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Sample records for inhibits anion transport

  1. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  2. Active Hydrophilic Components of the Medicinal Herb Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen Potently Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters 1 (Slc22a6 and 3 (Slc22a8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many active components of herbal products are small organic anions, and organic anion transporters were previously demonstrated to be a potential site of drug-drug interactions. In this study, we assessed the inhibitory effects of six hydrophilic components of the herbal medicine Danshen, lithospermic acid, protocatechuic acid, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid B, and tanshinol, on the function of the murine organic anion transporters, mOat1 and mOat3. All of Danshen components significantly inhibited mOat1- and mOat3-mediated substrate uptake (<0.001 with lithospermic acid (LSA, protocatechuic acid, rosmarinic acid (RMA, and salvianolic acid A (SAA producing virtually complete inhibition under test conditions. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that LSA, RMA, and SAA were competitive inhibitors. As such, values were estimated as 14.9±4.9 μM for LSA, 5.5±2.2 μM for RMA, and 4.9±2.2 μM for SAA on mOat1-mediated transport, and as 31.1±7.0 μM for LSA, 4.3±0.2 μM for RMA, and 21.3±7.7 μM for SAA on mOat3-mediated transport. These data suggest that herb-drug interactions may occur in vivo on the human orthologs of these transporters in situations of polypharmacy involving Danshen and clinical therapeutics known to be organic anion transporter substrates.

  3. Modelling the transport of carbonic acid anions through anion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonenko, V.; Lebedev, K.; Manzanares, J.A.; Pourcelly, G.

    2003-01-01

    Electrodiffusion of carbonate and bicarbonate anions through anion-exchange membranes (AEM) is described on the basis of the Nernst-Planck equations taking into account coupled hydrolysis reactions in the external diffusion boundary layers (DBLs) and internal pore solution. The model supposes local electroneutrality as well as chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. The transport is considered in three layers being an anion exchange membrane and two adjoining diffusion layers. A mechanism of competitive transport of HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- anions through the membrane which takes into account Donnan exclusion of H + ions is proposed. It is predicted that the pH of the depleting solution decreases and that of the concentrating solution increases during electrodialysis (ED). Eventual deviations from local electroneutrality and local chemical equilibrium are discussed

  4. Organic anion transporter 3- and organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport of catalposide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong HU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyeon-Uk Jeong,1 Mihwa Kwon,2 Yongnam Lee,3 Ji Seok Yoo,3 Dae Hee Shin,3 Im-Sook Song,2 Hye Suk Lee1 1College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743, Korea; 2College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea; 3Central R&D Institute, Yungjin Pharm Co., Ltd., Suwon 443-270, Korea Abstract: We investigated the in vitro transport characteristics of catalposide in HEK293 cells overexpressing organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1, OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, OCT2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. The transport mechanism of catalposide was investigated in HEK293 and LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing the relevant transporters. The uptake of catalposide was 319-, 13.6-, and 9.3-fold greater in HEK293 cells overexpressing OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters, respectively, than in HEK293 control cells. The increased uptake of catalposide via the OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters was decreased to basal levels in the presence of representative inhibitors such as probenecid, furosemide, and cimetidine (for OAT3 and cyclosporin A, gemfibrozil, and rifampin (for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. The concentration-dependent OAT3-mediated uptake of catalposide revealed the following kinetic parameters: Michaelis constant (Km =41.5 µM, maximum uptake rate (Vmax =46.2 pmol/minute, and intrinsic clearance (CLint =1.11 µL/minute. OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated catalposide uptake also showed concentration dependency, with low CLint values of 0.035 and 0.034 µL/minute, respectively. However, the OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, and BCRP transporters were apparently not involved in the uptake of catalposide into cells. In addition, catalposide inhibited the transport activities of OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 83, 200, and 235 µ

  5. Regulation of organic anion transport in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H; Jansen, PLM

    1997-01-01

    In several liver diseases the biliary transport is disturbed, resulting in, for example, jaundice and cholestasis. Many of these symptoms can be attributed to altered regulation of hepatic transporters. Organic anion transport, mediated by the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter

  6. Lansoprazole Exacerbates Pemetrexed-Mediated Hematologic Toxicity by Competitive Inhibition of Renal Basolateral Human Organic Anion Transporter 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Kenji; Hamada, Yugo; Kaya, Chinatsu; Enokiya, Tomoyuki; Muraki, Yuichi; Nakahara, Hiroki; Fujimoto, Hajime; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Iwamoto, Takuya; Okuda, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    Pemetrexed, a multitargeted antifolate, is eliminated by tubular secretion via human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3). Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are frequently used in cancer patients, the drug interaction between PPIs and pemetrexed remains to be clarified. In this study, we examined the drug interaction between pemetrexed and PPIs in hOAT3-expressing cultured cells, and retrospectively analyzed the impact of PPIs on the development of hematologic toxicity in 108 patients who received pemetrexed and carboplatin treatment of nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer for the first time between January 2011 and June 2015. We established that pemetrexed was transported via hOAT3 (Km = 68.3 ± 11.1 µM). Lansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, esomeprazole, omeprazole, and vonoprazan inhibited hOAT3-mediated uptake of pemetrexed in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of lansoprazole was much greater than those of other PPIs and the apparent IC50 value of lansoprazole against pemetrexed transport via hOAT3 was 0.57 ± 0.17 µM. The inhibitory type of lansoprazole was competitive. In a retrospective study, multivariate analysis revealed that coadministration of lansoprazole, but not other PPIs, with pemetrexed and carboplatin was an independent risk factor significantly contributing to the development of hematologic toxicity (odds ratio: 10.004, P = 0.005). These findings demonstrated that coadministration of lansoprazole could exacerbate the hematologic toxicity associated with pemetrexed, at least in part, by competitive inhibition of hOAT3. Our results would aid clinicians to make decisions of coadministration drugs to avoid drug interaction-induced side effects for achievement of safe and appropriate chemotherapy with pemetrexed. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Inhibition of nuclear waste solutions containing multiple aggressive anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congdon, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibition of localized corrosion of carbon steel in caustic, high-level radioactive waste solutions was studied using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans, supplemented by partially immersed coupon tests. The electrochemical tests provided a rapid and accurate means of determining the relationship between the minimum inhibitor requirements and the concentration of the aggressive anions in this system. Nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride were identified as aggressive anions, however, no synergistic effects were observed between these anions. This observation may have important theoretical implications because it tends to contradict the behavior of aggressive anions as predicted by existing theories for localized corrosion. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Tubule urate and PAH transport: sensitivity and specificity of serum protein inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, J.J.; Kennedy, J.; Cowley, B.

    1987-01-01

    Macromolecules in rabbit serum inhibit the cellular uptake and transepithelial secretion of [ 14 C]urate and p-[ 3 H]aminohippurate ([ 3 H]PAH) in rabbit S 2 proximal tubule segments. To understand better the potential role these inhibitors may have in the regulation of renal organic anion excretion, the authors examined the specificity and relative inhibitory effects on tubule urate and PAH transport of albumin and γ-globulin, the major inhibitory proteins in rabbit serum. Native rabbit serum markedly inhibited the cellular accumulation or urate and PAH by isolated nonperfused segments. Urate and PAH transport was also inhibited by bovine serum, human serum, Cohn-fractionated rabbit albumin, and rabbit γ-globulin, but not by Cohn-fractionated bovine serum albumin. α-Lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, derived from milk, also inhibited urate and PAH transport, but to a lesser extent than albumin and γ-globulin. The transport inhibitory effects of proteins were independent of their binding to urate and PAH. Unidirectional influx and the steady-state intracellular accumulation of urate and PAH in suspensions of proximal tubules were decreased by rabbit serum proteins, suggesting that these inhibitors act on the external face of the cells to diminish the uptake of the organic anions. These studies indicate that the principal plasma proteins (albumin and γ-globulin) significantly inhibit urate and PAH transporters in the basolateral membranes of S 2 proximal tubules. They suggest that circulating plasma proteins that can penetrate the basement membrane of proximal tubules may directly modulate the renal excretion of urate and PAH

  9. The inhibitory effects of five alkaloids on the substrate transport mediated through human organic anion and cation transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tahiatul; Lu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling; Zhou, Fanfan

    2018-02-01

    1. Human solute carrier transporters (SLCs) are important membrane proteins mediate the cellular transport of many endogenous and exogenous substances. Organic anion/cation transporters (OATs/OCTs) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are essential SLCs involved in drug influx. Drug-drug/herb interactions through competing for specific SLCs often lead to unsatisfied therapeutic outcomes and/or unwanted side effects. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the inhibitory effects of five clinically relevant alkaloids (dendrobine, matrine, oxymatrine, tryptanthrin and chelerythrine) on the substrate transport through several OATs/OCTs and OATPs. 2. We performed transport functional assay and kinetic analysis on the HEK-293 cells over-expressing each SLC gene. 3. Our data showed tryptanthrin significantly inhibited the transport activity of OAT3 (IC 50  = 0.93 ± 0.22 μM, K i  = 0.43 μM); chelerythrine acted as a potent inhibitor to the substrate transport mediated through OATP1A2 (IC 50  = 0.63 ± 0.43 μM, K i  = 0.60 μM), OCT1 (IC 50  = 13.60 ± 2.81 μM) and OCT2 (IC 50  =10.80 ± 1.16 μM). 4. Our study suggested tryptanthrin and chelerythrine could potently impact on the drug transport via specific OATs/OCTs. Therefore, the co-administration of these alkaloids with drugs could have clinical consequences due to drug-drug/herb interactions. Precautions should be warranted in the multi-drug therapies involving these alkaloids.

  10. Cytotoxic mechanisms of hydrosulfide anion and cyanide anion in primary rat hepatocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Rodney W.; Valentine, Holly L.; Valentine, William M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide are known to compromise mitochondrial respiration through inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and this is generally considered to be their primary mechanism of toxicity. Experimental studies and the efficiency of current treatment protocols suggest that H 2 S may exert adverse physiological effects through additional mechanisms. To evaluate the role of alternative mechanisms in H 2 S toxicity, the relative contributions of electron transport inhibition, uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration, and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to hydrosulfide and cyanide anion cytotoxicity in primary hepatocyte cultures were examined. Supplementation of hepatocytes with the glycolytic substrate, fructose, rescued hepatocytes from cyanide anion induced toxicity, whereas fructose supplementation increased hydrosulfide anion toxicity suggesting that hydrosulfide anion may compromise glycolysis in hepatocytes. Although inhibitors of the MPTP opening were protective for hydrosulfide anion, they had no effect on cyanide anion toxicity, consistent with an involvement of the permeability transition pore in hydrosulfide anion toxicity but not cyanide anion toxicity. Exposure of isolated rat liver mitochondria to hydrosulfide did not result in large amplitude swelling suggesting that if H 2 S induces the permeability transition it does so indirectly through a mechanism requiring other cellular components. Hydrosulfide anion did not appear to be an uncoupler of mitochondrial respiration in hepatocytes based upon the inability of oligomycin and fructose to protect hepatocytes from hydrosulfide anion toxicity. These findings support mechanisms additional to inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in hydrogen sulfide toxicity. Further investigations are required to assess the role of the permeability transition in H 2 S toxicity, determine whether similar affects occur in other cell types or in vivo and evaluate whether this may

  11. Organic anion and cation transport in vitro by dog choroid plexus: Effects of neuroleptics and tricyclic antidepressants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barany, E H [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1979-01-01

    Dog lateral choroid plexus accumulates the cation /sup 14/C-emepronium and the divalent anion /sup 125/I-iodipamide in vitro. At 10 ..mu..M, high potency neuroleptics with a substituted piperazine side chain and also haloperidol depress only the uptake of the cation and even stimulate the uptake of the anion. In contrast, at 1-10..mu..M, the accumulation of both test substances is inhibited by neuroleptics and tricyclic antidepresssants with an aliphatic side chain. Such unspecific effects on seemingly unrelated transport systems at concentrations reached clinically in the CSF might explain some side actions of low potency neuroleptics and antidepressants.

  12. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B transporters modulate hydroxyurea pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Aisha L.; Lancaster, Cynthia S.; Finkelstein, David; Ware, Russell E.; Sparreboom, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is currently the only FDA-approved drug that ameliorates the pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia. Unfortunately, substantial interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of hydroxyurea may result in variation of the drug's efficacy. However, little is known about mechanisms that modulate hydroxyurea PK. Recent in vitro studies identifying hydroxyurea as a substrate for organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B) transporters prompted the current investigation assess...

  13. Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, Douglas H.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents

  14. Intestinal transporters for endogenic and pharmaceutical organic anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandvuinet, Anne Sophie; Vestergaard, Henrik Tang; Rapin, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of intestinal human transporters for organic anions and stresses the need for standardization of the various in-vitro methods presently employed in drug-drug interaction (DDI) investigations....

  15. MRP3, an organic anion transporter able to transport anti-cancer drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Kool, Marcel; van der Linden, Marcel; de Haas, Marcel; Scheffer, George L.; de Vree, J. Marleen L.; Smith, Alexander J.; Jansen, Gerrit; Peters, Godefridus J.; Ponne, Nico; Scheper, Rik J.; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Baas, Frank; Borst, Piet

    1999-01-01

    The human multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) gene family contains at least six members: MRP1, encoding the multidrug-resistance protein; MRP2 or cMOAT, encoding the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter; and four homologs, called MRP3, MRP4, MRP5, and MRP6. In this report, we characterize MRP3, the closest homolog of MRP1. Cell lines were retrovirally transduced with MRP3 cDNA, and new monoclonal antibodies specific for MRP3 were generated. We show that MRP3 is an organic anion ...

  16. Contribution of the organic anion transporter OAT2 to the renal active tubular secretion of creatinine and mechanism for serum creatinine elevations caused by cobicistat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Zhang, Xuexiang; Hao, Jia; Huang, Jane; Kosaka, Alan; Birkus, Gabriel; Murray, Bernard P; Bannister, Roy; Cihlar, Tomas; Huang, Yong; Ray, Adrian S

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99 μM for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition.

  17. Contribution of the organic anion transporter OAT2 to the renal active tubular secretion of creatinine and mechanism for serum creatinine elevations caused by cobicistat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Zhang, Xuexiang; Hao, Jia; Huang, Jane; Kosaka, Alan; Birkus, Gabriel; Murray, Bernard P; Bannister, Roy; Cihlar, Tomas; Huang, Yong; Ray, Adrian S

    2014-01-01

    Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99 μM for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition. PMID:24646860

  18. Drug Clearance from Cerebrospinal Fluid Mediated by Organic Anion Transporters 1 (Slc22a6) and 3 (Slc22a8) at Arachnoid Membrane of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyu; Tachikawa, Masanori; Uchida, Yasuo; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2018-03-05

    Although arachnoid mater epithelial cells form the blood-arachnoid barrier (BAB), acting as a blood-CSF interface, it has been generally considered that the BAB is impermeable to water-soluble substances and plays a largely passive role. Here, we aimed to clarify the function of transporters at the BAB in regulating CSF clearance of water-soluble organic anion drugs based on quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) and in vivo analyses. Protein expression levels of 61 molecules, including 19 ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters and 32 solute-carrier (SLC) transporters, were measured in plasma membrane fraction of rat leptomeninges using QTAP. Thirty-three proteins were detected; others were under the quantification limits. Expression levels of multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mdr1a/P-gp/Abcb1a) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2) were 16.6 and 3.27 fmol/μg protein (51.9- and 9.82-fold greater than in choroid plexus, respectively). Among those organic anion transporters detected only at leptomeninges, not choroid plexus, organic anion transporter 1 (oat1/Slc22a6) showed the greatest expression (2.73 fmol/μg protein). On the other hand, the protein expression level of oat3 at leptomeninges was 6.65 fmol/μg protein, and the difference from choroid plexus was within two-fold. To investigate oat1's role, we injected para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) with or without oat1 inhibitors into cisterna magna (to minimize the contribution of choroid plexus function) of rats. A bulk flow marker, FITC-inulin, was not taken up from CSF up to 15 min, whereas uptake clearance of PAH was 26.5 μL/min. PAH uptake was completely blocked by 3 mM cephalothin (inhibits both oat1 and oat3), while 17% of PAH uptake was inhibited by 0.2 mM cephalothin (selectively inhibits oat3). These results indicate that oat1 and oat3 at the BAB provide a distinct clearance pathway of organic anion drugs from CSF independently of choroid plexus.

  19. Enzymatic methylation of band 3 anion transporter in intact human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, L.L.; Clarke, S.

    1987-01-01

    Band 3, the anion transport protein of erythrocyte membranes, is a major methyl-accepting substrate of the intracellular erythrocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine: protein-D-aspartate O-methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.77). The localization of methylation sites in intact cells by analysis of proteolytic fragments indicated that sites were present in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain as well as the membranous C-terminal portion of the polypeptide. The amino acid residues that serve as carboxyl methylation sites of the erythrocyte anion transporter were also investigated. 3 H-Methylated band 3 was purified from intact erythrocytes incubated with L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine and from trypsinized and lysed erythrocytes incubated with S-adenosyl-L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine. After proteolytic digestion with carboxypeptidase Y, D-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl ester was isolated in low yields (9% and 1%, respectively) from each preparation. The bulk of the radioactivity was recovered as [ 3 H]methanol, and the amino acid residue(s) originally associated with these methyl groups could not be determined. No L-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl ester or glutamyl gamma-[ 3 H]methyl ester was detected. The formation of D-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl esters in this protein in intact cells resulted from protein carboxyl methyltransferase activity since it was inhibited by adenosine and homocysteine thiolactone, which increases the intracellular concentration of the potent product inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine, and cycloleucine, which prevents the formation of the substrate S-adenosyl-L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine

  20. Transepithelial transport of PEGylated anionic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers: implications for oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Deborah M; Kolhatkar, Rohit B; Ray, Abhijit; Swaan, Peter; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2009-08-19

    The purpose of this work was to assess the impact of PEGylation on transepithelial transport of anionic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers. Cytotoxicity, uptake and transport across Caco-2 cells of PEGylated G3.5 and G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers were studied. Methoxy polyethylene glycol (750 Da) was conjugated to carboxylic acid-terminated PAMAM dendrimers at feed ratios of 1, 2 and 4 PEG per dendrimer. Compared to the control, PEGylation of anionic dendrimers did not significantly alter cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 0.1 mM. PEGylation of G3.5 dendrimers significantly decreased cellular uptake and transepithelial transport while PEGylation of G4.5 dendrimers led to a significant increase in uptake, but also a significant decrease in transport. Dendrimer PEGylation reduced the opening of tight junctions as evidenced by confocal microscopy techniques. Modulation of the tight junctional complex correlated well with changes in PEGylated dendrimer transport and suggests that anionic dendrimers are transported primarily through the paracellular route. PEGylated dendrimers show promise in oral delivery applications where increased functionality for drug conjugation and release is desired.

  1. Assessing the reactivation efficacy of hydroxylamine anion towards VX-inhibited AChE: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Abdul Shafeeuulla; Ganguly, Bishwajit

    2012-05-01

    Oximate anions are used as potential reactivating agents for OP-inhibited AChE because of they possess enhanced nucleophilic reactivity due to the α-effect. We have demonstrated the process of reactivating the VX-AChE adduct with formoximate and hydroxylamine anions by applying the DFT approach at the B3LYP/6-311 G(d,p) level of theory. The calculated results suggest that the hydroxylamine anion is more efficient than the formoximate anion at reactivating VX-inhibited AChE. The reaction of formoximate anion and the VX-AChE adduct is a three-step process, while the reaction of hydroxylamine anion with the VX-AChE adduct seems to be a two-step process. The rate-determining step in the process is the initial attack on the VX of the VX-AChE adduct by the nucleophile. The subsequent steps are exergonic in nature. The potential energy surface (PES) for the reaction of the VX-AChE adduct with hydroxylamine anion reveals that the reactivation process is facilitated by the lower free energy of activation (by a factor of 1.7 kcal mol(-1)) than that of the formoximate anion at the B3LYP/6-311 G(d,p) level of theory. The higher free energy of activation for the reverse reactivation reaction between hydroxylamine anion and the VX-serine adduct further suggests that the hydroxylamine anion is a very good antidote agent for the reactivation process. The activation barriers calculated in solvent using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for the reactivation of the VX-AChE adduct with hydroxylamine anion were also found to be low. The calculated results suggest that V-series compounds can be more toxic than G-series compounds, which is in accord with earlier experimental observations.

  2. Inhibition of filiform corrosion on organic-coated AA2024-T3 by smart-release cation and anion-exchange pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.; McMurray, H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Filiform corrosion (FFC) inhibition by various smart-release pigments was evaluated by SKP. ► Rare earth cation-containing pigments were ineffective at halting FFC propagation. ► Metal oxo-anions and organic copper-specific agents were exchanged into hydrotalcite. ► Effective inhibition of FFC was demonstrated by anions which stopped copper re-plating. - Abstract: In-coating cation and anion exchange pigments are studied with respect to their ability to inhibit chloride-induced filiform corrosion (FFC) on organic-coated AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy substrates. In-situ scanning Kelvin probe potentiometry is used to quantify both underfilm potentials associated with populations of propagating corrosion filaments and the kinetics of coating disbondment. Smart-release bentonite pigments containing exchangeable cerium (III) and yttrium (III) cations are shown to be largely ineffective in reducing rates of FFC propagation. The reasons for this are discussed in terms of the chemistry of the electrolyte-filled corrosion filament head. In contrast, anion-exchange hydrotalcite (HT) based pigments are highly effective inhibitors of FFC. A comparison of the extent of FFC observed for various inorganic exchangeable anions is made with as-received HT comprising carbonate anions. Of the anions evaluated, exchangeable chromate unsurprisingly provides the highest FFC inhibition efficiency. It is also demonstrated that exchanging the native carbonate ions for certain organic species which act as complexing agents for copper ions, gives rise to an equivalent level of FFC inhibition. The implication of these findings with respect to the mechanism of FFC on copper containing aluminium alloys is considered.

  3. Identification and Quantitative Assessment of Uremic Solutes as Inhibitors of Renal Organic Anion Transporters, OAT1 and OAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Chia-Hsiang; Yoshida, Kenta; Zhao, Ping; Meyer, Timothy W; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2016-09-06

    One of the characteristics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the accumulation of uremic solutes in the plasma. Less is known about the effects of uremic solutes on transporters that may play critical roles in pharmacokinetics. We evaluated the effect of 72 uremic solutes on organic anion transporter 1 and 3 (OAT1 and OAT3) using a fluorescent probe substrate, 6-carboxyfluorescein. A total of 12 and 13 solutes were identified as inhibitors of OAT1 and OAT3, respectively. Several of them inhibited OAT1 or OAT3 at clinically relevant concentrations and reduced the transport of other OAT1/3 substrates in vitro. Review of clinical studies showed that the active secretion of most drugs that are known substrates of OAT1/3 deteriorated faster than the renal filtration in CKD. Collectively, these data suggest that through inhibition of OAT1 and OAT3, uremic solutes contribute to the decline in renal drug clearance in patients with CKD.

  4. Transepithelial Transport of PEGylated Anionic Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers: Implications for Oral Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, Deborah M.; Kolhatkar, Rohit B.; Ray, Abhijit; Swaan, Peter; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the impact of PEGylation on transepithelial transport of anionic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers. Cytotoxicity, uptake and transport across Caco-2 cells of PEGylated G3.5 and G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers were studied. Methoxy polyethylene glycol (750 Da) was conjugated to carboxylic acid-terminated PAMAM dendrimers at feed ratios of 1, 2 and 4 PEG per dendrimer. Compared to the control, PEGylation of anionic dendrimers did not significantly alter cytotoxicity up to...

  5. Role of phosphate and other proton-donating anions in respiration-coupled transport of Ca2+ by mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, A L

    1974-04-01

    Measurements of extra oxygen consumption, (45)Ca(2+) uptake, and the osmotic expansion of the matrix compartment show that not all permeant anions are capable of supporting and accompanying the energy-dependent transport of Ca(2+) from the medium into the matrix in respiring rat-liver mitochondria. Phosphate, arsenate, acetate, butyrate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and bicarbonate + CO(2) supported Ca(2+) uptake, whereas the permeant anions, nitrate, thiocyanate, chlorate, and perchlorate, did not. The active anions share a common denominator, the potential ability to donate a proton to the mitochondrial matrix; the inactive anions lack this capacity. Phosphate and the other active permeant anions move into the matrix in response to the alkaline-inside electrochemical gradient of protons generated across the mitochondrial membrane by electron transport, thus forming a negative-inside anion gradient. It is postulated that the latter gradient is the immediate "pulling" force for the influx of Ca(2+) on the electrogenic Ca(2+) carrier in respiring mitochondria under intracellular conditions. Since mitochondria in the cell are normally exposed to an excess of phosphate (and the bicarbonate-CO(2) system), particularly in state 4, inward transport of these proton-yielding anions probably precedes and is necessary for inward transport of Ca(2+) and other cations under biological conditions. These observations indicate that a negative-inside gradient of phosphate generated by electron transport is a common step and provides the immediate motive power not only for (a) the inward transport of dicarboxylates and tricarboxylates and (b) the energy-dependent exchange of external ADP(3-) for internal ATP(4-) during oxidative phosphorylation, as has already been established, but also for (c) the inward transport of Ca(2+), K(+), and other cations.

  6. Facilitated transport of hydrophilic salts by mixtures of anion and cation carriers and by ditopic carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrisstoffels, L.A.J.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David; Sivelli, Stefano; Gazzola, Licia; Casnati, Alessandro; Ungaro, Rocco

    1999-01-01

    Anion transfer to the membrane phase affects the extraction efficiency of salt transport by cation carriers 1 and 3. Addition of anion receptors 5 or 6 to cation carriers 1, 3, or 4 in the membrane phase enhances the transport of salts under conditions in which the cation carriers alone do not

  7. Interactions between organic anions on multiple transporters in Caco-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandvuinet, Anne Sophie; Steffansen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    Caco-2 cell line may be used as an overall model to predict interactions on multiple membrane transporters in the intestine. Taurocholic acid (TCA) and estrone-3-sulfate (E1S) were used as model substrates. Possible inhibitors studied were TCA, E1S, taurolithocholic acid, fluvastatin, and glipizide......-dependent bile acid transporter and the organic solute transporter α/β, and to less extent by the organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1. However, interactions on efflux transporters were not detected, although they were expected from the literature on the investigated compounds. Biosimulation methods may...

  8. A role for the organic anion transporter OAT3 in renal creatinine secretion in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraly, Satish A.; Rao, Satish Ramachandra; Gerasimova, Maria; Rose, Michael; Nagle, Megha; Anzai, Naohiko; Smith, Travis; Sharma, Kumar; Nigam, Sanjay K.; Rieg, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Tubular secretion of the organic cation, creatinine, limits its value as a marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but the molecular determinants of this pathway are unclear. The organic anion transporters, OAT1 and OAT3, are expressed on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule and transport organic anions but also neutral compounds and cations. Here, we demonstrate specific uptake of creatinine into mouse mOat1- and mOat3-microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes at a concentration of 10 μM (i.e., similar to physiological plasma levels), which was inhibited by both probenecid and cimetidine, prototypical competitive inhibitors of organic anion and cation transporters, respectively. Renal creatinine clearance was consistently greater than inulin clearance (as a measure of GFR) in wild-type (WT) mice but not in mice lacking OAT1 (Oat1−/−) and OAT3 (Oat3−/−). WT mice presented renal creatinine net secretion (0.23 ± 0.03 μg/min) which represented 45 ± 6% of total renal creatinine excretion. Mean values for renal creatinine net secretion and renal creatinine secretion fraction were not different from zero in Oat1−/− (−0.03 ± 0.10 μg/min; −3 ± 18%) and Oat3−/− (0.01 ± 0.06 μg/min; −6 ± 19%), with greater variability in Oat1−/−. Expression of OAT3 protein in the renal membranes of Oat1−/− mice was reduced to ∼6% of WT levels, and that of OAT1 in Oat3−/− mice to ∼60%, possibly as a consequence of the genes for Oat1 and Oat3 having adjacent chromosomal locations. Plasma creatinine concentrations of Oat3−/− were elevated in clearance studies under anesthesia but not following brief isoflurane anesthesia, indicating that the former condition enhanced the quantitative contribution of OAT3 for renal creatinine secretion. The results are consistent with a contribution of OAT3 and possibly OAT1 to renal creatinine secretion in mice. PMID:22338083

  9. Flavonoids Are Inhibitors of Human Organic Anion Transporter 1 (OAT1)–Mediated Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua; Wang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) has been reported to be involved in the nephrotoxicity of many anionic xenobiotics. As current clinically used OAT1 inhibitors are often associated with safety issues, identifying potent OAT1 inhibitors with little toxicity is of great value in reducing OAT1-mediated drug nephrotoxicity. Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic compounds with exceptional safety records. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of 18 naturally occurring flavonoids, and some of their glycosides, on the uptake of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) in both OAT1-expressing and OAT1-negative LLC-PK1 cells. Most flavonoid aglycones produced substantial decreases in PAH uptake in OAT1-expressing cells. Among the flavonoids screened, fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin exhibited the strongest effect and produced complete inhibition of OAT1-mediated PAH uptake at a concentration of 50 μM. Further concentration-dependent studies revealed that both morin and luteolin are potent OAT1 inhibitors, with IC50 values of flavonoid aglycones, all flavonoid glycosides had negligible or small effects on OAT1. In addition, the role of OAT1 in the uptake of fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin was investigated and fisetin was found to be a substrate of OAT1. Taken together, our results indicate that flavonoids are a novel class of OAT1 modulators. Considering the high consumption of flavonoids in the diet and in herbal products, OAT1-mediated flavonoid-drug interactions may be clinically relevant. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the nephroprotective role of flavonoids in relation to drug-induced nephrotoxicity mediated by the OAT1 pathway. PMID:25002746

  10. Regorafenib is transported by the organic anion transporter 1B1 and the multidrug resistance protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Hiroki; Shibayama, Yoshihiko; Ogura, Jiro; Narumi, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Iseki, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Regorafenib is a small molecule inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, and has been shown to improve the outcomes of patients with advanced colorectal cancer and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The transport profiles of regorafenib by various transporters were evaluated. HEK293/organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) cells exhibited increased drug sensitivity to regorafenib. Regorafenib inhibited the uptake of 3H-estrone sulfate by HEK293/OATP1B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect its elimination by P-glycoproteins. The concentration of regorafenib was significantly lower in LLC-PK1/multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) cells than in LLC-PK1 cells treated with the MRP2 inhibitor, MK571. MK571 abolished the inhibitory effects of regorafenib on intracellular accumulation in LLC-PK1/MRP2 cells. The uptake of regorafenib was significantly higher in HEK293/OATP1B1 cells than in OATP1B1-mock cells. Transport kinetics values were estimated to be Km=15.9 µM and Vmax=1.24 nmol/mg/min. No significant difference was observed in regorafenib concentrations between HEK293/OATP1B3 and OATP1B3-mock cells. These results indicated that regorafenib is a substrate for MRP2 and OATP1B1, and also suggest that the substrate preference of regorafenib may implicate the pharmacokinetic profiles of regorafenib.

  11. The organic anion transport polypeptide 1d1 (Oatp1d1) mediates hepatocellular uptake of phalloidin and microcystin into skate liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, F; Hammann-Hänni, A; Stieger, B; Ballatori, N; Boyer, J L

    2007-02-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (rodent Oatp; human OATP) mediate cellular uptake of numerous organic compounds including xenobiotic toxins into mammalian hepatocytes. In the little skate Leucoraja erinacea a liver-specific Oatp (Oatp1d1, also called sOatp) has been identified and suggested to represent an evolutionarily ancient precursor of the mammalian liver OATP1B1 (human), Oatp1b2 (rat), and OATP1B3 (human). The present study tested whether Oatp1d1 shares functional transport activity of the xenobiotic oligopeptide toxins phalloidin and microcystin with the mammalian liver Oatps/OATPs. The phalloidin analogue [(3)H]-demethylphalloin was taken up into skate hepatocytes with high affinity (Km approximately 0.4 microM), and uptake could be inhibited by phalloidin and a variety of typical Oatp/OATP substrates such as bromosulfophthalein, bile salts, estrone-3-sulfate, cyclosporine A and high concentrations of microcystin-LR (Ki approximately 150 microM). When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes Oatp1d1 increased uptake of demethylphalloin (Km approximately 2.2 microM) and microcystin-LR (Km approximately 27 microM) 2- to 3-fold over water-injected oocytes, whereas the alternative skate liver organic anion transporter, the dimeric Ostalpha/beta, exhibited no phalloidin and only minor microcystin-LR transport. Also, the closest mammalian Oatp1d1 orthologue, the human brain and testis OATP1C1, did not show any phalloidin transport activity. These results demonstrate that the evolutionarily ancient Oatp1d1 is able to mediate uptake of cyclic oligopeptide toxins into skate liver. The findings support the notion that Oatp1d1 is a precursor of the liver-specific mammalian Oatps/OATPs and that its transport properties are closely associated with certain forms of toxic liver injury such as for example protein phosphatase inhibition by the water-borne toxin microcystin.

  12. The organic anion transport polypeptide 1d1 (Oatp1d1) mediates hepatocellular uptake of phalloidin and microcystin into skate liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier-Abt, F.; Hammann-Haenni, A.; Stieger, B.; Ballatori, N.; Boyer, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (rodent Oatp; human OATP) mediate cellular uptake of numerous organic compounds including xenobiotic toxins into mammalian hepatocytes. In the little skate Leucoraja erinacea a liver-specific Oatp (Oatp1d1, also called sOatp) has been identified and suggested to represent an evolutionarily ancient precursor of the mammalian liver OATP1B1 (human), Oatp1b2 (rat), and OATP1B3 (human). The present study tested whether Oatp1d1 shares functional transport activity of the xenobiotic oligopeptide toxins phalloidin and microcystin with the mammalian liver Oatps/OATPs. The phalloidin analogue [ 3 H]-demethylphalloin was taken up into skate hepatocytes with high affinity (Km ∼ 0.4 μM), and uptake could be inhibited by phalloidin and a variety of typical Oatp/OATP substrates such as bromosulfophthalein, bile salts, estrone-3-sulfate, cyclosporine A and high concentrations of microcystin-LR (Ki ∼ 150 μM). When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes Oatp1d1 increased uptake of demethylphalloin (Km ∼ 2.2 μM) and microcystin-LR (Km ∼ 27 μM) 2- to 3-fold over water-injected oocytes, whereas the alternative skate liver organic anion transporter, the dimeric Ostα/β, exhibited no phalloidin and only minor microcystin-LR transport. Also, the closest mammalian Oatp1d1 orthologue, the human brain and testis OATP1C1, did not show any phalloidin transport activity. These results demonstrate that the evolutionarily ancient Oatp1d1 is able to mediate uptake of cyclic oligopeptide toxins into skate liver. The findings support the notion that Oatp1d1 is a precursor of the liver-specific mammalian Oatps/OATPs and that its transport properties are closely associated with certain forms of toxic liver injury such as for example protein phosphatase inhibition by the water-borne toxin microcystin

  13. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits superoxide anion-induced pain and inflammation in the paw skin and spinal cord by targeting NF-κB and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Fattori, Victor; Zarpelon, Ana C; Borghi, Sergio M; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Cunha, Thiago M; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) in superoxide anion-induced inflammatory pain. Male Swiss mice were treated with PDTC and stimulated with an intraplantar or intraperitoneal injection of potassium superoxide, a superoxide anion donor. Subcutaneous PDTC treatment attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, paw oedema and leukocyte recruitment (neutrophils and macrophages). Intraplantar injection of superoxide anion activated NF-κB and increased cytokine production (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10) and oxidative stress (nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels) at the primary inflammatory foci and in the spinal cord (L4-L6). PDTC treatment inhibited superoxide anion-induced NF-κB activation, cytokine production and oxidative stress in the paw and spinal cord. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of PDTC successfully inhibited superoxide anion-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and inflammatory response in peripheral foci (paw). These results suggest that peripheral stimulus with superoxide anion activates the local and spinal cord oxidative- and NF-κB-dependent inflammatory nociceptive mechanisms. PDTC targets these events, therefore, inhibiting superoxide anion-induced inflammatory pain in mice.

  14. Mechanism of action of anions on the electron transport chain in thylakoid membranes of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Rawal, Pooja; Zsiros, Ottó; Bharti, Sudhakar; Garab, Gyozo; Jajoo, Anjana

    2011-04-01

    With an aim to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind specific anion effects in biological membranes, we have studied the effects of sodium salts of anions of varying valency in thylakoid membranes. Rates of electron transport of PS II and PS I, 77K fluorescence emission and excitation spectra, cyclic electron flow around PS I and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were measured in thylakoid membranes in order to elucidate a general mechanism of action of inorganic anions on photosynthetic electron transport chain. Re-distribution of absorbed excitation energy has been observed as a signature effect of inorganic anions. In the presence of anions, such as nitrite, sulphate and phosphate, distribution of absorbed excitation energy was found to be more in favor of Photosystem I (PS I). The amount of energy distributed towards PS I depended on the valency of the anion. In this paper, we propose for the first time that energy re-distribution and its valence dependence may not be the effect of anions per se. The entry of negative charge (anion) is accompanied by influx of positive charge (protons) to maintain a balance of charge across the thylakoid membranes. As reflected by the CD spectra, the observed energy re-distribution could be a result of structural rearrangements of the protein complexes of PS II caused by changes in the ionic environment of the thylakoid lumen.

  15. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from C4 leaves is selectively targeted for inhibition by anionic phospholipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monreal, J.A.; McLoughlin, F.; Echevarría, C.; García-Mauriño, S.; Testerink, C.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC 4.1.1.31) is an enzyme playing a crucial role in photosynthesis of C4 plants. Here, we identify anionic phospholipids as novel regulators that inhibit C4 PEPC activity and provide evidence that the enzyme partially localizes to membranes.

  16. Glial and Neuronal Glutamate Transporters Differ in the Na+ Requirements for Activation of the Substrate-Independent Anion Conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Divito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs are secondary active transporters of L-glutamate and L- or D-aspartate. These carriers also mediate a thermodynamically uncoupled anion conductance that is gated by Na+ and substrate binding. The activation of the anion channel by binding of Na+ alone, however, has only been demonstrated for mammalian EAAC1 (EAAT3 and EAAT4. To date, no difference has been observed for the substrate dependence of anion channel gating between the glial, EAAT1 and EAAT2, and the neuronal isoforms EAAT3, EAAT4 and EAAT5. Here we describe a difference in the Na+-dependence of anion channel gating between glial and neuronal isoforms. Chloride flux through transporters without glutamate binding has previously been described as substrate-independent or “leak” channel activity. Choline or N-methyl-D-glucamine replacement of external Na+ ions significantly reduced or abolished substrate-independent EAAT channel activity in EAAT3 and EAAT4 yet has no effect on EAAT1 or EAAT2. The interaction of Na+ with the neuronal carrier isoforms was concentration dependent, consistent with previous data. The presence of substrate and Na+-independent open states in the glial EAAT isoforms is a novel finding in the field of EAAT function. Our results reveal an important divergence in anion channel function between glial and neuronal glutamate transporters and highlight new potential roles for the EAAT-associated anion channel activity based on transporter expression and localization in the central nervous system.

  17. Probing the reactivation process of sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase with α-nucleophiles: hydroxylamine anion is predicted to be a better antidote with DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Abdul Shafeeuulla; Lo, Rabindranath; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar; Ganguly, Bishwajit

    2011-08-01

    Inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) due to inhibition by organophosphorus (OP) compounds is a major threat to human since AChE is a key enzyme in neurotransmission process. Oximes are used as potential reactivators of OP-inhibited AChE due to their α-effect nucleophilic reactivity. In search of more effective reactivating agents, model studies have shown that α-effect is not so important for dephosphylation reactions. We report the importance of α-effect of nucleophilic reactivity towards the reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE with hydroxylamine anion. We have demonstrated with DFT [B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)] calculations that the reactivation process of sarin-serine adduct 2 with hydroxylamine anion is more efficient than the other nucleophiles reported. The superiority of hydroxylamine anion to reactivate the sarin-inhibited AChE with sarin-serine adducts 3 and 4 compared to formoximate anion was observed in the presence and absence of hydrogen bonding interactions of Gly121 and Gly122. The calculated results show that the rates of reactivation process of adduct 4 with hydroxylamine anion are 261 and 223 times faster than the formoximate anion in the absence and presence of such hydrogen bonding interactions. The DFT calculated results shed light on the importance of the adjacent carbonyl group of Glu202 for the reactivation of sarin-serine adduct, in particular with formoximate anion. The reverse reactivation reaction between hydroxylamine anion and sarin-serine adduct was found to be higher in energy compared to the other nucleophiles, which suggests that this α-nucleophile can be a good antidote agent for the reactivation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B transporters modulate hydroxyurea pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Aisha L; Lancaster, Cynthia S; Finkelstein, David; Ware, Russell E; Sparreboom, Alex

    2013-12-15

    Hydroxyurea is currently the only FDA-approved drug that ameliorates the pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia. Unfortunately, substantial interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of hydroxyurea may result in variation of the drug's efficacy. However, little is known about mechanisms that modulate hydroxyurea PK. Recent in vitro studies identifying hydroxyurea as a substrate for organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B) transporters prompted the current investigation assessing the role of OATP1B transporters in modulating hydroxyurea PK. Using wild-type and Oatp1b knockout (Oatp1b(-/-)) mice, hydroxyurea PK was analyzed in vivo by measuring [(14)C]hydroxyurea distribution in plasma, kidney, liver, urine, or the exhaled (14)CO2 metabolite. Plasma levels were significantly reduced by 20% in Oatp1b(-/-) mice compared with wild-type (area under the curve of 38.64 or 48.45 μg·h(-1)·ml(-1), respectively) after oral administration, whereas no difference was observed between groups following intravenous administration. Accumulation in the kidney was significantly decreased by twofold in Oatp1b(-/-) mice (356.9 vs. 748.1 pmol/g), which correlated with a significant decrease in urinary excretion. Hydroxyurea accumulation in the liver was also decreased (136.6 vs. 107.3 pmol/g in wild-type or Oatp1b(-/-) mice, respectively) correlating with a decrease in exhaled (14)CO2. These findings illustrate that deficiency of Oatp1b transporters alters the absorption, distribution, and elimination of hydroxyurea thus providing the first in vivo evidence that cell membrane transporters may play a significant role in modulating hydroxyurea PK. Future studies to investigate other transporters and their role in hydroxyurea disposition are warranted for understanding the sources of variation in hydroxyurea's PK.

  19. Cumulative organic anion transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of multiple components in salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen) preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Venitz, Jürgen; Sweet, Douglas H

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate organic anion transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential for individual active components of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) vs. combinations using in vitro and in silico approaches. Inhibition profiles for single Danshen components and combinations were generated in stably-expressing human (h)OAT1 and hOAT3 cells. Plasma concentration-time profiles for compounds were estimated from in vivo human data using an i.v. two-compartment model (with first-order elimination). The cumulative DDI index was proposed as an indicator of DDI potential for combination products. This index was used to evaluate the DDI potential for Danshen injectables from 16 different manufacturers and 14 different lots from a single manufacturer. The cumulative DDI index predicted in vivo inhibition potentials, 82% (hOAT1) and 74% (hOAT3), comparable with those observed in vitro, 72 ± 7% (hOAT1) and 81 ± 10% (hOAT3), for Danshen component combinations. Using simulated unbound Cmax values, a wide range in cumulative DDI index between manufacturers, and between lots, was predicted. Many products exhibited a cumulative DDI index > 1 (50% inhibition). Danshen injectables will likely exhibit strong potential to inhibit hOAT1 and hOAT3 function in vivo. The proposed cumulative DDI index might improve prediction of DDI potential of herbal medicines or pharmaceutical preparations containing multiple components.

  20. In vivo evaluation of anionic thiolated polymers as oral delivery systems for efflux pump inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmberger, Thomas F; Laffleur, Flavia; Greindl, Melanie; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the cationic polymer thiolated chitosan has been reported to modulate drug absorption by inhibition of intestinal efflux pumps. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo whether thiolated anionic biopolymers also show an efflux pump inhibitory effect in order to improve intestinal transcellular drug uptake. Therefore, three thiomers have been synthesized due covalent attachment of cysteine to various polymer backbones: pectin-cysteine (pect-cys), carboxymethylcellulose-cysteine (CMC-cys) and alginate-cysteine (alg-cys). In vitro, the permeation enhancing properties of these thiomers and their corresponding unmodified polymers have been evaluated on rat small intestine in Ussing-type chambers, using sulforhodamine 101 (SR-101) as MRP2 model substrate. In comparison to buffer only, SR-101 transport in presence of pect-cys, CMC-cys and alg-cys was improved 1.5-fold, 1.8-fold and 3.0-fold, respectively. Due to the comparatively best in vitro performance of thiolated alginate, it has been chosen for in vivo studies: a SR-101 solution containing 4% (w/v) alg-cys led to an AUC0 ≥ 12 of SR-101 of 109 ng ml(-1)h in rats representing a 3.8-fold improvement in comparison to a SR-101 buffer solution. Unmodified alginate improved the AUC0 ≥ 12 of SR-101 by a factor of 1.9. These findings suggest thiolated alginate as promising auxiliary agent for drugs being anionic efflux pump substrates, since the oral bioavailability of a MRP2 substrate could be significantly improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Corrosion and inhibition of stainless steel pitting corrosion in alkaline medium and the effect of Cl- and Br- anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refaey, S.A.M.; Taha, F.; El-Malak, A.M. Abd

    2005-01-01

    The effect of carbonate anion on the pitting corrosion and inhibition behavior of stainless steel samples (304L SS and 316L SS) has been studied using potentiodynamic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The effect of concentration of CO 3 2- ions, pH, potential scanning rate and the composition of stainless steel are discussed. Additions of Cl - and Br - ions into the carbonate solution increase the anodic dissolution of stainless steel and decrease its pitting corrosion resistance. The effect of CO 3 2- anion on the inhibition of chloride and bromide pitting corrosion of the two stainless steel types has been studied also. Pitting corrosion decrease with the increasing of sodium carbonate concentration, i.e. increases the resistance of stainless steels towards the chloride and bromide pitting corrosion. This inhibition effect argued to formation of [Fe,Cr]CO 3 film caused by preferential adsorption of the CO 3 2- ion, leading to instantaneous repair of weak sites for pit nucleation

  2. Characterization of Organic Anion Transporter 2 (SLC22A7): A Highly Efficient Transporter for Creatinine and Species-Dependent Renal Tubular Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Liu, Tongtong; Morse, Bridget L; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yueping; Qiu, Xi; Chen, Cliff; Lewin, Anne C; Wang, Xi-Tao; Liu, Guowen; Christopher, Lisa J; Marathe, Punit; Lai, Yurong

    2015-07-01

    The contribution of organic anion transporter OAT2 (SLC22A7) to the renal tubular secretion of creatinine and its exact localization in the kidney are reportedly controversial. In the present investigation, the transport of creatinine was assessed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells that stably expressed human OAT2 (OAT2-HEK) and isolated human renal proximal tubule cells (HRPTCs). The tubular localization of OAT2 in human, monkey, and rat kidney was characterized. The overexpression of OAT2 significantly enhanced the uptake of creatinine in OAT2-HEK cells. Under physiologic conditions (creatinine concentrations of 41.2 and 123.5 µM), the initial rate of OAT2-mediated creatinine transport was approximately 11-, 80-, and 80-fold higher than OCT2, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein (MATE)1, and MATE2K, respectively, resulting in approximately 37-, 1850-, and 80-fold increase of the intrinsic transport clearance when normalized to the transporter protein concentrations. Creatinine intracellular uptake and transcellular transport in HRPTCs were decreased in the presence of 50 µM bromosulfophthalein and 100 µM indomethacin, which inhibited OAT2 more potently than other known creatinine transporters, OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins MATE1 and MATE2K (IC50: 1.3 µM vs. > 100 µM and 2.1 µM vs. > 200 µM for bromosulfophthalein and indomethacin, respectively) Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that OAT2 protein was localized to both basolateral and apical membranes of human and cynomolgus monkey renal proximal tubules, but appeared only on the apical membrane of rat proximal tubules. Collectively, the findings revealed the important role of OAT2 in renal secretion and possible reabsorption of creatinine and suggested a molecular basis for potential species difference in the transporter handling of creatinine. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Prediction of the overall renal tubular secretion and hepatic clearance of anionic drugs and a renal drug-drug interaction involving organic anion transporter 3 in humans by in vitro uptake experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takao; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tomoko; Debori, Yasuyuki; Maeda, Kazuya; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nakayama, Hideki; Horita, Shigeru; Ogilvie, Brian W; Parkinson, Andrew; Hu, Zhuohan; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated prediction of the overall renal tubular secretion and hepatic clearances of anionic drugs based on in vitro transport studies. The saturable uptake of eight drugs, most of which were OAT3 substrates (rosuvastatin, pravastatin, pitavastatin, valsartan, olmesartan, trichlormethiazide, p-aminohippurate, and benzylpenicillin) by freshly prepared human kidney slices underestimated the overall intrinsic clearance of the tubular secretion; therefore, a scaling factor of 10 was required for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation. We examined the effect of gemfibrozil and its metabolites, gemfibrozil glucuronide and the carboxylic metabolite, gemfibrozil M3, on pravastatin uptake by human kidney slices. The inhibition study using human kidney slices suggests that OAT3 plays a predominant role in the renal uptake of pravastatin. Comparison of unbound concentrations and K(i) values (1.5, 9.1, and 4.0 μM, for gemfibrozil, gemfibrozil glucuronide, and gemfibrozil M3, respectively) suggests that the mechanism of the interaction is due mainly to inhibition by gemfibrozil and gemfibrozil glucuronide. Furthermore, extrapolation of saturable uptake by cryopreserved human hepatocytes predicts clearance comparable with the observed hepatic clearance although fluvastatin and rosuvastatin required a scaling factor of 11 and 6.9, respectively. This study suggests that in vitro uptake assays using human kidney slices and hepatocytes provide a good prediction of the overall tubular secretion and hepatic clearances of anionic drugs and renal drug-drug interactions. It is also recommended that in vitro-in vivo extrapolation be performed in animals to obtain more reliable prediction.

  4. The importance of OH − transport through anion exchange membrane in microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Yaoli

    2018-01-11

    In two-chamber microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) with anion exchange membranes (AEMs), a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) is typically used to avoid increases in catholyte pH as Nernst equation calculations indicate that high pHs adversely impact electrochemical performance. However, ion transport between the chambers will also impact performance, which is a factor not included in those calculations. To separate the impacts of pH and ion transport on MEC performance, a high molecular weight polymer buffer (PoB), which was retained in the catholyte due to its low AEM transport and cationic charge, was compared to PBS in MECs and abiotic electrochemical half cells (EHCs). In MECs, catholyte pH control was less important than ion transport. MEC tests using the PoB catholyte, which had a higher buffer capacity and thus maintained a lower catholye pH (<8), resulted in a 50% lower hydrogen production rate (HPR) than that obtained using PBS (HPR = 0.7 m3-H2 m−3 d−1) where the catholyte rapidly increased to pH = 12. The main reason for the decreased performance using PoB was a lack of hydroxide ion transfer into the anolyte to balance pH. The anolyte pH in MECs rapidly decreased to 5.8 due to a lack of hydroxide ion transport, which inhibited current generation by the anode, whereas the pH was maintained at 6.8 using PBS. In abiotic tests in ECHs, where the cathode potential was set at −1.2 V, the HPR was 133% higher using PoB than PBS due to catholyte pH control, as the anolyte pH was not a factor in the performance. These results show that maintaining charge transfer to control anolyte pH is more important than obtaining a more neutral pH catholyte.

  5. Functional Expression of P-glycoprotein and Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides at the Blood-Brain Barrier: Understanding Transport Mechanisms for Improved CNS Drug Delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Wazir; Davis, Thomas P; Ronaldson, Patrick T

    2017-07-01

    Drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) is greatly limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Physical and biochemical properties of the BBB have rendered treatment of CNS diseases, including those with a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) component, extremely difficult. Targeting endogenous BBB transporters from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily (i.e., P-glycoprotein (P-gp)) or from the solute carrier (SLC) family (i.e., organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs in humans; Oatps in rodents)) has been suggested as a strategy that can improve delivery of drugs to the brain. With respect to P-gp, direct pharmacological inhibition using small molecules or selective regulation by targeting intracellular signaling pathways has been explored. These approaches have been largely unsuccessful due to toxicity issues and unpredictable pharmacokinetics. Therefore, our laboratory has proposed that optimization of CNS drug delivery, particularly for treatment of diseases with an H/R component, can be achieved by targeting Oatp isoforms at the BBB. As the major drug transporting Oatp isoform, Oatp1a4 has demonstrated blood-to-brain transport of substrate drugs with neuroprotective properties. Furthermore, our laboratory has shown that targeting Oatp1a4 regulation (i.e., TGF-β signaling mediated via the ALK-1 and ALK-5 transmembrane receptors) represents an opportunity to control Oatp1a4 functional expression for the purpose of delivering therapeutics to the CNS. In this review, we will discuss limitations of targeting P-gp-mediated transport activity and the advantages of targeting Oatp-mediated transport. Through this discussion, we will also provide critical information on novel approaches to improve CNS drug delivery by targeting endogenous uptake transporters expressed at the BBB.

  6. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fent, Karl [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Smital, Tvrtko, E-mail: smital@irb.hr [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  7. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-01-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  8. Transport of cefodizime, a novel third generation cephalosporin antibiotic, in isolated rat choroid plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohjoh, T.; Suzuki, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sugiyama, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1989-01-01

    To characterize the transport system by which cephalosporin antibiotics are accumulated by the choroid plexus, kinetic analysis of cefodizime transport was performed. Accumulation of cefodizime was against an electrochemical potential gradient via a saturable process (Km = 470 microM, Vmax = 174 nmol/ml of tissue per min) that was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors (KCN and 2,4-dinitrophenol), hypothermia, a sulfhydryl reagent (p-hydroxymer-curibenzoic acid) and anion transport inhibitors (probenecid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene -2,2'-disulfonic acid). Accumulation of cefodizime was inhibited competitively by benzylpenicillin with an inhibition constant of aproximately 100 microM. Cefodizime inhibited competitively the accumulation of benzylpenicillin with an inhibition constant of approximately 500 microM. Kinetic analysis using 16 kinds of beta-lactam antibiotics also supported the view (1) that the transport system of cefodizime is shared by benzylpenicillin and (2) that these beta-lactam antibiotics are transported via a common transport system. These findings indicate that the major transport system of cephalosporin antibiotics in the rat choroid plexus is via a carrier-mediated active anion transport process. The affinity of beta-lactam antibiotics for this transport system in the choroid plexus may be a major factor in determining their pharmacokinetics in the cerebrospinal fluid

  9. Role of endolymphatic anion transport in forskolin-induced Cl- activity increase of scala media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, I; Mori, N; Matsunaga, T

    1995-03-01

    To determine the role of anion transport in the forskolin-induced Cl- increase of scala media (SM), effects of forskolin on the EP (endocochlear potential) and Cl- activity (ACl) in SM were examined with double-barrelled Cl(-)-selective microelectrodes. The experiments were carried out on guinea pig cochleae, using a few anion transport inhibitors: IAA-94 for a Cl- channel blocker, bumetanide (BU) for an Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport blocker, and SITS and DIDS for Cl-/HCO3- exchange blockers. The application of forskolin (200 microM) into scala vestibuli (SV) caused a 20 mEq increase of endolymphatic ACl and a 15 mV elevation of EP, and IAA-94 with forskolin completely abolished these responses. Although each application of BU, SITS or DIDS did not completely suppress EP elevation, the concurrent application of these inhibitors completely suppressed EP with endolymphatic ACl increase. The results indicate the involvement of Cl- channels, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport and Cl-/HCO3- exchange in forskolin-induced increase of ACl and EP. The role of adenylate cyclase activation and Cl- transport in endolymph homeostasis was discussed.

  10. Structure-affinity relationship in the interactions of human organic anion transporter 1 with caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and their metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Mitsuru; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Takekuma, Yoh; Miyazaki, Katsumi

    2005-08-15

    It is well known that human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) transports many kinds of drugs, endogenous compounds, and toxins. However, little is known about the structure-affinity relationship. The aim of this study was to elucidate the structure-affinity relationship using a series of structurally related compounds that interact with hOAT1. Inhibitory effects of xanthine- and uric acid-related compounds on the transport of p-aminohippuric acid were examined using CHO-K1 cells stably expressing hOAT1. The order of potency for the inhibitory effects of xanthine-related compounds on PAH uptake was 1-methyl derivative>7-methyl derivative>3-methyl derivative falling dotsxanthine>1,3,7-trimethyl derivative (caffeine). The order of potency of the inhibition was 1,3,7-trimethyluric acid>1,3-dimethyluric acid>1,7-dimethyluric acid>1-methyluric acid>uric acid. A significant correlation between inhibitory potency and lipophilicity of the tested uric acid-related compounds was observed. The main determinant of the affinity of xanthine-related compounds is the position of the methyl group. On the other hand, lipophilicity is the main determinant of the affinity of uric acid-related compounds.

  11. Thyroid Hormones Are Transport Substrates and Transcriptional Regulators of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 2B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Ferreira, Celio; Schaefer, Anima M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Seibert, Isabell; Hamburger, Matthias; Tirona, Rommel G

    2018-07-01

    Levothyroxine replacement therapy forms the cornerstone of hypothyroidism management. Variability in levothyroxine oral absorption may contribute to the well-recognized large interpatient differences in required dose. Moreover, levothyroxine-drug pharmacokinetic interactions are thought to be caused by altered oral bioavailability. Interestingly, little is known regarding the mechanisms contributing to levothyroxine absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we aimed to determine whether the intestinal drug uptake transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1) may be involved in facilitating intestinal absorption of thyroid hormones. We also explored whether thyroid hormones regulate OATP2B1 gene expression. In cultured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney II/OATP2B1 cells and in OATP2B1-transfected Caco-2 cells, thyroid hormones were found to inhibit OATP2B1-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate. Competitive counter-flow experiments evaluating the influence on the cellular accumulation of estrone-3-sulfate in the steady state indicated that thyroid hormones were substrates of OATP2B1. Additional evidence that thyroid hormones were OATP2B1 substrates was provided by OATP2B1-dependent stimulation of thyroid hormone receptor activation in cell-based reporter assays. Bidirectional transport studies in intestinal Caco-2 cells showed net absorptive flux of thyroid hormones, which was attenuated by the presence of the OATP2B1 inhibitor, atorvastatin. In intestinal Caco-2 and LS180 cells, but not in liver Huh-7 or HepG2 cells, OATP2B1 expression was induced by treatment with thyroid hormones. Reporter gene assays revealed thyroid hormone receptor α -mediated transactivation of the SLCO2B1 1b and the SLCO2B1 1e promoters. We conclude that thyroid hormones are substrates and transcriptional regulators of OATP2B1. These insights provide a potential mechanistic basis for oral levothyroxine dose variability and drug interactions. Copyright © 2018 by The American

  12. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1962-01-01

    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing with the subst......The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...... with the substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine...... and polyphloretinephosphate. The results of the analysis for these inhibitors indicate a substrate competitive mode of action. The effect of reversing the transport direction by interchanging the substrate concentration has been treated for the case of a non-penetrating substrate competitive inhibitor in the external medium...

  13. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2013-09-17

    Many salinity gradient energy technologies such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange membranes. While there is considerable interest in using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) in RED processes for closed-loop conversion of heat energy to electricity, little is known about membrane performance in this electrolyte. The resistances of two commercially available cation exchange membranes in AmB were lower than their resistances in NaCl. However, the resistances of commercially available anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were much larger in AmB than in NaCl, which would adversely affect energy recovery. The properties of a series of quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and Radel-based AEMs were therefore examined to understand the reasons for increased resistance in AmB to overcome this performance penalty due to the lower mobility of bicarbonate, 4.59 × 10-4 cm2/(V s), compared to chloride, 7.90 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) (the dilute aqueous solution mobility ratio of HCO3 - to Cl- is 0.58). Most membrane resistances were generally consistent with the dilute solution mobilities of the anions. For a few key samples, however, increased water uptake in AmB solution reduced the ionic resistance of the polymer compared to its resistance in NaCl solution. This increased water uptake was attributed to the greater hydration of the bicarbonate ion compared to the chloride ion. The increased resistance due to the use of bicarbonate as opposed to chloride ions in AEMs can therefore be mitigated by designing polymers that swell more in AmB compared to NaCl solutions, enabling more efficient energy recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Many salinity gradient energy technologies such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange membranes. While there is considerable interest in using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) in RED processes for closed-loop conversion of heat energy to electricity, little is known about membrane performance in this electrolyte. The resistances of two commercially available cation exchange membranes in AmB were lower than their resistances in NaCl. However, the resistances of commercially available anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were much larger in AmB than in NaCl, which would adversely affect energy recovery. The properties of a series of quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and Radel-based AEMs were therefore examined to understand the reasons for increased resistance in AmB to overcome this performance penalty due to the lower mobility of bicarbonate, 4.59 × 10-4 cm2/(V s), compared to chloride, 7.90 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) (the dilute aqueous solution mobility ratio of HCO3 - to Cl- is 0.58). Most membrane resistances were generally consistent with the dilute solution mobilities of the anions. For a few key samples, however, increased water uptake in AmB solution reduced the ionic resistance of the polymer compared to its resistance in NaCl solution. This increased water uptake was attributed to the greater hydration of the bicarbonate ion compared to the chloride ion. The increased resistance due to the use of bicarbonate as opposed to chloride ions in AEMs can therefore be mitigated by designing polymers that swell more in AmB compared to NaCl solutions, enabling more efficient energy recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A; Ryan, Peter R; Gilliham, Matthew; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-07-29

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms.

  16. The Complexities of Interpreting Reversible Elevated Serum Creatinine Levels in Drug Development: Does a Correlation with Inhibition of Renal Transporters Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaoyan; Bleasby, Kelly; Chan, Grace Hoyee; Nunes, Irene; Evers, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    In humans, creatinine is formed by a multistep process in liver and muscle and eliminated via the kidney by a combination of glomerular filtration and active transport. Based on current evidence, creatinine can be taken up into renal proximal tubule cells by the basolaterally localized organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and the organic anion transporter 2, and effluxed into the urine by the apically localized multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) and MATE2K. Drug-induced elevation of serum creatinine (SCr) and/or reduced creatinine renal clearance is routinely used as a marker for acute kidney injury. Interpretation of elevated SCr can be complex, because such increases can be reversible and explained by inhibition of renal transporters involved in active secretion of creatinine or other secondary factors, such as diet and disease state. Distinction between these possibilities is important from a drug development perspective, as increases in SCr can result in the termination of otherwise efficacious drug candidates. In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with using creatinine as a marker for kidney damage. Furthermore, to evaluate whether reversible changes in SCr can be predicted prospectively based on in vitro transporter inhibition data, an in-depth in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) analysis was conducted for 16 drugs with in-house and literature in vitro transporter inhibition data for OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2K, as well as total and unbound maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and Cmax,u) data measured in the clinic. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Maize ZmALMT2 is a root anion transporter that mediates constitutive root malate efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaba, Ayalew; Maron, Lyza; Shaff, Jon; Kochian, Leon; Piñeros, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    Root efflux of organic acid anions underlies a major mechanism of plant aluminium (Al) tolerance on acid soils. This efflux is mediated by transporters of the Al-activated malate transporter (ALMT) or the multi-drug and toxin extrusion (MATE) families. ZmALMT2 was previously suggested to be involved in Al tolerance based on joint association-linkage mapping for maize Al tolerance. In the current study, we functionally characterized ZmALMT2 by heterologously expressing it in Xenopus laevis oocytes and transgenic Arabidopsis. In oocytes, ZmALMT2 mediated an Al-independent electrogenic transport product of organic and inorganic anion efflux. Ectopic overexpression of ZmALMT2 in an Al-hypersensitive Arabidopsis KO/KD line lacking the Al tolerance genes, AtALMT1 and AtMATE, resulted in Al-independent constitutive root malate efflux which partially restored the Al tolerance phenotype. The lack of correlation between ZmALMT2 expression and Al tolerance (e.g., expression not localized to the root tip, not up-regulated by Al, and higher in sensitive versus tolerance maize lines) also led us to question ZmALMT2's role in Al tolerance. The functional properties of the ZmALMT2 transporter presented here, along with the gene expression data, suggest that ZmALMT2 is not involved in maize Al tolerance but, rather, may play a role in mineral nutrient acquisition and transport. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Cloning, characterization and anion inhibition study of a β-class carbonic anhydrase from the caries producing pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, Nurcan; De Luca, Viviana; Isik, Semra; Yildirim, Hatice; Kockar, Feray; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-07-01

    The oral pathogenic bacterium involved in human dental caries formation Streptococcus mutans, encodes for two carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) one belonging to the α- and the other one to the β-class. This last enzyme (SmuCA) has been cloned, characterized and investigated for its inhibition profile with a major class of CA inhibitors, the inorganic anions. Here we show that SmuCA has a good catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction, with kcat 4.2×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/Km of 5.8×10(7)M(-1)×s(-1), being inhibited by cyanate, carbonate, stannate, divannadate and diethyldithiocarbamate in the submillimolar range (KIs of 0.30-0.64mM) and more efficiently by sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid (KIs of 15-46μM). The anion inhibition profile of the S. mutans enzyme is very different from other α- and β-CAs investigated earlier. Identification of effective inhibitors of this new enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the role of S. mutans CAs in dental caries formation, and eventually the development of pharmacological agents with a new mechanism of antibacterial action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-layer membrane model for mass transport in a direct ethanol fuel cell using an alkaline anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hafez; Faghri, Amir

    2012-11-01

    A one-dimensional, isothermal, single-phase model is presented to investigate the mass transport in a direct ethanol fuel cell incorporating an alkaline anion exchange membrane. The electrochemistry is analytically solved and the closed-form solution is provided for two limiting cases assuming Tafel expressions for both oxygen reduction and ethanol oxidation. A multi-layer membrane model is proposed to properly account for the diffusive and electroosmotic transport of ethanol through the membrane. The fundamental differences in fuel crossover for positive and negative electroosmotic drag coefficients are discussed. It is found that ethanol crossover is significantly reduced upon using an alkaline anion exchange membrane instead of a proton exchange membrane, especially at current densities higher than 500 A m

  20. Intermittency inhibited by transport: An exactly solvable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Damián H.

    1994-04-01

    Transport is incorporated in a discrete-time stochastic model of a system undergoing autocatalytic reactions of the type A-->2A and A-->0, whose population field is known to exhibit spatiotemporal intermittency. The temporal evolution is exactly solved, and it is shown that if the transport process is strong enough, intermittency is inhibited. This inhibition is nonuniform, in the sense that, as transport is strengthened, low-order population moments are affected before the high-order ones. Numerical simulations are presented to support the analytical results.

  1. Interactions between crude drug extracts used in Japanese traditional Kampo medicines and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 2B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Rie; Watanabe, Tomoki; Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Watanabe, Junko; Makino, Toshiaki

    2018-03-25

    The use of herbal medicines has become popular worldwide, and the information on drug interactions between herbal medicines and chemical drugs is needed. We screened the inhibitory effects of crude drugs used in Kampo medicines used in Japan on organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1 to predict potential interactions between Kampo medicines and chemical drugs used together. We chose 98 kinds of crude drugs frequently used as ingredients of Kampo formulations in Japan and prepared their boiling water extracts. We then screened their inhibitory effects on OATP2B1 by measuring the uptake of estrone 3-sulphate (E3S) by HEK293 cells stably expressing OATP2B1. At the concentration of 100µg/ml, the extracts prepared from 12 kinds of crude drugs, Scuteralliae Radix, Arecae Semen, Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Perillae Herba, Panacis Japonici Rhizoma, Moutan Cortex, Polygalae Radix, Rhei Rhizoma, Cannabis Fructus, Chrysanthemi Flos, Eriobotryae Folium, and Querci Cortex, suppressed the function of OATP2B1 by less than 20%. The extract of bofutsushosan, a representative Kampo formulation, inhibited OATP2B1 function with sufficient levels to suppress absorption of OATP2B1 substrates in clinics. We further evaluated the inhibitory effects of several ingredients containing Rhei Rhizoma, Perillae Herba, and Moutan Cortex on OATP2B1. Because of crude drugs used in Kampo medicines might suppress absorption of OATP2B1 substrates, these results may contribute to the safe and effective use of Kampo medicine in clinics. A list of abbreviations: EC, (-)-epicatechin; ECG, epicatechin gallate; EGC, epigallocatechin; EGCG, Epigallocatechin gallate; FBS, fetal bovine serum; grapefruit juice; HEK293, Human embryonic kidney; IC 50, The half inhibitory concentration; OATP, organic anion-transporting polypeptide; β-PGG, penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose; t.i.d, 3 times a day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Casein Kinase 2 Is a Novel Regulator of the Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zheng, Jian; Lu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling; Grewal, Thomas; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-01-04

    Human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediate the influx of many important drugs into cells. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a critical protein kinase that phosphorylates >300 protein substrates and is dysregulated in a number of disease states. Among the CK2 substrates are several transporters, although whether this includes human OATPs has not been evaluated. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the regulation of human OATP1A2 by CK2. HEK-239T cells in which OATP1A2 was overexpressed were treated with CK2 specific inhibitors or transfected with CK2 specific siRNA, and the activity, expression, and subcellular trafficking of OATP1A2 was evaluated. CK2 inhibition decreased the uptake of the prototypic OATP1A2 substrate estrone-3-sulfate (E3S). Kinetic studies revealed that this was due to a decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) of E3S uptake, while the Michaelis constant was unchanged. The cell surface expression, but not the total cellular expression of OATP1A2, was impaired by CK2 inhibition and knockdown of the catalytic α-subunits of CK2. CK2 inhibition decreased the internalization of OATP1A2 via a clathrin-dependent pathway, decreased OATP1A2 recycling, and likely impaired OATP1A2 targeting to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, CK2 inhibition also disrupted the colocalization of OATP1A2 and Rab GTPase (Rab)4-, Rab8-, and Rab9-positive endosomal and secretory vesicles. Taken together, CK2 has emerged as a novel regulator of the subcellular trafficking and stability of OATP1A2. Because OATP1A2 transports many molecules of physiological and pharmacological importance, the present data may inform drug selection in patients with diseases in which CK2 and OATP1A2 are dysregulated.

  3. Kinetics of Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in Acidic Media by Water-Soluble Natural Polymeric Pectates as Anionic Polyelectrolyte Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Refat M; Zaafarany, Ishaq A

    2013-06-17

    Corrosion inhibition of aluminum (Al) in hydrochloric acid by anionic polyeletrolyte pectates (PEC) as a water-soluble natural polymer polysaccharide has been studied using both gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results drawn from these two techniques are comparable and exhibit negligible differences. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The inhibition action of PEC on Al metal surface was found to obey the Freundlich isotherm. Factors such as the concentration and geometrical structure of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive medium, and temperature affecting the corrosion rates were examined. The kinetic parameters were evaluated and a suitable corrosion mechanism consistent with the kinetic results is discussed in the paper.

  4. Molecular mechanism of α-tocopheryl-phosphate transport across the cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negis, Yesim; Meydani, Mohsen; Zingg, Jean-Marc; Azzi, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    α-Tocopheryl-phosphate (α-TP) is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues where it modulates several functions. α-TP is more potent than α-T in inhibiting cell proliferation, down-regulating CD36 transcription, inhibiting atherosclerotic plaque formation. Administration of α-TP to cells or animals requires its transfer through membranes, via a transporter. We show here that α-TP is passing the plasma membrane via a system that is inhibited by glibenclamide and probenecid, inhibitors of a number of transporters. Glibenclamide and probenecid prevent dose-dependently α-TP inhibition of cell proliferation. The two inhibitors act on ATP binding cassette (ABC) and organic anion transporters (OAT). Since ABC transporters function to export solutes and α-TP is transported into cells, it may be concluded that α-TP transport may occur via an OAT family member. Due to the protection by glibenclamide and probenecid on the α-TP induced cell growth inhibition it appears that α-TP acts after its uptake inside cells

  5. Kinetics of Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in Acidic Media by Water-Soluble Natural Polymeric Pectates as Anionic Polyelectrolyte Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat M. Hassan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion inhibition of aluminum (Al in hydrochloric acid by anionic polyeletrolyte pectates (PEC as a water-soluble natural polymer polysaccharide has been studied using both gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results drawn from these two techniques are comparable and exhibit negligible differences. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The inhibition action of PEC on Al metal surface was found to obey the Freundlich isotherm. Factors such as the concentration and geometrical structure of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive medium, and temperature affecting the corrosion rates were examined. The kinetic parameters were evaluated and a suitable corrosion mechanism consistent with the kinetic results is discussed in the paper.

  6. Functional, structural and phylogenetic analysis of domains underlying the Al-sensitivity of the aluminium-activated malate/anion transporter, TaALMT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    TaALMT1 (Triticum aestivum Aluminum Activated Malate Transporter) is the founding member of a novel gene family of anion transporters (ALMTs) that mediate the efflux of organic acids. A small subgroup of root-localized ALMTs, including TaALMT1, is physiologically associated with in planta aluminum (...

  7. HvALMT1 from barley is involved in the transport of organic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Benjamin D; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E; Tyerman, Stephen D; Ramesh, Sunita; Hebb, Diane M; Howitt, Susan M; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2010-03-01

    Members of the ALMT gene family contribute to the Al(3+) resistance of several plant species by facilitating malate efflux from root cells. The first member of this family to be cloned and characterized, TaALMT1, is responsible for most of the natural variation of Al(3+) resistance in wheat. The current study describes the isolation and characterization of HvALMT1, the barley gene with the greatest sequence similarity to TaALMT1. HvALMT1 is located on chromosome 2H which has not been associated with Al(3+) resistance in barley. The relatively low levels of HvALMT1 expression detected in root and shoot tissues were independent of external aluminium or phosphorus supply. Transgenic barley plants transformed with the HvALMT1 promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) indicated that expression of HvALMT1 was relatively high in stomatal guard cells and in root tissues containing expanding cells. GFP fused to the C-terminus of the full HvALMT1 protein localized to the plasma membrane and motile vesicles within the cytoplasm. HvALMT1 conferred both inward and outward currents when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes that were bathed in a range of anions including malate. Both malate uptake and efflux were confirmed in oocyte assays using [(14)C]malate as a radiotracer. It is suggested that HvALMT1 functions as an anion channel to facilitate organic anion transport in stomatal function and expanding cells.

  8. Effect of Structure on Transport Properties (Viscosity, Ionic Conductivity, and Self-Diffusion Coefficient) of Aprotic Heterocyclic Anion (AHA) Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids. 1. Variation of Anionic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyuan; Morales-Collazo, Oscar; Xia, Han; Brennecke, Joan F

    2015-12-03

    A series of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([emim](+)) with different aprotic heterocyclic anions (AHAs) were synthesized and characterized as potential electrolyte candidates for lithium ion batteries. The density and transport properties of these ILs were measured over the temperature range between 283.15 and 343.15 K at ambient pressure. The temperature dependence of the transport properties (viscosity, ionic conductivity, self-diffusion coefficient, and molar conductivity) is fit well by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The best-fit VFT parameters, as well as linear fits to the density, are reported. The ionicity of these ILs was quantified by the ratio of the molar conductivity obtained from the ionic conductivity and molar concentration to that calculated from the self-diffusion coefficients using the Nernst-Einstein equation. The results of this study, which is based on ILs composed of both a planar cation and planar anions, show that many of the [emim][AHA] ILs exhibit very good conductivity for their viscosities and provide insight into the design of ILs with enhanced dynamics that may be suitable for electrolyte applications.

  9. Comparison of "type I" and "type II" organic cation transport by organic cation transporters and organic anion-transporting polypeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Montfoort, JE; Muller, M; Groothuis, GMM; Meijer, DKF; Koepsell, H; Meier, PJ

    Previous inhibition studies with taurocholate and cardiac glycosides suggested the presence of separate uptake systems for small "type I" (system1) and for bulky "type II" (system2) organic cations in rat hepatocytes. To identify the transport systems involved in type I and type II organic cation

  10. Influence of glucose and urea on 125I transport across an anion exchange paper membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi

    2001-01-01

    In order to study the influence of glucose and urea on the 125 I transport across an anion exchange paper membrane, the transmembrane potential, the fluxes, and the concentrations of 125 I, glucose and urea within the membrane were measured in the Na 125 I concentration-cell system containing glucose or urea. Glucose and urea increased the membrane/solution distribution of the iodide ion, but scarcely affected the diffusion process of iodide ion within the membrane

  11. Effect of the pore water composition on the diffusive anion transport in argillaceous, low permeability sedimentary rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigger, Cornelia; Van Loon, Luc R

    2018-06-01

    The effect of the pore water composition on the diffusive anion transport was studied for two different argillaceous, low permeability sedimentary rocks, Opalinus Clay (OPA) and Helvetic Marl (HM). The samples were saturated with different solutions with varying molar concentration and different main cations in the solution: NaCl based pore solutions and CaCl 2 based pore solutions. The total porosity was measured by through-diffusion experiments with the neutral tracer HTO. Experiments performed in NaCl solutions resulted in a porosity of 0.12 for OPA and 0.03 for HM, and are consistent with results of the experiments in CaCl 2 solutions. The total porosity was independent of the molar concentration, in contrast to the measured anion porosity, which increased with increasing molar concentration. It could further be observed that the pore solution based on the bivalent cation calcium shielded the negative surface charge stronger than the monovalent cation sodium, resulting in a larger measureable anion-accessible porosity in the case of CaCl 2 solutions. The data was modelled based on an adapted Donnan approach of Birgersson and Karnland (2009). The model had to be adjusted with a permanent free, uncharged porosity, as well as with structural information on the permanent anion exclusion because of so-called bottleneck pores. Both parameters can only be evaluated from experiments. Nevertheless, taking these two adaptions into account, the effect of varying pore water compositions on the anion-accessible porosity of the investigated argillaceous rocks could be satisfactorily described. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of the pore water composition on the diffusive anion transport in argillaceous, low permeability sedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigger, Cornelia; Van Loon, Luc R.

    2018-06-01

    The effect of the pore water composition on the diffusive anion transport was studied for two different argillaceous, low permeability sedimentary rocks, Opalinus Clay (OPA) and Helvetic Marl (HM). The samples were saturated with different solutions with varying molar concentration and different main cations in the solution: NaCl based pore solutions and CaCl2 based pore solutions. The total porosity was measured by through-diffusion experiments with the neutral tracer HTO. Experiments performed in NaCl solutions resulted in a porosity of 0.12 for OPA and 0.03 for HM, and are consistent with results of the experiments in CaCl2 solutions. The total porosity was independent of the molar concentration, in contrast to the measured anion porosity, which increased with increasing molar concentration. It could further be observed that the pore solution based on the bivalent cation calcium shielded the negative surface charge stronger than the monovalent cation sodium, resulting in a larger measureable anion-accessible porosity in the case of CaCl2 solutions. The data was modelled based on an adapted Donnan approach of Birgersson and Karnland (2009). The model had to be adjusted with a permanent free, uncharged porosity, as well as with structural information on the permanent anion exclusion because of so-called bottleneck pores. Both parameters can only be evaluated from experiments. Nevertheless, taking these two adaptions into account, the effect of varying pore water compositions on the anion-accessible porosity of the investigated argillaceous rocks could be satisfactorily described.

  13. Anion binding in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiters, Martin C [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [EMBL Hamburg Outstation at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu, 344090 (Russian Federation); Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris-VI, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, BP 74, F-29682 Roscoff cedex, Bretagne (France); Kuepper, Frithjof C [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 20, Zuerich, 8093 (Switzerland); Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R, E-mail: m.feiters@science.ru.n [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L{sub 3} (2p{sub 3/2}) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  14. Anion binding in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiters, Martin C; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Kuepper, Frithjof C; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P; Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2009-01-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L 3 (2p 3/2 ) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  15. Anion binding in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  16. Anion embedded sol-gel films on Al for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffer, Mari; Groysman, Alec; Starosvetsky, David; Savchenko, Natali; Mandler, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    We report here on the successful incorporation of organic anions into a sol-gel film on Al as a means of enhancing the protection against corrosion. Following our previous study where we showed that hydrophobic sol-gel films provided pronounced corrosion inhibition, we studied the corrosion inhibition that phenylphosphonic acid (PPA) has when embedded inside a thin sol-gel coating on Al. The anion of this organic anion tends to stay inside a phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS) based sol-gel film due to π-interactions. Our findings, which are derived primarily from potentiodynamic polarization measurements, electrochemical noise, scanning electron microscopy measurements and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), clearly show that the organic phosphonate adds to the protection efficiency of the sol-gel film

  17. Kinetics of corrosion inhibition of aluminum in acidic media by water-soluble natural polymeric chondroitin-4-sulfate as anionic polyelectrolyte inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Refat M; Ibrahim, Samia M; Takagi, Hideo D; Sayed, Suzan A

    2018-07-15

    Corrosion inhibition of aluminum (Al) in hydrochloric acid by anionic polyelectrolyte chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS) polysaccharide has been studied using both gasometrical and weight-loss techniques. The results drawn from these two techniques are comparable and exhibit negligible differences. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing the inhibitor concentration and decreased with increasing temperature. The inhibition action of CS on Al metal surface was found to obey both of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The factors affecting the corrosion rates such as the concentration and geometrical structure of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive medium, and the temperature were examined. The kinetic parameters were evaluated and a suitable corrosion mechanism consistent with the results obtained is discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The Mechanistic Basis for Noncompetitive Ibogaine Inhibition of Serotonin and Dopamine Transporters*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulling, Simon; Schicker, Klaus; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Steinkellner, Thomas; Stockner, Thomas; Gruber, Christian W.; Boehm, Stefan; Freissmuth, Michael; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H.; Sandtner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid proposed as a treatment for opiate withdrawal, has been shown to inhibit serotonin transporter (SERT) noncompetitively, in contrast to all other known inhibitors, which are competitive with substrate. Ibogaine binding to SERT increases accessibility in the permeation pathway connecting the substrate-binding site with the cytoplasm. Because of the structural similarity between ibogaine and serotonin, it had been suggested that ibogaine binds to the substrate site of SERT. The results presented here show that ibogaine binds to a distinct site, accessible from the cell exterior, to inhibit both serotonin transport and serotonin-induced ionic currents. Ibogaine noncompetitively inhibited transport by both SERT and the homologous dopamine transporter (DAT). Ibogaine blocked substrate-induced currents also in DAT and increased accessibility of the DAT cytoplasmic permeation pathway. When present on the cell exterior, ibogaine inhibited SERT substrate-induced currents, but not when it was introduced into the cytoplasm through the patch electrode. Similar to noncompetitive transport inhibition, the current block was not reversed by increasing substrate concentration. The kinetics of inhibitor binding and dissociation, as determined by their effect on SERT currents, indicated that ibogaine does not inhibit by forming a long-lived complex with SERT, but rather binds directly to the transporter in an inward-open conformation. A kinetic model for transport describing the noncompetitive action of ibogaine and the competitive action of cocaine accounts well for the results of the present study. PMID:22451652

  19. The mechanistic basis for noncompetitive ibogaine inhibition of serotonin and dopamine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulling, Simon; Schicker, Klaus; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Steinkellner, Thomas; Stockner, Thomas; Gruber, Christian W; Boehm, Stefan; Freissmuth, Michael; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H; Sandtner, Walter

    2012-05-25

    Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid proposed as a treatment for opiate withdrawal, has been shown to inhibit serotonin transporter (SERT) noncompetitively, in contrast to all other known inhibitors, which are competitive with substrate. Ibogaine binding to SERT increases accessibility in the permeation pathway connecting the substrate-binding site with the cytoplasm. Because of the structural similarity between ibogaine and serotonin, it had been suggested that ibogaine binds to the substrate site of SERT. The results presented here show that ibogaine binds to a distinct site, accessible from the cell exterior, to inhibit both serotonin transport and serotonin-induced ionic currents. Ibogaine noncompetitively inhibited transport by both SERT and the homologous dopamine transporter (DAT). Ibogaine blocked substrate-induced currents also in DAT and increased accessibility of the DAT cytoplasmic permeation pathway. When present on the cell exterior, ibogaine inhibited SERT substrate-induced currents, but not when it was introduced into the cytoplasm through the patch electrode. Similar to noncompetitive transport inhibition, the current block was not reversed by increasing substrate concentration. The kinetics of inhibitor binding and dissociation, as determined by their effect on SERT currents, indicated that ibogaine does not inhibit by forming a long-lived complex with SERT, but rather binds directly to the transporter in an inward-open conformation. A kinetic model for transport describing the noncompetitive action of ibogaine and the competitive action of cocaine accounts well for the results of the present study.

  20. Regulation of Expression of Renal Organic Anion Transporters OAT1 and OAT3 in a Model of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Preising

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, we gained evidence that impairment of rOat1 and rOat3 expression induced by ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI is mediated by COX metabolites and this suppression might be critically involved in renal damage. Methods: (i Basolateral organic anion uptake into proximal tubular cells after model ischemia and reperfusion (I/R was investigated by fluorescein uptake. The putative promoter sequences from hOAT1 (SLC22A6 and hOAT3 (SCL22A8 were cloned into a reporter plasmid, transfected into HEK cells and (ii transcriptional activity was determined after model ischemia and reperfusion as a SEAP reporter gen assay. Inhibitors or antagonists were applied with the beginning of reperfusion. Results: By using inhibitors of PKA (H89 and PLC (U73122, antagonists of E prostanoid receptor type 2 (AH6809 and type 4 (L161,982, we gained evidence that I/R induced down regulation of organic anion transport is mediated by COX1 metabolites via E prostanoid receptor type 4. The latter signaling was confirmed by application of butaprost (EP2 agonist or TCS2510 (EP4 agonist to control cells. In brief, the latter signaling was verified for the transcriptional activity in the reporter gen assay established. Therein, selective inhibitors for COX1 (SC58125 and COX2 (SC560 were also applied. Conclusion: Our data show (a that COX1 metabolites are involved in the regulation of renal organic anion transport(ers after I/R via the EP4 receptor and (b that this is due to transcriptional regulation of the respective transporters. As the promoter sequences cloned were of human origin and expressed in a human renal epithelial cell line we (c hypothesize that the regulatory mechanisms described after I/R is meaningful for humans as well.

  1. Structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport in anion-engineered zinc oxynitride nanocrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian, Fenglin; Ye, Jiandong; Gu, Shulin; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    In this work, anion alloying is engineered in ZnON nanocrystalline films, and the resultant evolution of the structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport is investigated. A broad distribution of sub-gap states above the valence band maximum is introduced by nitrogen due to the hybridization of N 2p and O 2p orbitals. The phase transition from partially amorphous states to full crystallinity occurs above a characteristic growth temperature of 100 °C, and the localized states are suppressed greatly due to the reduction of nitrogen composition. The electronic properties are dominated by grain boundary scattering and electron transport across boundary barriers through thermal activation at band edge states at high temperatures. The conductivity below 130 K exhibits a weak temperature dependence, which is a signature of variable-range hopping conduction between localized states introduced by nitrogen incorporation.

  2. Endocytic Uptake, Transport and Macromolecular Interactions of Anionic PAMAM Dendrimers within Lung Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Aljayyoussi, Ghaith; Mansour, Omar; Griffiths, Peter; Gumbleton, Mark

    2017-12-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are a promising class of nanocarrier with applications in both small and large molecule drug delivery. Here we report a comprehensive evaluation of the uptake and transport pathways that contribute to the lung disposition of dendrimers. Anionic PAMAM dendrimers and control dextran probes were applied to an isolated perfused rat lung (IPRL) model and lung epithelial monolayers. Endocytosis pathways were examined in primary alveolar epithelial cultures by confocal microscopy. Molecular interactions of dendrimers with protein and lipid lung fluid components were studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Dendrimers were absorbed across the intact lung via a passive, size-dependent transport pathway at rates slower than dextrans of similar molecular sizes. SANS investigations of concentration-dependent PAMAM transport in the IPRL confirmed no aggregation of PAMAMs with either albumin or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine lung lining fluid components. Distinct endocytic compartments were identified within primary alveolar epithelial cells and their functionality in the rapid uptake of fluorescent dendrimers and model macromolecular probes was confirmed by co-localisation studies. PAMAM dendrimers display favourable lung biocompatibility but modest lung to blood absorption kinetics. These data support the investigation of dendrimer-based carriers for controlled-release drug delivery to the deep lung.

  3. Potential for food-drug interactions by dietary phenolic acids on human organic anion transporters 1 (SLC22A6), 3 (SLC22A8), and 4 (SLC22A11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Sweet, Douglas H

    2012-10-15

    Phenolic acids exert beneficial health effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities and show systemic exposure after consumption of common fruits, vegetables, and beverages. However, knowledge regarding which components convey therapeutic benefits and the mechanism(s) by which they cross cell membranes is extremely limited. Therefore, we determined the inhibitory effects of nine food-derived phenolic acids, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, gentisic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, sinapinic acid, syringic acid, and vanillic acid, on human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1), hOAT3, and hOAT4. In the present study, inhibition of OAT-mediated transport of prototypical substrates (1 μM) by phenolic acids (100 μM) was examined in stably expressing cell lines. All compounds significantly inhibited hOAT3 transport, while just ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, sinapinic, and vanillic acid significantly blocked hOAT1 activity. Only sinapinic acid inhibited hOAT4 (~35%). For compounds exhibiting inhibition > ~60%, known clinical plasma concentration levels and plasma protein binding in humans were examined to select compounds to evaluate further with dose-response curves (IC(50) values) and drug-drug interaction (DDI) index determinations. IC(50) values ranged from 1.24 to 18.08 μM for hOAT1 and from 7.35 to 87.36 μM for hOAT3. Maximum DDI indices for gallic and gentisic acid (≫0.1) indicated a very strong potential for DDIs on hOAT1 and/or hOAT3. This study indicates that gallic acid from foods or supplements, or gentisic acid from salicylate-based drug metabolism, may significantly alter the pharmacokinetics (efficacy and toxicity) of concomitant therapeutics that are hOAT1 and/or hOAT3 substrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of the repaglinide concentration increase produced by gemfibrozil and itraconazole based on the inhibition of the hepatic uptake transporter and metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Toshiyuki; Hisaka, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Ito, Kiyomi

    2013-02-01

    The plasma concentration of repaglinide is reported to increase greatly when given after repeated oral administration of itraconazole and gemfibrozil. The present study analyzed this interaction based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating inhibition of the hepatic uptake transporter and metabolic enzymes involved in repaglinide disposition. Firstly, the plasma concentration profiles of inhibitors (itraconazole, gemfibrozil, and gemfibrozil glucuronide) were reproduced by a PBPK model to obtain their pharmacokinetic parameters. The plasma concentration profiles of repaglinide were then analyzed by a PBPK model, together with those of the inhibitors, assuming a competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 by itraconazole, mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8 by gemfibrozil glucuronide, and inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 by gemfibrozil and its glucuronide. The plasma concentration profiles of repaglinide were well reproduced by the PBPK model based on the above assumptions, and the optimized values for the inhibition constants (0.0676 nM for itraconazole against CYP3A4; 14.2 μM for gemfibrozil against OATP1B1; and 5.48 μM for gemfibrozil glucuronide against OATP1B1) and the fraction of repaglinide metabolized by CYP2C8 (0.801) were consistent with the reported values. The validity of the obtained parameters was further confirmed by sensitivity analyses and by reproducing the repaglinide concentration increase produced by concomitant gemfibrozil administration at various timings/doses. The present findings suggested that the reported concentration increase of repaglinide, suggestive of synergistic effects of the coadministered inhibitors, can be quantitatively explained by the simultaneous inhibition of the multiple clearance pathways of repaglinide.

  5. Evidence of active transport of cadmium complexing dithiocarbamates into renal and hepatic cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, G.R.; Smith, A.B.; Jones, M.M.; Singh, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of certain inhibitors of transport systems on the actions of four cadmium (Cd) complexing N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates (DTCs) in mobilizing murine renal and hepatic Cd in vivo. Probenecid, the prototypical antagonist of organic anion transport in the kidney, when given 1 hr prior to each DTC, sharply suppressed the DTC-induced reduction of renal Cd but was virtually without effect on mobilization of Cd from liver. Sulfinpyrazone, which blocks tubular reabsorption of uric acid and also inhibits transport of a variety of organic acids, inhibited markedly the mobilization of both renal and hepatic Cd by DTCs. Phlorizin, an inhibitor of tubular sugar reabsorption, did not affect the Cd mobilizing actions of DTCs in any consistent fashion. We propose that the high degree of selectivity of DTCs in mobilizing renal hepatic Cd is dependent, at lest in part, upon active transport of DTCs into these tissues via the organic anion transport systems. This report presents the first evidence that compounds of the (R) 2 NCSS - class may gain access to intracellular space by an active, carrier-mediated process. (au)

  6. The roles of anion and solvent transport during the redox switching process at a poly(butyl viologen) film studied by an EQCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chih-Yu.; Liao, Chun-Hao [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Ho, Kuo-Chuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China)

    2008-02-15

    In this study, three electrolytes (KCl, LiCl, and KNO{sub 3}, each at 0.5 M in aqueous solution) were chosen to study the ion and solvent effect on the redox performance of poly(butyl viologen) (PBV) thin-films between its di-cation and radical-cation state, which is referred as its first redox couple. Before considering the role of ionic transport on the redox process, the exchange between ferrocyanide and anion should be completed. Since the deposition solution of PBV contains potassium ferrocyanide, the residual ferrocyanides inside the films would be exchanged by smaller anions from the bulk solution during the redox reaction of PBV. From cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) results, the exchange was almost complete around 50 cycles when scanning the potential within its first redox range. After completion of the exchange process, the transfer would reach a steady state. At 50 cycles, the EQCM results suggested that the transport involves anions and water only for both being extracted upon reduction and being inserted upon oxidation. Therefore, we could obtain the molar fluxes of Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and water. Besides, the average numbers of accompanying water were calculated to be about 24.8 per Cl{sup -} and 14.2 per NO{sub 3}{sup -} upon redox switching process. The instantaneous water to anion molar ratios at any potential were also obtained for Cl{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}. (author)

  7. Molecular evidence for an involvement of organic anion transporters (OATs) in aristolochic acid nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhiya, Nadiya; Arlt, Volker M.; Bahn, Andrew; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Phillips, David H.; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2009-01-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA), present in Aristolochia species, is the major causative agent in the development of severe renal failure and urothelial cancers in patients with AA nephropathy. It may also be a cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule are the primary cellular target of AA. To study whether organic anion transporters (OATs) expressed in proximal tubule cells are involved in uptake of AA, we used human epithelial kidney (HEK293) cells stably expressing human (h) OAT1, OAT3 or OAT4. AA potently inhibited the uptake of characteristic substrates, p-aminohippurate for hOAT1 and estrone sulfate for hOAT3 and hOAT4. Aristolochic acid I (AAI), the more cytotoxic and genotoxic AA congener, exhibited high affinity for hOAT1 (K i = 0.6 μM) as well as hOAT3 (K i = 0.5 μM), and lower affinity for hOAT4 (K i = 20.6 μM). Subsequently, AAI-DNA adduct formation (investigated by 32 P-postlabelling) was used as a measure of AAI uptake. Significantly higher levels of adducts occurred in hOAT-expressing cells than in control cells: this effect was abolished in the presence of the OAT inhibitor probenecid. In Xenopus laevis oocytes hOAT-mediated efflux of p-aminohippurate was trans-stimulated by extracellular AA, providing further molecular evidence for AA translocation by hOATs. Our study indicates that OATs can mediate the uptake of AA into proximal tubule cells and thereby participate in kidney cell damage by this toxin.

  8. Anion-coupled Na efflux mediated by the human red blood cell Na/K pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, S.; Hoffman, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The red cell Na/K pump is known to continue to extrude Na when both Na and K are removed from the external medium. Because this ouabain-sensitive flux occurs in the absence of an exchangeable cation, it is referred to as uncoupled Na efflux. This flux is also known to be inhibited by 5 mM Nao but to a lesser extent than that inhibitable by ouabain. Uncoupled Na efflux via the Na/K pump therefore can be divided into a Nao-sensitive and Nao-insensitive component. We used DIDS-treated, SO4-equilibrated human red blood cells suspended in HEPES-buffered (pHo 7.4) MgSO4 or (Tris)2SO4, in which we measured 22Na efflux, 35SO4 efflux, and changes in the membrane potential with the fluorescent dye, diS-C3 (5). A principal finding is that uncoupled Na efflux occurs electroneurally, in contrast to the pump's normal electrogenic operation when exchanging Nai for Ko. This electroneutral uncoupled efflux of Na was found to be balanced by an efflux of cellular anions. (We were unable to detect any ouabain-sensitive uptake of protons, measured in an unbuffered medium at pH 7.4 with a Radiometer pH-STAT.) The Nao-sensitive efflux of Nai was found to be 1.95 +/- 0.10 times the Nao-sensitive efflux of (SO4)i, indicating that the stoichiometry of this cotransport is two Na+ per SO4=, accounting for 60-80% of the electroneutral Na efflux. The remainder portion, that is, the ouabain-sensitive Nao-insensitive component, has been identified as PO4-coupled Na transport and is the subject of a separate paper. That uncoupled Na efflux occurs as a cotransport with anions is supported by the result, obtained with resealed ghosts, that when internal and external SO4 was substituted by the impermeant anion, tartrate i,o, the efflux of Na was inhibited 60-80%. This inhibition could be relieved by the inclusion, before DIDS treatment, of 5 mM Cli,o

  9. Thienoquinolins exert diuresis by strongly inhibiting UT-A urea transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huiwen; Wang, Yanhua; Xing, Yongning; Ran, Jianhua; Liu, Ming; Lei, Tianluo; Zhou, Hong; Li, Runtao; Sands, Jeff M.

    2014-01-01

    Urea transporters (UT) play an important role in the urine concentration mechanism by mediating intrarenal urea recycling, suggesting that UT inhibitors could have therapeutic use as a novel class of diuretic. Recently, we found a thienoquinolin UT inhibitor, PU-14, that exhibited diuretic activity. The purpose of this study was to identify more potent UT inhibitors that strongly inhibit UT-A isoforms in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). Efficient thienoquinolin UT inhibitors were identified by structure-activity relationship analysis. Urea transport inhibition activity was assayed in perfused rat terminal IMCDs. Diuretic activity of the compound was determined in rats and mice using metabolic cages. The results show that the compound PU-48 exhibited potent UT-A inhibition activity. The inhibition was 69.5% with an IC50 of 0.32 μM. PU-48 significantly inhibited urea transport in perfused rat terminal IMCDs. PU-48 caused significant diuresis in UT-B null mice, which indicates that UT-A is the target of PU-48. The diuresis caused by PU-48 did not change blood Na+, K+, or Cl− levels or nonurea solute excretion in rats and mice. No toxicity was detected in cells or animals treated with PU-48. The results indicate that thienoquinolin UT inhibitors induce a diuresis by inhibiting UT-A in the IMCD. This suggests that they may have the potential to be developed as a novel class of diuretics with fewer side effects than classical diuretics. PMID:25298523

  10. Assessment of vandetanib as an inhibitor of various human renal transporters: inhibition of multidrug and toxin extrusion as a possible mechanism leading to decreased cisplatin and creatinine clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Yang, Zheng; Zhao, Weiping; Zhang, Yueping; Rodrigues, A David

    2013-12-01

    Vandetanib was evaluated as an inhibitor of human organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), OAT3, organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), and multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE1 and MATE2K) transfected (individually) into human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293). Although no inhibition of OAT1 and OAT3 was observed, inhibition of OCT2-mediated uptake of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and metformin was evident (IC(50) of 73.4 ± 14.8 and 8.8 ± 1.9 µM, respectively). However, vandetanib was an even more potent inhibitor of MATE1- and MATE2K-mediated uptake of MPP(+) (IC(50) of 1.23 ± 0.05 and 1.26 ± 0.06 µM, respectively) and metformin (IC(50) of 0.16 ± 0.05 and 0.30 ± 0.09 µM, respectively). Subsequent cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that transport inhibition by vandetanib (2.5 µM) significantly decreased the sensitivity [right shift in concentration of cisplatin giving rise to 50% cell death; IC(50(CN))] of MATE1-HEK and MATE2K-HEK cells to cisplatin [IC(50(CN)) of 1.12 ± 0.13 versus 2.39 ± 0.44 µM; 0.85 ± 0.09 versus 1.99 ± 0.16 µM; P cisplatin nephrotoxicity (reduced cisplatin clearance), in some subjects receiving vandetanib therapy.

  11. Preliminary integrated calculation of radionuclide cation and anion transport at Yucca Mountain using a geochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, K.H.; Campbell, K.; Eggert, K.G.; Travis, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary transport calculations for radionuclide movement at Yucca Mountain using preliminary data for mineral distributions, retardation parameter distributions, and hypothetical recharge scenarios. These calculations are not performance assessments, but are used to study the effectiveness of the geochemical barriers at the site at mechanistic level. The preliminary calculations presented have many shortcomings and should be viewed only as a demonstration of the modeling methodology. The simulations were run with TRACRN, a finite-difference porous flow and radionuclide transport code developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. Approximately 30,000 finite-difference nodes are used to represent the unsaturated and saturated zones underlying the repository in three dimensions. Sorption ratios for the radionuclides modeled are assumed to be functions of mineralogic assemblages of the underlying rock. These transport calculations present a representative radionuclide cation, 135 Cs and anion, 99 Tc. The effects on transport of many of the processes thought to be active at Yucca Mountain may be examined using this approach. The model provides a method for examining the integration of flow scenarios, transport, and retardation processes as currently understood for the site. It will also form the basis for estimates of the sensitivity of transport calculations to retardation processes. 11 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  12. Sites of inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport in macrophage-injured neoplastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, D L; Lehninger, A L

    1982-11-01

    Previous work has shown that injury of neoplastic cells by cytotoxic macrophages (CM) in cell culture is accompanied by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. We have investigated the nature of this inhibition by studying mitochondrial respiration in CM-injured leukemia L1210 cells permeabilized with digitonin. CM-induced injury affects the mitochondrial respiratory chain proper. Complex I (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) and complex II (succinate-coenzyme Q reductase) are markedly inhibited. In addition a minor inhibition of cytochrome oxidase was found. Electron transport from alpha-glycerophosphate through the respiratory chain to oxygen is unaffected and permeabilized CM-injured L1210 cells oxidizing this substrate exhibit acceptor control. However, glycerophosphate shuttle activity was found not to occur within CM-injured or uninjured L1210 cells in culture hence, alpha-glycerophosphate is apparently unavailable for mitochondrial oxidation in the intact cell. It is concluded that the failure of respiration of intact neoplastic cells injured by CM is caused by the nearly complete inhibition of complexes I and II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The time courses of CM-induced electron transport inhibition and arrest of L1210 cell division are examined and the possible relationship between these phenomena is discussed.

  13. Bidirectional transport of iminodiacetic organic anion analogues between plasma and hepatocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.; Myers, M.J.; Mohammadtaghi, S.; Mubashar, M.; Mathie, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics of organic anions are well described and back-diffusion from hepatocyte to plasma is accepted. Although iminodiacetic (IDA) analogues, as organic anions, should also show bidirectional transport between hepatocyte and plasma, this has not been directly demonstrated heretofore. The aim of this study was to directly demonstrate back-diffusion and to quantify it in terms of its fractional rate constant. Kinetics of diethyl IDA were studied in three anaesthetised dogs in which femoral arterial and hepatic venous samples were obtained after injection of tracer into (a) a peripheral vein or (b) hepatic artery or portal vein. Arterial time-concentration curves were also compared between peripheral venous and either hepatic arterial or portal venous injections. Time-activity curves were recorded from regions of interest over the cardiac blood pool and peripheral hepatic parenchyma in 30 patients undergoing routine IDA hepatobiliary imaging with diethyl IDA or mebrofenin and fractional rate constants of clearance of IDA from the hepatocyte compared between compartmental and deconvolution analyses. After peripheral injection in dogs, there was an early arteriovenous concentration gradient across the liver indicating an hepatocyte extraction fraction in the three animals of 0.9, 0.8 and 0.6. The net extraction fraction decreased exponentially over 40 min. Time-concentration curves from hepatic vein and femoral artery were virtually superimposed following intrahepatic injections. Peripheral arterial curves, however, had different shapes according to whether injections were intrahepatic or peripheral, and were consistent with significant back-diffusion. In clinical studies, the blood disappearance curves were fitted as the sum of two exponentials and the liver curves as the difference of two exponentials (with rate constants denoted α 1 h and α 2 h ). Based on compartmental analysis of the blood curves, the sum of the fractional rate constants of tracer movement

  14. Extracellular determinants of anion discrimination of the Cl-/H+ antiporter protein CLC-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Silvia; Pusch, Michael; Zifarelli, Giovanni

    2011-12-23

    Mammalian CLC proteins comprise both Cl- channels and Cl-/H+ antiporters that carry out fundamental physiological tasks by transporting Cl- across plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. The NO3- over Cl- preference of a plant CLC transporter has been pinpointed to a conserved serine residue located at Scen and it is generally assumed that the other two binding sites of CLCs, Sext and Sin, do not substantially contribute to anion selectivity. Here we show for the Cl-/H+ antiporter CLC-5 that the conserved and extracellularly exposed Lys210 residue is critical to determine the anion specificity for transport activity. In particular, mutations that neutralize or invert the charge at this position reverse the NO3- over Cl- preference of WT CLC-5 at a concentration of 100 mm, but do not modify the coupling stoichiometry with H+. The importance of the electrical charge is shown by chemical modification of K210C with positively charged cysteine-reactive compounds that reintroduce the WT preference for Cl-. At saturating extracellular anion concentrations, neutralization of Lys210 is of little impact on the anion preference, suggesting an important role of Lys210 on the association rate of extracellular anions to Sext.

  15. Acute and chronic influence of temperature on red blood cell anion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, F B; Wang, T; Brahm, J

    2001-01-01

    Unidirectional (36)Cl(-) efflux via the red blood cell anion exchanger was measured under Cl(-) self-exchange conditions (i.e. no net flow of anions) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and red-eared freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta to examine the effects of acute temperature changes and acclimation temperature on this process. We also evaluated the possible adaptation of anion exchange to different temperature regimes by including our previously published data on other animals. An acute temperature increase caused a significant increase in the rate constant (k) for unidirectional Cl(-) efflux in rainbow trout and freshwater turtle. After 3 weeks of temperature acclimation, 5 degrees C-acclimated rainbow trout showed only marginally higher Cl(-) transport rates than 15 degrees C-acclimated trout when compared at the same temperature. Apparent activation energies for red blood cell Cl(-) exchange in trout and turtle were lower than values reported in endothermic animals. The Q(10) for red blood cell anion exchange was 2.0 in trout and 2.3 in turtle, values close to those for CO(2) excretion, suggesting that, in ectothermic animals, the temperature sensitivity of band-3-mediated anion exchange matches the temperature sensitivity of CO(2) transport (where red blood cell Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange is a rate-limiting step). In endotherms, such as man and chicken, Q(10) values for red blood cell anion exchange are considerably higher but are no obstacle to CO(2) transport, because body temperature is normally kept constant at values at which anion exchange rates are high. When compared at constant temperature, red blood cell Cl(-) permeability shows large differences among species (trout, carp, eel, cod, turtle, alligator, chicken and man). Cl(-) permeabilities are, however, remarkable similar when compared at preferred body temperatures, suggesting an appropriate evolutionary adaptation of red blood cell anion exchange function to the different thermal niches occupied

  16. The distribution of the anti-HIV drug, 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), across the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers and the influence of organic anion transport inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, J E; Thomas, S A

    2002-02-01

    The brain and CSF distribution of the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor, 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), was investigated by the in situ brain perfusion and isolated incubated choroid plexus methods in the guinea pig. Multiple-time brain perfusions indicated that the distribution of [3H]ddC to the brain and CSF was low and the unidirectional rate constant (K(in)) for the brain uptake of this nucleoside analogue (0.52 +/- 0.10 microL/min/g) was not significantly different to that for the vascular marker, [14C]mannitol (0.44 +/- 0.09 microL/min/g). The influence of unlabelled ddC, six organic anion transport inhibitors and 3'-azido 3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) on the CNS uptake of [3H]ddC was examined in situ and in vitro. ddC, probenecid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid altered the distribution of [3H]ddC into the brain and choroid plexuses, indicating that the limited distribution of [3H]ddC was a result of an organic anion efflux transporter, in addition to the low lipophilicity of this drug (octanol-saline partition coefficient, 0.047 +/- 0.001). The CNS distribution was also sensitive to p-aminohippurate and deltorphin II, but not digoxin, suggesting the involvement of organic anion transporters (OAT1/OAT3-like) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP1/OATPA-like). AZT did not effect the accumulation of [3H]ddC, indicating that when these nucleoside analogues are used in anti-HIV combination therapy, the CNS distribution of ddC is unchanged.

  17. Competition of organic anions for furosemide and p-aminohippurate secretion in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidiville, J.; Roch-Ramel, F.

    1986-01-01

    The excretion of [ 14 C]- or [ 35 S]furosemide and [ 3 H]-p-aminohippurate (PAH) injected within 4 min into the left renal artery of rabbits was measured under brisk mannitol diuresis. The estimated rate of furosemide secretion during the first pass through the left kidney was lower than that of PAH when neither of the two transport processes were saturated: 7.9 and 12.9% of the total amounts injected were secreted per minute, respectively. Different competitive inhibitors were injected i.v. Probenecid (50 mg/kg) inhibited furosemide and PAH secretion by 95 and 80%, respectively. Pyrazinoate at plasma concentrations of 3 to 5 mM had no effect on either anion. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) depressed furosemide secretion by 24% but had no effect on PAH secretion. PAH at a concentration of 9 to 17 mM in plasma depressed furosemide secretion by only 44 to 66%. Furosemide did not inhibit PAH secretion when infused into the left renal artery at a rate 5000 times higher than PAH. It was concluded that furosemide is secreted partly by the transport system secreting PAH, for which it had only a low affinity, and partly by a transport system for which indomethacin had some affinity. This latter transport system, in turn, differs from that secreting pyrazinoate. The furosemide-induced natriuresis, in both kidneys, was proportional to the urinary excretion rate of furosemide until the fractional excretion of Na+ reached an apparent maximum of 20 to 30%

  18. A novel outer-membrane anion channel (porin) as part of a putatively two-component transport system for 4-toluenesulphonate in Comamonas testosteroni T-2

    OpenAIRE

    Mampel, Jörg; Maier, Elke; Tralau, Tewes; Ruff, Jürgen; Benz, Roland; Cook, Alasdair M.

    2004-01-01

    Inducible mineralization of TSA (4-toluenesulphonate) by Comamonas testosteroni T-2 is initiated by a secondary transport system, followed by oxygenation and oxidation by TsaMBCD to 4-sulphobenzoate under the regulation of TsaR and TsaQ. Evidence is presented for a novel, presumably two-component transport system (TsaST). It is proposed that TsaT, an outer-membrane porin, formed an anion-selective channel that works in co-operation with the putative secondary transporter, TsaS, located in the...

  19. Corrosion of conductive polypyrrole: Effects of environmental factors, electrochemical stimulation, and doping anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Kai; Qiu Yubing; Chen Zhenyu; Guo Xingpeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosive galvanic cells form on PPy film with the electrochemical reduction of O 2. ► Suitable electrochemical stimulation can inhibit the PPy’s corrosion. ► PPy film doped with larger sized anions has better corrosion resistance performance. - Abstract: The effects of environmental factors, electrochemical stimulation, and doping anions on the corrosion behaviour of conductive polypyrrole (PPy) films in alkaline aqueous media were studied with cyclic voltammetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. High concentrations of electrolyte, low dissolved oxygen and low temperatures enhance the stability of PPy. Polarising PPy at a negative potential inhibits its corrosion obviously. PPy doped with large counter anions shows better corrosion resistance than PPy doped with small counter ions. The possible mechanism involved in PPy corrosion process is discussed.

  20. Cytosolic nucleotides block and regulate the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingbo; Martinoia, Enrico; De Angeli, Alexis

    2014-09-12

    The aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form a membrane protein family exhibiting different physiological roles in plants, varying from conferring tolerance to environmental Al(3+) to the regulation of stomatal movement. The regulation of the anion channels of the ALMT family is largely unknown. Identifying intracellular modulators of the activity of anion channels is fundamental to understanding their physiological functions. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic nucleotides in regulating the activity of the vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9. We found that cytosolic nucleotides modulate the transport activity of AtALMT9. This modulation was based on a direct block of the pore of the channel at negative membrane potentials (open channel block) by the nucleotide and not by a phosphorylation mechanism. The block by nucleotides of AtALMT9-mediated currents was voltage dependent. The blocking efficiency of intracellular nucleotides increased with the number of phosphate groups and ATP was the most effective cellular blocker. Interestingly, the ATP block induced a marked modification of the current-voltage characteristic of AtALMT9. In addition, increased concentrations of vacuolar anions were able to shift the ATP block threshold to a more negative membrane potential. The block of AtALMT9-mediated anion currents by ATP at negative membrane potentials acts as a gate of the channel and vacuolar anion tune this gating mechanism. Our results suggest that anion transport across the vacuolar membrane in plant cells is controlled by cytosolic nucleotides and the energetic status of the cell. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Cytosolic Nucleotides Block and Regulate the Arabidopsis Vacuolar Anion Channel AtALMT9*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingbo; Martinoia, Enrico; De Angeli, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form a membrane protein family exhibiting different physiological roles in plants, varying from conferring tolerance to environmental Al3+ to the regulation of stomatal movement. The regulation of the anion channels of the ALMT family is largely unknown. Identifying intracellular modulators of the activity of anion channels is fundamental to understanding their physiological functions. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic nucleotides in regulating the activity of the vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9. We found that cytosolic nucleotides modulate the transport activity of AtALMT9. This modulation was based on a direct block of the pore of the channel at negative membrane potentials (open channel block) by the nucleotide and not by a phosphorylation mechanism. The block by nucleotides of AtALMT9-mediated currents was voltage dependent. The blocking efficiency of intracellular nucleotides increased with the number of phosphate groups and ATP was the most effective cellular blocker. Interestingly, the ATP block induced a marked modification of the current-voltage characteristic of AtALMT9. In addition, increased concentrations of vacuolar anions were able to shift the ATP block threshold to a more negative membrane potential. The block of AtALMT9-mediated anion currents by ATP at negative membrane potentials acts as a gate of the channel and vacuolar anion tune this gating mechanism. Our results suggest that anion transport across the vacuolar membrane in plant cells is controlled by cytosolic nucleotides and the energetic status of the cell. PMID:25028514

  2. Superoxide anion production by human neutrophils activated by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.

  3. Simultaneous Assessment of Transporter-Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions Using a Probe Drug Cocktail in Cynomolgus Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Rachel E; Lazzaro, Sarah; Bi, Yi-An; Tierney, Brendan; Gates, Dana; Modi, Sweta; Costales, Chester; Rodrigues, A David; Tremaine, Larry M; Varma, Manthena V

    2018-06-07

    We aim to establish an in vivo preclinical model to enable simultaneous assessment of inhibition potential of an investigational drug on clinically relevant drug transporters, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and organic anion transporter (OAT)3. Pharmacokinetics of substrate cocktail consisting of pitavastatin (OATP1B substrate), rosuvastatin (OATP1B/BCRP/OAT3), sulfasalazine (BCRP) and talinolol (P-gp) were obtained in cynomolgus monkey - alone or in combination with transporter inhibitors. Single dose rifampicin (30 mg/kg) significantly (pdrugs, with a marked effect on pitavastatin and rosuvastatin (AUC ratio ~21-39). Elacridar, BCRP/P-gp inhibitor, increased the AUC of sulfasalazine, talinolol, as well as rosuvastatin and pitavastatin. An OAT1/3 inhibitor (probenecid) significantly (pdrug-drug interaction risk assessment, before advancing a new molecular entity into clinical development, as well as providing mechanistic insights on transporter-mediated interactions. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Influence of norepinephrine transporter inhibition on hemodynamic response to hypergravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Strempel, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sympathetically-mediated tachycardia and vasoconstriction maintain blood pressure during hypergravitational stress, thereby preventing gravitation-induced loss of consciousness (g-LOC). Norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition prevents neurally-mediated (pre)syncope during gravitational stress imposed by head-up tilt testing. Thus, it seems reasonable that NET inhibition could increase tolerance to hypergravitational stress. Methods. We performed a double-blind, randomized...

  5. Extracellular Determinants of Anion Discrimination of the Cl−/H+ Antiporter Protein CLC-5*

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Silvia; Pusch, Michael; Zifarelli, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian CLC proteins comprise both Cl− channels and Cl−/H+ antiporters that carry out fundamental physiological tasks by transporting Cl− across plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. The NO3− over Cl− preference of a plant CLC transporter has been pinpointed to a conserved serine residue located at Scen and it is generally assumed that the other two binding sites of CLCs, Sext and Sin, do not substantially contribute to anion selectivity. Here we show for the Cl−/H+ antiporter CLC-5 that the conserved and extracellularly exposed Lys210 residue is critical to determine the anion specificity for transport activity. In particular, mutations that neutralize or invert the charge at this position reverse the NO3− over Cl− preference of WT CLC-5 at a concentration of 100 mm, but do not modify the coupling stoichiometry with H+. The importance of the electrical charge is shown by chemical modification of K210C with positively charged cysteine-reactive compounds that reintroduce the WT preference for Cl−. At saturating extracellular anion concentrations, neutralization of Lys210 is of little impact on the anion preference, suggesting an important role of Lys210 on the association rate of extracellular anions to Sext. PMID:21921031

  6. Flavonoids as modulators of metabolic enzymes and drug transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Anca; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Trifan, Adriana; Xiao, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Flavonoids, natural compounds found in plants and in plant-derived foods and beverages, have been extensively studied with regard to their capacity to modulate metabolic enzymes and drug transporters. In vitro, flavonoids predominantly inhibit the major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP450 3A4 and the enzymes responsible for the bioactivation of procarcinogens (CYP1 enzymes) and upregulate the enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification (UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs)). Flavonoids have been reported to inhibit ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (multidrug resistance (MDR)-associated proteins, breast cancer-resistance protein) that contribute to the development of MDR. P-glycoprotein, an ABC transporter that limits drug bioavailability and also induces MDR, was differently modulated by flavonoids. Flavonoids and their phase II metabolites (sulfates, glucuronides) inhibit organic anion transporters involved in the tubular uptake of nephrotoxic compounds. In vivo studies have partially confirmed in vitro findings, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of flavonoids are complex and difficult to predict in vivo. Data summarized in this review strongly support the view that flavonoids are promising candidates for the enhancement of oral drug bioavailability, chemoprevention, and reversal of MDR. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Transporter-mediated interaction of indican and methotrexate in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuan-Pey Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Indican (indoxyl-β-D-glucoside is present in several Chinese herbs e.g. Isatis indigotica, Polygonum tinctorium and Polygonum perfoliatum. The major metabolite of indican was indoxyl sulfate (IS, an uremic toxin which was a known substrate/inhibitor of organic anion transporter (OAT 1, OAT 3 and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP 4. Methotrexate (MTX, an important immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window, is a substrate of OAT 1, 2, 3, 4 and MRP 1, 2, 3, 4. We hypothesized that IS, the major metabolite of oral indican, might inhibit the renal excretion of MTX mediated by OAT 1, OAT 3 and MRP 4. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of oral indican on the pharmacokinetics of MTX. Rats were orally given MTX with and without indican (20.0 and 40.0 mg/kg in a parallel design. The serum MTX concentration was determined by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. For mechanism clarification, phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP, 5.0 mg/kg, a probe substrate of OAT 1, OAT 3, MRP 2 and MRP 4, was intravenously given to rats with and without a intravenous bolus of IS (10.0 mg/kg to measure the effect of IS on the elimination of PSP. The results indicated that 20.0 and 40.0 mg/kg of oral indican significantly increased the area under concentration–time curve0-t (AUC0-t of MTX by 231% and 259%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT by 223% and 204%, respectively. Furthermore, intravenous IS significantly increased the AUC0-t of PSP by 204% and decreased the Cl by 68%. In conclusion, oral indican increased the systemic exposure and MRT of MTX through inhibition on multiple anion transporters including OAT 1, OAT 3 and MRP 4 by the major metabolite IS. Keywords: Indican, Indoxyl sulfate, Methotrexate, Anion transporters, Pharmacokinetics

  8. Transport pathways in the malaria-infected erythrocyte: characterization and their use as potential targets for chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagai Ginsburg

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraerythrocytic malarial parasite is involved in an extremely intensive anabolic activity while it resides in its metabolically quiescent host cell. The necessary fast uptake of nutrients and the discharge of waste product, are guaranteed by parasite-induced alterations of the constitutive transporters of the host cell and the production of new parallel pathways. The membrane of the host cell thus becomes permeable to phospholipids, purine bases and nucleosides, small non-electrolytes, anions and cations. When the new pathways are quantitatively unimportant, classical inhibitors of native transporters can be used to inhibit parasite growth. Several compounds were found to effectively inhibit the new pathways and consequently, parasite growth. The pathways have also been used to introduce cytotoxic agents. The parasitophorous membrane consists of channels which are highly permeable to small solutes and display no ion selectivity. Transport of some cations and anions across the parasite membrane is rapid and insensitive to classical inhibitors, and in some cases it is mediated by specific antiporters which respond to their respective inhibitors. Macromolecules have been shown to reach the parasitophorous space through a duct contiguous with the host cell membrane, and subsequently to be endocytosed at the parasite membrane. The simultaneous presence of the parasitophorous membrane channels and the duct, however, is incompatible with experimental evidences. No specific inhibitors were found as yet that would efficiently inhibit transport through the channels or the duct.

  9. Anion-sensitive regions of L-type CaV1.2 calcium channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Babai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L-type calcium currents (I(Ca are influenced by changes in extracellular chloride, but sites of anion effects have not been identified. Our experiments showed that CaV1.2 currents expressed in HEK293 cells are strongly inhibited by replacing extracellular chloride with gluconate or perchlorate. Variance-mean analysis of I(Ca and cell-attached patch single channel recordings indicate that gluconate-induced inhibition is due to intracellular anion effects on Ca(2+ channel open probability, not conductance. Inhibition of CaV1.2 currents produced by replacing chloride with gluconate was reduced from approximately 75%-80% to approximately 50% by omitting beta subunits but unaffected by omitting alpha(2delta subunits. Similarly, gluconate inhibition was reduced to approximately 50% by deleting an alpha1 subunit N-terminal region of 15 residues critical for beta subunit interactions regulating open probability. Omitting beta subunits with this mutant alpha1 subunit did not further diminish inhibition. Gluconate inhibition was unchanged with expression of different beta subunits. Truncating the C terminus at AA1665 reduced gluconate inhibition from approximately 75%-80% to approximately 50% whereas truncating it at AA1700 had no effect. Neutralizing arginines at AA1696 and 1697 by replacement with glutamines reduced gluconate inhibition to approximately 60% indicating these residues are particularly important for anion effects. Expressing CaV1.2 channels that lacked both N and C termini reduced gluconate inhibition to approximately 25% consistent with additive interactions between the two tail regions. Our results suggest that modest changes in intracellular anion concentration can produce significant effects on CaV1.2 currents mediated by changes in channel open probability involving beta subunit interactions with the N terminus and a short C terminal region.

  10. Impaired activity of bile bile canalicular organic anion transporter (Mrp2/cmoat) is not the main cause of ethinylestradiol-induced cholestasis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopen, NR; Wolters, H; Havinga, R; Vonk, RJ; Jansen, PLM; Muller, M; Kuipers, F

    To test the hypothesis that impaired activity of the bile canalicular organic anion transporting system mrp2 (cmoat) is a key event in the etiology of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE)-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in rats, EE (5 mg/kg subcutaneously daily) was administered to male normal Wistar

  11. Inhibiting Cadmium Transport Process in Root Cells of Plants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Yan-ling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium(Cd is the most common element found in the heavy-metal contaminated soils in China. Roots of rice and vegetables can concentrate Cd from acid soils, and then transport Cd to above-ground parts. Cd in edible part of plants directly influences the food safety. Cellwall, plasma membrane and organells of root cells in plant can discriminate Cd from other elements. A lot of Cd can be fixed in root cells by precipitation, complexation, compartmentation, and so on, to inhibit its transport from roots to shoot and guarantee the physiological activities in above-ground parts carrying out normally. This paper summarized recent advance on inhibiting Cd transport process in subcellular fractions of root cells of plants, which is in advantage of exploring excellent germplasms and gene resources in the future.

  12. Role of gemfibrozil as an inhibitor of CYP2C8 and membrane transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornio, Aleksi; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Niemi, Mikko; Backman, Janne T

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 is a drug metabolizing enzyme of major importance. The lipid-lowering drug gemfibrozil has been identified as a strong inhibitor of CYP2C8 in vivo. This effect is due to mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8 by gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide. In vivo, gemfibrozil is a fairly selective CYP2C8 inhibitor, which lacks significant inhibitory effect on other CYP enzymes. Gemfibrozil can, however, have a smaller but clinically meaningful inhibitory effect on membrane transporters, such as organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 and organic anion transporter 3. Areas covered: This review describes the inhibitory effects of gemfibrozil on CYP enzymes and membrane transporters. The clinical drug interactions caused by gemfibrozil and the different mechanisms contributing to the interactions are reviewed in detail. Expert opinion: Gemfibrozil is a useful probe inhibitor of CYP2C8 in vivo, but its effect on membrane transporters has to be taken into account in study design and interpretation. Moreover, gemfibrozil could be used to boost the pharmacokinetics of CYP2C8 substrate drugs. Identification of gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide as a potent mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2C8 has led to recognition of glucuronide metabolites as perpetrators of drug-drug interactions. Recently, also acyl glucuronide metabolites of clopidogrel and deleobuvir have been shown to strongly inhibit CYP2C8.

  13. Evaluation of a potential transporter-mediated drug interaction between rosuvastatin and pradigastat, a novel DGAT-1 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmatycki, Kenneth; Hanna, Imad; Meyers, Dan; Salunke, Atish; Movva, Aishwarya; Majumdar, Tapan; Natrillo, Adrienne; Vapurcuyan, Arpine; Rebello, Sam; Sunkara, Gangadhar; Chen, Jin

    2015-05-01

    An in vitro drugdrug interaction (DDI) study was performed to assess the potential for pradigastat to inhibit breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP), and organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) transport activities. To understand the relevance of these in vitro findings, a clinical pharmacokinetic DDI study using rosuvastatin as a BCRP, OATP, and OAT3 probe substrate was conducted. The study used cell lines that stably expressed or over-expressed the respective transporters. The clinical study was an open-label, single sequence study where subjects (n = 36) received pradigastat (100 mg once daily x 3 days thereafter 40 mg once daily) and rosuvastatin (10 mg once daily), alone and in combination. Pradigastat inhibited BCRP-mediated efflux activity in a dose-dependent fashion in a BCRP over-expressing human ovarian cancer cell line with an IC(50) value of 5 μM. Similarly, pradigastat inhibited OATP1B1, OATP1B3 (estradiol 17β glucuronide transport), and OAT3 (estrone 3 sulfate transport) activity in a concentrationdependent manner with estimated IC(50) values of 1.66 ± 0.95 μM, 3.34 ± 0.64 μM, and 0.973 ± 0.11 μM, respectively. In the presence of steady state pradigastat concentrations, AUC(τ, ss) of rosuvastatin was unchanged and its Cmax,ss decreased by 14% (5.30 and 4.61 ng/mL when administered alone and coadministered with pradigastat, respectively). Pradigastat AUC(τ, ss) and C(max, ss) were unchanged when coadministered with rosuvastatin at steady state. Both rosuvastatin and pradigastat were well tolerated. These data indicate no clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interaction between pradigastat and rosuvastatin.

  14. Facilitated Anion Transport Induces Hyperpolarization of the Cell Membrane That Triggers Differentiation and Cell Death in Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Manuel-Manresa, Pilar; Hernando, Elsa; Calabuig-Fariñas, Silvia; Martínez-Romero, Alicia; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Sahlholm, Kristoffer; Knöpfel, Thomas; García-Valverde, María; Rodilla, Ananda M; Jantus-Lewintre, Eloisa; Farràs, Rosa; Ciruela, Francisco; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Quesada, Roberto

    2015-12-23

    Facilitated anion transport potentially represents a powerful tool to modulate various cellular functions. However, research into the biological effects of small molecule anionophores is still at an early stage. Here we have used two potent anionophore molecules inspired in the structure of marine metabolites tambjamines to gain insight into the effect induced by these compounds at the cellular level. We show how active anionophores, capable of facilitating the transmembrane transport of chloride and bicarbonate in model phospholipid liposomes, induce acidification of the cytosol and hyperpolarization of plasma cell membranes. We demonstrate how this combined effect can be used against cancer stem cells (CSCs). Hyperpolarization of cell membrane induces cell differentiation and loss of stemness of CSCs leading to effective elimination of this cancer cell subpopulation.

  15. Carbon dioxide transport in molten calcium carbonate occurs through an oxo-Grotthuss mechanism via a pyrocarbonate anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Dario; Coudert, François-Xavier; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2016-05-01

    The reactivity, speciation and solvation structure of CO2 in carbonate melts are relevant for both the fate of carbon in deep geological formations and for its electroreduction to CO (to be used as fuel) when solvated in a molten carbonate electrolyte. In particular, the high solubility of CO2 in carbonate melts has been tentatively attributed to the formation of the pyrocarbonate anion, C2O5(2-). Here we study, by first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, the behaviour of CO2 in molten calcium carbonate. We find that pyrocarbonate forms spontaneously and the identity of the CO2 molecule is quickly lost through O(2-) exchange. The transport of CO2 in this molten carbonate thus occurs in a fashion similar to the Grotthuss mechanism in water, and is three times faster than molecular diffusion. This shows that Grotthuss-like transport is more general than previously thought.

  16. Feedback inhibition of ammonium (methylammonium) ion transport in Escherichia coli by glutamine and glutamine analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, A.; Hong, J.S.; Barnes, E.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    When cultured with glutamate or glutamine as the nitrogen source, Escherichia coli expresses a specific ammonium (methylammonium) transport system. Over 95% of the methylammonium transport activity in washed cells was blocked by incubation with 100 μM L-glutamine in the presence of chloramphenicol (100 μg/ml). The inhibition of transport by L-glutamine was noncompetitive with respect to the [ 14 C]methylammonium substrate. D-Glutamine had no significant effect. The glutamine analogs γ-L-glutamyl hydroxamate and γ-L-glutamyl hydrazide were also noncompetitive inhibitors of methylammonium transport, suggesting that glutamine metabolism is not required. The role of the intracellular glutamine pool in the regulation of ammonium transport was investigated by using mutants carrying defects in the operon of glnP, the gene for the glutamine transporter. The glnP mutants had normal rates of methylammonium transport but were refractory to glutamine inhibition. Glycylglycine, a noncompetitive inhibitor of methylammonium uptake in wild-type cells, was equipotent in blocking transport in glnP mutants. Although ammonium transport is also subject to repression by growth of E. coli in the presence of ammonia, this phenomenon is unrelated to glutamine inhibition

  17. Glycolysis inhibition inactivates ABC transporters to restore drug sensitivity in malignant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Nakano

    Full Text Available Cancer cells eventually acquire drug resistance largely via the aberrant expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters, ATP-dependent efflux pumps. Because cancer cells produce ATP mostly through glycolysis, in the present study we explored the effects of inhibiting glycolysis on the ABC transporter function and drug sensitivity of malignant cells. Inhibition of glycolysis by 3-bromopyruvate (3BrPA suppressed ATP production in malignant cells, and restored the retention of daunorubicin or mitoxantrone in ABC transporter-expressing, RPMI8226 (ABCG2, KG-1 (ABCB1 and HepG2 cells (ABCB1 and ABCG2. Interestingly, although side population (SP cells isolated from RPMI8226 cells exhibited higher levels of glycolysis with an increased expression of genes involved in the glycolytic pathway, 3BrPA abolished Hoechst 33342 exclusion in SP cells. 3BrPA also disrupted clonogenic capacity in malignant cell lines including RPMI8226, KG-1, and HepG2. Furthermore, 3BrPA restored cytotoxic effects of daunorubicin and doxorubicin on KG-1 and RPMI8226 cells, and markedly suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth in combination with doxorubicin in RPMI8226-implanted mice. These results collectively suggest that the inhibition of glycolysis is able to overcome drug resistance in ABC transporter-expressing malignant cells through the inactivation of ABC transporters and impairment of SP cells with enhanced glycolysis as well as clonogenic cells.

  18. Regulation of ion transport via apical purinergic receptors in intact rabbit airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Pedersen, Peter Steen

    2005-01-01

    and unidirectional Cl- fluxes decreased significantly. The results suggest that nucleotides released to the airway surface liquid exert an autocrine regulation of epithelial NaCl absorption mainly by inhibiting the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and paracellular anion conductance via a P2Y......We investigated purinergic receptors involved in ion transport regulation in the intact rabbit nasal airway epithelium. Stimulation of apical membrane P2Y receptors with ATP or UTP (200 microM) induced transient increases in short-circuit current (Isc) of 13 and 6% followed by sustained inhibitions...

  19. Identification of a probable pore-forming domain in the multimeric vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingbo; Baetz, Ulrike; Krügel, Undine; Martinoia, Enrico; De Angeli, Alexis

    2013-10-01

    Aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form an important family of anion channels involved in fundamental physiological processes in plants. Because of their importance, the role of ALMTs in plant physiology is studied extensively. In contrast, the structural basis of their functional properties is largely unknown. This lack of information limits the understanding of the functional and physiological differences between ALMTs and their impact on anion transport in plants. This study aimed at investigating the structural organization of the transmembrane domain of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) vacuolar channel AtALMT9. For that purpose, we performed a large-scale mutagenesis analysis and found two residues that form a salt bridge between the first and second putative transmembrane α-helices (TMα1 and TMα2). Furthermore, using a combination of pharmacological and mutagenesis approaches, we identified citrate as an "open channel blocker" of AtALMT9 and used this tool to examine the inhibition sensitivity of different point mutants of highly conserved amino acid residues. By this means, we found a stretch within the cytosolic moiety of the TMα5 that is a probable pore-forming domain. Moreover, using a citrate-insensitive AtALMT9 mutant and biochemical approaches, we could demonstrate that AtALMT9 forms a multimeric complex that is supposedly composed of four subunits. In summary, our data provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence about the structural organization of an ion channel of the ALMT family. We suggest that AtALMT9 is a tetramer and that the TMα5 domains of the subunits contribute to form the pore of this anion channel.

  20. In Situ formation of pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion stabilizes high-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradanawati, Sylvia Ayu; Wang, Fu-Ming; Rick, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion was formed by Lewis acid-base reaction. • This pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion is fabricated with the benzimidazole anion and PF 5 . • This pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion avoids the ominous side reactions that PF 5 reacts SEI to form LiF and HF at high temperature. • The additional pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion formation well maintains the battery performance at 60 °C measurement compares to the electrolyte only with contains the salt, LiPF 6 . - Abstract: Lithium salts play a critical role in initiating electrochemical reactions in Li-ion batteries. Single Li ions dissociate from bulk-salt and associate with carbonates to form a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) during the first charge-discharge of the battery. SEI formation and the chemical stability of salt must both be controlled and optimized to minimize irreversible reactions in SEI formation and to suppress the decomposition of the salt at high temperatures. This study synthesizes a new benzimidazole-based anion in the electrolyte. This anion, pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole, results from a Lewis acid-base reaction between the benzimidazole anion and PF 5 . The new pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion inhibits the decomposition of LiPF 6 by inhibiting PF 5 side reactions, which degrade the SEI, and lead to the formation of LiF and HF at high temperatures. In addition, the use of the pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion results in the formation of a modified SEI that is able to modify the battery's performance. Cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, as well as charge-discharge and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements have been used to characterize the materials in this study. The formation of the pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion in the electrolyte caused a 14% decrease in the activation energy

  1. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M

    2015-07-15

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines.

  2. Inhibition by nucleosides of glucose-transport activity in human erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, S M

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of nucleosides with the glucose carrier of human erythrocytes was examined by studying the effect of nucleosides on reversible cytochalasin B-binding activity and glucose transport. Adenosine, inosine and thymidine were more potent inhibitors of cytochalasin B binding to human erythrocyte membranes than was D-glucose [IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) values of 10, 24, 28 and 38 mM respectively]. Moreover, low concentrations of thymidine and adenosine inhibited D-glu...

  3. Fluorescein transport properties across artificial lipid membranes, Caco-2 cell monolayers and rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berginc, Katja; Zakelj, Simon; Levstik, Lea; Ursic, Darko; Kristl, Albin

    2007-05-01

    Membrane transport characteristics of a paracellular permeability marker fluorescein were evaluated using artificial membrane, Caco-2 cell monolayers and rat jejunum, all mounted in side-by-side diffusion cells. Modified Ringer buffers with varied pH values were applied as incubation salines on both sides of artificial membrane, cell culture monolayers or rat jejunum. Passive transport according to pH partition theory was determined using all three permeability models. In addition to that, active transport of fluorescein in the M-S (mucosal-to-serosal) direction through rat jejunum was observed. The highest M-S P(app) values regarding the active transport through the rat jejunum were observed in incubation saline with pH 6.5. Fluorescein transport through the rat jejunum was inhibited by DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid) and alpha-CHC (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid). Thus, we assume that two pH-dependent influx transporters could be involved in the fluorescein membrane transport through the intestinal (jejunal) epithelium. One is very likely an MCT (monocarboxylic acid cotransporter) isoform, inhibited by specific MCT inhibitor alpha-CHC, while the involvement of the second one with overlapping substrate/inhibitor specificities (most probably a member of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide family, inhibited at least partially by DIDS) could not be excluded.

  4. Putting the pieces together: a crystal clear window into CLC anion channel regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    CLC anion transport proteins function as Cl (-) channels and Cl (-) /H (+) exchangers and are found in all major groups of life including archaebacteria. Early electrophysiological studies suggested that CLC anion channels have two pores that are opened and closed independently by a "fast" gating process operating on a millisecond timescale, and a "common" or "slow" gate that opens and closes both pores simultaneously with a timescale of seconds (Figure 1A). Subsequent biochemical and molecular experiments suggested that CLC channels/transporters are homodomeric proteins ( 1-3) .

  5. Hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids is mediated by both sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and organic anion transporting polypeptides and modulated by intestinal sensing of plasma bile acid levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slijepcevic, Davor; Roscam Abbing, Reinout L P; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Blank, Antje; Donkers, Joanne M; van Hoppe, Stéphanie; de Waart, Dirk R; Tolenaars, Dagmar; van der Meer, Jonathan H M; Wildenberg, Manon; Beuers, Ulrich; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Schinkel, Alfred H; van de Graaf, Stan F J

    2017-11-01

    The Na + -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) is believed to be pivotal for hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids. However, plasma bile acid levels are normal in a subset of NTCP knockout mice and in mice treated with myrcludex B, a specific NTCP inhibitor. Here, we elucidated which transport proteins mediate the hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids and demonstrated intestinal sensing of elevated bile acid levels in plasma in mice. Mice or healthy volunteers were treated with myrcludex B. Hepatic bile acid uptake kinetics were determined in wild-type (WT), organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) knockout mice (lacking Slco1a/1b isoforms), and human OATP1B1-transgenic mice. Effects of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) on hepatic transporter mRNA levels were assessed in rat hepatoma cells and in mice by peptide injection or adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression. NTCP inhibition using myrcludex B had only moderate effects on bile acid kinetics in WT mice, but completely inhibited active transport of conjugated bile acid species in OATP knockout mice. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase Cyp7a1 expression was strongly down-regulated upon prolonged inhibition of hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids. Fgf15 (mouse counterpart of FGF19) expression was induced in hypercholanemic OATP and NTCP knockout mice, as well as in myrcludex B-treated cholestatic mice, whereas plasma FGF19 was not induced in humans treated with myrcludex B. Fgf15/FGF19 expression was induced in polarized human enterocyte-models and mouse organoids by basolateral incubation with a high concentration (1 mM) of conjugated bile acids. NTCP and OATPs contribute to hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids in mice, whereas the predominant uptake in humans is NTCP mediated. Enterocytes sense highly elevated levels of (conjugated) bile acids in the systemic circulation to induce FGF15/19, which modulates hepatic bile acid synthesis and uptake. (Hepatology 2017;66:1631-1643).

  6. Endogenous metabolites that are substrates of organic anion transporter's (OATs) predict methotrexate clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhrez, Kienana; Benz-de Bretagne, Isabelle; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie; Blasco, Hélène; Gyan, Emmanuel; Choquet, Sylvain; Montigny, Frédéric; Emond, Patrick; Barin-Le Guellec, Chantal

    2017-04-01

    Variable pharmacokinetics of high-dose-methotrexate (MTX) is responsible for severe toxicities. Unpredictable overexposure still occurs during some courses despite having controlled the main factors known to play a role in its elimination. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the urine metabolomic profile measured at the time of MTX administration is predictive of the drug's clearance and/or of treatment-related toxicity. We analyzed the urine content of endogenous metabolites before MTX administration in a cohort of adult patients treated for lymphoid malignancies. Individual MTX clearance (MTX CL ) was estimated from population pharmacokinetic analyses of therapeutic drug monitoring data. We determined the urine metabolite content by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and applied Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis to assess the relationship between the urine metabolome and MTX CL . External validation was applied to evaluate the performances of the PLS model. We used orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to distinguish patients with normal or delayed elimination, and patients with or without toxicity. Sixty-two patients were studied. We obtained a very good prediction of individual MTX clearance using a set of 28 metabolites present in patient urine at baseline. The mean prediction error and precision were -0.36% and 21.4%, respectively, for patients not included in the model. The model included a set of endogenous organic anions, of which the tubular secretion depends on organic anion transporter (OAT) function. Our analyses did not allow us to discriminate between patients with or without delayed elimination or those who did or did not experience toxicity. Urinary metabolomics can be informative about an individual's ability to clear MTX. More broadly, it paves the way for the development of a biomarker of tubular secretion, easily measurable from endogenous substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. VU-B radiation inhibits the photosynthetic electron transport chain in chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.; Li, X.; Chen, L.

    2016-01-01

    UV radiation of sunlight is one of harmful factors for earth organisms, especially for photoautotrophs because they require light for energy and biomass production. A number of works have already been done regarding the effects of UV-B radiation at biochemical and molecular level, which showed that UV-B radiation could inhibit photosynthesis activity and reduce photosynthetic electron transport. However quite limited information can accurately make out inhibition site of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic electron transport. In this study, this issue was investigated through measuring oxygen evolution activity, chlorophyll a fluorescence and gene expression in a model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our results indicated that UV-B radiation could evidently decrease photosynthesis activity and inhibit electron transport by blocking electron transfer process from the first plastoquinone electron acceptors QA to second plastoquinone electron acceptors QB, but not impair electron transfer from the water oxidizing complex to QA. The psbA gene expression was also altered by UV-B radiation, where up-regulation occurred at 2, 4 and 6h after exposure and down-regulation happened at 12 and 24 h after exposure. These results suggested that UV-B could affects D1 protein normal turnover, so there was not enough D1 for binding with QB, which may affect photosynthetic electron transport and photosynthesis activity. (author)

  8. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.

    2017-01-01

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  9. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  10. Glucocorticoids inhibit glucose transport and glutamate uptake in hippocampal astrocytes: implications for glucocorticoid neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgin, C E; Ha, T P; Packan, D R; Tombaugh, G C; Yang, S H; Horner, H C; Sapolsky, R M

    1991-10-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs), the adrenal steroid hormones secreted during stress, can damage the hippocampus and impair its capacity to survive coincident neurological insults. This GC endangerment of the hippocampus is energetic in nature, as it can be prevented when neurons are supplemented with additional energy substrates. This energetic endangerment might arise from the ability of GCs to inhibit glucose transport into both hippocampal neurons and astrocytes. The present study explores the GC inhibition in astrocytes. (1) GCs inhibited glucose transport approximately 15-30% in both primary and secondary hippocampal astrocyte cultures. (2) The parameters of inhibition agreed with the mechanisms of GC inhibition of glucose transport in peripheral tissues: A minimum of 4 h of GC exposure were required, and the effect was steroid specific (i.e., it was not triggered by estrogen, progesterone, or testosterone) and tissue specific (i.e., it was not triggered by GCs in cerebellar or cortical cultures). (3) Similar GC treatment caused a decrease in astrocyte survival during hypoglycemia and a decrease in the affinity of glutamate uptake. This latter observation suggests that GCs might impair the ability of astrocytes to aid neurons during times of neurologic crisis (i.e., by impairing their ability to remove damaging glutamate from the synapse).

  11. Purification and inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of an α-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic seal Leptonychotes weddellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Innocenti, Alessio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2011-03-15

    A high activity α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) has been purified from various tissues of the Antarctic seal Leptonychotes weddellii. The new enzyme, denominated lwCA, has a catalytic activity for the physiologic CO(2) hydration to bicarbonate reaction, similar to that of the high activity human isoform hCA II, with a k(cat) of 1.1×10(6) s(-1), and a k(cat)/K(m) of 1.4×10(8) M(-1) s(-1). The enzyme was highly inhibited by cyanate, thiocyanate, cyanide, bicarbonate, carbonate, as well as sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic/phenylarsonic acids (K(I)s in the range of 46-100 μM). Many clinically used sulfonamides, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide and benzolamide were low nanomolar inhibitors, with K(I)s in the range of 5.7-67 nM. Dichlorophenamide, zonisamide, saccharin and hydrochlorothiazide were weaker inhibitors, with K(I)s in the range of 513-5390 nM. The inhibition profile with anions and sulfonamides of the seal enzyme was rather different from those of the human isoforms hCA I and II. The high sensitivity to bicarbonate inhibition of lwCA, unlike that of the human enzymes, may reflect an evolutionary adaptation to the deep water, high CO(2) partial pressure and hypoxic conditions in which Weddell seals spend much of their life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intracellular ascorbic acid inhibits transport of glucose by neurons, but not by astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maite A; Pozo, Miguel; Cortés, Christian; García, María de Los Angeles; Concha, Ilona I; Nualart, Francisco

    2007-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that glutamatergic activity induces ascorbic acid (AA) depletion in astrocytes. Additionally, different data indicate that AA may inhibit glucose accumulation in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. Thus, our hypothesis postulates that AA released from the astrocytes during glutamatergic synaptic activity may inhibit glucose uptake by neurons. We observed that cultured neurons express the sodium-vitamin C cotransporter 2 and the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT) 1 and 3, however, in hippocampal brain slices GLUT3 was the main transporter detected. Functional activity of GLUTs was confirmed by means of kinetic analysis using 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Therefore, we showed that AA, once accumulated inside the cell, inhibits glucose transport in both cortical and hippocampal neurons in culture. Additionally, we showed that astrocytes are not affected by AA. Using hippocampal slices, we observed that upon blockade of monocarboxylate utilization by alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and after glucose deprivation, glucose could rescue neuronal response to electrical stimulation only if AA uptake is prevented. Finally, using a transwell system of separated neuronal and astrocytic cultures, we observed that glutamate can reduce glucose transport in neurons only in presence of AA-loaded astrocytes, suggesting the essential role of astrocyte-released AA in this effect.

  13. Sensing mechanism for a fluorescent off–on chemosensor for cyanide anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Junsheng; Chu, Tian-Shu

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the sensing mechanism of cyanide anion chemosensor 2-((2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methylene)malononitrile (M1) has been investigated through the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. The theoretical results demonstrate that the reaction barrier of 13.02 kcal/mol means a favorable response speed of the chemosensor M1 for cyanide anion. Cyanide anion attacks C=C double bond and hinders the ICT process from the malononitrile moiety to the fluorophore phenyl ring. The high viscosity of DMSO restrains the twisting of the group, inhibits the formation of the ICT state in the first excited state. Due to weak ICT character, the nucleophilic addition product shows the dramatic “off–on” fluorescence enhancement. Meanwhile, intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) mechanism accounts for how different solvents influence the fluorescence spectra. That is, more obvious ICT character of product in EtOH causes fluorescence quenching. The “reaction-based” recognition mode and large bond energy between M1 and cyanide anion minimize the interference by other anions, such as F − , AcO − . Thus, the chemosensor M1 has a high selectivity for cyanide.

  14. Wortmannin inhibits both insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake and transport in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Hansen, B F; Ursø, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    The role of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase for insulin- and contraction-stimulated muscle glucose transport was investigated in rat skeletal muscle perfused with a cell-free perfusate. The insulin receptor substrate-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity was increased sixfold upon insulin...... stimulation but was unaffected by contractions. In addition, the insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity and muscle glucose uptake and transport in individual muscles were dose-dependently inhibited by wortmannin with one-half maximal inhibition values of approximately 10 nM and total inhibition at 1 micro......M. This concentration of wortmannin also decreased the contraction-stimulated glucose transport and uptake by approximately 30-70% without confounding effects on contractility or on muscle ATP and phosphocreatine concentrations. At higher concentrations (3 and 10 microM), wortmannin completely blocked the contraction...

  15. Effect of chemical retention on anionic species diffusion in compacted clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazer-Bachi, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    Anionic radioisotopes are of particular importance within the framework of the calculated health risk associated with high-level and long-lived intermediate-level underground radioactive waste disposal. Therefore, the objective of this work is the construction of a transport model coupled with chemistry in order to quantify the behaviour of anionic solutes in the Callovo-Oxfordian (CO_x) argillite, the argillaceous host rock of the ANDRA Meuse/Haute-Marne underground laboratory. An experimental methodology was defined to characterize this migration, several experimental methods being implemented: batch experiments, laboratory columns and through-diffusion cells. The study of the diffusion of the non-sorbing anionic tracer "3"6Cl"- highlighted the fact that, due to anionic exclusion, anions only had access to a part of the porosity. The retention of "3"5SO_4"2"- and "1"2"5I- on CO_x argillite was then characterized, quantified by batch experiments and confirmed by other experimental methods. Nevertheless, their migration was less retarded than expected by a model based on batch experiments and on "3"6Cl"- diffusive data. This difference was explained by anion exclusion which reduced sorption site accessibility. Thus, the intensity of this phenomenon has to be considered to model anion migration in compacted clays. (author) [fr

  16. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  17. Artemisinin inhibits chloroplast electron transport activity: mode of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyasha Bharati

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo, behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the Q(B; the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth.

  18. Piracetam and TRH analogues antagonise inhibition by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and galanin of human erythrocyte D-glucose transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftalin, Richard J; Cunningham, Philip; Afzal-Ahmed, Iram

    2004-01-01

    Nootropic drugs increase glucose uptake into anaesthetised brain and into Alzheimer's diseased brain. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH, which has a chemical structure similar to nootropics increases cerebellar uptake of glucose in murine rolling ataxia. This paper shows that nootropic drugs like piracetam (2-oxo 1 pyrrolidine acetamide) and levetiracetam and neuropeptides like TRH antagonise the inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and endogenous neuropeptide galanin in human erythrocytes in vitro. The potencies of nootropic drugs in opposing scopolamine-induced memory loss correlate with their potencies in antagonising pentobarbital inhibition of erythrocyte glucose transport in vitro (Pnootropics, D-levetiracetam and D-pyroglutamate, have higher antagonist Ki's against pentobarbital inhibition of glucose transport than more potent L-stereoisomers (Pnootropics, like aniracetam and levetiracetam, while antagonising pentobarbital action, also inhibit glucose transport. Analeptics like bemigride and methamphetamine are more potent inhibitors of glucose transport than antagonists of hypnotic action on glucose transport. There are similarities between amino-acid sequences in human glucose transport protein isoform 1 (GLUT1) and the benzodiazepine-binding domains of GABAA (gamma amino butyric acid) receptor subunits. Mapped on a 3D template of GLUT1, these homologies suggest that the site of diazepam and piracetam interaction is a pocket outside the central hydrophilic pore region. Nootropic pyrrolidone antagonism of hypnotic drug inhibition of glucose transport in vitro may be an analogue of TRH antagonism of galanin-induced narcosis. PMID:15148255

  19. Novel insights into xenobiotic transport by organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and OATP-expression profiling in ovarian carcinoma and other solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, M.

    2010-01-01

    Eleven members of the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) family have been identified in humans. They are responsible for the Na+ independent cellular uptake of a broad range of substances. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the possible role of OATPs present in various cancer entities including breast, bone, liver and ovary. In the first study, carrier-mediated uptake of paclitaxel was studied in X. laevis oocytes expressing all known human OATPs and in ovarian cancer cell lines. OATP1B1 could be identified as an uptake transporter for paclitaxel showing a Km value of 0.6 μM indicating high affinity to this taxane. Subsequently, the expression status of OATPs and several ABC transporters was assessed in malignant specimens from 191 ovarian cancer patients. OATP3A1 was significantly correlated with the FIGO stage of tumors. Moreover, OATP6A1, ABCB2 and ABCC3 were identified as highly significant predictor for the disease free survival of ovarian cancer patients. In additional studies we showed distinct OATP expression patterns in cancer tissues compared to normal tissue or benign tumors. In general, higher OATP levels were detected in normal tissues compared to malignant ones in breast cancer as well as bone cancer. In liver cancer, we observed upregulation of OATP2A1 and 5A1 in primary and secondary hepatic tumors but OATP4A1 was only upregulated in secondary hepatic tumors. The distinct expression pattern for individual OATPs in tumor cells suggest their specific functions which may involve transport of molecules important for cellular signaling as well as of drugs used in therapy. (author) [de

  20. The purified ATPase from chromaffin granule membranes is an anion-dependent proton pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Y; Nelson, N

    1987-07-05

    The proton-ATPase of chromaffin granules was purified so as to maintain its proton-pumping activity when reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. The purification procedure involved solubilization with polyoxyethylene 9 lauryl ether, hydroxylapatite column, precipitation by ammonium sulfate, and glycerol gradient centrifugation. The protease inhibitor mixture used in previous studies inhibited the proton-pumping activity of the enzyme; therefore, the protein was stabilized by pepstatin A and leupeptin. The enzyme was purified at least 50-fold with respect to both ATPase and proton-pumping activity. The ATP-dependent proton uptake activity of the reconstituted enzyme was absolutely dependent on the presence of Cl- or Br- outside the vesicles, whereas sulfate, acetate, formate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were inhibitory. Sulfate inhibition seems to be due to competition with Cl- on the anion-binding site outside the vesicles, whereas nitrate and thiocyanate inhibited only from the internal side. As with the inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide, the proton-pumping activity was much more sensitive to nitrate than the ATPase activity. About 20 mM nitrate were sufficient for 90% inhibition of the proton-pumping activity while 100 mM inhibited only 50% of the ATPase activity both in situ and in the reconstituted enzyme. The possible regulatory effect of anions on the ATP-dependent proton uptake in secretory granules is discussed.

  1. Strigolactone Inhibition of Branching Independent of Polar Auxin Transport1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael G.; Beveridge, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    The outgrowth of axillary buds into branches is regulated systemically via plant hormones and the demand of growing shoot tips for sugars. The plant hormone auxin is thought to act via two mechanisms. One mechanism involves auxin regulation of systemic signals, cytokinins and strigolactones, which can move into axillary buds. The other involves suppression of auxin transport/canalization from axillary buds into the main stem and is enhanced by a low sink for auxin in the stem. In this theory, the relative ability of the buds and stem to transport auxin controls bud outgrowth. Here, we evaluate whether auxin transport is required or regulated during bud outgrowth in pea (Pisum sativum). The profound, systemic, and long-term effects of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid had very little inhibitory effect on bud outgrowth in strigolactone-deficient mutants. Strigolactones can also inhibit bud outgrowth in N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid-treated shoots that have greatly diminished auxin transport. Moreover, strigolactones can inhibit bud outgrowth despite a much diminished auxin supply in in vitro or decapitated plants. These findings demonstrate that auxin sink strength in the stem is not important for bud outgrowth in pea. Consistent with alternative mechanisms of auxin regulation of systemic signals, enhanced auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) can suppress branching in yucca1D plants compared with wild-type plants, but has no effect on bud outgrowth in a strigolactone-deficient mutant background. PMID:26111543

  2. Biguanides sensitize leukemia cells to ABT-737-induced apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Juliana; Pan, Rongqing; Lee, Jason T.C.; Enciso, Leonardo; Suarez, Marta; Duque, Jorge Eduardo; Jaramillo, Daniel; Lopez, Catalina; Morales, Ludis; Bornmann, William; Konopleva, Marina; Krystal, Gerald; Andreeff, Michael; Samudio, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    Metformin displays antileukemic effects partly due to activation of AMPK and subsequent inhibition of mTOR signaling. Nevertheless, Metformin also inhibits mitochondrial electron transport at complex I in an AMPK-independent manner, Here we report that Metformin and rotenone inhibit mitochondrial electron transport and increase triglyceride levels in leukemia cell lines, suggesting impairment of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). We also report that, like other FAO inhibitors, both agents and the related biguanide, Phenformin, increase sensitivity to apoptosis induction by the bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737 supporting the notion that electron transport antagonizes activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in leukemia cells. Both biguanides and rotenone induce superoxide generation in leukemia cells, indicating that oxidative damage may sensitize toABT-737 induced apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrate that Metformin sensitizes leukemia cells to the oligomerization of Bak, suggesting that the observed synergy with ABT-737 is mediated, at least in part, by enhanced outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Notably, Phenformin was at least 10-fold more potent than Metformin in abrogating electron transport and increasing sensitivity to ABT-737, suggesting that this agent may be better suited for targeting hematological malignancies. Taken together, our results suggest that inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism by Metformin or Phenformin is associated with increased leukemia cell susceptibility to induction of intrinsic apoptosis, and provide a rationale for clinical studies exploring the efficacy of combining biguanides with the orally bioavailable derivative of ABT-737, Venetoclax. PMID:27283492

  3. Norepinephrine transporter inhibition alters the hemodynamic response to hypergravitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strempel, Sebastian; Schroeder, Christoph; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Boese, Andrea; Tank, Jens; Diedrich, André; Heer, Martina; Luft, Friedrich C; Jordan, Jens

    2008-03-01

    Sympathetically mediated tachycardia and vasoconstriction maintain blood pressure during hypergravitational stress, thereby preventing gravitation-induced loss of consciousness. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition prevents neurally mediated (pre)syncope during gravitational stress imposed by head-up tilt testing. Thus it seems reasonable that NET inhibition could increase tolerance to hypergravitational stress. We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in 11 healthy men (26 +/- 1 yr, body mass index 24 +/- 1 kg/m2), who ingested the selective NET inhibitor reboxetine (4 mg) or matching placebo 25, 13, and 1 h before testing on separate days. We monitored heart rate, blood pressure, and thoracic impedance in three different body positions (supine, seated, standing) and during a graded centrifuge run (incremental steps of 0.5 g for 3 min each, up to a maximal vertical acceleration load of 3 g). NET inhibition increased supine blood pressure and heart rate. With placebo, blood pressure increased in the seated position and was well maintained during standing. However, with NET inhibition, blood pressure decreased in the seated and standing position. During hypergravitation, blood pressure increased in a graded fashion with placebo. With NET inhibition, the increase in blood pressure during hypergravitation was profoundly diminished. Conversely, the tachycardic responses to sitting, standing, and hypergravitation all were greatly increased with NET inhibition. In contrast to our expectation, short-term NET inhibition did not improve tolerance to hypergravitation. Redistribution of sympathetic activity to the heart or changes in baroreflex responses could explain the excessive tachycardia that we observed.

  4. Sensing mechanism for a fluorescent off–on chemosensor for cyanide anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Junsheng [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Chu, Tian-Shu, E-mail: tschu@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Institute for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Laboratory of New Fiber, Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2016-11-15

    In this article, the sensing mechanism of cyanide anion chemosensor 2-((2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methylene)malononitrile (M1) has been investigated through the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. The theoretical results demonstrate that the reaction barrier of 13.02 kcal/mol means a favorable response speed of the chemosensor M1 for cyanide anion. Cyanide anion attacks C=C double bond and hinders the ICT process from the malononitrile moiety to the fluorophore phenyl ring. The high viscosity of DMSO restrains the twisting of the group, inhibits the formation of the ICT state in the first excited state. Due to weak ICT character, the nucleophilic addition product shows the dramatic “off–on” fluorescence enhancement. Meanwhile, intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) mechanism accounts for how different solvents influence the fluorescence spectra. That is, more obvious ICT character of product in EtOH causes fluorescence quenching. The “reaction-based” recognition mode and large bond energy between M1 and cyanide anion minimize the interference by other anions, such as F{sup −}, AcO{sup −}. Thus, the chemosensor M1 has a high selectivity for cyanide.

  5. Electrodialytic Transport Properties of Anion-Exchange Membranes Prepared from Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jikihara, Atsushi; Ohashi, Reina; Kakihana, Yuriko; Higa, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Kenichi

    2013-01-02

    Random-type anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) have been prepared by blending poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and the random copolymer-type polycation, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) at various molar percentages of anion-exchange groups to vinyl alcohol groups, Cpc, and by cross-linking the PVA chains with glutaraldehyde (GA) solution at various GA concentrations, CGA. The characteristics of the random-type AEMs were compared with blend-type AEMs prepared in our previous study. At equal molar percentages of the anion exchange groups, the water content of the random-type AEMs was lower than that of the blend-type AEMs. The effective charge density of the random-type AEMs increased with increasing Cpc and reached a maximum value. Further, the maximum value of the effective charge density increased with increasing CGA. The maximum value of the effective charge density, 0.42 mol/dm3, was obtained for the random-type AEM with Cpc = 4.2 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol %. A comparison of the random-type and blend-type AEMs with almost the same Cpc showed that the random-type AEMs had lower membrane resistance than the blend-type ones. The membrane resistance and dynamic transport number of the random-type AEM with Cpc = 6.0 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol % were 4.8 Ω cm2 and 0.83, respectively.

  6. NMR studies of transmembrane electron transport in human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennett, E.C.; Bubb, W.A.; Kuchel, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Electron transport systems exist in the plasma membranes of all cells. These systems appear to play a role in cell growth and proliferation, intracellular signalling, hormone responses, apoptotic events, cell defence and perhaps most importantly they enable the cell to respond to changes in the redox state of both the intra- and extracellular environments. Previously, 13 C NMR has been used to study transmembrane electron transport in human erythrocytes, specifically the reduction of extracellular 13 C-ferricyanide. NMR is a particularly useful tool for studying such systems as changes in the metabolic state of the cell can be observed concomitantly with extracellular reductase activity. We investigated the oxidation of extracellular NADH by human erythrocytes using 1 H and 31 P NMR spectroscopy. Recent results for glucose-starved human erythrocytes indicate that, under these conditions, extracellular NADH can be oxidised at the plasma membrane with the electron transfer across the membrane resulting in reduction of intracellular NAD + . The activity is inhibited by known trans-plasma membrane electron transport inhibitors (capsaicin and atebrin) and is unaffected by inhibition of the erythrocyte Band 3 anion transporter. These results suggest that electron import from extracellular NADH allows the cell to re-establish a reducing environment after the normal redox balance is disturbed

  7. Drug-protein hydrogen bonds govern the inhibition of the ATP hydrolysis of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chufan, Eduardo E; Kapoor, Khyati; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2016-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily. This multidrug transporter utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis for the efflux of a variety of hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds including anticancer drugs. Most of the substrates and modulators of P-gp stimulate its basal ATPase activity, although some inhibit it. The molecular mechanisms that are in play in either case are unknown. In this report, mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies of P-gp led to the identification of a pair of phenylalanine-tyrosine structural motifs in the transmembrane region that mediate the inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by certain drugs (zosuquidar, elacridar and tariquidar), with high affinity (IC50's ranging from 10 to 30nM). Upon mutation of any of these residues, drugs that inhibit the ATPase activity of P-gp switch to stimulation of the activity. Molecular modeling revealed that the phenylalanine residues F978 and F728 interact with tyrosine residues Y953 and Y310, respectively, in an edge-to-face conformation, which orients the tyrosines in such a way that they establish hydrogen-bond contacts with the inhibitor. Biochemical investigations along with transport studies in intact cells showed that the inhibitors bind at a high affinity site to produce inhibition of ATP hydrolysis and transport function. Upon mutation, they bind at lower affinity sites, stimulating ATP hydrolysis and only poorly inhibiting transport. These results also reveal that screening chemical compounds for their ability to inhibit the basal ATP hydrolysis can be a reliable tool to identify modulators with high affinity for P-gp. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Transport of S-cysteine conjugates in LL-PK1 cells and its role in toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, V.; Stevens, J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study its role in S-cysteine conjugate toxicity, the transport of the nephrotoxic cysteine conjugate, S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (L-DCVC), was investigated in the kidney cell line, LLC-PK1. When incubated with [ 35 S]-DCVC, accumulation of radioactivity within the cells was linear for at least 5 min with 92% of the 35 S present as unmetabolized L-DCVC. Kinetic analysis indicated two saturable uptake systems; Km = 6.8 μM and 1.6 mM; V/sub max/ = .048 and 1.4 nmol/min/mg protein. Both systems were Na + -independent and were inhibited by amino acid transport system L substrates but not substrates of systems A, ASC or organic anion transport. L-DCVC uptake at 5 μM and 500 μM was significantly greater in subconfluent cells than in confluent cultures by 5 and 2.8 fold, respectively. The presence of the non-toxic conjugates S-methyl-(SMC), S-ethyl-(SEC), S-benzyl-L- cysteine (SBC) and the D isomer of DCVC blocked the toxicity and inhibited the transport of L-DCVC in LLC-PK1 cells in the rank order of SBC > SEC congruent to D-DCVC > SMC. The metabolism of L-DCVC, previously shown to be required for cytotoxicity, was only slightly inhibited by these conjugates and did not correlate with their relative protection against toxicity. This study suggests that L-DCVC is transported into these cells by the system L transporter and that protection against toxicity by non-toxic S-cysteine conjugates is due to the inhibition of transport

  9. Inhibition of bile salt transport by drugs associated with liver injury in primary hepatocytes from human, monkey, dog, rat, and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; He, Kan; Cai, Lining; Chen, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Yifan; Shi, Qin; Woolf, Thomas F; Ge, Weigong; Guo, Lei; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida

    2016-08-05

    Interference of bile salt transport is one of the underlying mechanisms for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We developed a novel bile salt transport activity assay involving in situ biosynthesis of bile salts from their precursors in primary human, monkey, dog, rat, and mouse hepatocytes in suspension as well as LC-MS/MS determination of extracellular bile salts transported out of hepatocytes. Glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids were rapidly formed in hepatocytes and effectively transported into the extracellular medium. The bile salt formation and transport activities were time‒ and bile-acid-concentration‒dependent in primary human hepatocytes. The transport activity was inhibited by the bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibitors ketoconazole, saquinavir, cyclosporine, and troglitazone. The assay was used to test 86 drugs for their potential to inhibit bile salt transport activity in human hepatocytes, which included 35 drugs associated with severe DILI (sDILI) and 51 with non-severe DILI (non-sDILI). Approximately 60% of the sDILI drugs showed potent inhibition (with IC50 values monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes. Species differences in potency were observed with mouse being less sensitive than other species to inhibition of bile salt transport. In summary, a novel assay has been developed using hepatocytes in suspension from human and animal species that can be used to assess the potential for drugs and/or drug-derived metabolites to inhibit bile salt transport and/or formation activity. Drugs causing sDILI, except those by immune-mediated mechanism, are highly associated with potent inhibition of bile salt transport. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Allyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Actin-Dependent Intracellular Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Sporsheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC derives from the biodegradation of the glucosinolate sinigrin and has been associated with growth inhibition in several plants, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this feature remain scarcely investigated in plants. In this study, we present evidence of an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport in A. thaliana. A transgenic line of A. thaliana expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP-tagged actin filaments was used to show attenuation of actin filament movement by AITC. This appeared gradually in a time- and dose-dependent manner and resulted in actin filaments appearing close to static. Further, we employed four transgenic lines with YFP-fusion proteins labeling the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, vacuoles and peroxisomes to demonstrate an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport of or, in these structures, consistent with the decline in actin filament movement. Furthermore, the morphologies of actin filaments, ER and vacuoles appeared aberrant following AITC-exposure. However, AITC-treated seedlings of all transgenic lines tested displayed morphologies and intracellular movements similar to that of the corresponding untreated and control-treated plants, following overnight incubation in an AITC-absent environment, indicating that AITC-induced decline in actin-related movements is a reversible process. These findings provide novel insights into the cellular events in plant cells following exposure to AITC, which may further expose clues to the physiological significance of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

  11. Hypoxia inhibits colonic ion transport via activation of AMP kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal hypoxia is a common endpoint for many pathological processes including ischemic colitis, colonic obstruction and anastomotic failure. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia modulates colonic mucosal function through inhibition of chloride secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic energy regulator found in a wide variety of cells and has been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediated chloride secretion in several different tissues. We hypothesized that AMPK mediates many of the acute effects of hypoxia on human and rat colonic electrolyte transport. METHODS: The fluorescent chloride indicator dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide was used to measure changes in intracellular chloride concentrations in isolated single rat colonic crypts. Ussing chamber experiments in human colonic mucosa were conducted to evaluate net epithelial ion transport. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that acute hypoxia inhibits electrogenic chloride secretion via AMPK mediated inhibition of CFTR. Pre-treatment of tissues with the AMPK inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) in part reversed the effects of acute hypoxia on chloride secretion. CONCLUSION: We therefore suggest that AMPK is a key component of the adaptive cellular response to mucosal hypoxia in the colon. Furthermore, AMPK may represent a potential therapeutic target in diseased states or in prevention of ischemic intestinal injury.

  12. Inhibition of Alkaline Flocculation by Algal Organic Matter for Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandamme, Dries; Beuckels, Annelies; Vadelius, Eric; Depraetere, Orily; Noppe, Wim; Dutta, Abhishek; Foubert, Imogen; Laurens, Lieve; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline flocculation is a promising strategy for the concentration of microalgae for bulk biomass production. However, previous studies have shown that biological changes during the cultivation negatively affect flocculation efficiency. The influence of changes in cell properties and in the quality and composition of algal organic matter (AOM) were studied using Chlorella vulgaris as a model species. In batch cultivation, flocculation was increasingly inhibited over time and mainly influenced by changes in medium composition, rather than biological changes at the cell surface. Total carbohydrate content of the organic matter fraction sized bigger than 3 kDa increased over time and this fraction was shown to be mainly responsible for the inhibition of alkaline flocculation. The monosaccharide identification of this fraction mainly showed the presence of neutral and anionic monosaccharides. An addition of 30–50 mg L-1 alginic acid, as a model for anionic carbohydrate polymers containing uronic acids, resulted in a complete inhibition of flocculation. Furthermore, these results suggest that inhibition of alkaline flocculation was caused by interaction of anionic polysaccharides leading to an increased flocculant demand over time.

  13. Transport properties of valsartan, sacubitril and its active metabolite (LBQ657) as determinants of disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Imad; Alexander, Natalya; Crouthamel, Matthew H; Davis, John; Natrillo, Adrienne; Tran, Phi; Vapurcuyan, Arpine; Zhu, Bing

    2018-03-01

    1. The potential for drug-drug interactions of LCZ696 (a novel, crystalline complex comprising sacubitril and valsartan) was investigated in vitro. 2. Sacubitril was shown to be a highly permeable P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate and was hydrolyzed to the active anionic metabolite LBQ657 by human carboxylesterase 1 (CES1b and 1c). The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) was shown to be capable of LBQ657 and valsartan transport that contributes to the elimination of either compound. 3. LBQ657 and valsartan were transported by OAT1, OAT3, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, whereas no OAT- or OATP-mediated sacubitril transport was observed. 4. The contribution of OATP1B3 to valsartan transport (73%) was appreciably higher than that by OATP1B1 (27%), Alternatively, OATP1B1 contribution to the hepatic uptake of LBQ657 (∼70%) was higher than that by OATP1B3 (∼30%). 5. None of the compounds inhibited OCT1/OCT2, MATE1/MATE2-K, P-gp, or BCRP. Sacubitril and LBQ657 inhibited OAT3 but not OAT1, and valsartan inhibited the activity of both OAT1 and OAT3. Sacubitril and valsartan inhibited OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, whereas LBQ657 weakly inhibited OATP1B1 but not OATP1B3. 6. Drug interactions due to the inhibition of transporters are unlikely due to the redundancy of the available transport pathways (LBQ657: OATP1B1/OAT1/3 and valsartan: OATP1B3/OAT1/3) and the low therapeutic concentration of the LCZ696 analytes.

  14. Hypoxia/reoxygenation stress signals an increase in organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) at the blood-brain barrier: relevance to CNS drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brandon J; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Slosky, Lauren M; Zhang, Yifeng; Laracuente, Mei-li; Ronaldson, Patrick T

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral hypoxia and subsequent reoxygenation stress (H/R) is a component of several diseases. One approach that may enable neural tissue rescue after H/R is central nervous system (CNS) delivery of drugs with brain protective effects such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins). Our present in vivo data show that atorvastatin, a commonly prescribed statin, attenuates poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in the brain after H/R, suggesting neuroprotective efficacy. However, atorvastatin use as a CNS therapeutic is limited by poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. Therefore, we examined regulation and functional expression of the known statin transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) at the BBB under H/R conditions. In rat brain microvessels, H/R (6% O2, 60 minutes followed by 21% O2, 10 minutes) increased Oatp1a4 expression. Brain uptake of taurocholate (i.e., Oap1a4 probe substrate) and atorvastatin were reduced by Oatp inhibitors (i.e., estrone-3-sulfate and fexofenadine), suggesting involvement of Oatp1a4 in brain drug delivery. Pharmacological inhibition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) signaling with the selective inhibitor SB431542 increased Oatp1a4 functional expression, suggesting a role for TGF-β/ALK5 signaling in Oatp1a4 regulation. Taken together, our novel data show that targeting an endogenous BBB drug uptake transporter (i.e., Oatp1a4) may be a viable approach for optimizing CNS drug delivery for treatment of diseases with an H/R component.

  15. Anion transport and GABA signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Andreas Huebner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas activation of GABAA receptors by GABA usually results in a hyperpolarizing influx of chloride into the neuron, the reversed chloride driving force in the immature nervous system results in a depolarizing efflux of chloride. This GABAergic depolarization is deemed to be important for the maturation of the neuronal network. The concept of a developmental GABA switch has mainly been derived from in vitro experiments and reliable in vivo evidence is still missing. As GABAA receptors are permeable for both chloride and bicarbonate, the net effect of GABA also critically depends on the distribution of bicarbonate. Whereas chloride can either mediate depolarizing or hyperpolarizing currents, bicarbonate invariably mediates a depolarizing current under physiological conditions. Intracellular bicarbonate is quickly replenished by cytosolic carbonic anhydrases. Intracellular bicarbonate levels also depend on different bicarbonate transporters expressed by neurons. The expression of these proteins is not only developmentally regulated but also differs between cell types and even subcellular regions. In this review we will summarize current knowledge about the role of some of these transporters for brain development and brain function.

  16. Anions in Cometary Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions 0-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydro dynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of large carbon-chain anions in cometary coma chemistry. We calculate the effects of these anions on coma thermodynamics, charge balance and examine their impact on molecule formation.

  17. Trypanocidal Effect of Isotretinoin through the Inhibition of Polyamine and Amino Acid Transporters in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Reigada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines are essential compounds to all living organisms and in the specific case of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, they are exclusively obtained through transport processes since this parasite is auxotrophic for polyamines. Previous works reported that retinol acetate inhibits Leishmania growth and decreases its intracellular polyamine concentration. The present work describes a combined strategy of drug repositioning by virtual screening followed by in vitro assays to find drugs able to inhibit TcPAT12, the only polyamine transporter described in T. cruzi. After a screening of 3000 FDA-approved drugs, 7 retinoids with medical use were retrieved and used for molecular docking assays with TcPAT12. From the docked molecules, isotretinoin, a well-known drug used for acne treatment, showed the best interaction score with TcPAT12 and was selected for further in vitro studies. Isotretinoin inhibited the polyamine transport, as well as other amino acid transporters from the same protein family (TcAAAP, with calculated IC50 values in the range of 4.6-10.3 μM. It also showed a strong inhibition of trypomastigote burst from infected cells, with calculated IC50 of 130 nM (SI = 920 being significantly less effective on the epimastigote stage (IC50 = 30.6 μM. The effect of isotretinoin on the parasites plasma membrane permeability and on mammalian cell viability was tested, and no change was observed. Autophagosomes and apoptotic bodies were detected as part of the mechanisms of isotretinoin-induced death indicating that the inhibition of transporters by isotretinoin causes nutrient starvation that triggers autophagic and apoptotic processes. In conclusion, isotretinoin is a promising trypanocidal drug since it is a multi-target inhibitor of essential metabolites transporters, in addition to being an FDA-approved drug largely used in humans, which could reduce significantly the requirements for its possible application in the

  18. Development of norepinephrine transporter reuptake inhibition assays using SK-N-BE(2C cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Decker

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This report describes efforts to develop and validate novel norepinephrine transporter reuptake inhibition assays using human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2C cells in 24-well format. Before conducting the assays, the SK-N-BE(2C cells were first evaluated for their ability to uptake [3H]norepinephrine and were shown to have a saturable uptake with a KM value of 416 nM. Using this determined KM value, reuptake inhibition assays were then conducted with a variety of ligands including antidepressants, as well as piperazine and phenyltropane derivatives. The results obtained with the SK-N-BE(2C cells indicate that this model system can detect a range of ligand potencies, which compare well with other established transporter assays. Our data suggest that SK-N-BE(2C cells have potential utility to serve as another model system to detect norepinephrine reuptake inhibition activity.

  19. Rapid redistribution and inhibition of renal sodium transporters during acute pressure natriuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Mircheff, A K; Hensley, C B

    1996-01-01

    and basolateral Na+ pumps to internal membranes. Arterial pressure was increased 50 mmHg by constricting various arteries. We also tested whether transporter internalization occurred when PT Na+ reabsorption was inhibited with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor benzolamide. Five minutes after initiating either...

  20. Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporters Can Facilitate GABA Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Kamran, Muhammad; Sullivan, Wendy; Chirkova, Larissa; Okamoto, Mamoru; Degryse, Fien; McLaughlin, Michael; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2018-05-01

    Plant aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) are currently classified as anion channels; they are also known to be regulated by diverse signals, leading to a range of physiological responses. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) regulation of anion flux through ALMT proteins requires a specific amino acid motif in ALMTs that shares similarity with a GABA binding site in mammalian GABA A receptors. Here, we explore why TaALMT1 activation leads to a negative correlation between malate efflux and endogenous GABA concentrations ([GABA] i ) in both wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) root tips and in heterologous expression systems. We show that TaALMT1 activation reduces [GABA] i because TaALMT1 facilitates GABA efflux but GABA does not complex Al 3+ TaALMT1 also leads to GABA transport into cells, demonstrated by a yeast complementation assay and via 14 C-GABA uptake into TaALMT1 -expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes; this was found to be a general feature of all ALMTs we examined. Mutation of the GABA motif (TaALMT1 F213C ) prevented both GABA influx and efflux, and resulted in no correlation between malate efflux and [GABA] i We conclude that ALMTs are likely to act as both GABA and anion transporters in planta. GABA and malate appear to interact with ALMTs in a complex manner to regulate each other's transport, suggestive of a role for ALMTs in communicating metabolic status. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Induction of Apoptosis by Superoxide Anion and the Protective Effects of Selenium and Vitamin E

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of superoxide anion on the apoptosis of cultured fibroblasts and the protective role of selenium and Vitamin E. Methods Cultured fibroblasts (NIH3T3), with or without selenium or vitamin E in the medium, were treated by superoxide anion produced by xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction system and changes in cell structure and DNA were observed microscopically and electrophoretically. Results Apoptosis was observed when superoxide anion at a concentration of 5 nmol/L or 10 nmol/L had acted on the fibroblasts for 5-10 h. Selenium and Vitamin E in the medium inhibited the apoptosis significantly when their concentrations reached 1.15 mol/L and 2.3 mol/L respectively. Conclusion Selenium and vitamin E have protective effect against the apoptosis induced by superoxide anion. The effect of selenium is more remarkable than that of vitamin E.

  2. Sensitization of microorganisms and enzymes by radiation-induced selective inorganic radical anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.; Stegeman, H.

    1981-01-01

    Bacterial survival and enzymatic inactivation were examined following exposure to radiolytically-generated radical anions, X - 2 , where X=Cl, Br, I or CNS - . Depending on pH, radical anions react selectively or specifically with cysteine, tryptophan, tyrosine and histidine. Consequently, when one or more of these amino acids is crucial for enzymatic activity or bacterial survival and is attacked by a radical anion, a high degree or radiosensitization may be realized. Halide radical anions can form free chlorine, bromine or iodine. However, these bactericidal halogens are destroyed by reaction with the hydrated electron, e - sub(aq), or at pHs>9, as occurs, for example, when a medium saturated with nitrous oxide, N 2 O, and e - sub(aq) scavenger, is replaced by nitrogen or oxygen. Increasing concentration of other e - sub(aq) scavengers, such as phosphate buffer, promotes formation of halogen from halides. The conditions producing formation and elimination of halogens in irradiated media must be appreciated to avoid confusing radiosensitization by X 2 to X - 2 . Radiosensitization by radical anions of several microorganisms: S. faecalis, S. typhimurium, E. coli, and M. radiodurens is described. A crucial amino acid for survival of S. faecalis appears to be tyrosine, while both tyrosine and tryptophan seem essential for recovery of S. typhimurium from effects of ionizing radiation. It is postulated that the radiosensitizing action of radical anions involves inhibition of DNA repair of strand-breaks by depriving the cells of energy. In view of the high OH scavenging power of foods, it is concluded that the radiosensitization of bacteria and enzymes in foods by radical anions, except for special cases, is not practical. Rather, radical anions serve to identify crucial amino acids to radiosensitization mechanisms in model systems, and possibly in radiotherapy. (author)

  3. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  4. Studies on bicarbonate transporters and carbonic anhydrase in porcine non-pigmented ciliary epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, Mohammad; C-H, To; Pelis, Ryan M.; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Bicarbonate transport plays a role in aqueous humor (AH) secretion. Here, we examined bicarbonate transport mechanisms and carbonic anhydrase (CA) in porcine non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPE). Methods Cytoplasmic pH (pHi) was measured in cultured porcine NPE loaded with BCECF. Anion exchanger (AE), sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) and CA were examined by RT-PCR and immunolocalization. AH secretion was measured in the intact porcine eye using a fluorescein dilution technique. Results Anion exchanger AE2, CAII and CAIV were abundant in the NPE layer. In cultured NPE superfused with a CO2/HCO3− free HEPES buffer, exposure to a CO2/HCO3−-containing buffer caused a rapid acidification followed by a gradual pHi increase. Subsequent removal of CO2/HCO3− with HEPES buffer caused rapid alkalinization followed by gradual pHi decrease. The rate of gradual alkalinization after addition of HCO3−/CO2 was inhibited by sodium-free conditions, DIDS, CA inhibitors acetazolamide and methazolamide but not by Na-H exchange inhibitor dimethylamiloride or low chloride buffer. The phase of gradual acidification after removal of HCO3−/CO2 was inhibited by DIDS, acetazolamide, methazolamide and by low chloride buffer. DIDS reduced baseline pHi. In the intact eye, DIDS and acetazolamide reduced AH secretion by 25% and 44% respectively. Conclusion The results suggest the NPE uses a Na+-HCO3− cotransporter to import bicarbonate and a Cl−/HCO3− exchanger to export bicarbonate. CA influences the rate of bicarbonate transport. AE2, CAII and CAIV are enriched in the NPE layer of the ciliary body and their coordinated function may contribute to AH secretion by effecting bicarbonate transport into the eye. PMID:19011010

  5. Inhibitors of the 5-lipoxygenase arachidonic acid pathway induce ATP release and ATP-dependent organic cation transport in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Souza, Hercules Antônio; Lira, Maria Nathalia de; Costa-Junior, Helio Miranda; da Cruz, Cristiane Monteiro; Vasconcellos, Jorge Silvio Silva; Mendes, Anderson Nogueira; Pimenta-Reis, Gabriela; Alvarez, Cora Lilia; Faccioli, Lucia Helena; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; Schachter, Julieta; Persechini, Pedro Muanis

    2014-07-01

    We have previously described that arachidonic acid (AA)-5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolism inhibitors such as NDGA and MK886, inhibit cell death by apoptosis, but not by necrosis, induced by extracellular ATP (ATPe) binding to P2X7 receptors in macrophages. ATPe binding to P2X7 also induces large cationic and anionic organic molecules uptake in these cells, a process that involves at least two distinct transport mechanisms: one for cations and another for anions. Here we show that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not inhibit P2X7 receptors, as judged by the maintenance of the ATPe-induced uptake of fluorescent anionic dyes. In addition, we describe two new transport phenomena induced by these inhibitors in macrophages: a cation-selective uptake of fluorescent dyes and the release of ATP. The cation uptake requires secreted ATPe, but, differently from the P2X7/ATPe-induced phenomena, it is also present in macrophages derived from mice deficient in the P2X7 gene. Inhibitors of phospholipase A2 and of the AA-cyclooxygenase pathway did not induce the cation uptake. The uptake of non-organic cations was investigated by measuring the free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by Fura-2 fluorescence. NDGA, but not MK886, induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Chelating Ca(2+) ions in the extracellular medium suppressed the intracellular Ca(2+) signal without interfering in the uptake of cationic dyes. We conclude that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not block P2X7 receptors, trigger the release of ATP, and induce an ATP-dependent uptake of organic cations by a Ca(2+)- and P2X7-independent transport mechanism in macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) mediates L-glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release via swelling-activated anion channels in cultured neonatal rodent astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Darius J R; Lawen, Alfons

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) plays important neuroprotective and neuromodulatory roles in the mammalian brain. Astrocytes are crucially involved in brain ascorbate homeostasis and may assist in regenerating extracellular ascorbate from its oxidised forms. Ascorbate accumulated by astrocytes can be released rapidly by a process that is stimulated by the excitatory amino acid, L-glutamate. This process is thought to be neuroprotective against excitotoxicity. Although of potential clinical interest, the mechanism of this stimulated ascorbate-release remains unknown. Here, we report that primary cultures of mouse and rat astrocytes release ascorbate following initial uptake of dehydroascorbate and accumulation of intracellular ascorbate. Ascorbate-release was not due to cellular lysis, as assessed by cellular release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, and was stimulated by L-glutamate and L-aspartate, but not the non-excitatory amino acid L-glutamine. This stimulation was due to glutamate-induced cellular swelling, as it was both attenuated by hypertonic and emulated by hypotonic media. Glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release was also sensitive to inhibitors of volume-sensitive anion channels, suggesting that the latter may provide the conduit for ascorbate efflux. Glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release was not recapitulated by selective agonists of either ionotropic or group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, but was completely blocked by either of two compounds, TFB-TBOA and UCPH-101, which non-selectively and selectively inhibit the glial Na(+)-dependent excitatory amino acid transporter, GLAST, respectively. These results suggest that an impairment of astrocytic ascorbate-release may exacerbate neuronal dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders and acute brain injury in which excitotoxicity and/or GLAST deregulation have been implicated.

  7. A Study of Picosecond Dehalogenation of Chlorobenzene Anions in Liquids of Positronium Inhibition Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikander, G.; Mogensen, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    on intramolecular electron transfer with subsequent dehalogenation of the molecular anion on a picosecond timescale. The divergence in inhibitor efficiency obtained for the chlorobenzenes when dissolved in aromatic solvents compared to the same solutes when dissolved in a saturated alkane appears most probably...

  8. Mitochondrial respiration scavenges extramitochondrial superoxide anion via a nonenzymatic mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Guidot, D M; Repine, J E; Kitlowski, A D; Flores, S C; Nelson, S K; Wright, R M; McCord, J M

    1995-01-01

    We determined that mitochondrial respiration reduced cytosolic oxidant stress in vivo and scavenged extramitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-.) in vitro. First, Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in both the cytosolic antioxidant cupro-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and electron transport (Rho0 state) grew poorly (P 0.05) in all yeast. Seco...

  9. Dopamine-induced apoptosis in human neuronal cells: inhibition by nucleic acides antisense to the dopamine transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porat, S.; Gabbay, M.; Tauber, M.; Ratovitski, T.; Blinder, E.; Simantov, R.

    1996-01-01

    Human neuroblastoma NMB cells take up [ 3 H]dopamine in a selective manner indicating that dopamine transporters are responsible for this uptake. These cells were therefore used as a model to study dopamine neurotoxicity, and to elucidate the role of dopamine transporters in controlling cell death. Treatment with 0.05-0.4 mM dopamine changed cells' morphology within 4 h, accompanied by retraction of processes, shrinkage, apoptosis-like atrophy, accumulation of apoptotic particles, DNA fragmentation and cell death. Cycloheximide inhibited dopamine's effect, suggesting that induction of apoptosis by dopamine was dependent upon protein synthesis. Dopamine cytotoxicity, monitored morphologically by flow cytometric analysis, and by lactate dehydrogenase released, was blocked by cocaine but not by the noradrenaline and serotonin uptake blockers desimipramine and imipramine, respectively. Attempting to inhibit dopamine transport and toxicity in a drug-free and highly selective way, three 18-mer dopamine transporter antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (numbers 1, 2 and 3) and a new plasmid vector expressing the entire rat dopamine transporter complementary DNA in the antisense orientation were prepared and tested. Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide 3 inhibited [ 3 H]dopamine uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Likewise, transient transfection of NMB cells with the plasmid expressing dopamine transporter complementary DNA in the antisense orientation partially blocked [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide 3 also decreased, dose-dependently, the toxic effect of dopamine and 6-hydroxydopamine. Western blot analysis with newly prepared anti-human dopamine transporter antibodies showed that antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide 3 decreased the transporter protein level. These studies contribute to better understand the mechanism of dopamine-induced apoptosis and neurotoxicity. (Copyright (c) 1996 Elsevier Science B

  10. Effects of Anion Mobility on Electrochemical Behaviors of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kee Sung; Chen, Junzheng; Cao, Ruiguo; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Murugesan, Vijayakumar; Shi, Lili; Pan, Huilin; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Persson, Kristin A.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2017-10-27

    The electrolyte is a crucial component of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, as it controls polysulfide dissolution, charge shuttling processes, and solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation. Experimentally, the overall performance of Li-S batteries varies with choice of solvent system and Li-salt used in the electrolyte, and a lack of predictive understanding about the effects of individual electrolyte components inhibits the rational design of electrolytes for Li-S batteries. Here we analyze the role of the counter anions of common Li salts (such as TfO-, FSI-, TFSI-, and TDI-) when dissolved in DOL/DME (1:1 vol.) for use in Li-S batteries. The evolution of ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions due to vari-ous anions was analyzed using 17O NMR and pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR and then correlated with electrochemi-cal performance in Li-S cells. These data reveal that the for-mation of the passivation layer on the anode and the loss of active materials from the cathode (evidenced by polysulfide dissolution) are related to anion mobility and affinity with lithium polysulfide, respectively. For future electrolyte de-sign, anions with lower mobility and weaker interactions with lithium polysulfides may be superior candidates for increasing the long-term stability of Li-S batteries.

  11. The multidrug transporter ABCG2 (BCRP) is inhibited by plant-derived cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M L; Lau, D T T; Allen, J D; Arnold, J C

    2007-11-01

    Cannabinoids are used therapeutically for the palliation of the adverse side effects associated with cancer chemotherapy. However, cannabinoids also inhibit both the activity and expression of the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein in vitro. Here we address the interaction of cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the related multidrug transporter, ABCG2. Cannabinoid inhibition of Abcg2/ABCG2 was assessed using flow cytometric analysis of substrate accumulation and ATPase activity assays. The cytotoxicity and chemosensitization by cannabinoids was determined with cell viability assays. Expression of cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors was assessed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and cannabinoid modulation of ABCG2 expression was examined using immunoblotting. CBN, CBD and THC increased the intracellular accumulation of the Abcg2/ABCG2 substrate, mitoxantrone, in an over-expressing cell line. The THC metabolite, (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-THC was much less potent. The plant cannabinoids inhibited both basal and substrate stimulated ATPase activity of human ABCG2. Cannabinoid cytotoxicity occurred in the absence of known cannabinoid cell surface receptors, and only at concentrations higher than those required for Abcg2/ABCG2 inhibition. Sub-toxic concentrations of the cannabinoids resensitized the overexpressing cell line to the cytotoxic effect of Abcg2/ABCG2 substrates, mitoxantrone and topotecan. This occurred in the absence of any effect on ABCG2 expression. Cannabinoids are novel Abcg2/ABCG2 inhibitors, reversing the Abcg2-mediated multidrug-resistant phenotype in vitro. This finding may have implications for the co-administration of cannabinoids with pharmaceuticals that are ABCG2 substrates.

  12. Hofmeister effect of anions on calcium translocation by sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Peruzzi, Niccolò; Ninham, Barry W.; Dei, Luigi; Nostro, Pierandrea Lo

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of Hofmeister (specific ion) effects in various membrane-related physiological processes is well documented. For example the effect of anions on the transport activity of the ion pump Na+, K+-ATPase has been investigated. Here we report on specific anion effects on the ATP-dependent Ca2+ translocation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). Current measurements following ATP concentration jumps on SERCA-containing vesicles adsorbed on solid supported membranes were carried out in the presence of different potassium salts. We found that monovalent anions strongly interfere with ATP-induced Ca2+ translocation by SERCA, according to their increasing chaotropicity in the Hofmeister series. On the contrary, a significant increase in Ca2+ translocation was observed in the presence of sulphate. We suggest that the anions can affect the conformational transition between the phosphorylated intermediates E1P and E2P of the SERCA cycle. In particular, the stabilization of the E1P conformation by chaotropic anions seems to be related to their adsorption at the enzyme/water and/or at the membrane/water interface, while the more kosmotropic species affect SERCA conformation and functionality by modifying the hydration layers of the enzyme.

  13. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2007-01-01

    The major thrust of this project, led by the University of Kansas (Prof. Kristin Bowman-James), entails an exploration of the basic determinants of anion recognition and their application to the design, synthesis, and testing of novel sulfate extractants. A key scientific inspiration for the work comes from the need, codified in simple-to-appreciate terms by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory component of the team (viz. Dr. Bruce Moyer), for chemical entities that can help in the extractive removal of species that have low solubilities in borosilicate glass. Among such species, sulfate anion, has been identified as particularly insidious. Its presence interferes with the vitrification process, thus rendering the remediation of tank waste from, e.g., the Hanford site far more difficult and expensive. The availability of effective extractants, that would allow for the separation of separating sulfate from the major competing anions in the waste, especially nitrate, could allow for pre-vitrification removal of sulfate via liquid-liquid extraction. The efforts at The University of Texas, the subject of this report, have thus concentrated on the development of new sulfate receptors. These systems are designed to increase our basic understanding of anion recognition events and set the stage for the development of viable sulfate anion extractants. In conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) members of the research team, several of these new receptors were studied as putative extractants, with two of the systems being shown to act as promising synergists for anion exchange.

  14. Probing Intermolecular Electron Delocalization in Dimer Radical Anions by Vibrational Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Grills, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Delocalization of charges is one of the factors controlling charge transport in conjugated molecules. It is considered to play an important role in the performance of a wide range of molecular technologies, including organic solar cells and organic electronics. Dimerization reactions are well-suited as a model to investigate intermolecular spatial delocalization of charges. And while dimerization reactions of radical cations are well investigated, studies on radical anions are still scarce. Upon dimerization of radical anions with neutral counterparts, an electron is considered to delocalize over the two molecules. By using time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection coupled with pulse radiolysis, we show that radical anions of 4-n-hexyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (6CB) undergo such dimerization reactions, with an electron equally delocalized over the two molecules. We have recently demonstrated that nitrile ν(C≡N) vibrations respond to the degree of electron localization of nitrile-substituted anions: we can quantify the changes in the electronic charges from the neutral to the anion states in the nitriles by monitoring the ν(C≡N) IR shifts. In the first part of this article, we show that the sensitivity of the ν(C≡N) IR shifts does not depend on solvent polarity. In the second part, we describe how probing the shifts of the nitrile IR vibrational band unambiguously confirms the formation of dimer radical anions, with K dim = 3 × 10 4 M –1 . IR findings are corroborated by electronic absorption spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations. We find that the presence of a hexyl chain and the formation of π–π interactions are both crucial for dimerization of radical anions of 6CB with neutral 6CB. Our study provides clear evidence of spatial delocalization of electrons over two molecular fragments.

  15. Membrane Transporters: Structure, Function and Targets for Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravna, Aina W.; Sager, Georg; Dahl, Svein G.; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    Current therapeutic drugs act on four main types of molecular targets: enzymes, receptors, ion channels and transporters, among which a major part (60-70%) are membrane proteins. This review discusses the molecular structures and potential impact of membrane transporter proteins on new drug discovery. The three-dimensional (3D) molecular structure of a protein contains information about the active site and possible ligand binding, and about evolutionary relationships within the protein family. Transporters have a recognition site for a particular substrate, which may be used as a target for drugs inhibiting the transporter or acting as a false substrate. Three groups of transporters have particular interest as drug targets: the major facilitator superfamily, which includes almost 4000 different proteins transporting sugars, polyols, drugs, neurotransmitters, metabolites, amino acids, peptides, organic and inorganic anions and many other substrates; the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, which plays an important role in multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy; and the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter family, which includes the molecular targets for some of the most widely used psychotropic drugs. Recent technical advances have increased the number of known 3D structures of membrane transporters, and demonstrated that they form a divergent group of proteins with large conformational flexibility which facilitates transport of the substrate.

  16. Heterocyclic cyclohexanone monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin can inhibit the activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters in cancer multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revalde, Jezrael L; Li, Yan; Hawkins, Bill C; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Paxton, James W

    2015-02-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is a phytochemical that inhibits the xenobiotic ABC efflux transporters implicated in cancer multidrug resistance (MDR), such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins 1 and 5 (MRP1 and MRP5). The use of CUR in the clinic however, is complicated by its instability and poor pharmacokinetic profile. Monocarbonyl analogs of CUR (MACs) are compounds without CUR's unstable β-diketone moiety and were reported to have improved stability and in vivo disposition. Whether the MACs can be used as MDR reversal agents is less clear, as the absence of a β-diketone may negatively impact transporter inhibition. In this study, we investigated 23 heterocyclic cyclohexanone MACs for inhibitory effects against P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP5. Using flow cytometry and resistance reversal assays, we found that many of these compounds inhibited the transport activity of the ABC transporters investigated, often with much greater potency than CUR. Overall the analogs were most effective at inhibiting BCRP and we identified three compounds, A12 (2,6-bis((E)-2,5-dimethoxy-benzylidene)cyclohexanone), A13 (2,6-bis((E)-4-hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexanone) and B11 (3,5-bis((E)-2-fluoro-4,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)-1-methylpiperidin-4-one), as the most promising BCRP inhibitors. These compounds inhibited BCRP activity in a non-cell line, non-substrate-specific manner. Their inhibition occurred by direct transporter interaction rather than modulating protein or cell surface expression. From these results, we concluded that MACs, such as the heterocyclic cyclohexanone analogs in this study, also have potential as MDR reversal agents and may be superior alternatives to the unstable parent compound, CUR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of anionic surfactant concentration on the variable range hopping conduction in polypyrrole nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, Ishpal; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of charge transport in polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles prepared with different concentrations (5 to 30 mM) of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is reported. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms the formation of PPy nanoparticles of sizes ∼52 to 28 nm under surfactant directed approach. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the prepared nanoparticles found to increase from 3 to 22 S/cm with surfactant concentration. The temperature dependent activation energy rules out the possibility of band conduction mechanism in the prepared PPy nanoparticles and thus the synthesized nanoparticles are analyzed under variable range hopping (VRH) model for conduction mechanism. The PPy nanoparticles, reduced with liquid ammonia, hold 3D VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport. However, in the doped samples, some deviation from 3D VRH conduction behavior at higher temperatures (>150 K) has been observed. This may be attributed to the presence of anionic surfactant in these samples. The doping of anionic surfactant causes rise in conducting islands, which may lead to the change in the shape/distribution of density of states governed by Gaussian or exponential type near Fermi level

  18. Effect of anionic surfactant concentration on the variable range hopping conduction in polypyrrole nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Ishpal; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of charge transport in polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles prepared with different concentrations (5 to 30 mM) of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is reported. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms the formation of PPy nanoparticles of sizes ˜52 to 28 nm under surfactant directed approach. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the prepared nanoparticles found to increase from 3 to 22 S/cm with surfactant concentration. The temperature dependent activation energy rules out the possibility of band conduction mechanism in the prepared PPy nanoparticles and thus the synthesized nanoparticles are analyzed under variable range hopping (VRH) model for conduction mechanism. The PPy nanoparticles, reduced with liquid ammonia, hold 3D VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport. However, in the doped samples, some deviation from 3D VRH conduction behavior at higher temperatures (>150 K) has been observed. This may be attributed to the presence of anionic surfactant in these samples. The doping of anionic surfactant causes rise in conducting islands, which may lead to the change in the shape/distribution of density of states governed by Gaussian or exponential type near Fermi level.

  19. Inhibition of serotonin transport by (+)McN5652 is noncompetitive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummerich, Rene [Biochemical Laboratory, Central Institute of Mental Health, 68159 Mannheim (Germany); Schulze, Oliver [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Raedler, Thomas [Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Mikecz, Pal [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Reimold, Matthias [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Brenner, Winfried [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Clausen, Malte [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Schloss, Patrick [Biochemical Laboratory, Central Institute of Mental Health, 68159 Mannheim (Germany); Buchert, Ralph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: buchert@uke.uni-hamburg.de

    2006-04-15

    Introduction: Imaging of the serotonergic innervation of the brain using positron emission tomography (PET) with the serotonin transporter (SERT) ligand [{sup 11C}] (+)McN5652 might be affected by serotonin in the synaptic cleft if there is relevant interaction between [{sup 11}C] (+)McN5652 and serotonin at the SERT. The aim of the present study therefore was to pharmacologically characterize the interaction of [{sup 11}C] (+)McN5652 and serotonin at the SERT. Methods: In vitro saturation analyses of [{sup 3}H]serotonin uptake into HEK293 cells stably expressing the human SERT were performed in the absence and presence of unlabelled (+)McN5652. Data were evaluated assuming Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Results: Unlabelled (+)McN5652 significantly reduced the maximal rate of serotonin transport V {sub max} of SERT without affecting the Michaelis-Menten constant K {sub M}. Conclusions: This finding indicates that (+)McN5652 inhibits serotonin transport through the SERT in a noncompetitive manner. This might suggest that [{sup 11}C] (+)McN5652 PET is not significantly affected by endogenous serotonin.

  20. Inhibition of serotonin transport by (+)McN5652 is noncompetitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummerich, Rene; Schulze, Oliver; Raedler, Thomas; Mikecz, Pal; Reimold, Matthias; Brenner, Winfried; Clausen, Malte; Schloss, Patrick; Buchert, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Imaging of the serotonergic innervation of the brain using positron emission tomography (PET) with the serotonin transporter (SERT) ligand [ 11C ] (+)McN5652 might be affected by serotonin in the synaptic cleft if there is relevant interaction between [ 11 C] (+)McN5652 and serotonin at the SERT. The aim of the present study therefore was to pharmacologically characterize the interaction of [ 11 C] (+)McN5652 and serotonin at the SERT. Methods: In vitro saturation analyses of [ 3 H]serotonin uptake into HEK293 cells stably expressing the human SERT were performed in the absence and presence of unlabelled (+)McN5652. Data were evaluated assuming Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Results: Unlabelled (+)McN5652 significantly reduced the maximal rate of serotonin transport V max of SERT without affecting the Michaelis-Menten constant K M . Conclusions: This finding indicates that (+)McN5652 inhibits serotonin transport through the SERT in a noncompetitive manner. This might suggest that [ 11 C] (+)McN5652 PET is not significantly affected by endogenous serotonin

  1. Sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition and ketogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are a recently developed class of drug that have been approved for use in type 2 diabetes. Their unique extra-pancreatic glucuretic mode of action has encouraged their usage in type 1 diabetes as well. At the same time, reports of pseudo ketoacidosis and ketoacidosis related to their use have been published. No clear mechanism for this phenomenon has been demonstrated so far. This communication delves into the biochemical effects of SGLT2 inhibition, discusses the utility of these drugs and proposes steps to maximize safe usage of the molecules.

  2. Transport inhibition of digoxin using several common P-gp expressing cell lines is not necessarily reporting only on inhibitor binding to P-gp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Albin Lumen

    Full Text Available We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918 to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health, Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown. These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1 bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2 partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3 aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while

  3. Grotthuss Transport of Iodide in EMIM/I3 Ionic Crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Jesse G; Yethiraj, Arun

    2018-01-11

    Highly ionic environments can mediate unusual chemical reactions that would otherwise be considered impossible based on chemical intuition. For example, the formation of a chemical bond between two iodide anions to form a divalent polyiodide anion is seemingly prohibited due to Coulombic repulsion. Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we show that in the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM)/I 3 ionic crystal, the reactive formation of divalent and even trivalent polyiodide anions occurs with extremely small energetic barriers, due to the electrostatic field of the ionic lattice. A practical consequence of this anomalous reactivity is that iodide anions are efficiently transported within the crystal through a "Grotthuss-exchange" mechanism involving bond-breaking and forming events. We characterize two distinct transport pathways, involving both I 4 2- and I 7 3- intermediates, with fast transport of iodide resulting from the release of an I - anion on the opposite side of the intermediate species from the initial bond formation. The ordered cation arrangement in the crystal provides the necessary electrostatic screening for close approach of anions, suggesting a new counterintuitive approach to obtain high ionic conductivity. This new design principle could be used to develop better solid-state electrolytes for batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors.

  4. The roles of organic anion permeases in aluminium resistance and mineral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Gruber, Benjamin D; Ryan, Peter R

    2007-05-25

    Soluble aluminium (Al(3+)) is the major constraint to plant growth on acid soils. Plants have evolved mechanisms to tolerate Al(3+) and one type of mechanism relies on the efflux of organic anions that protect roots by chelating the Al(3+). Al(3+) resistance genes of several species have now been isolated and found to encode membrane proteins that facilitate organic anion efflux from roots. These proteins belong to the Al(3+)-activated malate transporter (ALMT) and multi-drug and toxin extrusion (MATE) families. We review the roles of these proteins in Al(3+) resistance as well as their roles in other aspects of mineral nutrition.

  5. Effects of anion size and concentration on electrolyte invasion into molecular-sized nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ling; Chen Xi; Kim, Taewan; Han Aijie; Qiao Yu

    2010-01-01

    When an electrolyte solution is pressurized into a molecular-sized nanopore, oppositely charged ions are strongly inclined to aggregate, which effectively reduces the ion solubility to zero. Inside the restrictive confinement, a unique quasi-periodic structure is formed where the paired ion couples are periodically separated by a number of water molecules. As the anion size or ion concentration varies, the geometrical characteristics of the confined ion structure would change considerably, leading to a significant variation in the transport pressure. Both experimental and simulation results indicate that, contradictory to the prediction of conventional theory, infiltration pressure decreases as the anions become larger.

  6. Protective effect of S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) on irradiation-induced inhibition of intestinal transport function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.S.; Ando, M.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) on whole-body irradiation-induced inhibition of intestinal transport function. The jejunal transport of fluid and sugars was studied in male Swiss-Webster mice before and 3 days after whole-body irradiation (1000 rads). The rates of glucose and water transport were decreased by 86 and 70%, respectively, in irradiated animals. However, the rate of transport of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3MG) was not affected. In mice receiving WR-2721 (500 mg/kg, ip) 15 to 30 min prior to whole-body irradiation, net water flux was unaffected and the rate of D-glucose transport was decreased only 8%. WR-2721 administered alone (500 mg/kg, ip) had no effect on either D-glucose transport or net water flux across the jejunal mucosa. The results suggest that WR-2721 protects against irradiation-induced inhibition of some intestinal transport functions

  7. C-terminus-mediated voltage gating of Arabidopsis guard cell anion channel QUAC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Patrick; Imes, Dennis; Martinoia, Enrico; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Geiger, Dietmar; Marten, Irene; Hedrich, Rainer

    2013-09-01

    Anion transporters in plants play a fundamental role in volume regulation and signaling. Currently, two plasma membrane-located anion channel families—SLAC/SLAH and ALMT—are known. Among the ALMT family, the root-expressed ALuminium-activated Malate Transporter 1 was identified by comparison of aluminum-tolerant and Al(3+)-sensitive wheat cultivars and was subsequently shown to mediate voltage-independent malate currents. In contrast, ALMT12/QUAC1 (QUickly activating Anion Channel1) is expressed in guard cells transporting malate in an Al(3+)-insensitive and highly voltage-dependent manner. So far, no information is available about the structure and mechanism of voltage-dependent gating with the QUAC1 channel protein. Here, we analyzed gating of QUAC1-type currents in the plasma membrane of guard cells and QUAC1-expressing oocytes revealing similar voltage dependencies and activation–deactivation kinetics. In the heterologous expression system, QUAC1 was electrophysiologically characterized at increasing extra- and intracellular malate concentrations. Thereby, malate additively stimulated the voltage-dependent QUAC1 activity. In search of structural determinants of the gating process, we could not identify transmembrane domains common for voltage-sensitive channels. However, site-directed mutations and deletions at the C-terminus of QUAC1 resulted in altered voltage-dependent channel activity. Interestingly, the replacement of a single glutamate residue, which is conserved in ALMT channels from different clades, by an alanine disrupted QUAC1 activity. Together with C- and N-terminal tagging, these results indicate that the cytosolic C-terminus is involved in the voltage-dependent gating mechanism of QUAC1.

  8. The importance of OH − transport through anion exchange membrane in microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Yaoli; Logan, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    In two-chamber microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) with anion exchange membranes (AEMs), a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) is typically used to avoid increases in catholyte pH as Nernst equation calculations indicate that high pHs adversely impact

  9. The many ways of making anionic clays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Together with hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides, bivalent and trivalent metal hydroxides and their hydroxy salts are actually anionic clays consisting of positively charged hydroxide layers with anions intercalated in the interlayer region. The anionic clays exhibit anion sorption, anion diffusion and exchange ...

  10. Cell cycle-dependent activity of the volume- and Ca2+-activated anion currents in Ehrlich lettre ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Bergdahl, Andreas; Christophersen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the volume-regulated anion current (VRAC) and other anion currents in control or modulation of cell cycle progression; however, the precise involvement of anion channels in this process is unclear. Here, Cl- currents in Ehrlich Lettre Ascites (ELA) cells were monitored...... during cell cycle progression, under three conditions: (i) after osmotic swelling (i.e., VRAC), (ii) after an increase in the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration (i.e., the Ca2+-activated Cl- current, CaCC), and (iii) under steady-state isotonic conditions. The maximal swelling-activated VRAC current......+ in the pipette), was unaltered from G0 to G1, but decreased in early S phase. A novel high-affinity anion channel inhibitor, the acidic di-aryl-urea NS3728, which inhibited both VRAC and CaCC, attenuated ELA cell growth, suggesting a possible mechanistic link between cell cycle progression and cell cycle...

  11. The target-specific transporter and current status of diuretics as antihypertensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Salman; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Garg, Vipin Kumar; Singh, Avnesh Kumar; Mondal, Sambhu Charan

    2012-04-01

    The currently available diuretics increase the urinary excretion of sodium chloride by selective inhibition of specific sodium transporters in the loop of Henle and distal nephron. In recent years, the molecular cloning of the diuretic-sensitive sodium transporters at distal convoluted tubule has improved our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of action of each class of diuretics. Diuretics are tools of considerable therapeutic importance. First, they effectively reduce blood pressure. Loop and thiazide diuretics are secreted from the proximal tubule via the organic anion transporter-1 and exert their diuretic action by binding to the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter type 2 in the thick ascending limb and the Na(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, respectively. Recent studies in animal models suggest that abundance of these ion transporters is affected by long-term diuretic administration. The WHO/ISH guidelines point out that diuretics enhance the efficacy of antihypertensive drugs and will most often be a component of combination therapy. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  12. Relation between heat of vaporization, ion transport, molar volume, and cation-anion binding energy for ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Oleg

    2009-09-10

    A number of correlations between heat of vaporization (H(vap)), cation-anion binding energy (E(+/-)), molar volume (V(m)), self-diffusion coefficient (D), and ionic conductivity for 29 ionic liquids have been investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that employed accurate and validated many-body polarizable force fields. A significant correlation between D and H(vap) has been found, while the best correlation was found for -log(DV(m)) vs H(vap) + 0.28E(+/-). A combination of enthalpy of vaporization and a fraction of the cation-anion binding energy was suggested as a measure of the effective cohesive energy for ionic liquids. A deviation of some ILs from the reported master curve is explained based upon ion packing and proposed diffusion pathways. No general correlations were found between the ion diffusion coefficient and molecular volume or the diffusion coefficient and cation/anion binding energy.

  13. Supramolecular Chemistry of Environmentally Relevant Anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman-James, Kristin; Moyer, B.A.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is the development of highly selective extractants for anions targeting important and timely problems of critical interest to the EMSP mission. In particular, sulfate poses a special problem in cleaning up the Hanford waste tanks in that it interferes with vitrification, but available technologies for sulfate removal are limited. The basic chemical aspects of anion receptor design of functional pH independent systems as well as design of separations strategies for selective and efficient removal of targeted anions have been probed. Key findings include: (1) some of the first synthetic sulfate-selective anion-binding agents; (2) simple, structure-based methods for modifying the intrinsic anion selectivity of a given class of anion receptors; and (3) the first system capable of extracting sulfate from acidic, nitrate-containing aqueous media. Receptor design, structural influences on anion binding affinities, and findings from liquid-liquid extraction studies will be discussed

  14. Hydration of a Large Anionic Charge Distribution - Naphthalene-Water Cluster Anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. Mathias; Adams, Christopher L.

    2010-06-01

    We report the infrared spectra of anionic clusters of naphthalene with up to three water molecules. Comparison of the experimental infrared spectra with theoretically predicted spectra from quantum chemistry calculations allow conclusions regarding the structures of the clusters under study. The first water molecule forms two hydrogen bonds with the π electron system of the naphthalene moiety. Subsequent water ligands interact with both the naphthalene and the other water ligands to form hydrogen bonded networks, similar to other hydrated anion clusters. Naphthalene-water anion clusters illustrate how water interacts with negative charge delocalized over a large π electron system. The clusters are interesting model systems that are discussed in the context of wetting of graphene surfaces and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

  15. Effects of frequently used pharmaceutical excipients on the organic cation transporters 1-3 and peptide transporters 1/2 stably expressed in MDCKII cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, Marcus; Oswald, Stefan; Siegmund, Werner; Keiser, Markus

    2017-03-01

    There is ample evidence that pharmaceutical excipients, which are supposed to be pharmacologically inactive, have an impact on drug metabolism and efflux transport. So far, little is known whether they also modulate uptake transporter proteins. We have recently shown that commonly used solubilizing agents exert significant effects on the function of organic anion uptake transporting polypeptides. Therefore, we investigated in this study the influence of frequently used pharmaceutical excipients on the transport activity of organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2 and OCT3 and the peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. Inhibition of the OCTs and PEPTs by the excipients polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), Solutol® HS15 (SOL), Cremophor® EL (CrEL), Tween® 20 (Tw20), Tween® 80 (Tw80), Kolliphor® P188 (P188) and Kolliphor® P407 (P407) was evaluated using stably transfected MDCKII cells with radio-labeled reference substrates and established inhibitors as controls. Intracellular accumulation of [3H]-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ) for the OCTs and [3H]-glycyl-sarcosine (Gly-Sar) for the PEPTs was measured by liquid scintillation counting after cell lysis. Our studies revealed that PEG, HPCD, SOL, CrEL, Tw20 and Tw80 were potent inhibitors of OCT1-3 (e.g., Tw20 IC 50 values<0.04%). Cellular uptake of Gly-Sar by PEPT1 and PEPT2 was strongly inhibited by both Tw20 and Tw80. SOL was also a strong inhibitor of PEPT1 and PEPT2 (e.g., SOL IC 50 values<0.02%), while CrEL showed significantly inhibition of only PEPT2. The substantial inhibitory effects of certain solubilizing agents on OCTs and PEPTs should be considered if they are to be used in dosage forms for new chemical entities and registered drugs to avoid misinterpretation of pharmacokinetic data and undesired drug interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman-James, K.; Wilson, G.; Moyer, B. A.

    2004-01-01

    This project involves the design and synthesis of receptors for oxoanions of environmental importance, including emphasis on high level and low activity waste. Target anions have included primarily oxoanions and a study of the basic concepts behind selective binding of target anions. A primary target has been sulfate because of its deleterious influence on the vitrification of tank wastes

  17. Mechanism of ochratoxin A transport in kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol, P.P.; Ripich, G.; Holohan, P.D.; Ross, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) Ochratoxin A (OTA) on the transport of p-amino[ 3 H]hippurate (PAH), a prototypic organic anion, was examined in renal brush border (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV). OTA was as effective an inhibitor of PAH uptake in both membranes as probenecid. The dose response curves for OTA in BBMV and BLMV gave IC50 values of 20 +/- 6 and 32 +/- 7 microM, respectively. The effect was specific since the transport of the organic cation N1-methylnicotinamide was not affected. The phenomenon of counterflow was studied to establish that OTA is translocated. OTA produced trans stimulation of PAH transport in both BBMV and BLMV, demonstrating that OTA is transported across both these membranes. The data suggest that OTA interacts with the PAH transport system in both BBMV and BLMV. We conclude that OTA transport in the kidney is mediated via the renal organic anion transport system

  18. Transepithelial transport of flavanone in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shoko; Konishi, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Our recent study [S. Kobayashi, S. Tanabe, M. Sugiyama, Y. Konishi, Transepithelial transport of hesperetin and hesperidin in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1778 (2008) 33-41] shows that the mechanism of absorption of hesperetin involves both proton-coupled active transport and transcellular passive diffusion. Here, as well as analyzing the cell permeability of hesperetin, we also study the transport of other flavanones, naringenin and eriodictyol, using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Similar to hesperetin mentioned, naringenin and eriodictyol showed proton-coupled polarized transport in apical-to-basolateral direction in non-saturable manner, constant permeation in the apical-to-basolateral direction (J ap→bl ) irrespective of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and preferable distribution into the basolateral side after apical loading in the presence of a proton gradient. Furthermore, the proton-coupled J ap→bl of hesperetin, naringenin and eriodictyol, were inhibited by substrates of the monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT), such as benzoic acid, but not by ferulic acid. In contrast, both benzoic and ferulic acids have no stimulatory effect on J ap→bl of each flavanone by trans-stimulation analysis. These results indicates that proton-driven active transport is commonly participated in the absorption of flavanone in general, and that its transport is presumed to be unique other than MCT-mediated transport for absorption of phenolic acids (PAs), sodium-dependent MCT (SMCT) nor anion exchanger-mediated transport

  19. Methods and systems for measuring anions

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad; Mohammed, Omar F.; Aly, Shawkat M.; Alarousu, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, systems for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, anion sensor systems, and the like.

  20. Methods and systems for measuring anions

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad

    2016-08-18

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, systems for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, anion sensor systems, and the like.

  1. Recent advances on uric acid transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liuqing; Shi, Yingfeng; Zhuang, Shougang; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Uric acid is the product of purine metabolism and its increased levels result in hyperuricemia. A number of epidemiological reports link hyperuricemia with multiple disorders, such as kidney diseases, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Recent studies also showed that expression and functional changes of urate transporters are associated with hyperuricemia. Uric acid transporters are divided into two categories: urate reabsorption transporters, including urate anion transporter 1 (URAT1), organic anion transporter 4 (OAT4) and glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), and urate excretion transporetrs, including OAT1, OAT3, urate transporter (UAT), multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), ABCG-2 and sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein. In the kidney, uric acid transporters decrease the reabsorption of urate and increase its secretion. These transporters’ dysfunction would lead to hyperuricemia. As the function of urate transporters is important to control the level of serum uric acid, studies on the functional role of uric acid transporter may provide a new strategy to treat hyperuricemia associated diseases, such as gout, chronic kidney disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and other disorders. This review article summarizes the physiology of urate reabsorption and excretion transporters and highlights the recent advances on their roles in hyperuricemia and various diseases. PMID:29246027

  2. Phosphazene-promoted anionic polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2014-01-01

    In the recent surge of metal-free polymerization techniques, phosphazene bases have shown their remarkable potential as organic promoters/catalysts for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. By complexation with the counterion (e.g. proton or lithium cation), phosphazene base significantly improve the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain-end resulting in rapid and usually controlled anionic/quasi-anionic polymerization. In this review, we will introduce the general mechanism, i.e. in situ activation (of initiating sites) and polymerization, and summarize the applications of such a mechanism on macromolecular engineering toward functionalized polymers, block copolymers and complex macromolecular architectures.

  3. Anion-π Catalysts with Axial Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Matile, Stefan

    2017-09-04

    The idea of anion-π catalysis is to stabilize anionic transition states by anion-π interactions on aromatic surfaces. For asymmetric anion-π catalysis, π-acidic surfaces have been surrounded with stereogenic centers. This manuscript introduces the first anion-π catalysts that operate with axial chirality. Bifunctional catalysts with tertiary amine bases next to π-acidic naphthalenediimide planes are equipped with a bulky aromatic substituent in the imide position to produce separable atropisomers. The addition of malonic acid half thioesters to enolate acceptors is used for evaluation. In the presence of a chiral axis, the selective acceleration of the disfavored but relevant enolate addition was much better than with point chirality, and enantioselectivity could be observed for the first time for this reaction with small-molecule anion-π catalysts. Enantioselectivity increased with the π acidity of the π surface, whereas the addition of stereogenic centers around the aromatic plane did not cause further improvements. These results identify axial chirality of the active aromatic plane generated by atropisomerism as an attractive strategy for asymmetric anion-π catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Functional, structural and phylogenetic analysis of domains underlying the Al sensitivity of the aluminum-activated malate/anion transporter, TaALMT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaba, Ayalew; Dreyer, Ingo; Margaryan, Armine; Schneider, David J; Kochian, Leon; Piñeros, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Triticum aestivum aluminum-activated malate transporter (TaALMT1) is the founding member of a unique gene family of anion transporters (ALMTs) that mediate the efflux of organic acids. A small sub-group of root-localized ALMTs, including TaALMT1, is physiologically associated with in planta aluminum (Al) resistance. TaALMT1 exhibits significant enhancement of transport activity in response to extracellular Al. In this study, we integrated structure-function analyses of structurally altered TaALMT1 proteins expressed in Xenopus oocytes with phylogenic analyses of the ALMT family. Our aim is to re-examine the role of protein domains in terms of their potential involvement in the Al-dependent enhancement (i.e. Al-responsiveness) of TaALMT1 transport activity, as well as the roles of all its 43 negatively charged amino acid residues. Our results indicate that the N-domain, which is predicted to form the conductive pathway, mediates ion transport even in the absence of the C-domain. However, segments in both domains are involved in Al(3+) sensing. We identified two regions, one at the N-terminus and a hydrophobic region at the C-terminus, that jointly contribute to the Al-response phenotype. Interestingly, the characteristic motif at the N-terminus appears to be specific for Al-responsive ALMTs. Our study highlights the need to include a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis when drawing inferences from structure-function analyses, as a significant proportion of the functional changes observed for TaALMT1 are most likely the result of alterations in the overall structural integrity of ALMT family proteins rather than modifications of specific sites involved in Al(3+) sensing. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Creating molecular macrocycles for anion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar H. Flood

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation and functionality of new classes of macrocycles that are shape persistent and can bind anions is described. The genesis of triazolophane macrocycles emerges out of activity surrounding 1,2,3-triazoles made using click chemistry; and the same triazoles are responsible for anion capture. Mistakes made and lessons learnt in anion recognition provide deeper understanding that, together with theory, now provides for computer-aided receptor design. The lessons are acted upon in the creation of two new macrocycles. First, cyanostars are larger and like to capture large anions. Second is tricarb, which also favors large anions but shows a propensity to self-assemble in an orderly and stable manner, laying a foundation for future designs of hierarchical nanostructures.

  6. Acetaminophen and aspirin inhibit superoxide anion generation and lipid peroxidation, and protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, D S; Saravanan, K S; Maharaj, H; Mohanakumar, K P; Daya, S

    2004-04-01

    We assessed the antioxidant activity of non-narcotic analgesics, acetaminophen and aspirin in rat brain homogenates and neuroprotective effects in vivo in rats intranigrally treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP+). Both drugs inhibited cyanide-induced superoxide anion generation, as well as lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates, the combination of the agents resulting in a potentiation of this effect. Acetaminophen or aspirin when administered alone or in combination, did not alter dopamine (DA) levels in the forebrain or in the striatum. Intranigral infusion of MPP+ in rats caused severe depletion of striatal DA levels in the ipsilateral striatum in rats by the third day. Systemic post-treatment of acetaminophen afforded partial protection, whereas similar treatment of aspirin resulted in complete blockade of MPP+-induced striatal DA depletion. While these findings suggest usefulness of non-narcotic analgesics in neuroprotective therapy in neurodegenerative diseases, aspirin appears to be a potential candidate in prophylactic as well as in adjuvant therapy in Parkinson's disease.

  7. Hypercapnia modulates cAMP signalling and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator‐dependent anion and fluid secretion in airway epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mark J.; Saint‐Criq, Vinciane; Patel, Waseema; Ibrahim, Salam H.; Verdon, Bernard; Ward, Christopher; Garnett, James P.; Tarran, Robert; Cann, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Key points Raised arterial blood CO2 (hypercapnia) is a feature of many lung diseases.CO2 has been shown to act as a cell signalling molecule in human cells, notably by influencing the levels of cell signalling second messengers: cAMP and Ca2+.Hypercapnia reduced cAMP‐stimulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator‐dependent anion and fluid transport in Calu‐3 cells and primary human airway epithelia but did not affect cAMP‐regulated HCO3 − transport via pendrin or Na+/HCO3 − cotransporters.These results further support the role of CO2 as a cell signalling molecule and suggests CO2‐induced reductions in airway anion and fluid transport may impair innate defence mechanisms of the lungs. Abstract Hypercapnia is clinically defined as an arterial blood partial pressure of CO2 of above 40 mmHg and is a feature of chronic lung disease. In previous studies we have demonstrated that hypercapnia modulates agonist‐stimulated cAMP levels through effects on transmembrane adenylyl cyclase activity. In the airways, cAMP is known to regulate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)‐mediated anion and fluid secretion, which contributes to airway surface liquid homeostasis. The aim of the current work was to investigate if hypercapnia could modulate cAMP‐regulated ion and fluid transport in human airway epithelial cells. We found that acute exposure to hypercapnia significantly reduced forskolin‐stimulated elevations in intracellular cAMP as well as both adenosine‐ and forskolin‐stimulated increases in CFTR‐dependent transepithelial short‐circuit current, in polarised cultures of Calu‐3 human airway cells. This CO2‐induced reduction in anion secretion was not due to a decrease in HCO3 − transport given that neither a change in CFTR‐dependent HCO3 − efflux nor Na+/HCO3 − cotransporter‐dependent HCO3 − influx were CO2‐sensitive. Hypercapnia also reduced the volume of forskolin‐stimulated fluid

  8. Okadaic acid inhibits cell growth and photosynthetic electron transport in the alga Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perreault, Francois; Matias, Marcelo Seleme; Oukarroum, Abdallah [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada); Matias, William Gerson [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada); Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, LABTOX, Depto. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, CEP: 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Popovic, Radovan, E-mail: popovic.radovan@uqam.ca [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), which is produced by several dinoflagellate species, is a phycotoxin known to induce a decrease of biomass production in phytoplankton. However, the mechanisms of OA cytotoxicity are still unknown in microalgae. In this study, we exposed the green microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta to OA concentrations of 0.05 to 0.5 {mu}M in order to evaluate its effects on cell division, reactive oxygen species production and photosynthetic electron transport. After 72 h of treatment under continuous illumination, OA concentrations higher than 0.10 {mu}M decreased culture cell density, induced oxidative stress and inhibited photosystem II electron transport capacity. OA effect in D. tertiolecta was strongly light dependent since no oxidative stress was observed when D. tertiolecta was exposed to OA in the dark. In the absence of light, the effect of OA on culture cell density and photosystem II activity was also significantly reduced. Therefore, light appears to have a significant role in the toxicity of OA in microalgae. Our results indicate that the site of OA interaction on photosynthetic electron transport is likely to be at the level of the plastoquinone pool, which can lead to photo-oxidative stress when light absorbed by the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II cannot be dissipated via photochemical pathways. These findings allowed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of OA toxicity in microalgae. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposition of Dunaliella tertiolecta to okadaic acid in light conditions results in reactive oxygen species formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of photosystem II is dependent on oxidative stress and effects of okadaic acid on the plastoquinone pool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress and inhibition of photosynthesis increase okadaic acid effect on cell density in light conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Okadaic acid induces toxicity in algae via both light-dependent and light

  9. Anion concurrence and anion selectivity in the sorption of radionuclides by organotones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnsen, Julia G.

    2007-01-01

    Some long-lived and radiologically important nuclear fission products, such as I-129 (half-life t 1/2 = 1,6 . 10 7 a), Tc-99 (t 1/2 = 2,1 . 10 5 a), and Se-79 (t 1/2 = 6,5 . 10 4 a) are anionic in aqueous environments. This study focuses on the adsorption of such anions to organoclays and the understanding of the selectivity of the process. The organoclays used in this study were prepared from a bentonite (MX-80) and a vermiculite clay, and the cationic surfactants hexadcylpyridium, hexadecyltrimethylammonium, and benzethonium. Surfactant adsorption to the bentonite exceeds the cation exchange capacity of the clay, with the surplus positive charge being balanced by the co-adsorption of chloride. The interlayer distance of the bentonites is increased sufficiently to contain bi- and pseudotrimolecular structures of the surfactants. Adsorption experiments were carried out using the batch technique. Anion adsorption of iodide, perrhenate, selenite, nitrate, and sulphate is mainly due to ion exchange with chloride. As an additional adsorption mechanism, the incorporation of inorganic ion pairs into the interlayer space of the clay is proposed as a result of experiments showing differences in the adsorption levels of sodium and potassium iodide. Anion adsorption results show a clear selectivity of the organoclays, with the affinity sequence being: ReO - 4 > I - > NO - 3 > Cl - > SO 2- 4 > SeO 2- 3 . This sequence corresponds to the sequence of increasing hydration energies of the anions, thus selectivity could be due to the process of minimization of free energy of the system. (orig.)

  10. K+ channel openers restore verapamil-inhibited lung fluid resolution and transepithelial ion transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xue-Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC are regulated by cell Ca2+ signal, which may contribute to calcium antagonist-induced noncardiogenic lung edema. Although K+ channel modulators regulate ENaC activity in normal lungs, the therapeutical relevance and the underlying mechanisms have not been completely explored. We hypothesized that K+ channel openers may restore calcium channel blocker-inhibited alveolar fluid clearance (AFC by up-regulating both apical and basolateral ion transport. Methods Verapamil-induced depression of heterologously expressed human αβγ ENaC in Xenopus oocytes, apical and basolateral ion transport in monolayers of human lung epithelial cells (H441, and in vivo alveolar fluid clearance were measured, respectively, using the two-electrode voltage clamp, Ussing chamber, and BSA protein assays. Ca2+ signal in H441 cells was analyzed using Fluo 4AM. Results The rate of in vivo AFC was reduced significantly (40.6 ± 6.3% of control, P Ca3.1 (1-EBIO and KATP (minoxidil channel openers significantly recovered AFC. In addition to short-circuit current (Isc in intact H441 monolayers, both apical and basolateral Isc levels were reduced by verapamil in permeabilized monolayers. Moreover, verapamil significantly altered Ca2+ signal evoked by ionomycin in H441 cells. Depletion of cytosolic Ca2+ in αβγ ENaC-expressing oocytes completely abolished verapamil-induced inhibition. Intriguingly, KV (pyrithione-Na, K Ca3.1 (1-EBIO, and KATP (minoxidil channel openers almost completely restored the verapamil-induced decrease in Isc levels by diversely up-regulating apical and basolateral Na+ and K+ transport pathways. Conclusions Our observations demonstrate that K+ channel openers are capable of rescuing reduced vectorial Na+ transport across lung epithelial cells with impaired Ca2+ signal.

  11. Phenyl Ring-Substituted Lobelane Analogs: Inhibition of [3H]Dopamine Uptake at the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter-2

    OpenAIRE

    Nickell, Justin R.; Zheng, Guangrong; Deaciuc, Agripina G.; Crooks, Peter A.; Dwoskin, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Lobeline attenuates the behavioral effects of methamphetamine via inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2). To increase selectivity for VMAT2, chemically defunctionalized lobeline analogs, including lobelane, were designed to eliminate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor affinity. The current study evaluated the ability of lobelane analogs to inhibit [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding to VMAT2 and [3H]dopamine (DA) uptake into isolated synaptic vesicles and determined the m...

  12. Predicted consequences of diabetes and SGLT inhibition on transport and oxygen consumption along a rat nephron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallon, Volker; Edwards, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes increases the reabsorption of Na+ (TNa) and glucose via the sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 in the early proximal tubule (S1-S2 segments) of the renal cortex. SGLT2 inhibitors enhance glucose excretion and lower hyperglycemia in diabetes. We aimed to investigate how diabetes and SGLT2 inhibition affect TNa and sodium transport-dependent oxygen consumption QO2active along the whole nephron. To do so, we developed a mathematical model of water and solute transport from the Bowman space to the papillary tip of a superficial nephron of the rat kidney. Model simulations indicate that, in the nondiabetic kidney, acute and chronic SGLT2 inhibition enhances active TNa in all nephron segments, thereby raising QO2active by 5–12% in the cortex and medulla. Diabetes increases overall TNa and QO2active by ∼50 and 100%, mainly because it enhances glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and transport load. In diabetes, acute and chronic SGLT2 inhibition lowers QO2active in the cortex by ∼30%, due to GFR reduction that lowers proximal tubule active TNa, but raises QO2active in the medulla by ∼7%. In the medulla specifically, chronic SGLT2 inhibition is predicted to increase QO2active by 26% in late proximal tubules (S3 segments), by 2% in medullary thick ascending limbs (mTAL), and by 9 and 21% in outer and inner medullary collecting ducts (OMCD and IMCD), respectively. Additional blockade of SGLT1 in S3 segments enhances glucose excretion, reduces QO2active by 33% in S3 segments, and raises QO2active by SGLT2 blockade in diabetes lowers cortical QO2active and raises medullary QO2active, particularly in S3 segments. PMID:26764207

  13. METAMORPHIC INHIBITION OF XENOPUS LAEVIS BY SODIUM PERCHLORATE: EFFECTS ON DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID HISTOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perchlorate anion inhibits thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis via inhibition of the sodium-iodide symporter. It is, therefore, a good model chemical to aid in the development of a bioassay to screen chemicals for effects on thyroid function. Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed to ...

  14. An anionic defensin from Plutella xylostella with potential activity against Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X-X; Zhang, Y-Q; Freed, S; Yu, J; Gao, Y-F; Wang, S; Ouyang, L-N; Ju, W-Y; Jin, F-L

    2016-12-01

    Insect defensins, are cationic peptides that play an important role in immunity against microbial infection. In the present study, an anionic defensin from Plutella xylostella, (designated as PxDef) was first cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that the mature peptide owned characteristic six-cysteine motifs with predicted isoelectric point of 5.57, indicating an anionic defensin. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that PxDef was significantly induced in epidermis, fat body, midgut and hemocytes after injection of heat-inactivated Bacillus thuringiensis, while such an induction was delayed by the injection of live B. thuringiensis in the 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella. Knocking down the expression of nuclear transcription factor Dorsal in P. xylostella by RNA interference significantly decreased the mRNA level of PxDef, and increased the sensitivity of P. xylostella larvae to the infection by live B. thuringiensis. The purified recombinant mature peptide (PxDef) showed higher activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with the minimum inhibition concentrations of 1.6 and 2.6 µM against B. thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report about an anionic PxDef, which may play an important role in the immune system of P. xylostella against B. thuringiensis.

  15. Caveolin-1 sensitizes cisplatin-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis via superoxide anion-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjit, Kanittha; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2011-12-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression frequently found in lung cancer was linked with disease prognosis and progression. This study reveals for the first time that Cav-1 sensitizes cisplatin-induced lung carcinoma cell death by the mechanism involving oxidative stress modulation. We established stable Cav-1 overexpressed (H460/Cav-1) cells and investigated their cisplatin susceptibility in comparison with control-transfected cells and found that Cav-1 expression significantly enhanced cisplatin-mediated cell death. Results indicated that the different response to cisplatin between these cells was resulted from different level of superoxide anion induced by cisplatin. Inhibitory study revealed that superoxide anion inhibitor MnTBAP could inhibit cisplatin-mediated toxicity only in H460/Cav-1 cells while had no effect on H460 cells. Further, superoxide anion detected by DHE probe indicated that H460/Cav-1 cells generated significantly higher superoxide anion level in response to cisplatin than that of control cells. The role of Cav-1 in regulating cisplatin sensitivity was confirmed in shRNA-mediated Cav-1 down-regulated (H460/shCav-1) cells and the cells exhibited decreased cisplatin susceptibility and superoxide generation. In summary, these findings reveal novel aspects regarding role of Cav-1 in modulating oxidative stress induced by cisplatin, possibly providing new insights for cancer biology and cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  16. Simultaneous anion and cation mobility in polypyrrole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Bay, Lasse; Vidanapathirana, K.

    2003-01-01

    and the expulsion of anions; a broad anodic peak centered at ca. - 0.5 V representing the expulsion of cations; and a second broad peak at +0.2 to +0.5 V corresponding to anions being inserted. Although the motion of cations is the most important, as expected, there is a significant anion contribution, thereby...... complicating reproducibility when employing PPy(DBS) polymers as actuators. When the cation is doubly charged, it enters the film less readily, and anions dominate the mobility. Using a large and bulky cation switches the mechanism to apparently total anion motion. The changes in area of the three peaks...

  17. Graphene-coated polymeric anion exchangers for ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Minyi; Lou, Chaoyan [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wu, Shuchao, E-mail: wushch2002@163.com [Zhejiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Zhang, Peimin [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhi, Mingyu [Hangzhou Vocational & Technical College, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhu, Yan, E-mail: zhuyan@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Carbonaceous stationary phases have gained much attention for their peculiar selectivity and robustness. Herein we report the fabrication and application of a graphene-coated polymeric stationary phase for anion exchange chromatography. The graphene-coated particles were fabricated by a facile evaporation-reduction method. These hydrophilic particles were proven appropriate substrates for grafting of hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) to make pellicular anion exchangers. The new phase was characterized by zeta potentials, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscope. Frontal displacement chromatography showed that the capacities of the anion exchangers were tuned by both graphene amount and HBCPs layer count. The chromatographic performance of graphene-coated anion exchangers was demonstrated with separation of inorganic anions, organic acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Good reproducibility was obtained by consecutive injections, indicating high chemical stability of the coating. - Highlights: • Graphene-coated polymeric particles were fabricated by a facile method. • Hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) were grafted from graphene-coated particles to make anion exchangers. • Graphene amount and HBCPs layer count had significant effects on the anion exchange capacities. • Separation of diverse anionic analytes on the anion exchangers was demonstrated. • The prepared anion exchangers exhibited high stability.

  18. Inhibition of epithelial Na+ transport by atriopeptin, protein kinase c, and pertussis toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrmann, M.; Cantiello, H.F.; Ausiello, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have recently shown the selective inhibition of an amiloride-sensitive, conductive pathway for Na + by atrial natriuretic peptide and 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcGMP) in the renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK i . Using 22 Na + fluxes, they further investigated the modulation of Na + transport by atrial natriuretic peptide and by agents that increase cGMP production, activate protein kinase c, or modulate guanine nucleotide regulatory protein function. Sodium nitroprusside increases intracellular cGMP concentrations without affecting cAMP concentrations and completely inhibits amiloride-sensitive Na + uptake in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Oleoyl 2-acetylglycerol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, activators of protein kinase c, inhibit Na + uptake by 93 ± 13 and 51 ± 10%, respectively. Prolonged incubation with phorbol ester results in the downregulation of protein kinase c activity and reduces the inhibitory effect of atrial natriuretic peptide, suggesting that the action of this peptide involves stimulation of protein kinase c. Pertussis toxin, which induces the ADP-ribosylation of a 41-kDa guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in LLC-PK i cells, inhibits 22 Na + influx to the same extent as amiloride. Thus, increasing cGMP, activating protein kinase c, and ADP-ribosylating a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein all inhibit Na + uptake. These events may be sequentially involved in the action of atrial natriuretic peptide

  19. Plasma-polymerized alkaline anion-exchange membrane: Synthesis and structure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jue; Meng Yuedong; Zhang Chengxu; Fang Shidong

    2011-01-01

    After-glow discharge plasma polymerization was developed for alkaline anion-exchange membranes synthesis using vinylbenzyl chloride as monomer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the chemical structure properties of plasma-polymerized membranes. Ion-exchange capacities of quaternized poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (QPVBC) membranes were measured to evaluate their capability of hydroxyl ion transport. A mechanism of plasma polymerization using VBC as monomer that accounts for the competitive effects of free radicals polymerization and plasma ablation in the plasma polymerization process was proposed. Our results indicate that plasma discharge power influences the contents of functional groups and the structure of the plasma polymer membranes, which attribute to the coactions of polymerization and ablation. The properties of uniform morphology, good adhesion to the substrate, high thermal stability and satisfying anion conduction level suggest the potential application of QPVBC membrane deposited at discharge power of 20 W in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

  20. Age- and sex-related differences of organic anion-transporting polypeptide gene expression in livers of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Wei-Yu; Xu, Shang-Fu; Zhu, Qiong-Ni; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Cheng, Xing-Guo; Liu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) play important roles in transporting endogenous substances and xenobiotics into the liver and are implicated in drug-drug interactions. Many factors could influence their expression and result in alterations in drug disposition, efficacy and toxicity. This study was aimed to examine the development-, aging-, and sex-dependent Oatps expression in livers of rats. The livers from SD rats during development (− 2, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60 d) and aging (60, 180, 540 and/or 800 d) were collected and total RNAs were extracted, purified, and subjected to real-time PCR analysis. Total proteins were extracted for western-blot analysis. Results showed that Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 were all hardly detectable in fetal rat livers, low at birth, rapidly increased after weaning (21 d), and reached the peak at 60 d. The Oatps remained stable during the age between 60–180 d, and decreased at elderly (540 and/or 800 d). After birth, Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, and Oatp1b2 were all highly expressed in liver, in contrast, Oatp1a5 expression was low. Oatp expressions are male-predominant in rat livers. In the livers of aged rats, the Oatp expression decreased and shared a consistent ontogeny pattern at the mRNA and protein level. In conclusion, this study showed that in rat liver, Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 gene expressions are influenced by age and gender, which could provide a basis of individual variation in drug transport, metabolism and toxicity in children, elderly and women. - Highlights: • Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 expression in livers of rats. • Ontogenic changes of Oatps at − 2, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60 days. • Age-related changes of Oatps at 60, 180, 540, and 800 days. • Sex-difference of Oatps at the both mRNA and protein levels

  1. Age- and sex-related differences of organic anion-transporting polypeptide gene expression in livers of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Wei-Yu; Xu, Shang-Fu; Zhu, Qiong-Ni; Lu, Yuan-Fu [Key Lab for Pharmacology of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003 (China); Cheng, Xing-Guo [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John’s University, New York, NY 11439 (United States); Liu, Jie, E-mail: Jieliu@zmc.edu.cn [Key Lab for Pharmacology of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) play important roles in transporting endogenous substances and xenobiotics into the liver and are implicated in drug-drug interactions. Many factors could influence their expression and result in alterations in drug disposition, efficacy and toxicity. This study was aimed to examine the development-, aging-, and sex-dependent Oatps expression in livers of rats. The livers from SD rats during development (− 2, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60 d) and aging (60, 180, 540 and/or 800 d) were collected and total RNAs were extracted, purified, and subjected to real-time PCR analysis. Total proteins were extracted for western-blot analysis. Results showed that Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 were all hardly detectable in fetal rat livers, low at birth, rapidly increased after weaning (21 d), and reached the peak at 60 d. The Oatps remained stable during the age between 60–180 d, and decreased at elderly (540 and/or 800 d). After birth, Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, and Oatp1b2 were all highly expressed in liver, in contrast, Oatp1a5 expression was low. Oatp expressions are male-predominant in rat livers. In the livers of aged rats, the Oatp expression decreased and shared a consistent ontogeny pattern at the mRNA and protein level. In conclusion, this study showed that in rat liver, Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 gene expressions are influenced by age and gender, which could provide a basis of individual variation in drug transport, metabolism and toxicity in children, elderly and women. - Highlights: • Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 expression in livers of rats. • Ontogenic changes of Oatps at − 2, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60 days. • Age-related changes of Oatps at 60, 180, 540, and 800 days. • Sex-difference of Oatps at the both mRNA and protein levels.

  2. Ectopic expression of the erythrocyte band 3 anion exchange protein, using a new avian retrovirus vector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerstenberg, S; Beug, H; Introna, M

    1990-01-01

    into protein. Using the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene cloned into the vector as a test construct, expression of enzyme activity could be detected in 90 to 95% of transfected target cells and in 80 to 85% of subsequently infected cells. In addition, a cDNA encoding the avian erythrocyte band 3 anion...... exchange protein has been expressed from the vector in both chicken embryo fibroblasts and QT6 cells and appears to function as an active, plasma membrane-based anion transporter. The ectopic expression of band 3 protein provides a visual marker for vector function in these cells....

  3. Effect of CO2 absorption on ion and water mobility in an anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Roy, Asa L.; Greenbaum, Steve G.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2018-03-01

    We report the measured water uptake, density, ionic conductivity and water transport properties in Tokuyama A201 membrane in OH-, HCO3- and Cl- forms. The water uptake of the AEM varies with anion type in the order λ(OH-) > λ(HCO3-) > λ(Cl-) for samples equilibrated with the same water vapor activity (aw). The conductivity of the AEM is reduced by absorption of CO2. Pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) measurements were utilized to characterize the diffusivity of water and HCO3- ion. The anion diffusion coefficient and membrane conductivity are used to probe the applicability of the Nernst-Einstein equation in these AEMs.

  4. The assessment of pellicular anion-exchange resins for the determination of anions by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlandt, C.

    1981-01-01

    Because pellicular anion-exchange resins suitable for the determination, by ion chromatography, of anions with alkaline eluents were unavailable in South Africa at the inception of this work, an attempt was made to prepare such resins. In this study it is shown that the pellicular resins produced are more efficient than the surface-aminated resins used previously. The simultaneous separation and determination of five common anions is demonstrated. The method was applied to the analysis of uranium leach liquors, effluent samples, and a solid sample of ferric oxide (goethite)

  5. Evaluation of the transporter-mediated herb-drug interaction potential of DA-9801, a standardized dioscorea extract for diabetic neuropathy, in human in vitro and rat in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Im-Sook; Kong, Tae Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Eun Nam; Kwon, Soon-Sang; Kang, Hee Eun; Choi, Sang-Zin; Son, Miwon; Lee, Hye Suk

    2014-07-17

    Drug transporters play important roles in the absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs and thereby, modulate drug efficacy and toxicity. With a growing use of poly pharmacy, concurrent administration of herbal extracts that modulate transporter activities with drugs can cause serious adverse reactions. Therefore, prediction and evaluation of drug-drug interaction potential is important in the clinic and in the drug development process. DA-9801, comprising a mixed extract of Dioscoreae rhizoma and Dioscorea nipponica Makino, is a new standardized extract currently being evaluated for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a phase II clinical study. The inhibitory effects of DA-9801 on the transport functions of organic cation transporter (OCT)1, OCT2, organic anion transporter (OAT)1, OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) were investigated in HEK293 or LLC-PK1 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on the pharmacokinetics of relevant substrate drugs of these transporters were also examined in vivo in rats. DA-9801 inhibited the in vitro transport activities of OCT1, OCT2, OAT3, and OATP1B1, with IC50 values of 106, 174, 48.1, and 273 μg/mL, respectively, while the other transporters were not inhibited by 300 μg/mL DA-9801. To investigate whether this inhibitory effect of DA-9801 on OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3 could change the pharmacokinetics of their substrates in vivo, we measured the pharmacokinetics of cimetidine, a substrate for OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3, and of furosemide, a substrate for OAT1 and OAT3, by co-administration of DA-9801 at a single oral dose of 1,000 mg/kg. Pre-dose of DA-9801 5 min or 2 h prior to cimetidine administration decreased the Cmax of cimetidine in rats. However, DA-9801 did not affect the elimination parameters such as half-life, clearance, or amount excreted in the urine, suggesting that it did not inhibit elimination process of cimetidine, which is

  6. Transport behaviors of anionic azo dyes at interface between surfactant-modified flax shives and aqueous solution: Synchrotron infrared and adsorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxia [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Huang, Guohe, E-mail: huang@iseis.org [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); An, Chunjiang; Xin, Xiaying [Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Zhang, Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Liu, Xia [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, S7N 2V3 (Canada)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Surfactant modified flax shives for removing anionic azo dyes. • The equilibrium and kinetic studies for the adsorption of anionic azo dyes. • The migration patterns of dye pollutants at flax shive-water interface. • New insights from synchrotron infrared-assisted characterization. • Potential as biomass adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of sustainability, biomass adsorbent has a high potential in pollution control and there is an emerging interest to investigate the behaviors of pollutants at the interface between biomass adsorbent and solution. This study investigated the performance of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant-modified flax shives (MFS) for removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution. The equilibrium and kinetic analysis for the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO-7), Acid Red 18 (AR-18) and Acid Black 1 (AB-1) on MFS were conducted. The surface of MFS was characterized by synchrotron infrared and SEM analysis. The absorbed amount of three anionic azo dyes varied with the change of adsorbent dosage, pH and ionic strength. The adsorption isotherm data well fit to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the liquid film diffusion models. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of three anionic azo dyes was spontaneous. The adsorption of AR-18 and AB-1 onto MFS was endothermic while the adsorption of AO-7 was exothermic. The results can help better understand the behaviors of organic pollutants at biomass adsorbent-water interface. They also present the potential of using MFS as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater.

  7. Transport behaviors of anionic azo dyes at interface between surfactant-modified flax shives and aqueous solution: Synchrotron infrared and adsorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenxia; Huang, Guohe; An, Chunjiang; Xin, Xiaying; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Surfactant modified flax shives for removing anionic azo dyes. • The equilibrium and kinetic studies for the adsorption of anionic azo dyes. • The migration patterns of dye pollutants at flax shive-water interface. • New insights from synchrotron infrared-assisted characterization. • Potential as biomass adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of sustainability, biomass adsorbent has a high potential in pollution control and there is an emerging interest to investigate the behaviors of pollutants at the interface between biomass adsorbent and solution. This study investigated the performance of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant-modified flax shives (MFS) for removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution. The equilibrium and kinetic analysis for the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO-7), Acid Red 18 (AR-18) and Acid Black 1 (AB-1) on MFS were conducted. The surface of MFS was characterized by synchrotron infrared and SEM analysis. The absorbed amount of three anionic azo dyes varied with the change of adsorbent dosage, pH and ionic strength. The adsorption isotherm data well fit to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the liquid film diffusion models. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of three anionic azo dyes was spontaneous. The adsorption of AR-18 and AB-1 onto MFS was endothermic while the adsorption of AO-7 was exothermic. The results can help better understand the behaviors of organic pollutants at biomass adsorbent-water interface. They also present the potential of using MFS as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater.

  8. Perspective: Electrospray photoelectron spectroscopy: From multiply-charged anions to ultracold anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) has become an essential tool in chemical physics and physical chemistry for the production of novel molecular ions from solution samples for a variety of spectroscopic experiments. ESI was used to produce free multiply-charged anions (MCAs) for photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) in the late 1990 s, allowing many interesting properties of this class of exotic species to be investigated. Free MCAs are characterized by strong intramolecular Coulomb repulsions, which create a repulsive Coulomb barrier (RCB) for electron emission. The RCB endows many fascinating properties to MCAs, giving rise to meta-stable anions with negative electron binding energies. Recent development in the PES of MCAs includes photoelectron imaging to examine the influence of the RCB on the electron emission dynamics, pump-probe experiments to examine electron tunneling through the RCB, and isomer-specific experiments by coupling PES with ion mobility for biological MCAs. The development of a cryogenically cooled Paul trap has led to much better resolved PE spectra for MCAs by creating vibrationally cold anions from the room temperature ESI source. Recent advances in coupling the cryogenic Paul trap with PE imaging have allowed high-resolution PE spectra to be obtained for singly charged anions produced by ESI. In particular, the observation of dipole-bound excited states has made it possible to conduct vibrational autodetachment spectroscopy and resonant PES, which yield much richer vibrational spectroscopic information for dipolar free radicals than traditional PES

  9. Cytochrome b5 reductase is the component from neuronal synaptic plasma membrane vesicles that generates superoxide anion upon stimulation by cytochrome c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro K. Samhan-Arias

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we measured the effect of cytochrome c on the NADH-dependent superoxide anion production by synaptic plasma membrane vesicles from rat brain. In these membranes, the cytochrome c stimulated NADH-dependent superoxide anion production was inhibited by antibodies against cytochrome b5 reductase linking the production to this enzyme. Measurement of the superoxide anion radical generated by purified recombinant soluble and membrane cytochrome b5 reductase corroborates the production of the radical by different enzyme isoforms. In the presence of cytochrome c, a burst of superoxide anion as well as the reduction of cytochrome c by cytochrome b5 reductase was measured. Complex formation between both proteins suggests that cytochrome b5 reductase is one of the major partners of cytochrome c upon its release from mitochondria to the cytosol during apoptosis. Superoxide anion production and cytochrome c reduction are the consequences of the stimulated NADH consumption by cytochrome b5 reductase upon complex formation with cytochrome c and suggest a major role of this enzyme as an anti-apoptotic protein during cell death.

  10. Carbon Incorporation and Anion Dynamics as Synergistic Drivers for Ultrafast Diffusion in Superionic LiCB11H12 and NaCB11H12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrievska, Mirjana [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shea, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Kweon, Kyoung E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Bercx, Marnik [University of Antwerp; Varley, Joel B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Tang, Wan Si [National Institute of Standards and Technology; University of Maryland; Skripov, Alexander V. [Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Stavila, Vitalie [Sandia National Laboratories; Udovic, Terrence J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology; Wood, Brandon C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2018-02-02

    The disordered phases of LiCB11H12 and NaCB11H12 possess superb superionic conductivities that make them suitable as solid electrolytes. In these materials, cation diffusion correlates with high orientational mobilities of the CB11H12- anions; however, the precise relationship has yet to be demonstrated. In this work, ab initio molecular dynamics and quasielastic neutron scattering are combined to probe anion reorientations and their mechanistic connection to cation mobility over a range of timescales and temperatures. It is found that anions do not rotate freely, but rather transition rapidly between orientations defined by the cation sublattice symmetry. The symmetry-breaking carbon atom in CB11H12- also plays a critical role by perturbing the energy landscape along the instantaneous orientation of the anion dipole, which couples fluctuations in the cation probability density directly to the anion motion. Anion reorientation rates exceed 3 x 1010 s-1, suggesting the underlying energy landscape fluctuates dynamically on diffusion-relevant timescales. Furthermore, carbon is found to modify the orientational preferences of the anions and aid rotational mobility, creating additional symmetry incompatibilities that inhibit ordering. The results suggest that synergy between the anion reorientational dynamics and the carbon-modified cation-anion interaction accounts for the higher ionic conductivity in CB11H12- salts compared with B12H122-.

  11. Transport of acidic amino acids by human jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, V.M.; Harig, J.M.; Adams, M.B.; Ramaswamy, K.

    1987-01-01

    This study characterizes the transport of radiolabeled acidic amino acids into brush-border membrane vesicles prepared from human jejunum. The uptakes of L-glutamic, L-aspartic, and D-aspartic acids were stimulated by a Na + gradient. Concentrative uptake (resulting in an overshoot phenomenon) of these dicarboxylic amino acids occurred when there was an outward K + gradient. In addition, increasing K + gradients resulted in enhanced uptake of L-glutamic acid. This K + requirement is somewhat specific as Rb + and Cs + could enhance uptake to a limited extent, whereas Li + and choline + showed no enhancement. The presence of a K + gradient did not affect the affinity of the carrier system for L-glutamic acid but it did increase the V/sub max/. The presence of extravesicular anions having differing membrane permeabilities did not altar L-glutamic acid uptake indicating an absence of an effect of membrane potential on the transport process. Finally, the human transport system for L-glutamic acid appears to be specific for acidic amino acids as demonstrated by inhibition studies. The studies demonstrate a transport system in human jejunum specific for acidic amino acids that is energized by an inward Na + gradient and an outward K + gradient

  12. Altered Expression of a Malate-Permeable Anion Channel, OsALMT4, Disrupts Mineral Nutrition1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form a family of anion channels in plants, but little is known about most of its members. This study examined the function of OsALMT4 from rice (Oryza sativa). We show that OsALMT4 is expressed in roots and shoots and that the OsALMT4 protein localizes to the plasma membrane. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing (OX) OsALMT4 released malate from the roots constitutively and had 2-fold higher malate concentrations in the xylem sap than nulls, indicating greater concentrations of malate in the apoplast. OX lines developed brown necrotic spots on the leaves that did not appear on nulls. These symptoms were not associated with altered concentrations of any mineral element in the leaves, although the OX lines had higher concentrations of Mn and B in their grain compared with nulls. While total leaf Mn concentrations were not different between the OX and null lines, Mn concentrations in the apoplast were greater in the OX plants. The OX lines also displayed increased expression of Mn transporters and were more sensitive to Mn toxicity than null plants. We showed that the growth of wild-type rice was unaffected by 100 µm Mn in hydroponics but, when combined with 1 mm malate, this concentration inhibited growth. We conclude that increasing OsALMT4 expression affected malate efflux and compartmentation within the tissues, which increased Mn concentrations in the apoplast of leaves and induced the toxicity symptoms. This study reveals new links between malate transport and mineral nutrition. PMID:29101278

  13. Active glucose transport and proton pumping in tonoplast membrane of Zea mays L. coleoptiles are inhibited by anti-H+-ATPase antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, T.; Butcher, D.N.; Taiz, L.

    1987-01-01

    A tonoplast enriched fraction was obtained from Zea mays L. coleoptiles by isopycnic centrifugation of microsomal membranes in a sucrose step gradient. At the 18/26% interface chloride-stimulated and nitrate-inhibited proton pumping activity coincided with a Mg 2+ -ATP dependent accumulation of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (OMG) as determined by a membrane filtration technique using 14 C-labeled substrate. OMG transport showed an apparently saturable component with a K/sub m/ of 110 micromolar, and was completely inhibited by 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Polyclonal antibodies against solubilized native tonoplast H + -ATPase and its 62 and 72 kilodalton subunits were assayed for their ability to inhibit proton pumping and OMG accumulation. Antibodies against both the native enzyme and the putative catalytic subunit strongly inhibited proton pumping and OMG transport whereas antibodies against the 62 kilodalton subunit had only a slight effect on both processes

  14. Study of the simultaneous complexation of a cation and of an anion using functionalized calixarenes; Etude de la complexation simultanee d'un cation et d'un anion par des calixarenes fonctionnalises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moli, Ch [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Dechets, DED, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); [Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2002-03-01

    The chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels leads to the production of high-level radioactive liquid wastes which contain long-lived toxic radioelements. In the framework of the long-term management of these wastes, important research work is carried out for the separation of these radioelements for their further transmutation or immobilization inside specific matrices. These radioelements are present in acid solutions of fission products in the form of cations (cesium), anions (technetium, selenium) and molecules (iodine). Crown calixarenes have been successfully used for the extraction of cesium thanks to their exceptional selectivities. This work is mainly based on the use of the chelating properties of calixarenes for the extraction of anionic radioelements. Calixarenes functionalized by amino-carbon chains have been selected. The synthesis of amine calix[4]arenes and calix[6]arenes is described and their extractive and ionophoretic properties with respect to radioelements are shown using aqueous selective separation techniques like the liquid-liquid extraction and the supported liquid membrane transport. Technetium and selenium are extracted by amine calixarenes from a 10{sup -2} M aqueous solution of nitric acid. At this acidity, no selenium transport is observed, while technetium transport is efficient: the solution is quasi-totally decontaminated in 6 hours. Molecular iodine is efficiently extracted with a simple organic diluent, the 1,2-nitro-phenyl-hexyl-ether, from a strongly concentrated aqueous solution of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3} = 3 M). The transport of iodine becomes faster and more efficient when its concentration in the solution is higher. (J.S.)

  15. Anion-induced N-doping of naphthalenediimide polymer semiconductor in organic thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yang

    2018-03-13

    Molecular doping is an important strategy to improve the charge transport properties of organic semiconductors in various electronic devices. Compared to p-type dopants, the development of n-type dopants is especially challenging due to poor dopant stability against atmospheric conditions. In this article, we report the n-doping of the milestone naphthalenediimide-based conjugated polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) in organic thin film transistor devices by soluble anion dopants. The addition of the dopants resulted in the formation of stable radical anions in thin films, as confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. By tuning the dopant concentration via simple solution mixing, the transistor parameters could be readily controlled. Hence the contact resistance between the electrodes and the semiconducting polymer could be significantly reduced, which resulted in the transistor behaviour approaching the desirable gate voltage-independent model. Reduced hysteresis was also observed, thanks to the trap filling by the dopant. Under optimal doping concentrations the channel on-current was increased several fold whilst the on/off ratio was simultaneously increased by around one order of magnitude. Hence doping with soluble organic salts appears to be a promising route to improve the charge transport properties of n-type organic semiconductors.

  16. Anion-induced N-doping of naphthalenediimide polymer semiconductor in organic thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yang; Fei, Zhuping; Lin, Yen-Hung; Martin, Jaime; Tuna, Floriana; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Heeney, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Molecular doping is an important strategy to improve the charge transport properties of organic semiconductors in various electronic devices. Compared to p-type dopants, the development of n-type dopants is especially challenging due to poor dopant stability against atmospheric conditions. In this article, we report the n-doping of the milestone naphthalenediimide-based conjugated polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) in organic thin film transistor devices by soluble anion dopants. The addition of the dopants resulted in the formation of stable radical anions in thin films, as confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. By tuning the dopant concentration via simple solution mixing, the transistor parameters could be readily controlled. Hence the contact resistance between the electrodes and the semiconducting polymer could be significantly reduced, which resulted in the transistor behaviour approaching the desirable gate voltage-independent model. Reduced hysteresis was also observed, thanks to the trap filling by the dopant. Under optimal doping concentrations the channel on-current was increased several fold whilst the on/off ratio was simultaneously increased by around one order of magnitude. Hence doping with soluble organic salts appears to be a promising route to improve the charge transport properties of n-type organic semiconductors.

  17. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  18. Curcumin Protects -SH Groups and Sulphate Transport after Oxidative Damage in Human Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Morabito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Erythrocytes, continuously exposed to oxygen pressure and toxic compounds, are sensitive to oxidative stress, namely acting on integral Band 3 protein, with consequences on cell membranes deformability and anion transport efficiency. The aim of the present investigation, conducted on human erythrocytes, is to verify whether curcumin (1 or 10µM, a natural compound with proved antioxidant properties, may counteract Band 3-mediated anion transport alterations due to oxidative stress. Methods: Oxidative conditions were induced by exposure to, alternatively, either 2 mM N-ethylmaleimide (NEM or pH-modified solutions (6.5 and 8.5. Rate constant for SO4= uptake and -SH groups estimation were measured to verify the effect of oxidative stress on anion transport efficiency and erythrocyte membranes. Results: After the exposure of erythrocytes to, alternatively, NEM or pH-modified solutions, a significant decrease in both rate constant for SO4= uptake and -SH groups was observed, which was prevented by curcumin, with a dose-dependent effect. Conclusions: Our results show that: i the decreased efficiency of anion transport may be due to changes in Band 3 protein structure caused by cysteine -SH groups oxidation, especially after exposure to NEM and pH 6.5; ii 10 µM Curcumin is effective in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative stress events at level of cell membrane transport.

  19. Metabolic control of vesicular glutamate transport and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juge, Narinobu; Gray, John A; Omote, Hiroshi; Miyaji, Takaaki; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Hara, Chiaki; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Edwards, Robert H; Nicoll, Roger A; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2010-10-06

    Fasting has been used to control epilepsy since antiquity, but the mechanism of coupling between metabolic state and excitatory neurotransmission remains unknown. Previous work has shown that the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) required for exocytotic release of glutamate undergo an unusual form of regulation by Cl(-). Using functional reconstitution of the purified VGLUTs into proteoliposomes, we now show that Cl(-) acts as an allosteric activator, and the ketone bodies that increase with fasting inhibit glutamate release by competing with Cl(-) at the site of allosteric regulation. Consistent with these observations, acetoacetate reduced quantal size at hippocampal synapses and suppresses glutamate release and seizures evoked with 4-aminopyridine in the brain. The results indicate an unsuspected link between metabolic state and excitatory neurotransmission through anion-dependent regulation of VGLUT activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Borreliacidal activity of Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA binding small molecules by manganese transport inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagh D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dhananjay Wagh,* Venkata Raveendra Pothineni,* Mohammed Inayathullah, Song Liu, Kwang-Min Kim, Jayakumar Rajadas Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford Cardiovascular Pharmacology Division, Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work  Abstract: Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, utilizes manganese (Mn for its various metabolic needs. We hypothesized that blocking Mn transporter could be a possible approach to inhibit metabolic activity of this pathogen and eliminate the infection. We used a combination of in silico protein structure prediction together with molecular docking to target the Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA, a single known Mn transporter in Borrelia and screened libraries of FDA approved compounds that could potentially bind to the predicted BmtA structure with high affinity. Tricyclic antihistamines such as loratadine, desloratadine, and 3-hydroxydesloratadine as well as yohimbine and tadalafil demonstrated a tight binding to the in silico folded BmtA transporter. We, then, tested borreliacidal activity and dose response of the shortlisted compounds from this screen using a series of in vitro assays. Amongst the probed compounds, desloratadine exhibited potent borreliacidal activity in vitro at and above 78 µg/mL (250 µM. Borrelia treated with lethal doses of desloratadine exhibited a significant loss of intracellular Mn specifically and a severe structural damage to the bacterial cell wall. Our results support the possibility of developing a novel, targeted therapy to treat Lyme disease by targeting specific metabolic needs of Borrelia.  Keywords: Lyme disease, BmtA, Borrelia burgdorferi, desloratadine, Bac Titer-Glo assay

  1. Antibodies to the CFTR modulate the turgor pressure of guard cell protoplasts via slow anion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, N; Bazin, I; Richaud, P; Marin, E; Vavasseur, A; Forestier, C

    2001-04-06

    The plasma membrane guard cell slow anion channel is a key element at the basis of water loss control in plants allowing prolonged osmolite efflux necessary for stomatal closure. This channel has been extensively studied by electrophysiological approaches but its molecular identification is still lacking. Recently, we described that this channel was sharing some similarities with the mammalian ATP-binding cassette protein, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel [Leonhardt, N. et al. (1999) Plant Cell 11, 1141-1151]. Here, using the patch-clamp technique and a bioassay, consisting in the observation of the change in guard cell protoplasts volume, we demonstrated that a functional antibody raised against the mammalian CFTR prevented ABA-induced guard cell protoplasts shrinking and partially inhibited the slow anion current. Moreover, this antibody immunoprecipitated a polypeptide from guard cell protein extracts and immunolabeled stomata in Vicia faba leaf sections. These results indicate that the guard cell slow anion channel is, or is closely controlled by a polypeptide, exhibiting one epitope shared with the mammalian CFTR.

  2. The anti-epileptic drug substance vigabatrin inhibits taurine transport in intestinal and renal cell culture models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Jakob Munk; Nøhr, Martha Kampp; Hansen, Steen H

    2014-01-01

    , such evidence does not preclude the involvement of other transporters. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate if vigabatrin interacts with taurine transport. The uptake of taurine was measured in intestinal human Caco-2 and canine MDCK cell monolayers in the absence or presence of amino...... acids such as GABA and vigabatrin. Vigabatrin inhibits the uptake of taurine in Caco-2 and MDCK cells to 34±3 and 53±2%, respectively, at a concentration of 30mM. In Caco-2 cells the uptake of vigabatrin under neutral pH conditions is concentration-dependent and saturable with a Km-value of 27mM (log......Km is 1.43±0.09). In conclusion, the present study shows that vigabatrin was able to inhibit the uptake of taurine in intestinal and renal cell culture models. Furthermore, uptake of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells under neutral pH conditions was concentration-dependent and saturable and suggesting...

  3. Determination of sulfur anions in spent oil shale leachates by ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niss, N.D.

    1989-07-01

    The leaching and transport of chemical constituents from spent oil shale disposal areas is an area of environmental concern at the present time. Sulfur-containing compounds are prevalent in spent oil shales and have the potential to leach into aqueous systems surrounding disposal sites. Computer modeling has been used in recent years to predict the transport of species in an aqueous environment. The quality of model predictions, however, depends on the validation steps taken in comparing model predictions with laboratory data on ion speciation. Further, the quality of the validation step depends on the reliability of laboratory methods in generating ion speciation data. The purpose of this study was to develop methods to separate and quantify sulfur-containing anions in spent oil shale leachates by suppressed ion chromatography. The anions studied were S{sup 2{minus}} (sulfide), SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} (sulfite), SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 4} (sulfate), SCN{sup {minus}} (thiocyanate), S{sub 2}O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} (thiosulfate), and S{sub 4}O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 6} (tetrathionate). After the separations were developed, a series of method-challenging experiments were performed to test the reliability of the methods and assure the development of an analytically sound product. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Infrared spectroscopy of anionic hydrated fluorobenzenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Holger; Vogelhuber, Kristen M.; Weber, J. Mathias

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the structural motifs of anionic hydrated fluorobenzenes by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy and density functional theory. Our calculations show that all fluorobenzene anions under investigation are strongly distorted from the neutral planar molecular geometries. In the anions, different F atoms are no longer equivalent, providing structurally different binding sites for water molecules and giving rise to a multitude of low-lying isomers. The absorption bands for hexa- and pentafluorobenzene show that only one isomer for the respective monohydrate complexes is populated in our experiment. For C 6 F 6 - ·H 2 O, we can assign these bands to an isomer where water forms a weak double ionic hydrogen bond with two F atoms in the ion, in accord with the results of Bowen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 014312 (2007), following paper.] The spectroscopic motif of the binary complexes changes slightly with decreasing fluorination of the aromatic anion. For dihydrated hexafluorobenzene anions, several isomers are populated in our experiments, some of which may be due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules

  5. Anion channels: master switches of stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, M Rob G; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2012-04-01

    During stress, plant cells activate anion channels and trigger the release of anions across the plasma membrane. Recently, two new gene families have been identified that encode major groups of anion channels. The SLAC/SLAH channels are characterized by slow voltage-dependent activation (S-type), whereas ALMT genes encode rapid-activating channels (R-type). Both S- and R-type channels are stimulated in guard cells by the stress hormone ABA, which leads to stomatal closure. Besides their role in ABA-dependent stomatal movement, anion channels are also activated by biotic stress factors such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Given that anion channels occur throughout the plant kingdom, they are likely to serve a general function as master switches of stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of beta-amino acid transport by diamide does not involve the brush border membrane surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesney, R.W.; Gusowski, N.; Albright, P.

    1985-01-01

    Diamide (dicarboxylic acid bis-(N,N-dimethylamide) has been shown in previous studies to block the uptake of the beta-amino acid taurine at its high affinity transport site in rat renal cortex slices. Diamide may act by increasing the efflux of taurine from the slice. Studies performed in rat slices again indicate enhanced efflux over 8-12 minutes. The time course of reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion from renal cortex is similar, indicating a potential interaction between GSH depletion and inhibition of taurine accumulation. The effect of 9 mM diamide on the Na+ -dependent accumulation of taurine (10 and 250 microM) by brush border membrane vesicles was examined, and the taurine uptake value both initially and at equilibrium was the same in the presence and absence of diamide. Isolation of the brush border surface and subsequent transport studies of taurine are not influenced by diamide. Thus, diamide inhibition of taurine uptake does not involve physiochemical alteration of the membrane surface where active amino acid transport occurs, despite the thiol-oxidizing properties of this agent. Further, these studies suggest that diamide either acts at the basolateral surface, rather than the brush border surface of rat renal cortex or requires the presence of an intact tubule, capable of metabolism, prior to its inhibitory action

  7. Importance of balancing membrane and electrode water in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omasta, T. J.; Wang, L.; Peng, X.; Lewis, C. A.; Varcoe, J. R.; Mustain, W. E.

    2018-01-01

    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) offer several potential advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), most notably to overcome the cost barrier that has slowed the growth and large scale implementation of fuel cells for transportation. However, limitations in performance have held back AEMFCs, specifically in the areas of stability, carbonation, and maximum achievable current and power densities. In order for AEMFCs to contend with PEMFCs for market viability, it is necessary to realize a competitive cell performance. This work demonstrates a new benchmark for a H2/O2 AEMFC with a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2 at 60 °C. This was accomplished by taking a more precise look at balancing necessary membrane hydration while preventing electrode flooding, which somewhat surprisingly can occur both at the anode and the cathode. Specifically, radiation-grafted ETFE-based anion exchange membranes and anion exchange ionomer powder, functionalized with benchmark benzyltrimethylammonium groups, were utilized to examine the effects of the following parameters on AEMFC performance: feed gas flow rate, the use of hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic gas diffusion layers, and gas feed dew points.

  8. The cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporter BicA: its physiological role and the implications of structural similarities with human SLC26 transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, G Dean; Howitt, Susan M

    2011-04-01

    The cyanobacterial Na+-dependent HCO3- transporter BicA is a member of the ubiquitous and important SulP/SLC26 family of anion transporters found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. BicA is an important component of the cyanobacterial CO2 concentrating mechanism, an adaptation that contributes to cyanobacteria being able to achieve an estimated 25% of global primary productivity, largely in the oceans. The human SLC26 members are involved in a range of key cellular functions involving a diverse range of anion transport activities including Cl-/HCO3-, I-/HCO3-, and SO42-/HCO3- exchange; mutations in SLC26 members are known to be associated with debilitating diseases such as Pendred syndrome, chondrodysplasias, and congenital chloride diarrhoea. We have recently experimentally determined the membrane topology of BicA using the phoA-lacZ reporter system and here consider some of the extrapolated implications for topology of the human SLC26 family and the Sultr plant sulphate transporters.

  9. Membrane polypeptide in rabbit erythrocytes associated with the inhibition of L-lactate transport by a synthetic anhydride of lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, J.A.; Jennings, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The synthetic lactyl anhydride isobutylcarbonyl lactyl anhydride (iBCLA), a selective and potent inhibitor of L-(+)-lactate transport in rabbit erythrocytes, reduces the chemical labeling of a 40-50-kdalton polypeptide by tritiated 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-2,2'-dihydrostilbenedisulfonate ([ 3 H]H 2 DIDS). iBCLA does so in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations that strongly inhibit lactate-lactate exchange but not chloride-phosphate exchange. These labeling experiments and inhibition reversal studies using iBCLA, p-(chloro-mercuri)benzenesulfonic acid (pCMBS), and dithiothreitol (DDT) suggest that iBCLA does not act at sulfhydryl groups but at or near an amino group that is near a disulfide linkage in the polypeptide which catalyzes lactate transport. These experiments support the association between specific monocarboxylate transport and a 40-50-kdalton membrane-bound polypeptide of the rabbit erythrocyte

  10. Enhancing and inhibiting effects of aromatic compounds on luminol-dimethylsulfoxide-OH(-) chemiluminescence and determination of intermediates in oxidative hair dyes by HPLC with chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Xu, Hong; Wan, Guo-Hui; Duan, Chun-Feng; Cui, Hua

    2004-10-08

    The effect of 36 aromatic compounds on the luminol-dimethylsulfoxide-OH(-) chemiluminescence (CL) was systematically studied. It was found that dihydroxybenzenes, and ortho- and para-substituted aminophenols and phenylenediamines inhibited the CL and phenols with three or more than three hydroxyls except phloroglucin tended to enhance the CL. The CL inhibition and enhancement was proposed to be dependent on whether superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-)) was competitively consumed by compounds in the CL system. Trihydroxybenzenes were capable of generating superoxide anion radical, leading to the CL enhancement, whereas dihydroxybenzenes were superoxide anion radical scavenger, causing the CL inhibition. Based on the inhibited CL, a novel method for the simultaneous determination of p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, p-aminophenol, o-aminophenol, resorcinol and hydroquinone by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with chemiluminescence detection was developed. The method has been successfully applied to determine intermediates in oxidative hair dyes and wastewater of shampooing after hair dyed.

  11. N-acetylglyoxylic amide bearing a nitrophenyl group as anion receptors: NMR and X-ray investigations on anion binding and selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, Venty; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Black, David StC; Kumar, Naresh

    2017-10-01

    N-Nitrophenylglyoxylic amides 1 and 2 in presence of tetrabutylammonium cation (TBA) act as receptors for anions HSO4-, Cl-, Br- and NO3- as investigated by NMR studies. The receptors formed 1:1 host-guest complexes in solution. X-ray structure of 1 along with TBA that bind a chloride anion is reported. Molecule 1 showed the highest selectivity for HSO4- anion over others measured. X-ray structure of the bound Cl- revealed a pocket containing the anion making strong (Nsbnd H⋯Cl) and weak hydrogen bonds (Csbnd H⋯Cl) that contribute to the recognition of the chloride anion. Nsbnd H and Csbnd H hydrogen bonds resulted in a relatively strong binding for chloride ions.

  12. Effect of various surfactants (cationic, anionic and non-ionic) on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus (NRRL 2999) in relation to aflatoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuja, Kosuri; Hemalatha, K; Karuna, Rupula; Sashidhar Rao, B

    2010-08-01

    The effect of surfactants (two cationic, one anionic and three non-ionic) at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 % concentrations on aflatoxin production, ergosterol content and sugar consumption by Aspergillus parasiticus (NRRL 2999) in YES liquid culture medium is reported. At 0.01% concentration, the cationic surfactants, cetyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (CDAB) and dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), completely inhibited spore germination, while DTAB also inhibited the production of ergosterol and toxin (p lauryl ether (Brij-35) and ethoxylated p-tert-octylphenol (Triton X-100) delayed the spore germination up to day 5 at all concentrations and inhibited toxin and ergosterol production at 0.001% concentration. The affect was found to be dose-dependent from 0.001% to 1%, for Triton X-100 only. Positive correlation between ergosterol content and toxin production in the presence of different surfactants at various time periods (3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 days) was found. Tween-20 was most effective in inhibiting toxin production on day 7, when aflatoxin production was found to be maximal in control group. Sugar consumption was directly proportional to the ergosterol content, showing a significant correlation with aflatoxin production.

  13. Characterization of changes in composition and function of erythrocyte membrane proteins in patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinying; Wei Shanjian; Hu Xiaojian

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The delayed effect of radiation on erythrocyte membrane protein, the composition and function of the membrane proteins in five patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were follow up at six years after the Shanghai 60 Co irradiation accident. Methods: Percoll centrifugation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and analysis of NO 2 - transport rate and DIDS inhibition rate were performed. Results: The injuries of the membrane proteins induced by radiation, characterized by reduced content of band 8 and declined anion transport function of band 3 protein remained the same as initially observed. The further study showed that the inhibition of DIDS on the anion transport of the ARS erythrocytes was decreased and the transport time for NO 2 - by band 3 was significantly prolonged in younger erythrocytes than those in middle-or old-aged cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that the radiation damage to erythrocyte membrane proteins might occur at the stage of erythropoiesis in bone marrow. The exo-facial site in band 3 may be changed after radiation, which could result in the abnormalities in anion transport. It is believed that the aging of erythrocytes might be present in advanced stage of ARS

  14. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, Bruce a.; Bostick, Debra A.; Fowler, Christopher J.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Ruas, Alexandre; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Llinares, Jose M.; Hossain, Alamgir; Kang, S. O.; Bowman-James, Kristin; Shriver, James A.; Marquez, Manuel; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2005-01-01

    The major thrust of this project led by the University of Kansas (Prof. Kristin Bowman-Jones) entails the exploration of the principles of recognition and separation of sulfate by the design, synthesis, and testing of novel sulfate extractants. A key science need for the cleanup of tank wastes at Hanford has been identified in developing methods to separate those bulk waste components that have low solubilities in borosilicate glass. Sulfate has been identified as a particularly difficult and expensive problem in that its concentration in the waste is relatively high, its solubility in glass is especially low, and it interferes with the performance of both vitrification equipment and the glass waste form. The new extractants will be synthesized by the University of Kansas and the University of Texas, Austin. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is subjecting the new extractants to experiments that will determine their properties and effectiveness in separating sulfate from the major competing anions in the waste, especially nitrate. Such experiments will entail primarily liquid-liquid extraction. Current efforts focus on exciting new systems in which the anion receptors act as synergists for anion exchange

  15. Ionic liquids containing symmetric quaternary phosphonium cations and phosphorus-containing anions, and their use as lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin

    2018-05-01

    An ionic liquid composition having the following generic structural formula: ##STR00001## wherein R1, R2, R3, and R4 are equivalent and selected from hydrocarbon groups containing at least three carbon atoms, and X- is a phosphorus-containing anion, particularly an organophosphate, organophosphonate, or organophosphinate anion, or a thio-substituted analog thereof containing hydrocarbon groups with at least three carbon atoms. Also described are lubricant compositions comprising the above ionic liquid and a base oil, wherein the ionic liquid is dissolved in the base oil. Further described are methods for applying the ionic liquid or lubricant composition onto a mechanical device for which lubrication is beneficial, with resulting improvement in friction reduction, wear rate, and/or corrosion inhibition.

  16. Study of the simultaneous complexation of a cation and of an anion using functionalized calixarenes; Etude de la complexation simultanee d'un cation et d'un anion par des calixarenes fonctionnalises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moli, Ch. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Dechets, DED, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)]|[Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2002-03-01

    The chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels leads to the production of high-level radioactive liquid wastes which contain long-lived toxic radioelements. In the framework of the long-term management of these wastes, important research work is carried out for the separation of these radioelements for their further transmutation or immobilization inside specific matrices. These radioelements are present in acid solutions of fission products in the form of cations (cesium), anions (technetium, selenium) and molecules (iodine). Crown calixarenes have been successfully used for the extraction of cesium thanks to their exceptional selectivities. This work is mainly based on the use of the chelating properties of calixarenes for the extraction of anionic radioelements. Calixarenes functionalized by amino-carbon chains have been selected. The synthesis of amine calix[4]arenes and calix[6]arenes is described and their extractive and ionophoretic properties with respect to radioelements are shown using aqueous selective separation techniques like the liquid-liquid extraction and the supported liquid membrane transport. Technetium and selenium are extracted by amine calixarenes from a 10{sup -2} M aqueous solution of nitric acid. At this acidity, no selenium transport is observed, while technetium transport is efficient: the solution is quasi-totally decontaminated in 6 hours. Molecular iodine is efficiently extracted with a simple organic diluent, the 1,2-nitro-phenyl-hexyl-ether, from a strongly concentrated aqueous solution of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3} = 3 M). The transport of iodine becomes faster and more efficient when its concentration in the solution is higher. (J.S.)

  17. Ursolic acid inhibits superoxide production in activated neutrophils and attenuates trauma-hemorrhage shock-induced organ injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsong-Long Hwang

    Full Text Available Neutrophil activation is associated with the development of organ injury after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, ursolic acid inhibited the superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils. Administration of ursolic acid attenuated trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced hepatic and lung injuries in rats. In addition, administration of ursolic acid attenuated the hepatic malondialdehyde levels and reduced the plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In conclusion, ursolic acid, a bioactive natural compound, inhibits superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils and ameliorates trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced organ injury in rats.

  18. Diffusion of hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide and large molecular weight anions in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Jacobsson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The diffusivities of HS - and H 2 have been determined from profile analysis and steady state transport experiments. The diffusivity of HS - was found to be 9x10 - 12 and 4x10xsec 1 in MX-80 and Erbsloeh bentonite respectively. The results are in fair agreement with the results earlier obtained for Cl - and I - . The H 2 diffusivity calculated from steady state transport was found to be surprisingly low (3.6x10 - 12 m 2 xsec - 1 ). Various heavy anions with molecular weights 290-30x10 3 were found to migrate through MX-80 bentonite with diffusivities in the range (2,1-0,75)x10 - 15 m 2 xsec - 1 . (Author)

  19. Gas-Grain Models for Interstellar Anion Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnely, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Long-chain hydrocarbon anions C(sub n) H(-) (n = 4, 6, 8) have recently been found to be abundant in a variety of interstellar clouds. In order to explain their large abundances in the denser (prestellar/protostellar) environments, new chemical models are constructed that include gas-grain interactions. Models including accretion of gas-phase species onto dust grains and cosmic-ray-induced desorption of atoms are able to reproduce the observed anion-to-neutral ratios, as well as the absolute abundances of anionic and neutral carbon chains, with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Due to their destructive effects, the depletion of oxygen atoms onto dust results in substantially greater polyyne and anion abundances in high-density gas (with n(sub H2) approx > / cubic cm). The large abundances of carbon-chain-bearing species observed in the envelopes of protostars such as L1527 can thus be explained without the need for warm carbon-chain chemistry. The C6H(-) anion-to-neutral ratio is found to be most sensitive to the atomic O and H abundances and the electron density. Therefore, as a core evolves, falling atomic abundances and rising electron densities are found to result in increasing anion-to-neutral ratios. Inclusion of cosmic-ray desorption of atoms in high-density models delays freeze-out, which results in a more temporally stable anion-to-neutral ratio, in better agreement with observations. Our models include reactions between oxygen atoms and carbon-chain anions to produce carbon-chain-oxide species C6O, C7O, HC6O, and HC7O, the abundances of which depend on the assumed branching ratios for associative electron detachment

  20. Texas Red transport across rat and dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) choroid plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Valeska; Miller, David S; Fricker, Gert

    2008-10-01

    Confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to compare driving forces, specificity, and regulation of transport of the fluorescent organic anion, Texas Red (sulforhodamine 101 free acid; TR), in lateral choroid plexus (CP) isolated from rat and an evolutionarily ancient vertebrate, dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). CP from both species exhibited concentrative, specific, and metabolism-dependent TR transport from bath to subepithelial/vascular space; at steady state, TR accumulation in vascular/subepithelial space was substantially higher than in epithelial cells. In rat CP, steady-state TR accumulation in subepithelial/vascular spaces was reduced by Na(+)-replacement, but was not affected by a 10-fold increase in buffer K(+). In shark CP, Na(+)-replacement did not alter TR accumulation in either tissue compartment; subepithelial/vascular space levels of TR were reduced in high-K(+) medium. In both species, steady-state TR accumulation was not affected by p-aminohippurate or leukotriene C4, suggesting that neither organic anion transporters (SLC22A family) nor multidrug resistance-associated proteins (ABCC family) contributed. In rat CP, digoxin was without effect, indicating that organic anion transporting polypeptide isoform 2 was not involved. Several organic anions reduced cellular and subepithelial/vascular space TR accumulation in both tissues, including estrone sulfate, taurocholate, and the Mrp1 inhibitor MK571. In rat CP, TR accumulation in subepithelial/vascular spaces increased with PKA activation (forskolin), but was not affected by PKC activation (phorbol ester). In shark, neither PKA nor PKC activation specifically affected TR transport. Thus, rat and dogfish shark CP transport TR but do so using different basic mechanisms that respond to different regulatory signals.

  1. Transport of polyamines in Drosophila S2 cells: kinetics, pharmacology and dependence on the plasma membrane proton gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Krantz, David E

    2006-01-15

    Polyamine transport activities have been described in diverse multicellular systems, but their bioenergetic mechanisms and molecular identity remain unclear. In the present paper, we describe a high-affinity spermine/spermidine transport activity expressed in Drosophila S2 cells. Ion-replacement experiments indicate that polyamine uptake across the cell membrane is Na+-, K+-, Cl-- and Ca2+-independent, but pH-sensitive. Additional experiments using ionophores suggest that polyamine uptake may be H+-coupled. Pharmacological experiments show that polyamine uptake in S2 cells is selectively blocked by MGBG {methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) or 1,1'-[(methylethanediylidine)-dinitrilo]diguanidine} and paraquat (N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium), two known inhibitors of polyamine uptake in mammalian cells. In addition, inhibitors known to block the Slc22 (solute carrier 22) family of organic anion/cation transporters inhibit spermine uptake in S2 cells. These data and the genetic tools available in Drosophila will facilitate the molecular identification and further characterization of this activity.

  2. Ab initio theoretical study of dipole-bound anions of molecular complexes: (HF)3- and (HF)4- anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Riet; Smith, Dayle M. A.; Smets, Johan; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    1997-12-01

    Ab initio calculations have been performed to determine structures and vertical electron detachment energy (VDE) of the hydrogen fluoride trimer and tetramer anions, (HF)3- and (HF)4-. In these systems the excess electron is bound by the dipole field of the complex. It was determined that, unlike the neutral complexes which prefer the cyclic structures, the equilibrium geometries of the anions have "zig-zag" shapes. For both complexes the predicted VDEs are positive [210 meV and 363 meV for (HF)3- and (HF)4-, respectively], indicating that the anions are stable systems with respect to the vertical electron detachment. These results were obtained at the coupled-cluster level of theory with single, double and triple excitations [CCSD(T) method; the triple-excitation contribution in this method is calculated approximately using the perturbation approach] with the anion geometries obtained using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method. The same approach was also used to determine the adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of (HF)3 and (HF)4. In addition to the electronic contribution, we also calculated the contributions (using the harmonic approximation) resulting from different zero-point vibration energies of the neutral and anionic clusters. The calculations predicted that while the AEA of (HF)3 is positive (44 meV), the AEA for (HF)4 is marginally negative (-16 meV). This suggests that the (HF)3- anion should be a stable system, while the (HF)4- is probably metastable.

  3. Cation-Inhibited Transport of Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials in Saturated Porous Media: The Hofmeister Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tianjiao; Qi, Yu; Liu, Jing; Qi, Zhichong; Chen, Wei; Wiesner, Mark R

    2017-01-17

    Transport of negatively charged nanoparticles in porous media is largely affected by cations. To date, little is known about how cations of the same valence may affect nanoparticle transport differently. We observed that the effects of cations on the transport of graphene oxide (GO) and sulfide-reduced GO (RGO) in saturated quartz sand obeyed the Hofmeister series; that is, transport-inhibition effects of alkali metal ions followed the order of Na + cations having large ionic radii (and thus being weakly hydrated) interacted with quartz sand and GO and RGO more strongly than did cations of small ionic radii. In particular, the monovalent Cs + and divalent Ca 2+ and Ba 2+ , which can form inner-sphere complexes, resulted in very significant deposition of GO and RGO via cation bridging between quartz sand and GO and RGO, and possibly via enhanced straining, due to the enhanced aggregation of GO and RGO from cation bridging. The existence of the Hofmeister effects was further corroborated with the interesting observation that cation bridging was more significant for RGO, which contained greater amounts of carboxyl and phenolic groups (i.e., metal-complexing moieties) than did GO. The findings further demonstrate that transport of nanoparticles is controlled by the complex interplay between nanoparticle surface functionalities and solution chemistry constituents.

  4. Anionic Surfactant as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Synthesized Ferrous Alloy in Acidic Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Kellou-Kerkouche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature on the corrosion behaviour of a synthesized iron-based alloy in 1 N sulphuric acid solution has been examined by means of three electrochemical techniques. Thereafter, we studied the influence of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate at various concentrations on the electrochemical behaviour of the ferrous alloy. The obtained results show that the temperature increase reduced the performance of the used alloy, in the acidic environment. Otherwise, the surfactant inhibits the alloy dissolution in the sulphuric acid, through its adsorption on the metal surface without modifying the mechanism of corrosion process. We also noticed that the highest inhibition effect is obtained at a concentration above its critical micelle concentration (CMC. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fits well with the experimental data.

  5. Metal-Oxide Film Conversions Involving Large Anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretty, S.; Zhang, X.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Wren, J.C. [The University of Western Ontario, Chemistry Department, 1151 Richmond St., N6A 5B7, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of my research is to establish the mechanism and kinetics of metal-oxide film conversions involving large anions (I{sup -}, Br{sup -}, S{sup 2-}). Within a given group, the anions will provide insight on the effect of anion size on the film conversion, while comparison of Group 6 and Group 7 anions will provide insight on the effect of anion charge. This research has a range of industrial applications, for example, hazardous radioiodine can be immobilized by reaction with Ag to yield AgI. From the perspective of public safety, radioiodine is one of the most important fission products from the uranium fuel because of its large fuel inventory, high volatility, and radiological hazard. Additionally, because of its mobility, the gaseous iodine concentration is a critical parameter for safety assessment and post-accident management. A full kinetic analysis using electrochemical techniques has been performed on the conversion of Ag{sub 2}O to (1) AgI and (2) AgBr. (authors)

  6. Metal-Oxide Film Conversions Involving Large Anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretty, S.; Zhang, X.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Wren, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of my research is to establish the mechanism and kinetics of metal-oxide film conversions involving large anions (I - , Br - , S 2- ). Within a given group, the anions will provide insight on the effect of anion size on the film conversion, while comparison of Group 6 and Group 7 anions will provide insight on the effect of anion charge. This research has a range of industrial applications, for example, hazardous radioiodine can be immobilized by reaction with Ag to yield AgI. From the perspective of public safety, radioiodine is one of the most important fission products from the uranium fuel because of its large fuel inventory, high volatility, and radiological hazard. Additionally, because of its mobility, the gaseous iodine concentration is a critical parameter for safety assessment and post-accident management. A full kinetic analysis using electrochemical techniques has been performed on the conversion of Ag 2 O to (1) AgI and (2) AgBr. (authors)

  7. Specificity of anion-binding in the substrate-pocket ofbacteriorhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facciotti, Marc T.; Cheung, Vincent S.; Lunde, Christopher S.; Rouhani, Shahab; Baliga, Nitin S.; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2003-08-30

    The structure of the D85S mutant of bacteriorhodopsin with a nitrate anion bound in the Schiff-base binding site, and the structure of the anion-free protein have been obtained in the same crystal form. Together with the previously solved structures of this anion pump, in both the anion-free state and bromide-bound state, these new structures provide insight into how this mutant of bacteriorhodopsin is able to bind a variety of different anions in the same binding pocket. The structural analysis reveals that the main structural change that accommodates different anions is the repositioning of the polar side-chain of S85. On the basis of these x-ray crystal structures, the prediction is then made that the D85S/D212N double mutant might bind similar anions and do so over a broader pH range than does the single mutant. Experimental comparison of the dissociation constants, K{sub d}, for a variety of anions confirms this prediction and demonstrates, in addition, that the binding affinity is dramatically improved by the D212N substitution.

  8. Asymmetry of inverted-topology repeats in the AE1 anion exchanger suggests an elevator-like mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraldo-Gómez, José D.

    2017-01-01

    The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct α-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined. Each protomer of the AE1 dimer comprises two repeats with inverted transmembrane topologies, but the structures of these repeats differ. This asymmetry causes the putative substrate-binding site to be exposed only to the extracellular space, consistent with the expectation that anion exchange occurs via an alternating-access mechanism. Here, we hypothesize that the unknown, inward-facing conformation results from inversion of this asymmetry, and we propose a model of this state constructed using repeat-swap homology modeling. By comparing this inward-facing model with the outward-facing experimental structure, we predict that the mechanism of AE1 involves an elevator-like motion of the substrate-binding domain relative to the nearly stationary dimerization domain and to the membrane plane. This hypothesis is in qualitative agreement with a wide range of biochemical and functional data, which we review in detail, and suggests new avenues of experimentation. PMID:29167180

  9. Asymmetry of inverted-topology repeats in the AE1 anion exchanger suggests an elevator-like mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficici, Emel; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Jennings, Michael L; Forrest, Lucy R

    2017-12-04

    The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct α-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined. Each protomer of the AE1 dimer comprises two repeats with inverted transmembrane topologies, but the structures of these repeats differ. This asymmetry causes the putative substrate-binding site to be exposed only to the extracellular space, consistent with the expectation that anion exchange occurs via an alternating-access mechanism. Here, we hypothesize that the unknown, inward-facing conformation results from inversion of this asymmetry, and we propose a model of this state constructed using repeat-swap homology modeling. By comparing this inward-facing model with the outward-facing experimental structure, we predict that the mechanism of AE1 involves an elevator-like motion of the substrate-binding domain relative to the nearly stationary dimerization domain and to the membrane plane. This hypothesis is in qualitative agreement with a wide range of biochemical and functional data, which we review in detail, and suggests new avenues of experimentation. © 2017 Ficici et al.

  10. Interaction and Transport of Methamphetamine and its Primary Metabolites by Organic Cation and Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David J; Sager, Jennifer E; Duan, Haichuan; Isoherranen, Nina; Wang, Joanne

    2017-07-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the most abused illicit drugs with roughly 1.2 million users in the United States alone. A large portion of methamphetamine and its metabolites is eliminated by the kidney with renal clearance larger than glomerular filtration clearance. Yet the mechanism of active renal secretion is poorly understood. The goals of this study were to characterize the interaction of methamphetamine and its major metabolites with organic cation transporters (OCTs) and multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) transporters and to identify the major transporters involved in the disposition of methamphetamine and its major metabolites, amphetamine and para -hydroxymethamphetamine ( p -OHMA). We used cell lines stably expressing relevant transporters to show that methamphetamine and its metabolites inhibit human OCTs 1-3 (hOCT1-3) and hMATE1/2-K with the greatest potencies against hOCT1 and hOCT2. Methamphetamine and amphetamine are substrates of hOCT2, hMATE1, and hMATE2-K, but not hOCT1 and hOCT3. p -OHMA is transported by hOCT1-3 and hMATE1, but not hMATE2-K. In contrast, organic anion transporters 1 and 3 do not interact with or transport these compounds. Methamphetamine and its metabolites exhibited complex interactions with hOCT1 and hOCT2, suggesting the existence of multiple binding sites. Our studies suggest the involvement of the renal OCT2/MATE pathway in tubular secretion of methamphetamine and its major metabolites and the potential of drug-drug interactions with substrates or inhibitors of the OCTs. This information may be considered when prescribing medications to suspected or known abusers of methamphetamine to mitigate the risk of increased toxicity or reduced therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Solution and gas phase evidence of anion binding through the secondary bonding interactions of a bidentate bis-antimony(iii) anion receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J; Song, B; Li, X; Cozzolino, A F

    2017-12-20

    The solution and gas phase halide binding to a bis-antimony(iii) anion receptor was studied. This new class of anion receptors utilizes the strong Sb-centered secondary bonding interactions (SBIs) that are formed opposite to the polar Sb-O primary bond. 1 H NMR titration data were fitted statistically to binding models and solution-phase binding energetics were extracted, while the formation of anion-to-receptor complexes was observed using ESI-MS. Density functional theory calculations suggest that their affinity towards binding halide anions is mitigated by the strong explicit solvation effect in DMSO, which gives insights into future designs that circumvent direct solvent binding and are anticipated to yield tighter and perhaps more selectivity in anion binding.

  12. Zero-point energy effects in anion solvation shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habershon, Scott

    2014-05-21

    By comparing classical and quantum-mechanical (path-integral-based) molecular simulations of solvated halide anions X(-) [X = F, Cl, Br and I], we identify an ion-specific quantum contribution to anion-water hydrogen-bond dynamics; this effect has not been identified in previous simulation studies. For anions such as fluoride, which strongly bind water molecules in the first solvation shell, quantum simulations exhibit hydrogen-bond dynamics nearly 40% faster than the corresponding classical results, whereas those anions which form a weakly bound solvation shell, such as iodide, exhibit a quantum effect of around 10%. This observation can be rationalized by considering the different zero-point energy (ZPE) of the water vibrational modes in the first solvation shell; for strongly binding anions, the ZPE of bound water molecules is larger, giving rise to faster dynamics in quantum simulations. These results are consistent with experimental investigations of anion-bound water vibrational and reorientational motion.

  13. The chemistry of molecular anions in circumstellar sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agúndez, Marcelino [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Cernicharo, José [Departamento de Astrofísica, CAB, CSIC-INTA, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Guélin, Michel [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d' Héres (France)

    2015-01-22

    The detection of negatively charged molecules in the interstellar and circumstellar medium in the past four years has been one of the most impacting surprises in the area of molecular astrophysics. It has motivated the interest of astronomers, physicists, and chemists on the study of the spectroscopy, chemical kinetics, and prevalence of molecular anions in the different astronomical regions. Up to six different molecular anions have been discovered in space to date, the last one being the small ion CN{sup −}, which has been observed in the envelope of the carbon star IRC +10216 and which contrary to the other larger anions is not formed by electron attachment to CN, but through reactions of large carbon anions with nitrogen atoms. Here we briefly review the current status of our knowledge of the chemistry of molecular anions in space, with particular emphasis on the circumstellar source IRC +10216, which to date is the astronomical source harboring the largest variety of anions.

  14. Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Anions in Water Based on a Redox-Active Monolayer Incorporating an Anion Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Balwinder; Erdmann, Cristiane Andreia; Daniëls, Mathias; Dehaen, Wim; Rafiński, Zbigniew; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2017-12-05

    In the present work, gold electrodes were modified using a redox-active layer based on dipyrromethene complexes with Cu(II) or Co(II) and a dipodal anion receptor functionalized with dipyrromethene. These modified gold electrodes were then applied for the electrochemical detection of anions (Cl - , SO 4 2- , and Br - ) in a highly diluted water solution (in the picomolar range). The results showed that both systems, incorporating Cu(II) as well as Co(II) redox centers, exhibited highest sensitivity toward Cl - . The selectivity sequence found for both systems was Cl - > SO 4 2- > Br - . The high selectivity of Cl - anions can be attributed to the higher binding constant of Cl - with the anion receptor and the stronger electronic effect between the central metal and anion in the complex. The detection limit for the determination of Cl - was found at the 1.0 pM level for both sensing systems. The electrodes based on Co(II) redox centers displayed better selectivity toward Cl - anion detection than those based on Cu(II) centers which can be attributed to the stronger electronic interaction between the receptor-target anion complex and the Co(II)/Co(III) redox centers in comparison to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) system. Applicability of gold electrodes modified with DPM-Co(II)-DPM-AR for the electrochemical determination of Cl - anions was demonstrated using the artificial matrix mimicking human serum.

  15. Sources of anions in aerosols in northeast Greenland during late winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Marlene Fenger; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Kristensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    −4 is by far the dominating anion accounting for 50–85% of the analyzed mass. The analysis suggests that Cl− and NO−3 in coarser particles (> 1.5 μm) originate from local/regional sources. Under conditions where the air mass is transported over sea ice at high wind speeds, very coarse particles (> 18 μm...... ), respectively. The aerosols in late winter/early spring, after polar sunrise, are found to be a mixture of long-range transported and regional to local originating aerosols. Fine particles, smaller than 1 μm, containing SO2−4 , Cl− and NO− 3 , are hypothesized to originate from long-range transport, where SO2......The knowledge of climate effects of atmospheric aerosols is associated with large uncertainty, and a better understanding of their physical and chemical properties is needed, especially in the Arctic environment. The objective of the present study is to improve our understanding of the processes...

  16. Electroacupuncture Confers Antinociceptive Effects via Inhibition of Glutamate Transporter Downregulation in Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Injected Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Neui Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we evaluated changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and two glutamate transporter (GTs by immunohistochemistry, expression of GFAP showed a significant increase in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-injected rats; however, this expression was strongly inhibited by electroacupuncture (EA stimulation. Robust downregulation of glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1 was observed in CFA-injected rats; however, EA stimulation resulted in recovery of this expression. Double-labeling staining showed co-localization of a large proportion of GLAST or GLT-1 with GFAP. Using Western blot, we confirmed protein expression of two GTs, but no differences in the mRNA content of these GTs were observed. Because EA treatment resulted in strong inhibition of CFA-induced proteasome activities, we examined the question of whether thermal sensitivities and GTs expression could be regulated by proteasome inhibitor MG132. CFA-injected rats co-treated with EA and MG132 showed a significantly longer thermal sensitivity, compared with CFA-injected rats with or without MG132. Both EA and MG132 blocked CFA-induced GLAST and GLT-1 downregulation within the spinal cord. These results provide evidence for involvement of GLAST and GLT-1 in response to activation of spinal astrocytes in an EA antinociceptive effect. Antinociceptive effect of EA may be induced via proteasome-mediated regulation of spinal GTs.

  17. Antimycobacterial and Photosynthetic Electron Transport Inhibiting Activity of Ring-Substituted 4-Arylamino-7-Chloroquinolinium Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois Cizek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of twenty-five ring-substituted 4-arylamino-7-chloroquinolinium chlorides were prepared and characterized. The compounds were tested for their activity related to inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts and also primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was performed against mycobacterial species. 4-[(2-Bromophenylamino]-7-chloroquinolinium chloride showed high biological activity against M. marinum, M. kansasii, M. smegmatis and 7-chloro-4-[(2-methylphenylamino]quinolinium chloride demonstrated noteworthy biological activity against M. smegmatis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The most effective compounds demonstrated quite low toxicity (LD50 > 20 μmol/L against the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line within preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity screening. The tested compounds were found to inhibit PET in photosystem II. The PET-inhibiting activity expressed by IC50 value of the most active compound 7-chloro-4-[(3-trifluoromethylphenylamino]quinolinium chloride was 27 μmol/L and PET-inhibiting activity of ortho-substituted compounds was significantly lower than this of meta- and para-substituted ones. The structure-activity relationships are discussed for all compounds.

  18. Sources of anions in aerosols in northeast Greenland during late winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fenger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of climate effects of atmospheric aerosols is associated with large uncertainty, and a better understanding of their physical and chemical properties is needed, especially in the Arctic environment. The objective of the present study is to improve our understanding of the processes affecting the composition of aerosols in the high Arctic. Therefore size-segregated aerosols were sampled at a high Arctic site, Station Nord (Northeast Greenland, in March 2009 using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor. The aerosol samples were extracted in order to analyse three water-soluble anions: chloride, nitrate and sulphate. The results are discussed based on possible chemical and physical transformations as well as transport patterns.

    The total concentrations of the ions at Station Nord were 53–507 ng m−3, 2–298 ng m−3 and 535–1087 ng m−3 for chloride (Cl, nitrate (NO3 and sulphate (SO42−, respectively. The aerosols in late winter/early spring, after polar sunrise, are found to be a mixture of long-range transported and regional to local originating aerosols. Fine particles, smaller than 1 μm, containing SO42−, Cl and NO3, are hypothesized to originate from long-range transport, where SO42− is by far the dominating anion accounting for 50–85% of the analyzed mass. The analysis suggests that Cl and NO3 in coarser particles (> 1.5 μm originate from local/regional sources. Under conditions where the air mass is transported over sea ice at high wind speeds, very coarse particles (> 18 μm are observed, and it is hypothesized that frost flowers on the sea ice are a source of the very coarse nitrate particles.

  19. Effect of isolated hepatic ischemia on organic anion clearance and oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minard, G; Bynoe, R; Wood, G C; Fabian, T C; Croce, M; Kudsk, K A

    1992-04-01

    Hepatic failure is frequently seen following severe hemorrhagic shock, sepsis, and trauma. Clearance of various drugs has been used to evaluate hepatocellular dysfunction, including indocyanine green (ICG), an organic anionic dye that is transported similarly to bilirubin, and antipyrine (AP), a marker of oxidative phosphorylation. Previous investigators have noted a decrease in ICG excretion following systemic hemorrhage. The effect of isolated hepatic ischemia on the clearances of ICG and AP was studied in 16 pigs after 90 minutes of vascular occlusion to the liver. Antipyrine clearance decreased almost 50% from baseline values at 24 and 72 hours after the ischemia procedure, indicating a significant depression in the cytochrome P-450 system. On the other hand, ICG clearance did not change significantly. In conclusion, ICG clearance is not depressed after isolated hepatic ischemia in pigs. Changes in organic anion clearance after systemic hemorrhage may be because of release of toxic products from ischemic peripheral tissue.

  20. Natural and azido fatty acids inhibit phosphate transport and activate fatty acid anion uniport mediated by the mitochondrial phosphate carrier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engstová, Hana; Žáčková, Markéta; Růžička, Michal; Meinhardt, A.; Hanuš, Jan; Krämer, R.; Ježek, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 7 (2001), s. 4683-4691 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/95/0620; GA ČR GA301/98/0568; GA MŠk ME 085; GA MŠk ME 389 Grant - others:US(US) Czechoslovak Science and Technology Program 94043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : phosphate transport * fatty acids Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 7.258, year: 2001

  1. Diffusion and retention of organic anions in Callovian-Oxfordian clay rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasamimanana, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The Callovo-Oxfordian mud-stone (CO_x) is studied as a possible host rock for a deep disposal of radioactive waste (Cigeo project). Indeed, besides being very weakly permeable, it presents a high content of clayey minerals, capable of retaining radionuclides under cationic form and to delay strongly their transport. Nevertheless, some waste packages may release a significant amount of organic molecules, capable of complexing these radionuclides and drastically increase their mobility. So, the objective of this work was to better understand the diffusive behavior of several organic molecules of interest in this mudstone, by investigating at first their affinity with the host rock. The retention of organic molecules under anionic form (acetate, phthalate, adipate, benzoate, and citrate) was quantified on to the dispersed CO_x mudstone using adsorption/desorption batch experiments. Experiments on de-carbonated rock and clay fraction only (≤ 2μm) were also performed to identify solid phases and chemical functions responsible for the retention. a correlation of the intensity of retention, R_d, was pointed out whit the dipole moment μ(Orga.), providing a qualitative estimate of retention capacity for polar hydrophilic organic molecules. So, phthalate, slightly polar, displays a reversible retention (R_d ≅1,6 L.kg"-"1), mainly on clayey phases. Citrate, very polar and strongly adsorbed (R_d ≅ 40 L.kg"-"1), displays a persistent desorption hysteresis and an affinity to different solid phases (clayey minerals and minor oxides). Lastly, acetate, adipate and benzoate, weakly polar, display a lower affinity with rock (R_d ≤ 0,2 L.kg"-"1). The diffusive behavior in compact rock of these organic anions was then studied. The effective diffusion coefficient and retardation factor values were quantified. The low diffusivity, [D_e/D_0](Organic Anions) ≅ 0,1 a0,25 * [D_e/D_0](Water) evidences an effect of anionic exclusion, with a same intensity as that observed for

  2. Formation of secondary minerals and uptake of various anions under naturally-occurring hyper-alkaline conditions in Oman - 16344

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anraku, Sohtaro; Sato, Tsutomu; Yoneda, Tetsuro; Morimoto, Kazuya

    2009-01-01

    In Japanese transuranic (TRU) waste disposal facilities, 129 I is the most important key nuclide for the long-term safety assessment. Thus, the K d values of I to natural minerals are important factor in the safety assessment. However, the degradation of cement materials in the repositories can produce high pH pore fluid which can affect the anion transport behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of anions such as I- under the hyper-alkaline conditions. The natural hyper-alkaline spring water (pH>11) in the Oman ophiolite is known to be generated from the partly serpentinized peridotites. The spring water is characteristically hyper-alkaline, reducing, low-Mg, Si and HCO 3 - , and high-Ca, while the river water is moderately alkaline, oxidizing, high-Mg and HCO 3 - . The mixing of these spring and river water resulted in the formation of secondary minerals. In the present study, the naturally occurring hyper-alkaline conditions near the springs in Oman were used as natural analogue for the interaction between cement pore fluid and natural Mg-HCO 3 - groundwater. The present aim of this paper is to examine the conditions of secondary mineral formation and the anion uptake capacity of these mineral in this system. Water and precipitate samples were collected from the different locations around the spring vent to identify the effect of mixing ratios between spring and river water on mineral composition and water-mineral distribution coefficient of various anions. On-site synthesis was also carried out to support these data quantitatively. Aragonite was observed in all precipitates, while calcite, brucite and Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) were also determined in some samples. Calcite was observed only closed to the springs. At locations far from the springs, calcite formation was inhibited due to high-Mg fluid from river water. Brucite was observed from the springs with relatively low-Al concentration and HTlc was the opposite. During

  3. Expression of hepatic transporters OATP-C and MRP2 in primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oswald, M.; Kullak-Ublick, G. A.; Paumgartner, G.; Beuers, U.

    2001-01-01

    In chronic cholestatic liver diseases, biliary excretion of organic anions from blood into bile is impaired. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying mechanism. Expression of the basolateral organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-C (SLC21A6) and the canalicular multidrug resistance

  4. Neutral anion receptors: design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    After the development of synthetic cation receptors in the late 1960s, only in the past decade has work started on the development of synthetic neutral anion receptors. Combination and preorganization of different anion binding groups, like amides, urea moieties, or Lewis acidic metal centers lead

  5. Trpv4 Mediates Hypotonic Inhibition of Central Osmosensory Neurons via Taurine Gliotransmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana Ciura

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The maintenance of hydromineral homeostasis requires bidirectional detection of changes in extracellular fluid osmolality by primary osmosensory neurons (ONs in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT. Hypertonicity excites ONs in part through the mechanical activation of a variant transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channel (dn-Trpv1. However, the mechanism by which local hypotonicity inhibits ONs in the OVLT remains unknown. Here, we show that hypotonicity can reduce the basal activity of dn-Trpv1 channels and hyperpolarize acutely isolated ONs. Surprisingly, we found that mice lacking dn-Trpv1 maintain normal inhibitory responses to hypotonicity when tested in situ. In the intact setting, hypotonicity inhibits ONs through a non-cell-autonomous mechanism that involves glial release of the glycine receptor agonist taurine through hypotonicity activated anion channels (HAAC that are activated subsequent to Ca2+ influx through Trpv4 channels. Our study clarifies how Trpv4 channels contribute to the inhibition of OVLT ONs during hypotonicity in situ. : Ciura et al. show that osmosensory neurons in organum vasculosum lamina terminalis are inhibited by hypotonicity. This effect is triggered by activation of Trpv4 channels and Ca2+ accumulation in astrocytes, causing these cells to release taurine through anion channels. Taurine inhibits firing by activating glycine receptors on the osmosensory neurons. Keywords: hyptonicity, taurine, TRPV, osmosensitive, gliotransmission, swelling

  6. Interstellar dehydrogenated PAH anions: vibrational spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter; Gour, Nand Kishor

    2018-03-01

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules exist in diverse forms depending on the local physical environment. Formation of ionized PAHs (anions and cations) is favourable in the extreme conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). Besides in their pure form, PAHs are also likely to exist in substituted forms; for example, PAHs with functional groups, dehydrogenated PAHs etc. A dehydrogenated PAH molecule might subsequently form fullerenes in the ISM as a result of ongoing chemical processes. This work presents a density functional theory (DFT) calculation on dehydrogenated PAH anions to explore the infrared emission spectra of these molecules and discuss any possible contribution towards observed IR features in the ISM. The results suggest that dehydrogenated PAH anions might be significantly contributing to the 3.3 μm region. Spectroscopic features unique to dehydrogenated PAH anions are highlighted that may be used for their possible identification in the ISM. A comparison has also been made to see the size effect on spectra of these PAHs.

  7. Fluorescence anisotropy of tyrosinate anion using one-, two- and three-photon excitation: tyrosinate anion fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdaszuk, Borys

    2013-03-01

    We examined the emission spectra and steady-state anisotropy of tyrosinate anion fluorescence with one-photon (250-310 nm), two-photon (570-620 nm) and three-photon (750-930 nm) excitation. Similar emission spectra of the neutral (pH 7.2) and anionic (pH 13) forms of N-acetyl-L-tyrosinamide (NATyrA) (pKa 10.6) were observed for all modes of excitation, with the maxima at 302 and 352 nm, respectively. Two-photon excitation (2PE) and three-photon excitation (3PE) spectra of the anionic form were the same as that for one-photon excitation (1PE). In contrast, 2PE spectrum from the neutral form showed ~30-nm shift to shorter wavelengths relative to 1PE spectrum (λmax 275 nm) at two-photon energy (550 nm), the latter being overlapped with 3PE spectrum, both at two-photon energy (550 nm). Two-photon cross-sections for NATyrA anion at 565-580 nm were 10 % of that for N-acetyl-L-tryptophanamide (NATrpA), and increased to 90 % at 610 nm, while for the neutral form of NATyrA decreased from 2 % of that for NATrpA at 570 nm to near zero at 585 nm. Surprisingly, the fundamental anisotropy of NATyrA anion in vitrified solution at -60 °C was ~0.05 for 2PE at 610 nm as compared to near 0.3 for 1PE at 305 nm, and wavelength-dependence appears to be a basic feature of its anisotropy. In contrast, the 3PE anisotropy at 900 nm was about 0.5, and 3PE and 1PE anisotropy values appear to be related by the cos(6) θ to cos(2) θ photoselection factor (approx. 10/6) independently of excitation wavelength. Attention is drawn to the possible effect of tyrosinate anions in proteins on their multi-photon induced fluorescence emission and excitation spectra as well as excitation anisotropy spectra.

  8. Study of the simultaneous complexation of a cation and of an anion using functionalized calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moli, Ch.

    2002-03-01

    The chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels leads to the production of high-level radioactive liquid wastes which contain long-lived toxic radioelements. In the framework of the long-term management of these wastes, important research work is carried out for the separation of these radioelements for their further transmutation or immobilization inside specific matrices. These radioelements are present in acid solutions of fission products in the form of cations (cesium), anions (technetium, selenium) and molecules (iodine). Crown calixarenes have been successfully used for the extraction of cesium thanks to their exceptional selectivities. This work is mainly based on the use of the chelating properties of calixarenes for the extraction of anionic radioelements. Calixarenes functionalized by amino-carbon chains have been selected. The synthesis of amine calix[4]arenes and calix[6]arenes is described and their extractive and ionophoretic properties with respect to radioelements are shown using aqueous selective separation techniques like the liquid-liquid extraction and the supported liquid membrane transport. Technetium and selenium are extracted by amine calixarenes from a 10 -2 M aqueous solution of nitric acid. At this acidity, no selenium transport is observed, while technetium transport is efficient: the solution is quasi-totally decontaminated in 6 hours. Molecular iodine is efficiently extracted with a simple organic diluent, the 1,2-nitro-phenyl-hexyl-ether, from a strongly concentrated aqueous solution of nitric acid (HNO 3 = 3 M). The transport of iodine becomes faster and more efficient when its concentration in the solution is higher. (J.S.)

  9. NMR studies of Na+-anion association effects in polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenbaum, S.G.; Pak, Y.S.; Wintergill, M.C.; Fontanella, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    23 Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on poly (propylene oxide) (PPO) and siloxane based polymer electrolytes containing various sodium salts at a single nominal concentration are reported. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electrical conductivity studies were carried out on the PPO materials. The NMR-determined mobile Na + concentrations and DSC results provide evidence for ionic aggregation effects which, for some samples, result in salt precipitation at elevated temperatures. 23 Na chemical shifts observed in solid state NMR due to mobile Na + -anion interactions influence ionic transport as well as the number of available carriers. (author). 19 refs.; 7 figs

  10. New anion-exchange polymers for improved separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Barr, M.E.; Marsh, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Objective is to improve the understanding of how the structure of a new class of anion-exchange polymers controls the binding of anionic actinide complexes from solution. This is needed to develop practical separation systems that will reduce the cost of actinide processing operations within the DOE complex. In addition anion exchange is widely used in industry. Several new series of bifunctional anion- exchange polymers have been designed, synthesized, and tested for removing Pu(IV), Am(III), and U(VI) from nitric acid. The polymers contain a pyridinium site derived from the host poly(4-vinylpyridine) and a second cationic site attached through a chain of 2 to 6 methylene groups. The new polymers removed Pu four to ten times more efficiently than the best commercial materials

  11. A computational study of anion-modulated cation-π interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazana-García, Jorge A; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M

    2012-05-24

    The interaction of anions with cation-π complexes formed by the guanidinium cation and benzene was thoroughly studied by means of computational methods. Potential energy surface scans were performed in order to evaluate the effect of the anion coming closer to the cation-π pair. Several structures of guanidinium-benzene complexes and anion approaching directions were examined. Supermolecule calculations were performed on ternary complexes formed by guanidinium, benzene, and one anion and the interaction energy was decomposed into its different two- and three-body contributions. The interaction energies were further dissected into their electrostatic, exchange, repulsion, polarization and dispersion contributions by means of local molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis. The results confirm that, besides the electrostatic cation-anion attraction, the effect of the anion over the cation-π interaction is mainly due to polarization and can be rationalized following the changes in the anion-π and the nonadditive (three-body) terms of the interaction. When the cation and the anion are on the same side of the π system, the three-body interaction is anticooperative, but when the anion and the cation are on opposite sides of the π system, the three-body interaction is cooperative. As far as we know, this is the first study where this kind of analysis is carried out with a structured cation as guanidinium with a significant biological interest.

  12. Probing electron density of H-bonding between cation-anion of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with different anions by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yong; Li, Haoran

    2010-03-04

    Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation have been employed to study the spectral properties of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with different anions. ILs based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with different anions, OH(-), CF(3)CO(2)(-), HSO(4)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), PF(6)(-), and BF(4)(-), are investigated in the present work. It has been shown that the C(2)-H stretching vibration of the imidazolium ring is closely related to the electron density of H-bonding between the two closest cations and anions for pure ILs. The electron density of H-bonding between cation and anion with different anions decreases in the order [OH](-) > [H(2)PO(4)](-) > [HSO(4)](-) > [CF(3)CO(2)](-) > [Cl](-) > [BF(4)](-) > [PF(6)](-). For aqueous ILs, with increasing water content, the aromatic C-H stretching vibration of the imidazolium cation showed systematic blue-shifts. Especially for BmimOH, the nu(C(2))(-H) undergoes a drastic blue-shift by 58 cm(-1), suggesting that the formation of the strong hydrogen bonds O-H...O may greatly weaken the electron density of H-bonding between the cation and anion of ILs.

  13. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the 6-azauracil anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Buonaugurio, Angela; Dolgounitcheva, Olga; Zakrzewski, V G; Bowen, Kit H; Ortiz, J V

    2013-02-14

    We report the photoelectron spectrum of the 6-azauracil anion. The spectrum is dominated by a broad band exhibiting a maximum at an electron binding energy (EBE) of 1.2 eV. This spectral pattern is indicative of a valence anion. Our calculations were carried out using ab initio electron propagator and other many-body methods. Comparison of the anion and corresponding neutral of 6-azauracil with those of uracil shows that substituting a nitrogen atom for C-H at the C6 position of uracil gives rise to significant changes in the electronic structure of 6-azauracil versus that of uracil. The adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of the canonical 6-azauracil tautomer is substantially larger than that of canonical uracil. Among the five tautomeric, 6-azauracil anions studied computationally, the canonical structure was found to be the most stable. The vertical detachment energies (VDE) of the canonical, valence-bound anion of 6-azauracil and its closest "very-rare" tautomer have been calculated. Electron propagator calculations on the canonical anion yield a VDE value that is in close agreement with the experimentally determined VDE value of 1.2 eV. The AEA value of 6-azauracil, assessed at the CCSD(T) level of theory to be 0.5 eV, corresponds with the EBE value of the onset of the experimental spectrum.

  14. Intestinal drug transport via the proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 (SLC36A1) is inhibited by Gly-X(aa) dipeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Sidsel; Langthaler, Louise; Kall, Morten A

    2012-01-01

    -Sar as substrates of the amino acid transporter PAT1. The aim of the present study is to investigate if other Gly-containing dipeptides interact with PAT1, and whether they can inhibit PAT1 mediated drug absorption, in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro methods included two-electrode voltage clamp measurements on h...... of different dipeptides. The in vivo part consisted of a pharmacokinetic study in rats following oral administration of gaboxadol and preadministration of 200 mg/kg dipeptide. The results showed that in hPAT1 expressing oocytes Gly-Tyr, Gly-Pro, and Gly-Phe inhibited currents induced by drug substances......, the present study identifies selected dipeptides as inhibitors of PAT1 mediated drug absorption in various in vitro models....

  15. Inhibition of serotonin transporters disrupts the enhancement of fear memory extinction by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Matthew B; Norrholm, Seth D; Khoury, Lara M; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rauch, Sheila A M; Reiff, Collin M; Dunlop, Boadie W; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Howell, Leonard L

    2017-10-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) persistently improves symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when combined with psychotherapy. Studies in rodents suggest that these effects can be attributed to enhancement of fear memory extinction. Therefore, MDMA may improve the effects of exposure-based therapy for PTSD, particularly in treatment-resistant patients. However, given MDMA's broad pharmacological profile, further investigation is warranted before moving to a complex clinical population. We aimed to inform clinical research by providing a translational model of MDMA's effect, and elucidating monoaminergic mechanisms through which MDMA enhances fear extinction. We explored the importance of monoamine transporters targeted by MDMA to fear memory extinction, as measured by reductions in conditioned freezing and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) in mice. Mice were treated with selective inhibitors of individual monoamine transporters prior to combined MDMA treatment and fear extinction training. MDMA enhanced the lasting extinction of FPS. Acute and chronic treatment with a 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) inhibitor blocked MDMA's effect on fear memory extinction. Acute inhibition of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) transporters had no effect. 5-HT release alone did not enhance extinction. Blockade of MDMA's effect by 5-HTT inhibition also downregulated 5-HT 2A -mediated behavior, and 5-HT 2A antagonism disrupted MDMA's effect on extinction. We validate enhancement of fear memory extinction by MDMA in a translational behavioral model, and reveal the importance of 5-HTT and 5-HT 2A receptors to this effect. These observations support future clinical research of MDMA as an adjunct to exposure therapy, and provide important pharmacological considerations for clinical use in a population frequently treated with 5-HTT inhibitors.

  16. Modulation of ion transport across rat distal colon by cysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eDiener

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the actions of stimulation of endogenous production of H2S by cysteine, the substrate for the two H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionin-beta-synthase and cystathionin-gamma-lyase, on ion transport across rat distal colon. Changes in short-circuit current (Isc induced by cysteine were measured in Ussing chambers. Free cysteine caused a concentration-dependent, transient fall in Isc, which was sensitive to amino-oxyacetate and beta-cyano-L-alanine, i.e. inhibitors of H2S-producing enzymes. In contrast, Na cysteinate evoked a biphasic change in Isc, i.e. an initial fall followed by a secondary increase, which was also reduced by these enzyme inhibitors. All responses were dependent on the presence of Cl- and inhibited by bumetanide, suggesting that free cysteine induces an inhibition of transcellular Cl- secretion, whereas Na cysteinate – after a transient inhibitory phase – activates anion secretion. The assumed reason for this discrepancy is a fall in the cytosolic pH induced by free cysteine, but not by Na cysteinate, as observed in isolated colonic crypts loaded with the pH-sensitive dye, BCECF. Intracellular acidification is known to inhibit epithelial K+ channels. Indeed, after preinhibition of basolateral K+ channels with tetrapentylammonium or Ba2+, the negative Isc induced by free cysteine was reduced significantly. In consequence, stimulation of endogenous H2S production by Na cysteinate causes, after a short inhibitory response, a delayed activation of anion secretion, which is missing in the case of free cysteine, probably due to the cytosolic acidification. In contrast, diallyl trisulfide, which is intracellularly converted to H2S, only evoked a monophasic increase in Isc without the initial fall observed with Na cysteinate. Consequently, time course and amount of produced H2S seem to strongly influence the functional response of the colonic epithelium evoked by this gasotransmitter.

  17. Activation of glycolysis and inhibition of glucose transport into leaves by fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustinec, J; Pokorna, V; Ruzicka, J

    1962-01-01

    During stimulation of wheat leaf respiration by fluoride at 100 to 200 ppM fluorine in dry tissue the ratio of radioactivities of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ released from glucose-6-/sup 14/C and that released from glucose-1-/sup 14/C (C/sub 6//C/sub 1/) increases due especially to an increased output of 6-/sup 14/CO/sub 2/ which suggests an activation of glycolysis. The absolute values of radioactivity of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, however, are decreased by the action of fluoride due to its inhibition of the transport of glucose into leaves. 15 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Anion Gap Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/aniongapbloodtest.html Anion Gap Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Anion Gap Blood Test? An anion gap blood test is a way ...

  19. Speciation and transport of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the chemical speciation of a number of radionuclides migrating in a slightly contaminated ground water plume are identifying the most mobile species and providing an opportunity to test and/or validate geochemical models of radionuclide transport in ground waters. Results to date have shown that most of the migrating radionuclides are present in anionic or nonionic forms. These include anionic forms of 55 Fe, 60 Co, /sup 99m/Tc, 106 Ru, 131 I, and nonionic forms of 63 Ni and 125 Sb. Strontium-70 and a small fraction of the mobile 60 Co are the only cationic radionuclides which have been detected moving in the ground water plume beyond 30 meters from the source. A comparison of the observed chemical forms with the predicted species calculated from modeling thermodynamic data and ground water chemical parameters has indicated a good agreement for most of the radioelements in the system, including Tc, Np, Cs, Sr, Ce, Ru, Sb, Zn, and Mn. The discrepancies between observed and calculated solutions species were noted for Fe, Co, Ni and I. Traces of Fe, Co, and Ni were observed to migrate in anionic or nonionic forms which the calculations failed to predict. These anionic/nonionic species may be organic complexes having enhanced mobility in ground waters. The radioiodine, for example, was shown to behave totally as an anion but further investigation revealed that 49-57% of this anionic iodine was organically bound. The ground water and aqueous extracts of trench sediments contain a wide variety of organic compounds, some of which could serve as complexing agents for the radionuclides. These results indicate the need for further research at a variety of field sites in defining precisely the chemical forms of the mobile radionuclide species, and in better understanding the role of dissolved organic materials in ground water transport of radionuclides

  20. Charge transport and structure in semimetallic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudd, Sam; Franco-Gonzalez, Juan F.; Kumar Singh, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Owing to changes in their chemistry and structure, polymers can be fabricated to demonstrate vastly different electrical conductivities over many orders of magnitude. At the high end of conductivity is the class of conducting polymers, which are ideal candidates for many applications in low......-cost electronics. Here, we report the influence of the nature of the doping anion at high doping levels within the semi-metallic conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on its electronic transport properties. Hall effect measurements on a variety of PEDOT samples show that the choice of doping...... that the chosen doping anion modifies the way PEDOT chains stack together. This link between structure and specific anion doping at high doping levels has ramifications for the fabrication of conducting polymer-based devices....

  1. Fluorescein-methotrexate transport in dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) choroid plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Carsten H; Fricker, Gert; Miller, David S

    2006-08-01

    The vertebrate choroid plexus removes potentially toxic metabolites and xenobiotics from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to blood for subsequent excretion in urine and bile. We used confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis to characterize the mechanisms driving transport of the large organic anion, fluorescein-methotrexate (FL-MTX), from bath (CSF-side) to blood vessels in intact lateral choroid plexus from dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, an evolutionarily ancient vertebrate. With 2 microM FL-MTX in the bath, steady-state fluorescence in the subepithelium/vascular space exceeded bath levels by 5- to 10-fold, and fluorescence in the epithelial cells was slightly below bath levels. FL-MTX accumulation in both tissue compartments was reduced by NaCN, Na removal, and ouabain, but not by a 10-fold increase in medium K. Certain organic anions, e.g., probenecid, MTX, and taurocholate, reduced FL-MTX accumulation in both tissue compartments; p-aminohippurate and estrone sulfate reduced subepithelial/vascular accumulation, but not cellular accumulation. At low concentrations, digoxin, leukotriene C4, and MK-571 reduced fluorescence in the subepithelium/vascular space while increasing cellular fluorescence, indicating preferential inhibition of efflux over uptake. In the presence of 10 microM digoxin (reduced efflux, enhanced cellular accumulation), cellular FL-MTX accumulation was specific, concentrative, and Na dependent. Thus transepithelial FL-MTX transport involved the following two carrier-mediated steps: electroneutral, Na-dependent uptake at the apical membrane and electroneutral efflux at the basolateral membrane. Finally, FL-MTX accumulation in both tissue compartments was reduced by phorbol ester and increased by forskolin, indicating antagonistic modulation by protein kinase C and protein kinase A.

  2. Tripodal receptors for cation and anion sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman, [Unknown; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing

  3. The gecko visual pigment: the anion hypsochromic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1991-01-01

    The 521-pigment in the retina of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) readily responds to particular physical and chemical changes in its environment. When solubilized in chloride deficient state the addition of Class I anions (Cl-, Br-) induces a bathochromic shift of the absorption spectrum. Class II anions (NO3-, IO3-, N3-, OCN-, SCN-, SeCN-, N(CN)2-), which exhibit ambidental properties, cause an hypsochromic shift. Class III anions (F-, I-, NO2-, CN-, AsO3-, SO2(4-), S2O2(3-) have no spectral effect on the 521-pigment. Cations appear to have no influence on the pigment absorption and Class I anions prevent or reverse the hypsochromic shift caused by Class II anions. It is suggested that the spectral displacements reflect specific changes in the opsin conformation, which alter the immediate (dipolar) environment of the retinal chromophore. The protein conformation seems to promote excited-state processes most in the native 521-pigment state and least in the presence of Class II anions. This in turn suggests that the photosensitivity of the 521-pigment is controlled by the excited rather than by the ground-state properties of the pigment.

  4. Organic anion and cation SLC22 "drug" transporter (Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1 regulation during development and maturation of the kidney proximal tubule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Gallegos

    Full Text Available Proper physiological function in the pre- and post-natal proximal tubule of the kidney depends upon the acquisition of selective permeability, apical-basolateral epithelial polarity and the expression of key transporters, including those involved in metabolite, toxin and drug handling. Particularly important are the SLC22 family of transporters, including the organic anion transporters Oat1 (originally identified as NKT and Oat3 as well as the organic cation transporter Oct1. In ex vivo cultures of metanephric mesenchyme (MM; the embryonic progenitor tissue of the nephron Oat function was evident before completion of nephron segmentation and corresponded with the maturation of tight junctions as measured biochemically by detergent extractability of the tight junction protein, ZO-1. Examination of available time series microarray data sets in the context of development and differentiation of the proximal tubule (derived from both in vivo and in vitro/ex vivo developing nephrons allowed for correlation of gene expression data to biochemically and functionally defined states of development. This bioinformatic analysis yielded a network of genes with connectivity biased toward Hnf4α (but including Hnf1α, hyaluronic acid-CD44, and notch pathways. Intriguingly, the Oat1 and Oat3 genes were found to have strong temporal co-expression with Hnf4α in the cultured MM supporting the notion of some connection between the transporters and this transcription factor. Taken together with the ChIP-qPCR finding that Hnf4α occupies Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1 proximal promoters in the in vivo differentiating rat kidney, the data suggest a network of genes with Hnf4α at its center plays a role in regulating the terminal differentiation and capacity for drug and toxin handling by the nascent proximal tubule of the kidney.

  5. Ion-exchange concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of natural waters in the present time - consuming process, the accuracy of which is influenced by many factors: the composition of water, the presence of impurities and "interfering" components. The water sample preparation process includes the step of concentration and separation of ions determined. The most versatile, efficient, and frequently used method is the concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solutions by ion exchanger, which can optimize the composition of water to the optimal for identification and quantitative determination of anions. The characteristics of sorption chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions of basic anion exchange resin AВ-17 and Purolite A430 were compared in the article. The constants of protolysis of ion exchangers both AB 17 and Purolite A430 are the same and equal 0.037 ± 0,002. The value of total capacity (POE Purolite A430 was 4.3 mmol/g, AB 17 – 3.4 mmol/g. The studied ion exchangers have the same type of ionic groups – quaternary ammonium, but their number and denotes differ. The number of quaternary ammonium groups is higher in Purolite A430, respectively the number of absorbed anions of these ion exchanger is higher. The values of dynamic exchange capacity (DOE of ion exchanger Purolite A430 is higher than these values of AB-17 and equal to 1.48 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for chloride ion, 1.50 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for nitrate ion, 1.62 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for sulfate ion. The values of the POE and DOE of anion-exchange resins Purolite A430 and AV-17 and the characteristics of the individual sorption of chloride, nitrate, sulfate ions showed an advantage of the Purolite for the concentrationing of anions. It is found that times of anions sorption from triple-anion solutions by Purolite A430 are significantly different for different anions, and these times are close for anion-exchanger AV-17. It proves the possibility of quantitative separation and concentration by anion-exchanger Purolite A430.

  6. Dehydroabiethylamine acetate as metal-containing anion precipitant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Borisov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The precipitation is studied of vanadate, tungstate-, molybdate- and chromate-ions by dehydroabiethylamine acetate. The degree of precipitation of metal-bearing anions is a function of the anion and of pH of the treated solutions. There exists a predetermined value of pH for each anion, at which the content of metal-bearing anion in the ultra-filtrate is at a minimum. For vanadate-ions, this pH is 5.0; for tungstate-ions, 3.0; for molybdate-ions, 4.0; for chrommate-ions, 8.0. The heats of solution of methavanadate, paratungstate, paramolybdate and dehydroabiethylamine chromate, calculated in accordance with the Vant-Hoff equation, range between 3.5 and 8.3 kJ/mole; free energy varies between 45.8 and 137.5 kJ/mole; and entropy varies between 110 and 371 J/degree mole

  7. Basolateral P2X receptors mediate inhibition of NaCl transport in mouse medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Rita D; de Bruijn, Pauline I.A.; Sørensen, Mads Vaarby

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides regulate epithelial transport via luminal and basolateral P2 receptors. Renal epithelia express multiple P2 receptors, which mediate significant inhibition of solute absorption. Recently, we identified several P2 receptors in the medullary thick ascending limb (m...

  8. Acropetal Auxin Transport Inhibition Is Involved in Indeterminate But Not Determinate Nodule Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. P. Ng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Legumes enter into a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, leading to nodule development. Two main types of nodules have been widely studied, indeterminate and determinate, which differ in the location of the first cell division in the root cortex, and persistency of the nodule meristem. Here, we compared the control of auxin transport, content, and response during the early stages of indeterminate and determinate nodule development in the model legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, respectively, to investigate whether differences in auxin transport control could explain the differences in the location of cortical cell divisions. While auxin responses were activated in dividing cortical cells during nodulation of both nodule types, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid content at the nodule initiation site was transiently increased in M. truncatula, but transiently reduced in L. japonicus. Root acropetal auxin transport was reduced in M. truncatula at the very start of nodule initiation, in contrast to a prolonged increase in acropetal auxin transport in L. japonicus. The auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA only induced pseudonodules in legume species forming indeterminate nodules, but failed to elicit such structures in a range of species forming determinate nodules. The development of these pseudonodules in M. truncatula exhibited increased auxin responses in a small primordium formed from the pericycle, endodermis, and inner cortex, similar to rhizobia-induced nodule primordia. In contrast, a diffuse cortical auxin response and no associated cortical cell divisions were found in L. japonicus. Collectively, we hypothesize that a step of acropetal auxin transport inhibition is unique to the process of indeterminate nodule development, leading to auxin responses in pericycle, endodermis, and inner cortex cells, while increased auxin responses in outer cortex cells likely

  9. The serotonin transporter: Examination of the changes in transporter affinity induced by ligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    The plasmalemmal serotonin transporter uses transmembrane gradients of Na + , Cl - and K + to accumulate serotonin within blood platelets. Transport is competitively inhibited by the antidepressant imipramine. Like serotonin transport, imipramine binding requires Na + . Unlike serotonin, however, imipramine does not appear to be transported. To gain insight into the mechanism of serotonin transport the author have analyzed the influences of Na + and Cl - , the two ions cotransported with serotonin, on both serotonin transport and the interaction of imipramine and other antidepressant drugs with the plasmalemmal serotonin transporter of human platelets. Additionally, the author have synthesized, purified and characterized the binding of 2-iodoimipramine to the serotonin transporter. Finally, the author have conducted a preliminary study of the inhibition of serotonin transport and imipramine binding produced by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. My results reveal many instances of positive heterotropic cooperativity in ligand binding to the serotonin transporter. Na + binding enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine and several other antidepressant drugs, and also increases the affinity for Cl - . Cl - enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine, as well as for Na + . At concentrations in the range of its K M for transport serotonin is a competitive inhibitor of imipramine binding. At much higher concentrations, however, serotonin also inhibits imipramines dissociation rate constant. This latter effect which is Na + -independent and species specific, is apparently produced by serotonin binding at a second, low affinity site on, or near, the transporter complex. Iodoimipramine competitively inhibit both [ 3 H]imipramine binding and [ 3 H]serotonin transport

  10. The Thermodynamics of Anion Complexation to Nonpolar Pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Matthew R; Yao, Wei; Tang, Du; Ashbaugh, Henry S; Gibb, Bruce C

    2018-02-08

    The interactions between nonpolar surfaces and polarizable anions lie in a gray area between the hydrophobic and Hofmeister effects. To assess the affinity of these interactions, NMR and ITC were used to probe the thermodynamics of eight anions binding to four different hosts whose pockets each consist primarily of hydrocarbon. Two classes of host were examined: cavitands and cyclodextrins. For all hosts, anion affinity was found to follow the Hofmeister series, with associations ranging from 1.6-5.7 kcal mol -1 . Despite the fact that cavitand hosts 1 and 2 possess intrinsic negative electrostatic fields, it was determined that these more enveloping hosts generally bound anions more strongly. The observation that the four hosts each possess specific anion affinities that cannot be readily explained by their structures, points to the importance of counter cations and the solvation of the "empty" hosts, free guests, and host-guest complexes, in defining the affinity.

  11. Test procedure for anion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium from stored nitrate solutions will be sorbed onto anion exchange resins and converted to storable plutonium dioxide. Useful information will be simultaneously gained on the thermal stability and ion exchange capacity of four commercially available anion exchange resins over several years and under severe degradative conditions. This information will prove useful in predicting the safe and efficient lifetimes of these resins

  12. Ion and solvent Transport in Polypyrrole: Experimental Test of Osmotic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Skaarup, Steen

    2005-01-01

    Ion and solvent transport in the conjugated polymer actuator material, polypyrrole, doped with the immobile anion dodecyl benzene sulphonate, has been investigated by simultaneous cyclic voltammetry and Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance measurements. The purpose was to elucidate the pre...... from almost pure cation transport to ca. equal amount of anion transport; exchanging Br- for Cl- ions has only negligible effect at lower concentrations at equal osmotic pressures. Ca. 4 H2O molecules are tightly bound to each Na+ ion at concentrations ... the precise nature of the mobile species during redox cycling, and to seek confirmation for the osmotic mechanism of actuation. Three testable aspects of the model were confirmed: The number of inserted H2O molecules decreases with electrolyte concentration; at the same time the mechanism gradually changes...

  13. CLC Chloride Channels and Transporters: Structure, Function, Physiology, and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentsch, Thomas J; Pusch, Michael

    2018-07-01

    CLC anion transporters are found in all phyla and form a gene family of eight members in mammals. Two CLC proteins, each of which completely contains an ion translocation parthway, assemble to homo- or heteromeric dimers that sometimes require accessory β-subunits for function. CLC proteins come in two flavors: anion channels and anion/proton exchangers. Structures of these two CLC protein classes are surprisingly similar. Extensive structure-function analysis identified residues involved in ion permeation, anion-proton coupling and gating and led to attractive biophysical models. In mammals, ClC-1, -2, -Ka/-Kb are plasma membrane Cl - channels, whereas ClC-3 through ClC-7 are 2Cl - /H + -exchangers in endolysosomal membranes. Biological roles of CLCs were mostly studied in mammals, but also in plants and model organisms like yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans. CLC Cl - channels have roles in the control of electrical excitability, extra- and intracellular ion homeostasis, and transepithelial transport, whereas anion/proton exchangers influence vesicular ion composition and impinge on endocytosis and lysosomal function. The surprisingly diverse roles of CLCs are highlighted by human and mouse disorders elicited by mutations in their genes. These pathologies include neurodegeneration, leukodystrophy, mental retardation, deafness, blindness, myotonia, hyperaldosteronism, renal salt loss, proteinuria, kidney stones, male infertility, and osteopetrosis. In this review, emphasis is laid on biophysical structure-function analysis and on the cell biological and organismal roles of mammalian CLCs and their role in disease.

  14. Determination of arsenate in water by anion selective membrane electrode using polyurethane–silica gel fibrous anion exchanger composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Asif Ali, E-mail: asifkhan42003@yahoo.com; Shaheen, Shakeeba, E-mail: shakeebashaheen@ymail.com

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • PU–Si gel is new anion exchanger material synthesized and characterized. • This material used as anion exchange membrane is applied for electroanalytical studies. • The method for detection and determination of AsO{sub 4}{sup 3−} in traces amounts discussed. • The results are also verified from arsenic analyzer. -- Abstract: Polyurethane (PU)–silica (Si gel) based fibrous anion exchanger composites were prepared by solid–gel polymerization of polyurethane in the presence of different amounts of silica gel. The formation of PU–Si gel fibrous anion exchanger composite was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis. The membrane having a composition of 5:3 (PU:Si gel) shows best results for water content, porosity, thickness and swelling. Our studies show that the present ion selective membrane electrode is selective for arsenic, having detection limit (1 × 10{sup −8} M to 1 × 10{sup −1} M), response time (45 s) and working pH range (5–8). The selectivity coefficient values for interfering ions indicate good selectivity for arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3−}) over interfering anions. The accuracy of the detection limit results was compared by PCA-Arsenomat.

  15. Characterization of simvastatin acid uptake by organic anion transporting polypeptide 3A1 (OATP3A1) and influence of drug-drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilano-Roque, Amandla; Joy, Melanie S

    2017-12-01

    Human organic anion transporting polypeptide 3A1 (OATP3A1) is predominately expressed in the heart. The ability of OATP3A1 to transport statins into cardiomyocytes is unknown, although other OATPs are known to mediate the uptake of statin drugs in liver. The pleiotropic effects and uptake of simvastatin acid were analyzed in primary human cardiomyocytes and HEK293 cells transfected with the OATP3A1 gene. Treatment with simvastatin acid reduced indoxyl sulfate-mediated reactive oxygen species and modulated OATP3A1 expression in cardiomyocytes and HEK293 cells transfected with the OATP3A1 gene. We observed a pH-dependent effect on OATP3A1 uptake, with more efficient simvastatin acid uptake at pH5.5 in HEK293 cells transfected with the OATP3A1 gene. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K m ) for simvastatin acid uptake by OATP3A1 was 0.017±0.002μM and the V max was 0.995±0.027fmol/min/10 5 cells. Uptake of simvastatin acid was significantly increased by known (benzylpenicillin and estrone-3-sulfate) and potential (indoxyl sulfate and cyclosporine) substrates of OATP3A1. In conclusion, the presence of OATP3A1 in cardiomyocytes suggests that this transporter may modulate the exposure of cardiac tissue to simvastatin acid due to its enrichment in cardiomyocytes. Increases in uptake of simvastatin acid by OATP3A1 when combined with OATP substrates suggest the potential for drug-drug interactions that could influence clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Choroid plexus transport: gene deletion studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keep Richard F

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review examines the use of transporter knockout (KO animals to evaluate transporter function at the choroid plexus (the blood-CSF barrier; BCSFB. Compared to the blood-brain barrier, there have been few such studies on choroid plexus (CP function. These have primarily focused on Pept2 (an oligopeptide transporter, ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters, Oat3 (an organic anion transporter, Svct2 (an ascorbic acid transporter, transthyretin, ion transporters, and ion and water channels. This review focuses on the knowledge gained from such studies, both with respect to specific transporters and in general to the role of the CP and its impact on brain parenchyma. It also discusses the pros and cons of using KO animals in such studies and the technical approaches that can be used.

  17. Closing plant stomata requires a homolog of an aluminum-activated malate transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Mori, Izumi C; Furuichi, Takuya; Munemasa, Shintaro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2010-03-01

    Plant stomata limit both carbon dioxide uptake and water loss; hence, stomatal aperture is carefully set as the environment fluctuates. Aperture area is known to be regulated in part by ion transport, but few of the transporters have been characterized. Here we report that AtALMT12 (At4g17970), a homolog of the aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) of wheat, is expressed in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss-of-function mutations in AtALMT12 impair stomatal closure induced by ABA, calcium and darkness, but do not abolish either the rapidly activated or the slowly activated anion currents previously identified as being important for stomatal closure. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, AtALMT12 facilitates chloride and nitrate currents, but not those of organic solutes. Therefore, we conclude that AtALMT12 is a novel class of anion transporter involved in stomatal closure.

  18. Anion effect on the retention of recoil atom of coordination crystalline compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimotakis, P.N.; Papadopoulos, B.P.

    1980-01-01

    The anion effect of various cobaltic crystalline compounds - having the same cation and differing in anion -on the retention of neutron activated central cobalt atom has been studied. The cation was trans-dichloro(bis)ethylenediamine cobalt(III) and the anions were simple spherical anions (Cl - , Br - , I - ), planar anions (NO 3 - ), trigonal pyramidal anions (ClO 3 - , BrO 3 - ), tetrahedral anions (SO 4 2- , CrO 4 2- , MnO 4 - ) and linear anions (SCN - ). The cobalt-60 activity after reactor irradiation either in simple Co 2+ cation or in cobaltic complex cation determined the retention values. In all irradiations at ordinary temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature the results showed an effect of the different anions, depending on the geometry, volume and charge, on the recombination of the recoil cobalt with the ligands in the coordination sphere. (author)

  19. Benzonitrile: Electron affinity, excited states, and anion solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Andrew R.; Khuseynov, Dmitry; Sanov, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    We report a negative-ion photoelectron imaging study of benzonitrile and several of its hydrated, oxygenated, and homo-molecularly solvated cluster anions. The photodetachment from the unsolvated benzonitrile anion to the X ˜ 1 A 1 state of the neutral peaks at 58 ± 5 meV. This value is assigned as the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the valence anion and the upper bound of adiabatic electron affinity (EA) of benzonitrile. The EA of the lowest excited electronic state of benzonitrile, a ˜ 3 A 1 , is determined as 3.41 ± 0.01 eV, corresponding to a 3.35 eV lower bound for the singlet-triplet splitting. The next excited state, the open-shell singlet A ˜ 1 A 1 , is found about an electron-volt above the triplet, with a VDE of 4.45 ± 0.01 eV. These results are in good agreement with ab initio calculations for neutral benzonitrile and its valence anion but do not preclude the existence of a dipole-bound state of similar energy and geometry. The step-wise and cumulative solvation energies of benzonitrile anions by several types of species were determined, including homo-molecular solvation by benzonitrile, hydration by 1-3 waters, oxygenation by 1-3 oxygen molecules, and mixed solvation by various combinations of O2, H2O, and benzonitrile. The plausible structures of the dimer anion of benzonitrile were examined using density functional theory and compared to the experimental observations. It is predicted that the dimer anion favors a stacked geometry capitalizing on the π-π interactions between the two partially charged benzonitrile moieties.

  20. Coumarin amide derivatives as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qianqian [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Liu, Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, Shandong (China); Cao, Duxia, E-mail: duxiacao@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Guan, Ruifang, E-mail: mse_guanrf@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Wang, Kangnan; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao; Ma, Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China)

    2015-07-01

    Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been examined. The results indicate that the compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change, at the same time, obvious color and fluorescence change can be observed by naked eye. The in situ hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and photophysical properties change confirm that Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin. - Highlights: • Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group were synthesized. • The compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change. • Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin.

  1. Toxicity of Xanthene Food Dyes by Inhibition of Human Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in a Noncompetitive Manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, T.

    2010-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC50 values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC50 values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the non inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of O 12 originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by O 12 quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin.

  2. A Macrocyclic Peptide that Serves as a Cocrystallization Ligand and Inhibits the Function of a MATE Family Transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Suga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The random non-standard peptide integrated discovery (RaPID system has proven to be a powerful approach to discover de novo natural product-like macrocyclic peptides that inhibit protein functions. We have recently reported three macrocyclic peptides that bind to Pyrococcus furiosus multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (PfMATE transporter and inhibit the transport function. Moreover, these macrocyclic peptides were successfully employed as cocrystallization ligands of selenomethionine-labeled PfMATE. In this report, we disclose the details of the RaPID selection strategy that led to the identification of these three macrocyclic peptides as well as a fourth macrocyclic peptide, MaD8, which is exclusively discussed in this article. MaD8 was found to bind within the cleft of PfMATE’s extracellular side and blocked the path of organic small molecules being extruded. The results of an ethidium bromide efflux assay confirmed the efflux inhibitory activity of MaD8, whose behavior was similar to that of previously reported MaD5.

  3. Enhanced absorption and growth inhibition with amino acid monoester prodrugs of floxuridine by targeting hPEPT1 transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Vig, Balvinder S; Sun, Jing; Landowski, Christopher P; Hilfinger, John M; Ramachandran, Chandrasekharan; Amidon, Gordon L

    2008-06-28

    A series of amino acid monoester prodrugs of floxuridine was synthesized and evaluated for the improvement of oral bioavailability and the feasibility of target drug delivery via oligopeptide transporters. All floxuridine 5'-amino acid monoester prodrugs exhibited PEPT1 affinity, with inhibition coefficients of Gly-Sar uptake (IC50) ranging from 0.7 - 2.3 mM in Caco-2 and 2.0 - 4.8 mM in AsPC-1 cells, while that of floxuridine was 7.3 mM and 6.3 mM, respectively. Caco-2 membrane permeabilities of floxuridine prodrugs (1.01 - 5.31 x 10(-6 )cm/sec) and floxuridine (0.48 x 10(-6 )cm/sec) were much higher than that of 5-FU (0.038 x 10(-6) cm/sec). MDCK cells stably transfected with the human oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (MDCK/hPEPT1) exhibited enhanced cell growth inhibition in the presence of the prodrugs. This prodrug strategy offers great potential, not only for increased drug absorption but also for improved tumor selectivity and drug efficacy.

  4. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Microsolvated Anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ditte Linde

    the gas-phase α-effect. The experimental studies are performed by means of the flowing after glow selected ion flow tube technique, and these are supplemented by electronic structure calculations. The α-nucleophile employed is the microsolvated hydrogen peroxide anion whose reactivity is compared......Gas-phase studies of ion-molecule reactions shed light on the intrinsic factors that govern reactivity; and even solvent effects can be examined in the gasphase environment by employing microsolvated ions. An area that has received considerable attention with regard to the interplay between...... to that of a series of microsolvated oxygen centered anions. The association of the nucleophiles with a single water or methanol molecule allows the α-effect to be observed in the SN2 reaction with methyl chloride; this effect was not apparent in the reactions of the unsolvated anions. The results suggest...

  5. Melatonin and the electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2017-11-01

    Melatonin protects the electron transport chain (ETC) in multiple ways. It reduces levels of ·NO by downregulating inducible and inhibiting neuronal nitric oxide synthases (iNOS, nNOS), thereby preventing excessive levels of peroxynitrite. Both ·NO and peroxynitrite-derived free radicals, such as ·NO 2 , hydroxyl (·OH) and carbonate radicals (CO 3 · - ) cause blockades or bottlenecks in the ETC, by ·NO binding to irons, protein nitrosation, nitration and oxidation, changes that lead to electron overflow or even backflow and, thus, increased formation of superoxide anions (O 2 · - ). Melatonin improves the intramitochondrial antioxidative defense by enhancing reduced glutathione levels and inducing glutathione peroxidase and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) in the matrix and Cu,Zn-SOD in the intermembrane space. An additional action concerns the inhibition of cardiolipin peroxidation. This oxidative change in the membrane does not only initiate apoptosis or mitophagy, as usually considered, but also seems to occur at low rate, e.g., in aging, and impairs the structural integrity of Complexes III and IV. Moreover, elevated levels of melatonin inhibit the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and shorten its duration. Additionally, high-affinity binding sites in mitochondria have been described. The assumption of direct binding to the amphipathic ramp of Complex I would require further substantiation. The mitochondrial presence of the melatonin receptor MT 1 offers the possibility that melatonin acts via an inhibitory G protein, soluble adenylyl cyclase, decreased cAMP and lowered protein kinase A activity, a signaling pathway shown to reduce Complex I activity in the case of a mitochondrial cannabinoid receptor.

  6. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Reinhoudt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing are emphasised, along with their potential applications in optical sensors or optodes.

  7. Zn-Al LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE PILLARED BY DIFFERENT DICARBOXYLATE ANIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gago

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs intercalated by terephthalate (TPH and biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate (BPH anions have been synthesized by direct co-precipitation from aqueous solution. The Zn/Al ratio in the final materials was 1.8. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR and FT Raman spectroscopy, and MAS NMR spectroscopy. The basal spacing for the TPH-LDH intercalate was 14.62 Å, indicating that the guest anions stack to form a monolayer with the aromatic rings perpendicular to the host layers. For the LDH intercalate containing BPH anions, a basal spacing of at least 19.2 Å would be expected if the anions adopted an arrangement similar to that for the TPH anions. The observed spacing was 18.24 Å, suggesting that the anions are tilted slightly with respect to the host layers.

  8. Crosslinked anion exchange membranes prepared from poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) for non-aqueous redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Sniekers, Jeroen; Malaquias, João C.; Van Goethem, Cedric; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan; Vankelecom, Ivo F. J.

    2018-02-01

    A stable and eco-friendly anion-exchange membrane (AEM) was prepared and applied in a non-aqueous all-copper redox flow battery (RFB). The AEM was prepared via a simple procedure, leading to a cross-linked structure containing quaternary ammonium groups without involvement of harmful trimethylamine. A network was thus constructed which ensured both ion transport and solvent resistance. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was tuned from 0.49 to 1.03 meq g-1 by varying the content of the 4, 4‧-bipyridine crosslinking agent. The membrane showed a good anion conductivity and retention of copper ions. As a proof of principle, a RFB single cell with this crosslinked membrane yielded a coulombic efficiency of 89%, a voltage efficiency of 61% and an energy efficiency of 54% at 7.5 mA cm-2.

  9. Interleukin-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-12-05

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promotes insulin resistance in tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle; however the influence of IL-1β on placental insulin signaling is unknown. We recently reported increased IL-1β protein expression in placentas of obese mothers, which could contribute to insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells. Cultured trophoblasts isolated from term placentas were treated with physiological concentrations of IL-1β (10pg/ml) for 24h. IL-1β increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser307 (inhibitory) and decreased total IRS-1 protein abundance but did not affect insulin receptor β expression. Furthermore, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Tyr612, activation site) and Akt (Thr308) and prevented insulin-stimulated increase in PI3K/p85 and Grb2 protein expression. IL-1β alone stimulated cRaf (Ser338), MEK (Ser221) and Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation. The inflammatory pathways nuclear factor kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which are involved in insulin resistance, were also activated by IL-1β treatment. Moreover, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated System A, but not System L amino acid uptake, indicating functional impairment of insulin signaling. In conclusion, IL-1β inhibited the insulin signaling pathway by inhibiting IRS-1 signaling and prevented insulin-stimulated System A transport, thereby promoting insulin resistance in cultured PHT cells. These findings indicate that conditions which lead to increased systemic maternal or placental IL-1β levels may attenuate the effects of maternal insulin on placental function and consequently fetal growth. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of the novel glutamate transporter inhibitor (-)-3-hydroxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo[3,4-d]-isoxazole-4-carboxylic acid, which preferentially inhibits reverse transport (glutamate release) compared with glutamate reuptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colleoni, Simona; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Landucci, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    on the three hEAAT subtypes. (-)-HIP-A maintained the remarkable property, previously reported with the racemates, of inhibiting synaptosomal glutamate-induced [3H]D-aspartate release (reverse transport) at concentrations significantly lower than those inhibiting [3H]L-glutamate uptake. New data suggest...

  11. Lithium-conducting ionic melt electrolytes from polyether-functionalized fluorosulfonimide anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallac, B.B.; Geiculescu, O.E.; Rajagopal, R.V.; Creager, S.E.; DesMarteau, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    Solvent-free lithium-conducting ionic melt (IM) electrolytes were synthesized and characterized with respect to chemical structure, purity, and ion transport properties. The melts consist of lithium (perfluorovinylether)sulfonimide salts attached covalently to a lithium-solvating polyether chain. Ionic conductivities are relatively high which is a consequence of the favorable combination of the low lattice energy of the lithium fluorosulfonimide salt (low basicity of the fluorosulfonimide anion), the relatively low viscosity of the polyether matrix, and the relatively high salt content of the melts. Galvanostatic dc polarization experiments, using cells with non-blocking Li electrodes, indicate that salt concentration polarization does not occur in these electrolytes as dc current is passed through them

  12. Toxicity of xanthene food dyes by inhibition of human drug-metabolizing enzymes in a noncompetitive manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC(50) values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC(50) values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of (1)O(2) originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by (1)O(2) quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin.

  13. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore it is impor......Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore...... it is important to investigate the effect of these xenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and methanogenic step of the anaerobic digestion process was studied. LAS inhibit both acetogenesis from propionate...

  14. ZnO nanoparticles modulate the ionic transport and voltage regulation of lysenin nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Sheenah L; Eixenberger, Josh E; Rossland, Steven; Apsley, Holly; Hoffmann, Connor; Shrestha, Nisha; McHugh, Michael; Punnoose, Alex; Fologea, Daniel

    2017-12-16

    The insufficient understanding of unintended biological impacts from nanomaterials (NMs) represents a serious impediment to their use for scientific, technological, and medical applications. While previous studies have focused on understanding nanotoxicity effects mostly resulting from cellular internalization, recent work indicates that NMs may interfere with transmembrane transport mechanisms, hence enabling contributions to nanotoxicity by affecting key biological activities dependent on transmembrane transport. In this line of inquiry, we investigated the effects of charged nanoparticles (NPs) on the transport properties of lysenin, a pore-forming toxin that shares fundamental features with ion channels such as regulation and high transport rate. The macroscopic conductance of lysenin channels greatly diminished in the presence of cationic ZnO NPs. The inhibitory effects were asymmetrical relative to the direction of the electric field and addition site, suggesting electrostatic interactions between ZnO NPs and a binding site. Similar changes in the macroscopic conductance were observed when lysenin channels were reconstituted in neutral lipid membranes, implicating protein-NP interactions as the major contributor to the reduced transport capabilities. In contrast, no inhibitory effects were observed in the presence of anionic SnO 2 NPs. Additionally, we demonstrate that inhibition of ion transport is not due to the dissolution of ZnO NPs and subsequent interactions of zinc ions with lysenin channels. We conclude that electrostatic interactions between positively charged ZnO NPs and negative charges within the lysenin channels are responsible for the inhibitory effects on the transport of ions. These interactions point to a potential mechanism of cytotoxicity, which may not require NP internalization.

  15. The proline metabolism intermediate Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate directly inhibits the mitochondrial respiration in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Akira; Nasuno, Ryo; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-07-30

    The proline metabolism intermediate Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) induces cell death in animals, plants and yeasts. To elucidate how P5C triggers cell death, we analyzed P5C metabolism, mitochondrial respiration and superoxide anion generation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene disruption analysis revealed that P5C-mediated cell death was not due to P5C metabolism. Interestingly, deficiency in mitochondrial respiration suppressed the sensitivity of yeast cells to P5C. In addition, we found that P5C inhibits the mitochondrial respiration and induces a burst of superoxide anions from the mitochondria. We propose that P5C regulates cell death via the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vertical detachment energies of anionic thymidine: Microhydration effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Schaefer, Henry F

    2010-10-14

    Density functional theory has been employed to investigate microhydration effects on the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the thymidine anion by considering the various structures of its monohydrates. Structures were located using a random searching procedure. Among 14 distinct structures of the anionic thymidine monohydrate, the low-energy structures, in general, have the water molecule bound to the thymine base unit. The negative charge developed on the thymine moiety increases the strength of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the water and base units. The computed VDE values of the thymidine monohydrate anions are predicted to range from 0.67 to 1.60 eV and the lowest-energy structure has a VDE of 1.32 eV. The VDEs of the monohydrates of the thymidine anion, where the N(1)[Single Bond]H hydrogen of thymine has been replaced by a 2(')-deoxyribose ring, are greater by ∼0.30 eV, compared to those of the monohydrates of the thymine anion. The results of the present study are in excellent agreement with the accompanying experimental results of Bowen and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144304 (2010)].

  17. Copper(I) coordination compounds with closododecaborate anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinina, E.A.; Drozdova, V.V.; Mustyatsa, V.N.; Goeva, L.V.; Polyakova, I.N.; Votinova, N.A.; Zhizhin, K.Yu.; Kuznetsov, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    Cu(I) Complexes with closo-dodecaborate anion Cat[CuB 12 H 12 ], where Cat= Cs + , Ph 4 P + , Ph 4 As + , R x NH 4-x + (R=Me, Et, Pr, Bu, X=3-4) are synthesized. Synthesis of complexes was conducted in the copper(II) salt-salt of dodecaborate anion-sulfur dioxide (sodium sulfite) system. Structure of the complex [Cu 2 (NCCH 3 ) 4 B 12 H 12 ] assigned by X-ray structural analysis discloses that B 12 H 12 2- anion enters into the inner sphere of metal-complexing agent, and connection of closo-borate ligand with the metal is caused by the formation of three-centric metal-hydrogen-boron bonds [ru

  18. Unusual structures of MgF5- superhalogen anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusiewicz, Iwona; Skurski, Piotr

    2007-05-01

    The vertical electron detachment energies (VDE) of three MgF5- anions were calculated at the outer valence Green function level with the 6-311 + G(3df) basis sets. This species was found to form unusual geometrical structures each of which corresponds to an anionic state exhibiting superhalogen nature. The global minimum structure was described as a system in which two central magnesium atoms are linked via symmetrical triangle formed by three fluorine atoms. Extremely large electron binding energies of these anions (exceeding 8.5 eV in all cases) were predicted and discussed.

  19. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  20. Dose-dependent interaction between gemfibrozil and repaglinide in humans: strong inhibition of CYP2C8 with subtherapeutic gemfibrozil doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkalammi, Johanna; Niemi, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T

    2011-10-01

    Gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide inactivates CYP2C8 irreversibly. We investigated the effect of gemfibrozil dose on CYP2C8 activity in humans using repaglinide as a probe drug. In a randomized, five-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 0.25 mg of repaglinide 1 h after different doses of gemfibrozil or placebo. Concentrations of plasma repaglinide, gemfibrozil, their metabolites, and blood glucose were measured. A single gemfibrozil dose of 30, 100, 300, and 900 mg increased the area under the concentration-time curve of repaglinide 1.8-, 4.5-, 6.7-, and 8.3-fold (P Gemfibrozil pharmacokinetics was characterized by a slightly more than dose-proportional increase in the area under the curve of gemfibrozil and its glucuronide. The gemfibrozil-repaglinide interaction could be mainly explained by gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide concentration-dependent, mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8, with a minor contribution by competitive inhibition of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 at the highest gemfibrozil dose. The findings are consistent with ∼50% inhibition of CYP2C8 already with a single 30-mg dose of gemfibrozil and >95% inhibition with 900 mg. In clinical drug-drug interaction studies, a single 900-mg dose of gemfibrozil can be used to achieve nearly complete inactivation of CYP2C8.

  1. Disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain function potentiates the pro-apoptotic effects of MAPK inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Andrew P; Gelles, Jesse D; Serasinghe, Madhavika N; Loi, Patrick; Arbiser, Jack L; Chipuk, Jerry E

    2017-07-14

    The mitochondrial network is a major site of ATP production through the coupled integration of the electron transport chain (ETC) with oxidative phosphorylation. In melanoma arising from the V600E mutation in the kinase v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF V600E ), oncogenic signaling enhances glucose-dependent metabolism while reducing mitochondrial ATP production. Likewise, when BRAF V600E is pharmacologically inhibited by targeted therapies ( e.g. PLX-4032/vemurafenib), glucose metabolism is reduced, and cells increase mitochondrial ATP production to sustain survival. Therefore, collateral inhibition of oncogenic signaling and mitochondrial respiration may help enhance the therapeutic benefit of targeted therapies. Honokiol (HKL) is a well tolerated small molecule that disrupts mitochondrial function; however, its underlying mechanisms and potential utility with targeted anticancer therapies remain unknown. Using wild-type BRAF and BRAF V600E melanoma model systems, we demonstrate here that HKL administration rapidly reduces mitochondrial respiration by broadly inhibiting ETC complexes I, II, and V, resulting in decreased ATP levels. The subsequent energetic crisis induced two cellular responses involving cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). First, loss of CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of the mitochondrial division GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 promoted mitochondrial fusion, thus coupling mitochondrial energetic status and morphology. Second, HKL decreased CDK2 activity, leading to G 1 cell cycle arrest. Importantly, although pharmacological inhibition of oncogenic MAPK signaling increased ETC activity, co-treatment with HKL ablated this response and vastly enhanced the rate of apoptosis. Collectively, these findings integrate HKL action with mitochondrial respiration and shape and substantiate a pro-survival role of mitochondrial function in melanoma cells after oncogenic MAPK inhibition.

  2. Impairment of GABA transporter GAT-1 terminates cortical recurrent network activity via enhanced phasic inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simon Razik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, GABA transporters (GATs very efficiently clear synaptically released GABA from the extracellular space, and thus exert a tight control on GABAergic inhibition. In neocortex, GABAergic inhibition is heavily recruited during recurrent phases of spontaneous action potential activity which alternate with neuronally quiet periods. Therefore, such activity should be quite sensitive to minute alterations of GAT function. Here, we explored the effects of a gradual impairment of GAT-1 and GAT-2/3 on spontaneous recurrent network activity – termed network bursts and silent periods – in organotypic slice cultures of rat neocortex. The GAT-1 specific antagonist NO-711 depressed activity already at nanomolar concentrations (IC50 for depression of spontaneous multiunit firing rate of 42 nM, reaching a level of 80% at 500-1000 nM. By contrast, the GAT-2/3 preferring antagonist SNAP-5114 had weaker and less consistent effects. Several lines of evidence pointed towards an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition as the dominant activity-depressing mechanism: network bursts were drastically shortened, phasic GABAergic currents decayed slower, and neuronal excitability during ongoing activity was diminished. In silent periods, NO-711 had little effect on neuronal excitability or membrane resistance, quite in contrast to the effects of muscimol, a GABA mimetic which activates GABAA receptors tonically. Our results suggest that an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition efficiently curtails cortical recurrent activity and may mediate antiepileptic effects of therapeutically relevant concentrations of GAT-1 antagonists.

  3. Ionic Resistance and Permselectivity Tradeoffs in Anion Exchange Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2013-10-23

    Salinity gradient energy technologies, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive mixing based on Donnan potential (Capmix CDP), could help address the global need for noncarbon-based energy. Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are a key component in these systems, and improved AEMs are needed in order to optimize and extend salinity gradient energy technologies. We measured ionic resistance and permselectivity properties of quaternary ammonium-functionalized AEMs based on poly(sulfone) and poly(phenylene oxide) polymer backbones and developed structure-property relationships between the transport properties and the water content and fixed charge concentration of the membranes. Ion transport and ion exclusion properties depend on the volume fraction of water in the polymer membrane, and the chemical nature of the polymer itself can influence fine-tuning of the transport properties to obtain membranes with other useful properties, such as chemical and dimensional stability. The ionic resistance of the AEMs considered in this study decreased by more than 3 orders of magnitude (i.e., from 3900 to 1.6 Ω m) and the permselectivity decreased by 6% (i.e., from 0.91 to 0.85) as the volume fraction of water in the polymer was varied by a factor of 3.8 (i.e., from 0.1 to 0.38). Water content was used to rationalize a tradeoff relationship between the permselectivity and ionic resistance of these AEMs whereby polymers with higher water content tend to have lower ionic resistance and lower permselectivity. The correlation of ion transport properties with water volume fraction and fixed charge concentration is discussed with emphasis on the importance of considering water volume fraction when interpreting ion transport data. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. The adenosine A2B receptor is involved in anion secretion in human pancreatic duct Capan-1 epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Inagaki, A.; Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine modulates a wide variety of biological processes via adenosine receptors. In the exocrine pancreas, adenosine regulates transepithelial anion secretion in duct cells and is considered to play a role in acini-to-duct signaling. To identify the functional adenosine receptors and Cl......− channels important for anion secretion, we herein performed experiments on Capan-1, a human pancreatic duct cell line, using open-circuit Ussing chamber and gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp techniques. The luminal addition of adenosine increased the negative transepithelial potential difference (Vte......) in Capan-1 monolayers with a half-maximal effective concentration value of approximately 10 μM, which corresponded to the value obtained on whole-cell Cl− currents in Capan-1 single cells. The effects of adenosine on Vte, an equivalent short-circuit current (Isc), and whole-cell Cl− currents were inhibited...

  5. Role of glutathione transport processes in kidney function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, Lawrence H.

    2005-01-01

    The kidneys are highly dependent on an adequate supply of glutathione (GSH) to maintain normal function. This is due, in part, to high rates of aerobic metabolism, particularly in the proximal tubules. Additionally, the kidneys are potentially exposed to high concentrations of oxidants and reactive electrophiles. Renal cellular concentrations of GSH are maintained by both intracellular synthesis and transport from outside the cell. Although function of specific carriers has not been definitively demonstrated, it is likely that multiple carriers are responsible for plasma membrane transport of GSH. Data suggest that the organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 and the sodium-dicarboxylate 2 exchanger (SDCT2 or NaDC3) mediate uptake across the basolateral plasma membrane (BLM) and that the organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP1 and at least one of the multidrug resistance proteins mediate efflux across the brush-border plasma membrane (BBM). BLM transport may be used pharmacologically to provide renal proximal tubular cells with exogenous GSH to protect against oxidative stress whereas BBM transport functions physiologically in turnover of cellular GSH. The mitochondrial GSH pool is derived from cytoplasmic GSH by transport into the mitochondrial matrix and is mediated by the dicarboxylate and 2-oxoglutarate exchangers. Maintenance of the mitochondrial GSH pool is critical for cellular and mitochondrial redox homeostasis and is important in determining susceptibility to chemically induced apoptosis. Hence, membrane transport processes are critical to regulation of renal cellular and subcellular GSH pools and are determinants of susceptibility to cytotoxicity induced by oxidants and electrophiles

  6. Experimental evidence for interactions between anions and electron-deficient aromatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B; Johnson, Darren W

    2009-06-14

    This feature article summarizes our research aimed at using electron-deficient aromatic rings to bind anions in the context of complementary research in this active field. Particular attention is paid to the different types of interactions exhibited between anions and electron-deficient arenes in solution. The 120+ references cited in this article underscore the flurry of recent activity by numerous researchers in this field, which was relatively nascent when our efforts began in 2005. While the interaction of anions with electron-deficient aromatic rings has recently garnered much attention by supramolecular chemists, the observation of these interactions is not a recent discovery. Therefore, we begin with a historical perspective on early examples of anions interacting with electron-deficient arenes. An introduction to recent (and not so recent) computational investigations concerning anions and electron-deficient aromatic rings as well as a brief structural survey of crystalline examples of this interaction are provided. Finally, the limited solution-based observations of anions interacting with electron-deficient aromatic rings are summarized to introduce our current investigations in this area. We highlight three different systems from our lab where anion-arene interactions have been investigated. First, we show that tandem hydrogen bonds and anion-arene interactions augment halide binding in solution. Second, a crystallographic and computational study highlights the multiple types of interactions possible between anions and electron-deficient arenes. Third, we summarize the first example of a class of designed receptors that emphasize the different types of anion-arene interactions possible in solution.

  7. Preparation of Cationic MOFs with Mobile Anions by Anion Stripping to Remove 2,4-D from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A cationic porous framework with mobile anions (MIL-101(Cr-Cl was easily and successfully synthesized by utilizing the stronger affinity of F− to Al3+ than Cr3+ in the charge-balanced framework of MIL-101(Cr. The structure, morphology and porosity of MIL-101(Cr-Cl were characterized. The obtained new materials retain the high surface area, good thermostability, and structure topology of MIL-101(Cr. With the mobile Cl− anion, MIL-101(Cr-Cl can be used as an ion-exchange material for anionic organic pollutions. In this work, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D was used as a model to test the absorption performance of this new material. This new material exhibited improved adsorbability compared to that of the original metal-organic frameworks (MOFs. At the same time, this material also shows high anti-interference performance with changing solution pH.

  8. High Guanidinium Permeability Reveals Dehydration-Dependent Ion Selectivity in the Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. B. Bokhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites grow within vertebrate erythrocytes and increase host cell permeability to access nutrients from plasma. This increase is mediated by the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC, an unusual ion channel linked to the conserved clag gene family. Although PSAC recognizes and transports a broad range of uncharged and charged solutes, it must efficiently exclude the small Na+ ion to maintain infected cell osmotic stability. Here, we examine possible mechanisms for this remarkable solute selectivity. We identify guanidinium as an organic cation with high permeability into human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum, but negligible uptake by uninfected cells. Transport characteristics and pharmacology indicate that this uptake is specifically mediated by PSAC. The rank order of organic and inorganic cation permeabilities suggests cation dehydration as the rate-limiting step in transport through the channel. The high guanidinium permeability of infected cells also allows rapid and stringent synchronization of parasite cultures, as required for molecular and cellular studies of this pathogen. These studies provide important insights into how nutrients and ions are transported via PSAC, an established target for antimalarial drug development.

  9. A comparison of corrosion inhibition of magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum vanadate intercalated layered double hydroxides on magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian; Zhang, Fen; Lu, Jun-Cai; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Shuo-Qi; Song, Liang; Zeng, Jian-Min

    2018-04-01

    The magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with NO3 -(MgAl-NO3-LDH and ZnAl-NO3-LDH) were prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the magnesium aluminum and the zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with VO x -(MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH) were prepared by the anion-exchange method. Morphologies, microstructures and chemical compositions of LDHs were investigated by SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, Raman and TG analyses. The immersion tests were carried to determine the corrosion inhibition properties of MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH on AZ31 Mg alloys. The results showed that ZnAl-VO x -LDH possesses the best anion-exchange and inhibition abilities. The influence of treatment parameters on microstructures of LDHs were discussed. Additionally, an inhibition mechanism for ZnAl-VO x -LDH on the AZ31 magnesium alloy was proposed and discussed.

  10. Novel Fragmentation Pathways of Anionic Adducts of Steroids Formed by Electrospray Anion Attachment Involving Regioselective Attachment, Regiospecific Decompositions, Charge-Induced Pathways, and Ion-Dipole Complex Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannulu, Nalaka S.; Cole, Richard B.

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of several bifunctional neutral steroids, 5-α-pregnane diol (5-α-pregnane-3α-20βdiol), estradiol (3,17α-dihydroxy-1,3,5(10)-estratriene), progesterone (4-pregnene-3,20-dione), lupeol (3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupene), pregnenolone (5-pregnen-3β-ol-20-one), and pregnenolone acetate (5-pregnen-3β-ol-20-one acetate) was accomplished by negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) employing adduct formation with various anions: fluoride, bicarbonate, acetate, and chloride. Fluoride yielded higher abundances of anionic adducts and more substantial abundances of deprotonated molecules compared with other investigated anions. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of precursor [M + anion]- adducts of these steroids revealed that fluoride adduct [M + F]- precursors first lose HF to produce [M - H]- and then undergo consecutive decompositions to yield higher abundances of structurally-informative product ions than the other tested anions. In addition to charge-remote fragmentations, the majority of CID pathways of estradiol are deduced to occur via charge-induced fragmentation. Most interestingly, certain anions exhibit preferential attachment to a specific site on these bifunctional steroid molecules, which we are calling "regioselective anion attachment." Regioselective anion attachment is evidenced by subsequent regiospecific decomposition. Regioselective attachment of fluoride (and acetate) anions to low (and moderate) acidity functional groups of pregnenolone, respectively, is demonstrated using deuterated compounds. Moreover, the formation of unique intermediate ion-dipole complexes leading to novel fragmentation pathways of fluoride adducts of pregnenolone acetate, and bicarbonate adducts of d4-pregnenolone, are also discussed.

  11. Higher concentrations of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in soil induced rice chlorosis due to inhibited active iron transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jie; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Yan, Xiaomin; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of concentrations 0, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg kg"−"1 of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on germination, seedlings growth, physiology and toxicity mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that nZVI had no effect on germination, but inhibited the rice seedlings growth in higher concentrations (>500 mg kg"−"1 nZVI). The highest suppression rate of the length of roots and shoots reached 46.9% and 57.5%, respectively. The 1000mg kg"−"1 nZVI caused the highest suppression rates for chlorophyll and carotenoids, at 91.6% and 85.2%, respectively. In addition, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by the translocation of nanoparticles and changes in active iron content. Visible symptoms of iron deficiency were observed at higher concentrations, at which the active iron content decreased 61.02% in the shoots, but the active iron content not decreased in roots. Interestingly, the total and available amounts of iron in the soil were not less than those in the control. Therefore, the plants iron deficiency was not caused by (i) deficiency of available iron in the soil and (ii) restraint of the absorption that plant takes in the available iron, while induced by (ⅲ) the transport of active iron from the root to the shoot was blocked. The cortex tissues were seriously damaged by nZVI which was transported from soil to the root, these were proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This current study shows that the mechanism of iron deficiency in rice seedling was due to transport of active iron from the root to the shoot blocked, which was caused by the uptake of nZVI. - Highlights: • Higher concentrations of nZVI induced iron deficiency in rice seedlings visibly. • nZVI was taken in rice seedlings and transported form root to shoot. • The pathway of active iron transport from root to shoot was inhibited. • The cortex tissues

  12. Diffuse neutron scattering from anion-excess strontium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Clausen, K.N.; Fåk, B.

    1992-01-01

    The defect structure and diffusional processes have been studied in the anion-excess fluorite (Sr, Y)Cl2.03 by diffuse neutron scattering techniques. Static cuboctahedral clusters found at ambient temperature break up at temperatures below 1050 K, where the anion disorder is highly dynamic. The a...

  13. Anion binding by biotin[6]uril in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke; Nielsen, Bjarne Enrico; Milhøj, Birgitte Olai

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we show that the newly discovered 6 + 6 biotin-formaldehyde macrocycle Biotin[6]uril binds a variety of anionic guest molecules in water. We discuss how and why the anions are bound based on data obtained using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, isothermal titration...

  14. Ergopeptines bromocriptine and ergovaline and the dopamine type-2 receptor inhibitor domperidone inhibit bovine equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Edwena D; Xue, Yan; Strickland, James R; Boling, James A; Matthews, James C

    2011-09-14

    Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue contains ergopeptines. Except for interactions with biogenic amine receptors (e.g., dopamine type-2 receptor, D2R), little is known about how ergopeptines affect animal metabolism. The effect of ergopeptines on bovine nucleoside transporters (NT) was evaluated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Equilibrative NT1 (ENT1)-like activity accounted for 94% of total NT activity. Inhibitory competition (IC(50)) experiments found that this activity was inhibited by both bromocriptine (a synthetic model ergopeptine and D2R agonist) and ergovaline (a predominant ergopeptine of tall fescue). Kinetic inhibition analysis indicated that bromocriptine inhibited ENT1-like activity through a competitive and noncompetitive mechanism. Domperidone (a D2R antagonist) inhibited ENT1 activity more in the presence than in the absence of bromocriptine and displayed an IC(50) value lower than that of bromocriptine or ergovaline, suggesting that inhibition was not through D2R-mediated events. These novel mechanistic findings imply that cattle consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue have reduced ENT1 activity and, thus, impaired nucleoside metabolism.

  15. Role of Anions Associated with the Formation and Properties of Silver Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan-Ming; Lin, Yu-Mei; Liu, Kuan-Guan

    2015-06-16

    Metal clusters have been very attractive due to their aesthetic structures and fascinating properties. Different from nanoparticles, each cluster of a macroscopic sample has a well-defined structure with identical composition, size, and shape. As the disadvantages of polydispersity are ruled out, informative structure-property relationships of metal clusters can be established. The formation of a high-nuclearity metal cluster involves the organization of metal ions into a complex entity in an ordered way. To achieve controllable preparation of metal clusters, it is helpful to introduce a directing agent in the formation process of a cluster. To this end, anion templates have been used to direct the formation of high nuclearity clusters. In this Account, the role of anions played in the formation of a variety of silver clusters has been reviewed. Silver ions are positively charged, so anionic species could be utilized to control the formation of silver clusters on the basis of electrostatic interactions, and the size and shape of the resulted clusters can be dictated by the templating anions. In addition, since the anion is an integral component in the silver clusters described, the physical properties of the clusters can be modulated by functional anions. The templating effects of simple inorganic anions and polyoxometales are shown in silver alkynyl clusters and silver thiolate clusters. Intercluster compounds are also described regarding the importance of anions in determining the packing of the ion pairs and making contribution to electron communications between the positive and negative counterparts. The role of the anions is threefold: (a) an anion is advantageous in stabilizing a cluster via balancing local positive charges of the metal cations; (b) an anion template could help control the size and shape of a cluster product; (c) an anion can be a key factor in influencing the function of a cluster through bringing in its intrinsic properties. Properties

  16. Yinchenhao Decoction Ameliorates Alpha-Naphthylisothiocyanate Induced Intrahepatic Cholestasis in Rats by Regulating Phase II Metabolic Enzymes and Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Xiong Yi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Yinchenhao Decoction (YCHD, a famous traditional Chinese formula, has been used for treating cholestasis for 1000s of years. The cholagogic effect of YCHD has been widely reported, but its pharmacodynamic material and underlying therapeutic mechanism remain unclear. By using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 11 original active components and eight phase II metabolites were detected in rats after oral administration of YCHD, including three new phase II metabolites. And it indicated that phase II metabolism was one of the major metabolic pathway for most active components in YCHD, which was similar to the metabolism process of bilirubin. It arouses our curiosity that whether the metabolism process of YCHD has any relationship with its cholagogic effects. So, a new method for simultaneous quantitation of eight active components and four phase II metabolites of rhein, emodin, genipin, and capillarisin has been developed and applied for their pharmacokinetic study in both normal and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT-induced intrahepatic cholestasis rats. The results indicated the pharmacokinetic behaviors of most components of YCHD were inhibited, which was hypothesized to be related to different levels of metabolic enzymes and transporters in rat liver. So dynamic changes of intrahepatic enzyme expression in cholestasis and YCHD treated rats have been monitored by an UHPLC-tandem mass spectrometry method. The results showed expression levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 (UGT1A1, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A4 (OATP1A4, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2, multidrug resistance protein 1, sodium-dependent taurocholate cotransporter, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A2 were significantly inhibited in cholestasis rats, which would account for reducing the drug absorption and the metabolic process of YCHD in cholestatic rats. A high dose (12 g/kg of

  17. Indirect photometric detection of boron cluster anions electrophoretically separated in methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítová, Lada; Fojt, Lukáš; Vespalec, Radim

    2014-04-18

    3,5-Dinitrobenzoate and picrate are light absorbing anions pertinent to indirect photometric detection of boron cluster anions in buffered methanolic background electrolytes (BGEs). Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and morpholine have been used as buffering bases, which eliminated baseline steps, and minimized the baseline noise. In methanolic BGEs, mobilities of boron cluster anions depend on both ionic constituents of the BGE buffer. This dependence can be explained by ion pair interaction of detected anions with BGE cations, which are not bonded into ion pairs with the BGE anions. The former ion pair interaction decreases sensitivity of the indirect photometric detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anion analysis in uranium more concentrates by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badaut, V.

    2009-01-01

    In the present exploratory study, the applicability of anionic impurities or attributing nuclear material to a certain chemical process or origin has been investigated. Anions (e.g., nitrate, sulphate, fluoride, chloride) originate from acids or salt solutions that are used for processing of solutions containing uranium or plutonium. The study focuses on uranium ore concentrates ('yellow cakes') originating from different mines. Uranium is mined from different types of ore body and depending on the type of rock, different chemical processes for leaching, dissolving and precipitating the uranium need to be applied. Consequently, the anionic patterns observed in he products of these processes (the 'ore concentrates') are different. The concentrations of different anionic species were measured by ion chromatography using conductivity detection. The results show clear differences of anion concentrations and patterns between samples from different uranium mines. Besides this, differences between sampling campaigns n a same mine were also observed indicating that the uranium ore is not homogeneous in a mine. These within-mine variations, however, were smaller than the between-mine variations. (author)

  19. Separation of transfer ribonucleic acids on polystyrene anion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.P.; Griffin, G.D.; Novelli, G.D.

    1976-11-16

    The transfer RNA separation by chromatography on strong-base-polystyrene exchange materials is examined and compared with the widely used reversed-phase chromatography. Results indicate important differences in some transfer RNA (tRNA) elution patterns by the anion-exchange chromatography, as compared with the reversed-phase chromatography. Transfer RNAs containing hydrophobic groups are adsorbed more strongly. The anion exchanger has twice the number of theoretical plates. Single peaks of tRNA/sub 2//sup Glu/ and tRNA/sub 1//sup Phe/ obtained from the reversed-phase column give multiple peaks on polystyrene anion-exchange chromatography. All six leucine tRNAs (Escherichia coli) and differences in tRNA populations synthesized during early and late stages of the dividing lymphocytes from normal human blood can be characterized by the anion-exchange chromatography. Different separation profiles are obtained by two separation systems for tyrosine tRNAs from mouse liver and mouse-plasma-cell tumor. The results indicate that, in contrast to the reversed-phase chromatography, strong-base-polystyrene anion-exchange chromatography is capable of separating tRNAs with minor structural differences.

  20. Celecoxib Induced Tumor Cell Radiosensitization by Inhibiting Radiation Induced Nuclear EGFR Transport and DNA-Repair: A COX-2 Independent Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, Klaus H.; Mayer, Claus; Ohneseit, Petra A.; Raju, Uma; Andratschke, Nickolaus H.; Milas, Luka; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating radiosensitization of human tumor cells by the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed using bronchial carcinoma cells A549, transformed fibroblasts HH4dd, the FaDu head-and-neck tumor cells, the colon carcinoma cells HCT116, and normal fibroblasts HSF7. Effects of celecoxib treatment were assessed by clonogenic cell survival, Western analysis, and quantification of residual DNA damage by γH 2 AX foci assay. Results: Celecoxib treatment resulted in a pronounced radiosensitization of A549, HCT116, and HSF7 cells, whereas FaDu and HH4dd cells were not radiosensitized. The observed radiosensitization could neither be correlated with basal COX-2 expression pattern nor with basal production of prostaglandin E2, but was depended on the ability of celecoxib to inhibit basal and radiation-induced nuclear transport of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The nuclear EGFR transport was strongly inhibited in A549-, HSF7-, and COX-2-deficient HCT116 cells, which were radiosensitized, but not in FaDu and HH4dd cells, which resisted celecoxib-induced radiosensitization. Celecoxib inhibited radiation-induced DNA-PK activation in A549, HSF7, and HCT116 cells, but not in FaDu and HH4dd cells. Consequentially, celecoxib increased residual γH2AX foci after irradiation, demonstrating that inhibition of DNA repair has occurred in responsive A549, HCT116, and HSF7 cells only. Conclusions: Celecoxib enhanced radiosensitivity by inhibition of EGFR-mediated mechanisms of radioresistance, a signaling that was independent of COX-2 activity. This novel observation may have therapeutic implications such that COX-2 inhibitors may improve therapeutic efficacy of radiation even in patients whose tumor radioresistance is not dependent on COX-2

  1. Piracetam and TRH analogues antagonise inhibition by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and galanin of human erythrocyte D-glucose transport

    OpenAIRE

    Naftalin, Richard J; Cunningham, Philip; Afzal-Ahmed, Iram

    2004-01-01

    Nootropic drugs increase glucose uptake into anaesthetised brain and into Alzheimer's diseased brain. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH, which has a chemical structure similar to nootropics increases cerebellar uptake of glucose in murine rolling ataxia. This paper shows that nootropic drugs like piracetam (2-oxo 1 pyrrolidine acetamide) and levetiracetam and neuropeptides like TRH antagonise the inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and endogenous neuropeptide...

  2. Study of electron transition energies between anions and cations in spinel ferrites using differential UV–vis absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, L.C.; Wu, L.Q.; Li, S.Q.; Li, Z.Z.; Tang, G.D.; Qi, W.H.; Ge, X.S.; Ding, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    It is very important to determine electron transition energies (E_t_r) between anions and different cations in order to understand the electrical transport and magnetic properties of a material. Many authors have analyzed UV–vis absorption spectra using the curve (αhν)"2 vs E, where α is the absorption coefficient and E(=hν) is the photon energy. Such an approach can give only two band gap energies for spinel ferrites. In this paper, using differential UV–vis absorption spectra, dα/dE vs E, we have obtained electron transition energies (E_t_r) between the anions and cations, Fe"2"+ and Fe"3"+ at the (A) and [B] sites and Ni"2"+ at the [B] sites for the (A)[B]_2O_4 spinel ferrite samples Co_xNi_0_._7_−_xFe_2_._3O_4 (0.0≤x≤0.3), Cr_xNi_0_._7Fe_2_._3_−_xO_4 (0.0≤x≤0.3) and Fe_3O_4. We suggest that the differential UV–vis absorption spectra should be accepted as a general analysis method for determining electron transition energies between anions and cations.

  3. Drug trafficking in mice: In vivo functions of OATP uptake and ABC efflux transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iusuf, D.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing attention for drug uptake transporters of the Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide (human OATP, mouse Oatp, gene names SLCO, Slco) superfamily. Especially the OATP1A and OATP1B subfamilies turn out to have important physiological and pharmacological

  4. Carbonate anion controlled growth of LiCoPO4/C nanorods and its improved electrochemical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangulibabu; Nallathamby, Kalaiselvi; Meyrick, Danielle; Minakshi, Manickam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbonate anion controlled growth of LiCoPO 4 nanorods has been prepared. ► Mixture of H 2 CO 3 + (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 increases the CO 3 2− concentration and acts as an effective growth inhibitor. ► Heating the carbonate rich precursor in an inert atmosphere produces a Co 2 P phase that is conductive. ► Addition of super P carbon resulted in an amorphous carbon coating on LiCoPO 4 particles. ► LiCoPO 4 /C nanorods with a co-existence of Co 2 P exhibit excellent discharge capacity with retention on multiple cycling. -- Abstract: LiCoPO 4 /C nanocomposite with growth controlled by carbonate anions was synthesized via a unique solid-state fusion method. Carbonate anions in the form of H 2 CO 3 or a mixture of H 2 CO 3 + (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 have been used as a growth inhibiting modifier to produce morphology controlled lithium cobalt phosphate. The presence of cobalt phosphide (Co 2 P) as a second phase improved the conductivity and electrochemical properties of the parent LiCoPO 4. The formation of Co 2 P is found to be achievable only in an inert atmosphere. Super P ® carbon (10 wt.%) provided an adherent carbon coating on pristine LiCoPO 4 resulting in the LiCoPO 4 /C composite cathode. This electrode exhibited enhanced electrochemical properties: capacity of 123 mAh g −1 with excellent capacity retention of 89% after 30 cycles, and reasonable rate capability of up to 5 C rate. The synergistic effect of carbonate anions and formation of Co 2 P under inert atmosphere has influenced the electrochemical behavior of LiCoPO 4 /C cathode through controlling the morphology and increasing the conductivity

  5. Formation of interstellar anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senent, Maria Luisa

    2012-05-01

    Formation of interstellar anions: M.L. Senent. The recent detection of negative charged species in the ISM1 has instigated enthusiasm for anions in the astrophysical community2. Many of these species are new and entail characterization. How they are formed in astrophysical sources is a question of major relevance. The anion presence in ISM was first predicted theoretically on the basis of electron affinities and on the negative linear chain molecular stabilities. Although very early, they were considered in astrochemical models3-4, their discovery is so recent because their abundances seem to be relatively low. These have to be understood in terms of molecular stabilities, reaction probabilities and radiative and collisional excitations. Then, we present our theoretical work on even carbon chains type Cn and CnH (n=2,4,6) focused to the understanding of anion abundances. We use highly correlated ab initio methods. We performed spectroscopic studies of various isomers that can play important roles as intermediates5-8. In previous papers9-10, we compared C2H and C2H- collisional rates responsible for observed line intensities. Actually, we study hydrogen attachment (Cn +H → CnH and Cn- +H → CnH-) and associative detachment processes (Cn- +H → CnH +e-) for 2, 4 and 6 carbon atom chains11. [1] M.C.McCarthy, C.A.Gottlieb, H.Gupta, P.Thaddeus, Astrophys.J, 652, L141 (2006) [2] V.M.Bierbaum, J.Cernicharo, R.Bachiller, eds., 2011, pp 383-389. [3] A. Dalgarno, R.A. Mc Cray, Astrophys.J,, 181, 95 (1973) [4] E. Herbst E., Nature, 289, 656 (1981); [5] H.Massó, M.L.Senent, P.Rosmus, M.Hochlaf, J.Chem.Phys., 124, 234304 (2006) [6] M.L.Senent, M.Hochlaf, Astrophys. J. , 708, 1452(2010) [7] H.Massó, M.L.Senent, J.Phys.Chem.A, 113, 12404 (2009) [8] D. Hammoutene, M.Hochlaf, M.L.Senent, submitted. [9] A. Spielfiedel, N. Feautrier, F. Najar, D. ben Abdallah, F. Dayou, M.L. Senent, F. Lique, Mon.Not.R.Astron.Soc., 421, 1891 (2012) [10] F.Dumouchel, A, Spielfieldel , M

  6. Lipopolysaccharide inhibits colonic biotin uptake via interference with membrane expression of its transporter: a role for a casein kinase 2-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Said, Hamid M

    2017-04-01

    Biotin (vitamin B7), an essential micronutrient for normal cellular functions, is obtained from both dietary sources as well as gut microbiota. Absorption of biotin in both the small and large intestine is via a carrier-mediated process that involves the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Although different physiological and molecular aspects of intestinal biotin uptake have been delineated, nothing is known about the effect of LPS on the process. We addressed this issue using in vitro (human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells) and in vivo (mice) models of LPS exposure. Treating NCM460 cells with LPS was found to lead to a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin uptake. Similarly, administration of LPS to mice led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake by native colonic tissue. Although no changes in total cellular SMVT protein and mRNA levels were observed, LPS caused a decrease in the fraction of SMVT expressed at the cell surface. A role for casein kinase 2 (CK2) (whose activity was also inhibited by LPS) in mediating the endotoxin effects on biotin uptake and on membrane expression of SMVT was suggested by findings that specific inhibitors of CK2, as well as mutating the putative CK2 phosphorylation site (Thr 78 Ala) in the SMVT protein, led to inhibition in biotin uptake and membrane expression of SMVT. This study shows for the first time that LPS inhibits colonic biotin uptake via decreasing membrane expression of its transporter and that these effects likely involve a CK2-mediated pathway.

  7. The triel bond: a potential force for tuning anion-π interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Mousavian, Parisasadat

    2018-02-01

    Using ab-initio calculations, the mutual influence between anion-π and B···N or B···C triel bond interactions is investigated in some model complexes. The properties of these complexes are studied by molecular electrostatic potential, noncovalent interaction index, quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses. According to the results, the formation of B···N or B···C triel bond interactions in the multi-component systems makes a significant shortening of anion-π distance. Such remarkable variation in the anion-π distances has not been reported previously. The strengthening of the anion-π bonding in the multi-component systems depend significantly on the nature of the anion, and it becomes larger in the order Br- > Cl- > F-. The parameters derived from the QTAIM and NBO methodologies are used to study the mechanism of the cooperativity between the anion-π and triel bond interactions in the multi-component complexes.

  8. Patchy proteins, anions and the Hofmeister series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Mikael; Jungwirth, Pavel [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo namesti 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Center for Complex Molecular Systems and Biomolecules, Flemingovo namesti 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: mikael.lund@uochb.cas.cz

    2008-12-10

    We investigate specific anion binding to a range of patchy protein models and use our results to probe protein-protein interactions for aqueous lysozyme solutions. Our molecular simulation studies show that the ion-protein interaction mechanism and strength largely depend on the nature of the interfacial amino acid residues. Via direct ion pairing, small anions interact with charged side-chains while larger anions are attracted to non-polar residues due to several solvent assisted mechanisms. Incorporating ion and surface specificity into a mesoscopic model for protein-protein interactions we calculate the free energy of interaction between lysozyme molecules in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium iodide. In agreement with experiment, our finding is that 'salting out' follows the reverse Hofmeister series for pH below the iso-electric point and the direct series for pH above pI.

  9. New borohydride anion B6H7-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.Yu.; Vinitskij, D.M.; Solntsev, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The [Ni(Bipy) 3 ] (B 6 H 7 ) 2 , (Ph 4 P)B 6 H 7 , [Ni(Phen) 3 ](B 6 H 7 ) 2 crystals (where Bipy = bipyridine, Phen = phenathroline, Ph = phenyl) are obtained via the exchange reaction with a subsequent recrystallization from aqua-acetonic and acetonic solutions. The structure is studied of a new borohydride anion B 6 H 7 - possessing a four-valence bond unique for polyhedral borohydride anions. A triangular face of boride skeleton coordinating a hydrogen atom is considerably larger than other faces, and the electron density on this hydrogen atom is evidently much higher than at the end hydride hydrogen atoms. The trend of B 6 H 7 - anion to form statistically disordered structurs testifies to a rather slight effect of the seventh hydrogen atom position on the structure pattern of the ionic crystal lattice

  10. Reducing nitrogen crossover in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells by using adjacent anion exchange membranes and anion exchange resin

    KAUST Repository

    Wallack, Maxwell J.; Geise, Geoffrey M.; Hatzell, Marta C.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial reverse electrodialysis cells (MRECs) combine power generation from salinity gradient energy using reverse electrodialysis (RED), with power generation from organic matter using a microbial fuel cell. Waste heat can be used to distill ammonium bicarbonate into high (HC) and low salt concentration (LC) solutions for use in the RED stack, but nitrogen crossover into the anode chamber must be minimized to avoid ammonia loses, and foster a healthy microbial community. To reduce nitrogen crossover, an additional low concentration (LC) chamber was inserted before the anode using an additional anion exchange membrane (AEM) next to another AEM, and filled with different amounts of anion or cation ion exchange resins. Addition of the extra AEM increased the ohmic resistance of the test RED stack from 103 Ω cm2 (1 AEM) to 295 Ω cm2 (2 AEMs). However, the use of the anion exchange resin decreased the solution resistance of the LC chamber by 74% (637 Ω cm2, no resin; 166 Ω cm2 with resin). Nitrogen crossover into the anode chamber was reduced by up to 97% using 50% of the chamber filled with an anion exchange resin compared to the control (no additional chamber). The added resistance contributed by the use of the additional LC chamber could be compensated for by using additional LC and HC membrane pairs in the RED stack.

  11. Initiation and inhibition of pitting corrosion on reinforcing steel under natural corrosion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El Wanees, S., E-mail: s_wanees@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519 (Egypt); Bahgat Radwan, A. [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Alsharif, M.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Abd El Haleem, S.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519 (Egypt)

    2017-04-01

    Initiation and inhibition of pitting corrosion on reinforcing steel in saturated, naturally aerated Ca(OH){sub 2} solutions, under natural corrosion conditions, are followed through measurements of corrosion current, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and SEM investigation. Induction period for pit initiation and limiting corrosion current for pit propagation are found to depend on aggressive salt anion and cation-types, as well as, concentration. Ammonium chlorides and sulfates are more corrosive than the corresponding sodium salts. Benzotriazole and two of its derivatives are found to be good inhibitors for pitting corrosion of reinforcing steel. Adsorption of these compounds follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic functions ΔE{sup ∗}, ΔH{sup ∗} and ΔS{sup ∗} for pitting corrosion processes in the absence and presence of inhibitor are calculated and discussed. - Highlights: • Cl{sup −} and SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} induce pitting corrosion on passive reinforcing steel. • Initiation and propagation of pitting depend on cation and anion types. • Inhibition is based on adsorption according to Langmuir isotherm.

  12. Molecular Properties of Drugs Interacting with SLC22 Transporters OAT1, OAT3, OCT1, and OCT2: A Machine-Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Henry C; Goldenberg, Anne; Chen, Yuchen; Lun, Christina; Wu, Wei; Bush, Kevin T; Balac, Natasha; Rodriguez, Paul; Abagyan, Ruben; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2016-10-01

    Statistical analysis was performed on physicochemical descriptors of ∼250 drugs known to interact with one or more SLC22 "drug" transporters (i.e., SLC22A6 or OAT1, SLC22A8 or OAT3, SLC22A1 or OCT1, and SLC22A2 or OCT2), followed by application of machine-learning methods and wet laboratory testing of novel predictions. In addition to molecular charge, organic anion transporters (OATs) were found to prefer interacting with planar structures, whereas organic cation transporters (OCTs) interact with more three-dimensional structures (i.e., greater SP3 character). Moreover, compared with OAT1 ligands, OAT3 ligands possess more acyclic tetravalent bonds and have a more zwitterionic/cationic character. In contrast, OCT1 and OCT2 ligands were not clearly distinquishable form one another by the methods employed. Multiple pharmacophore models were generated on the basis of the drugs and, consistent with the machine-learning analyses, one unique pharmacophore created from ligands of OAT3 possessed cationic properties similar to OCT ligands; this was confirmed by quantitative atomic property field analysis. Virtual screening with this pharmacophore, followed by transport assays, identified several cationic drugs that selectively interact with OAT3 but not OAT1. Although the present analysis may be somewhat limited by the need to rely largely on inhibition data for modeling, wet laboratory/in vitro transport studies, as well as analysis of drug/metabolite handling in Oat and Oct knockout animals, support the general validity of the approach-which can also be applied to other SLC and ATP binding cassette drug transporters. This may make it possible to predict the molecular properties of a drug or metabolite necessary for interaction with the transporter(s), thereby enabling better prediction of drug-drug interactions and drug-metabolite interactions. Furthermore, understanding the overlapping specificities of OATs and OCTs in the context of dynamic transporter tissue

  13. Anion induced conformational preference of Cα NN motif residues in functional proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Piya; Ghosh, Mahua; Banerjee, Raja; Chakrabarti, Jaydeb

    2017-12-01

    Among different ligand binding motifs, anion binding C α NN motif consisting of peptide backbone atoms of three consecutive residues are observed to be important for recognition of free anions, like sulphate or biphosphate and participate in different key functions. Here we study the interaction of sulphate and biphosphate with C α NN motif present in different proteins. Instead of total protein, a peptide fragment has been studied keeping C α NN motif flanked in between other residues. We use classical force field based molecular dynamics simulations to understand the stability of this motif. Our data indicate fluctuations in conformational preferences of the motif residues in absence of the anion. The anion gives stability to one of these conformations. However, the anion induced conformational preferences are highly sequence dependent and specific to the type of anion. In particular, the polar residues are more favourable compared to the other residues for recognising the anion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. REACTIVITY OF ANIONS IN INTERSTELLAR MEDIA: DETECTABILITY AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senent, M. L. [Departamento de Quimica y Fisica Teoricas, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Hochlaf, M., E-mail: senent@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, Universite Paris-Est, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France)

    2013-05-01

    We propose a general rule to distinguish between detectable and undetectable astronomical anions. We believe that only few anions live long enough in the interstellar medium and thus can be detected. Our method is based on quantum mechanical calculations capable of describing accurately the evolution of electronic states during chemical processes. The still not fully understood reactivity at low temperatures is discussed considering non-adiabatic effects. The role of excited states has usually been neglected in previous works which basically focused on the ground electronic state for interpretations of experimental observations. Here, we deal with unsaturated carbon chains (e.g., C{sub n} H{sup -}), which show a high density of electronic states close to their corresponding ground electronic states, complex molecular dynamics, and non-adiabatic phenomena. Our general rule shows that it is not sufficient that anions exist in the gas phase (in the laboratory) to be present in media such as astrophysical media, since formation and decomposition reactions of these anions may allow the population of anionic electronic states to autodetach, forming neutrals. For C{sub n} H, reactivity depends strongly on n, where long and short chains behave differently. Formation of linear chains is relevant.

  15. A colorimetric tetrathiafulvalene-calix 4 pyrrole anion sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction and colorimetric sensing properties of a tetrathiafulvalene substituted calix[4]pyrrole sensor with anions were investigated using H-1 NMR and absorption spectroscopic techniques. Visual color changes were observed upon addition of different anions (Cl-, Br-, CN-, and Ac......O-) to a solution of the sensor. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. A New Noncanonical Anionic Peptide That Translocates a Cellular Blood–Brain Barrier Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Neves-Coelho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to transport therapeutic molecules across the blood–brain barrier (BBB represents a breakthrough in the development of tools for the treatment of many central nervous system (CNS-associated diseases. The BBB, while being protective against infectious agents, hinders the brain uptake of many drugs. Hence, finding safe shuttles able to overcome the BBB is of utmost importance. Herein, we identify a new BBB-translocating peptide with unique properties. For years it was thought that cationic sequences were mandatory for a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP to achieve cellular internalization. Despite being anionic at physiological pH, PepNeg (sequence (SGTQEEY is an efficient BBB translocator that is able to carry a large cargo (27 kDa, while maintaining BBB integrity. In addition, PepNeg is able to use two distinct methods of translocation, energy-dependent and -independent, suggesting that direct penetration might occur when low concentrations of peptide are presented to cells. The discovery of this new anionic trans-BBB peptide allows the development of new delivery systems to the CNS and contributes to the need to rethink the role of electrostatic attraction in BBB-translocation.

  17. Structure of Bor1 supports an elevator transport mechanism for SLC4 anion exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurtle-Schmidt, Bryan H; Stroud, Robert M

    2016-09-20

    Boron is essential for plant growth because of its incorporation into plant cell walls; however, in excess it is toxic to plants. Boron transport and homeostasis in plants is regulated in part by the borate efflux transporter Bor1, a member of the solute carrier (SLC) 4 transporter family with homology to the human bicarbonate transporter Band 3. Here, we present the 4.1-Å resolution crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana Bor1. The structure displays a dimeric architecture in which dimerization is mediated by centralized Gate domains. Comparisons with a structure of Band 3 in an outward-open state reveal that the Core domains of Bor1 have rotated inwards to achieve an occluded state. Further structural comparisons with UapA, a xanthine transporter from the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter family, show that the downward pivoting of the Core domains relative to the Gate domains may access an inward-open state. These results suggest that the SLC4, SLC26, and nucleobase-ascorbate transporter families all share an elevator transport mechanism in which alternating access is provided by Core domains that carry substrates across a membrane.

  18. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. Given the important role of SLC proteins in maintaining normal functions of digestive system, dysregulation of these protein in digestive system neoplasms may deliver biological and clinical significance that deserves systemic studies. In this review, we critically summarized the recent advances in understanding the role of SLC proteins in digestive system neoplasms. We highlighted that several SLC subfamilies, including metal ion transporters, transporters of glucose and other sugars, transporters of urea, neurotransmitters and biogenic amines, ammonium and choline, inorganic cation/anion transporters, transporters of nucleotide, amino acid and oligopeptide organic anion transporters, transporters of vitamins and cofactors and mitochondrial carrier, may play important roles in mediating the initiation, progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance of digestive system neoplasms. Proteins in these SLC subfamilies may also have diagnostic and prognostic values to particular cancer types. Differential expression of SLC proteins in tumors of digestive system was analyzed by extracting data from human cancer database, which revealed that the roles of SLC proteins may either be dependent on the substrates they transport or be tissue specific. In addition, small molecule modulators that pharmacologically regulate the functions of SLC proteins were discussed for their possible application in the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. This review highlighted the potential of SLC family proteins as drug target for the treatment of digestive system neoplasms.

  19. High Vacuum Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2015-09-01

    Anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are the most suitable for the preparation of polymer samples with well-defined complex macromolecular architectures. Though HVTs require glassblowing skill for designing and making polymerization reactor, it is the best way to avoid any termination of living polymers during the number of steps for the synthesis of polymers with complex structure. In this chapter, we describe the different polymerization reactors and HVTs for the purification of monomers, solvents, and other reagents for anionic polymerization as well as few model reactions for the synthesis of polymers with simple to complex structure.

  20. Interactions of [14C]phosphonoformic acid with renal cortical brush-border membranes. Relationship to the Na+-phosphate co-transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepanska-Konkel, M.; Yusufi, A.N.; Dousa, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since phosphonoformic acid (PFA) acts as a specific competitive inhibitor of Na+-Pi co-transport across renal brush-border membrane (BBM), we employed the [ 14 C]PFA as a probe to determine the mechanism of its interaction with rat renal BBM. The binding of [ 14 C]PFA to BBM vesicles (BBMV), with Na+ present in extravesicular medium (Na+o), was time- and temperature-dependent. The replacement of Na+o with other monovalent cations reduced the PFA binding by -80%. Cl- was the most effective accompanying monovalent anion as NaCl for maximum PFA binding. The Na+o increased the apparent affinity of BBMV for [ 14 C]PFA binding, but it did not change the maximum binding capacity. The maximum [ 14 C]PFA binding was achieved at Na+o approximately equal to 50 mM. The extent of Na+-dependent [ 14 C]PFA binding correlated with percent inhibition by an equimolar dose of PFA of the dependent BBMV uptake of 32Pi. Intravesicular Na+ (Na+i) decreased [ 14 C]PFA binding, on BBMV, and this inhibition by Na+i was dependent on the presence of Na+o. The increase in Na+i, at constant [Na+]o, decreased the Vmax, but not the Km, for [ 14 C]PFA binding on BBMV. Bound [ 14 C]PFA was displaced from BBMV by phosphonocarboxylic acids proportionally to their ability to inhibit gradient-dependent Pi transport, whereas other monophosphonates, diphosphonates, L-proline, or D-glucose did not influence the [ 14 C]PFA binding. The Na+-dependent binding of [ 14 C]PFA and of [ 3 H]phlorizin by BBMV was 10 times higher than binding of these ligands to renal basolateral membranes and to mitochondria. [ 14 C]PFA probably binds onto the same locus on the luminal surface of BBM, where Pi and Na+ form a ternary complex with the Na+-Pi co-transporter

  1. Light-induced modification of plant plasma membrane ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, I; Deeken, R; Hedrich, R; Roelfsema, M R G

    2010-09-01

    Light is not only the driving force for electron and ion transport in the thylakoid membrane, but also regulates ion transport in various other membranes of plant cells. Light-dependent changes in ion transport at the plasma membrane and associated membrane potential changes have been studied intensively over the last century. These studies, with various species and cell types, revealed that apart from regulation by chloroplasts, plasma membrane transport can be controlled by phytochromes, phototropins or channel rhodopsins. In this review, we compare light-dependent plasma membrane responses of unicellular algae (Eremosphaera and Chlamydomonas), with those of a multicellular alga (Chara), liverworts (Conocephalum), mosses (Physcomitrella) and several angiosperm cell types. Light-dependent plasma membrane responses of Eremosphaera and Chara are characterised by the dominant role of K(+) channels during membrane potential changes. In most other species, the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of plasma membrane anion channels represents a general light-triggered event. Cell type-specific responses are likely to have evolved by modification of this general response or through the development of additional light-dependent signalling pathways. Future research to elucidate these light-activated signalling chains is likely to benefit from the recent identification of S-type anion channel genes and proteins capable of regulating these channels.

  2. Gadoxetate-enhanced MR imaging and compartmental modelling to assess hepatocyte bidirectional transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudeau, Celine; Leporq, Benjamin; Doblas, Sabrina [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Hopital Beaujon, Laboratory of Imaging Biomarkers, UMR1149 Inserm, Clichy (France); Lagadec, Matthieu; Daire, Jean-Luc; Van Beers, Bernard E. [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Hopital Beaujon, Laboratory of Imaging Biomarkers, UMR1149 Inserm, Clichy (France); Beaujon University Hospital Paris Nord, Department of Radiology, Clichy (France); Pastor, Catherine M. [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Hopital Beaujon, Laboratory of Imaging Biomarkers, UMR1149 Inserm, Clichy (France); Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Departement d' Imagerie et des Sciences de l' Information Medicale, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-05-15

    Changes in the expression of hepatocyte membrane transporters in advanced fibrosis decrease the hepatic transport function of organic anions. The aim of our study was to assess if these changes can be evaluated with pharmacokinetic analysis of the hepatobiliary transport of the MR contrast agent gadoxetate. Dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MRI was performed in 17 rats with advanced fibrosis and 8 normal rats. After deconvolution, hepatocyte three-compartmental analysis was performed to calculate the hepatocyte influx, biliary efflux and sinusoidal backflux rates. The expression of Oatp1a1, Mrp2 and Mrp3 organic anion membrane transporters was assessed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In the rats with advanced fibrosis, the influx and efflux rates of gadoxetate decreased and the backflux rate increased significantly (p = 0.003, 0.041 and 0.010, respectively). Significant correlations were found between influx and Oatp1a1 expression (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), biliary efflux and Mrp2 (r = 0.50, p = 0.016) and sinusoidal backflux and Mrp3 (r = 0.61, p = 0.002). These results show that changes in the bidirectional organic anion hepatocyte transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis can be assessed with compartmental analysis of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI. (orig.)

  3. Gadoxetate-enhanced MR imaging and compartmental modelling to assess hepatocyte bidirectional transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudeau, Celine; Leporq, Benjamin; Doblas, Sabrina; Lagadec, Matthieu; Daire, Jean-Luc; Van Beers, Bernard E.; Pastor, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the expression of hepatocyte membrane transporters in advanced fibrosis decrease the hepatic transport function of organic anions. The aim of our study was to assess if these changes can be evaluated with pharmacokinetic analysis of the hepatobiliary transport of the MR contrast agent gadoxetate. Dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MRI was performed in 17 rats with advanced fibrosis and 8 normal rats. After deconvolution, hepatocyte three-compartmental analysis was performed to calculate the hepatocyte influx, biliary efflux and sinusoidal backflux rates. The expression of Oatp1a1, Mrp2 and Mrp3 organic anion membrane transporters was assessed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In the rats with advanced fibrosis, the influx and efflux rates of gadoxetate decreased and the backflux rate increased significantly (p = 0.003, 0.041 and 0.010, respectively). Significant correlations were found between influx and Oatp1a1 expression (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), biliary efflux and Mrp2 (r = 0.50, p = 0.016) and sinusoidal backflux and Mrp3 (r = 0.61, p = 0.002). These results show that changes in the bidirectional organic anion hepatocyte transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis can be assessed with compartmental analysis of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI. (orig.)

  4. Quantitative analysis of elevation of serum creatinine via renal transporter inhibition by trimethoprim in healthy subjects using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Tomohisa; Kudo, Toshiyuki; Kume, Toshiyuki; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kiyomi

    2018-02-01

    Serum creatinine (SCr) levels rise during trimethoprim therapy for infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether the elevation of SCr can be quantitatively explained using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating inhibition by trimethoprim on tubular secretion of creatinine via renal transporters such as organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), OCT3, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1), and MATE2-K. Firstly, pharmacokinetic parameters in the PBPK model of trimethoprim were determined to reproduce the blood concentration profile after a single intravenous and oral administration of trimethoprim in healthy subjects. The model was verified with datasets of both cumulative urinary excretions after a single administration and the blood concentration profile after repeated oral administration. The pharmacokinetic model of creatinine consisted of the creatinine synthesis rate, distribution volume, and creatinine clearance (CL cre ), including tubular secretion via each transporter. When combining the models for trimethoprim and creatinine, the predicted increments in SCr from baseline were 29.0%, 39.5%, and 25.8% at trimethoprim dosages of 5 mg/kg (b.i.d.), 5 mg/kg (q.i.d.), and 200 mg (b.i.d.), respectively, which were comparable with the observed values. The present model analysis enabled us to quantitatively explain increments in SCr during trimethoprim treatment by its inhibition of renal transporters. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Derivatives of Dodecahalo-Closo-Dodecaborate Di-Anion

    OpenAIRE

    Avelar, Amy Cindy

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONDerivatives of the Dodecahalo-Closo-Dodecaborate Di-AnionbyAmy AvelarDoctor of Philosophy, Graduate Program in ChemistryUniversity of California, Riverside, December 2009Dr. Christopher A. Reed, ChairpersonThe di-anion, dodecahalo-closo-dodecaborate, B12X122-, where the X = Cl or Br, has been determined to be a useful weakly coordinating anion, WCA. Despite the di- negative charge, several elusive and reactive cationic species were stabilized with B12X122- as the c...

  6. Exclusion of mRNPs and ribosomal particles from a thin zone beneath the nuclear envelope revealed upon inhibition of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kylberg, Karin; Bjoerk, Petra; Fomproix, Nathalie; Ivarsson, Birgitta; Wieslander, Lars; Daneholt, Bertil

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the nucleocytoplasmic transport of a specific messenger RNP (mRNP) particle, named Balbiani ring (BR) granule, and ribosomal RNP (rRNP) particles in the salivary glands of the dipteran Chironomus tentans. The passage of the RNPs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) was inhibited with the nucleoporin-binding wheat germ agglutinin, and the effects were examined by electron microscopy. BR mRNPs bound to the nuclear basket increased in number, while BR mRNPs translocating through the central channel decreased, suggesting that the initiation of translocation proper had been inhibited. The rRNPs accumulated heavily in nucleoplasm, while no or very few rRNPs were recorded within nuclear baskets. Thus, the transport of rRNPs had been blocked prior to the entry into the baskets. Remarkably, the rRNPs had been excluded both from baskets and the space in between the baskets. We propose that normally basket fibrils move freely and repel RNPs from the exclusion zone unless the particles have affinity for and bind to nucleoporins within the baskets.

  7. Inhibition of macrophage oxidative stress prevents the reduction of ABCA-1 transporter induced by advanced glycated albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pinto, Raphael; Castilho, Gabriela; Paim, Bruno Alves; Machado-Lima, Adriana; Inada, Natalia M; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Vercesi, Aníbal Eugênio; Passarelli, Marisa

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the role of aminoguanidine and benfotiamine on the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in macrophages induced by advanced glycated albumin (AGE-albumin) and its relationship with cell cholesterol homeostasis, emphasizing the expression of the ATP binding cassette transporter A-1 (ABCA-1). AGE-albumin was made by incubating fatty acid-free albumin with 10 mM glycolaldehyde. ROS production and ABCA-1 protein level were determined by flow cytometry in J774 macrophages treated along time with control (C) or AGE-albumin alone or in the presence of aminoguanidine or benfotiamine. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by oxygraphy. Compared to C-albumin, AGE-albumin increased ROS production in macrophages, which was ascribed to the activities of NADPH oxidase and of the mitochondrial system. Mitochondrial respiratory chain activity was reduced in cells incubated with AGE-albumin. ROS generation along time was associated with the reduction in macrophage ABCA-1 protein level. Aminoguanidine prevented ROS elevation and restored the ABCA-1 content in macrophages; on the other hand, benfotiamine that promoted a lesser reduction in ROS generation was not able to restore ABCA-1 levels. Inhibition of oxidative stress induced by AGE-albumin prevents disturbances in reverse cholesterol transport by curbing the reduction of ABCA-1 elicited by advanced glycation in macrophages and therefore may contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus.

  8. Determination of Anionic Detergent Concentration of Karasu Stream in Sinop (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Gündoğdu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was achieved between May 2014 and April 2015 at the Karasu Creek located in the province of Sinop. It was conducted to determine anionic detergent pollution and some physicochemical properties (pH, temperature, conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, chemical oxygen demand, phosphate PO4-3, total nitrogen. The anionic detergent concentration of the stations was determined on a monthly basis. Seasonally averaged values of the anionic detergent was measured as the highest value in the autumn season. The lowest values of anionic detergent were found in stations in winter and spring. The increase in the concentration of anionic detergent is caused by population growth in residential areas, increased agricultural activities and rains, and that chemicals move to riverbed from terrestrial areas with rain water.

  9. Expression and regulation of prostaglandin transporters, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 1 and 9, and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 and 5A1 in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanhee Jang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Prostaglandins (PGs function in various reproductive processes, including luteolysis, maternal pregnancy recognition, conceptus development, and parturition. Our earlier study has shown that PG transporters ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 4 (ABCC4 and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 (SLCO2A1 are expressed in the uterine endometrium in pigs. Since several other PG transporters such as ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 are known to be present in the uterine endometrium, this study investigated the expression of these PG transporters in the porcine uterine endometrium and placenta. Methods Uterine endometrial tissues were obtained from gilts on day (D 12 and D15 of the estrous cycle and days 12, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 114 of pregnancy. Results ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 mRNAs were expressed in the uterine endometrium, and levels of expression changed during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Expression of ABCC1 and ABCC9 mRNAs was localized mainly to luminal and glandular epithelial cells in the uterine endometrium, and chorionic epithelial cells during pregnancy. Conceptuses during early pregnancy and chorioallantoic tissues from mid to late pregnancy also expressed these PG transporters. Estradiol-17β increased the expression of ABCC1 and SLCO5A1, but not ABCC9 and SLCO4C1 mRNAs and increasing doses of interleukin-1β induced the expression of ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 mRNAs in endometrial explant tissues. Conclusion These data showed that several PG transporters such as ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 were expressed at the maternal-conceptus interface, suggesting that these PG transporters may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy by regulating PG transport in the uterine endometrium and placenta in pigs.

  10. Detection of cyanide anion by zinc porphyrin-spiropyran dyad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kho, Young Min; Hur, Dae Young; Shin, Eun Ju [Dept. of Chemistry, Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Versatile methods of the sensitive and selective detection for cyanide anion to monitor toxic cyanide have been developed. These include colorimetric, colorimetric, chromatographic, and electrochemical analyses. Among those methods for cyanide detection, optical methods based on absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are relatively simple, inexpensive, and sensitive. A number of organic sensors for cyanide anion have been designed and synthesized. Absorption and/or fluorescence spectra of these sensors are changed by forming coordination complex or bonding covalently with cyanide. Compared with other anions, cyanide anion has some characteristic properties, such as its strong nucleophilicity and high binding affinity toward metal ions, and is superior and useful for the development of the sensors. Both covalent bond-based sensors and coordination complex-based sensors have been developed for cyanide detection. The results indicate that ZnP-SP plays a role as a CN{sup -} selective, colorimetric sensor either without or with UV irradiation.

  11. Detection of cyanide anion by zinc porphyrin-spiropyran dyad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, Young Min; Hur, Dae Young; Shin, Eun Ju

    2016-01-01

    Versatile methods of the sensitive and selective detection for cyanide anion to monitor toxic cyanide have been developed. These include colorimetric, colorimetric, chromatographic, and electrochemical analyses. Among those methods for cyanide detection, optical methods based on absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are relatively simple, inexpensive, and sensitive. A number of organic sensors for cyanide anion have been designed and synthesized. Absorption and/or fluorescence spectra of these sensors are changed by forming coordination complex or bonding covalently with cyanide. Compared with other anions, cyanide anion has some characteristic properties, such as its strong nucleophilicity and high binding affinity toward metal ions, and is superior and useful for the development of the sensors. Both covalent bond-based sensors and coordination complex-based sensors have been developed for cyanide detection. The results indicate that ZnP-SP plays a role as a CN"- selective, colorimetric sensor either without or with UV irradiation

  12. Quantifying Ion Transport in Polymers Using Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutkenhaus, Jodie; Wang, Shaoyang

    For polymers in energy systems, one of the most common means of quantifying ion transport is that of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, in which an alternating electric field is applied and the resultant impedance response is recorded. While useful, this approach misses subtle details in transient film swelling, effects of hydration or solvent shells around the transporting ion, and changes in mechanical properties of the polymer. Here we present electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (EQCMD) monitoring as a means to quantify ion transport, dynamic swelling, and mechanical properties of polymers during electrochemical interrogation. We focus upon EQCMD characterization of the redox-active nitroxide radical polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) (PTMA). Upon oxidation, PTMA becomes positively charged, which requires the transport of a complementary anion into the polymer for electroneutrality. By EQCMD, we quantify anion transport and resultant swelling upon oxidation, as well as decoupling of contributions attributed to the ion and the solvent. We explore the effect of different lithium electrolyte salts in which each salt gives different charge storage and mass transport behavior. This is attributed to varied polymer-dopant and dopant-solvent interactions. The work was supported by the Grant DE-SC0014006 funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.

  13. A Cation-containing Polymer Anion Exchange Membrane based on Poly(norbornene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Frederick; Price, Samuel; Ren, Xiaoming; Savage, Alice

    Cation-containing polymers are being studied widely for use as anion exchange membranes (AEMs) in alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) because AEMs offer a number of potential benefits including allowing a solid state device and elimination of the carbonate poisoning problem. The successful AEM will combine high performance from several orthogonal properties, having robust mechanical strength even when wet, high hydroxide conductivity, and the high chemical stability required for long device lifetimes. In this study, we have synthesized a model cationic polymer that combines three of the key advantages of Nafion. The polymer backbone based on semicrystalline atactic poly(norbornene) offers good mechanical properties. A flexible, ether-based tether between the backbone and fixed cation charged species (quaternary ammonium) should provide the low-Tg, hydrophilic environment required to facilitate OH- transport. Finally, methyl groups have been added at the beta position relative to the quaternary ammonium cation to prevent Hoffman elimination, one mechanism by which AEMs are neutralized in a high pH environment. In this poster, we will present our findings on mechanical properties, morphology, charge transport, and chemical stability of this material.

  14. Enhanced Absorption and Growth Inhibition with Amino Acid Monoester Prodrugs of Floxuridine by Targeting hPEPT1 Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon L. Amidon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid monoester prodrugs of floxuridine was synthesized and evaluated for the improvement of oral bioavailability and the feasibility of target drug delivery via oligopeptide transporters. All floxuridine 5′-amino acid monoester prodrugs exhibited PEPT1 affinity, with inhibition coefficients of Gly-Sar uptake (IC50 ranging from 0.7 – 2.3 mM in Caco-2 and 2.0 – 4.8 mM in AsPC-1 cells, while that of floxuridine was 7.3 mM and 6.3 mM, respectively. Caco-2 membrane permeabilities of floxuridine prodrugs (1.01 – 5.31 x 10-6 cm/sec and floxuridine (0.48 x 10-6 cm/sec were much higher than that of 5-FU (0.038 x 10-6 cm/sec. MDCK cells stably transfected with the human oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (MDCK/hPEPT1 exhibited enhanced cell growth inhibition in the presence of the prodrugs. This prodrug strategy offers great potential, not only for increased drug absorption but also for improved tumor selectivity and drug efficacy.

  15. Kinetics of the inhibition of cotton seeds germination by lucerne saponins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaim, U.; Birk, Y.; Dovrat, A.; Berman, T.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of inhibition of cotton-seed germination by lucerne saponins depends upon the period of pre-immersion in the saponin solution prior to germination. After 5 hr of pre-immersion in a 0.5% lucerne saponin solution, a 40% drop in germination was noted. The respiration rate decreased after 3hr of pre-immersion. The diffusion of oxygen through the membranes of seeds pre-immersed in saponins also decreased with an increasing pre-immersion time. Inhibition of germination was irreversible after pre-immersion in saponins for 6 hr or more. The effect of saponins does not appear to be biochemically specific because the germination and respiration rates of the cotton seeds which were immersed in aqueous solutions of anionic, nonionic or cationic commercial surfactants were similarly inhibited. (auth.)

  16. AT base pair anions versus (9-methyl-A)(1-methyl-T) base pair anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Dunja; Bowen, Kit H; Dabkowska, Iwona; Storoniak, Piotr; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej

    2005-05-04

    The anionic base pairs of adenine and thymine, (AT)(-), and 9-methyladenine and 1-methylthymine, (MAMT)(-), have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally in a complementary, synergistic study. Calculations on (AT)(-) found that it had undergone a barrier-free proton transfer (BFPT) similar to that seen in other dimer anion systems and that its structural configuration was neither Watson-Crick (WC) nor Hoogsteen (HS). The vertical detachment energy (VDE) of (AT)(-) was determined by anion photoelectron spectroscopy and found to be in agreement with the VDE value predicted by theory for the BFPT mechanism. An AT pair in DNA is structurally immobilized into the WC configuration, in part, by being bonded to the sugars of the double helix. This circumstance was mimicked by methylating the sites on both A and T where these sugars would have been tied, viz., 9-methyladenine and 1-methylthymine. Calculations found no BFPT in (MAMT)(-) and a resulting (MAMT)(-) configuration that was either HS or WC, with the configurations differing in stability by ca. 2 kcal/mol. The photoelectron spectrum of (MAMT)(-) occurred at a completely different electron binding energy than had (AT)(-). Moreover, the VDE value of (MAMT)(-) was in agreement with that predicted by theory. The configuration of (MAMT)(-) and its lack of electron-induced proton transfer are inter-related. While there may be other pathways for electron-induced DNA alterations, BFPT in the WC/HS configurations of (AT)(-) is not feasible.

  17. AT Base Pair Anions vs. (9-methyl-A)(1-methyl-T) Base Pair Anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisic, Dunja; Bowen, Kit H.; Dabkowska, Iwona; Storoniak, Piotr; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej S.

    2005-01-01

    The anionic base pairs of adenine and thymine, (AT)-, and 9-methyladenine and 1-methylthymine, (MAMT)-, have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally in a complementary, synergistic study. Calculations on (AT)- found that it had undergone a barrier-free proton transfer (BFPT) similar to that seen in other dimer anion systems and that its structural configuration that was neither Watson-Crick (WC) nor Hoogsteen (HS). The vertical detachment energy (VDE) of (AT)- was determined by anion photoelectron spectroscopy and found to be in agreement with the VDE value predicted by theory for the BFPT mechanism. An AT pair in DNA is structurally immobilized into the WC configuration, in part, by being bonded to the sugars of the double helix. This circumstance was mimicked by methylating the sites on both A and T where these sugars would have been tied, viz., 9-methyladenine and 1-methylthymine. Calculations found no BFPT in (MAMT)- and a resulting (MAMT)- configuration that wa s either HS or WC, with the configurations differing in stability by ca. 2 kcal/mol. The photoelectron spectrum of (MAMT)- occurred at a completely different electron binding energy than had (AT)-. Moreover, the VDE value of (MAMT)- was in agreement with that predicted by theory. The configuration of (MAMT)- and its lack of electron-induced proton transfer are inter-related. While there may be other pathways for electron-induced damage, BFPT in the WC/HS configurations of (AT)- is not feasible

  18. Inhibition of the MRP1-mediated transport of the menadione-glutathione conjugate (thiodione) in HeLa cells as studied by SECM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koley, Dipankar; Bard, Allen J

    2012-07-17

    Oxidative stress induced in live HeLa cells by menadione (2-methyl-1,4-napthaquinone) was studied in real time by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The hydrophobic molecule menadione diffuses through a living cell membrane where it is toxic to the cell. However, in the cell it is conjugated with glutathione to form thiodione. Thiodione is then recognized and transported across the cell membrane via the ATP-driven MRP1 pump. In the extracellular environment, thiodione was detected by the SECM tip at levels of 140, 70, and 35 µM upon exposure of the cells to menadione concentrations of 500, 250, and 125 µM, respectively. With the aid of finite element modeling, the kinetics of thiodione transport was determined to be 1.6 10(-7) m/s, about 10 times faster than menadione uptake. Selective inhibition of these MRP1 pumps inside live HeLa cells by MK571 produced a lower thiodione concentration of 50 µM in presence of 500 µM menadione and 50 µM MK571. A similar reduced (50% drop) thiodione efflux was observed in the presence of monoclonal antibody QCRL-4, a selective blocking agent of the MRP1 pumps. The reduced thiodione flux confirmed that thiodione was transported by MRP1, and that glutathione is an essential substrate for MRP1-mediated transport. This finding demonstrates the usefulness of SECM in quantitative studies of MRP1 inhibitors and suggests that monoclonal antibodies can be a useful tool in inhibiting the transport of these MDR pumps, and thereby aiding in overcoming multidrug resistance.

  19. PEGylated carboxymethyl chitosan/calcium phosphate hybrid anionic nanoparticles mediated hTERT siRNA delivery for anticancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Qiao, Hongzhi; Su, Zhigui; Chen, Minglei; Ping, Qineng; Sun, Minjie

    2014-09-01

    Lack of safe and effective delivery vehicle is the main obstacle for siRNA mediated cancer therapy. In this study, we synthesized a pH-sensitive polymer of PEG grafted carboxymethyl chitosan (PEG-CMCS) and developed anionic-charged hybrid nanoparticles of PEG-CMCS and calcium phosphate (CaP) for siRNA delivery through a single-step self-assembly method in aqueous condition. The formed nanoparticles with charge of around -8.25 mv and average diameter of 102.1 nm exhibited efficient siRNA encapsulation and enhanced colloidal and serum stability. The test in vitro indicated that the nanoparticles entered into HepG2 cells by endocytosis, and achieved endosomal escape of siRNA effectively due to the pH-responsive disassembly of nanoparticles and dissolution of CaP in the endosome. Reporter gene silencing assay showed that luciferase siRNA delivered by the anionic nanoparticles could achieve gene silencing efficacy comparable to that of conventional Lipofectamine 2000. Additionally, dramatic hTERT knockdown mediated by the anionic nanoparticles transfection induced significant apoptosis of HepG2 cells in vitro. After intravenous injection in tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice, the nanoparticles specifically accumulated into tumor regions by EPR effect, leading to efficient and specific gene silencing sequentially. Most importantly, the nanoparticles carrying hTERT siRNA inhibited tumor growth significantly via silencing hTERT expression and inducing cells apoptosis in HepG2 tumor xenograft. Moreover, comprehensive safety studies of the nanoparticles confirmed their superior safety both in vitro and in vivo. We concluded that the PEG-CMCS/CaP hybrid anionic nanoparticles possessed potential as a safe and effective siRNA delivery system for anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of inorganic anions by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakayanagi, Masataka; Yamada, Yaeko; Sakabe, Chikako; Watanabe, Kunio; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2006-03-10

    Inorganic anions were identified by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Derivatization of the anions was achieved with pentafluorobenzyl p-toluenesulphonate (PFB-Tos) as the reaction reagent and a crown ether as a phase transfer catalyst. When PFB-Br was used as the reaction reagent, the retention time of it was close to those of the derivatized inorganic anions and interfered with the analysis. In contrast, the retention time of PFB-Tos differed greatly from the PFB derivatives of the inorganic anions and the compounds of interest could be detected without interference. Although the PFB derivatives of SO4, S2O3, CO3, ClO4, and ClO3 could not be detected, the derivatives of F, Cl, Br, I, CN, OCN, SCN, N3, NO3, and NO2 were detected using PFB-Tos as the derivatizing reagent. The inorganic anions were detectable within 30 ng approximately, which is of sufficient sensitivity for use in forensic chemistry. Accurate mass number was measured for each PFB derivative by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) within a measurement error of 2 millimass units (mmu), which allowed determination of the compositional formula from the mass number. In addition, actual analysis was performed successively by our method using trial samples of matrix.

  1. TRANSPORT OF THIOL-CONJUGATES OF INORGANIC MERCURY IN HUMAN RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Battle, Jamie R.; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic mercury (Hg2+) is a prevalent environmental contaminant to which exposure to can damage rod photoreceptor cells and compromise scotopic vision. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) likely plays a role in the ocular toxicity associated with Hg2+ exposure in that it mediates transport of substances to the photoreceptor cells. In order for Hg2+ to access photoreceptor cells, it must be first be taken up by the RPE, possibly by mechanisms involving transporters of essential nutrients. In other epithelia, Hg2+, when conjugated to cysteine (Cys) or homocysteine (Hcy), gains access to the intracellular compartment of the target cells via amino acid and organic anion transporters. Accordingly, the purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that Cys and Hcy S-conjugates of Hg2+ utilize amino acid transporters to gain access into RPE cells. Time- and temperature-dependence, saturation kinetics, and substrate-specificity of the transport of Hg2+, was assessed in ARPE-19 cells exposed to the following S-conjugates of Hg2+: Cys (Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys), Hcy (Hcy-S-Hg-S-Hcy), N-acetylcysteine (NAC-S-Hg-S-NAC) or glutathione (GSH-S-Hg-S-GSH). We discovered that only Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys and Hcy-S-Hg-S-Hcy were taken up by these cells. This transport was Na+-dependent and was inhibited by neutral and cationic amino acids. RT-PCR analyses identified systems B0,+ and ASC in ARPE-19 cells. Overall, our data suggest that Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys and Hcy-S-Hg-S-Hcy are taken up into ARPE-19 cells by Na-dependent amino acid transporters, possibly systems B0,+ and ASC. These amino acid transporters may play a role in the retinal toxicity observed following exposure to mercury. PMID:17467761

  2. Transport of thiol-conjugates of inorganic mercury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Battle, Jamie R.; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) is a prevalent environmental contaminant to which exposure to can damage rod photoreceptor cells and compromise scotopic vision. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) likely plays a role in the ocular toxicity associated with Hg 2+ exposure in that it mediates transport of substances to the photoreceptor cells. In order for Hg 2+ to access photoreceptor cells, it must first be taken up by the RPE, possibly by mechanisms involving transporters of essential nutrients. In other epithelia, Hg 2+ , when conjugated to cysteine (Cys) or homocysteine (Hcy), gains access to the intracellular compartment of the target cells via amino acid and organic anion transporters. Accordingly, the purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that Cys and Hcy S-conjugates of Hg 2+ utilize amino acid transporters to gain access into RPE cells. Time- and temperature-dependence, saturation kinetics, and substrate-specificity of the transport of Hg 2+ , was assessed in ARPE-19 cells exposed to the following S-conjugates of Hg 2+ : Cys (Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys), Hcy (Hcy-S-Hg-S-Hcy), N-acetylcysteine (NAC-S-Hg-S-NAC) or glutathione (GSH-S-Hg-S-GSH). We discovered that only Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys and Hcy-S-Hg-S-Hcy were taken up by these cells. This transport was Na + -dependent and was inhibited by neutral and cationic amino acids. RT-PCR analyses identified systems B 0,+ and ASC in ARPE-19 cells. Overall, our data suggest that Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys and Hcy-S-Hg-S-Hcy are taken up into ARPE-19 cells by Na-dependent amino acid transporters, possibly systems B 0,+ and ASC. These amino acid transporters may play a role in the retinal toxicity observed following exposure to mercury

  3. Toxicity of Xanthene Food Dyes by Inhibition of Human Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in a Noncompetitive Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC50 values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC50 values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of 1O2 originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by 1O2 quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin. PMID:20041016

  4. Changes in plasma osmolality and anion gap: potential predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in plasma osmolality and anion gap: potential predictors of ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Objective: To determine the relationship of mortality to plasma osmolality and anion gap inpatients on haemodialysis.

  5. Layered rare-earth hydroxide nanocones with facile host composition modification and anion-exchange feature: topotactic transformation into oxide nanocones for upconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yishun; Chen, Gen; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Ning; Li, Junhui; Liang, Shuquan; Ma, Renzhi; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2017-06-22

    Conical structures with hollow interiors, namely, nanocones (NCs), may exhibit better carrier transport properties than nanorods or nanotubes, which make them promising candidates for potential applications in optical/display devices, electronics and optoelectronics. Generally, conical structures belong to a metastable state between lamellar and tubular forms due to the extreme curvature causing the increase of internal strain energy. Therefore, it is very difficult to prepare NCs in high yield and purity under mild conditions. Here we firstly demonstrate a general strategy for the synthesis of layered rare-earth hydroxide (LRH) NCs intercalating dodecyl sulfate anions (C 12 H 25 SO 4 - , DS - ) using hexamethylenetetramine (C 6 H 12 N 4 , HMT) hydrolysis. The rare-earth cations (RE 3+ ) in the host layer can be conveniently modified and/or doped, resulting in a large family of monometallic (Y, Tb, Er), bi- (Y-Tb, Y-Er) and even tri-metallic (Y-Yb-Er) LRH NCs with adjustable ratios. Moreover, the DS - -intercalated LRH NCs can be readily modified with various inorganic or organic anions (e.g., NO 3 - , Cl - , and CH 3 COO - , etc.) through a conventional anion-exchange procedure, and the original conical morphology can be perfectly maintained. The anion-exchanged product, for example, NO 3 - -intercalated NCs, can be more easily and topotactically transformed into oxide NCs than the original DS - -intercalated form, exempt from the formation of rare-earth oxysulfates induced by the combustion of interlayer DS anions. Taking advantage of this protocol, tri-metallic (Y-Yb-Er) LRH NCs were anion-exchanged into the NO 3 - -intercalated form and subsequently calcined into Y 2 O 3 :Yb,Er oxide NCs, which showed efficient upconversion photoluminescence properties. The current strategy may become a general method for the designed synthesis of other related hydroxide and oxide NCs for a wide range of potential applications.

  6. Schlenk Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Zhao, Junpeng; Zhang, Hefeng; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polymerization-high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are doubtlessly the most prominent and reliable experimental tools to prepare polymer samples with well-defined and, in many cases, complex macromolecular architectures. Due to the high demands

  7. A Simple Halide-to-Anion Exchange Method for Heteroaromatic Salts and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Mesquida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A broad and simple method permitted halide ions in quaternary heteroaromatic and ammonium salts to be exchanged for a variety of anions using an anion exchange resin (A− form in non-aqueous media. The anion loading of the AER (OH− form was examined using two different anion sources, acids or ammonium salts, and changing the polarity of the solvents. The AER (A− form method in organic solvents was then applied to several quaternary heteroaromatic salts and ILs, and the anion exchange proceeded in excellent to quantitative yields, concomitantly removing halide impurities. Relying on the hydrophobicity of the targeted ion pair for the counteranion swap, organic solvents with variable polarity were used, such as CH3OH, CH3CN and the dipolar nonhydroxylic solvent mixture CH3CN:CH2Cl2 (3:7 and the anion exchange was equally successful with both lipophilic cations and anions.

  8. Capturing the effect of [PF3(C2F5)3]-vs. [PF6]-, flexible anion vs. rigid, and scaled charge vs. unit on the transport properties of [bmim]+-based ionic liquids: a comparative MD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowsari, Mohammad H; Ebrahimi, Soraya

    2018-05-16

    Comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the average single-particle dynamics and the transport properties of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [bmim][PF6], and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate, [bmim][FAP], ionic liquids (ILs) at 400 K. We applied one of the most widely used nonpolarizable all-atom force fields for ILs, both with the original unit (±1) charges on each ion and with the partial charges uniformly scaled to 80-85%, taking into account the average polarizability and tracing the experimentally compatible transport properties. In all simulations, [bmim]+ was considered to be flexible, while the effect of a flexible vs. rigid structure of the anions and the effect of two applied charge sets on the calculated properties were separately investigated in detail. The simulation results showed that replacing [PF6]- with [FAP]-, considering anion flexibility, and applying the charge-scaled model significantly enhanced the ionic self-diffusion, ionic conductivity, inverse viscosity, and hyper anion preference (HAP). Both of the calculated self-diffusion coefficients from the long-time linear slope of the mean-square displacement (MSD) and from the integration of the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) for the centers of mass of the ions were used for evaluation of the ionic transference number, HAP, ideal Nernst-Einstein ionic conductivity (σNE), and the Stokes-Einstein viscosity. In addition, for quantification of the degree of complicated ionic association (known as the Nernst-Einstein deviation parameter, Δ) and ionicity phenomena in the two studied ILs, the ionic conductivity was determined more rigorously by the Green-Kubo integral of the electric-current autocorrelation function (ECACF), and then the σGK/σNE ratio was evaluated. It was found that the correlated motion of the (cationanion) neighbors in [bmim][FAP] is smaller than in [bmim][PF6]. The relaxation times of

  9. Characterization of the anion sensitive ATPase in intact vacuoles of Kalanchoe diagremontiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobza, J.; Uribe, E.G.

    1986-04-01

    A method for the isolation of intact vacuoles from K. daigremontiana was developed which produced high yields of relatively pure vacuoles as determined by marker enzyme contamination. Upon isolation, the vacuoles were stabilized by the inclusion of 5% (w/v) ficoll. Enzyme activity was insensitive to vanadate and azide but was strongly inhibited by DCCD. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the inclusion of Mg/sup 2 +/ and was stimulated by anions as depicted by the series, NO/sub 3//sup -/ < Br/sup -/ < SO/sub 4//sup -/ < HCO/sub 3//sup -/ < Cl/sup -/. It was found that in intact vacuoles the ATPase activity was stimulated by phosphate to a level equivalent to that found with the chloride. The enzyme exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km for Mg-ATP complex of 0.51 mM.

  10. Sorption of Pu(IV) from nitric acid by bifunctional anion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, R.A.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Elshani, S.; Zhao, W.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Barr, M.E.; Marsh, S.F.; Chamberlin, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Anion exchange is attractive for separating plutonium because the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is very strongly sorbed and few other metal ions form competing anionic nitrate complexes. The major disadvantage of this process has been the unusually slow rate at which the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is sorbed by the resin. The paper summarizes the concept of bifunctional anion-exchange resins, proposed mechanism for Pu(IV) sorption, synthesis of the alkylating agent, calculation of K d values from Pu(IV) sorption results, and conclusions from the study of Pu(IV) sorption from 7M nitric acid by macroporous anion-exchange resins including level of crosslinking, level of alkylation, length of spacer, and bifunctional vs. monofunctional anion-exchange resins

  11. Fluid transport and ion fluxes in mammalian kidney proximal tubule: a model analysis of isotonic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E.H.; Møbjerg, N.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2006-01-01

    transport similar to rat proximal tubule. Na+ recirculation is required for truly isotonic transport. The tonicity of the absorbate and the recirculation flux depend critically on ion permeabilities of interspace basement membrane. Conclusion: Our model based on solute-solvent coupling in lateral space......Aim: By mathematical modelling, we analyse conditions for near-isotonic and isotonic transport by mammalian kidney proximal tubule. Methods: The model comprises compliant lateral intercellular space (lis) and cells, and infinitely large luminal and peritubular compartments with diffusible species......: Na+, K+, Cl and an intracellular non-diffusible anion. Unknown model variables are solute concentrations, electrical potentials, volumes and hydrostatic pressures in cell and lis, and transepithelial potential. We used data mainly from rat proximal tubule to model epithelial cells and interspace...

  12. Sorption of vanillin on highly basic anion exchanger under static conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholokhova, A. Yu.; Eliseeva, T. V.; Voronyuk, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The kinetics of the sorption of vanillin by a granulated anion exchanger is studied under static conditions. A comparison of the kinetic curves of the uptake of hydroxybenzaldehyde by gel and macroporous anion exchanger shows that macroporous sorbent has better kinetic characteristics. The effect temperature has on the capacity of an anion exchanger and the time needed to establish sorption equilibrium is found, and the activation energy of vanillin uptake is determined. Studying the effect experimental factors have on the rate of sorption and using the formal kinetics approach, it is established that in the investigated range of concentrations, the limiting stage of the uptake of vanillin by an anion exchanger with the functional groups of a quaternary ammonium base is that of external diffusion. Vanillin sorption by a highly basic anion exchanger in hydroxyl form is characterized by polymolecular uptake best described by a BET isotherm; at the same time, the uptake of sorbate by a chloride form is of a monomolecular character and can be described by a Freindlich isotherm. Structural changes in the anion exchanger sorbed hydroxybenzaldehyde are identified via FTIR spectroscopy.

  13. Cell wall bound anionic peroxidases from asparagus byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; López, Sergio; Vazquez-Castilla, Sara; Jimenez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocio; Guillen-Bejarano, Rafael

    2014-10-08

    Asparagus byproducts are a good source of cationic soluble peroxidases (CAP) useful for the bioremediation of phenol-contaminated wastewaters. In this study, cell wall bound peroxidases (POD) from the same byproducts have been purified and characterized. The covalent forms of POD represent >90% of the total cell wall bound POD. Isoelectric focusing showed that whereas the covalent fraction is constituted primarily by anionic isoenzymes, the ionic fraction is a mixture of anionic, neutral, and cationic isoenzymes. Covalently bound peroxidases were purified by means of ion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. In vitro detoxification studies showed that although CAP are more effective for the removal of 4-CP and 2,4-DCP, anionic asparagus peroxidase (AAP) is a better option for the removal of hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main phenol present in olive mill wastewaters.

  14. A series of structurally simple chloroquine chemosensitizing dibemethin derivatives that inhibit chloroquine transport by PfCRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zishiri, Vincent K; Hunter, Roger; Smith, Peter J; Taylor, Dale; Summers, Robert; Kirk, Kiaran; Martin, Rowena E; Egan, Timothy J

    2011-05-01

    A series of 12 new dibemethin (N-benzyl-N-methyl-1-phenylmethanamine) derivatives bearing an N-aminomethyl group attached to the one phenyl ring and an H, Cl, OCH3 or N(CH3)2 group on the other have been synthesized. These compounds all showed strong chloroquine chemosensitizing activity, comparable to verapamil, when present at 1 μM in an in vitro culture of the chloroquine-resistant W2 strain of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Their N-formylated derivatives also exhibited resistance-reversing activity, but only at substantially higher IC10 concentrations. A number of the dibemethin derivatives were shown to inhibit chloroquine transport via the parasite's 'chloroquine resistance transporter' (PfCRT) in a Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. The reduced resistance-reversing activity of the formylated compounds relative to their free amine counterparts can probably be ascribed to two factors: decreased accumulation of the formylated dibemethins within the parasite's internal digestive vacuole (believed to be the site of action of chloroquine), and a reduced ability to inhibit PfCRT. The resistance-reversing activity of the compounds described here demonstrates that the amino group need not be attached to the two aromatic rings via a three or four carbon chain as has been suggested by previous QSAR studies. These compounds may be useful as potential side chains for attaching to a 4,7-dichloroquinoline group in order to generate new resistance-reversing chloroquine analogues with inherent antimalarial activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt ferrocyanides loaded on organic anion exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valsala, T.P. [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India)], E-mail: tpvalsala@yahoo.co.in; Joseph, Annie [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Shah, J.G. [Back End Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Raj, Kanwar [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Venugopal, V. [Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Transition metal ferrocyanides have important applications in the selective removal of radioactive caesium from low level and intermediate level radioactive liquid waste streams. The microcrystalline nature of these materials renders them useless for application in column mode operations. Special preparation procedures have been developed to prepare granular solids by in situ precipitation of metal ferrocyanides on organic anion exchangers, which is suitable for column mode operations. The elemental compositions of the metal ferrocyanides precipitated inside the pores of anion exchanger were determined by analysing the dissolved samples using ICP-AES system and flame photometer. From the XRD and EDX analyses and the elemental composition of the synthesized materials, the nature of the compound formed inside the anion exchanger was found to be cobalt ferrocyanide. From SEM analysis of the samples, the particle size of the cobalt ferrocyanide precipitated inside the anion exchanger was found to be much less than that of cobalt ferrocyanide precipitated outside. The efficiency of these materials for removal of Cs was evaluated by measuring the distribution coefficient (Kd), ion exchange capacity and kinetics of Cs uptake. The Kd of the materials loaded on anion exchanger was found to be of the order of 10{sup 5} ml/g. The Cs uptake kinetics of the materials loaded on anion exchanger was slower than that of precipitated materials. The ion exchange capacity of the cobalt ferrocyanide loaded on anion exchanger was found to be much higher than that of the precipitated cobalt ferrocyanide.

  16. (100) faceted anion voids in electron irradiated fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1979-01-01

    High fluence electron irradiation of fluorite crystals in the temperature range 150 to 320 K results in formation of a simple cubic anion void superlattice. Above 320 K the damage structure changes to a random distribution of large [001] faceted anion voids. This voidage behaviour, similar to that observed in a range of irradiated metals, is discussed in terms points defect rather than conventional colour centre terminology. (Auth.)

  17. Transport Properties of the Organic Conductor (TMTSF)2BrO4: Evidence of Variable Range Hopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kell; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Bechgaard, Klaus

    1984-01-01

    A study of d.c. and microwave conductivity and thermoelectric power of the organic conductor (TMTSF)2BrO4 is presented. The transport properties are in qualitative agreement with charge transport via variable-range hopping among localized states. The localization is attributed to the anions, which...

  18. Evolution of Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel Function: From Molecular Sieve to Governator to Actuator of Ferroptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Lemasters

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC is well known as the pathway for passive diffusion of anionic hydrophilic mitochondrial metabolites across the outer membrane, but a more complex functionality of the three isoforms of VDAC has emerged, as addressed in the Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic on “Uncovering the Function of the Mitochondrial Protein VDAC in Health and Disease: from Structure-Function to Novel Therapeutic Strategies.” VDAC as the single most abundant protein in mitochondrial outer membranes is typically involved in isoform-specific interactions of the mitochondrion with its surroundings as, for example, during mitochondria-dependent pathways of cell death. VDAC closure can also act as an adjustable limiter (governator of global mitochondrial metabolism, as during hepatic ethanol metabolism to promote selective oxidation of membrane-permeant acetaldehyde. In cancer cells, high free tubulin inhibits VDAC1 and VDAC2, contributing to suppression of mitochondrial function in the Warburg phenomenon. Erastin, the canonical inducer of ferroptosis, opens VDAC in the presence of tubulin and hyperpolarizes mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death. Our understanding of VDAC function continues to evolve.

  19. Dibromine radical anion reactions with heme enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebicka, L.; Gebicki, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Reactions of Br 2 radical anion with heme enzymes, catalase horseradish peroxidase, have been studied by pulse radiolysis. It has been found that Br 2 - does not react with the heme centre of investigated enzymes. Dibromine radical anion reacts with tryptophan residues of catalase without any influence on the activity of catalase. It is suggested that in pulse radiolysis studies, where horseradish peroxidase is at about tenfold excess toward Br 2 - , the enzyme is modified rather by Br 2 , than by Br 2 - . (author). 26 refs., 3 figs

  20. Discovery and Validation of Pyridoxic Acid and Homovanillic Acid as Novel Endogenous Plasma Biomarkers of Organic Anion Transporter (OAT) 1 and OAT3 in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Nelson, David M; Oliveira, Regina V; Zhang, Yueping; Mcnaney, Colleen A; Gu, Xiaomei; Chen, Weiqi; Su, Ching; Reily, Michael D; Shipkova, Petia A; Gan, Jinping; Lai, Yurong; Marathe, Punit; Humphreys, W Griffith

    2018-02-01

    Perturbation of organic anion transporter (OAT) 1- and OAT3-mediated transport can alter the exposure, efficacy, and safety of drugs. Although there have been reports of the endogenous biomarkers for OAT1/3, none of these have all of the characteristics required for a clinical useful biomarker. Cynomolgus monkeys were treated with intravenous probenecid (PROB) at a dose of 40 mg/kg in this study. As expected, PROB increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of coadministered furosemide, a known substrate of OAT1 and OAT3, by 4.1-fold, consistent with the values reported in humans (3.1- to 3.7-fold). Of the 233 plasma metabolites analyzed using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based metabolomics method, 29 metabolites, including pyridoxic acid (PDA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), were significantly increased after either 1 or 3 hours in plasma from the monkeys pretreated with PROB compared with the treated animals. The plasma of animals was then subjected to targeted LC-MS/MS analysis, which confirmed that the PDA and HVA AUCs increased by approximately 2- to 3-fold by PROB pretreatments. PROB also increased the plasma concentrations of hexadecanedioic acid (HDA) and tetradecanedioic acid (TDA), although the increases were not statistically significant. Moreover, transporter profiling assessed using stable cell lines constitutively expressing transporters demonstrated that PDA and HVA are substrates for human OAT1, OAT3, OAT2 (HVA), and OAT4 (PDA), but not OCT2, MATE1, MATE2K, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide. Collectively, these findings suggest that PDA and HVA might serve as blood-based endogenous probes of cynomolgus monkey OAT1 and OAT3, and investigation of PDA and HVA as circulating endogenous biomarkers of human OAT1 and OAT3 function is warranted. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Nitrate Anion Exchange in Pu-238 Aqueous Scrap Recovery Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansoy-Hjelvik, M.E.; Silver, G.L.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    Strong base, nitrate anion exchange (IX) is crucial to the purification of 238 Pu solution feedstocks with gross levels of impurities. This paper discusses the work involved in bench scale experiments to optimize the nitrate anion exchange process. In particular, results are presented of experiments conducted to (a) demonstrate that high levels of impurities can be separated from 238 Pu solutions via nitrate anion exchange and, (b) work out chemical pretreatment methodology to adjust and maintain 238 Pu in the IV oxidation state to optimize the Pu(IV)-hexanitrato anionic complex sorption to Reillex-HPQ resin. Additional experiments performed to determine the best chemical treatment methodology to enhance recovery of sorbed Pu from the resin, and VIS-NIR absorption studies to determine the steady state equilibrium of Pu(IV), Pu(III), and Pu(VI) in nitric acid are discussed

  2. Simultaneous anionic and cationic redox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-12-01

    It is challenging to unlock anionic redox activity, accompanied by full utilization of available cationic redox process, to boost capacity of battery cathodes. Now, material design by tuning the metal-oxygen interaction is shown to be a promising solution.

  3. Migratory Insertion of Hydrogen Isocyanide in the Pentacyano(methyl)cobaltate(III) Anion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Pauli; Harris, Pernille Hanne; Larsen, Sine

    2003-01-01

    The preparation of the pentacyano(iminiumacetyl)cobaltate(III) anion and its N-methyl and N,N-dimethyl derivatives is reported. The iminiumacetyl group is formed by migratory insertion of cis hydrogen isocyanide in the pentacyano(methyl)cobaltate(III) anion. The new compounds have been spectrosco......The preparation of the pentacyano(iminiumacetyl)cobaltate(III) anion and its N-methyl and N,N-dimethyl derivatives is reported. The iminiumacetyl group is formed by migratory insertion of cis hydrogen isocyanide in the pentacyano(methyl)cobaltate(III) anion. The new compounds have been...

  4. Anionic solid lipid nanoparticles supported on protamine/DNA complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jiesheng; Liu Chunxi; Chen Zhijin; Zhang Na; Wang Aihua

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design novel anionic ternary nanoparticles for gene delivery. These ternary nanoparticles were equipped with protamine/DNA binary complexes (150-200 nm) as the support, and the anionic formation was achieved by absorption of anionic solid lipid nanoparticles (≤20 nm) onto the surface of the binary complexes. The small solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by a modified film dispersion-ultrasonication method, and adsorption of the anionic SLNs onto the binary complexes was typically carried out in water via electrostatic interaction. The formulated ternary nanoparticles were found to be relatively uniform in size (257.7 ± 10.6 nm) with a 'bumpy' surface, and the surface charge inversion from 19.28 ± 1.14 mV to -17.16 ± 1.92 mV could be considered as evidence of the formation of the ternary nanoparticles. The fluorescence intensity measurements from three batches of the ternary nanoparticles gave a mean adsorption efficiency of 96.75 ± 1.13%. Circular dichroism spectra analysis showed that the protamine/DNA complexes had been coated by small SLNs, and that the anionic ternary nanoparticles formed did not disturb the construction of the binary complexes. SYBR Green I analysis suggested that the ternary nanoparticles could protect the DNA from nuclease degradation, and cell viability assay results showed that they exhibit lower cytotoxicity to A549 cells compared with the binary complexes and lipofectamine. The transfection efficiency of the ternary nanoparticles was better than that of naked DNA and the binary complexes, and almost equal to that of lipofectamine/DNA complexes, as revealed by inversion fluorescence microscope observation. These results indicated that the anionic ternary nanoparticles could facilitate gene transfer in cultured cells, and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vector/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo

  5. Dynamics of anion exchange of lanthanides in aqueous-organic complexing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheveleva, I.V.; Bogatyrev, I.O.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of organic solvents (ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile) on change in kinetic parameters of the anion exchange process (anion-exchange column chromatography) of r.e.e. (europium and gadolinium) in complexing nitric acid media has been studied. It is established that complex LnA 4 anion is the only sorbing form of europium and gadolinium on anionite. When the organic component content of the solution being the same, the dynamic parameters of lanthanide exchange have higher values in aqueous-acetonitrile and aqueous-acetone media in comparison with aqueous-enthanol solutions of nitric acid. Lesser mobility of complex lanthanide anions in aqueous-alcoholic solutions can be explained by stronger solvation in the presence of solvents with higher acceptor properties

  6. PH dependence of the spectral and anion binding properties of iron containing superoxide dismutase from E. coli B. An explanation for the azide inhibition of dismutase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fee, J A; McClune, G J; Lees, A C [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Dept. of Biological Chemistry; Zidovetzki, R; Pecht, I [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Immunology

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the optical and EPR properties of the ferric form of the iron containing superoxide dismutase from E.coli B, at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 10.9, has revealed two reversible structural transitions affecting the Fe/sup 3 +/ ion. The apparent pKsub(a) values of these transitions are 5.1+-0.3 and 9.O+-0.3. The binding of azide has been studied over the pH range 4.5 to 10.7; the affinity of the Fe/sup 3 +/ for N/sub 3//sup -/ is independent of pH from 4.5 to approximately 7.5, after which the dissociation constant decreased by a factor of 10 per unit increase in pH. The apparent pKsub(a) which affects N/sub 3//sup -/ binding to the iron is 8.6+-0.2. The association of N/sub 3//sup -/ with the iron has been examined using the temperature-jump method at pH 7.4 and 9.3. The kinetics of ligand association were shown to conform to the minimal mechanism: P-Fe/sup 3 +/ + N/sub 3//sup -/reversible K/sub 1/N/sub 3//sup -/ - P-Fe/sup 3 +/reversible K/sub 2/P-Fe/sup 3 +/ - N/sub 3//sup -/. K/sub 1/ was found to be essentially unaffected by pH whereas K/sub 2/ was much lower at pH 9.3 than at 7.4. The value of K/sub 1/ at pH 7.4 (100 M/sup -1/) corresponds very closely to that obtained for the inhibition constant of azide, 10mM. A scheme is presented in which N/sub 3//sup -/ inhibits the iron containing dismutase by competing with O/sub 2//sup -/ for an anion binding site near, but not on the Fe/sup 3 +/.

  7. Multitracer studies for determining seepage water and anion movement in four types of soil using lysimeters with different functions and designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knappe, S.; Russow, R.

    1999-01-01

    Lysimeter experiments based on the stable isotope tracer technique are a suitable means of examining the complex relationships governing water and material transport processes in the soil. The present paper reports on experiments in which water and nitrate movement was traced directly by means of lysimeters placed at different depths and using deuterium water and [ 15 N]N-nitrate for pulse marking. Extensive investigations carried out during the dissection of soil monoliths that had been used for many years in lysimeters offered an opportunity for stable isotope tracer studies aimed at determining seepage water and anion movement in undisturbed soils and, after dismantling the lysimeters, conducting soil analyses to find out more about the fate of nonpercolated tracers at various soil depths. Following other authors, bromide anions were additionally used as conservative tracers [de

  8. Inhibition of rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation by N-acyldehydroalanines: An in vitro comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buc-Calderon, P.; Roberfroid, M. (Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium))

    1989-09-01

    Captodative substituted olefins are radical scavengers which react with free radicals to form stabilized radical adducts. One of those compounds, N-(paramethoxyphenylacetyl)dehydroalanine (AD-5), may react and scavenge both superoxide anion (O-2) and alk-oxyl radicals (RO.), and in this way prevent the appearance of their mediated biological effects. Nitrofurantoin and tert-butyl hydroperoxide were used as model compounds to stimulate free radical production and their mediated lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. In addition, lipid peroxidation was also initiated by exposure of rat liver microsomal suspensions to ionizing radiation (gamma rays). The microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by these chemicals and physical agents was inhibited by the addition of AD-5. These effects were dose-dependent in a millimolar range of concentration. In addition, AD-5 has no effect on microsomal electron transport, showing that NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity was not modified. These data, together with the comparisons of the effects of AD-5 and some antioxidant molecules such as superoxide dismutase, uric acid, and mannitol, support the conclusion that inhibition of lipid peroxidation by AD-5 is the result of its free radical scavenger activity. In addition, the inhibitory effect of AD-5 on microsomal lipid peroxidation was dependent of the nature of the free radical species involved in the initiation of the process, suggesting that O-2 is scavenged more efficiently than RO.

  9. Adiponectin inhibits insulin function in primary trophoblasts by PPARα-mediated ceramide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan T; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-04-01

    Maternal adiponectin (ADN) levels are inversely correlated with birth weight, and ADN infusion in pregnant mice down-regulates placental nutrient transporters and decreases fetal growth. In contrast to the insulin-sensitizing effects in adipose tissue and muscle, ADN inhibits insulin signaling in the placenta. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. We hypothesized that ADN inhibits insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα)-mediated ceramide synthesis. Primary human term trophoblast cells were treated with ADN and/or insulin. ADN increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and PPARα. ADN inhibited insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport. This effect was dependent on PPARα, because activation of PPARα with an agonist (GW7647) inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas PPARα-small interfering RNA reversed the effects of ADN on the insulin response. ADN increased ceramide synthase expression and stimulated ceramide production. C2-ceramide inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas inhibition of ceramide synthase (with Fumonisin B1) reversed the effects of ADN on insulin signaling and amino acid transport. These findings are consistent with the model that maternal ADN limits fetal growth mediated by activation of placental PPARα and ceramide synthesis, which inhibits placental insulin signaling and amino acid transport, resulting in reduced fetal nutrient availability.

  10. Research on the Microstructure and Property of an Anion Rubber Modified Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anion rubber modified asphalt (ARMA mixture was first successfully developed with a unique process. In the development process, rubber and asphalt were mixed in the same proportion. Furthermore, the microstructure and modification mechanism of the material were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, TG, and XRD tests. The mechanical property of the mixture was also tested in accordance with the relevant standards. In the end, the material’s capacity of releasing anion was measured by DLY-6A232 atmospheric ion gauge. The results indicated that the addition of anion additive into the rubber modified asphalt (RMA was a mere physical mixture, and the anion additives and rubber particles uniformly dispersed in the ARMA. The addition of anion additive could improve the thermal stability of the RMA. Compared with the traditional asphalt pavement material, the ARMA material shows excellent mechanical properties as well as the ability of releasing anion. Moreover, the material has enormous economic and social benefits by taking full advantage of a large amount of waste tires, thus improving the road surrounding environment.

  11. The anionic basis of fluid secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Hunter, M; Novak, I

    1984-01-01

    The role played by anions in salivary secretion has been studied in experiments on the isolated, perfused mandibular gland of the rabbit, in which perfusate Cl- and/or HCO3- were replaced by other anions. Replacement of Cl- with Br- had no significant effect on salivary secretion rate, but replac......The role played by anions in salivary secretion has been studied in experiments on the isolated, perfused mandibular gland of the rabbit, in which perfusate Cl- and/or HCO3- were replaced by other anions. Replacement of Cl- with Br- had no significant effect on salivary secretion rate...

  12. Impaired renal secretion of substrates for the multidrug resistance protein 2 in mutant transport-deficient (TR-) rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masereeuw, R.; Notenboom, S.; Smeets, P.H.E.; Wouterse, A.C.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies with mutant transport-deficient rats (TR(-)), in which the multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) is lacking, have emphasized the importance of this transport protein in the biliary excretion of a wide variety of glutathione conjugates, glucuronides, and other organic anions. Mrp2 is

  13. On prediction of inhibiting properties of o-aryl-carboxylates in local dissolution of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Kerbeleva, I.Ya.; Brusnikina, V.M.; Rozenfel'd, I.L.

    1979-01-01

    The anodic behaviour of Armco iron in the borate buffer (ph 7.4), containing sulphates as agressive anions and inhibiting substances - aryl carboxilates is studied. The possibility of using the principle of free energy linearity for quantitative prediction of protective properties of aryl carboxilates at the metal local solution is shown. The latter characterized by the pitting formation potential (phi sub(pf)), the inhibiting criterion being Δphi=phisub(pf)sup(R)-phisub(pf)sup(H). The linear correlation between Δphi and delta constants, reflecting the summary electron effects of substituent induction and mesomeric effects have been found

  14. Using remote substituents to control solution structure and anion binding in lanthanide complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tropiano, Manuel; Blackburn, Octavia A.; Tilney, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the anion-binding properties of three structurally related lanthanide complexes, which all contain chemically identical anion-binding motifs, has revealed dramatic differences in their anion affinity. These arise as a consequence of changes in the substitution pattern on the periphery ...

  15. Ultra-small and anionic starch nanospheres: formation and vitro thrombolytic behavior study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinjuan; Ding, Shenglong; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Yang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xinjie; Ding, Bin

    2013-07-25

    This paper is considered as the first report on the investigation of nattokinase (NK) release from anionic starch nanospheres. The ultra-small and anionic starch nanospheres were prepared by the method of reverse micro-emulsion crosslinking in this work. Starch nanospheres were characterized through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Effects of preparation conditions on particle size were studied. The cytotoxicity, biodegradable and vitro thrombolytic behaviors of nattokinase (NK) loaded anionic starch nanospheres were also studied. The results showed that the anionic starch nanospheres are non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. Moreover, the anionic starch nanospheres can protect NK from fast biodegradation hence prolongs the circulation in vivo and can reduce the risk of acute hemorrhage complication by decreasing the thrombolysis rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Creatine Monohydrate Enhances Energy Status and Reduces Glycolysis via Inhibition of AMPK Pathway in Pectoralis Major Muscle of Transport-Stressed Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Jiaolong; Zhu, Xudong; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-08-16

    Creatine monohydrate (CMH) contributes to reduce transport-induced muscle rapid glycolysis and improve meat quality of broilers, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the ameliorative effects of CMH on muscle glycolysis metabolism of transported broilers during summer. The results showed that 3 h transport during summer elevated chicken live weight loss and plasma corticosterone concentration; decreased muscle concentrations of ATP, creatine, and energy charge value; increased muscle AMP concentration and AMP/ATP ratio; and upregulated muscle mRNA expression of LKB1 and AMPKα2, as well as protein expression of p-LKB1 Thr189 and p-AMPKα Thr172 , which subsequently resulted in rapid glycolysis in the pectoralis major muscle and consequent reduction of meat quality. Dietary addition of CMH at 1200 mg/kg ameliorated transport-induced rapid muscle glycolysis and reduction of meat quality via enhancement of the energy-buffering capacity of intramuscular phosphocreatine/creatine system and inhibition of AMPK pathway.

  17. Tubular transport and metabolism of cimetidine in chicken kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennick, B.; Ziemniak, J.; Smith, I.; Taylor, M.; Acara, M.

    1984-01-01

    Renal tubular transport and renal metabolism of [ 14 C]cimetidine (CIM) were investigated by unilateral infusion into the renal portal circulation in chickens (Sperber technique). [ 14 C]CIM was actively transported at a rate 88% that of simultaneously infused p-aminohippuric acid, and its transport was saturable. The following organic cations competitively inhibited the tubular transport of [ 14 C]CIM with decreasing potency: CIM, ranitidine, thiamine, procainamide, guanidine and choline. CIM inhibited the transport of [ 14 C]thiamine, [ 14 C]amiloride and [ 14 C]tetraethylammonium. During CIM infusion, two renal metabolites, CIM sulfoxide and hydroxymethylcimetidine, were found in urine. When CIM sulfoxide was infused, its transport efficiency was 32% and not saturable. CIM sulfoxide did ot inhibit the simultaneous renal tubular transport of p-aminohippuric acid or tetraethylammonium. CIM is transported by the organic cation transport system and the kidney metabolizes CIM. Transport of CIM and other cationic drugs could produce a drug interaction to alter drug excretion

  18. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Soon; Joe, Ki Soo; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwang Soon

    1999-06-01

    Four methods were investigated for the simultaneous determination of several inorganic and organic anions in aqueous solution by ion chromatography. The first is two columns coupled system. The second is the gradient elution system with an anion exchange column. The third is the system with a mixed-mode stationary phase. The fourth is the system with an anion exchange column and the eluant of low conductivity without ion suppressor. The advantages and disadvantages of individual systems were discussed. The suitable methods were proposed for the application to the samples of the nuclear power industry and the environment. (author)

  19. The absorption of plutonium by anion resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R. W.; Mills, R.

    1961-10-15

    Equilibrium experiments have shown Pu{sup +4} to be absorbed from nitric acid onto an anion resin as a complex anion Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -2}. The amount of absorption is dependent on the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations in the equilibrium solution with a maximum at 7N to 8N HNO{sub 3}. A low cross-linked resin has a higher capacity and reaches equilibrium more rapidly than the normally supplied resin. Saturation capacity of one per cent cross-linked Nalcite SBR (Dowex 1), 50 -- 100 mesh, is 385 mg Pu/gram dry resin. (author)

  20. Growing Mouse Oocytes Transiently Activate Folate Transport via Folate Receptors As They Approach Full Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Megan; MacNeil, Allison H; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Baltz, Jay M

    2016-06-01

    The folate cycle is central to cellular one-carbon metabolism, where folates are carriers of one-carbon units that are critical for synthesis of purines, thymidylate, and S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor that forms the cellular methyl pool. Although folates are well-known to be important for early embryo and fetal development, their role in oogenesis has not been clearly established. Here, folate transport proteins were detected in developing neonatal ovaries and growing oocytes by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. The folate receptors FOLR1 and FOLR2 as well as reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1, SLC19A1 protein) each appeared to be present in follicular cells including granulosa cells. In growing oocytes, however, only FOLR2 immunoreactivity appeared abundant. Localization of apparent FOLR2 immunofluorescence near the plasma membrane increased with oocyte growth and peaked in oocytes as they neared full size. We assessed folate transport using the model folate leucovorin (folinic acid). Unexpectedly, there was a transient burst of folate transport activity for a brief period during oocyte growth as they neared full size, while folate transport was otherwise undetectable for the rest of oogenesis and in fully grown germinal vesicle stage oocytes. This folate transport was inhibited by dynasore, an inhibitor of endocytosis, but insensitive to the anion transport inhibitor stilbene 4-acetamido-40-isothiocyanato-stilbene-2,20-disulfonic acid, consistent with folate receptor-mediated transport but not with RFC1-mediated transport. Thus, near the end of their growth, growing oocytes may take up folates that could support the final stage of oogenesis or be stored to provide the endogenous folates needed in early embryogenesis. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. Charge ordered insulating phases of DODHT salts with octahedral anions and a new radical salt, β''-(DODHT)2TaF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, H.; Oshio, H.; Higa, M.; Kondo, R.; Kagoshima, S.; Nakao, A.; Sawa, H.; Yasuzuka, S.; Murata, K.

    2008-10-01

    Physical properties of isostructural β''-(DODHT)2X [DODHT = (l,4-dioxane-2,3-diyldithio)dihydrotetrathiafulvalene; X = PF6, AsF6, and SbF6] at ambient pressure have been compared. The insulating phase of β''-(DODHT)2PF6 salt has already been revealed to be a charge ordering (CO) state by X-ray diffraction study and magnetic behavior. CO in this salt was also confirmed by the observation of satellite reflections in oscillation photograph using synchrotron radiation. Transport property of β''-(DODHT)2SbF6 salt was reinvestigated up to the pressure of 3.7 GPa applied by a cubic anvil apparatus. Although the SbF6 salt turned to be metallic above 2.0 GPa, no superconductivity was observed. In order to examine the anion size dependence of DODHT salts with octahedral anions, we prepared a new DODHT salt, β''-(DODHT)2TaF6, which has the larger counter anion compared with the previous salts. Crystal structure of this salt was isostructural to the other DODHT salts. The electrical and magnetic properties of this salt were similar to those of β''-(DODHT)2SbF6 salt.

  2. Partitioning of hydrophobic pesticides within a soil-water-anionic surfactant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Keller, Arturo A

    2009-02-01

    Surfactants can be added to pesticide-contaminated soils to enhance the treatment efficiency of soil washing. Our results showed that pesticide (atrazine and diuron) partitioning and desorbability within a soil-water-anionic surfactant system is soil particle-size dependent and is significantly influenced by the presence of anionic surfactant. Anionic surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, LAS) sorption was influenced by its complexation with both the soluble and exchangeable divalent cations in soils (e.g. Ca2+, Mg2+). In this study, we propose a new concept: soil system hardness which defines the total amount of soluble and exchangeable divalent cations associated with a soil. Our results showed that anionic surfactant works better with soils having lower soil system hardness. It was also found that the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) sorbed onto the LAS-divalent cation precipitate, resulting in a significant decrease in the aqueous concentration of HOC. Our results showed that the effect of exchangeable cations and sorption of HOC onto the surfactant precipitates needs to be considered to accurately predict HOC behavior within soil-water-anionic surfactant systems.

  3. Preparation and characterization of novel anion phase change heat storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Lil, Qingshan; Sun, Jing; Di, Youbo; Zhao, Zhou; Yu, Wei'an; Qu, Yuan; Jiao, TiFeng; Wang, Guowei; Xing, Guangzhong

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, polyurethane phase change material was successfully prepared with TDI with BDO for hard segments and PEG for soft segments. Moreover, based on this the solid-solid phase change material, A-PCM1030 which can release anions was prepared with the successful addition of anion additives A1030 for the first time. Then the test of the above material was conducted utilizing FT-IR, DSC, TEM, WAXD and Air Ion Detector. The Results indicated that the polyurethane phase change material possesses excellent thermal stability since there was no appearance of liquid leakage and phase separation after 50 times warming-cooling thermal cycles. It also presented reversibility on absorbing and releasing heat. In addition, adding a little A1030 can increase the thermal stability and reduce phase transition temperatures, as well as reduce the undercooling of the polyurethane phase change material. In addition, the anion test results suggested that the supreme amount of anion released by A-PCM1030 could reach 2510 anions/cm3 under dynamic conditions, which is beneficial for human health.

  4. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression in activated microglia and peroxynitrite scavenging activity by Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming Hong; Kim, Jae Yeon; Yoon, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Tae Hee; Jin, Changbae; Kwak, Wie-Jong; Han, Chang-Kyun; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2006-09-01

    Activated microglia by neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation overproduce nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion, resulting in neurodegenerative diseases. The toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), the reaction product of NO and superoxide anion further contributes to oxidative neurotoxicity. A butanol fraction obtained from 50% ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten (Cactaceae) stem (SK OFB901) and its hydrolysis product (SK OFB901H) inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated microglia in a dose dependent manner (IC50 15.9, 4.2 microg/mL, respectively). They also suppressed the expression of protein and mRNA of iNOS in LPS-activated microglial cells at higher than 30 microg/mL as observed by western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiment. They also inhibited the degradation of I-kappaB-alpha in activated microglia. Moreover, they showed strong activity of peroxynitrite scavenging in a cell free bioassay system. These results imply that Opuntia ficus indica may have neuroprotective activity through the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells and peroxynitrite scavenging activity. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. An evolved xylose transporter from Zymomonas mobilis enhances sugar transport in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingqing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylose is a second most abundant sugar component of lignocellulose besides glucose. Efficient fermentation of xylose is important for the economics of biomass-based biorefineries. However, sugar mixtures are sequentially consumed in xylose co-fermentation with glucose due to carbon catabolite repression (CCR in microorganisms. As xylose transmembrance transport is one of the steps repressed by CCR, it is therefore of interest to develop a transporter that is less sensitive to the glucose inhibition or CCR. Results The glucose facilitator protein Glf transporter from Zymomonas mobilis, also an efficient transporter for xylose, was chosen as the target transporter for engineering to eliminate glucose inhibition on xylose uptake. The evolution of Glf transporter was carried out with a mixture of glucose and xylose in E. coli. Error-prone PCR and random deletion were employed respectively in two rounds of evolution. Aided by a high-throughput screening assay using xylose analog p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (pNPX in 96-well plates, a best mutant 2-RD5 was obtained that contains several mutations, and a deletion of 134 residues (about 28% of total residues, or three fewer transmembrane sections (TMSs. It showed a 10.8-fold improvement in terms of pNPX transport activity in the presence of glucose. The fermentation performance results showed that this mutant improved xylose consumption by 42% with M9 minimal medium containing 20 g L-1 xylose only, while with the mixture sugar of xylose and glucose, 28% more glucose was consumed, but no obvious co-utilization of xylose was observed. Further glucose fed-batch experiments suggested that the intracellular metabolism of xylose was repressed by glucose. Conclusions Through random mutagenesis and partial deletion coupled with high-throughput screening, a mutant of the Glf transporter (2-RD5 was obtained that relieved the inhibition of xylose transport by glucose. The fermentation

  6. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong, E-mail: haedong@hnu.kr

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and

  7. Drug Transporter Expression and Activity in Human Hepatoma HuH-7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jouan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human hepatoma cells may represent a valuable alternative to the use of human hepatocytes for studying hepatic drug transporters, which is now a regulatory issue during drug development. In the present work, we have characterized hepatic drug transporter expression, activity and regulation in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells, in order to determine the potential relevance of these cells for drug transport assays. HuH-7 cells displayed notable multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP activity, presumed to reflect expression of various hepatic MRPs, including MRP2. By contrast, they failed to display functional activities of the uptake transporters sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP, organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, and of the canalicular transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. Concomitantly, mRNA expressions of various sinusoidal and canalicular hepatic drug transporters were not detected (NTCP, OATP1B1, organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2, OCT1 and bile salt export pump or were found to be lower (OATP1B3, OATP2B1, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1, BCRP and MRP3 in hepatoma HuH-7 cells than those found in human hepatocytes, whereas other transporters such as OAT7, MRP4 and MRP5 were up-regulated. HuH-7 cells additionally exhibited farnesoid X receptor (FXR- and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-related up-regulation of some transporters. Such data indicate that HuH-7 cells, although expressing rather poorly some main hepatic drug transporters, may be useful for investigating interactions of drugs with MRPs, notably MRP2, and for studying FXR- or Nrf2-mediated gene regulation.

  8. Expanding frontiers in materials chemistry and physics with multiple anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Katsuro; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Attfield, J Paul; Hiroi, Zenji; Rondinelli, James M; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2018-02-22

    During the last century, inorganic oxide compounds laid foundations for materials synthesis, characterization, and technology translation by adding new functions into devices previously dominated by main-group element semiconductor compounds. Today, compounds with multiple anions beyond the single-oxide ion, such as oxyhalides and oxyhydrides, offer a new materials platform from which superior functionality may arise. Here we review the recent progress, status, and future prospects and challenges facing the development and deployment of mixed-anion compounds, focusing mainly on oxide-derived materials. We devote attention to the crucial roles that multiple anions play during synthesis, characterization, and in the physical properties of these materials. We discuss the opportunities enabled by recent advances in synthetic approaches for design of both local and overall structure, state-of-the-art characterization techniques to distinguish unique structural and chemical states, and chemical/physical properties emerging from the synergy of multiple anions for catalysis, energy conversion, and electronic materials.

  9. Ion Transport across Biological Membranes by Carborane-Capped Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelczak, Marcin P; Danks, Stephen P; Klipp, Robert C; Belic, Domagoj; Zaulet, Adnana; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Bradley, Dan F; Tsukuda, Tatsuya; Viñas, Clara; Teixidor, Francesc; Abramson, Jonathan J; Brust, Mathias

    2017-12-26

    Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles (Au/carborane NPs, 2-3 nm) can act as artificial ion transporters across biological membranes. The particles themselves are large hydrophobic anions that have the ability to disperse in aqueous media and to partition over both sides of a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Their presence therefore causes a membrane potential that is determined by the relative concentrations of particles on each side of the membrane according to the Nernst equation. The particles tend to adsorb to both sides of the membrane and can flip across if changes in membrane potential require their repartitioning. Such changes can be made either with a potentiostat in an electrochemical cell or by competition with another partitioning ion, for example, potassium in the presence of its specific transporter valinomycin. Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles have a ligand shell full of voids, which stem from the packing of near spherical ligands on a near spherical metal core. These voids are normally filled with sodium or potassium ions, and the charge is overcompensated by excess electrons in the metal core. The anionic particles are therefore able to take up and release a certain payload of cations and to adjust their net charge accordingly. It is demonstrated by potential-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy that polarized phospholipid membranes of vesicles can be depolarized by ion transport mediated by the particles. It is also shown that the particles act as alkali-ion-specific transporters across free-standing membranes under potentiostatic control. Magnesium ions are not transported.

  10. Preparation of Acrylamide-based Anionic Polyelectrolytes for Soil Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rabiee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic water soluble acrylamide-based polymers have wide range of ap-plications  in  the  feld  of  soil  establishment  and  non-desertifcation.  In  this research, the acrylamide-based anionic polyelectrolytes were prepared by  solution polymerization. The polymerization was carried out using AIBN as a radical initiator and at different degrees of anionic charges ranging between 10% and 30% using sodium hydroxide as hydrolyzing agents. The chemical structure of the  synthetic polymers was studied and confrmed by FTIR technique. The charge density on polymer backbone was determined by titration method. The rheological behavior of polymer solutions was evaluated by Brookfeld viscometer. The results show that the viscosity decreases with increasing the shear rate of solutions. Molecular weights of samples were measured by laser light scattering analyzer. The morphology of the polymer was studied by SEM and the EDX was used for elemental analysis determination. The anionic polymers with 10-30% negative charges were mixed with clay in order to evaluate the soil establishment. The results show that an anionic polyelectro-lyte can make soil particles more cohesive and improve soil physical properties.

  11. A study of model systems in anionic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegele, R.; Boeyens, J.C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary experiments are reported on the preparation and characterization of anionic sulphate and chloride complexes of UO 2+ 2 and iron(III), benzyl-trimethylammonium cation being used as a model substance for the simulation of positive sites in an anionic-exchange resin. The structure of (BTMA) 4 [UO 2 CL 3 -O 2 -CL 3 UO 2 ], a binuclear uranyl-peroxocomplex that has not been reported in the literature, was elucidated by single-crystal x-ray examination, and is described and discussed [af

  12. High Vacuum Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are the most suitable for the preparation of polymer samples with well-defined complex macromolecular architectures. Though HVTs require glassblowing skill for designing and making polymerization

  13. Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline inhibit c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappaB activity in kainic acid-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Ho, Tin-Yun; Su, Shan-Yu; Lo, Wan-Yu; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Tang, Nou-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) can reduce epileptic seizures. We hypothesized that UR and its major component rhynchophylline (RH), reduce epileptic seizures in rats treated with kainic acid (KA) by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator-protein-1 (AP-1) activity, and by eliminating superoxide anions. Therefore, the level of superoxide anions and the DNA binding activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1 were measured. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were pre-treated with UR (1.0 g/kg, i.p.), RH (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.), or valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3 days and then KA was administered intra-peritoneal (i.p.). The results indicated that UR, RH, and VA can reduce epileptic seizures and the level of superoxide anions in the blood. Furthermore, KA was demonstrated to induce the DNA binding activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1. However, these inductions were inhibited by pre-treatment with UR, RH, or VA for 3 days. Moreover, UR and RH were shown to be involved in the suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. This study suggested that UR and RH have antiepileptic effects in KA-induced seizures and are associated with the regulation of the innate immune system via a reduction in the level of superoxide anions, JNK phosphorylation, and NF-kappaB activation.

  14. Separation of anionic oligosaccharides by high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, E.D.; Baenziger, J.U.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed methods for rapid fractionation of anionic oligosaccharides containing sulfate and/or sialic acid moieties by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ion-exchange HPLC on amine-bearing columns (Micropak AX-10 and AX-5) at pH 4.0 is utilized to separate anionic oligosaccharides bearing zero, one, two, three, or four charges, independent of the identity of the anionic moieties (sulfate and/or sialic acid). Ion-exchange HPLC at pH 1.7 allows separation of neutral, mono-, di-, and tetrasialylated, monosulfated, and disulfated oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides containing three sialic acid residues and those bearing one each of sulfate and sialic acid, however, coelute at pH 1.7. Since the latter two oligosaccharide species separate at pH 4.0, analysis at pH 4.0 followed by analysis at pH 1.7 can be utilized to completely fractionate complex mixtures of sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides. Ion-suppression amine adsorption HPLC has previously been shown to separate anionic oligosaccharides on the basis of net carbohydrate content (size). In this study they demonstrate the utility of ion-suppression amine adsorption HPLC for resolving sialylated oligosaccharide isomers which differ only in the linkages of sialic acid residues (α2,3 vs α2,6) and/or location of α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acid moieties on the peripheral branches of oligosaccharides. These two methods can be used in tandem to separate oligosaccharides, both analytically and preparatively, based on their number, types, and linkages of anionic moieties

  15. Modelling the effective diffusion coefficient of anions in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite knowing the microstructure of the rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, N.

    2009-01-01

    After having presented the issue of radioactive waste storage, the concept of geological storage and its application in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground laboratory, and described the Callovo-Oxfordian geological formation and the argillite transport properties, this research thesis aims at developing a prediction of these properties at a macroscopic scale for water and anions. A first part presents the different experimental means implemented to acquire the diffusion coefficients for the studied materials (Callovo-Oxfordian argillite and purified Puy illite), and the spatial organisation of minerals by LIBS probe-based mapping to highlight a relationship between rock microstructure and its transport macroscopic properties. The next part presents the models which have been developed at the nanometer and micrometre scale to predict the diffusion coefficients. Experimental results are then compared with computed values

  16. Water permeation through anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Wright, Andrew; Weissbach, Thomas; Holdcroft, Steven

    2018-01-01

    An understanding of water permeation through solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes is crucial to offset the unbalanced water activity within SPE fuel cells. We examine water permeation through an emerging class of anion exchange membranes, hexamethyl-p-terphenyl poly (dimethylbenzimidazolium) (HMT-PMBI), and compare it against series of membrane thickness for a commercial anion exchange membrane (AEM), Fumapem® FAA-3, and a series of proton exchange membranes, Nafion®. The HMT-PMBI membrane is found to possess higher water permeabilities than Fumapem® FAA-3 and comparable permeability than Nafion (H+). By measuring water permeation through membranes of different thicknesses, we are able to decouple, for the first time, internal and interfacial water permeation resistances through anion exchange membranes. Permeation resistances on liquid/membrane interface is found to be negligible compared to that for vapor/membrane for both series of AEMs. Correspondingly, the resistance of liquid water permeation is found to be one order of magnitude smaller compared to that of vapor water permeation. HMT-PMBI possesses larger effective internal water permeation coefficient than both Fumapem® FAA-3 and Nafion® membranes (60 and 18% larger, respectively). In contrast, the effective interfacial permeation coefficient of HMT-PMBI is found to be similar to Fumapem® (±5%) but smaller than Nafion®(H+) (by 14%).

  17. In vitro characterization of luseogliflozin, a potent and competitive sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor: Inhibition kinetics and binding studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeko Uchida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated an inhibition model of luseogliflozin on sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2. We also analyzed the binding kinetics of the drug to SGLT2 protein using [3H]-luseogliflozin. Luseogliflozin competitively inhibited human SGLT2 (hSGLT2-mediated glucose uptake with a Ki value of 1.10 nM. In the absence of glucose, [3H]-luseogliflozin exhibited a high affinity for hSGLT2 with a Kd value of 1.3 nM. The dissociation half-time was 7 h, suggesting that luseogliflozin dissociates rather slowly from hSGLT2. These profiles of luseogliflozin might contribute to the long duration of action of this drug.

  18. Differential expression of genes encoding phosphate transporters contributes to arsenic accumulation in shrub willow (Salix spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily E. Puckett; Michelle J. Serpiglia; Alyssa M. DeLeon; Stephanie Long; Rakesh Minocha; Lawrence B. Smart

    2012-01-01

    Studies of arsenate and phosphate uptake by plants in hydroponic and soil systems indicate a common transport mechanism via the phosphate transporters (PHTs) due to structural similarity of the anions. Typically, the presence of phosphate decreases plant uptake and translocation of arsenate in hydroponic solution. This study quantified arsenic (As) uptake related to...

  19. An Anthracene-Based Tripodal Chemosensor for Anion Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney A. Quinn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An anthracene-based tripodal ligand was synthesized from the condensation of tren with 9-anthraldehyde, and the subsequent reduction with sodium borohydride. The neutral ligand was protonated from the reaction with p-toluenesulfonic acid to give a triply charged chemosensor that was examined for its anion binding ability toward fluoride, chloride, bromide, sulfate and nitrate by the fluorescence spectroscopy in DMSO. The addition of an anion to the ligand resulted in an enhancement in fluorescence intensity at the excitation of 310 nm. Analysis of the spectral changes suggested that the ligand formed a 1:1 complex with each of the anions, showing strong affinity for fluoride and sulfate in DMSO. The unsubstituted tren was reacted with sulfuric acid to form a sulfate complex and the structure was determined by the X-ray crystallography. Analysis of the complex revealed that three sulfates are held between two ligands by multiple hydrogen bonding interactions with protonated amines.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Drug-Drug Interactions Between Repaglinide and Cyclosporin A/Gemfibrozil Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models With In Vitro Transporter/Enzyme Inhibition Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Toshimoto, Kota; Yao, Yoshiaki; Yoshikado, Takashi; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of transporter- and enzyme-mediated complex drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is challenging. Repaglinide (RPG) is transported into the liver by OATP1B1 and then is metabolized by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4. The purpose of this study was to describe the complex DDIs of RPG quantitatively based on unified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models using in vitro K i values for OATP1B1, CYP3A4, and CYP2C8. Cyclosporin A (CsA) or gemfibrozil (GEM) increased the blood concentrations of RPG. The time profiles of RPG and the inhibitors were analyzed by PBPK models, considering the inhibition of OATP1B1 and CYP3A4 by CsA or OATP1B1 inhibition by GEM and its glucuronide and the mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8 by GEM glucuronide. RPG-CsA interaction was closely predicted using a reported in vitro K i,OATP1B1 value in the presence of CsA preincubation. RPG-GEM interaction was underestimated compared with observed data, but the simulation was improved with the increase of f m,CYP2C8 . These results based on in vitro K i values for transport and metabolism suggest the possibility of a bottom-up approach with in vitro inhibition data for the prediction of complex DDIs using unified PBPK models and in vitro f m value of a substrate for multiple enzymes should be considered carefully for the prediction. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The ALMT Family of Organic Acid Transporters in Plants and Their Involvement in Detoxification and Nutrient Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo; Kochian, Leon; Piñeros, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    About a decade ago, members of a new protein family of anion channels were discovered on the basis of their ability to confer on plants the tolerance toward toxic aluminum ions in the soil. The efflux of Al 3+ -chelating malate anions through these channels is stimulated by external Al 3+ ions. This feature of a few proteins determined the name of the entire protein family as Aluminum-activated Malate Transporters (ALMT). Meanwhile, after several years of research, it is known that the physiological roles of ALMTs go far beyond Al-detoxification. In this review article we summarize the current knowledge on this transporter family and assess their involvement in diverse physiological processes.

  2. The ALMT family of organic acid transporters in plants and their involvement in detoxification and nutrient security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available About a decade ago, members of a new protein family of anion channels were discovered on the basis of their ability to confer on plants the tolerance towards toxic aluminum ions in the soil. The efflux of Al3+-chelating malate anions through these channels is stimulated by external Al3+ ions. This feature of a few proteins determined the name of the entire protein family as Aluminum-activated Malate Transporters (ALMT. Meanwhile, after several years of research, it is known that the physiological roles of ALMTs go far beyond Al-detoxification. In this review article we summarize the current knowledge on this transporter family and assess their involvement in diverse physiological processes.

  3. Effects of a series of acidic drugs on L-lactic acid transport by the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yat Hei; Belanger, Francois; Lu, Jennifer; Turgeon, Jacques; Michaud, Veronique

    2018-03-07

    Drug-induced myopathy is a serious side effect that often requires removal of a medication from a drug regimen. For most drugs, the underlying mechanism of drug-induced myopathy remains unclear. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate L-lactic acid transport, and inhibition of MCTs may potentially lead to perturbation of L-lactic acid accumulation and muscular disorders. Therefore, we hypothesized that L-lactic acid transport may be involved in the development of drug-induced myopathy. The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory potential of 24 acidic drugs on L-lactic acid transport using breast cancer cell lines Hs578T and MDA-MB-231, which selectively express MCT1 and MCT4, respectively. The influx transport of L-lactic acid was minimally inhibited by all drugs tested. The efflux transport was next examined: loratadine (IC50: 10 and 61 µM) and atorvastatin (IC50: 78 and 41 µM) demonstrated the greatest potency for inhibition of L-lactic acid efflux by MCT1 and MCT4, respectively. Acidic drugs including fluvastatin, cerivastatin, simvastatin acid, lovastatin acid, irbesartan and losartan exhibited weak inhibitory potency on L-lactic acid efflux. Our results suggest that some acidic drugs, such as loratadine and atorvastatin, can inhibit the efflux transport of L-lactic acid. This inhibition may cause an accumulation of intracellular L-lactic acid leading to acidification and muscular disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Pharmaceutical excipients influence the function of human uptake transporting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Anett; Oswald, Stefan; Siegmund, Werner; Keiser, Markus

    2012-09-04

    Although pharmaceutical excipients are supposed to be pharmacologically inactive, solubilizing agents like Cremophor EL have been shown to interact with cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent drug metabolism as well as efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (ABCC2). However, knowledge about their influence on the function of uptake transporters important in drug disposition is very limited. In this study we investigated the in vitro influence of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), Solutol HS 15 (SOL), and Cremophor EL (CrEL) on the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1A2, OATP2B1, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 and the Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP). In stably transfected human embryonic kidney cells we analyzed the competition of the excipients with the uptake of bromosulfophthalein in OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and NTCP, estrone-3-sulfate (E(3)S) in OATP1A2, OATP1B1, and OATP2B1, estradiol-17β-glucuronide in OATP1B3, and taurocholate (TA) in OATP1A2 and NTCP cells. SOL and CrEL were the most potent inhibitors of all transporters with the strongest effect on OATP1A2, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 (IC(50) < 0.01%). HPCD also strongly inhibited all transport proteins but only for substrates containing a sterane-backbone. Finally, PEG seems to be a selective and potent modulator of OATP1A2 with IC(50) values of 0.05% (TA) and 0.14% (E(3)S). In conclusion, frequently used solubilizing agents were shown to interact substantially with intestinal and hepatic uptake transporters which should be considered in drug development. However, the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be evaluated in further in vivo studies.

  5. ATP secretion from nerve trunks and Schwann cells mediated by glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo Jun; Bennett, Max R

    2003-11-14

    ATP release from rat sciatic nerves and from cultured Schwann cells isolated from the nerves was investigated using an online bioluminescence technique. ATP was released in relatively large amounts from rat sciatic nerve trunks during electrical stimulation. This release was blocked by the sodium channel inhibitor tetrodotoxin and the non-NMDA glutamate receptor blocker 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Schwann cells isolated from the nerve trunks did not release ATP when electrically stimulated but did in response to glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner. Glutamate-stimulated ATP release was inhibited by specific non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 and competitive non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX. Glutamate-stimulated ATP release was decreased by inhibition of anion transporter inhibitors by furosemide, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by glibenclamide and exocytosis by botulinum toxin A, indicating that anion transporters and exocytosis provide the main secretion mechanisms for ATP release from the Schwann cells.

  6. (-)-Xanthienopyran, a new inhibitor of superoxide anion generation by activated neutrophils, and further constituents of the seeds of Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Huang, Po-Ching; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Hou, Yu-Yi; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2008-08-01

    The dried seeds of XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM (Asteraceae) are used after thorough stir-frying as an ingredient in traditional Chinese medicines for relieving allergy. Two new compounds, xanthialdehyde ( 2) and (-)-xanthienopyran ( 7), as well as 26 known compounds were isolated in the present study. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Among them, compound 7 exhibited significant selective inhibition of superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils induced by formyl- L-methionyl- L-leucyl- L-phenylalanine, with an IC50 value of 1.72 microg/mL.

  7. Anionic surface binders

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaž-Rožič Mateja; Hočevar Nežka

    2004-01-01

    The MELAMIN Chemical Factory in Kočevje manufactures synthetic resins and binders for the paper industry. Binders based on AKD (alkyl ketene dimer) are produced which are used for binding paper and cardboard in the range of neutral and partially basic pH. Cationic and, lately, anionic binders are mostly used for the bulk binding of paper and board. The possibility of using AKD binders on paper or board surfaces is presented. In this case partially cationic AKD binders may be applied. When opt...

  8. Renal accumulation of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC in rats: influence of inhibitors of the organic ion transport and diuretics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, A.R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Department of Radiology, Essen (Germany); Wagner, B.; Heemann, U.; Lutz, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nephrology, Munich (Germany); Poethko, T.; Perutka, M.; Wester, H.J.; Essler, M.; Schwaiger, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Radiation exposure to the kidney limits therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. This study evaluates the organic anion and cation transport (inhibitors: probenecid and cimetidine/dexamethason) as well as diuresis (furosemide and mannitol) regarding renal uptake of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC. One hundred eight male Fisher rats were injected with [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC via the tail vein. Prior to activity injection a total of 84 rats underwent injection with probenecid vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (48 rats), cimetidine vs. dexamethasone vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats), and furosemide vs. mannitol vs. so