this disease can be divided into the hyaline-vascular and the plasma cell types with the hyaline-vascular type prevailing. The plasma cell variant has been associated with nephritic syndrome, anemia, growth failure, fever, hyperglobulinemia, peripheral neuropathy, and hypoalbuminemia. Surgical resection is known to be treatment of choice in most cases, and radiotherapy is reserved for advanced, unresectable lesions. We report a complete remission of AFLNH in a case treated by surgical excision followed by irradiation.

  20. Ultrasonic features and radionuclide correlation in liver cell adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, M.A.; Petrocelli, R.D.; Marks, D.S.; Lopez, R.

    1980-01-01

    Ultrasonic features of three cases of liver cell adenoma (LCA) and two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) are presented. These tumors have similar sonographic appearances presenting either as solid masses or containing sonolucent areas due to hemorrhage or necrosis. Although these ultrasonic features in patients wth an area of decreased activity on /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) liver scans are not specific for LCA or FNH, such findings in the appropriate clinical setting are suggestive of these lesions. The combination of a solid mass on ultrasonography and a normal Tc-SC radioisotope liver study may be relatively specific for uncomplicated FNH

  1. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors (TARTS With Unusual Histological Features in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Marianovsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH patients with testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs with testicular enlargement present a serious diagnostic challenge. According to the data TARTs are usually benign. They are rare, resulting in paucity in the medical literature regarding their pathological features. We report a case of bilateral synchronous mass-forming TARTs with marked cytological and nuclear atypia misinterpreted as malignant testicular tumors in a 40-years-old man with CAH and CT and MRI data for pheochromocytoma of the right adrenal gland and paraaortal and paracaval lymphadenomegaly. He was previously diagnosed with adrenal cortical carcinoma of the left adrenal gland.

  2. Tubercular thyroiditis with multinodular goitre with adenomatous hyperplasia: a rare coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Jai Kumar; Garg, Cheena; Agarwal, Arjun; Naim, Mohammed

    2013-09-25

    A 32-year-old Indian woman presented with swelling in the anterior part of the neck for the last 3 years. Clinical and radiological examination and fine needle aspiration cytology suggested the diagnosis of multinodular goitre. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed by the surgeon and the specimen was submitted for the final diagnosis. Histological examination of the specimen revealed multiple caseating tubercular granulomas coexistent with multinodular goitre and adenomatous hyperplasia. The sections demonstrated acid-fast tubercle bacteria, confirming the diagnosis of tubercular thyroiditis. This case emphasises that tubercular thyroiditis should always be considered in patients with thyroid swelling or nodule, in countries where the prevalence of tuberculosis is high.

  3. Confluent focal nodular hyperplasia mimicking liver cancer: Value of liver-specific contrast-enhanced MRI for diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Cheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is the second most common benign hepatic tumor. Unlike adenoma as well as the malignant neoplasms, focal nodular hyperplasia can often be managed successfully without surgery. Use of liver-specific contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging allows clinicians to confirm the diagnosis noninvasively in some patients, allowing select patients to avoid surgery. We report a case of a patient who presented with the rare profile of multiple, confluent lesions that were diagnosed, using magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium-dimeglumine, as focal nodular hyperplasia. This complicated case was managed successfully and noninvasively based on algorithm found in the recent literature that allows patients to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  4. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and clinical parameters in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, vocal fold nodule, and laryngeal atypical hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Cağdaş; Sayar, Hamide; Özdemir, Süleyman; Selçuk, Tahsin; Görgülü, Orhan; Akbaş, Yücel; Kemal Olgun, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The diagnostic role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in laryngeal atypical hyperplasia, vocal fold nodule, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was examined. Specimens obtained from patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodule (n = 35), atypical hyperplasia (n = 35), laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 35), and clinical parameters were evaluated retrospectively. Although no staining was observed in patients with vocal fold nodules, staining was noted in laryngeal atypical hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. The percentage of COX-2 staining was the highest in the carcinoma group. It was determined that COX-2 staining was significantly associated with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. It should be noted that overexpression of COX-2, a potentially important factor in the evolution of carcinogenesis in precancerous lesions, might be an indicator of the development of carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Distinction between papillary thyroid hyperplasia and papillary thyroid carcinoma by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin 19, galectin-3, and HBME-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Mary B; Lohse, Christine M; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2003-01-01

    The histopathology of papillary thyroid hyperplasia and papillary thyroid carcinoma is similar enough to cause a diagnostic dilemma in a few cases. Both lesions may have papillary fronds with fibrovascular cores, nuclear crowding, and nuclear anisocytosis. Formalin- fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 30 randomly selected patients with papillary thyroid hyperplasia and an equal number from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were analyzed for expression of cytokeratin 19 (CK19), galectin-3, and HBME-1. Cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma had moderate to strong CK19, galectin-3, and HBME-1 reactivity although both CK19 and galectin-3 showed positive staining in a significant number of nonneoplastic thyroid cases. HBME-1 was uncommon in the nonneoplastic cases. These results indicate that HBME-1 may be useful in helping to distinguish papillary thyroid carcinoma from hyperplasia in diagnostically difficult cases.

  6. Naftopidil inhibits 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced bladder contraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takumi; Kasahara, Ken-ichi; Tomita, Ken-ichi; Ikegaki, Ichiro; Kuriyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-30

    Naftopidil is an α(1D) and α(1A) subtype-selective α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist that has been used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this study, we investigated the effects of naftopidil on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced rat bladder contraction (10(-8)-10(-4) M). Naftopidil (0.3, 1, and 3 μM) inhibited 5-HT-induced bladder contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, other α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists, tamsulosin, silodosin or prazosin, did not inhibit 5-HT-induced bladder contraction. The 5-HT-induced bladder contraction was inhibited by both ketanserin and 4-(4-fluoronaphthalen-1-yl)-6-propan-2-ylpyrimidin-2-amine (RS127445), serotonin 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptor antagonists, respectively. In addition, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and α-methyl-5-HT, 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2) receptor agonists, respectively, induced bladder contraction. The 5-HT-induced bladder contraction was not inhibited by N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-N-pyridin-2-yl-cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY-100635), [1-[2[(methylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl]methyl-1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (GR113808) or (R)-3-[2-[2-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)ethyl]pyrrolidine-1-sulphonyl]phenol (SB269970), 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists, respectively. Naftopidil inhibited both the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2) receptor agonists-induced bladder contractions. Naftopidil binds to the human 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors with pKi values of 6.55 and 7.82, respectively. These results suggest that naftopidil inhibits 5-HT-induced bladder contraction via blockade of the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors in rats. Furthermore, 5-HT-induced bladder contraction was enhanced in bladder strips obtained from bladder outlet obstructed rats, with this contraction inhibited by naftopidil. The beneficial effects of naftopidil on storage symptoms such as urinary frequency and nocturia in patients with benign

  7. Clinical and molecular profile of newborns with confirmed or suspicious congenital adrenal hyperplasia detected after a public screening program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacek, Cristiane; Prado, Mayara J; da Silva, Claudia M D; de Castro, Simone M; Beltrão, Luciana A; Vargas, Paula R; Grandi, Tarciana; Rossetti, Maria L R; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2018-04-30

    To describe the results obtained in a neonatal screening program after its implementation and to assess the clinical and molecular profiles of confirmed and suspicious congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Newborns with suspected disease due to high 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels and adjusted for birth weight were selected. Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (salt-wasting and simple virilizing forms) was diagnosed by an increase in 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels as confirmed in the retest, clinical evaluation, and genotype determined by SNaPshot and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. After 24 months, 15 classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases were diagnosed in a total of 217,965 newborns, with an estimated incidence of 1:14,531. From 132 patients, seven non-classical and 14 heterozygous patients were screened for CYP21A2 mutations, and 96 patients presented false positives with wild type CYP21A2. On retest, increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were found in classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients and showed significant correlation with genotype-related classical genital adrenal hyperplasia. The most frequent mutations were IVS2-13A/C>G followed by gene deletion or rearrangement events in the classical form. In non-classical and heterozygous diseases, p.Val282Leu was the most common mutation. The results underscore the effectiveness of congenital adrenal hyperplasia neonatal screening in the public health system and indicate that the adopted strategy was appropriate. The second sample collection along with genotyping of suspected cases helped to properly diagnose both severe and milder cases and delineate them from false positive patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  8. Therapeutic effect of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate that results in obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. Plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH rather than therapeutics that can cause severe side effects. ACTICOA() (Ba0rry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP) is a cocoa polyphenolic extract, and we have shown in a previous study that oral treatment with AP prevented prostate hyperplasia. This study investigated whether AP could improve established prostate hyperplasia using the same testosterone propionate (TP)-induced prostate hyperplasia model in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one group injected with corn oil and orally treated with the vehicle (negative control) and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and orally treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments started 1 week after the start of the induction of prostate hyperplasia and lasted for 2 weeks. The influence of TP and AP on body weights, food and water consumptions, plasma polyphenolic concentration, and serum dihydrotestoterone (DHT) level of rats was examined. At completion of the study, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumptions, while AP reduced significantly these differences in a dose-dependent manner. AP significantly reduced serum DHT level and prostate size ratio in comparison with positive controls also dose-dependently. In conclusion, AP orally administered was effective for reducing established prostate hyperplasia, especially at the dose of 48 mg/kg/day.

  9. Stromal and Epithelial Caveolin-1 Both Confer a Protective Effect Against Mammary Hyperplasia and Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terence M.; Sotgia, Federica; Lee, Hyangkyu; Hassan, Ghada; Di Vizio, Dolores; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Capozza, Franco; Mercier, Isabelle; Rui, Hallgeir; Pestell, Richard G.; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we investigate the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in breast cancer onset and progression, with a focus on epithelial-stromal interactions, ie, the tumor microenvironment. Cav-1 is highly expressed in adipocytes and is abundant in mammary fat pads (stroma), but it remains unknown whether loss of Cav-1 within mammary stromal cells affects the differentiated state of mammary epithelia via paracrine signaling. To address this issue, we characterized the development of the mammary ductal system in Cav-1−/− mice and performed a series of mammary transplant studies, using both wild-type and Cav-1−/− mammary fat pads. Cav-1−/− mammary epithelia were hyperproliferative in vivo, with dramatic increases in terminal end bud area and mammary ductal thickness as well as increases in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 hyperactivation, and up-regulation of STAT5a and cyclin D1. Consistent with these findings, loss of Cav-1 dramatically exacerbated mammary lobulo-alveolar hyperplasia in cyclin D1 Tg mice, whereas overexpression of Cav-1 caused reversion of this phenotype. Most importantly, Cav-1−/− mammary stromal cells (fat pads) promoted the growth of both normal mammary ductal epithelia and mammary tumor cells. Thus, Cav-1 expression in both epithelial and stromal cells provides a protective effect against mammary hyperplasia as well as mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:17071600

  10. Osteopontin mediates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia and attaching-effacing lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, Eytan; Shen-Tu, Grace; Gareau, Mélanie G; Goldberg, Harvey A; Licht, Christoph; Ngan, Bo-Yee; Sorensen, Esben S; Greenaway, James; Sodek, Jaro; Zohar, Ron; Sherman, Philip M

    2010-09-01

    Although osteopontin (OPN) is up-regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases, its role in disease pathogenesis remains controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the role of OPN in host responses to a non-invasive bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, which serves as a murine infectious model of colitis. OPN gene knockout and wild-type mice were infected orogastrically with either C. rodentium or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. Mouse-derived OPN(+/+) and OPN(-/-) fibroblasts were incubated with C. rodentium and attaching-effacing lesions were demonstrated using transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Colonic expression of OPN was increased by C. rodentium infection of wild-type mice. Furthermore, colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia, the hallmark of C. rodentium infection, was reduced in OPN(-/-) mice, and spleen enlargement by infection was absent in OPN(-/-) mice. Rectal administration of OPN to OPN(-/-) mice restored these effects. There was an 8- to 17-fold reduction in bacterial colonization in OPN(-/-) mice, compared with wild-type mice, which was accompanied by reduced attaching-effacing lesions, both in infected OPN(-/-) mice and OPN(-/-) mouse fibroblasts. Moreover, adhesion pedestals were restored in OPN(-/-) cells complemented with human OPN. Therefore, lack of OPN results in decreased pedestal formation, colonization, and colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia responses to C. rodentium infection, indicating that OPN impacts disease pathogenesis through bacterial attachment and altered host immune responses.

  11. Down-regulation of EMP1 is associated with epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia in nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue Min; Li, Chun Wei; Li, Ying Ying; Liu, Jing; Lin, Zhi Bin; Li, Tian Ying; Zhao, Li; Pan, Xin Liang; Shi, Li; Wang, De Yun

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess protein and mRNA expression of epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1) in the nasal mucosa of patients with nasal polyps (NP), and to determine what changes occur in response to glucocorticosteroid (GC) treatment. NP tissue was obtained from 55 patients, 18 of whom were treated with nasal GCs (i.e. these 18 patients had NP biopsies taken before and after treatment). Biopsies of inferior turbinate mucosa from 30 healthy subjects were used as controls. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine the expression levels of EMP1. EMP1 mRNA expression was significantly lower (2.77-fold) in tissues from NP patients before GC treatment when compared to controls, but was increased in these patients after GC treatment. EMP1 staining in nasal epithelium co-localized with both basal (p63(+)) and differentiated (CK18(+)) epithelial cells. Their immunoreactivity was significantly greater in controls than NP patients. EMP1 mRNA levels were lower in the epithelium with severe hyperplasia (1.79-fold) or with metaplasia (1.85-fold) as compared to those with mild to moderate hyperplasia or non-metaplastic epithelium, respectively. Positive correlations between EMP1 and other epithelial cell-related gene (e.g. JUN, PTGS2, AREG etc.) mRNAs were observed. EMP1 could be a biomarker for aberrant epithelial remodelling and metaplasia in chronic inflammatory upper airway mucosa (e.g. NP). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat's prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg(-1) almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly.

  13. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat’s prostate hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg-1 testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg-1 nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg-1 nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg-1 testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg-1 almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly. PMID:25992248

  14. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia in a community in the Mayan area of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Losa, Maria R; Suarez-Allén, Rosa E; Canul-Canche, Jaqueline; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Eljure-Lopez, Nixma

    2011-03-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia is a pathology of the oral mucosa which has been reported in diverse ethnic groups. Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 13 and 32 DNA has been detected in these lesions. The aims of this paper are to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of an outbreak in a rural community in the Mayan area of Mexico and to identify a possible route of transmission through saliva. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chemax (Yucatan, Mexico). Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained through direct interviews. Samples of oral cells and saliva were taken. HPV 13 and 32 were identified by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. A total of 57 patients were studied, of whom 79.1% were aged jugal mucosa, and more frequently, the tongue. HPV 13 was found in all the patients and HPV 32 in none. A total of 42 saliva samples were positive for HPV 13. Human papillomavirus type 13 is involved in multifocal epithelial hyperplasia among the Mexican Mayan population. The presence of HPV 13 in cells from saliva, combined with poor hygiene behaviors, may explain the familial distribution of the pathology. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. [KTP (green light) laser for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Preliminary evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coz, Fernando; Domenech, Alfredo

    2007-09-01

    Photoselective vaporization of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a minimally invasive technique, consisting of vaporization of prostatic tissue by KTP green light laser with a power of 80 W. The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with this technique. KTP laser photoselective vaporization was performed in 18 patients, with lower obstructive uropathy secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia at Santiago Military hospital from December 2005. Preoperative characteristics, postoperative results and complications were recorded. Mean prostatic volume was 55 cc (range: 24 to 78). Mean operating time was 83 minutes (range: 40 to 120). In sixteen patients, the Foley catheter was removed before 24 hours. The mean preoperative AUA score was 22 and decreased to 11.4 after 30 days. The mean maximum preoperative urine flow rate was 9 ml/s and increased to 18.2; 22.1; 22.5; 25.3 and 27.2 ml/s on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 30, respectively. Only minor complications were observed: delayed removal of the Foley catheter (11.1%), dysuria (16.6%) and late haematuria (11.1%). KTP laser photoselective vaporization of BPH is a safe technique, that is easy to learn, with good short-term functional results, associated with low complication rate.

  16. Comparison of MR imaging and urodynamic findings in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, A.M.; Ishida, Jun; Igawa, Mikio; Sugimura, Kazuro; Okizuka, Hiromi

    2000-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), it is uncertain whether the size of the prostate is related to the degree of urodynamically demonstrated bladder outlet obstruction. We compared MR imaging findings and urodynamic data in patients with surgically confirmed BPH. We prospectively studied 43 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients in whom transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was planned. We obtained T1- and T2-weighted images in the transverse and sagittal planes with a 1.5 Tesla superconducting unit. The predicted volume of the inner gland and the peripheral zone were obtained on T2-weighted transverse images. Prostatic protrusion into the urinary bladder (IB protrusion) and the inner gland ratio (IG ratio: inner gland volume/total prostatic volume) were determined. IB protrusion and inner IG ratio were significantly greater in patients with severe stenosis than in those without. A surgical capsule (SC) was seen in 20 of 25 patients (80%) with severe stenosis and 8 of 18 (44%) of those without it. The accuracy of IB protrusion + IG ratio, IB protrusion + surgical capsule, and IB protrusion + IG ratio + surgical capsule was 89%, and that of IG ratio + surgical capsule was 86%. The inner gland ratio, protrusion into the bladder, and presence of surgical capsule were the most important factors in bladder outlet obstruction. The probability of outlet stenosis increases in patients with more than two of these criteria. (author)

  17. Comparison of MR imaging and urodynamic findings in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, A.M.; Ishida, Jun; Igawa, Mikio [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro; Okizuka, Hiromi

    2000-04-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), it is uncertain whether the size of the prostate is related to the degree of urodynamically demonstrated bladder outlet obstruction. We compared MR imaging findings and urodynamic data in patients with surgically confirmed BPH. We prospectively studied 43 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients in whom transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was planned. We obtained T1- and T2-weighted images in the transverse and sagittal planes with a 1.5 Tesla superconducting unit. The predicted volume of the inner gland and the peripheral zone were obtained on T2-weighted transverse images. Prostatic protrusion into the urinary bladder (IB protrusion) and the inner gland ratio (IG ratio: inner gland volume/total prostatic volume) were determined. IB protrusion and inner IG ratio were significantly greater in patients with severe stenosis than in those without. A surgical capsule (SC) was seen in 20 of 25 patients (80%) with severe stenosis and 8 of 18 (44%) of those without it. The accuracy of IB protrusion + IG ratio, IB protrusion + surgical capsule, and IB protrusion + IG ratio + surgical capsule was 89%, and that of IG ratio + surgical capsule was 86%. The inner gland ratio, protrusion into the bladder, and presence of surgical capsule were the most important factors in bladder outlet obstruction. The probability of outlet stenosis increases in patients with more than two of these criteria. (author)

  18. Cell-to-cell communication in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia causing hypercortisolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herve eLefebvre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that, in the human adrenal gland, cortisol secretion is not only controlled by circulating corticotropin but is also influenced by a wide variety of bioactive signals, including conventional neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, released within the cortex by various cell types such as chromaffin cells, neurons, cells of the immune system, adipocytes and endothelial cells. These different types of cells are present in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, a rare etiology of primary adrenal Cushing’s syndrome, where they appear intermingled with adrenocortical cells in the hyperplastic cortex. In addition, the genetic events which cause the disease favor abnormal adrenal differenciation that results in illicit expression of paracrine regulatory factors and their receptors in adrenocortical cells. All these defects constitute the molecular basis for aberrant autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms which are likely to play a role in the pathophysiology of bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia-associated hypercortisolism. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this topic as well as the therapeutic perspectives offered by this new pathophysiological concept.

  19. Congenital Generalized Hypertrichosis Terminalis with Gingival Hyperplasia and a Coarse Face: a Case Report

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    Kazandjieva Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital generalized hypertrichosis, in its most common form, is idiopathic. In the absence of underlying endocrine or metabolic disorders, congenital generalized hypertrichosis is rare in humans, affecting as few as one in a billion individuals and may be an isolated condition of the skin, or a component feature of other disorders or syndromes. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis is an extremely rare condition, a distinct subset of disorders with congenital hypertrichosis, presenting with excessive hair as the primary clinical feature. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis is characterized by universal excessive growth of pigmented terminal hair and often accompanied with gingival hyperplasia and/or a coarse face. Gingival hyperplasia may be delayed even until puberty. Its pathogenesis may be caused by one of the following mechanisms: conversion of vellus to terminal hairs and/or prolonged anagenetic stage, and/or increase in the number of hair follicles. Since the Middle Ages, less than 60 individuals with congenital hypertrichosis terminalis have been described, and, according to the most recent estimates, less than 40 cases were documented adequately and definitively in the literature. Recent articles identified congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis as a genomic disorder.

  20. Pediatric Helicobacter pylori gastropathy demonstrates a unique pattern of gastric foveolar hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghier, Sadaf; Schwarz, Steven M; Anderson, Virginia; Gupta, Raavi; Heidarian, Amin; Rabinowitz, Simon S

    2018-04-25

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) are the most common agents causing gastric mucosal injury worldwide. Foveolar hyperplasia is a key component of the stomach's reaction to injury. This study examines histopathologic characteristics associated with Helicobacter pylori and with non- Helicobacter pylori-associated gastropathy in children and adolescents, and compares the prevalence of foveolar hyperplasia among these disease subgroups and normal control subjects. Eighty-one gastric antral and corpus biopsies from subjects 2-19 years of age were studied. Twenty-two subjects with Helicobacter pylori gastritis were compared to 23 with non-Helicobacter pylori gastropathy and to 36 controls (normal biopsies). Foveolar length, full mucosal thickness, and the foveolar length: full mucosal thickness ratio were derived by a morphometric technique previously developed to analyze adult gastric tissue. Compared to controls, Helicobacter pylori gastritis demonstrated significant increases in antral foveolar length (P Helicobacter pylori-associated gastropathy also was characterized by increased antral foveolar length (P Helicobacter pylori gastropathy was increased, when compared to Helicobacter pylori gastritis (P Helicobacter pylori gastropathy group demonstrated increased antral foveolar length: full mucosal thickness ratios, compared with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (P Helicobacter pylori gastritis but is limited to the antrum in non-Helicobacter pylori gastropathy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pancreatic α-cell hyperplasia and hyperglucagonemia due to a glucagon receptor splice mutation

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    Etienne Larger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production by activating specific glucagon receptors in the liver, which in turn increase hepatic glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from amino acids. Conversely, glucagon secretion is regulated by concentrations of glucose and amino acids. Disruption of glucagon signaling in rodents results in grossly elevated circulating glucagon levels but no hypoglycemia. Here, we describe a patient carrying a homozygous G to A substitution in the invariant AG dinucleotide found in a 3′ mRNA splice junction of the glucagon receptor gene. Loss of the splice site acceptor consensus sequence results in the deletion of 70 nucleotides encoded by exon 9, which introduces a frame shift and an early termination signal in the receptor mRNA sequence. The mutated receptor neither bound 125I-labeled glucagon nor induced cAMP production upon stimulation with up to 1 μM glucagon. Despite the mutation, the only obvious pathophysiological trait was hyperglucagonemia, hyperaminoacidemia and massive hyperplasia of the pancreatic α-cells assessed by histology. Our case supports the notion of a hepato–pancreatic feedback system, which upon disruption leads to hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia, as well as elevated plasma amino acid levels. Together with the glucagon-induced hypoaminoacidemia in glucagonoma patients, our case supports recent suggestions that amino acids may provide the feedback link between the liver and the pancreatic α-cells.

  2. [Condylar hyperplasia: qualitative and quantitative study of temporomandibular joints remodeling before and after condylectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojare, Camille; Wojcik, Thomas; Coussens, Camille; Ferri, Joël; Pertuzon, Bruno; Raoul, Gwénaël

    2014-06-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate bone remodeling of temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) using computed tomography (CT) before and after condylectomy for condylar hyperplasia. TMJ bone remodeling was studied by comparing the pre and postoperative CT scan of ten patients. Qualitative evaluation was performed by two-dimensional analysis. Three-dimensional analysis superimpositions were done after digital condylar units isolation. Condylar volume modifications were measured and compared on both sides. Lastly, before and after surgery, we studied the radio-clinic correlations. After surgery, all the operated condyles developed a new cortical bone. We noticed also a thickening of the glenoid fossa. Surgical condylectomy leaded to a 43.5% volume reduction on the operated side and 2.14% on the controlateral side. On the controlateral side, most of abnormalities seen preoperatively disappeared after surgery. For two patients, the condylar resection took away over 80% of the initial volume. For these patients, we observed major radiologic modifications on the controlateral TMJ associated with symptoms of dysfunction. These problems did not worsen their quality of life. Both TMJ presented with bone remodelling after condylectomy. In condylar hyperplasia, condylectomy provides orthopaedic results on dysmorphia and removal of the pathological prechondroblastic zone. In the future, an earlier detection of this pathology may help the surgeon to treat in childhood. This would limit surgical excision and would avoid important dysmorphia. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  3. Minimally invasive devices for treating lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostate hyperplasia: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoun F

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fouad Aoun1, Quentin Marcelis,1,2 Thierry Roumeguère,2 1Department of Urology, Jules Bordet Institute, 2Department of Urology, Erasme Hospital, University Clinics of Brussels, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH represents a spectrum of related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. The cost of currently recommended medications and the discontinuation rate due to side effects are significant drawbacks limiting their long-term use in clinical practice. Interventional procedures, considered as the definitive treatment for BPH, carry a significant risk of treatment-related complications in frail patients. These issues have contributed to the emergence of new approaches as alternative options to standard therapies. This paper reviews the recent literature regarding the experimental treatments under investigation and presents the currently available experimental devices and techniques used under local anesthesia for the treatment of LUTS/BPH in the vast majority of cases. Devices for delivery of thermal treatment (microwaves, radiofrequency, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and the Rezum system, mechanical devices (prostatic stent and urethral lift, fractionation of prostatic tissue (histotripsy and aquablation, prostate artery embolization, and intraprostatic drugs are discussed. Evidence for the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of these “minimally invasive procedures” is analyzed. Keywords: lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, minimally invasive therapies, new approaches, experimental therapy

  4. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

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    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  5. Effects of different natural extracts in an experimental model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterniti, Irene; Campolo, Michela; Cordaro, Marika; Siracusa, Rosalba; Filippone, Antonio; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2018-04-20

    To characterize the impact of inflammatory process and oxidative stress in the degree of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common condition in which chronic inflammation plays a crucial role, we investigated the effect of different plant extract preparations in an in vivo model of BPH as new therapeutic target. BPH was made in rats with daily administration of testosterone propionate (3 mg/kg) for 14 days. Rats were randomized into different groups to receive oral administration of plant extract preparations: Serenoa repens with selenium (SeR 28.5 mg/kg associated with Se 0.005 mg/kg), Teoside (2 mg/kg), and Puryprost (14 mg/kg containing Teoside 50% 2 mg/kg and Epilobium 12 mg/kg). After 14 days, rats were killed and histological changes, prostate weight and apoptotic pathways were assayed. The results obtained demonstrated that the association of treatments reduced prostate weight and hyperplasia, while treatment with Puryprost demonstrated a greater trend of protection compared to the other treatments. Thus, our results indicate that plant extract could be considered as new useful therapy in the treatment of BPH with particular attention on Puryprost that represents a rational approach to reduce BPH through modulation of inflammatory process and anti-oxidant process.

  6. Targeting Stromal Androgen Receptor Suppresses Prolactin-Driven Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kuo-Pao; Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Fang, Lei-Ya; Izumi, Kouji; Lo, Chi-Wen; Wood, Ronald; Kindblom, Jon; Yeh, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Stromal-epithelial interaction plays a pivotal role to mediate the normal prostate growth, the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer development. Until now, the stromal androgen receptor (AR) functions in the BPH development, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we used a genetic knockout approach to ablate stromal fibromuscular (fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells) AR in a probasin promoter-driven prolactin transgenic mouse model (Pb-PRL tg mice) that could spontaneously develop prostate hyperplasia to partially mimic human BPH development. We found Pb-PRL tg mice lacking stromal fibromuscular AR developed smaller prostates, with more marked changes in the dorsolateral prostate lobes with less proliferation index. Mechanistically, prolactin mediated hyperplastic prostate growth involved epithelial-stromal interaction through epithelial prolactin/prolactin receptor signals to regulate granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor expression to facilitate stromal cell growth via sustaining signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 activity. Importantly, the stromal fibromuscular AR could modulate such epithelial-stromal interacting signals. Targeting stromal fibromuscular AR with the AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9®, led to the reduction of prostate size, which could be used in future therapy. PMID:23893956

  7. [Phytotherapy in urology. Current scientific evidence of its application in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, E; Budía, A; Broseta, E; Boronat, F

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of phytotherapy in the treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic adenocarcinoma (ADCP). Systematic review of the evidence published until January 2011 using the following scientific terms: phytotherapy, benign prostate hyperplasia, prostatic adenocarcinoma, prostate cancer and the scientific names of compounds following the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. The databases used were Medline and The Cochrane Library. We included articles published until January 2011 written in English and Spanish. We included studies in vitro/in vivo on animal models or human beings. Exclusion criteria were literature not in English and Spanish or articles with serious methodological flaws. We included 65 articles of which 40 met the inclusion criteria. BPH: the most studied products are serenoa repens and pygeum africanum. There are many studies in favour of the use of phytotherapy but its conclusions are inconsistent due to the small number of patients, the lack of control with placebo or short follow-up. However the use of these products is common in our environment. ADCP: there is no evidence to recommend phytotherapy in the treatment of the ADCP. There are works on prevention but only at experimental level so there is no evidence for its recommendation. The scientific evidence on the use of phytotherapy in prostatic pathology is conclusive not recommend ing the use of it for BPH or the ADCP. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Parathyroid hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 63. Thakker R. The parathyroid glands, hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  10. A stent for co-delivering paclitaxel and nitric oxide from abluminal and luminal surfaces: Preparation, surface characterization, and in vitro drug release studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Annemarie; Mani, Gopinath, E-mail: Gopinath.Mani@usd.edu

    2013-08-15

    Most drug-eluting stents currently available are coated with anti-proliferative drugs on both abluminal (toward blood vessel wall) and luminal (toward lumen) surfaces to prevent neointimal hyperplasia. While the abluminal delivery of anti-proliferative drugs is useful for controlling neointimal hyperplasia, the luminal delivery of such drugs impairs or prevents endothelialization which causes late stent thrombosis. This research is focused on developing a bidirectional dual drug-eluting stent to co-deliver an anti-proliferative agent (paclitaxel – PAT) and an endothelial cell promoting agent (nitric oxide – NO) from abluminal and luminal surfaces of the stent, respectively. Phosphonoacetic acid, a polymer-free drug delivery platform, was initially coated on the stents. Then, the PAT and NO donor drugs were co-coated on the abluminal and luminal stent surfaces, respectively. The co-coating of drugs was collectively confirmed by the surface characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 3D optical surface profilometry, and contact angle goniometry. SEM showed that the integrity of the co-coating of drugs was maintained without delamination or cracks formation occurring during the stent expansion experiments. In vitro drug release studies showed that the PAT was released from the abluminal stent surfaces in a biphasic manner, which is an initial burst followed by a slow and sustained release. The NO was burst released from the luminal stent surfaces. Thus, this study demonstrated the co-delivery of PAT and NO from abluminal and luminal stent surfaces, respectively. The stent developed in this study has potential applications in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia as well as encouraging luminal endothelialization to prevent late stent thrombosis.

  11. A stent for co-delivering paclitaxel and nitric oxide from abluminal and luminal surfaces: Preparation, surface characterization, and in vitro drug release studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, Annemarie; Mani, Gopinath

    2013-01-01

    Most drug-eluting stents currently available are coated with anti-proliferative drugs on both abluminal (toward blood vessel wall) and luminal (toward lumen) surfaces to prevent neointimal hyperplasia. While the abluminal delivery of anti-proliferative drugs is useful for controlling neointimal hyperplasia, the luminal delivery of such drugs impairs or prevents endothelialization which causes late stent thrombosis. This research is focused on developing a bidirectional dual drug-eluting stent to co-deliver an anti-proliferative agent (paclitaxel – PAT) and an endothelial cell promoting agent (nitric oxide – NO) from abluminal and luminal surfaces of the stent, respectively. Phosphonoacetic acid, a polymer-free drug delivery platform, was initially coated on the stents. Then, the PAT and NO donor drugs were co-coated on the abluminal and luminal stent surfaces, respectively. The co-coating of drugs was collectively confirmed by the surface characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 3D optical surface profilometry, and contact angle goniometry. SEM showed that the integrity of the co-coating of drugs was maintained without delamination or cracks formation occurring during the stent expansion experiments. In vitro drug release studies showed that the PAT was released from the abluminal stent surfaces in a biphasic manner, which is an initial burst followed by a slow and sustained release. The NO was burst released from the luminal stent surfaces. Thus, this study demonstrated the co-delivery of PAT and NO from abluminal and luminal stent surfaces, respectively. The stent developed in this study has potential applications in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia as well as encouraging luminal endothelialization to prevent late stent thrombosis.

  12. Reproducibility determination of WHO classification of endometrial hyperplasia/well differentiated adenocarcinoma and comparison with computerized morphometric data in curettage specimens in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysamie Ali

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of endometrial precancerous lesions has been of much debate due to inconsistencies in their classification, natural history and histologic diagnosis. Endometrial hyperplasia constitutes a wide range of histomorphologic features associated with high intra and interobserver diagnostic variability. Although traditional microscopic diagnosis is by far the most applicable method and the gold standard for histomorphologic diagnosis, digitized image analysis has been used as a powerful adjunct to maximize the histologic data retrieval and to add some detailed objective criteria for correct diagnosis in difficult cases. Methods A series of 100 endometrial curettage specimens with diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia or well differentiated adenocarcinoma were blindly reviewed by 5 pathologists; their intra and interobserver reproducibility determined and further compared to the objective morphometric data i.e. D-score and volume percent of stroma (VPS. Results The results were assessed using the weighted kappa statistics. Mean intraobserver kappa value was 0.8690 (99.44% agreement. Mean interobserver kappa values by diagnostic category were: simple hyperplasia without atypia: 0.7441; complex hyperplasia without atypia: 0.3379; atypical hyperplasia: 0.3473, and well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma: 0.6428; with a kappa value of 0.5372 for all cases combined. Interobserver agreement was in substantial rate for simple hyperplasia (SH and well differentiated adenocarcinoma (WDA but was in fair limit for complex hyperplasia (CH and atypical hyperplasia (AH. Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect. The specimens were divided in two groups according to the computerized morphometric analysis: Endometrial Hyperplasia (EH ( D Score ≥ 1 or VPS ≥ 55% and Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia (EIN (D-Score Conclusion It may be necessary to make some revisions in WHO classification for endometrial hyperplasia and

  13. IL-6 signaling by STAT3 participates in the change from hyperplasia to neoplasia in NRP-152 and NRP-154 rat prostatic epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Beverly E; Murphy, Thomas F; Adem, Patricia; Watson, Richard A; Irwin, Robert J; Huang, Hosea F

    2001-01-01

    STAT3 phosphorylation is associated with the neoplastic state in many types of cancer, including prostate cancer. We investigated the role of IL-6 signaling and phosphorylation of STAT3 in 2 rat prostatic epithelial lines. NRP-152 and NRP-154 cells were derived from the same rat prostate, yet the NRP-152 cells are not tumorigenic while the NRP-154 cells are tumorigenic. These lines are believed to represent 2 of the stages in the development of prostate cancer, hyperplasia and neoplasia. Differences in signaling pathways should play a role in the 2 phenotypes, hyperplastic and neoplastic. We looked at the phosphorylation state of STAT3 by intracellular flow cytometry, using phospho-specific antibodies to STAT3. We used the same method to examine IL-6 production by the cell lines. We also measured apoptosis by binding of fluorescent annexin V to the cells. Although both cells lines made IL-6 constitutively, phosphorylated-STAT3 was present in untreated NRP-154 cells, but not in NRP-152 cells. Treatment with dexamethasone inhibited the IL-6 production of NRP-152 cells, but enhanced that of NRP-154 cells. Treatment with the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 induced apoptosis in NRP-152, but not NRP-154 cells. We conclude from these experiments that STAT3 activity plays a role in the phenotype of NRP-154 cell, but not NRP-152 cells. The significance of alternative IL-6 signaling pathways in the different phenotypes of the 2 cell lines is discussed

  14. Regulation of Prostate Development and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Autocrine Cholinergic Signaling via Maintaining the Epithelial Progenitor Cells in Proliferating Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Naitao; Dong, Bai-Jun; Quan, Yizhou; Chen, Qianqian; Chu, Mingliang; Xu, Jin; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yi-Ran; Yang, Ru; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2016-05-10

    Regulation of prostate epithelial progenitor cells is important in prostate development and prostate diseases. Our previous study demonstrated a function of autocrine cholinergic signaling (ACS) in promoting prostate cancer growth and castration resistance. However, whether or not such ACS also plays a role in prostate development is unknown. Here, we report that ACS promoted the proliferation and inhibited the differentiation of prostate epithelial progenitor cells in organotypic cultures. These results were confirmed by ex vivo lineage tracing assays and in vivo renal capsule recombination assays. Moreover, we found that M3 cholinergic receptor (CHRM3) was upregulated in a large subset of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues compared with normal tissues. Activation of CHRM3 also promoted the proliferation of BPH cells. Together, our findings identify a role of ACS in maintaining prostate epithelial progenitor cells in the proliferating state, and blockade of ACS may have clinical implications for the management of BPH. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prognostic significance of epithelial/stromal caveolin‐1 expression in prostatic hyperplasia, high grade prostatic intraepithelial hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma and its correlation with microvessel density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dareen A. Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 may play a role in cancer development and progression. The aim was to record the expression and localization of caveolin-1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN and prostatic carcinoma (PCa. Microvessel density was evaluated with CD34 immunostain. Correlations with known prognostic factors of PCa were recorded. Immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and the MVD was evaluated in 65 cases; BPH (25, HGPIN (20 and PCa (20. Stromal caveolin-1expression was significantly higher in BPH than HGPIN and PCca. There was significant inverse relation between stromal caveolin-1 expression and extension to lymph node and seminal vesicle in carcinoma cases. Epithelial caveolin-1 was significantly higher in carcinomas than in BPH and HGPIN. Epithelial expression in carcinoma was significantly associated with preoperative PSA, Gleason score and lymph node extension. MVD was significantly higher in PCa than in BPH and HGPIN. There were significant relations between MVD and preoperative PSA, Gleason score, lymph node and seminal vesicle extension. Stromal caveolin-1 was associated with low MVD while epithelial caveolin-1 with high MVD. Conclusions: Caveolin-1 plays an important role in prostatic carcinogenesis and metastasis. Stromal expression of caveolin-1 in PCa is lowered in relation to BPH and HGPIN. In PCa; stromal caveolin-1 was associated with good prognostic parameters. Epithelial caveolin-1 is significantly increased in PCa than BPH and HGPIN. It is associated with clinically aggressive disease. Caveolin-1 may play a role in angiogenesis.

  16. TW-01, a piperazinedione-derived compound, inhibits Ras-mediated cell proliferation and angioplasty-induced vascular restenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chao-Feng [The Ph.D. Program for Cancer Biology and Drug Discovery, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, MacKay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Huang, Han-Li [The Ph.D. Program for Cancer Biology and Drug Discovery, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Peng, Chieh-Yu [Chinese Medicine Research and Development Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yu-Ching [The Center of Translational Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ph.D. Program for Biotechnology in Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hui-Po [College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Teng, Che-Ming [College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Pharmacological Institute, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Pan, Shiow-Lin, E-mail: slpan@tmu.edu.tw [The Ph.D. Program for Cancer Biology and Drug Discovery, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 10031, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and restenosis. This study investigated piperazinedione derived compound TW-01-mediated inhibitory effects on VSMC proliferation and intimal hyperplasia. Methods: Cell proliferation was determined using [{sup 3}H]-thymidine incorporation and MTT assay; cell cycle distribution was measured using flow cytometry; proteins and mRNA expression were determined using western blotting and RT-PCR analyses; DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), as measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); in vivo effects of TW-01 were determined using balloon angioplasty in the rat. Results: TW-01 significantly inhibited cell proliferation. At the concentrations used, no cytotoxic effects were observed. Three predominant signaling pathways were inhibited by TW-01: (a) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and its downstream effectors of c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc; (b) DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB); and, (c) Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and cell cycle progression. Furthermore, TW-01 also inhibited Ras activation, a shared upstream event of each of these signaling cascades. In vascular injury studies, oral administration of TW-01 significantly suppressed intimal hyperplasia induced by balloon angioplasty. Conclusion: The present study suggests that TW-01 might be a potential candidate for atherosclerosis treatment. - Highlights: • TW-01significantly inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • TW-01 inhibits ERK, Akt and Ras pathway and DNA binding activity of NF-κB. • TW-01 significantly suppresses intimal hyperplasia induced by balloon angioplasty. • TW-01 might be a potential candidate for atherosclerosis treatment.

  17. TW-01, a piperazinedione-derived compound, inhibits Ras-mediated cell proliferation and angioplasty-induced vascular restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chao-Feng; Huang, Han-Li; Peng, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Yu-Ching; Wang, Hui-Po; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and restenosis. This study investigated piperazinedione derived compound TW-01-mediated inhibitory effects on VSMC proliferation and intimal hyperplasia. Methods: Cell proliferation was determined using [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation and MTT assay; cell cycle distribution was measured using flow cytometry; proteins and mRNA expression were determined using western blotting and RT-PCR analyses; DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), as measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); in vivo effects of TW-01 were determined using balloon angioplasty in the rat. Results: TW-01 significantly inhibited cell proliferation. At the concentrations used, no cytotoxic effects were observed. Three predominant signaling pathways were inhibited by TW-01: (a) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and its downstream effectors of c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc; (b) DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB); and, (c) Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and cell cycle progression. Furthermore, TW-01 also inhibited Ras activation, a shared upstream event of each of these signaling cascades. In vascular injury studies, oral administration of TW-01 significantly suppressed intimal hyperplasia induced by balloon angioplasty. Conclusion: The present study suggests that TW-01 might be a potential candidate for atherosclerosis treatment. - Highlights: • TW-01significantly inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • TW-01 inhibits ERK, Akt and Ras pathway and DNA binding activity of NF-κB. • TW-01 significantly suppresses intimal hyperplasia induced by balloon angioplasty. • TW-01 might be a potential candidate for atherosclerosis treatment.

  18. Dietary heme mediated PPARα activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, Noortje; Wit, de Nicole; Muller, Michael; Meer, van der Roelof

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome

  19. Dietary heme-mediated PPARa activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssenagger, N.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Muller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome

  20. Clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and molecular studies in paediatric Cushing's syndrome due to primary nodular adrenocortical hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storr, Helen L; Mitchell, J H; Swords, F M

    2004-01-01

    0.2-0.8 years) from diagnosis. Hypercortisolaemia was treated preoperatively by metyrapone alone 0.50-0.75 g/day (n = 4), metyrapone 0.75-1.50 g/day + o'p'DDD/mitotane 1-2 g/day (n = 1), or ketoconazole (n = 1). Adrenal histology showed nodular cortical hyperplasia with shrinkage of intervening...

  1. Understanding patient and physician perceptions of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Europe: The Prostate Research on Behaviour and Education (PROBE) Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emberton, M.; Marberger, M.; de la Rosette, J.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a bothersome disease that can progress if left untreated. However, patient and urologist perspectives on BPH management are not fully understood. The aim of the Prostate Research on Behaviour and Education (PROBE) Survey was to assess healthcare-seeking

  2. Physical, social and societal functioning of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and their parents, in a Dutch population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanches, S.A.; Wiegers, T.A.; Otten, B.J.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most research concerning congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and related conditions caused by primary adrenal insufficiency, such as Addison's or Cushing's disease, has focused on medical aspects rather than on patients' quality of life. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the

  3. Natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia: Appropriate case definition and estimation of its prevalence in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W.J. Kirkels (Wim); F.H. Schröder (Fritz)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThere is no consensus about a case definition of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In the present study, BPH prevalence rates were determined using various case definitions based on a combination of clinical parameters used to describe the properties of BPH: symptoms of prostatism,

  4. Delayed diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with salt wasting due to type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine H; Mallet, Delphine; Dige-Petersen, Harriet

    2005-01-01

    Classical 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) deficiency is a rare cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We report two sisters presenting with delayed diagnoses of classical 3beta-HSD, despite salt wasting (SW) episodes in infancy. Sibling 1 was referred for premature pubarche, slig...

  5. Prostate-specific antigen as an estimator of prostate volume in the management of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mochtar, CA; Kiemeney, LALM; van Riemsdijk, MM; Barnett, GS; Laguna, MP; Debruyne, FMJ; de la Rosette, JJMCH

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the ability of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) to estimate prostate volume (PV) to aid in the management of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: From 1989 to 2002, data were collected from 2264 patients complaining of lower urinary tract symptoms

  6. The predictive value of baseline variables in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia using high-energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Ancona, F. C.; Francisca, E. A.; Hendriks, J. C.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the combination of patient age, prostate size, grade of outlet obstruction and total amount of energy, all independent predictive variables of treatment outcome in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treated with high-energy

  7. Intratumoral steatosis in focal nodular hyperplasia coinciding with diffuse hepatic steatosis : CT and MRI findings with histologic correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortele, KJ; Stubbe, J; Praet, M; Van Langenhove, P; De Bock, G; Kunnen, M

    2000-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumorlike condition that is thought to be a hyperplastic response to increased blood flow in an arterial malformation rather than a true neoplasm. Radiologically, FNH usually shows typical findings on unenhanced and enhanced computed tomography (CT) and

  8. Biochemical and immunohistochemical estrogen and progesterone receptors in adenomatous hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma: correlations with stage and other clinicopathologic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, A L; Lyndrup, J

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates clinicopathologic associations of estrogen and progesterone receptor content in endometrial carcinoma. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred fifty-two patients with endometrial cancer and 12 with adenomatous hyperplasia were included. Dextran-coated charcoal receptor assay...... receptor dextran-coated charcoal values and immunohistochemical histologic scores correlated inversely (p dextran-coated charcoal values was independent...

  9. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene and the androgen receptor gene and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousema, J. T.; Bussemakers, M. J.; van Houwelingen, K. P.; Debruyne, F. M.; Verbeek, A. L.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Kiemeney, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about risk factors for the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Recently, associations were observed between prostate cancer (CaP) risk and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Since both receptors are relevant for

  10. Radiological Findings in a Case of Multiple Focal Nodular Hyperplasia Associated with Portal Vein Atresia and Portopulmonary Hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Joon; Jeong, Sook Hyang; Choi, Jin Woo; Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Hae Ryoung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    We present here the radiological findings of a rare case of multiple focal nodular hyperplasia that was associated with portal vein atresia and portopulmonary hypertension in a young woman. This case illustrates and supports the pathophysiological hypotheses that were previously proposed for the coexistence of these three abnormalities

  11. Inflammation and Gli2 suppress gastrin gene expression in a murine model of antral hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Saqui-Salces

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation in the stomach can lead to gastric cancer. We previously reported that gastrin-deficient (Gast⁻/⁻ mice develop bacterial overgrowth, inflammatory infiltrate, increased Il-1β expression, antral hyperplasia and eventually antral tumors. Since Hedgehog (Hh signaling is active in gastric cancers but its role in precursor lesions is poorly understood, we examined the role of inflammation and Hh signaling in antral hyperplasia. LacZ reporter mice for Sonic hedgehog (Shh, Gli1, and Gli2 expression bred onto the Gast⁻/⁻ background revealed reduced Shh and Gli1 expression in the antra compared to wild type controls (WT. Gli2 expression in the Gast⁻/⁻ corpus was unchanged. However in the hyperplastic Gast⁻/⁻ antra, Gli2 expression increased in both the mesenchyme and epithelium, whereas expression in WT mice remained exclusively mesenchymal. These observations suggested that Gli2 is differentially regulated in the hyperplastic Gast⁻/⁻ antrum versus the corpus and by a Shh ligand-independent mechanism. Moreover, the proinflammatory cytokines Il-1β and Il-11, which promote gastric epithelial proliferation, were increased in the Gast⁻/⁻ stomach along with Infγ. To test if inflammation could account for elevated epithelial Gli2 expression in the Gast⁻/⁻ antra, the human gastric cell line AGS was treated with IL-1β and was found to increase GLI2 but decrease GLI1 levels. IL-1β also repressed human GAST gene expression. Indeed, GLI2 but not GLI1 or GLI3 expression repressed gastrin luciferase reporter activity by ∼50 percent. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation of GLI2 in AGS cells confirmed that GLI2 directly binds to the GAST promoter. Using a mouse model of constitutively active epithelial GLI2 expression, we found that activated GLI2 repressed Gast expression but induced Il-1β gene expression and proliferation in the gastric antrum, along with a reduction of the number of G-cells. In summary

  12. Chronic bile duct hyperplasia is a chronic graft dysfunction following liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-Wen; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Cui, Guang-Ying; Zhang, Zhao; Xie, Hai-Yang; Zhou, Lin

    2012-03-14

    To investigate pathological types and influential factors of chronic graft dysfunction (CGD) following liver transplantation (LT) in rats. The whole experiment was divided into three groups: (1) normal group (n = 12): normal BN rats without any drug or operation; (2) syngeneic transplant group (SGT of BN-BN, n = 12): both donors and recipients were BN rats; and (3) allogeneic transplant group (AGT of LEW-BN, n = 12): Donors were Lewis and recipients were BN rats. In the AGT group, all recipients were subcutaneously injected by Cyclosporin A after LT. Survival time was observed for 1 year. All the dying rats were sampled, biliary tract tissues were performed bacterial culture and liver tissues for histological study. Twenty-one day after LT, 8 rats were selected randomly in each group for sampling. Blood samples from caudal veins were collected for measurements of plasma endotoxin, cytokines and metabonomic analysis, and faeces were analyzed for intestinal microflora. During the surgery of LT, no complications of blood vessels or bile duct happened, and all rats in each group were still alive in the next 2 wk. The long term observation revealed that a total of 8 rats in the SGT and AGT groups died of hepatic graft diseases, 5 rats in which died of chronic bile duct hyperplasia. Compared to the SGT and normal groups, survival ratio of rats significantly decreased in the AGT group (P liver necrosis, liver infection, and severe chronic bile duct hyperplasia were observed in the AGT group by H and E stain. On 21 d after LT, compared with the normal group (25.38 ± 7.09 ng/L) and SGT group (33.12 ± 10.26 ng/L), plasma endotoxin in the AGT group was remarkably increased (142.86 ± 30.85 ng/L) (both P bile duct tissues revealed that the rats close to death from the SGT and AGT groups were strongly positive, while those from the normal group were negative. The analysis of intestinal microflora was performed. Compared to the normal group (7.98 ± 0.92, 8.90 ± 1.44) and SGT

  13. Ultrasound Detection of Parathyroid Hyperplasia and Correlation with Clinical and Laboratory Findings in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo Valencia, Cesar Augusto; Santacruz Pacheco, David; Castillo Pinilla, Campo Elias; Chacon Cardona, Jose Arnoby

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is any correlation between parathyroid hyperplasia, as detected by high-resolution ultrasound, and clinical and laboratory variables in patients with hyperparathyroidism secondary to stage-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hemodialysis. Design: Descriptive. Location: RTS Ltda. Renal Unit in Caldas, Santa Sofia Hospital and Children's Hospital. Patients: All patients, 18 years of age, with stage- 5 CKD who were on dialysis therapy (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), and with PTH levels greater than 400 pg/ml. Methods: After giving their written consent to participate in the study, all patients underwent high-resolution thyroid and parathyroid ultrasound (Phillips Team Enviisor CHD -12 MHz transducer) performed by a medical specialist in radiology. Variables such as etiology, duration of the CKD, time on dialysis therapy, type of dialysis, presence of symptoms related to hyperparathyroidism (bone pain, fractures, pruritus), and laboratory variables like an intact PTH, calcium, phosphorus, calcium x phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were analyzed in order to determine if there was a significant correlation between the variables and the detection of parathyroid hyperplasia documented by high resolution ultrasound. Results: Of 403 patients evaluated, 92 met the inclusion criteria, 86 were scanned and 6 were excluded. In these patients, the most common cause of CKD was hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Thirty-seven patients were on peritoneal dialysis and 49 on hemodialysis, with an average time on dialysis of 61.4 +- 36.6 months. The average levels of PTH in pg/mL were 829,465 +- 473,631. The most prevalent clinical symptom was bone pain, found in 52.2% of patients. Ultrasound showed enlarged parathyroid glands in 30 patients (34.88%), with single-gland hyperplasia in 23 (26.74%), two-gland hyperplasia in 4 (4.65%) and three-gland hyperplasia in 3 (3.48%). The correlation between laboratory variables and the presence of

  14. Macrophages are related to goblet cell hyperplasia and induce MUC5B but not MUC5AC in human bronchus epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manuel A; Bercik, Premysl

    2012-06-01

    Airway goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH)--detectable by mucin staining--and abnormal macrophage infiltrate are pathological features present in many chronic respiratory disorders. However, it is unknown if both factors are associated. Using in-vivo and in-vitro models, we investigated whether macrophages are related with GCH and changes in mucin immunophenotypes. Lung sections from Sprague-Dawley rats treated for 48 h with one intra-tracheal dose of PBS or LPS (n=4-6 per group) were immunophenotyped for rat-goblet cells, immune, and proliferation markers. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were pre-treated with or without LPS, immunophenotyped, and their supernatant, as well as cytokines at levels equivalent to supernatant were used to challenge primary culture of normal human bronchus epithelial cells (HBEC) in air-liquid interface, followed by MUC5B and MUC5AC mucin immunostaining. An association between increased bronchiolar goblet cells and terminal-bronchiolar proliferative epithelial cells confirmed the presence of GCH in our LPS rat model, which was related with augmented bronchiolar CD68 macrophage infiltration. The in-vitro experiments have shown that MUC5AC phenotype was inhibited when HBEC were challenged with supernatant from MDM pre-treated with or without LPS. In contrast, TNF-α and interleukin-1β at levels equivalent to supernatant from LPS-treated MDM increased MUC5AC. MUC5B was induced by LPS, supernatant from LPS-treated MDM, a mix of cytokines including TNF-α and TNF-α alone at levels present in supernatant from LPS-treated MDM. We demonstrated that macrophages are related with bronchiolar GCH, and that they induced MUC5B and inhibited MUC5AC in HBEC, suggesting a role for them in the pathogenesis of airway MUC5B-related GCH.

  15. Surface Papillary Epithelial Hyperplasia (Rough Mucosa) is a Helpful Clue for Identification of Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Angela C; Neville, Brad W

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate surface papillary epithelial hyperplasia, a microscopic finding that corresponds to the clinical finding of rough or stippled mucosa, as a predictor of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). We conducted a retrospective review of minor salivary gland neoplasms submitted to our biopsy service from 1991 to 2013. Our review was limited to lesions involving the oral cavity/soft palate with the following diagnoses: PLGA, pleomorphic adenoma (PA), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). A total of 202 minor salivary gland neoplasms were included in the study. Among cases in which surface epithelium was present for evaluation (n = 112), surface papillary epithelial hyperplasia was evident in 30 % of PLGA and 1 % of non-PLGA (i.e., MEC, ACC, PA). The greater frequency of surface papillary epithelial hyperplasia in the PLGA versus non-PLGA cases and in the benign versus malignant cases was significant (p = .0001 and p = .041, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of papillary epithelial hyperplasia for PLGA were 30 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 11.97-54.27 %) and 99 % (95 % CI 94-99.82 %), respectively. The clinical presentation of PLGA appeared relatively nonspecific, with all analyzed tumor types exhibiting a predilection for females, middle-aged to older adults, palatal location, pink/tan/normal color, and firm consistency. In conclusion, papillary epithelial hyperplasia was evident in only a minority of PLGA. However, when present within the context of a palatal salivary gland neoplasm, it appears to indicate a high probability of PLGA. Accordingly, rough mucosa may be a useful clinical pearl for identification of PLGA.

  16. Adenoid basal hyperplasia of the uterine cervix: a lesion of reserve cell type, distinct from adenoid basal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdraon, Olivier; Cornélius, Aurélie; Farine, Marie-Odile; Boulanger, Loïc; Wacrenier, Agnès

    2012-12-01

    Adenoid basal hyperplasia is an underrecognized cervical lesion, resembling adenoid basal carcinoma, except the absence of deep invasion into the stroma. We report a series of 10 cases, all extending less than 1 mm from the basement membrane. Our results support the hypothesis that adenoid basal hyperplasia arises from reserve cells of the cervix. Lesions were found close to the squamocolumnar junction, in continuity with the nearby subcolumnar reserve cells. They shared the same morphology and immunoprofile using a panel of 4 antibodies (keratin 5/6, keratin 14, keratin 7 and p63) designed to differentiate reserve cells from mature squamous cells and endocervical columnar cells. We detected no human papillomavirus infection by in situ hybridization targeting high-risk human papillomavirus, which was concordant with the absence of immunohistochemical p16 expression. We demonstrated human papillomavirus infection in 4 (80%) of 5 adenoid basal carcinoma, which is in the same range as previous studies (88%). Thus, adenoid basal hyperplasia should be distinguished from adenoid basal carcinoma because they imply different risk of human papillomavirus infection and of subsequent association with high-grade invasive carcinoma. In our series, the most reliable morphological parameters to differentiate adenoid basal hyperplasia from adenoid basal carcinoma were the depth of the lesion and the size of the lesion nests. Furthermore, squamous differentiation was rare in adenoid basal hyperplasia and constant in adenoid basal carcinoma. Finally, any mitotic activity and/or an increase of Ki67 labeling index should raise the hypothesis of adenoid basal carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Should male gender assignment be considered in the markedly virilized patient With 46,XX and congenital adrenal hyperplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P; Husmann, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    We assess the outcome in 46,XX men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who were born with Prader 4 or 5 genitalia and assigned male gender at birth. After receiving institutional review board approval and subject consent we reviewed the medical records of 12 men 35 to 69 years old with 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia, of whom 6 completed social and gender issue questionnaires. All subjects were assigned male gender at birth, were diagnosed with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia at age greater than 3 years and indicated a male gender identity with sexual orientation to females. Ten of the 12 subjects had always lived as male and 2 who were reassigned to female gender in childhood subsequently self-reassigned as male. Nine of the 12 men had long-term female partners, including 7 married 12 years or more. The 3 subjects without a long-term female partner included 1 priest, 1 who was reassigned female gender, married, divorced and self-reassigned as male, and 1 with a girlfriend and sexual activity. All except the priest and the subject who was previously married when female indicated a strong libido and frequent orgasmic sexual activity. Responses to self-esteem, masculinity, body image, social adjustment and symptom questionnaires suggested adjustments related to the extent of familial and social support. Outcome data on severely masculinized 46,XX patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who were assigned male gender at birth indicate male gender identity in adulthood with satisfactory male sexual function in those retaining male genitalia. In men who completed questionnaires results were poorer in those lacking familial/social support. Male gender of rearing may be a viable option for parents whose children are born with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a 46,XX karyotype and male genitalia, although positive parental and other support, and counseling are needed for adjustment. Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research

  18. Similar degree of intimal hyperplasia in surgically detected stenotic and nonstenotic arteriovenous fistula segments: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Juan C; Tabbara, Marwan; Martinez, Laisel; Paez, Angela; Selman, Guillermo; Salman, Loay H; Velazquez, Omaida C; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I

    2018-04-01

    Intimal hyperplasia has been historically associated with improper venous remodeling and stenosis after creation of an arteriovenous fistula. Recently, however, we showed that intimal hyperplasia by itself does not explain the failure of maturation of 2-stage arteriovenous fistulas. We seek to evaluate whether intimal hyperplasia plays a role in the development of focal stenosis of an arteriovenous fistula. This study compares intimal hyperplasia lesions in stenotic and nearby nonstenotic segments collected from the same arteriovenous fistula. Focal areas of stenosis were detected in the operating room in patients (n= 14) undergoing the second-stage vein transposition procedure. The entire vein was inspected, and areas of stenosis were visually located with the aid of manual palpation and hemodynamic changes in the vein peripheral and central to the narrowing. Stenotic and nonstenotic segments were documented by photography before tissue collection (14 tissue pairs). Intimal area and thickness, intima-media thickness, and intima to media area ratio were measured in hematoxylin and eosin stained cross-sections followed by pairwise statistical comparisons. The intimal area in stenotic and nonstenotic segments ranged from 1.25 to 11.61 mm 2 and 1.29 to 5.81 mm 2 , respectively. There was no significant difference between these 2 groups (P=.26). Maximal intimal thickness (P=.22), maximal intima-media thickness (P=.13), and intima to media area ratio (P=.73) were also similar between both types of segments. This preliminary study indicates that postoperative intimal hyperplasia by itself is not associated with the development of focal venous stenosis in 2-stage fistulas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Breast cancer risk associated with atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ initially diagnosed on core-needle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alana R; McCarthy, Caitlin; Goraya, Shazia; Pederson, Holly J; Sturgis, Charles D; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Calhoun, Benjamin C

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer risk estimates for atypical lesions are based primarily on case-control studies of patients with open biopsies. The authors report the cumulative breast cancer incidence after a core biopsy diagnosis of atypical hyperplasia (ductal or lobular) or lobular carcinoma in situ. A cohort study with central pathology review was conducted on 393 patients who had core biopsy diagnoses of atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ from 1995 through 2010. Follow-up was available for 255 of 264 patients (97%) at a median of 87 months (range, 3-236 months). There were 212 patients (54%) who were not upgraded on excision and had no personal history of breast cancer. Of these, 21 of 212 (9.9%) developed breast cancer, including 15 invasive carcinomas, 4 ductal carcinomas in situ, 1 pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ, and 1 unknown type. The prior core biopsy diagnoses were atypical ductal hyperplasia for 11 patients (52%) and atypical lobular hyperplasia/lobular carcinoma in situ in the remaining 10 patients (48%). The number of atypical foci in the core biopsy was not significantly associated with the subsequent development of breast cancer (P = .42). Of the 15 invasive carcinomas, 11 (73%) were ipsilateral, 11 (73%) were pathologic T1 tumors, 5 (33%) were pathologic N1 tumors, 13 (87%) were estrogen receptor-positive, and 1 (7%) was amplified for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. In patients who had an initial diagnosis of atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ on core biopsy, the 7-year cumulative breast cancer incidence was 9.9%. Most tumors were ipsilateral, stage I, estrogen receptor-positive, invasive carcinomas. The current data support close clinical and radiologic follow-up for more than 5 years in this patient population. Cancer 2018;124:459-65. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Comparison of sonographic features in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Young; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kang, Eun Young; Seol, Hae Young; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1988-01-01

    Transrectal sonography of prostate was sensitive to textural changes produced by both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancers. During recent 4 years, twenty cases of BPH and twenty cases of prostate cancers proven histologically were analyzed in their sonographic features, retrospectively, by using transrectal prostate sonography and suprapubic prostate sonography. The results were as follows: 1. Mean weights of BPH and prostate cancers was 40.4g and 47.6g, respectively. 2. Sonographic features of BPH revealed isoechogenecity in 11 cases, homogeneity in 18 cases, well defined capsular margins in 19 cases, and calcification in 16 cases. 3. Sonographic features of prostate cancers revealed mixed echogenecity in 14 cases, inhomogeneity in 15 cases, poorly defined capsular margin in 14 cases, and calcifications in 13 cases. 4. Authors concluded that prostate sonography were valuable diagnostic modality in the differentiation of BPH and prostate cancers.