Full Text Available With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral and smartphone-related, the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology (event-related potentials, ERPs to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use.
Chen, Jingwei; Liang, Yunsi; Mai, Chunmiao; Zhong, Xiyun; Qu, Chen
With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral, and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology [event-related potentials (ERPs)] to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27148120
Buhler, Eva; Bachmann, Christian; Goyert, Hannah; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are both associated with deficits in executive control and with problems in social contexts. This study analyses the variables inhibitory control and theory of mind (ToM), including a developmental aspect in the case of the latter, to differentiate between the…
Storm, Benjamin C; White, Holly A
Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that the selective retrieval of some information can cause the forgetting of other information. Such forgetting is believed to result from inhibitory processes that function to resolve interference during retrieval. The current study examined whether individuals with ADHD demonstrate normal levels of retrieval-induced forgetting. A total of 40 adults with ADHD and 40 adults without ADHD participated in a standard retrieval-induced forgetting experiment. Critically, half of the items were tested using category cues and the other half of the items were tested using category-plus-one-letter-stem cues. Whereas both ADHD and non-ADHD participants demonstrated retrieval-induced forgetting on the final category-cued recall test, only non-ADHD participants demonstrated retrieval-induced forgetting on the final category-plus-stem-cued recall test. These results suggest that individuals with ADHD do have a deficit in the inhibitory control of memory, but that this deficit may only be apparent when output interference is adequately controlled on the final test.
Lau, Mark A; Christensen, Bruce K; Hawley, Lance L; Gemar, Michael S; Segal, Zindel V
Within Beck's cognitive model of depression, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which activated self-schemas result in the production of negative thoughts. Recent research has demonstrated that inhibitory dysfunction is present in depression, and this deficit is likely valence-specific. However, whether valence-specific inhibitory deficits are associated with increased negative cognition and whether such deficits are specific to depression per se remains unexamined. The authors posit the theory that inhibitory dysfunction may influence the degree to which activated self-schemas result in the production of depressive cognition. Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD, n=43) versus healthy (n=36) and non-depressed anxious (n=32) controls were assessed on the Prose Distraction Task (PDT), a measure of cognitive inhibition, and the Stop-Signal Task (SST), a measure of motor response inhibition. These two tasks were modified in order to present emotionally valenced semantic stimuli (i.e. negative, neutral, positive). Participants with MDD demonstrated performance impairments on the PDT, which were most pronounced for negatively valenced adjectives, relative to both control groups. Moreover, these impairments correlated with self-report measures of negative thinking and rumination. Conversely, the performance of the MDD participants did not differ from either control group on the SST. Implications of these findings for understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of depressive cognition are discussed.
White, Holly A.
Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor inhibition of prepotent responses and deficits in distractor inhibition, but relatively few studies have addressed inhibitory control of proactive interference (PI) in individuals with ADHD. Thus, the goal of the present study was to evaluate resistance to spatial…
Fan, Li-Ying; Chou, Tai-Li; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Atomoxetine improves inhibitory control and visual processing in healthy volunteers and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the neural correlates of these two functions after chronic treatment with atomoxetine. This study aimed to use the counting Stroop task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to investigate the changes related to inhibitory control and visual processing in adults with ADHD. This study is an 8-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of atomoxetine in 24 drug-naïve adults with ADHD. We investigated the changes of treatment with atomoxetine compared to placebo-treated counterparts using the counting Stroop fMRI and two CANTAB tests: rapid visual information processing (RVP) for inhibitory control and delayed matching to sample (DMS) for visual processing. Atomoxetine decreased activations in the right inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex, which were correlated with the improvement in inhibitory control assessed by the RVP. Also, atomoxetine increased activation in the left precuneus, which was correlated with the improvement in the mean latency of correct responses assessed by the DMS. Moreover, anterior cingulate activation in the pre-treatment was able to predict the improvements of clinical symptoms. Treatment with atomoxetine may improve inhibitory control to suppress interference and may enhance the visual processing to process numbers. In addition, the anterior cingulate cortex might play an important role as a biological marker for the treatment effectiveness of atomoxetine. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4850-4864, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Verona, Edelyn; Sprague, Jenessa; Sadeh, Naomi
The field of personality disorders has had a long-standing interest in understanding interactions between emotion and inhibitory control, as well as neurophysiological indices of these processes. More work in particular is needed to clarify differential deficits in offenders with antisocial personality disorder (APD) who differ on psychopathic traits, as APD and psychopathy are considered separate, albeit related, syndromes. Evidence of distinct neurobiological processing in these disorders would have implications for etiology-based personality disorder taxonomies in future psychiatric classification systems. To inform this area of research, we recorded event-related brain potentials during an emotional-linguistic Go/No-Go task to examine modulation of negative emotional processing by inhibitory control in three groups: psychopathy (n = 14), APD (n = 16), and control (n = 15). In control offenders, inhibitory control demands (No-Go vs. Go) modulated frontal-P3 amplitude to negative emotional words, indicating appropriate prioritization of inhibition over emotional processing. In contrast, the psychopathic group showed blunted processing of negative emotional words regardless of inhibitory control demands, consistent with research on emotional deficits in psychopathy. Finally, the APD group demonstrated enhanced processing of negative emotion words in both Go and No-Go trials, suggesting a failure to modulate negative emotional processing when inhibitory control is required. Implications for emotion-cognition interactions and putative etiological processes in these personality disorders are discussed.
Obeso, Ignacio; Wilkinson, Leonora; Casabona, Enrique; Bringas, Maria Luisa; Álvarez, Mario; Álvarez, Lázaro; Pavón, Nancy; Rodríguez-Oroz, Maria-Cruz; Macías, Raúl; Obeso, Jose A; Jahanshahi, Marjan
Recent imaging studies in healthy controls with a conditional stop signal reaction time (RT) task have implicated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in response inhibition and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in conflict resolution. Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by striatal dopamine deficiency and overactivity of the STN and underactivation of the pre-SMA during movement. We used the conditional stop signal RT task to investigate whether PD produced similar or dissociable effects on response initiation, response inhibition and response initiation under conflict. In addition, we also examined inhibition of prepotent responses on three cognitive tasks: the Stroop, random number generation and Hayling sentence completion. PD patients were impaired on the conditional stop signal reaction time task, with response initiation both in situations with or without conflict and response inhibition all being significantly delayed, and had significantly greater difficulty in suppressing prepotent or habitual responses on the Stroop, Hayling and random number generation tasks relative to controls. These results demonstrate the existence of a generalized inhibitory deficit in PD, which suggest that PD is a disorder of inhibition as well as activation and that in situations of conflict, executive control over responses is compromised.
Luijten, Maartje; Veltman, Dick J.; Hester, Robert; Smits, Marion; Nijs, Ilse M. T.; Pepplinkhuizen, Lolke; Franken, Ingmar H. A.
Contemporary theoretical models of substance dependence posit that deficits in inhibitory control play an important role in substance dependence. The neural network underlying inhibitory control and its association with substance dependence have been widely investigated. However, the pharmacology of
Luijten, M.; Veltman, D.J.; Hester, R.; Smits, M.; Nijs, I.M.T.; Pepplinkhuizen, L.; Franken, I.H.A.
Contemporary theoretical models of substance dependence posit that deficits in inhibitory control play an important role in substance dependence. The neural network underlying inhibitory control and its association with substance dependence have been widely investigated. However, the pharmacology of
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is the most prevalent subcategory of internet addiction. It has been associated with self-concept deficits and related characteristics such as emotional as well as social competence deficits, increased social anxiety and a stronger identification with the own avatar (i.e. a graphical agent that often seems to be constructed according to gamers’ ideal). In addition, IGD seems to be linked with inhibitory control deficits, definable as impairments in the inhibitio...
Mirabella, G; Fragola, M; Giannini, G; Modugno, N; Lakens, Daniel
Parkinson's disease (PD) is often characterized by asymmetrical symptoms, which are more prominent on the side of the body contralateral to the most extensively affected brain hemisphere. Therefore, lateralized PD presents an opportunity to examine the effects of asymmetric subcortical dopamine deficiencies on cognitive functioning. As it has been hypothesized that inhibitory control relies upon a right-lateralized pathway, we tested whether left-dominant PD (LPD) patients suffered from a more severe deficit in this key executive function than right-dominant PD patients (RPD). To this end, via a countermanding task, we assessed both proactive and reactive inhibition in 20 LPD and 20 RPD patients, and in 20 age-matched healthy subjects. As expected, we found that PD patients were significantly more impaired in both forms of inhibitory control than healthy subjects. However, there were no differences either in reactive or proactive inhibition between LPD and RPD patients. All in all, these data support the idea that brain regions affected by PD play a fundamental role in subserving inhibitory function, but do not sustain the hypothesis according to which this executive function is predominantly or solely computed by the brain regions of the right hemisphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geurts, H.M.; Begeer, S.; Stockman, L.
The current study explored whether inhibitory control deficits in high functioning autism (HFA) emerged when socially relevant stimuli were used and whether arousal level affected the performance. A Go/NoGo paradigm, with socially relevant stimuli and varying presentation rates, was applied in 18
Guez, Jonathan; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe
Previous studies have suggested an associative deficit hypothesis [Naveh-Benjamin, M. ( 2000 ). Adult age differences in memory performance: Tests of an associative deficit hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 1170-1187] to explain age-related episodic memory declines. The hypothesis attributes part of the deficient episodic memory performance in older adults to a difficulty in creating and retrieving cohesive episodes. In this article, we further evaluate this hypothesis by testing two alternative processes that potentially mediate associative memory deficits in older adults. Four experiments are presented that assess whether failure of inhibitory processes (proactive interference in Experiments 1 and 2), and concurrent inhibition (in Experiments 3 and 4) are mediating factors in age-related associative deficits. The results suggest that creating conditions that require the operation of inhibitory processes, or that interfere with such processes, cannot simulate associative memory deficit in older adults. Instead, such results support the idea that associative memory deficits reflect a unique binding failure in older adults. This failure seems to be independent of other cognitive processes, including inhibitory and other resource-demanding processes.
Triplett, Regina L.; Velanova, Katerina; Luna, Beatriz; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Gaillard, William D.; Asato, Miya R.
SUMMARY Objective Deficits in executive function are increasingly noted in children with epilepsy and have been associated with poor academic and psychosocial outcomes. Impaired inhibitory control contributes to executive dysfunction in children with epilepsy; however, its neuroanatomic basis has not yet been investigated. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to probe the integrity of activation in brain regions underlying inhibitory control in children with epilepsy. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of 34 children aged 8 to 17 years: 17 with well-controlled epilepsy and 17 age-and sex-matched controls. Participants performed the antisaccade (AS) task, representative of inhibitory control, during fMRI scanning. We compared AS performance during neutral and reward task conditions and evaluated task-related blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation. Results Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired AS performance compared to controls during both neutral (non-reward) and reward trials, but exhibited significant task improvement during reward trials. Post-hoc analysis revealed that younger patients made more errors than older patients and all controls. fMRI results showed preserved activation in task-relevant regions in patients and controls, with the exception of increased activation in the left posterior cingulate gyrus in patients specifically with generalized epilepsy across neutral and reward trials. Significance Despite impaired inhibitory control, children with epilepsy accessed typical neural pathways as did their peers without epilepsy. Children with epilepsy showed improved behavioral performance in response to the reward condition, suggesting potential benefits of the use of incentives in cognitive remediation. PMID:25223606
Leehr, Elisabeth J; Schag, Kathrin; Dresler, Thomas; Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz; Hautzinger, Martin; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E; Ehlis, Ann-Christine
Inhibitory control has been discussed as a developmental and maintenance factor in binge-eating disorder (BED). The current study is the first aimed at investigating inhibitory control in a negative mood condition on a psychophysiological and behavioral level in BED with a combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking (ET). We conducted a combined EEG and ET study with overweight individuals with BED (BED+, n = 24, mean age = 31, mean BMI = 35 kg/m 2 ) and without BED (BED-, n = 23, mean age = 28, mean BMI = 35 kg/m 2 ) and a normal-weight (NWC, n = 26, mean age 28, mean BMI = 22 kg/m 2 ) control group. We assessed self-report data regarding impulsivity and emotion regulation as well as the processing of food stimuli under negative mood in an antisaccade task. Main outcome variables comprise event-related potentials (ERP) regarding conflict processing (N2) and performance monitoring (error-related negativity [ERN/Ne]) assessed by EEG and inhibitory control (errors in the first and second saccade) assessed by ET. BED+ patients reported increased impulsivity and higher emotion regulation difficulties compared with the other groups. The eye tracking data revealed impaired inhibitory control in BED+ compared with both control groups. Further, we found preliminary evidence from EEG recordings that conflict processing might be less thorough in the BED+ sample as well as in the NWC sample. In the BED+ sample this might be connected to the inhibitory control deficits on behavioral level. While the BED- sample showed increased conflict processing latencies (N2 latencies), which might indicate a compensation mechanism, the BED+ sample did not show such a mechanism. Performance monitoring (ERN/Ne latencies and amplitudes) was not impaired in the BED+ sample compared with both control samples. Participants with BED reported higher impulsivity and lower emotion regulation capacities. The combined investigation of electrocortical processes and
Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T
The public health costs associated with alcohol-related traffic accidents have prompted considerable research aimed at identifying characteristics of individuals who drive under the influence (DUI) in order to improve treatment and prevention strategies. Survey studies consistently show that DUI offenders self-report higher levels of impulsivity compared to their nonoffending counterparts. However, little is known about how individuals with a DUI history respond under alcohol. Inhibitory control is a behavioral component of impulsivity thought to underlie risky drinking and driving behaviors. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display deficits of inhibitory control in response to alcohol and the degree to which alcohol impaired their simulated driving performance. It was hypothesized that DUI offenders would display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance. Young adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically-comparable group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg dose of alcohol and a placebo. Inhibitory control was measured by using a cued go/no-go task. Drivers then completed a driving simulation task that yielded multiple indicators of driving performance, such as within-lane deviation, steering rate, centerline crossings and road edge excursions, and drive speed. Results showed that although DUI offenders self-reported greater levels of impulsivity than did controls, no group differences were observed in the degree to which alcohol impaired inhibitory control and driving performance. The findings point to the need to identify other aspects of behavioral dysfunction underlying the self-reported impulsivity among DUI offenders, and to better understand the specific driving situations that might pose greater risk to DUI offenders. The systematic study of candidate cognitive deficits in DUI offenders will provide important
Gorlin, Eugenia I; Teachman, Bethany A
The current study brings together two typically distinct lines of research. First, social anxiety is inconsistently associated with behavioral deficits in social performance, and the factors accounting for these deficits remain poorly understood. Second, research on selective processing of threat cues, termed cognitive biases, suggests these biases typically predict negative outcomes, but may sometimes be adaptive, depending on the context. Integrating these research areas, the current study examined whether conscious and/or unconscious threat interference biases (indexed by the unmasked and masked emotional Stroop) can explain unique variance, beyond self-reported anxiety measures, in behavioral avoidance and observer-rated anxious behavior during a public speaking task. Minute of speech and general inhibitory control (indexed by the color-word Stroop) were examined as within-subject and between-subject moderators, respectively. Highly socially anxious participants (N=135) completed the emotional and color-word Stroop blocks prior to completing a 4-minute videotaped speech task, which was later coded for anxious behaviors (e.g., speech dysfluency). Mixed-effects regression analyses revealed that general inhibitory control moderated the relationship between both conscious and unconscious threat interference bias and anxious behavior (though not avoidance), such that lower threat interference predicted higher levels of anxious behavior, but only among those with relatively weaker (versus stronger) inhibitory control. Minute of speech further moderated this relationship for unconscious (but not conscious) social-threat interference, such that lower social-threat interference predicted a steeper increase in anxious behaviors over the course of the speech (but only among those with weaker inhibitory control). Thus, both trait and state differences in inhibitory control resources may influence the behavioral impact of threat biases in social anxiety. Copyright © 2015
Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald; Rucklidge, Julia J.
Selective attention has durable consequences for behavior and neural activation. Negative priming (NP) effects are assumed to reflect a critical inhibitory component of selective attention. The performance of adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was assessed across two conceptually based NP tasks within a selective…
Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Dalir, Silke; Mingebach, Tanja; Roller, Alisa; Becker, Katja
Background: Inhibitory control (IC) has been regarded as a neuropsychological basic deficit and as an endophenotype of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Implicated here are mediation processes between etiological factors and ADHD symptoms. We thus analyze whether and to what extent executive IC and delay aversion (DA; i.e.,…
Wei, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jing
We developed a circuit model of spiking neurons that includes multiple pathways in the basal ganglia (BG) and is endowed with feedback mechanisms at three levels: cortical microcircuit, corticothalamic loop, and cortico-BG-thalamocortical system. We focused on executive control in a stop signal task, which is known to depend on BG across species. The model reproduces a range of experimental observations and shows that the newly discovered feedback projection from external globus pallidus to striatum is crucial for inhibitory control. Moreover, stopping process is enhanced by the cortico-subcortical reverberatory dynamics underlying persistent activity, establishing interdependence between working memory and inhibitory control. Surprisingly, the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) can be adjusted by weights of certain connections but is insensitive to other connections in this complex circuit, suggesting novel circuit-based intervention for inhibitory control deficits associated with mental illness. Our model provides a unified framework for inhibitory control, decision making, and working memory. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Strickland, Justin C; Bolin, B Levi; Romanelli, Michael R; Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W
Cocaine users display deficits in inhibitory control and make impulsive choices that may increase risky behavior. Buspirone is an anxiolytic that activates dopaminergic and serotonergic systems and improves impulsive choice (i.e., reduces sexual risk-taking intent) in cocaine users when administered chronically. We evaluated the effects of acutely administered buspirone on inhibitory control and impulsive choice. Eleven subjects with a recent history of cocaine use completed this within-subject, placebo-controlled study. Subjects performed two cued go/no-go and a sexual risk delay-discounting task following oral administration of buspirone (10 and 30 mg), triazolam (0.375 mg; positive control), and placebo (negative control). Physiological and psychomotor performance and subject-rated data were also collected. Buspirone failed to change inhibitory control or impulsive choice; however, slower reaction times were observed at the highest dose tested. Buspirone did not produce subject-rated drug effects but dose-dependently decreased diastolic blood pressure. Triazolam impaired psychomotor performance and increased ratings of positive subject-rated effects (e.g., Like Drug). These findings indicate that acutely administered buspirone has little impact on behavioral measures of inhibitory control and impulsive sexual decision-making. Considering previous findings with chronic dosing, these findings highlight that the behavioral effects of buspirone differ as a function of dosing conditions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.
Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control...
Zhang, Huaiying; Wu, Hanrong
Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) was investigated to explore the cognitive mechanism underlying DD. According to the definition of developmental dyscalculia, 19 children with DD-only and 10 children with DD&RD (DD combined with reading disability) were selected step by step, children in two control groups were matched with children in case groups by gender and age, and the match ratio was 1:1. Psychological testing software named DMDX was used to measure inhibitory ability of the subjects. The differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks and differences of accuracy in incongruent condition of color-word Stroop tasks and object inhibition tasks between DD-only children and their controls reached significant levels (P<0.05), and the differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks between dyscalculic and normal children did not disappear after controlling the non-executive components. The difference of accuracy in color-word incongruent tasks between children with DD&RD and normal children reached significant levels (P<0.05). Children with DD-only confronted with general inhibitory deficits, while children with DD&RD confronted with word inhibitory deficits only.
Full Text Available Inhibitory control may play an important part in prosocial behavior, such as donating behavior. However, it is not clear at what developmental stage inhibitory control becomes associated with donating behavior and which aspects of inhibitory control are related to donating behavior during development in early to middle childhood. The present study aimed to clarify these issues with two experiments. In Experiment 1, 103 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers completed cool (Stroop-like and hot (delay of gratification inhibitory control tasks and a donating task. The results indicated that there were no relationships between cool or hot inhibitory control and donating behavior in the whole group and each age group of the preschoolers. In Experiment 2, 140 elementary school children in Grades 2, 4, and 6 completed cool (Stroop-like and hot (delay of gratification inhibitory control tasks and a donating task. The results showed that inhibitory control was positively associated with donating behavior in the whole group. Cool and hot inhibitory control respectively predicted donating behavior in the second and sixth graders. Therefore, the present study reveals that donating behavior increasingly relies on specific inhibitory control, i.e., hot inhibitory control as children grow in middle childhood.
Jacobson, Lisa A; Schneider, Heather; Mahone, E Mark
Discriminative utility of performance measures of inhibitory control was examined in preschool children with and without ADHD to determine whether performance measures added to diagnostic prediction and to prediction of informant-rated day-to-day executive function. Children ages 4-5 years (N = 105, 61% boys; 54 ADHD, medication-naïve) were assessed using performance measures (Auditory Continuous Performance Test for Preschoolers-Commission errors, Conflicting Motor Response Test, NEPSY Statue) and caregiver (parent, teacher) ratings of inhibition (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version). Performance measures and parent and teacher reports of inhibitory control significantly and uniquely predicted ADHD group status; however, performance measures did not add to prediction of group status beyond parent reports. Performance measures did significantly predict classroom inhibitory control (teacher ratings), over and above parent reports of inhibitory control. Performance measures of inhibitory control may be adequate predictors of ADHD status and good predictors of young children's classroom inhibitory control, demonstrating utility as components of clinical assessments. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Three experiments compared the verbal memory skills of children with poor reading comprehension with that of same-age good comprehenders. The aims were to determine if semantic and/or inhibitory deficits explained comprehenders' problems on measures of verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory. In Experiment 1 there were no group differences on word- and number-based measures of short-term storage and no evidence that semantic knowledge mediated word recall. In Experiment 2 poor comprehenders were impaired on word- and number-based assessments of working memory, the greatest deficit found on the word-based task. Error analysis of both word-based tasks revealed that poor comprehenders were more likely to recall items that should have been inhibited than were good comprehenders. Experiment 3 extended this finding: Poor comprehenders were less able to inhibit information that was no longer relevant. Together, these findings suggest that individual differences in inhibitory processing influence the ability to regulate the contents of working memory, which may contribute to the differential memory performance of good and poor comprehenders.
Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Hsieh, Kai-Wen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by a deficit of dorsal visual stream processing as well as the impairment of inhibitory control capability. However, the cognitive processing mechanisms of executive dysfunction have not been addressed. In the present study, the endogenous Posner paradigm task was administered to 15 children with…
Luijten, Maartje; Machielsen, Marise W. J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Hester, Robert; de Haan, Lieuwe; Franken, Ingmar H. A.
Several current theories emphasize the role of cognitive control in addiction. The present review evaluates neural deficits in the domains of inhibitory control and error processing in individuals with substance dependence and in those showing excessive addiction-like behaviours. The combined
Luijten, M.; Machielsen, M.W.J.; Veltman, D.J.; Hester, R.; de Haan, L.; Franken, I.H.A.
Background: Several current theories emphasize the role of cognitive control in addiction. The present review evaluates neural deficits in the domains of inhibitory control and error processing in individuals with substance dependence and in those showing excessive addiction-like behaviours. The
Correa, Angel; Miro, Elena; Martinez, M. Pilar; Sanchez, Ana I.; Lupianez, Juan
Cognitive deficits in fibromyalgia may be specifically related to controlled processes, such as those measured by working memory or executive function tasks. This hypothesis was tested here by measuring controlled temporal preparation (temporal orienting) during a response inhibition (go no-go) task. Temporal orienting effects (faster reaction…
Lorenza S Colzato
Full Text Available Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed.
Impulsivity has been defined as acting without thinking. Impulsivity can be quantified by impulsivity questionnaires, but also by behavioral paradigms which tax inhibitory control. Previous research has repeatedly demonstrated deficient inhibitory control in psychopathological samples characterized
Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the differences in prefrontal activation between adults with ASDs and ADHD using an entirely non-invasive and portable neuroimaging tool, near-infrared spectroscopy. This study included 21 drug-naïve adults with ASDs, 19 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were assessed during a stop signal task and a verbal fluency task. During the stop signal task, compared to the control group, the ASDs group exhibited lower activation in a broad prefrontal area, whereas the ADHD group showed underactivation of the right premotor area, right presupplementary motor area, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Significant differences were observed in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex between the ASDs and ADHD groups during the stop signal task. The leave-one-out cross-validation method using mean oxygenated hemoglobin changes yielded a classification accuracy of 81.4% during inhibitory control. These results were task specific, as the brain activation pattern observed during the verbal fluency task did not differentiate the ASDs and ADHD groups significantly. This study therefore provides evidence of a difference in left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during inhibitory control between adults with ASDs and ADHD. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful as an auxiliary tool for the differential diagnosis of such developmental disorders.
Heinrich, Hartmut; Hoegl, Thomas; Moll, Gunther H; Kratz, Oliver
implementation of motor control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder reflecting compensatory cognitive mechanisms as a result of a basal motor cortical inhibitory deficit (reduced activation of inhibitory intracortical interneurons). Both deviant inhibitory and attentional processes, which are not related to each other, seem to be characteristic for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at the neural level in motor control tasks. The underlying neural mechanisms, which are probably not restricted to the motor cortex and the posterior attention network, may play a key role in the pathophysiology of this child psychiatric disorder. The high classification rate can further be interpreted as a step towards the development of neural markers. In summary, the bimodal neurophysiological concept may contribute to developing an integrative framework for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Spitoni, Grazia Fernanda; Ottaviani, Cristina; Petta, Anna Maria; Zingaretti, Pietro; Aragona, Massimiliano; Sarnicola, Antonio; Antonucci, Gabriella
Recent theories compare obesity with addiction in terms of lack of inhibitory control in both clinical populations. The present study hypothesized impaired inhibition in obese patients reflected both in executive functions and reduced vagal tone (indexed by a decrease in heart rate variability; HRV) in response to food stimuli. Twenty-four inpatients with obesity (19 women) and 37 controls (24 women) underwent ECG monitoring during baseline, food stimuli viewing, and a recovery phase. Tests and questionnaires assessing inhibitory control and psychopathological dispositions were also administered. As hypothesized, patients were characterized by deficits in all the tests measuring inhibitory capacities. Results also show greater HRV reduction and impaired HRV recovery in response to food stimuli in obese patients compared to controls. The drive to eat experienced by obese patients in the absence of caloric need may rely on impairments in inhibitory and vagal functioning. Results are discussed in terms of implications for therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ganos, Christos; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick
Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature. We then examine the association between voluntary inhibitory tic control with premonitory urges and review evidence linking voluntary tic inhibition to other forms of executive control of action. We discuss the somatotopic selectivity and the neural correlates of voluntary inhibitory tic control. Finally, we provide a scientific framework with regard to the clinical relevance of the study of voluntary inhibitory tic control within the context of the neurodevelopmental disorder of Tourette syndrome. We identify current knowledge gaps that deserve attention in future research. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy; Banich, Marie T
The ability to inhibit distracting stimuli from interfering with goal-directed behavior is crucial for success in most spheres of life. Despite an abundance of studies examining regional brain activation, knowledge of the brain networks involved in inhibitory control remains quite limited. To address this critical gap, we applied graph theory tools to functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected while a large sample of adults (n = 101) performed a color-word Stroop task. Higher demand for inhibitory control was associated with restructuring of the global network into a configuration that was more optimized for specialized processing (functional segregation), more efficient at communicating the output of such processing across the network (functional integration), and more resilient to potential interruption (resilience). In addition, there were regional changes with right inferior frontal sulcus and right anterior insula occupying more central positions as network hubs, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex becoming more tightly coupled with its regional subnetwork. Given the crucial role of inhibitory control in goal-directed behavior, present findings identifying functional network organization supporting inhibitory control have the potential to provide additional insights into how inhibitory control may break down in a wide variety of individuals with neurological or psychiatric difficulties.
Schlinkert, Caroline; Koole, Sander L
People can use inhibitory control to temporarily inhibit their personal preferences to achieve their long-term goals. According to the ego fixation model (Koole et al., 2014), ruminators have difficulties relaxing inhibitory control, leading them to continue inhibiting their personal needs, even when this is no longer required by the situation. Inhibitory control may thus disrupt healthy appetite regulation among ruminators. Among 324 Dutch undergraduate students (218 women; M age = 21.5), different inhibitory control states were manipulated by varying whether or not participants exerted inhibitory control (Study 1) or priming high versus low inhibitory control (Study 2). All participants then performed a food-tasting task. Healthy appetite regulation was defined as a positive correlation between level of food deprivation and preference for high-calorie foods. For taste ratings, the interaction between inhibitory control and rumination was significant in each study: Inhibitory control disrupted healthy appetite regulation in taste preferences among ruminators, but not among non-ruminators. For eating behavior, the same interaction effect was significant when the two studies were combined. Inhibitory control disrupts healthy appetite regulation among ruminators. These findings suggest the need for caution in interventions that rely on inhibitory control, especially among samples with compulsive thought tendencies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The object of the current study is to explore the neural substrate for effects of atomoxetine (ATX on inhibitory control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. We monitored the oxy-hemoglobin signal changes of sixteen ADHD children (6–14 years old performing a go/no-go task before and 1.5 h after ATX or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Sixteen age- and gender-matched normal controls without ATX administration were also monitored. In the control subjects, the go/no-go task recruited the right inferior and middle prefrontal gyri (IFG/MFG, and this activation was absent in pre-medicated ADHD children. The reduction of right IFG/MFG activation was acutely normalized after ATX administration but not placebo administration in ADHD children. These results are reminiscent of the neuropharmacological effects of methylphenidate to up-regulate reduced right IFG/MFG function in ADHD children during inhibitory tasks. As with methylphenidate, activation in the IFG/MFG could serve as an objective neuro-functional biomarker to indicate the effects of ATX on inhibitory control in ADHD children. This promising technique will enhance early clinical diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in children, especially in those with a hyperactivity/impulsivity phenotype.
Elton, Amanda; Tripathi, Shanti P; Mletzko, Tanja; Young, Jonathan; Cisler, Josh M; James, G Andrew; Kilts, Clinton D
Childhood adversity represents a major risk factor for drug addiction and other mental disorders. However, the specific mechanisms by which childhood adversity impacts human brain organization to confer greater vulnerability for negative outcomes in adulthood is largely unknown. As an impaired process in drug addiction, inhibitory control of behavior was investigated as a target of childhood maltreatment (abuse and neglect). Forty adults without Axis-I psychiatric disorders (21 females) completed a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while performing a stop-signal task. A group independent component analysis identified a putative brain inhibitory control network. Graph theoretical analyses and structural equation modeling investigated the impact of childhood maltreatment on the functional organization of this neural processing network. Graph theory outcomes revealed sex differences in the relationship between network functional connectivity and inhibitory control which were dependent on the severity of childhood maltreatment exposure. A network effective connectivity analysis indicated that a maltreatment dose-related negative modulation of dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) activity by the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) predicted better response inhibition and lesser attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in females, but poorer response inhibition and greater ADHD symptoms in males. Less inhibition of the right IFC by dACC in males with higher CTQ scores improved inhibitory control ability. The childhood maltreatment-related reorganization of a brain inhibitory control network provides sex-dependent mechanisms by which childhood adversity may confer greater risk for drug use and related disorders and by which adaptive brain responses protect individuals from this risk factor. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lorains, Felicity K; Stout, Julie C; Bradshaw, John L; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G
Impulsivity is considered a core feature of problem gambling; however, self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control may reflect disparate constructs. We examined self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in 39 treatment-seeking problem gamblers and 41 matched controls using a range of self-report questionnaires and laboratory inhibitory control tasks. We also investigated differences between treatment-seeking problem gamblers who prefer strategic (e.g., sports betting) and nonstrategic (e.g., electronic gaming machines) gambling activities. Treatment-seeking problem gamblers demonstrated elevated self-reported impulsivity, more go errors on the Stop Signal Task, and a lower gap score on the Random Number Generation task than matched controls. However, overall we did not find strong evidence that treatment-seeking problem gamblers are more impulsive on laboratory inhibitory control measures. Furthermore, strategic and nonstrategic problem gamblers did not differ from their respective controls on either self-reported impulsivity questionnaires or laboratory inhibitory control measures. Contrary to expectations, our results suggest that inhibitory dyscontrol may not be a key component for some treatment-seeking problem gamblers.
Full Text Available The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study investigated influences of language contexts on inhibitory control and the underlying neural processes. Thirty Cantonese–Mandarin–English trilingual speakers, who were highly proficient in Cantonese (L1 and Mandarin (L2, and moderately proficient in English (L3, performed a picture-naming task in three dual-language contexts (L1-L2, L2-L3, and L1-L3. After each of the three naming tasks, participants performed a flanker task, measuring contextual effects on the inhibitory control system. Behavioral results showed a typical flanker effect in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition, but not in the L1-L2 condition, which indicates contextual facilitation on inhibitory control performance by the L1-L2 context. Whole brain analysis of the fMRI data acquired during the flanker tasks showed more neural activations in the right prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition on one hand as compared to the L1-L2 condition on the other hand, suggesting greater involvement of the cognitive control areas when participants were performing the flanker task in L2-L3 and L1-L3 contexts. Effective connectivity analyses displayed a cortical-subcortical-cerebellar circuitry for inhibitory control in the trilinguals. However, contrary to the right-lateralized network in the L1-L2 condition, functional networks for inhibitory control in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition are less integrated and more left-lateralized. These findings provide a novel perspective for investigating the interaction between bilingualism (multilingualism and inhibitory control by demonstrating instant behavioral effects and neural plasticity as a function of changes in global language contexts.
Ames, Susan L; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L; Mackinnon, David P; Stacy, Alan W
Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors - binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes among 198 adolescents, ages 14 to 17. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific version directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Diet was assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making on the IGT, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This work extends research findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in habitual behaviors and their relationship to snack food consumption in an understudied population of diverse adolescents not
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit disorder (ADHD is commonly associated with inhibitory dysfunction contributing to typical behavioral symptoms like impulsivity or hyperactivity. However, some studies analyzing intraindividual variability (IIV of reaction times in children with ADHD (cADHD question a predominance of inhibitory deficits. IIV is a measure of the stability of information processing and provides evidence that longer reaction times (RT in inhibitory tasks in cADHD are due to only a few prolonged responses which may indicate deficits in sustained attention rather than inhibitory dysfunction. We wanted to find out, whether a slowing in inhibitory functioning in adults with ADHD (aADHD is due to isolated slow responses. METHODS: Computing classical RT measures (mean RT, SD, ex-Gaussian parameters of IIV (which allow a better separation of reaction time (mu, variability (sigma and abnormally slow responses (tau than classical measures as well as errors of omission and commission, we examined response inhibition in a well-established GoNogo task in a sample of aADHD subjects without medication and healthy controls matched for age, gender and education. RESULTS: We did not find higher numbers of commission errors in aADHD, while the number of omissions was significantly increased compared with controls. In contrast to increased mean RT, the distributional parameter mu did not document a significant slowing in aADHD. However, subjects with aADHD were characterized by increased IIV throughout the entire RT distribution as indicated by the parameters sigma and tau as well as the SD of reaction time. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between tau and the number of omission errors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings question a primacy of inhibitory deficits in aADHD and provide evidence for attentional dysfunction. The present findings may have theoretical implications for etiological models of ADHD as well as more practical implications for
Whiteside, Mark A.; Laker, Philippa R.; Beardsworth, Christine E.
Transparent Cylinder and Barrier tasks are used to purportedly assess inhibitory control in a variety of animals. However, we suspect that performances on these detour tasks are influenced by non-cognitive traits, which may result in inaccurate assays of inhibitory control. We therefore reared pheasants under standardized conditions and presented each bird with two sets of similar tasks commonly used to measure inhibitory control. We recorded the number of times subjects incorrectly attempted to access a reward through transparent barriers, and their latencies to solve each task. Such measures are commonly used to infer the differential expression of inhibitory control. We found little evidence that their performances were consistent across the two different Putative Inhibitory Control Tasks (PICTs). Improvements in performance across trials showed that pheasants learned the affordances of each specific task. Critically, prior experience of transparent tasks, either Barrier or Cylinder, also improved subsequent inhibitory control performance on a novel task, suggesting that they also learned the general properties of transparent obstacles. Individual measures of persistence, assayed in a third task, were positively related to their frequency of incorrect attempts to solve the transparent inhibitory control tasks. Neophobia, Sex and Body Condition had no influence on individual performance. Contrary to previous studies of primates, pheasants with poor performance on PICTs had a wider dietary breadth assayed using a free-choice task. Our results demonstrate that in systems or taxa where prior experience and differences in development cannot be accounted for, individual differences in performance on commonly used detour-dependent PICTS may reveal more about an individual's prior experience of transparent objects, or their motivation to acquire food, than providing a reliable measure of their inhibitory control. PMID:29593115
Alcorn, Joseph L; Pike, Erika; Stoops, William S; Lile, Joshua A; Rush, Craig R
Disrupted response inhibition and presence of drug-cue attentional bias in cocaine-using individuals have predicted poor treatment outcomes. Inhibitory control training could help improve treatment outcomes by strengthening cognitive control. This pilot study assessed the effects of acute inhibitory control training to drug- and non-drug-related cues on response inhibition performance and cocaine-cue attentional bias in cocaine-using individuals. Participants who met criteria for a cocaine-use disorder underwent five sessions of inhibitory control training to either non-drug-related cues (i.e., rectangles) or cocaine cues (n=10/condition) in a single day. Response inhibition and attentional bias were assessed prior to and following training using the stop-signal task and visual-probe task with eye tracking, respectively. Training condition groups did not differ on demographics, inhibitory control training performance, response inhibition, or cocaine-cue attentional bias. Response inhibition performance improved as a function of inhibitory control training in both conditions. Cocaine-cue attentional bias was observed, but did not change as a function of inhibitory control training in either condition. Response inhibition in cocaine-using individuals was augmented by acute inhibitory control training, which may improve treatment outcomes through better behavioral inhibition. Future studies should investigate longer-term implementation of inhibitory control training, as well as combining inhibitory control training with other treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.
Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific Go/No-Go task directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Dietary measures were assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Results of latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making, assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This research extends other study findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in
Full Text Available The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task.Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20Â min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition. During the task, stimulus-locked event-related potentials were recorded with electroencephalography.Both groups showed an increase of P300 amplitude and decrease of reaction time after exercise compared to the control condition. Investigating the effect of exercise modality, aerobic exercise led to greater increases of P300 amplitude and reductions in reaction time than coordinative exercise in children with ADHD.The findings suggest that a single exercise bout improves inhibitory control and the allocation of attentional resources. There were some indications that an aerobic exercise session seems to be more efficient than coordinative exercise in reducing the inhibitory control deficits that persist in children with ADHD. Keywords: P300, Executive function, Cognitive performance, Flanker task, Development, Healthy children
Kray, Jutta; Karbach, Julia; Haenig, Susann; Freitag, Christine
The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task-switching, and working memory (WM). In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training) on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal WM as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning). The children in both groups showed improvements in task-switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single-tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal WM, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.
Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.
Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children…
Popov, Tzvetan; Westner, Britta U; Silton, Rebecca L; Sass, Sarah M; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A
Hemodynamic research has recently clarified key nodes and links in brain networks implementing inhibitory control. Although fMRI methods are optimized for identifying the structure of brain networks, the relatively slow temporal course of fMRI limits the ability to characterize network operation. The latter is crucial for developing a mechanistic understanding of how brain networks shift dynamically to support inhibitory control. To address this critical gap, we applied spectrally resolved Granger causality (GC) and random forest machine learning tools to human EEG data in two large samples of adults (test sample n = 96, replication sample n = 237, total N = 333, both sexes) who performed a color-word Stroop task. Time-frequency analysis confirmed that recruitment of inhibitory control accompanied by slower behavioral responses was related to changes in theta and alpha/beta power. GC analyses revealed directionally asymmetric exchanges within frontal and between frontal and parietal brain areas: top-down influence of superior frontal gyrus (SFG) over both dorsal ACC (dACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dACC control over middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and frontal-parietal exchanges (IFG, precuneus, MFG). Predictive analytics confirmed a combination of behavioral and brain-derived variables as the best set of predictors of inhibitory control demands, with SFG theta bearing higher classification importance than dACC theta and posterior beta tracking the onset of behavioral response. The present results provide mechanistic insight into the biological implementation of a psychological phenomenon: inhibitory control is implemented by dynamic routing processes during which the target response is upregulated via theta-mediated effective connectivity within key PFC nodes and via beta-mediated motor preparation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hemodynamic neuroimaging research has recently clarified regional structures in brain networks supporting inhibitory control. However, due to
Gindt, Morgane; Chanquoy, Lucile; Garcia, René
In adults, pathologies of anxiety such as posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) involve deficits in information processing that may reflect hypervigilance and deficient inhibitory control, specifically for negative information. However, little is known about inhibitory processing in children, particularly regarding the inhibition of emotional information. This study investigated whether children with PTSS or anxiety show impairments in executive control in an inhibition task. A total of 45 children (M age = 9.2 year, SD = 0.7, range: 8-11) completed an inhibition task involving emotional-happy, angry, and fearful-and neutral stimuli and clinical scales for PTSS and anxiety. The results indicated that the percentage of correct answers was modulated by PTSS status, particularly in the happiness task. PTSS and anxiety altered the inhibition of fearful information in children. These data suggest different types of inhibitory deficits depending on clinical symptoms, and implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Eggers, K.; de Nil, L.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate whether previously reported parental questionnaire-based differences in inhibitory control (IC; Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) would be supported by direct measurement of IC using a computer task. Method Participants were 30 children who
Full Text Available The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task switching, and working memory. In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal working memory as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning. The children in both groups showed improvements in task switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal working memory, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.
Ruddock, Scott; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Piek, Jan; Sugden, David; Hyde, Christian; Morris, Sue; Rigoli, Daniela; Steenbergen, Bert; Wilson, Peter
Previous research indicates that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) show deficits performing online corrections, an issue exacerbated by adding inhibitory constraints; however, cross-sectional data suggests that these deficits may reduce with age. Using a longitudinal design, the aim of the study presented here was to model the coupling that occurs between inhibitory systems and (predictive) online control in typically developing children (TDC) and in those with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) over an extended period of time, using a framework of interactive specialization. We predicted that TDC would show a non-linear growth pattern, consistent with re-organisation in the coupling during the middle childhood period, while DCD would display a developmental lag. A group of 196 children (111 girls and 85 boys) aged between 6 and 12years participated in the study. Children were classified as DCD according to research criteria. Using a cohort sequential design, both TDC and DCD groups were divided into age cohorts. Predictive (online) control was defined operationally by performance on a Double-Jump Reaching Task (DJRT), which was assessed at 6-month intervals over two years (5 time points in total). Inhibitory control was examined using an anti-jump condition of the DJRT paradigm whereby children were instructed to touch a target location in the hemispace opposite a cued location. For the TDC group, model comparison using growth curve analysis revealed that a quadratic trend was the most appropriate fit with evidence of rapid improvement in anti-reach performance up until middle childhood (around 8-9years of age), followed by a more gradual rate of improvement into late childhood and early adolescence. This pattern was evident on both chronometric and kinematic measures. In contrast, for children with DCD, a linear function provided the best to fit on the key metrics, with a slower rate of improvement than controls. We conclude that
van Strien, Tatjana; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engel, Carmen; de Weerth, Carolina
Self-reported emotional eating has been found to significantly moderate distress-induced food intake, with low emotional eaters eating less after a stress task than after a control task and high emotional eaters eating more. The aim of the present study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms by assessing possible associations with (1) ability to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger and (2) inhibitory control. We studied these effects in 54 female students who were preselected on the basis of extremely high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a within subject design we measured the difference of actual food or snack intake after a control or a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). As expected, the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake was found to be only present in females with a failure to report the typical reduction of hunger immediately after a stress task (an a-typical hunger stress response). Contrary to our expectations, this moderator effect of emotional eating was also found to be only present in females with high ability to stop motor impulses (high inhibitory control). These findings suggest that an a-typical hunger stress response but not poor inhibitory control may underlie the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. However, inhibitory control may play a role whether or not there is a moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Inhibitory control is able to control attention by inhibiting internal tendencies and external influences. Inhibitory control is controlled by dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, that can be affected by stress variable. Sing-a-Song Stress Test (SSST is a current method to induce stress that has never been practiced in study of inhibitory control. This study aimed to determine the effect of SSST against inhibitory control in early adult. Between subjects design was applied in this study. A number of 35 participants with age range from 17 to 21 years old were randomly assigned into experimental group (n = 17 and control group (n = 18. Inhibitory control was measured using Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test (CSCWT. Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS was used to conduct a manipulation check. Independent-Samples T Test explained no significant effect of stress on inhibitory control (t = -0,117; p > 0,05.
Full Text Available Past research has demonstrated negative associations between exposure to stressors and quality of interpersonal relationships among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Chronic stress has been shown to disrupt prefrontal functioning in the brain, including inhibitory control abilities, and evidence is accumulating that inhibitory control may play an important role in secure interpersonal relationship quality, including peer problems and social competence. In this prospective longitudinal study, we examine whether changes in inhibitory control, measured at both behavioral and neural levels, mediate the association between stress and changes in secure relationship quality with parents and peers. The sample included 167 adolescents (53% males who were first recruited at age 13 or 14 years and assessed annually three times. Adolescents’ inhibitory control was measured by their behavioral performance and brain activities, and adolescents self-reported perceived stress levels and relationship quality with mothers, fathers, and peers. Results suggest that behavioral inhibitory control mediates the association between perceived stress and adolescent’s secure relationship quality with their mothers and fathers, but not their peers. In contrast, given that stress was not significantly correlated with neural inhibitory control, we did not further test the mediation path. Our results highlight the role of inhibitory control as a process through which stressful life experiences are related to impaired secure relationship quality between adolescents and their mothers and fathers.
Herd, Toria; Li, Mengjiao; Maciejewski, Dominique; Lee, Jacob; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; King-Casas, Brooks; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Past research has demonstrated negative associations between exposure to stressors and quality of interpersonal relationships among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Chronic stress has been shown to disrupt prefrontal functioning in the brain, including inhibitory control abilities, and evidence is accumulating that inhibitory control may play an important role in secure interpersonal relationship quality, including peer problems and social competence. In this prospective longitudinal study, we examine whether changes in inhibitory control, measured at both behavioral and neural levels, mediate the association between stress and changes in secure relationship quality with parents and peers. The sample included 167 adolescents (53% males) who were first recruited at age 13 or 14 years and assessed annually three times. Adolescents' inhibitory control was measured by their behavioral performance and brain activities, and adolescents self-reported perceived stress levels and relationship quality with mothers, fathers, and peers. Results suggest that behavioral inhibitory control mediates the association between perceived stress and adolescent's secure relationship quality with their mothers and fathers, but not their peers. In contrast, given that stress was not significantly correlated with neural inhibitory control, we did not further test the mediation path. Our results highlight the role of inhibitory control as a process through which stressful life experiences are related to impaired secure relationship quality between adolescents and their mothers and fathers.
Bari, A; Dec, A; Lee, A W; Lee, J; Song, D; Dale, E; Peterson, J; Zorn, S; Huang, X; Campbell, B; Robbins, T W; West, A R
The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system acts in synergy with the classic neurotransmitters to regulate a large variety of functions including autonomic, affective, and cognitive processes. Research on the effects of NPY in the central nervous system has focused on food intake control and affective processes, but growing evidence of NPY involvement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other psychiatric conditions motivated the present study. We tested the effects of the novel and highly selective NPY Y5 receptor antagonist Lu AE00654 on impulsivity and the underlying cortico-striatal circuitry in rats to further explore the possible involvement of the NPY system in pathologies characterized by inattention and impulsive behavior. A low dose of Lu AE00654 (0.03 mg/kg) selectively facilitated response inhibition as measured by the stop-signal task, whereas no effects were found at higher doses (0.3 and 3 mg/kg). Systemic administration of Lu AE00654 also enhanced the inhibitory influence of the dorsal frontal cortex on neurons in the caudate-putamen, this fronto-striatal circuitry being implicated in the executive control of behavior. Finally, by locally injecting a Y5 agonist, we observed reciprocal activation between dorsal frontal cortex and caudate-putamen neurons. Importantly, the effects of the Y5 agonist were attenuated by pretreatment with Lu AE00654, confirming the presence of Y5 binding sites modulating functional interactions within frontal-subcortical circuits. These results suggest that the NPY system modulates inhibitory neurotransmission in brain areas important for impulse control, and may be relevant for the treatment of pathologies such as ADHD and drug abuse.
Brucks, Désirée; Range, Friederike; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah
Inequity aversion is thought to act as a mechanism to ensure cooperation and has been studied in many different species, consistently revealing inter-individual variation. Inhibitory control has been proposed to act as one factor responsible for this variation since individuals need to inhibit performing the required action and/or refuse rewards in order to exhibit inequity aversion. Here, we investigated if dogs' sensitivity to inequity is affected by their capacity for inhibitory control, assessed in a test battery and questionnaire. Overall, dogs showing high compulsivity scores (i.e. repetitive behaviours independent of feedback) were more motivated to participate in the inequity task independent of the rewarding scheme. Dogs were more sensitive to inequity and individual contrast if they exhibited a slower decision speed in the inhibition tasks. Furthermore, less persistent and more impulsive dogs were more sensitive to reward inequity, potentially due to having a lower tolerance level for frustration. Results indicate that aspects of inhibitory control can explain the variation in dogs' inequity response, highlighting one of the mechanisms underlying responses to inequity. Emphasising the importance to design paradigms, which allow us to disentangle capacities to recognise inequity from the inability to react to it due to poor inhibitory control abilities.
Luijten, Maartje; Machielsen, Marise W.J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Hester, Robert; de Haan, Lieuwe; Franken, Ingmar H.A.
Background Several current theories emphasize the role of cognitive control in addiction. The present review evaluates neural deficits in the domains of inhibitory control and error processing in individuals with substance dependence and in those showing excessive addiction-like behaviours. The combined evaluation of event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings in the present review offers unique information on neural deficits in addicted individuals. Methods We selected 19 ERP and 22 fMRI studies using stop-signal, go/no-go or Flanker paradigms based on a search of PubMed and Embase. Results The most consistent findings in addicted individuals relative to healthy controls were lower N2, error-related negativity and error positivity amplitudes as well as hypoactivation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These neural deficits, however, were not always associated with impaired task performance. With regard to behavioural addictions, some evidence has been found for similar neural deficits; however, studies are scarce and results are not yet conclusive. Differences among the major classes of substances of abuse were identified and involve stronger neural responses to errors in individuals with alcohol dependence versus weaker neural responses to errors in other substance-dependent populations. Limitations Task design and analysis techniques vary across studies, thereby reducing comparability among studies and the potential of clinical use of these measures. Conclusion Current addiction theories were supported by identifying consistent abnormalities in prefrontal brain function in individuals with addiction. An integrative model is proposed, suggesting that neural deficits in the dorsal ACC may constitute a hallmark neurocognitive deficit underlying addictive behaviours, such as loss of control. PMID:24359877
Julia E. Cohen-Gilbert
images interferes more with inhibitory control neurocircuitry than in young adults who do not binge drink often. This pattern of altered frontal lobe activation associated with binge drinking may serve as an early marker of risk for future self-regulation deficits that could lead to problematic alcohol use. These findings underscore the importance of understanding the impact of emotion on cognitive control and associated brain functioning in binge drinking behaviors among young adults.
Dieter, Julia; Hoffmann, Sabine; Mier, Daniela; Reinhard, Iris; Beutel, Martin; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kiefer, Falk; Mann, Karl; Leménager, Tagrid
Addicts to specific internet applications involving communication features showed increased social anxiety, emotional competence deficits and impaired prefrontal-related inhibitory control. The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) likely plays an important role in cognitive control and negative affect (such as social exclusion, pain or anxiety). To assess (social) anxiety-related inhibitory control in specific internet addiction (addicted use of games and social networks) and its relation to altered dACC activation. N=44 controls and n=51 specific internet addicts completed an anxious words-based Affective Go/No-Go task (AGN). A subsample of n=23 healthy controls and n=25 specific internet addicts underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while completing an Emotional Stroop Task (EST) with socially anxious, positive, negative and neutral words. Subgroups of internet gaming and social network addicts were exploratively assessed. Psychometric measures of social anxiety, emotional competence and impulsivity were additionally explored. Specific internet addicts showed higher impulsivity, social anxiety and reduced emotional competence. Between-group differences in AGN and EST behavioral measures were not detected. No group differences were found in the dACC, but explorative analyses revealed decreased left middle and superior temporal gyrus activation during interference of socially anxious words in internet gaming and relative to social network addicts. Given the function of the left middle temporal gyrus in the retrieval of words or expressions during communication, our findings give a first hint that social words might be less retrievable in the semantic storage of internet gaming addicts, possibly indicating deficiencies in handling speech in social situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike
Inhibitory control i.e. blocking an impulsive or prepotent response in favour of a more appropriate alternative, has been suggested to play an important role in cooperative behaviour. Interestingly, while dogs and wolves show a similar social organization, they differ in their intraspecific cooperation tendencies in that wolves rely more heavily on group coordination in regard to hunting and pup-rearing compared to dogs. Hence, based on the ‘canine cooperation’ hypothesis wolves should show better inhibitory control than dogs. On the other hand, through the domestication process, dogs may have been selected for cooperative tendencies towards humans and/or a less reactive temperament, which may in turn have affected their inhibitory control abilities. Hence, based on the latter hypothesis, we would expect dogs to show a higher performance in tasks requiring inhibitory control. To test the predictive value of these alternative hypotheses, in the current study two tasks; the ‘cylinder task’ and the ‘detour task’, which are designed to assess inhibitory control, were used to evaluate the performance of identically raised pack dogs and wolves. Results from the cylinder task showed a significantly poorer performance in wolves than identically-raised pack dogs (and showed that pack-dogs performed similarly to pet dogs with different training experiences), however contrary results emerged in the detour task, with wolves showing a shorter latency to success and less perseverative behaviour at the fence. Results are discussed in relation to previous studies using these paradigms and in terms of the validity of these two methods in assessing inhibitory control. PMID:25714840
Crawford, Trevor J; Higham, Steve
Dementia (most notably, Alzheimer's Disease) is often associated with impairments of both working memory and inhibitory control. However, it is unclear whether these are functionally distinct impairments. We addressed the issue of whether working memory and inhibitory control can be dissociated, using data from a sample of patients who were recruited in a longitudinal study (Crawford et al., 2013, 2015). The first case revealed a preserved working memory capacity together with poor inhibitory control in the anti-saccade task. A longitudinal follow-up revealed that the defective inhibitory control emerged 12-months before the dementia was evident on the mini-mental state examination assessment. A second case revealed a poor working memory together with a well-preserved level of inhibitory control. The dissociation of working memory and inhibitory control was confirmed statistically in 7 additional cases. These findings yield converging evidence that working memory and inhibitory control are distinct cognitive operations and challenges the Kimberg and Farah (2000) cognitive model of working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sturm, Joshua J; Zhang-Hooks, Ying-Xin; Roos, Hannah; Nguyen, Tuan; Kandler, Karl
Hearing loss leads to a host of cellular and synaptic changes in auditory brain areas that are thought to give rise to auditory perception deficits such as temporal processing impairments, hyperacusis, and tinnitus. However, little is known about possible changes in synaptic circuit connectivity that may underlie these hearing deficits. Here, we show that mild hearing loss as a result of brief noise exposure leads to a pronounced reorganization of local excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the mouse inferior colliculus. The exact nature of these reorganizations correlated with the presence or absence of the animals' impairments in detecting brief sound gaps, a commonly used behavioral sign for tinnitus in animal models. Mice with gap detection deficits (GDDs) showed a shift in the balance of synaptic excitation and inhibition that was present in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, whereas mice without GDDs showed stable excitation-inhibition balances. Acoustic enrichment (AE) with moderate intensity, pulsed white noise immediately after noise trauma prevented both circuit reorganization and GDDs, raising the possibility of using AE immediately after cochlear damage to prevent or alleviate the emergence of central auditory processing deficits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Noise overexposure is a major cause of central auditory processing disorders, including tinnitus, yet the changes in synaptic connectivity underlying these disorders remain poorly understood. Here, we find that brief noise overexposure leads to distinct reorganizations of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs onto glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons and that the nature of these reorganizations correlates with animals' impairments in detecting brief sound gaps, which is often considered a sign of tinnitus. Acoustic enrichment immediately after noise trauma prevents circuit reorganizations and gap detection deficits, highlighting the potential for using sound therapy soon after cochlear damage
Ohashi, Kyoko; Vitaliano, Gordana; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H
Seated hyperactivity is a defining feature of the combined and predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its underlying nature is unknown. To determine whether hyperactivity is a consequence of an impaired ability to inhibit activity to low levels or to maintain positional stability. Case-control study. Academic research center and school. Sixty-two boys 9 to 12 years of age (of 73 screened), recruited from the community by advertisement, who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD combined subtype on structured interview. Sixty-two controls were selected by matching for age and sex from a community sample of 1168 subjects in 3 participating school districts. Pupils with Conners' Teacher Rating Scores Revised within +/-1 SD of the mean for age were eligible for randomized matching. Intervention Infrared motion analysis of head-marker movements (50 Hz) during performance of a 15-minute cognitive control task. Subjects with ADHD were tested at least 18 hours following their last dose of methylphenidate and again 120 minutes after a 0.4-mg/kg probe dose. Inhibitory control (spike and basal amplitude) and head-marker stability (approximate entropy, Lyapunov, and spectral exponents). Inhibitory control measures were 2-fold higher in subjects with ADHD (d' = 0.63-0.95). Group differences in head-marker stability were even greater (d' = 2.20-4.71; receiver operating characteristic area = 0.956-1.0). Methylphenidate restored inhibitory ability to control levels but only partially corrected stability deficits, which still distinguished subjects with ADHD from controls (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.722-0.995). Children with ADHD have a deficient ability to inhibit activity to low levels and unstable control of head-marker position characterized by deterministic chaos (sensitivity to initial conditions). These deficits differed in degree of correctability by methylphenidate, suggesting that they may be mediated by
Colasante, Tyler; Zuffianò, Antonio; Bae, Na Young; Malti, Tina
This study examined links between inhibitory control, moral emotions (sympathy and guilt), and reparative behavior in an ethnically diverse sample of 4- and 8-year-olds (N = 162). Caregivers reported their children's reparative behavior, inhibitory control, and moral emotions through a questionnaire, and children reported their guilt feelings in response to a series of vignettes depicting moral transgressions. A hypothesized meditation model was tested with inhibitory control relating to reparative behavior through sympathy and guilt. In support of this model, results revealed that high levels of inhibitory control were associated with high levels of reparative behavior through high levels of sympathy and guilt. However, the mediation of inhibitory control to reparation through guilt was significant for 4-year-olds only. Results are discussed in relation to the temperamental, regulatory, and affective-moral precursors of reparative behavior in early and middle childhood.
Full Text Available Current standardized treatments for cognitive impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder remain limited and their efficacy restricted. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a promising tool for enhancing cognitive performance in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the effects of tDCS in reducing cognitive impairment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have not yet been investigated.A parallel, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of tDCS on the modulation of inhibitory control in adults with ADHD. Thirty patients were randomly allocated to each group and performed a go/no-go task before and after a single session of either anodal stimulation (1 mA over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or sham stimulation.A nonparametric two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney test revealed no significant differences between the two groups of individuals with ADHD (tDCS vs. sham in regard to behavioral performance in the go/no go tasks. Furthermore, the effect sizes of group differences after treatment for the primary outcome measures-correct responses, impulsivity and omission errors--were small. No adverse events resulting from stimulation were reported.According to these findings, there is no evidence in support of the use of anodal stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as an approach for improving inhibitory control in ADHD patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical study to assess the cognitive effects of tDCS in individuals with ADHD. Further research is needed to assess the clinical efficacy of tDCS in this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01968512.
Full Text Available Aggressive behavior can be defined as any behavior intended to hurt another person, and it is associated with many individual and social factors. This study examined the relationship between emotional regulation and inhibitory control in predicting aggressive behavior. Seventy-eight participants (40 males completed self-report measures (Negative Mood Regulation Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, a stop signal task, and engaged in a modified version of Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP exercise, in which the outcome was used as a measure of direct physical aggression. We used a hierarchical, mixed-model multiple regression analysis test to examine the effects of emotion regulation and inhibitory control on physical reactive aggression. Results indicated an interaction between emotion regulation and inhibitory control on aggression. For participants with low inhibitory control only, there was a significant difference between high and low emotion regulation on aggression, such that low emotion regulation participants registered higher aggression than high emotion regulation participants. This difference was not found among participants with high inhibitory control. These results have implications for refining and targeting training and rehabilitation programs aimed at reducing aggressive behavior.
Yu, Jiaxin; Hung, Daisy L.; Tseng, Philip; Tzeng, Ovid J. L.; Muggleton, Neil G.; Juan, Chi-Hung
Witnessing emotional events such as arousal or pain may impair ongoing cognitive processes such as inhibitory control. We found that this may be true only half of the time. Erotic images and painful video clips were shown to men and women shortly before a stop signal task, which measures cognitive inhibitory control. These stimuli impaired…
Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Grelloni, Clementina; Casarelli, Livia; D'Agati, Elisa; Spiridigliozzi, Simonetta; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with social cognition impairment, executive dysfunction and motor abnormalities, consisting in the persistence of neurological soft signs (NSS). Theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition (ER) deficit of children with ADHD have been interpreted as a consequence of their executive dysfunction, particularly inhibitory control deficit. To our knowledge, there are not studies that evaluate the possible correlation between the ToM and ER deficit and NSS in the population with ADHD, while this association has been studied in other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate ToM and ER and NSS in a sample of 23 drug-naïve children with ADHD and a sample of 20 healthy children and the possible correlation between social cognition dysfunction and NSS in ADHD. Our findings suggest that ToM and ER dysfunction is not a constant feature in the population with ADHD, while NSS confirmed as a markers of atypical neurodevelopment and predictors of the severity of functional impairment in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We aimed to investigate differences in inhibitory control ability between proficient and non-proficient Dai–Han bilinguals. Two experiments used a combined stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response compatibility paradigm for this purpose. Participants were Dai–Han bilingual primary-school students selected from a Dai-speaking town in Yunnan province, China. In Dai language interference condition, participants were asked to complete a picture category task. Results showed that the effect of attentional control for non-proficient bilinguals (NPBs was significantly greater than that for proficient bilinguals (PBs, while the effect of response inhibition was not. This implied that a difference in inhibitory control between PBs and NPBs appeared at the attention control stage when interference by the Dai lexicon emerged. In Han language interference condition, however, participants were also asked to complete the same task. Results showed that the effect of response inhibition for NPBs was significantly greater than that for PBs, but the effect of attentional control was not. This demonstrated that a difference in inhibitory control emerged at the response inhibition stage when interference by the Han lexicon emerged. This pattern of results is opposite to previous researches, which indicated that the difference between PBs and NPBs occurred at the response inhibition stage under first language condition, whereas at the attentional control stage under second language (L2 condition. Based on these, this study suggests that Dai–Han bilinguals showed a remarkable L2 advantage. In addition, results showed that response times (RTs of PBs were faster than RTs of NPBs while confounding variables (e.g., intelligence, etc. were under control. This indicates that the inhibitory control ability of the PBs is superior to that of NPBs in this study.
Thales Vianna Coutinho
Full Text Available Problems in inhibitory control are regarded in Psychology as a key problem associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. They, however, might not be primary deficits, but instead a consequence of inattention. At least two components have been identified and dissociated in studies in regards to inhibitory control: interference suppression, responsible for controlling interference by resisting irrelevant or misleading information, and response inhibition, referring to withholding a response or overriding an ongoing behavior. Poor error awareness and self-monitoring undermine an individual’s ability to inhibit inadequate responses and change course of action. In non-social contexts, an individual depends on his own cognition to regulate his mistakes. In social contexts, however, there are many social cues that should help that individual to perceive his mistakes and inhibit inadequate responses. The processes involved in perceiving and interpreting those social cues are arguably part of a self-protection system (SPS. Individuals with ADHD not only present impulsive behaviors in social contexts, but also have difficulty perceiving their inadequate responses and overriding ongoing actions toward more appropriate ones. In this paper, we discuss that those difficulties are arguably a consequence of an impaired SPS, due to visual attention deficits and subsequent failure in perceiving and recognizing accurately negative emotions in facial expressions, especially anger. We discuss evidence that children with ADHD exhibit problems in a series of components involved in the activation of that system and advocate that the inability to identify the anger expressed by others, and thus, not experiencing the fear response that should follow, is, ultimately, what prevents them from inhibiting the ongoing inappropriate behavior, since a potential threat is not registered. Getting involved in high-risk situations, such as reckless driving, could
Fee, Corey; Banasr, Mounira; Sibille, Etienne
The functional integration of external and internal signals forms the basis of information processing and is essential for higher cognitive functions. This occurs in finely tuned cortical microcircuits whose functions are balanced at the cellular level by excitatory glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) interneurons. The balance of excitation and inhibition, from cellular processes to neural network activity, is characteristically disrupted in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia. Specifically, nearly 3 decades of research demonstrate a role for reduced inhibitory GABA level and function across disorders. In MDD, recent evidence from human postmortem and animal studies suggests a selective vulnerability of GABAergic interneurons that coexpress the neuropeptide somatostatin (SST). Advances in cell type-specific molecular genetics have now helped to elucidate several important roles for SST interneurons in cortical processing (regulation of pyramidal cell excitatory input) and behavioral control (mood and cognition). Here, we review evidence for altered inhibitory function arising from GABAergic deficits across disorders and specifically in MDD. We then focus on properties of the cortical microcircuit, where SST-positive GABAergic interneuron deficits may disrupt functioning in several ways. Finally, we discuss the putative origins of SST cell deficits, as informed by recent research, and implications for therapeutic approaches. We conclude that deficits in SST interneurons represent a contributing cellular pathology and therefore a promising target for normalizing altered inhibitory function in MDD and other disorders with reduced SST cell and GABA functions. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raver, C. Cybele; Blair, Clancy
In this article, Cybele Raver and Clancy Blair explore a group of cognitive processes called executive function (EF)--including the flexible control of attention, the ability to hold information through working memory, and the ability to maintain inhibitory control. EF processes are crucial for young children's learning. On the one hand, they can…
Roos, Leslie E; Beauchamp, Kathryn G; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; Berkman, Elliot T; Capaldi, Deborah
Adolescents with prenatal substance (drug and alcohol) exposure exhibit inhibitory control (IC) deficits and aberrations in associated neural function. Nearly all research to date examines exposure to individual substances, and a minimal amount is known about the effects of heterogeneous exposure-which is more representative of population exposure levels. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated IC (Go/NoGo) in heterogeneously exposed (n = 7) vs. control (n = 7) at-risk adolescents (ages 13-17). The fMRI results indicated multiple IC processing differences consistent with a more immature developmental profile for exposed adolescents (Exposed > Nonexposed: NoGo > Go: right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, right cuneus, and left inferior parietal lobe; NoGo > false alarm: occipital lobe; Go > false alarm: right anterior prefrontal cortex). Simple effects suggest exposed adolescents exhibited exaggerated correct trial but decreased incorrect trial activation. Results provide initial evidence that prenatal exposure across substances creates similar patterns of atypical brain activation to IC success and failure.
Scrimin, Sara; Patron, Elisabetta; Florit, Elena; Palomba, Daniela; Mason, Lucia
This study investigated the role of basal cardiac activity and inhibitory control at the beginning of the school year in predicting oral comprehension at the end of the year in pre-schoolers. Forty-three, 4-year-olds participated in the study. At the beginning of the school year children's electrocardiogram at rest was registered followed by the assessment of inhibitory control as well as verbal working memory and verbal ability. At the end of the year all children were administered a listening comprehension ability measure. A stepwise regression showed a significant effect of basal cardiac vagal tone in predicting listening comprehension together with inhibitory control and verbal ability. These results are among the first to show the predictive role of basal cardiac vagal tone and inhibitory control in pre-schoolers' oral text comprehension, and offer new insight into the association between autonomic regulation of the heart, inhibitory control, and cognitive activity at a young age. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and frequently persists in adults. In a comparison of adults with ADHD and a matched control sample, we previously showed that abnormal inhibitory processing is typically preceded or accompanied by other processing deficits in adult ADHD. We now compare these data further to additional data from first-degree relatives (fathers of children with ADHD to identify whether this pattern of abnormal processing shares familial influences with ADHD in adults. Methods Using a family design, we compared 20 fathers of children with the combined subtype of ADHD with 21 adults with ADHD combined subtype and 20 controls in event-related potential indices of preparatory states and subsequent response inhibition processing as elicited by a cued continuous performance task. Results Fathers of children with ADHD exhibited significantly weaker orienting attention to cues and inhibitory processing than the controls but not the ADHD sample. Conclusions These findings provide evidence for the familial association of attentional orienting and response inhibition processes with ADHD in adults and indicate a familial and neurobiological link between ADHD in children and adults.
Sheridan, Margaret A.; Hinshaw, Stephen; D'Esposito, Mark
Objective: Previous research has demonstrated that during task conditions requiring an increase in inhibitory function or working memory, children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit greater and more varied prefrontal cortical(PFC) activation compared to age-matched control participants. This pattern may reflect…
The dynamics of attentional and inhibitory functions in the presence of distracting stimuli in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, high-functioning autism and oppositional defiant disorder
Aneta Rita Borkowska
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to elucidate the specific nature of attention and response inhibition deficits in three clinical groups: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and high-functioning autism, as compared to children with a typical development. The analysis approached task performance dynamics as a function of time and the presence of distracting stimuli. Material and method: 108 children aged 7–12 years participated in the study – 21 diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, 21 with high-functioning autism, 19 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; 47 made the control group. The study employed the MOXO-CPT to evaluate attention and inhibition functions. Results: Pairwise comparisons of clinical groups with typically-developing children in their performance on the entire test indicated considerable differences between the control group and children with both oppositional defiant disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but not between healthy subjects and children with autism. Performance profiles varied depending on the group, i.e. the type of disorder, and the level of the test, i.e. stimulus duration and intensity, but they were different for the particular studied aspects of attention and/or inhibition. High levels of similarity in functioning for all clinical groups were found in the measures of response accuracy, i.e. sustained attention and the speed of accurate response. The tendency to provide unnecessary responses and difficulties in complying with rules were found only in children with oppositional-defiant disorders. Impulsiveness rates increased over time in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, fluctuated over time in autism, while in the oppositional defiant disorder group performance was stable over time, but worse than in the control group. Conclusions: The dynamics of attentional and inhibitory control in clinical groups
Toria Herd; Mengjiao Li; Dominique Maciejewski; Jacob Lee; Kirby Deater-Deckard; Brooks King-Casas; Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
Past research has demonstrated negative associations between exposure to stressors and quality of interpersonal relationships among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Chronic stress has been shown to disrupt prefrontal functioning in the brain, including inhibitory control abilities, and evidence is accumulating that inhibitory control may play an important role in secure interpersonal relationship quality, including peer problems...
Jared A. Linck
Full Text Available The role of executive functioning in second language (L2 aptitude remains unclear. Whereas some studies report a relationship between working memory (WM and L2 learning, others have argued against this association. Similarly, being bilingual appears to benefit inhibitory control, and individual differences in inhibitory control are related to online L2 processing. The current longitudinal study examines whether these two components of executive functioning predict learning gains in an L2 classroom context using a pretest/posttest design. We assessed 25 university students in language courses, who completed measures of WM and inhibitory control. They also completed a proficiency measure at the beginning and end of a semester and reported their grade point average (GPA. WM was positively related to L2 proficiency and learning, but inhibitory control was not. These results support the notion that WM is an important component of L2 aptitude, particularly for predicting the early stages of L2 classroom learning.
Quednow, Boris B; Kometer, Michael; Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X
The serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT2AR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related inhibitory gating and behavioral inhibition deficits of schizophrenia patients. The hallucinogen psilocybin disrupts automatic forms of sensorimotor gating and response inhibition in humans, but it is unclear so far whether the 5-HT2AR or 5-HT1AR agonist properties of its bioactive metabolite psilocin account for these effects. Thus, we investigated whether psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition in healthy humans could be attenuated by the 5-HT2A/2CR antagonist ketanserin. A total of 16 healthy participants received placebo, ketanserin (40 mg p.o.), psilocybin (260 μg/kg p.o.), or psilocybin plus ketanserin in a double-blind, randomized, and counterbalanced order. Sensorimotor gating was measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. The effects on psychopathological core dimensions and behavioral inhibition were assessed by the altered states of consciousness questionnaire (5D-ASC), and the Color-Word Stroop Test. Psilocybin decreased PPI at short lead intervals (30 ms), increased all 5D-ASC scores, and selectively increased errors in the interference condition of the Stroop Test. Stroop interference and Stroop effect of the response latencies were increased under psilocybin as well. Psilocybin-induced alterations were attenuated by ketanserin pretreatment, whereas ketanserin alone had no significant effects. These findings suggest that the disrupting effects of psilocybin on automatic and controlled inhibition processes are attributable to 5-HT2AR stimulation. Sensorimotor gating and attentional control deficits of schizophrenia patients might be due to changes within the 5-HT2AR system. PMID:21956447
Kochanska, G; Murray, K; Jacques, T Y; Koenig, A L; Vandegeest, K A
We examined inhibitory control as a quality of temperament that contributes to internalization. Children were assessed twice, at 26-41 months (N = 103) and at 43-56 months (N = 99), on repeated occasions, in multiple observational contexts and using parental reports. Comprehensive behavioral batteries incorporating multiple tasks were designed to measure inhibitory control at toddler and preschool age. They had good internal consistencies, corresponded with maternal ratings, and were developmentally sensitive. Individual children's performance was significantly correlated across both assessments, indicating stable individual differences. Girls surpassed boys at both ages. Children's internalization was observed while they were alone with prohibited objects, with a mundane chore, playing games that occasioned cheating, being induced to violate standards of conduct, and assessed using maternal reports. Inhibitory control was significantly associated with internalization, both contemporaneously and as a predictor in the longitudinal sense. The implications for considering children's temperament as a significant, yet often neglected contributor to developing internalization are discussed.
Groom, Madeleine J.; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.; Batty, Martin J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Roberts, Katherine L.; Cahill, John D.; Liotti, Mario; Hollis, Chris
Background Theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) posit either executive deficits and/or alterations in motivational style and reward processing as core to the disorder. Effects of motivational incentives on electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and relationships between motivation and stimulant medication have not been explicitly tested. Methods Children (9?15 years) with combined-type ADHD (n = 28) and matched typically developing children (CTRL) (n = 28...
Shenoy, Pradeep; Yu, Angela J.
An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability. PMID:21647306
Shenoy, Pradeep; Yu, Angela J
An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability.
Full Text Available Inhibitory control dysfunction was considered a universal characteristic of violent offenders. The aim of this study was to examine differences in inhibitory control between two subtypes of violent youth; those displaying predominantly impulsive and those presenting predominantly premeditated aggression (PM. Forty-four juvenile offenders, defined on the basis of the Procedures for the Classification of Aggressive/Violent Acts (Stanford and Barratt, 2001 participated (N = 23: impulsive; N = 21 premeditated. A visual Go/NoGo task was used to compare behavioral responses and event-related potentials (ERPs between groups. The task contained two letters (W and M, W was the Go stimulus and M the NoGo stimulus. The impulsive youth showed a significantly greater decrease in N2 latency for Go relative to NoGo trials than the premeditated aggressive youth. The differentiation in N2 amplitude between Go and NoGo (N2d was negatively correlated with impulsivity of aggression. Both groups showed no significant central NoGo P3. Our findings suggest that impulsive violent youth show stronger prepotent responses and impaired conflict monitoring during early inhibitory control processing relative to premeditated aggressive youth. Both impulsive and premeditated violent youth may show impaired response inhibition at the late processing stage of inhibitory control.
David J. Paulsen
Full Text Available We investigated changes in brain function supporting inhibitory control under age-controlled incentivized conditions, separating age- and performance-related activation in an accelerated longitudinal design including 10- to 22-year-olds. Better inhibitory control correlated with striatal activation during neutral trials, while Age X Behavior interactions in the striatum indicated that in the absence of extrinsic incentives, younger subjects with greater reward circuitry activation successfully engage in greater inhibitory control. Age was negatively correlated with ventral amygdala activation during Loss trials, suggesting that amygdala function more strongly mediates bottom-up processing earlier in development when controlling the negative aspects of incentives to support inhibitory control. Together, these results indicate that with development, reward-modulated cognitive control may be supported by incentive processing transitions in the amygdala, and from facilitative to obstructive striatal function during inhibitory control.
Van Reet, Jennifer
The present research explores the role of inhibitory control (IC) in young preschoolers' pretense ability using an ego depletion paradigm. In Experiment 1 (N = 56), children's pretense ability was assessed either before or after participating in conflict IC or control tasks, and in Experiment 2 (N = 36), pretense ability was measured after…
Zeier, Joshua D; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Hiatt Racer, Kristina D; Newman, Joseph P
Antisociality has been linked to a variety of executive functioning deficits, including poor cognitive control. Surprisingly, cognitive control deficits are rarely found in psychopathic individuals, despite their notoriously severe and persistent antisocial behavior. In fact, primary (low-anxious) psychopathic individuals display superior performance on cognitive control-type tasks under certain circumstances. To clarify these seemingly contradictory findings, we administered a response competition (i.e., flanker) task to incarcerated offenders, who were assessed for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) symptoms and psychopathy. As hypothesized, APD related to poorer accuracy, especially on incongruent trials. Contrary to expectation, however, the same pattern of results was found in psychopathy. Additional analyses indicated that these effects of APD and psychopathy were associated with overlapping variance. The findings suggest that psychopathy and APD symptoms are both associated with deficits in cognitive control, and that this deficit relates to general antisociality as opposed to a specific antisocial syndrome. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Skowron, Elizabeth A; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Teti, Douglas M; Ammerman, Robert T
This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children's inhibitory control. Children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent-child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children's independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end.
Quednow, Boris B; Kometer, Michael; Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X
The serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related inhibitory gating and behavioral inhibition deficits of schizophrenia patients. The hallucinogen psilocybin disrupts automatic forms of sensorimotor gating and response inhibition in humans, but it is unclear so far whether the 5-HT(2A)R or 5-HT(1A)R agonist properties of its bioactive metabolite psilocin account for these effects. Thus, we investigated whether psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition in healthy humans could be attenuated by the 5-HT(2A/2C)R antagonist ketanserin. A total of 16 healthy participants received placebo, ketanserin (40 mg p.o.), psilocybin (260 μg/kg p.o.), or psilocybin plus ketanserin in a double-blind, randomized, and counterbalanced order. Sensorimotor gating was measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. The effects on psychopathological core dimensions and behavioral inhibition were assessed by the altered states of consciousness questionnaire (5D-ASC), and the Color-Word Stroop Test. Psilocybin decreased PPI at short lead intervals (30 ms), increased all 5D-ASC scores, and selectively increased errors in the interference condition of the Stroop Test. Stroop interference and Stroop effect of the response latencies were increased under psilocybin as well. Psilocybin-induced alterations were attenuated by ketanserin pretreatment, whereas ketanserin alone had no significant effects. These findings suggest that the disrupting effects of psilocybin on automatic and controlled inhibition processes are attributable to 5-HT(2A)R stimulation. Sensorimotor gating and attentional control deficits of schizophrenia patients might be due to changes within the 5-HT(2A)R system.
Jentsch, James David; Pennington, Zachary T
There are broad individual differences in the ability to voluntarily and effortfully suppress motivated, reward-seeking behaviors, and this review presents the hypothesis that these individual differences are relevant to addictive disorders. On one hand, cumulative experience with drug abuse appears to alter the molecular, cellular and circuit mechanisms that mediate inhibitory abilities, leading to increasingly uncontrolled patterns of drug-seeking and -taking. On the other, native inter-individual differences in inhibitory control are apparently a risk factor for aspects of drug-reinforced responding and substance use disorders. In both cases, the behavioral manifestation of poor inhibitory abilities is linked to relatively low striatal dopamine D2-like receptor availability, and evidence is accumulating for a more direct contribution of striatopallidal neurons to cognitive control processes. Mechanistic research is now identifying genes upstream of dopamine transmission that mediate these relationships, as well as the involvement of other neurotransmitter systems, acting alone and in concert with dopamine. The reviewed research stands poised to identify new mechanisms that can be targeted by pharmacotherapies and/or by behavioral interventions that are designed to prevent or treat addictive behaviors and associated behavioral pathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cheie, Lavinia; Veraksa, Aleksander; Zinchenko, Yuri; Gorovaya, Alexandra; Visu-Petra, Laura
The current study focused on the early development of inhibitory control in 5- to 7-year-old children attending kindergarten in two Eastern-European countries, Romania and Russia. These two countries share many aspects of child-rearing and educational practices, previously documented to influence the development of inhibitory control. Using the Lurian-based developmental approach offered by the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment battery, the study aimed to contribute to cross-cultural developmental neuropsychology by exploring (a) early interrelationships between subcomponents of inhibitory control (response suppression and attention control) and generative fluency (verbal and figural) in these two cultures, as well as (b) the predictive value of external factors (culture and maternal education) and individual differences (age, gender, nonverbal intelligence, trait anxiety) on inhibitory control and fluency outcomes in children from both countries. First, findings in both culture samples suggest that even at this young age, the construct of inhibitory control cannot be considered a unitary entity. Second, differences in maternal education were not predictive of either inhibitory control or fluency scores. However, children's attention control performance varied as a function of culture, and the direction of these cultural effects differed by whether the target outcome involved performance accuracy versus efficiency as an output. Findings also confirmed the previously documented intensive developmental improvement in preschoolers' inhibitory control during this period, influencing measures of response suppression and particularly attention control. Finally, the results further stress the importance of individual differences effects in trait anxiety on attention control efficiency across cultures.
Liu, Buyun; Huang, Zhelan; Xu, Guifeng; Jin, Yu; Chen, Yajun; Li, Xiuhong; Wang, Qingxiong; Song, Shanshan; Jing, Jin
This study aimed to assess altruistic sharing behavior in children aged 3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 11 years and to explore the involvement of potential cognitive mechanisms, namely theory of mind (ToM) and inhibitory control. A total of 158 children completed a dictator game with stickers as incentives. ToM was evaluated using a false belief task in preschoolers and the Strange Story Test in school-age children. Inhibitory control was assessed in preschoolers with the Day-Night task and in older children with the Stroop Color-Word Test. The result was that 48.10% of children aged 3 to 5 years decided to share, and the percentage rose significantly with increasing age. The difference in altruism level in children who decided to share among the three age groups was nonsignificant. These results suggest that mechanisms underlying the decision to share or not and altruistic behavior may be different. No significant linear relations were found between cognitive processes (i.e., ToM and inhibitory control) and sharing behavior. Surprisingly, 9- to 11-year-olds who shared 3 of 10 stickers performed worse in inhibitory control than did those who shared any other number of stickers. In conclusion, the proportion of children who decided to share, but not the level of altruism, increased with age. ToM was not involved in altruistic sharing, whereas inhibitory control may play a role when deciding how much to share. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baumeister, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Adamo, Nicoletta; Holtmann, Martin; Ruf, Matthias; Banaschewski, Tobias; Hohmann, Sarah; Brandeis, Daniel
Neurofeedback training (NF) is a promising non-pharmacological treatment for ADHD that has been associated with improvement of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms as well as changes in electrophysiological measures. However, the functional localization of neural changes following NF compared to an active control condition, and of successful learning during training (considered to be the critical mechanism for improvement), remains largely unstudied. Children with ADHD (N=16, mean age: 11.81, SD: 1.47) were randomly assigned to either slow cortical potential (SCP, n=8) based NF or biofeedback control training (electromyogram feedback, n=8) and performed a combined Flanker/NoGo task pre- and post-training. Effects of NF, compared to the active control, and of learning in transfer trials (approximating successful transfer to everyday life) were examined with respect to clinical outcome and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes during inhibitory control. After 20 sessions of training, children in the NF group presented reduced ADHD symptoms and increased activation in areas associated with inhibitory control compared to baseline. Subjects who were successful learners (n=9) also showed increased activation in an extensive inhibitory network irrespective of the type of training. Activation increased in an extensive inhibitory network following NF training, and following successful learning through NF and control biofeedback. Although this study was only powered to detect large effects and clearly requires replication in larger samples, the results suggest a crucial role for learning effects in biofeedback trainings. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available When semantic deficits occur following brain damage, the subjects generally show anomia as well as deficits on semantic matching tasks such as the Camels and Cactus test. Such individuals can be further characterized as demonstrating either a semantic control deficit or a storage deficit (Jeffries & Lambon Ralph, 2006. Semantic control subjects show improved performance when responses are constrained, but storage subjects do not. In the present study, we categorized 17 subjects with neurodegenerative diseases – Alzheimer’s disease and Primary Progressive Aphasia - as Semantic Storage or Semantic Control patterns of deficit, based on their performance on three semantic tasks—Naming, Cued Naming, and Word-to-Picture Matching. This was done independent of both the subject’s localization of brain damage and clinical diagnosis. Subjects who demonstrated impaired performance on the Naming task, but showed normal performance on Cued Naming and Word-to-Picture Matching, were classified as showing a control deficit (N = 8, while subjects who were impaired on all three semantic tasks were classified as anomic subjects with a storage deficit (N = 9. Despite only using these three semantic tasks, the identified sub-groups demonstrated different patterns of semantic knowledge consistent with either a control deficit or a storage deficit. The identified sub-groups, for example, were comparable for letter fluency, but subjects with a storage deficit were significantly worse for animal fluency. Accessing subjects’ semantic knowledge with the word and picture versions of the Camels and Cactus test, we also found that storage deficit subjects’ performance was equally poor on both versions compared to normal elderly participants, whereas control deficit subjects were relatively impaired only in the word version. Finally, comparing FDG PET scans for these subjects, we noted storage deficit subjects typically had bilateral temporal damage—all but one
Greimel, E; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Günther, T; Vitt, C; Konrad, K
Although the coexistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is common, the nature of association is yet not fully understood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore attentional dysfunction in children with pure ADHD compared to children with comorbid ADHD + TD. Three groups of 20 children each, aged 8-15 years with either ADHD, ADHD + chronic tic disorder or Tourette syndrome (ADHD + TD) and a healthy control group were compared in their performance on three computerized attention tasks. Tasks of sustained attention, selective attention and interference control were employed. In addition, parental ratings of ADHD symptom severity and behaviour problems were obtained. Both clinical groups were rated as equally inattentive, however, externalising symptoms were more severe in the ADHD group. Objective measures of attentional performance revealed differences between the groups: whereas the ADHD group was markedly impaired in sustaining attention and selective attention/inhibitory control, the ADHD + TD group only showed marginal deficits in selective attention/inhibitory control. Possible explanations for the superior performance of the comorbid group are discussed: In particular, the results may indicate that in some patients, the tic disorder produces behavioural symptoms of ADHD, but not the broad neurocognitive deficits that usually are associated with ADHD. Alternatively, compensatory neural mechanisms of TD patients may result in a better neuropsychological performance of comorbid patients relative to patients suffering from pure ADHD.
Zhou, Yizhou; Gao, Xiao; Chen, Hong; Kong, Fanchang
Restrained eating for weight control and loss is becoming highly prevalent in many affluent societies, while most of the restrained eaters are rather unsuccessful in the long term. According to the strength model of self-control, the disinhibition effect of restrained eaters may occur after the depletion of self-control resources. However, no work has examined the direct impact of self-control resources on inhibitory control ability of restrained eaters. This study investigated the influences of self-control resources on the food-related inhibitory control among high-restraint/low-disinhibition restrained eaters, high-restraint/high-disinhibition restrained eaters and unrestrained eaters using stop signal task. Results reveal that there's no difference of food-related inhibitory control between three groups when the self-control resources are non-depleted, while high-restraint/high-disinhibition restrained eaters showing a decrease of food-related inhibitory control after ego-depletion. This disinhibition effect only seems to occur in samples of restrained eaters with a high tendency toward overeating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Teti, Douglas M.; Ammerman, Robert T.
This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children’s inhibitory control. Children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent–child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children’s independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832
Tristan, I.; Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M.
Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model
Tristan, I., E-mail: email@example.com; Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M. [BioCircuits Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States)
Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model.
McKeon Patrick O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Postural control deficits have been purported to be a potential contributing factor in chronic ankle instability (CAI. Summary forceplate measures such as center of pressure velocity and area have not consistently detected postural control deficits associated with CAI. A novel measurement technique derived from the dynamical systems theory of motor control known as Time-to-boundary (TTB has shown promise in detecting deficits in postural control related to chronic ankle instability (CAI. In a previous study, TTB deficits were detected in a sample of females with CAI. The purpose of this study was to examine postural control in sample of males and females with and without CAI using TTB measures. Methods This case-control study was performed in a research laboratory. Thirty-two subjects (18 males, 14 females with self-reported CAI were recruited and matched to healthy controls. All subjects performed three, ten-second trials of single-limb stance on a forceplate with eyes open and eyes closed. Main outcome measures included the TTB absolute minimum (s, mean of TTB minima (s, and standard deviation of TTB minima (s in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. A series of group by gender analyses of variance were conducted to evaluate the differences in postural control for all TTB variables separately with eyes open and eyes closed. Results There were no significant group by gender interactions or gender main effects for any of the measures. There, however, significant group main effects for 4 of the 6 measures with eyes closed as the CAI group demonstrated significant deficits in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the TTB measures with eyes open. Conclusion TTB deficits were present in the CAI group compared to the control group. These deficits were detected with concurrent removal of visual input. CAI may place significantly greater constraints on the
Chen, Pei-Ju; Liang, Keng-Chen; Lin, Hui-Chen; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Su, Kuan-Pin; Hung, Mei-Chu; Sheen, Lee-Yan
This study adopted the forced-swimming paradigm to induce depressive symptoms in rats and evaluated the effects on learning and memory processing. Furthermore, the effects of the water extract of Gastrodia elata Bl., a well-known Chinese traditional medicine, on amnesia in rats subjected to the forced-swimming procedure were studied. Rats were subjected to the forced-swimming procedure, and the inhibitory avoidance task and Morris water maze were used to assess learning and memory performance. The acquisition of the two tasks was mostly impaired after the 15-minute forced-swimming procedure. Administration of the water extract of G. elata Bl. for 21 consecutive days at a dosage of 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of body weight significantly improved retention in the inhibitory avoidance test, and the lower dose showed a better effect than the higher one and the antidepressant fluoxetine (18 mg/kg of body weight). In the Morris water maze, the lower dose of the water extract of G. elata Bl. significantly improved retention by shortening escape latency in the first test session and increasing the time in searching the target zone during the probe test. These findings suggest that water extracts of G. elata Bl. ameliorate the learning and memory deficits induced by forced swimming.
Cai, Weidong; Chen, Tianwen; Ide, Jaime S; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Menon, Vinod
The ability to anticipate and detect behaviorally salient stimuli is important for virtually all adaptive behaviors, including inhibitory control that requires the withholding of prepotent responses when instructed by external cues. Although right fronto-operculum-insula (FOI), encompassing the anterior insular cortex (rAI) and inferior frontal cortex (rIFC), involvement in inhibitory control is well established, little is known about signaling mechanisms underlying their differential roles in detection and anticipation of salient inhibitory cues. Here we use 2 independent functional magnetic resonance imaging data sets to investigate dynamic causal interactions of the rAI and rIFC, with sensory cortex during detection and anticipation of inhibitory cues. Across 2 different experiments involving auditory and visual inhibitory cues, we demonstrate that primary sensory cortex has a stronger causal influence on rAI than on rIFC, suggesting a greater role for the rAI in detection of salient inhibitory cues. Crucially, a Bayesian prediction model of subjective trial-by-trial changes in inhibitory cue anticipation revealed that the strength of causal influences from rIFC to rAI increased significantly on trials in which participants had higher anticipation of inhibitory cues. Together, these results demonstrate the dissociable bottom-up and top-down roles of distinct FOI regions in detection and anticipation of behaviorally salient cues across multiple sensory modalities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Fuhs, Mary Wagner; McNeil, Nicole M
Recent findings by Libertus, Feigenson, and Halberda (2011) suggest that there is an association between the acuity of young children's approximate number system (ANS) and their mathematics ability before exposure to instruction in formal schooling. The present study examined the generalizability and validity of these findings in a sample of preschoolers from low-income homes. Children attending Head Start (N = 103) completed measures to assess ANS acuity, mathematics ability, receptive vocabulary, and inhibitory control. Results showed only a weak association between ANS acuity and mathematics ability that was reduced to non-significance when controlling for a direct measure of receptive vocabulary. Results also revealed that inhibitory control plays an important role in the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics ability. Specifically, ANS acuity accounted for significant variance in mathematics ability over and above receptive vocabulary, but only for ANS acuity trials in which surface area conflicted with numerosity. Moreover, this association became non-significant when controlling for inhibitory control. These results suggest that early mathematical experiences prior to formal schooling may influence the strength of the association between ANS acuity and mathematics ability and that inhibitory control may drive that association in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores
Although robust evidence indicates that action initiation can occur unconsciously and unintentionally, the literature on action inhibition suggests that inhibition requires both conscious thought and intentionality. In prior research demonstrating automatic inhibition in response to unconsciously processed stimuli, the unconscious stimuli had previously been consciously associated with an inhibitory response within the context of the experiment, and participants had consciously formed a goal to activate inhibition processes when presented with the stimuli (because task instructions required participants to engage in inhibition when the stimuli occurred). Therefore, prior work suggests that some amount of conscious thought and intentionality are required for inhibitory control. In the present research, we recorded event-related potentials during two go/no-go experiments in which participants were subliminally primed with general action/inaction concepts that had never been consciously associated with task-specific responses. We provide the first demonstration that inhibitory control processes can be modulated completely unconsciously and unintentionally. PMID:23747649
Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn
The current study used a modified implicit association test (IAT) to change implicit evaluations of unhealthy snack food and tested its effects on subsequent consumption. Furthermore, we investigated whether these effects were moderated by inhibitory self-control. A sample of 148 women (17-25 years) motivated to manage weight through healthy eating completed an IAT intervention, and pre- and post-intervention IATs assessing implicit evaluations of unhealthy food. The intervention IAT trained participants to pair unhealthy food stimuli with either positive or negative stimuli. A task disguised as a taste-test was used to assess consumption of unhealthy snack foods. Inhibitory self-control was measured using a self-report scale. As predicted, the implicit evaluation of unhealthy food became more negative from pre- to post-training among participants in the food negative pairing condition; however, there was no corresponding change in the food positive pairing condition. The effect of the training on snack consumption was moderated by inhibitory self-control with only participants low in inhibitory self-control having lower snack intake following the food negative training. This finding is consistent with dual-process models of behaviour which predict that self-control capacity renders impulses less influential on behaviour. Furthermore, it suggests that an intervention that retrains implicit food evaluations could be effective at reducing unhealthy eating, particularly among those with low inhibitory self-control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Given the important role of the brain in regulating endurance performance, this comparative study sought to determine whether professional road cyclists have superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue compared to recreational road cyclists.After preliminary testing and familiarization, eleven professional and nine recreational road cyclists visited the lab on two occasions to complete a modified incongruent colour-word Stroop task (a cognitive task requiring inhibitory control for 30 min (mental exertion condition, or an easy cognitive task for 10 min (control condition in a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over order. After each cognitive task, participants completed a 20-min time trial on a cycle ergometer. During the time trial, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded.The professional cyclists completed more correct responses during the Stroop task than the recreational cyclists (705±68 vs 576±74, p = 0.001. During the time trial, the recreational cyclists produced a lower mean power output in the mental exertion condition compared to the control condition (216±33 vs 226±25 W, p = 0.014. There was no difference between conditions for the professional cyclists (323±42 vs 326±35 W, p = 0.502. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and RPE were not significantly different between the mental exertion and control conditions in both groups.The professional cyclists exhibited superior performance during the Stroop task which is indicative of stronger inhibitory control than the recreational cyclists. The professional cyclists also displayed a greater resistance to the negative effects of mental fatigue as demonstrated by no significant differences in perception of effort and time trial performance between the mental exertion and control conditions. These findings suggest that inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue may contribute to successful road cycling
Martin, Kristy; Staiano, Walter; Menaspà, Paolo; Hennessey, Tom; Marcora, Samuele; Keegan, Richard; Thompson, Kevin G; Martin, David; Halson, Shona; Rattray, Ben
Given the important role of the brain in regulating endurance performance, this comparative study sought to determine whether professional road cyclists have superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue compared to recreational road cyclists. After preliminary testing and familiarization, eleven professional and nine recreational road cyclists visited the lab on two occasions to complete a modified incongruent colour-word Stroop task (a cognitive task requiring inhibitory control) for 30 min (mental exertion condition), or an easy cognitive task for 10 min (control condition) in a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over order. After each cognitive task, participants completed a 20-min time trial on a cycle ergometer. During the time trial, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. The professional cyclists completed more correct responses during the Stroop task than the recreational cyclists (705±68 vs 576±74, p = 0.001). During the time trial, the recreational cyclists produced a lower mean power output in the mental exertion condition compared to the control condition (216±33 vs 226±25 W, p = 0.014). There was no difference between conditions for the professional cyclists (323±42 vs 326±35 W, p = 0.502). Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and RPE were not significantly different between the mental exertion and control conditions in both groups. The professional cyclists exhibited superior performance during the Stroop task which is indicative of stronger inhibitory control than the recreational cyclists. The professional cyclists also displayed a greater resistance to the negative effects of mental fatigue as demonstrated by no significant differences in perception of effort and time trial performance between the mental exertion and control conditions. These findings suggest that inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue may contribute to successful road cycling performance
Liu, Qian; Zhu, Xinyi; Ziegler, Albert
Inhibitory control (including response inhibition and interference control) develops rapidly during the preschool period and is important for early cognitive development. This study aimed to determine the training and transfer effects on response inhibition in young children. Children....../week, for 3 weeks. Several cognitive tasks (involving inhibitory control, working memory, and fluid intelligence) were used to evaluate the transfer effects, and electroencephalography (EEG) was performed during a go/no-go task. Progress on the trained game was significant, while performance on a reasoning...
van Dijk, Rianne; Dekovic, Maja; Bunte, Tessa L; Schoemaker, Kim; Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; Espy, Kimberly A; Matthys, Walter
Previous research has shown links between parenting and externalizing behavior problems in young children over time. Associations between inhibitory control, one of the executive functions, and externalizing behavior problems are widely established as well. Yet, the role of inhibitory control in the
Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Soriano, Maria Felipa
Working Memory (WM) span predicts subjects' performance in control executive tasks and, in addition, it has been related to the capacity to inhibit irrelevant information. In this paper we investigate the role of WM span in two executive tasks focusing our attention on inhibitory components of both tasks. High and low span participants recalled targets words rejecting irrelevant items at the same time (Experiment 1) and they generated random numbers (Experiment 2). Results showed a clear relation between WM span and performance in both tasks. In addition, analyses of intrusion errors (Experiment 1) and stereotyped responses (Experiment 2) indicated that high span individuals were able to efficiently use the inhibitory component implied in both tasks. The pattern of data provides support to the relation between WM span and control executive tasks through an inhibitory mechanism.
Riggs, Kevin J.; Jolley, Richard P.; Simpson, Andrew
We investigated the role of inhibitory control in young children's human figure drawing. We used the Bear-Dragon task as a measure of inhibitory control and used the classification system devised by Cox and Parkin to measure the development of human figure drawing. We tested 50 children aged between 40 and 64 months. Regression analysis showed…
Wagner, Amy K; Postal, Brett A; Darrah, Shaun D; Chen, Xiangbai; Khan, Amina S
Experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been utilized to characterize the behavioral derangements associated with brain trauma. Several studies exist characterizing motor function in the controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model of TBI, but less research has focused on how CCI affects exploratory behavior. The goal of this study was to characterize deficits in three novelty exploration tasks after the CCI. Under anesthesia, 37 adult male Sprague Dawley rats received CCI (2.7 mm and 2.9 mm; 4 m/sec) over the right parietal cortex or sham surgery. For days 1-6 post-surgery, the beam balance and beam walking tasks were used to assess motor deficits. The Open Field, Y-Maze, and Free Choice Novelty (FCN) tasks were used to measure exploratory deficits from days 7-14 post-surgery. Injured rats displayed a significant, but transient, deficit on each motor task (p Open Field results showed that injured rats had lower activity levels than shams (p time in the novel arm versus the familiar arms when compared to shams (p time and had fewer interactions with objects in the novel environment compared to shams (p < 0.05). These results suggest that several ethological factors contribute to exploratory deficits after CCI and can be effectively characterized with the behavioral tasks described. Future work will utilize these tasks to evaluate the neural substrates underlying exploratory deficits after TBI.
Lavagnino, Luca; Mwangi, Benson; Bauer, Isabelle E; Cao, Bo; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Prossin, Alan; Soares, Jair C
Unhealthy eating behaviors often develop in the setting of inadequate inhibitory control, a function broadly ascribed to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regulation of inhibitory control by the PFC and its anatomical components and their contribution to increasing body mass index (BMI) are poorly understood. To study the role of PFC in the regulation of inhibitory control and body weight, we examined measures of cortical thickness in PFC sub-regions, inhibitory control (color-word interference task (CWIT)), and BMI in 91 healthy volunteers. We tested the predictive effect of PFC sub-regional cortical thickness on BMI and mediation by inhibitory control measured with CWIT. Measures of depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI-T) and trauma-related symptoms (TSC-40) were collected; the disinhibition scale of the three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess disinhibited eating. We then tested the relationship between BD-II, STAI-T, TSC-40, TFEQ, CWIT, and BMI with correlation analyses. Right superior frontal gyrus cortical thickness significantly predicted BMI (β=-0.91; t=-3.2; p=0.002). Mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of cortical thickness on BMI mediated by inhibitory control (95% CI=-6.1, -0.67). BMI was unrelated to BDI-II, STAI-T, TSC-40, or TFEQ scores. We found an inverse relationship between cortical thickness in the right-superior frontal gyrus and BMI, which was fully mediated by inhibitory control neurocognitive performance. Our results suggest possible targets for neuromodulation in obesity (ie superior frontal gyrus) and a quantifiable mediator of their effects (ie inhibitory control).
Corominas, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Ferrer, M; Sáez-Francàs, N; Palomar, G; Bosch, R; Casas, M
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disease whose neurobiological background is not completely understood. It has been proposed that deficits of the inhibitory function with an underactive behavioral inhibition system (BIS) may be in the core of ADHD. In this regard, this review summarizes all studies that examine the involvement of cortisol in ADHD. Differences in cortisol responses from different ADHD subtypes, hyperactive/impulsive, inattentive, and combined, are analyzed. In addition, we examine the role of comorbidities as confounding factors in the study of cortisol in ADHD, including comorbid disruptive behavioral disorder (DBD), as well as anxiety and depressive disorders. Because ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition and approximately half of the children enter adulthood with the disorder, we review cortisol studies in adults and children separately. Two diverse patterns of cortisol have been reported both in children and adults with ADHD. Blunted cortisol responses to stress are associated with comorbid DBD, whereas high cortisol responses are associated to comorbid anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, the inhibitory deficits in ADHD do not appear to be related directly to cortisol deficits in either children or adults. This review increases our understanding of the heterogeneity of ADHD and could help in determining new strategies for the treatment of these patients. Future studies including gender and a more systematic methodology to study the cortisol response are needed.
Rhoades, Brittany L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Domitrovich, Celene E.
Social-emotional competence is a key developmental task during early childhood. This study examined concurrent relationships between maternal education and employment status, children's sex, ethnicity, age, receptive vocabulary, emotional knowledge, attention skills, inhibitory control and social-emotional competence in a sample of 146 preschool,…
Albrecht, B; Brandeis, D; Uebel, H; Valko, L; Heinrich, H; Drechsler, R; Heise, A; Müller, U C; Steinhausen, H-C; Rothenberger, A; Banaschewski, T
Patients with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit difficulties in multiple attentional functions. Although high heritability rates suggest a strong genetic impact, aetiological pathways from genes and environmental factors to the ADHD phenotype are not well understood. Tracking the time course of deviant task processing using event-related electrophysiological brain activity should characterize the impact of familiality on the sequence of cognitive functions from preparation to response control in ADHD. Method Preparation and response control were assessed using behavioural and electrophysiological parameters of two versions of a cued continuous performance test with varying attentional load in boys with ADHD combined type (n = 97), their non-affected siblings (n = 27) and control children without a family history of ADHD (n = 43). Children with ADHD and non-affected siblings showed more variable performance and made more omission errors than controls. The preparatory Cue-P3 and contingent negative variation (CNV) following cues were reduced in both ADHD children and their non-affected siblings compared with controls. The NoGo-P3 was diminished in ADHD compared with controls whilst non-affected siblings were located intermediate but did not differ from both other groups. No clear familiality effects were found for the Go-P3. Better task performance was further associated with higher CNV and P3 amplitudes. Impairments in performance and electrophysiological parameters reflecting preparatory processes and to some extend also for inhibitory response control, especially under high attentional load, appeared to be familially driven in ADHD and may thus constitute functionally relevant endophenotypes for the disorder.
Sullivan, Elyse M.; O’Donnell, Patricio
Translational studies are becoming more common in schizophrenia research. The past couple of decades witnessed the emergence of novel ideas regarding schizophrenia pathophysiology that originated from both human and animal studies. The findings that glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid transmission are affected in the disease led to the hypothesis of altered inhibitory neurotransmission as critical for cognitive deficits and to an exploration of novel therapeutic approaches aimed at restorin...
Paula Marcela Herrera
Full Text Available The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioural inhibiton, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioural inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioural inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/Nogo and Stop Signal Tasks. Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on the performance of such tasks in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and ADHD. However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory paradigms are rare and consequently, little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and self-control. Here, we probed the effect of reward and reward magnitude on behavioural inhibition using two modified version of the widely used Stop Signal Task. The first task compared no reward with reward, whilst the other compared two different reward magnitudes. The reward magnitude effect was confirmed by the second study, whereas it was less compelling in the first study, possibly due to the effect of having no reward in some conditions. In addition, our results showed a kick start effect over global performance measures. More specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task, when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the protocol. These results demonstrate that individuals’ behavioural inhibition capacities are dynamic not static because they are modulated by the reward magnitude and initial reward history of the task at hand.
Vromans, R.D.; Nilsenova, Marie; Papafragou, A.; Grodner, D.; Mirman, D.; Trueswell, J. C.
The purpose of our study was to determine whether active musical engagement alleviates decline in inhibitory control due to cognitive aging. Given that musical training in young adults has been shown to improve attentional performance, we can expect this benefit to persist for older adults as well.
Hinnant, J Benjamin; Forman-Alberti, Alissa B
We examined relations between adolescent perceptions of deviant peer behavior and delinquency as moderated by inhibitory control, planning, and decision making in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development at age 15 (N = 991). Adolescents reported perceptions of deviant peer behavior. Inhibitory control, planning, and decision making were assessed behaviorally. Delinquency was evaluated with a latent variable comprised of parent-guardian perceptions of adolescent delinquency and adolescent self-reports. Only inhibitory control moderated the relationship between deviant peer behavior and delinquency, showing that better inhibition protected against delinquency in contexts of high levels of adolescent perceptions of deviant peer behavior. Findings are discussed in the context of theories of adolescent delinquency and risk taking. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Bast, Tobias; Pezze, Marie; McGarrity, Stephanie
We review recent evidence concerning the significance of inhibitory GABA transmission and of neural disinhibition, that is, deficient GABA transmission, within the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, for clinically relevant cognitive functions. Both regions support important cognitive functions, including attention and memory, and their dysfunction has been implicated in cognitive deficits characterizing neuropsychiatric disorders. GABAergic inhibition shapes cortico-hippocampal neural activity, and, recently, prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition has emerged as a pathophysiological feature of major neuropsychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia and age-related cognitive decline. Regional neural disinhibition, disrupting spatio-temporal control of neural activity and causing aberrant drive of projections, may disrupt processing within the disinhibited region and efferent regions. Recent studies in rats showed that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition (by local GABA antagonist microinfusion) dysregulates burst firing, which has been associated with important aspects of neural information processing. Using translational tests of clinically relevant cognitive functions, these studies showed that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition disrupts regional cognitive functions (including prefrontal attention and hippocampal memory function). Moreover, hippocampal neural disinhibition disrupted attentional performance, which does not require the hippocampus but requires prefrontal-striatal circuits modulated by the hippocampus. However, some prefrontal and hippocampal functions (including inhibitory response control) are spared by regional disinhibition. We consider conceptual implications of these findings, regarding the distinct relationships of distinct cognitive functions to prefrontal and hippocampal GABA tone and neural activity. Moreover, the findings support the proposition that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition
Polderman, Tinca J C; de Geus, Eco J C; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Bartels, Meike; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Verhulst, Frank C; Posthuma, Danielle; Boomsma, Dorret I
It is assumed that attention problems (AP) are related to impaired executive functioning. We investigated the association between AP and inhibitory control and tested to what extent the association was due to genetic factors shared with IQ. Data were available from 3 independent samples of 9-, 12-, and 18-year-old twins and their siblings (1,209 participants). AP were assessed with checklists completed by multiple informants. Inhibitory control was measured with the Stroop Color Word Task (Stroop, 1935), and IQ with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Wechsler et al., 2002) or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Wechsler, 1997). AP and inhibitory control were only correlated in the 12-year-old cohort (r = .18), but appeared non-significant after controlling for IQ. Significant correlations existed between AP and IQ in 9- and 12-year olds (r = -.26/-.34). Inhibitory control and IQ were correlated in all cohorts (r = -.16, -.24 and -.35, respectively). Genetic factors that influenced IQ also influenced inhibitory control. We conclude that the association between AP and inhibitory control as reported in the literature may largely derive from genetic factors that are shared with IQ.
Full Text Available Objective: Low inhibitory control and strong hedonic response towards food are considered to contribute to overeating and obesity. Based on previous research, the present study aimed at examining the potentially crucial interplay between these two factors in terms of long-term weight loss in people with obesity. Methods: BMI, inhibitory control towards food, and food liking were assessed in obese adults prior to a weight reduction programme (OPTIFAST® 52. After the weight reduction phase (week 13 and the weight loss maintenance phase (week 52, participants' BMI was re-assessed. Results: Baseline BMI, inhibitory control and food liking alone did not predict weight loss. As hypothesised, however, inhibitory control and food liking interactively predicted weight loss from baseline to week 13 and to week 52 (albeit the latter effect was less robust. Participants with low inhibitory control and marked food liking were less successful in weight reduction. Conclusion: These findings underscore the relevance of the interplay between cognitive control and food reward valuation in the maintenance of obesity.
Johnstone, Stuart J; Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R
This article reviews the event-related potential (ERP) literature in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) over the years 2002-2012. ERP studies exploring various aspects of brain functioning in children and adolescents with AD/HD are reviewed, with a focus on group effects and interpretations in the domains of attention, inhibitory control, performance monitoring, non-pharmacological treatments, and ERP/energetics interactions. There has been a distinct shift in research intensity over the past 10 years, with a large increase in ERP studies conducted in the areas of inhibitory control and performance monitoring. Overall, the research has identified a substantial number of ERP correlates of AD/HD. Robust differences from healthy controls have been reported in early orienting, inhibitory control, and error-processing components. These data offer potential to improve our understanding of the specific brain dysfunction(s) which contribute to the disorder. The literature would benefit from a more rigorous approach to clinical group composition and consideration of age effects, as well as increased emphasis on replication and extension studies using exacting participant, task, and analysis parameters. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Thomas, Kathleen M.
This study investigated the changing relation between emotion and inhibitory control during adolescence. One hundred participants between 11 and 25 years of age performed a go-nogo task in which task-relevant stimuli (letters) were presented at the center of large task-irrelevant images depicting negative, positive, or neutral scenes selected from…
Fernandes, Francy B F; Rocca, Cristiana C; Gigante, Alexandre D; Dottori-Silva, Paola R; Gerchmann, Luciana; Rossini, Danielle; Sato, Rodrigo; Lafer, Beny; Nery, Fabiano G
To compare social skills and related executive functions among bipolar disorder (BD) patients with a family history of mood disorders (FHMD), BD patients with no FHMD and healthy control (HCs). We evaluated 20 euthymic patients with FHMD, 17 euthymic patients without FHMD, and 31 HCs using the Social Skills Inventory (SSI) and a neuropsychological battery evaluating executive function, inhibitory control, verbal fluency and estimated intelligence. Both BD groups had lower SSI scores than controls. Scores for one subfactor of the social skills questionnaire, conversational skills and social performance, were significantly lower among patients with FHMD than among patients without FHMD (p = 0.019). Both groups of BD patients exhibited significant deficits in initiation/inhibition, but only BD patients with FHMD had deficits in verbal fluency, both compared to HC. There were no associations between social skills questionnaire scores and measures of cognitive function. Euthymic BD patients have lower social skills and executive function performance than HC. The presence of FHMD among BD patients is specifically associated with deficits in conversational and social performance skills, in addition to deficits in verbal fluency. Both characteristics might be associated with a common genetically determined pathophysiological substrate.
Riggs, Nathaniel R; Pentz, Mary Ann
The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the associations between inhibitory control and the onset of combustible cigarette, electronic (e-) cigarette, and hookah use in early adolescence. A total of 407 adolescents self-reported nicotine use, inhibitory control, and SES. The hypothesis that inhibitory control would be significantly associated with nicotine use onset (i.e., combustible cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and hookah) only under the condition of low SES was tested. Direct associations were found for inhibitory control on "ever use" of all three nicotine use variables. A moderating effect was also found whereby low inhibitory control was significantly associated with nicotine use onset when participants were from low, but not high, SES families. Findings illustrate one contextual condition under which inhibitory control is associated with early onset of nicotine use.
Kao, Shih-Chun; Westfall, Daniel R; Soneson, Jack; Gurd, Brendon; Hillman, Charles H
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) on inhibitory control. The P3 component of the stimulus-locked ERP was collected in 64 young adults during a modified flanker task following 20 min of seated rest, 20 min of CAE, and 9 min of HIIT on separate days in counterbalanced order. Participants exhibited shorter overall reaction time following CAE and HIIT compared to seated rest. Response accuracy improved following HIIT in the task condition requiring greater inhibitory control compared to seated rest and CAE. P3 amplitude was larger following CAE compared to seated rest and HIIT. Decreased P3 amplitude and latency were observed following HIIT compared to seated rest. The current results replicated previous findings indicating the beneficial effect of acute CAE on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of inhibitory control. With a smaller duration and volume of exercise, a single bout of HIIT resulted in additional improvements in inhibitory control, paralleled by a smaller and more efficient P3 component. In sum, the current study demonstrated that CAE and HIIT differentially facilitate inhibitory control and its underlying neuroelectric activation, and that HIIT may be a time-efficient approach for enhancing cognitive health. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Full Text Available Jana Konicarova,1 Petr Bob,1,2 Jiri Raboch11Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech RepublicBackground and objectives: Functional disturbances developed early in life include balance deficits which are linked to dysfunctions of higher levels of cognitive and motor integration. According to our knowledge, there are only a few studies suggesting that balance deficits are related to behavioral disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: We tested the extent to which balance deficits were related to ADHD symptoms in 35 medication-naïve boys of school age (8–11 years and compared the results with a control group of 30 boys of the same age.Results: ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve boys had specific relationships to disturbances of postural and gait balance.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence in the medical literature for a direct relationship between ADHD symptoms and balance deficits, that cannot be attributed to medication and the presence of any neurological disease.Keywords: ADHD, balance deficits, conduct problems, developmental disorders, inhibitory deficits, impulsivity
Full Text Available Abstract Local inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn play an important role in the control of excitability at the segmental level and thus determine how nociceptive information is relayed to higher structures. Regulation of inhibitory interneuron activity may therefore have critical consequences on pain perception. Indeed, disinhibition of dorsal horn neuronal networks disrupts the balance between excitation and inhibition and is believed to be a key mechanism underlying different forms of pain hypersensitivity and chronic pain states. In this context, studying the source and the synaptic properties of the inhibitory inputs that the inhibitory interneurons receive is important in order to predict the impact of drug action at the network level. To address this, we studied inhibitory synaptic transmission in lamina II inhibitory interneurons identified under visual guidance in spinal slices taken from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the GAD promoter. The majority of these cells fired tonically to a long depolarizing current pulse. Monosynaptically evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs in these cells were mediated by both GABAA and glycine receptors. Consistent with this, both GABAA and glycine receptor-mediated miniature IPSCs were recorded in all of the cells. These inhibitory inputs originated at least in part from local lamina II interneurons as verified by simultaneous recordings from pairs of EGFP+ cells. These synapses appeared to have low release probability and displayed potentiation and asynchronous release upon repeated activation. In summary, we report on a previously unexamined component of the dorsal horn circuitry that likely constitutes an essential element of the fine tuning of nociception.
Bannister, Kirsty; Patel, Ryan; Goncalves, Leonor; Townson, Louisa; Dickenson, Anthony H
Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) utilize descending inhibitory controls through poorly understood brain stem pathways. The human counterpart, conditioned pain modulation, is reduced in patients with neuropathy aligned with animal data showing a loss of descending inhibitory noradrenaline controls together with a gain of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated facilitations after neuropathy. We investigated the pharmacological basis of DNIC and whether it can be restored after neuropathy. Deep dorsal horn neurons were activated by von Frey filaments applied to the hind paw, and DNIC was induced by a pinch applied to the ear in isoflurane-anaesthetized animals. Spinal nerve ligation was the model of neuropathy. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control was present in control rats but abolished after neuropathy. α2 adrenoceptor mechanisms underlie DNIC because the antagonists, yohimbine and atipamezole, markedly attenuated this descending inhibition. We restored DNIC in spinal nerve ligated animals by blocking 5-HT3 descending facilitations with the antagonist ondansetron or by enhancing norepinephrine modulation through the use of reboxetine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, NRI) or tapentadol (μ-opioid receptor agonist and NRI). Additionally, ondansetron enhanced DNIC in normal animals. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls are reduced after peripheral nerve injury illustrating the central impact of neuropathy, leading to an imbalance in descending excitations and inhibitions. Underlying noradrenergic mechanisms explain the relationship between conditioned pain modulation and the use of tapentadol and duloxetine (a serotonin, NRI) in patients. We suggest that pharmacological strategies through manipulation of the monoamine system could be used to enhance DNIC in patients by blocking descending facilitations with ondansetron or enhancing norepinephrine inhibitions, so possibly reducing chronic pain.
Dowsett, S M; Livesey, D J
As one of several processes involved in the executive functioning of the cognitive system, inhibitory control plays a significant role in determining how various mental processes work together in the successful performance of a task. Studies of response inhibition have shown that although 3-year-old children have the cognitive capacity to learn the rules required for response control, indicated by the correct verbal response, developmental constraints prevent them from withholding the correct response (Bell & Livesey, 1985; Livesey & Morgan, 1991). Some argue that these abulic dissociations are relative to children's ability to reflect on the rules required for response control (Zelazo, Reznick, & Pinon, 1995). The current study showed that repeated exposure to tasks facilitating the acquisition of increasingly complex rule structures could improve inhibitory control (as measured by a go/no-go discrimination learning task), even in children aged 3 years. These tasks included a variant of Diamond and Boyer's (1989) modified version of the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and a simplification of the change paradigm (Logan & Burkell, 1986). It is argued that experience with these tasks increased the acquisition of complex rules by placing demands on executive processes. This includes response control and other executive functions, such as representational flexibility, the ability to maintain information in working memory, the selective control of attention, and proficiency at error correction. The role of experiential variables in the development of inhibitory control is discussed in terms of the interaction between neural development and appropriate executive task experience in the early years. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Abad-Mas, Luis; Ruiz-Andrés, Rosalía; Moreno-Madrid, Francisca; Sirera-Conca, M Angeles; Cornesse, Marcel; Delgado-Mejía, Iván D; Etchepareborda, Máximo C
A number of different treatments have been proposed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet little material has been published in the literature to improve the performance of the mechanisms behind attention, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility and working memory in these children. We think that a working model that is effective in the treatment of persons with ADHD can only be consolidated by means of a thorough understanding of the syndromes involved in this deficit. In addition to reviewing the latest and most significant proposals aimed at improving the cognitive under-standing of the disorder, this work also refers to three neurobiological syndromes that are recognised as forming part of ADHD, i.e. medial cingulate syndrome, dorsolateral syndrome and orbitofrontal syndrome. Advances in neuroscientific research and the design of computerised treatment materials offer extremely valuable data that will undoubtedly help to improve the results of psychopedagogical and neuropsychological interventions in ADHD, since they provide information about the temporal and spatial equation.
Müller, Corsin A.; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike
Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject’s level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance. PMID:26863141
Corsin A Müller
Full Text Available Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.
Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike
Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.
Francx, Winke; Oldehinkel, Marianne; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Beckmann, Christian F.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten
Background: One neurodevelopmental theory hypothesizes remission of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to result from improved prefrontal top-down control, while ADHD, independent of the current diagnosis, is characterized by stable non-cortical deficits (Halperin & Schulz, 2006). We
Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen M; Zoellner, Lori A; Ho, William; Husain, Jawad
Cognitive abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be a function of underlying inhibitory deficits. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and attentional blink (AB) are paradigms thought to assess inhibition. Using a sample of 28 individuals with PTSD compared to 20 trauma-exposed and 19 healthy individuals, PPI was examined using white noise that was preceded by a tone, and AB was examined using a presentation of letters in a stream of numbers. Relative to the control group, the PTSD and trauma-exposed groups did not follow the u-shaped pattern in AB, suggesting trauma-exposure and subsequent PTSD are associated with similar impairment in attention. Individuals with PTSD showed reduced PPI compared to trauma-exposed and healthy individuals, suggesting individuals with PTSD exhibit faulty automatic processing. For individuals with PTSD, PTSD severity was associated with a decline in PPI. These findings suggest a general faulty inhibitory mechanism associated with trauma exposure and PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johnson-Ulrich, Lily; Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe; Holekamp, Kay
Innovation is widely linked to cognitive ability, brain size, and adaptation to novel conditions. However, successful innovation appears to be influenced by both cognitive factors, such as inhibitory control, and non-cognitive behavioral traits. We used a multi-access box (MAB) paradigm to measure repeated innovation, the number of unique innovations learned across trials, by 10 captive spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Spotted hyenas are highly innovative in captivity and also display striking variation in behavioral traits, making them good model organisms for examining the relationship between innovation and other behavioral traits. We measured persistence, motor diversity, motivation, activity, efficiency, inhibitory control, and neophobia demonstrated by hyenas while interacting with the MAB. We also independently assessed inhibitory control with a detour cylinder task. Most hyenas were able to solve the MAB at least once, but only four hyenas satisfied learning criteria for all four possible solutions. Interestingly, neither measure of inhibitory control predicted repeated innovation. Instead, repeated innovation was predicted by a proactive syndrome of behavioral traits that included high persistence, high motor diversity, high activity and low neophobia. Our results suggest that this proactive behavioral syndrome may be more important than inhibitory control for successful innovation with the MAB by members of this species.
Trevor J. Crawford
Full Text Available Eye-tracking is increasingly studied as a cognitive and biological marker for the early signs of neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. However, in order to make further progress, a more comprehensive understanding of the age-related effects on eye-tracking is essential. The antisaccade task requires participants to make saccadic eye movements away from a prepotent stimulus. Speculation on the cause of the observed age-related differences in the antisaccade task largely centers around two sources of cognitive dysfunction: inhibitory control (IC and working memory (WM. The IC account views cognitive slowing and task errors as a direct result of the decline of inhibitory cognitive mechanisms. An alternative theory considers that a deterioration of WM is the cause of these age-related effects on behavior. The current study assessed IC and WM processes underpinning saccadic eye movements in young and older participants. This was achieved with three experimental conditions that systematically varied the extent to which WM and IC were taxed in the antisaccade task: a memory-guided task was used to explore the effect of increasing the WM load; a Go/No-Go task was used to explore the effect of increasing the inhibitory load; a ‘standard’ antisaccade task retained the standard WM and inhibitory loads. Saccadic eye movements were also examined in a control condition: the standard prosaccade task where the load of WM and IC were minimal or absent. Saccade latencies, error rates and the spatial accuracy of saccades of older participants were compared to the same measures in healthy young controls across the conditions. The results revealed that aging is associated with changes in both IC and WM. Increasing the inhibitory load was associated with increased reaction times in the older group, while the increased WM load and the inhibitory load contributed to an increase in the antisaccade errors. These results reveal that aging is associated with
Crawford, Trevor J; Smith, Eleanor S; Berry, Donna M
Eye-tracking is increasingly studied as a cognitive and biological marker for the early signs of neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. However, in order to make further progress, a more comprehensive understanding of the age-related effects on eye-tracking is essential. The antisaccade task requires participants to make saccadic eye movements away from a prepotent stimulus. Speculation on the cause of the observed age-related differences in the antisaccade task largely centers around two sources of cognitive dysfunction: inhibitory control (IC) and working memory (WM). The IC account views cognitive slowing and task errors as a direct result of the decline of inhibitory cognitive mechanisms. An alternative theory considers that a deterioration of WM is the cause of these age-related effects on behavior. The current study assessed IC and WM processes underpinning saccadic eye movements in young and older participants. This was achieved with three experimental conditions that systematically varied the extent to which WM and IC were taxed in the antisaccade task: a memory-guided task was used to explore the effect of increasing the WM load; a Go/No-Go task was used to explore the effect of increasing the inhibitory load; a 'standard' antisaccade task retained the standard WM and inhibitory loads. Saccadic eye movements were also examined in a control condition: the standard prosaccade task where the load of WM and IC were minimal or absent. Saccade latencies, error rates and the spatial accuracy of saccades of older participants were compared to the same measures in healthy young controls across the conditions. The results revealed that aging is associated with changes in both IC and WM. Increasing the inhibitory load was associated with increased reaction times in the older group, while the increased WM load and the inhibitory load contributed to an increase in the antisaccade errors. These results reveal that aging is associated with changes in both IC and
Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.; Wright, Amanda J.; Luna, Beatriz
Inhibitory control and working memory were examined in post-institutionalized (PI) children adopted into United States families from Russian institutions. The PI sample originated from institutions that were less severely depriving than those represented in previous studies and approximated the level of psychosocial deprivation, which is characterized by adequate physical resources but a lack of consistent and responsive caregiving. PI children (N=75; 29 male) ranged in age from 8–17 years (M=12.97; SD=3.03) and were grouped according to whether they were adopted after 14 months or before 9 months. A non-adopted comparison group (N=133; 65 male) ranged in age from 8–17 years (M=12.26; SD=2.75). PI children adopted after 14 months of age displayed poorer performance on the stop-signal and spatial span tasks relative to PI children adopted before 9 months of age after controlling for age at assessment. The two PI groups did not differ in their performance on a spatial self-ordered search task. Older-adopted PI children also showed poorer spatial span task performance compared to non-adopted children, but younger-adopted PI children did not. Task performance was significantly associated with parent-rated hyperactive-impulsive behavior in everyday contexts. These findings suggest that exposure to prolonged early institutional deprivation may be linked with inhibitory control and working memory difficulties years after adoption. PMID:23519375
Sun, Yishan; Paşca, Sergiu P; Portmann, Thomas; Goold, Carleton; Worringer, Kathleen A; Guan, Wendy; Chan, Karen C; Gai, Hui; Vogt, Daniel; Chen, Ying-Jiun J; Mao, Rong; Chan, Karrie; Rubenstein, John LR; Madison, Daniel V; Hallmayer, Joachim; Froehlich-Santino, Wendy M; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E
Dravet Syndrome is an intractable form of childhood epilepsy associated with deleterious mutations in SCN1A, the gene encoding neuronal sodium channel Nav1.1. Earlier studies using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have produced mixed results regarding the importance of Nav1.1 in human inhibitory versus excitatory neurons. We studied a Nav1.1 mutation (p.S1328P) identified in a pair of twins with Dravet Syndrome and generated iPSC-derived neurons from these patients. Characterization of the mutant channel revealed a decrease in current amplitude and hypersensitivity to steady-state inactivation. We then differentiated Dravet-Syndrome and control iPSCs into telencephalic excitatory neurons or medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-like inhibitory neurons. Dravet inhibitory neurons showed deficits in sodium currents and action potential firing, which were rescued by a Nav1.1 transgene, whereas Dravet excitatory neurons were normal. Our study identifies biophysical impairments underlying a deleterious Nav1.1 mutation and supports the hypothesis that Dravet Syndrome arises from defective inhibitory neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13073.001 PMID:27458797
Full Text Available Premysl Vlcek,1 Petr Bob,1,2 Jiri Raboch1 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic Abstract: Sensory gating disturbances in schizophrenia are often described as an inability to filter redundant sensory stimuli that typically manifest as inability to gate neuronal responses related to the P50 wave, characterizing a decreased ability of the brain to inhibit various responses to insignificant stimuli. It implicates various deficits of perceptual and attentional functions, and this inability to inhibit, or “gate”, irrelevant sensory inputs leads to sensory and information overload that also may result in neuronal hyperexcitability related to disturbances of habituation mechanisms. These findings seem to be particularly important in the context of modern electrophysiological and neuroimaging data suggesting that the filtering deficits in schizophrenia are likely related to deficits in the integrity of connections between various brain areas. As a consequence, this brain disintegration produces disconnection of information, disrupted binding, and disintegration of consciousness that in terms of modern neuroscience could connect original Bleuler’s concept of “split mind” with research of neural information integration. Keywords: event-related potential, information overload, inhibition, P50 wave, schizophrenia, splitting
Poulton, Antoinette; Mackenzie, Caitlyn; Harrington, Kaitlyn; Borg, Sarah; Hester, Robert
Cognitive control deficits, as captured by inhibitory control measures, are indicative of increased impulsivity and are considered a marker for substance use disorder vulnerability. While individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) typically exhibit inhibitory control dysfunction, evidence of impaired inhibitory control among harmful drinkers, who are at increased risk of developing an AUD, is mixed. This study examined the response inhibition of binge drinkers using a task that employed neutral, as well as both immediate and delayed reward contingencies, to determine whether reward induced heightened impulsivity in this population. Binge alcohol users (n = 42) and controls (n = 42) were administered a Monetary Incentive Control Task that required participants to successfully inhibit a prepotent motor response to both neutral and immediately rewarding stimuli in order to secure a large delayed reward. Binge drinkers had significantly worse response inhibition than controls irrespective of trial condition and even after controlling for differences in weekly intake. Although both binge and control participants exhibited significantly worse inhibitory control in the presence of immediate reward, the control group showed a greater reduction in inhibition accuracy compared to the binge group in reward relative to neutral conditions. Both groups demonstrated significantly enhanced control when forewarned there was an increased chance response inhibition would be required. Control participants secured the delayed reward more often than binge participants. Despite the variability in the literature, this study demonstrated consistent generalized impulse control deficits among binge-drinking individuals that were unrelated to reward manipulations. These findings point to mechanisms that may confer vulnerability for transition from binge drinking to AUD. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Marguerit, Elisa; Brendel, Oliver; Lebon, Eric; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Ollat, Nathalie
The stomatal control of transpiration is one of the major strategies by which plants cope with water stress. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of the rootstock control of scion transpiration-related traits over a period of 3 yr. The rootstocks studied were full sibs from a controlled interspecific cross (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon × Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier), onto which we grafted a single scion genotype. After 10 d without stress, the water supply was progressively limited over a period of 10 d, and a stable water deficit was then applied for 15 d. Transpiration rate was estimated daily and a mathematical curve was fitted to its response to water deficit intensity. We also determined δ(13) C values in leaves, transpiration efficiency and water extraction capacity. These traits were then analysed in a multienvironment (year and water status) quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Quantitative trait loci, independent of year and water status, were detected for each trait. One genomic region was specifically implicated in the acclimation of scion transpiration induced by the rootstock. The QTLs identified colocalized with genes involved in water deficit responses, such as those relating to ABA and hydraulic regulation. Scion transpiration rate and its acclimation to water deficit are thus controlled genetically by the rootstock, through different genetic architectures. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.
Field, M.; Wiers, R.W.; Christiansen, P.; Fillmore, M.T.; Verster, J.C.
Alcohol impairs inhibitory control, and it alters implicit alcohol cognitions including attentional bias and implicit associations. These effects are seen after doses of alcohol which do not lead to global impairments in cognitive performance. We review studies which demonstrate that the effects of
Fan, Li-Ying; Shang, Chi-Yung; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Tai-Li
Deficits in inhibitory control and visual processing are common in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but little is known about endophenotypes for unaffected siblings of youths with ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the potential endophenotypes of brain activation and performance in inhibitory control and visual processing among ADHD probands, their unaffected siblings, and neurotypical youths. We assessed 27 ADHD probands, 27 unaffected siblings, and 27 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched neurotypical youths using the counting Stroop functional magnetic resonance imaging and two tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): rapid visual information processing (RVP) for inhibitory control and spatial span (SSP) for visual processing. ADHD probands showed greater activation than their unaffected siblings and neurotypical youths in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and anterior cingulate cortex. Increased activation in the right IFG was positively correlated with the mean latency of the RVP in ADHD probands. Moreover, ADHD probands and their unaffected siblings showed less activation in the left superior parietal lobule (SPL) than neurotypical youths. Increased activation in the left SPL was positively correlated with the spatial length of the SSP in neurotypical youths. Our findings suggest that less activation in the left SPL might be considered as a candidate imaging endophenotype for visual processing in ADHD. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J
Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.
Full Text Available Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1 the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2 an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination results in a longer go reaction time (RT, a lower stop error rate, as well as a faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.
Loos, M.; Schetters, Dustin; Hoogeland, Myrthe; Spijker, S.; de Vries, Taco J; Pattij, Tommy
Impulse control disturbances are key features of various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction, Parkinson disease and schizophrenia. Whereas over the last years accumulating evidence has highlighted monoaminergic modulation of
Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire
In this article, we first describe our general inhibitory-control theory and, then, we describe how we have tested its specific hypotheses on reasoning with brain imaging techniques in adults and children. The innovative part of this perspective lies in its attempt to come up with a brain-based synthesis of Jean Piaget's theory on logical algorithms and Daniel Kahneman's theory on intuitive heuristics.
Bora, E; Binnur Akdede, B; Alptekin, K
Most studies suggested that patients with deficit schizophrenia have more severe impairment compared with patients with non-deficit schizophrenia. However, it is not clear whether deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia are associated with differential neurocognitive profiles. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to compare cognitive performances of deficit and non-deficit patients with each other and with healthy controls. In the current meta-analysis, differences in cognitive abilities between 897 deficit and 1636 non-deficit patients with schizophrenia were examined. Cognitive performances of 899 healthy controls were also compared with 350 patients with deficit and 592 non-deficit schizophrenia. Both deficit (d = 1.04-1.53) and non-deficit (d = 0.68-1.19) schizophrenia were associated with significant deficits in all cognitive domains. Deficit patients underperformed non-deficit patients in all cognitive domains (d = 0.24-0.84) and individual tasks (d = 0.39-0.93). The relationship between deficit syndrome and impairment in olfaction, social cognition, verbal fluency, and speed-based cognitive tasks were relatively stronger. Our findings suggest that there is consistent evidence for a significant relationship between deficit syndrome and more severe cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
Da Silva, Susana; Saperia, Sarah; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Daskalakis, Z Jeff; Ravindran, Arun; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Remington, Gary; Foussias, George
Anhedonia has traditionally been considered a characteristic feature of schizophrenia, but the true nature of this deficit remains elusive. This study sought to investigate consummatory and anticipatory pleasure as it relates to motivation deficits. Eighty-four outpatients with schizophrenia and 81 healthy controls were administered the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), as well as a battery of clinical and cognitive assessments. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to examine the experience of pleasure as a function of diagnosis, and across levels of motivation deficits (i.e. low vs. moderate. vs. high) in schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses were also conducted to evaluate the predictive value of amotivation in relation to the TEPS. There were no significant differences between schizophrenia and healthy control groups for either consummatory or anticipatory pleasure. Within the schizophrenia patients, only those with high levels of amotivation were significantly impaired in consummatory and anticipatory pleasure compared to low and moderate groups, and compared to healthy controls. Further, our results revealed that amotivation significantly predicts both consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, with no independent contribution of group. Utilizing study samples with a wide range of motivation deficits and incorporating objective paradigms may provide a more comprehensive understanding of hedonic deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Katzir, Maayan; Eyal, Tal; Meiran, Nachshon; Kessler, Yoav
"Inhibitory control" is a cognitive mechanism that contributes to successful self-control (i.e., adherence to a long-term goal in the face of an interfering short-term goal). This research explored the effect of imagined positive emotional events on inhibition. The authors proposed that the influence of imagined emotions on inhibition…
Hudson, Amanda; Jacques, Sophie
Children's developing capacity to regulate emotions may depend on individual characteristics and other abilities, including age, sex, inhibitory control, theory of mind, and emotion and display rule knowledge. In the current study, we examined the relations between these variables and children's (N=107) regulation of emotion in a disappointing gift paradigm as well as their relations with the amount of effort to control emotion children exhibited after receiving the disappointing gift. Regression analyses were also conducted to identify unique predictors. Children's understanding of others' emotions and emotion display rules, as well as their inhibitory control skills, emerged as significant correlates of emotion regulation and predicted children's responses to the disappointing gift even after controlling for other relevant variables. Age and inhibitory control significantly predicted the amount of overt effort that went into regulating emotions, as did emotion knowledge (albeit only marginally). Together, findings suggest that effectively regulating emotions requires (a) knowledge of context-appropriate emotions along with (b) inhibitory skills to implement that knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Schaik, Johanna E; Hunnius, Sabine
During adult interactions, behavioral mimicry, the implicit copying of an interaction partner's postures and mannerisms, communicates liking and affiliation. While this social behavior likely develops during early childhood, it is unclear which factors contribute to its emergence. Here, the roles of inhibitory control and social understanding on 5-year-olds' behavioral mimicry were investigated. Following a social manipulation in which one experimenter shared a sticker with the child and the other experimenter kept two stickers for herself, children watched a video in which these experimenters each told a story. During this story session, children in the experimental group (n = 28) observed the experimenters perform face and hand rubbing behaviors whereas the control group (n = 23) did not see these behaviors. Children's inhibitory control was assessed using the day-night task and their social understanding was measured through a parental questionnaire. Surprisingly, group-level analyses revealed that the experimental group performed the behaviors significantly less than the control group (i.e. a negative mimicry effect) for both the sticker-sharer and sticker-keeper. Yet, the hypothesized effects of inhibitory control and social understanding were found. Inhibitory control predicted children's selective mimicry of the sticker-keeper versus sticker-sharer and children's overall mimicry was correlated with social understanding. These results provide the first indications to suggest that factors of social and cognitive development dynamically influence the emergence and specificity of behavioral mimicry during early childhood.
Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J.; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.
Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult’s ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD — cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785
Moreira, Karin Monteiro; Ferreira, Tatiana Lima; Hipolide, Debora Cristina; Fomari, Raquel Vecchio; Tufik, Sergio; Menezes Oliveira, Maria Gabriela
Study Objectives: Evaluation of modafinil effects on the inhibitory avoidance task (IA). Design: Rats were trained on a multiple trial IA task after receiving modafinil or vehicle injections. In experiment 1 they were trained with a weak protocol under baseline condition and in experiment 2, with a
Sebastian, Alexandra; Jung, Patrick; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Lieb, Klaus; Schmahl, Christian; Tüscher, Oliver
Disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity as used in clinical terms is very broadly defined and entails different categories including personality traits as well as different cognitive functions such as emotion regulation or interference resolution and impulse control. Impulse control as an executive function, however, is neither cognitively nor neurobehaviorally a unitary function. Recent findings from behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies suggest related but dissociable components of impulse control along functional domains like selective attention, response selection, motivational control, and behavioral inhibition. In addition, behavioral and neural dissociations are seen for proactive vs. reactive inhibitory motor control. The prefrontal cortex with its sub-regions is the central structure in executing these impulse control functions. Based on these concepts of impulse control, neurobehavioral findings of studies in BPD and ADHD were reviewed and systematically compared. Overall, patients with BPD exhibited prefrontal dysfunctions across impulse control components rather in orbitofrontal, dorsomedial, and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, whereas patients with ADHD displayed disturbed activity mainly in ventrolateral and medial prefrontal regions. Prefrontal dysfunctions, however, varied depending on the impulse control component and from disorder to disorder. This suggests a dissociation of impulse control related frontal dysfunctions in BPD and ADHD, although only few studies are hitherto available to assess frontal dysfunctions along different impulse control components in direct comparison of these disorders. Yet, these findings might serve as a hypothesis for the future systematic assessment of impulse control components to understand differences and commonalities of prefrontal cortex dysfunction in impulsive disorders.
Cheryl L Gatto
Full Text Available Proper brain function requires stringent balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation during neural circuit assembly. Mutation of genes that normally sculpt and maintain this balance results in severe dysfunction, causing neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, epilepsy and Rett syndrome. Such mutations may result in defective architectural structuring of synaptic connections, molecular assembly of synapses and/or functional synaptogenesis. The affected genes often encode synaptic components directly, but also include regulators that secondarily mediate the synthesis or assembly of synaptic proteins. The prime example is Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the leading heritable cause of both intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. FXS results from loss of mRNA-binding FMRP, which regulates synaptic transcript trafficking, stability and translation in activity-dependent synaptogenesis and plasticity mechanisms. Genetic models of FXS exhibit striking excitatory and inhibitory synapse imbalance, associated with impaired cognitive and social interaction behaviors. Downstream of translation control, a number of specific synaptic proteins regulate excitatory versus inhibitory synaptogenesis, independently or combinatorially, and loss of these proteins is also linked to disrupted neurodevelopment. The current effort is to define the cascade of events linking transcription, translation and the role of specific synaptic proteins in the maintenance of excitatory versus inhibitory synapses during neural circuit formation. This focus includes mechanisms that fine-tune excitation and inhibition during the refinement of functional synaptic circuits, and later modulate this balance throughout life. The use of powerful new genetic models has begun to shed light on the mechanistic bases of excitation/inhibition imbalance for a range of neurodevelopmental disease states.
van Mourik, R.; Papanikolau, A.; van Gelicum-Bijlhout, J.; van Oostenbruggen, J.; Veugelers, D.; Post-Uiterweer, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Oosterlaan, J.
The view that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a diminished ability to control interfference is controversial and based exclusively on results of (verbal)-visual interference tasks, primarily the Stroop Color Word task. The present study compares medication-naïve
Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S
The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and cognitive deficits concerning mental flexibility and inhibitory control efficiency. The present study aims at replicating and extending these observations. We compared cognitive control performance of normal weight (BMI task tapping either inhibitory control (Experiment 1) or interference control (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 replicated previous findings that found less efficient inhibitory control in overweight individuals. Experiment 2 complemented these findings by showing that cognitive control impairments associated with high BMI also extend to the ability to resolve stimulus-induced response conflict and to engage in conflict-driven control adaptation. The present results are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that high BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with less efficient cognitive control functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fried, Ronna; Chan, James; Feinberg, Leah; Pope, Amanda; Woodworth, K Yvonne; Faraone, Stephen V; Biederman, Joseph
Both working memory (WM; a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been associated with educational deficits. Since WM deficits are prevalent in children with ADHD, the main aim of the present study was to examine whether educational deficits are driven by working memory deficits or driven by the effect of ADHD itself. Participants were referred youth with (N = 276) and without (N = 241) ADHD ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric sources. Assessment included measures of psychiatric, psychosocial, educational, and cognitive functioning. Education deficits were defined as grade retention or placement in special classes and were assessed using interviews and written rating scales. Working memory was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) Freedom from Distractibility (FFD) factor based on Digit Span, Arithmetic, and Coding. Significantly more youth with ADHD had WM deficits than controls (31.9% vs. 13.7%, p increased risk for grade retention and placement in special classes as well as lower scores on reading and math achievement tests than for ADHD children without WM deficits. In contrast, no other differences were noted in other areas of functioning. Although WM deficits also had some adverse impact on educational and cognitive correlates in non-ADHD controls, these differences failed to attain statistical significance. WM deficits significantly and selectively increase the risk for academic deficits and cognitive dysfunction in children with ADHD beyond those conferred by ADHD. Screening for WM deficits may help identify children with ADHD at high risk for academic and cognitive dysfunction.
Bannister, K; Lockwood, S; Goncalves, L; Patel, R; Dickenson, A H
Following neuropathy α2-adrenoceptor-mediated diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), whereby a noxious conditioning stimulus inhibits the activity of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons, are abolished, and spinal 5-HT7 receptor densities are increased. Here, we manipulate spinal 5-HT content in spinal nerve ligated (SNL) animals and investigate which 5-HT receptor mediated actions predominate. Using in vivo electrophysiology we recorded WDR neuronal responses to von frey filaments applied to the hind paw before, and concurrent to, a noxious ear pinch (the conditioning stimulus) in isoflurane-anaesthetised rats. The expression of DNIC was quantified as a reduction in WDR neuronal firing in the presence of conditioning stimulus and was investigated in SNL rats following spinal application of (1) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram or fluoxetine, or dual application of (2) SSRI plus 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB269970, or (3) SSRI plus α2 adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole. DNIC were revealed in SNL animals following spinal application of SSRI, but this effect was abolished upon joint application of SSRI plus SB269970 or atipamezole. We propose that in SNL animals the inhibitory actions (quantified as the presence of DNIC) of excess spinal 5-HT (presumed present following application of SSRI) were mediated via 5-HT7 receptors. The anti-nociception depends upon an underlying tonic noradrenergic inhibitory tone via the α2-adrenoceptor. Following neuropathy enhanced spinal serotonin availability switches the predominant spinal 5-HT receptor-mediated actions but also alters noradrenergic signalling. We highlight the therapeutic complexity of SSRIs and monoamine modulators for the treatment of neuropathic pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.
Fried, Ronna; Chan, James; Feinberg, Leah; Pope, Amanda; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph
Objective Both working memory (WM) (a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been associated with educational deficits. Since WM deficits are prevalent in children with ADHD, the main aim of the present study was to examine whether educational deficits are driven by working memory deficits or driven by the effect of ADHD itself. Method Participants were referred youth with (N=276) and without (N=241) ADHD ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric sources. Assessment included measures of psychiatric, psychosocial, educational, and cognitive functioning. Education deficits were defined as grade retention or placement in special classes, and were assessed using interviews and written rating scales. Working memory was assessed using the WISC-R Freedom from Distractibility (FFD) factor based on digit span, arithmetic and coding. Results Significantly more youth with ADHD had WM deficits than controls (31.9% vs. 13.7%, p< 0.05). In ADHD children, WM deficits were significantly (p<0.01) associated with an increased risk for grade retention and placement in special classes as well as lower scores on reading and math achievement tests, relative to ADHD children without WM deficits. In contrast, no other differences were noted in other areas of functioning. Although WM deficits also had some adverse impact on educational and cognitive correlates in non ADHD controls, these differences failed to attain statistical significance. Conclusion WM deficits significantly and selectively increase the risk for academic deficits and cognitive dysfunction in children with ADHD beyond those conferred by ADHD. Screening for WM deficits may help identify children with ADHD at high risk for academic and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26902180
Slater, Jessica; Ashley, Richard; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina
Musical rhythm engages motor and reward circuitry that is important for cognitive control, and there is evidence for enhanced inhibitory control in musicians. We recently revealed an inhibitory control advantage in percussionists compared with vocalists, highlighting the potential importance of rhythmic expertise in mediating this advantage. Previous research has shown that better inhibitory control is associated with less variable performance in simple sensorimotor synchronization tasks; however, this relationship has not been examined through the lens of rhythmic expertise. We hypothesize that the development of rhythm skills strengthens inhibitory control in two ways: by fine-tuning motor networks through the precise coordination of movements "in time" and by activating reward-based mechanisms, such as predictive processing and conflict monitoring, which are involved in tracking temporal structure in music. Here, we assess adult percussionists and nonpercussionists on inhibitory control, selective attention, basic drumming skills (self-paced, paced, and continuation drumming), and cortical evoked responses to an auditory stimulus presented on versus off the beat of music. Consistent with our hypotheses, we find that better inhibitory control is correlated with more consistent drumming and enhanced neural tracking of the musical beat. Drumming variability and the neural index of beat alignment each contribute unique predictive power to a regression model, explaining 57% of variance in inhibitory control. These outcomes present the first evidence that enhanced inhibitory control in musicians may be mediated by rhythmic expertise and provide a foundation for future research investigating the potential for rhythm-based training to strengthen cognitive function.
Knott, Lauren M.; Howe, Mark L.; Wimmer, Marina C.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.
In three experiments, we investigated the role of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false memory development in children and adults. Experiment 1 incorporated a directed forgetting task to examine controlled retrieval inhibition. Experiments 2 and 3 used a part-set cue and retrieval practice task to examine…
Vloet, Timo D.; Gilsbach, Susanne; Neufang, Susanne; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin
Objective: Both executive functions and time perception are typically impaired in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the exact neural mechanisms underlying these deficits remain to be investigated. Method: Fourteen subjects with ADHD and 14 age- and IQ-matched controls (aged 9 through 15 years) were assessed…
Noyan, Kajsa; Nguyen, Son; Betts, Michael R; Sönnerborg, Anders; Buggert, Marcus
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) elite controllers (ELCs) represent a unique population that control viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (cART). It is well established that expression of multiple inhibitory receptors on CD8+ T cells is associated with HIV-1 disease progression. However, whether reduced co-expression of inhibitory receptors on CD4+ T cells is linked to natural viral control and slow HIV-1 disease progression remains undefined. Here, we report on the expression pattern of numerous measurable inhibitory receptors, associated with T cell exhaustion (programmed cell death-1, CTLA-4, and TIGIT), on different CD4+ T cell memory populations in ELCs and HIV-infected subjects with or without long-term cART. We found that the co-expression pattern of inhibitory receptors was significantly reduced in ELCs compared with HIV-1 cART-treated and viremic subjects, and similar to healthy controls. Markers associated with T cell exhaustion varied among different memory CD4+ T cell subsets and highest levels were found mainly on transitional memory T cells. CD4+ T cells co-expressing all inhibitory markers were positively correlated to T cell activation (CD38+ HLA-DR+) as well as the transcription factors Helios and FoxP3. Finally, clinical parameters such as CD4 count, HIV-1 viral load, and the CD4/CD8 ratio all showed significant associations with CD4+ T cell exhaustion. We demonstrate that ELCs are able to maintain lower levels of CD4+ T cell exhaustion despite years of ongoing viral replication compared with successfully cART-treated subjects. Our findings suggest that ELCs harbor a "healthy" state of inhibitory receptor expression on CD4+ T cells that might play part in maintenance of their control status.
Duque, Julie; Labruna, Ludovica; Verset, Sophie; Olivier, Etienne; Ivry, Richard B
Top-down control processes are critical to select goal-directed actions in flexible environments. In humans, these processes include two inhibitory mechanisms that operate during response selection: one is involved in solving a competition between different response options, the other ensures that a selected response is initiated in a timely manner. Here, we evaluated the role of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPF) of healthy subjects in these two forms of inhibition by using an innovative transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol combining repetitive TMS (rTMS) over PMd or LPF and a single pulse TMS (sTMS) over primary motor cortex (M1). sTMS over M1 allowed us to assess inhibitory changes in corticospinal excitability, while rTMS was used to produce transient disruption of PMd or LPF. We found that rTMS over LPF reduces inhibition associated with competition resolution, whereas rTMS over PMd decreases inhibition associated with response impulse control. These results emphasize the dissociable contributions of these two frontal regions to inhibitory control during motor preparation. The association of LPF with competition resolution is consistent with the role of this area in relatively abstract aspects of control related to goal maintenance, ensuring that the appropriate response is selected in a variable context. In contrast, the association of PMd with impulse control is consistent with the role of this area in more specific processes related to motor preparation and initiation.
Duque, Julie; Labruna, Ludovica; Verset, Sophie; Olivier, Etienne; Ivry, Richard B.
Top-down control processes are critical to select goal-directed actions in flexible environments. In humans, these processes include two inhibitory mechanisms that operate during response selection: one is involved in solving a competition between different response options, the other ensures that a selected response is initiated timely. Here, we evaluated the role of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPF) of healthy subjects in these two forms of inhibition by using an innovative transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol combining repetitive TMS (rTMS) over PMd or LPF and a single pulse TMS (sTMS) over primary motor cortex (M1). sTMS over M1 allowed us to assess inhibitory changes in corticospinal excitability, while rTMS was used to produce transient disruption of PMd or LPF. We found that rTMS over LPF reduces inhibition associated with competition resolution whereas rTMS over PMd decreases inhibition associated with response impulse control. These results emphasize the dissociable contributions of these two frontal regions to inhibitory control during motor preparation. The association of LPF with competition resolution is consistent with the role of this area in relatively abstract aspects of control related to goal maintenance, ensuring that the appropriate response is selected in a variable context. In contrast, the association of PMd with impulse control is consistent with the role of this area in more specific processes related to motor preparation and initiation. PMID:22262879
Full Text Available Disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity as used in clinical terms is very broadly defined and entails different categories including personality traits as well as different cognitive functions such as emotion regulation or interference resolution and impulse control. Impulse control as an executive function, however, is neither cognitively nor neurobehaviorally a unitary function. Recent findings from behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies suggest related but dissociable components of impulse control along functional domains like selective attention, response selection, motivational control and behavioral inhibition. In addition, behavioral and neural dissociations are seen for proactive versus reactive inhibitory motor control. The prefrontal cortex with its sub-regions is the central structure in executing these impulse control functions. Based on these concepts of impulse control, neurobehavioral findings of studies in BPD and ADHD were reviewed and systematically compared. Overall, BPD patients exhibited prefrontal dysfunctions across impulse control components rather in orbitofrontal, dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, whereas ADHD patients displayed disturbed activity mainly in ventrolateral and medial prefrontal regions. Prefrontal dysfunctions, however, varied depending on the impulse control component and from disorder to disorder. This suggests a dissociation of impulse control related frontal dysfunctions in BPD and ADHD, although only few studies are hitherto available to assess frontal dysfunctions along different impulse control components in direct comparison of these disorders. Yet, these findings might serve as a hypothesis for the future systematic assessment of impulse control components to understand differences and commonalities of prefrontal cortex dysfunction in impulsive disorders.
Luijten, Maartje; O'Connor, David A; Rossiter, Sarah; Franken, Ingmar H A; Hester, Robert
Susceptibility to use of addictive substances may result, in part, from a greater preference for an immediate small reward relative to a larger delayed reward or relative insensitivity to punishment. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined the neural basis of inhibiting an immediately rewarding stimulus to obtain a larger delayed reward in smokers. We also investigated whether punishment could modulate inhibitory control. The Monetary Incentive Go/NoGo (MI-Go/NoGo) task was administered that provided three types of reward outcomes contingent upon inhibitory control performance over rewarding stimuli: inhibition failure was either followed by no monetary reward (neutral condition), a small monetary reward with immediate feedback (reward condition) or immediate monetary punishment (punishment condition). In the reward and punishment conditions, successful inhibitory control resulted in larger delayed rewards. Community sample of smokers in the Melbourne (Australia) area. Nineteen smokers were compared with 17 demographically matched non-smoking controls. Accuracy, reaction times and brain activation associated with the MI-Go/NoGo task. Smokers showed hyperactivation in the right insula (P rewarding stimulus to obtain a larger delayed reward, and during inhibition of neutral stimuli. Group differences in brain activity were not significant in the punishment condition in the right insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, most probably as a result of increased activation in non-smoking controls. Compared with non-smokers, smokers showed increased neural activation when resisting immediately rewarding stimuli and may be less sensitive to punishment as a strategy to increase control over rewarding stimuli. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Mückschel, Moritz; Dippel, Gabriel; Beste, Christian
Response inhibition mechanisms are mediated via cortical and subcortical networks. At the cortical level, the superior frontal gyrus, including the supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior frontal areas, is important. There is an ongoing debate about the functional roles of these structures during response inhibition as it is unclear whether these structures process different codes or contents of information during response inhibition. In the current study, we examined this question with a focus on theta frequency oscillations during response inhibition processes. We used a standard Go/Nogo task in a sample of human participants and combined different EEG signal decomposition methods with EEG beamforming approaches. The results suggest that stimulus coding during inhibitory control is attained by oscillations in the upper theta frequency band (∼7 Hz). In contrast, response selection codes during inhibitory control appear to be attained by the lower theta frequency band (∼4 Hz). Importantly, these different codes seem to be processed in distinct functional neuroanatomical structures. Although the SMA may process stimulus codes and response selection codes, the inferior frontal cortex may selectively process response selection codes during inhibitory control. Taken together, the results suggest that different entities within the functional neuroanatomical network associated with response inhibition mechanisms process different kinds of codes during inhibitory control. These codes seem to be reflected by different oscillations within the theta frequency band. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5681-5690, 2017. © 2017 Wiley-Liss, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kadam, Niteen N.; Tamilselvan, Anandhan; Lawas, Lovely M.F.; Quinones, Cherryl; Bahuguna, Rajeev N.; Thomson, Michael J.; Dingkuhn, Michael; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Struik, Paul C.; Yin, Xinyou; Jagadish, Krishna S.V.
Elucidating the genetic control of rooting behavior under water-deficit stress is essential to breed climate-robust rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars. Using a diverse panel of 274 indica genotypes grown under control and water-deficit conditions during vegetative growth, we phenotyped 35 traits, mostly
Sarkisian, Katherine; Van Hulle, Carol; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H H
Impulsivity is commonly conflated with novelty seeking, but these traits are conceptually independent and hold different predictive implications. Using a multi-informant, longitudinal design, we examined childhood inhibitory control, as well as adolescent impulsivity and novelty seeking, as predictors of aggression in a sample of 976 twins. Lower childhood inhibitory control and higher adolescent impulsivity predicted both overt and relational aggression in regression analyses that accounted for sex, puberty status, age, and socioeconomic status. As predicted, novelty seeking did not predict aggression, a finding that supports its independence from impulsivity.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study explored whether romantic lovers differ in emotion-related inhibitory control capacity from those who are single. Methods: 88 healthy undergraduate college students participated in the study. Half were currently in love and in a romantic relationship (love group, LG, and half were single and had never been in a romantic relationship (single group, SG. Based on duration of romantic relationship (i.e., love duration, the LG were further divided into two subgroups: early stage love and longer periods of love. All participants completed an emotional Stop Signal Task (eSST, which consisted of a variety of human face stimuli representing sadness (a negative emotion, as well as neutral emotions. Results: Results found that relative to SG, lovers showed greater inhibitory control [shorter stop-signal reaction time (SSRT] during negative emotion condition trials. Furthermore, in early stages of love, SSRT for negative emotion condition trials was significantly shorter compared to that in longer periods of love or SG individuals, with no significant differences between the latter two groups. Conclusions: Compared with individuals who were single, early-stage lovers showed greater capacity for inhibiting action during presentation of negative emotional stimuli. Within a greater social context, greater inhibitory control capacity during early stages of love may be related to the successful formation of romantic relationships, particularly to the ability to persevere in goal-directed action despite negative emotional contexts such as that of sadness.
Song, Sensen; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Wang, Yongming; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Huijun; Chen, Hong
Purpose: This study explored whether romantic lovers differ in emotion-related inhibitory control capacity from those who are single. Methods: 88 healthy undergraduate college students participated in the study. Half were currently in love and in a romantic relationship (love group, LG), and half were single and had never been in a romantic relationship (single group, SG). Based on duration of romantic relationship (i.e., love duration), the LG were further divided into two subgroups: “early stage love” and “longer periods of love”. All participants completed an emotional Stop Signal Task, consisting of a variety of human face stimuli displaying either sad or neutral affect. Results: Results found that relative to SG, lovers showed greater inhibitory control [shorter stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)] during negative emotion condition trials. Furthermore, in early stages of love, SSRT for negative emotion condition trials was significantly shorter compared to that in “longer periods of love” or SG individuals, with no significant differences between the two latter groups. Conclusion: Compared with individuals who were single, early stage lovers showed greater capacity for inhibiting action during presentation of negative emotional stimuli. Within a greater social context, greater inhibitory control capacity during early stages of love may be related to the successful formation of romantic relationships, particularly to the ability to persevere in goal-directed action despite negative emotional contexts such as that of sadness. PMID:27826260
Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Guimarães, Rachel Silvany Quadros; Jagersbacher, João Gabriel; Barretto, Thiago Lima; de Jesus-Silva, Jéssica Regina; Santos, Samantha Nunes; Argollo, Nayara; Lucena, Rita
Studies investigating the possible benefits of transcranial direct current stimulation on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been performed. This study assesses the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD on neuropsychological tests of visual attention, visual and verbal working memory, and inhibitory control. An auto-matched clinical trial was performed involving transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD, using SNAP-IV and subtests Vocabulary and Cubes of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III). Subjects were assessed before and after transcranial direct current stimulation sessions with the Digit Span subtest of the WISC-III, inhibitory control subtest of the NEPSY-II, Corsi cubes, and the Visual Attention Test (TAVIS-3). There were 9 individuals with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) criteria. There was statistically significant difference in some aspects of TAVIS-3 tests and the inhibitory control subtest of NEPSY-II. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be related to a more efficient processing speed, improved detection of stimuli, and improved ability to switch between an ongoing activity and a new one. © The Author(s) 2016.
Dittrich, Winand H; Johansen, Thomas
The nature of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by contradictory findings in terms of specific neuropsychological deficits. Selective impairments have been suggested to involve visuospatial memory, set shifting, decision-making and response inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive deficits in decision-making and executive functioning in OCD. It was hypothesized that the OCD patients would be less accurate in their responses compared to the healthy controls in rational decision-making on a version of the Cambridge gambling task (CGT) and on the color-word interference test and on a version of the Tower of Hanoi test (tower test) of executive functioning. Thirteen participants with OCD were compared to a group of healthy controls (n = 13) matched for age, gender, education and verbal IQ. Results revealed significant differences between the OCD group and the healthy control group on quality of decision-making on the CGT and for achievement score on the tower test. On these two tasks the OCD group performed worse than the healthy control group. The symptom-dimension analysis revealed performance differences where safety checking patients were impaired on the tower test compared to contamination patients. Results are discussed in the framework of cognition and emotion processing and findings implicate that OCD models should address, specifically, the interaction between cognition and emotion. Here the emotional disruption hypothesis is forwarded to account for the dysfunctional behaviors in OCD. Further implications regarding methodological and inhibitory factors affecting cognitive information processing are highlighted. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Jones, Andrew; Tiplady, Brian; Houben, Katrijn; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Field, Matt
RATIONALE: Deficient inhibitory control is predictive of increased alcohol consumption in the laboratory; however, little is known about this relationship in naturalistic, real-world settings. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we implemented ecological momentary assessment methods to investigate the
Full Text Available With regard to the fact that the tendency toward unsophisticated strategies is often related to difficulties with basic components of executive functions, the aim of this research was to determine the relation between planning abilities and inhibitory control in children with mild intellectual disability (MID. The sample included 56 children with idiopathic MID (IQ 50-69, M=61.13, SD=7.14, of both genders (26/46.3% of girls, between 9.11 and 14.03 years of age (M=11.61; SD=1.29. Go no Go Task and Day/Night Stroop Task were used for the assessment of inhibitory control (delayed response to the agreed signal, conflict provoking motor responses, and inhibition of arrogant verbal responses, while Tower of London Test (ToL was used for the assessment of planning abilities. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA, paired samples t-test, Pearson's correlation, and partial correlation coefficients were used in statistical analysis of the results. The results showed that the mistakes in Response delay set of Go-no-Go task were the only significant factor of primary Total move score variable (ToL. The influence of the ability to delay motor activity, assessed by Response delay set, on all ToL variables was statistically significant (p=0.003. The results lead to a conclusion that, during the processes of planning and executing activities, children with MID primarily rely on simple inhibitory mechanisms.
Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis (KOA is a highly prevalent, chronic joint disorder, which can lead to chronic pain. Although electroacupuncture (EA is effective in relieving chronic pain in the clinic, the involved mechanisms remain unclear. Reduced diffuse noxius inhibitory controls (DNIC function is associated with chronic pain and may be related to the action of endocannabinoids. In the present study, we determined whether EA may potentiate cannabinoid receptor-mediated descending inhibitory control and inhibit chronic pain in a mouse model of KOA. We found that the optimized parameters of EA inhibiting chronic pain were the low frequency and high intensity (2 Hz + 1 mA. EA reversed the reduced expression of CB1 receptors and the 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG level in the midbrain in chronic pain. Microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG can reversed the EA effect on pain hypersensitivity and DNIC function. In addition, CB1 receptors on GABAergic but not glutamatergic neurons are involved in the EA effect on DNIC function and descending inhibitory control of 5-HT in the medulla, thus inhibiting chronic pain. Our data suggest that endocannabinoid (2-AG-CB1R-GABA-5-HT may be a novel signaling pathway involved in the effect of EA improving DNIC function and inhibiting chronic pain.
Alegria, Analucia A; Wulff, Melanie; Brinson, Helen; Barker, Gareth J; Norman, Luke J; Brandeis, Daniel; Stahl, Daniel; David, Anthony S; Taylor, Eric; Giampietro, Vincent; Rubia, Katya
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor self-control, underpinned by inferior fronto-striatal deficits. Real-time functional magnetic resonance neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF) allows participants to gain self-control over dysregulated brain regions. Despite evidence for beneficial effects of electrophysiological-NF on ADHD symptoms, no study has applied the spatially superior rtfMRI-NF neurotherapy to ADHD. A randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of rtfMRI-NF of right inferior prefrontal cortex (rIFG), a key region that is compromised in ADHD and upregulated with psychostimulants, on improvement of ADHD symptoms, cognition, and inhibitory fMRI activation. To control for region-specificity, an active control group received rtfMRI-NF of the left parahippocampal gyrus (lPHG). Thirty-one ADHD boys were randomly allocated and had to learn to upregulate their target brain region in an average of 11 rtfMRI-NF runs over 2 weeks. Feedback was provided through a video-clip of a rocket that had to be moved up into space. A transfer session without feedback tested learning retention as a proximal measure of transfer to everyday life. Both NF groups showed significant linear activation increases with increasing number of runs in their respective target regions and significant reduction in ADHD symptoms after neurotherapy and at 11-month follow-up. Only the group targeting rIFG, however, showed a transfer effect, which correlated with ADHD symptom reductions, improved at trend level in sustained attention, and showed increased IFG activation during an inhibitory fMRI task. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates for the first time feasibility, safety, and shorter- and longer-term efficacy of rtfMRI-NF of rIFG in adolescents with ADHD. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3190-3209, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Farag, Azza Gaber Antar; Hammam, Mostafa Ahmed; Habib, Mona SalahEldeen; Elnaidany, Nada Farag; Kamh, Mona Eaid
Vitiligo is an autoimmune skin disorder in which the loss of melanocytes is mainly attributed to defective autoimmune mechanisms and, lately, there has been more emphasis on autoinflammatory mediators. Among these is the macrophage migration inhibitory factor, which is involved in many autoimmune skin diseases. However, little is known about the contribution of this factor to vitiligo vulgaris. To determine the hypothesized role of migration inhibitory factor in vitiligo via estimation of serum migration inhibitory factor levels and migration inhibitory factor mRNA concentrations in patients with vitiligo compared with healthy controls. We also aimed to assess whether there is a relationship between the values of serum migration inhibitory factor and/or migration inhibitory factor mRNA with disease duration, clinical type and severity in vitiligo patients. Evaluation of migration inhibitory factor serum level and migration inhibitory factor mRNA expression by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively, were performed for 50 patients with different degrees of vitiligo severity and compared to 15 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers as controls. There was a highly significant increase in serum migration inhibitory factor and migration inhibitory factor mRNA levels in vitiligo cases when compared to controls (pvitiligo patients, and each of them with duration and severity of vitiligo. In addition, patients with generalized vitiligo have significantly elevated serum migration inhibitory factor and mRNA levels than control subjects. Small number of investigated subjects. Migration inhibitory factor may have an active role in the development of vitiligo, and it may also be a useful index of disease severity. Consequently, migration inhibitory factor may be a new treatment target for vitiligo patients.
Schoemaker, MM; Ketelaars, Cornelis; van Zonneveld, M; Minderaa, RB; Mulder, T
This study aimed to investigate whether two distinct motor control processes, i.e. motor planning and parameter setting, were impaired in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An experiment was designed in which children copied figures of increasing complexity under
Full Text Available It has been well documented an executive dysfunction in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and with Reading Disorder (RD. The purpose of the present study was to test an alternative hypothesis that deficits in executive functioning within ADHD may be partially due to an impairment of the automatic processing. In addition, since the co-occurrence between ADHD and RD, we tested the hypothesis that the automatic processing may be a possible common cognitive factor between ADHD and RD. We investigated the automatic processing of selective visual attention through two experiments. 12 children with ADHD, 17 with ADHD+RD and 29 typically developing children, matched for age and gender, performed two tasks: Visual Information Processing Task and Clock Test. As expected, ADHD and ADHD+RD groups differed from the control group in controlled process task, suggesting a deficit in executive functioning. All clinical subjects also exhibited a lower performance in automatic processes, compared to control group. The results of this study suggest that executive deficits within ADHD can be partially due to an impairment of automatic processing.
Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A
If all but one of the items in a list are similar (e.g., all black except one red), memory for the different item is enhanced (the isolation effect). Older adults generally show similar or smaller isolation effects compared to young adults, which has been attributed to age-related deficits in associative memory whereby older adults are less able to associate an isolated stimulus to its isolating feature. Experiment 1 examined the isolation effect for isolation based on spatial position, modality and color; in Experiment 2, the criterion for isolation was the associative relation between stimuli. The results consistently showed no differences between young and older participants in the magnitude of the isolation effect. Whilst age deficits in associative memory may act to reduce the isolation effect in older adults, age deficits in self-initiated processing and inhibitory functionality may counteract this reduction by enhancing the isolation effect in older adults.
ALTERACIONES DEL CONTROL INHIBITORIO CONDUCTUAL EN NIÑOS DE 6 A 11 AÑOS CON TDAH FAMILIAR DE BARRANQUILLA - BEHAVIORAL CHANGES OF INHIBITORY CONTROL IN CHILDREN FROM 6 TO 11 YEARS OLD WITH FAMILY ADHD FROM BARRANQUILLA
DAVID PINEDA SALAZAR
Full Text Available Inhibitory control is the cognitive process responsible for the intentional and voluntary control, it means, the suppression of immediate responses requiring motor interference or behavioral inhibition. In this research, the multidimensional scale of behavior BASC-Teachers was used as a tool, for the description of executive behavior in the dimensions of behavioral control, emotional control, attention control and problem solving skills. We selected 52 children from 6 to 11 years old with family Attention Deficit Disorder Hyperactivity-ADHD and a control group. The main finding indicates that the dimension of executive behavior “problem solving” statistically and clinically differentiated children affected and not affected by ADHD, yielding in particular a lower score on the affected children. These results from the BASC-Executive validate the hypothesis regarding the presence of an alteration in the inhibitory behavioral control underlying the symptoms of ADHD.ResumenEl control inhibitorio es el proceso encargado del control intencional-voluntario, es decir, de la supresión de respuestas inmediatas que requieran interferencia motora o inhibición conductual.En la presente investigación, se utilizó como instrumento la escala multidimensional de la conducta BASC-Maestros para la descripción de las conductas ejecutivas en las dimensiones: control de la conducta, control emocional, control de la atención y capacidad de resolución de problemas. Se seleccionaron 52 niños de 6 a 11 años con Trastorno por Déficit de Atención Hiperactividad-TDAH familiar y un grupo control. Como principal hallazgo, se indica que la dimensión de conducta ejecutiva “solución de problemas” diferenció estadísticay clínicamente a los niños afectados y no afectados de TDAH, arrojando en particular una puntuación más pobre en los niños afectados. Estos resultados del BASC- Ejecutivo validan la hipótesis relativa a la presencia de una alteración en
White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.
Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament identified in early childhood, is associated with social reticence in childhood and an increased risk for anxiety problems in adolescence and adulthood. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children remain reticent or develop an anxiety disorder. One possible mechanism accounting for the variability in the developmental trajectories of BI is a child’s ability to successfully recruit cognitive processes involved in the regulation of negative reactivity. However, separate cognitive processes may differentially moderate the association between BI and later anxiety problems. The goal of the current study was to examine how two cognitive processes - attention shifting and inhibitory control - laboratory assessed at 48 months of age moderated the association between 24-month BI and anxiety symptoms in the preschool years. Results revealed that high levels of attention shifting decreased the risk for anxiety symptoms in children with high levels of BI, whereas high levels of inhibitory control increased this risk for anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that different cognitive processes may influence relative levels of risk or adaptation depending upon a child’s temperamental reactivity. PMID:21301953
Wang, Dongshi; Zhou, Chenglin; Zhao, Min; Wu, Xueping; Chang, Yu-Kai
The present study integrated behavioral and neuroelectric approaches for determining the dose-response relationships between exercise intensity and methamphetamine (MA) craving and between exercise intensity and inhibitory control in individuals with MA dependence. Ninety-two individuals with MA dependence were randomly assigned to an exercise group (light, moderate, or vigorous intensity) or to a reading control group. The participants then completed a craving self-report at four time points: before exercise, during exercise, immediately after exercise, and 50 min after exercise. Event-related potentials were also recorded while the participants completed a standard Go/NoGo task and an MA-related Go/NoGo task approximately 20 min after exercise cessation. The reduction in self-reported MA craving scores of the moderate and vigorous intensity groups was greater than that of the light intensity and control groups during acute exercise as well as immediately and 50 min following exercise termination. Additionally, an inverted-U-shaped relationship between exercise intensity and inhibitory control was generally observed for the behavioral and neuroelectric indices, with the moderate intensity group exhibiting shorter Go reaction times, increased NoGo accuracy, and larger NoGo-N2 amplitudes. Acute exercise may provide benefits for MA-associated craving and inhibitory control in MA-dependent individuals, as revealed by behavioral and neuroelectric measures. Moderate-intensity exercise may be associated with more positive effects, providing preliminary evidence for the establishment of an exercise prescription regarding intensity for MA dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin; English, Joseph S; McClernon, F Joseph; Dew, Rachel E; Lane, Scott D
Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs-the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD-influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money after oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Doumas, Michail; McKenna, Roisin; Murphy, Blain
We investigated the nature of sensory integration deficits in postural control of young adults with ASD. Postural control was assessed in a fixed environment, and in three environments in which sensory information about body sway from visual, proprioceptive or both channels was inaccurate. Furthermore, two levels of inaccurate information were…
Bayless, Daniel W; Perez, Maria C; Daniel, Jill M
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a commonly used and well-studied rodent model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the cognitive symptoms of ADHD are reported. However, the female SHR rat is much less studied than its male counterpart. The goal of the current study was to assess the validity of the SHR rodent model of ADHD by examining attentional performance, inhibitory control, and hyperactivity in both male and female SHR rats. Adult SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto rats were trained on the 5-choice serial reaction time task, a self-paced test of attention and inhibitory control. This task requires animals to identify the location of a brief light stimulus among five possible locations under several challenging conditions. Analyses of percent correct revealed that attentional performance in SHR females was not significantly different from control females, whereas attentional performance in SHR males was significantly different from control males. Analyses of the number of premature responses revealed that SHR rats made more inhibitory control errors than did control rats and that this decrease in inhibitory control was present in both SHR males and females. Analyses of activity in the open field revealed that SHR rats were more hyperactive than were control rats and that this increased hyperactivity was present in both SHR males and females. The current findings have implications for the study of sex differences in ADHD and for the use of SHR rats as a model of ADHD in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Giannotta, Fabrizia; Burk, William J.; Ciairano, Silvia
This study examined the role of inhibitory control (measured by Stroop interference) in children's cooperative behaviors during a structured puzzle task. The sample consisted of 250 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (117 girls and 133 boys) attending classrooms in three primary schools in Northern Italy. Children individually completed an elaborated…
Derlich, Malgorzata; Krecisz, Krzysztof; Kuczynski, Michal
To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for deteriorated postural control in children with hearing deficit (CwHD), we measured center-of-pressure (COP) variability, mean velocity and entropy in bipedal quiet stance (feet together) with or without the concurrent cognitive task (reaction to visual stimulus) on hard or foam surface in 29 CwHD and a…
Olson, Sheryl L.; Tardif, Twila Z.; Miller, Alison; Felt, Barbara; Grabell, Adam S.; Kessler, Daniel; Wang, Li; Karasawa, Mayumi; Hirabayashi, Hidemi
We examined associations between child inhibitory control, harsh parental discipline and externalizing problems in 120 4 year-old boys and girls in the US, China, and Japan. Individual differences in children's inhibitory control abilities, assessed using behavioral tasks and maternal ratings, were related to child externalizing problems reported…
Polderman, T.J.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Verhulst, F.C.; Posthuma, D.; Boomsma, D.I.
It is assumed that attention problems (AP) are related to impaired executive functioning. We investigated the association between AP and inhibitory control and tested to what extent the association was due to genetic factors shared with IQ. Data were available from 3 independent samples of 9-, 12-, and 18-year-old twins and their siblings (1,209 participants). AP were assessed with checklists completed by multiple informants. Inhibitory control was measured with the Stroop Color Word Task (St...
Betancourt, Laura M; Yang, Wei; Brodsky, Nancy L; Gallagher, Paul R; Malmud, Elsa K; Giannetta, Joan M; Farah, Martha J; Hurt, Hallam
Preclinical studies of gestational cocaine exposure (GCE) show evidence of changes in brain function at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels, to include effects on developing dopaminergic systems. In contrast, human studies have produced less consistent results, with most showing small effects or no effects on developmental outcomes. Important changes in brain structure and function occur through adolescence, therefore it is possible that prenatal cocaine exposure has latent effects on neurocognitive (NC) outcome that do not manifest until adolescence or young adulthood. We examined NC function using a set of 5 tasks designed to tap 4 different systems: inhibitory control, working memory, receptive language, and incidental memory. For each NC task, data were collected longitudinally at ages 12, 14.5 and 17 years and examined using generalized estimating equations. One hundred and nine children completed at least two of the three evaluations. Covariates included in the final model were assessment number, gender, participant age at first assessment, caregiver depression, and two composites from the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), Environmental Stimulation and Parental Nurturance. We found no cocaine effects on inhibitory control, working memory, or receptive language (p=0.18). GCE effects were observed on incidental face memory task (p=0.055), and GCE by assessment number interaction effects were seen on the incidental word memory task (p=0.031). Participant performance on inhibitory control, working memory, and receptive language tasks improved over time. HOME Environmental Stimulation composite was associated with better receptive language functioning. With a larger sample size smaller differences between groups may have been detected. This report shows no evidence of latent effects of GCE on inhibitory control, working memory, or receptive language. GCE effects were observed on the incidental face memory task, and GCE by
Full Text Available Cortical networks are composed of excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Finding the right balance between the two is important for controlling overall cortical excitation and network dynamics. However, it is unclear how the correct number of cortical interneurons (CIs is established in the mammalian forebrain. CIs are generated in excess from basal forebrain progenitors, and their final numbers are adjusted via an intrinsically determined program of apoptosis that takes place during an early postnatal window. Here, we provide evidence that the extent of CI apoptosis during this critical period is plastic and cell-type specific and can be reduced in a cell-autonomous manner by acute increases in neuronal activity. We propose that the physiological state of the emerging neural network controls the activity levels of local CIs to modulate their numbers in a homeostatic manner.
Full Text Available Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Tourette Syndrome (TS present as distinct conditions clinically; however, comorbidity and inhibitory control deficits have been proposed for both. Whilst such deficits have been studied widely within clinical populations, findings are mixed – partly due to comorbidity and/or medication effects - and studies have rarely distinguished between subtypes of the disorders. Studies in the general population are sparse. Using a continuity approach, the present study examined (i the relationships between inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive aspects of ADHD and TS-like behaviors in the general population, and (ii their unique associations with automatic and executive inhibitory control, as well as (iii yawning (a proposed behavioral model of TS. One hundred and thirty-eight participants completed self-report measures for ADHD and TS-like behaviors as well as yawning, and a conditioned inhibition task to assess automatic inhibition. A sub-sample of fifty-four participants completed three executive inhibition tasks. An exploratory factor analysis of the TS behavior checklist supported a distinction between phonic and motor like pure TS behaviors. Whilst hyperactive/impulsive aspects of ADHD were associated with increased pure and compulsive TS-like behaviors, inattention in isolation was related to reduced obsessive-compulsive TS-like behaviors. TS-like behaviors were associated with yawning during situations of inactivity, and specifically motor TS was related to yawning during stress. Phonic TS and inattention aspects of ADHD were associated with yawning during concentration/activity. Whilst executive interference control deficits were linked to hyperactive/impulsive ADHD-like behaviors, this was not the case for inattentive ADHD or TS-like behaviors, which instead related to increased performance on some measures. No associations were observed for automatic conditioned inhibition.
Scullin, Matthew H.; Bonner, Karri
The current study examined the relations among 3- to 5-year-olds' theory of mind, inhibitory control, and three measures of suggestibility: yielding to suggestive questions (yield), shifting answers in response to negative feedback (shift), and accuracy in response to misleading questions during a pressured interview about a live event. Theory of…
Raes, Filip; Verstraeten, Katrien; Bijttebier, Patricia; Vasey, Michael W.; Dalgleish, Tim
It has been well established that depressed mood is related to overgeneral memory recall (OGM), which refers to a relative difficulty in retrieving specific information from one's autobiographical memory (AM). The present study examined whether OGM is also related to depressed mood in children and whether lack of inhibitory control mediates this…
Michelini, G; Kitsune, G L; Hosang, G M; Asherson, P; McLoughlin, G; Kuntsi, J
In adults, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have certain overlapping symptoms, which can lead to uncertainty regarding the boundaries of the two disorders. Despite evidence of cognitive impairments in both disorders separately, such as in attentional and inhibitory processes, data on direct comparisons across ADHD and BD on cognitive-neurophysiological measures are as yet limited. We directly compared cognitive performance and event-related potential measures from a cued continuous performance test in 20 women with ADHD, 20 women with BD (currently euthymic) and 20 control women. The NoGo-N2 was attenuated in women with BD, reflecting reduced conflict monitoring, compared with women with ADHD and controls (both p < 0.05). Both ADHD and BD groups showed a reduced NoGo-P3, reflecting inhibitory control, compared with controls (both p < 0.05). In addition, the contingent negative variation was significantly reduced in the ADHD group (p = 0.05), with a trend in the BD group (p = 0.07), compared with controls. These findings indicate potential disorder-specific (conflict monitoring) and overlapping (inhibitory control, and potentially response preparation) neurophysiological impairments in women with ADHD and women with BD. The identified neurophysiological parameters further our understanding of neurophysiological impairments in women with ADHD and BD, and are candidate biomarkers that may aid in the identification of the diagnostic boundaries of the two disorders.
Bora, E; Pantelis, C
Impairment in social cognition is an established finding in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Emerging evidence suggests that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might be also associated with deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition. However, there are inconsistent findings, and it has been debatable whether such deficits persist beyond childhood and how similar social cognitive deficits are in ADHD v. ASD. We conducted a meta-analysis of social cognition, including emotion recognition and ToM, studies in ADHD compared with healthy controls and ASD. The current meta-analysis involved 44 studies comparing ADHD (n = 1999) with healthy controls (n = 1725) and 17 studies comparing ADHD (n = 772) with ASD (n = 710). Facial and vocal emotion recognition (d = 0.40-0.44) and ToM (d = 0.43) abilities were significantly impaired in ADHD. The most robust facial emotion recognition deficits were evident in anger and fear. Social cognitive deficits were either very subtle (emotion recognition) or non-significant (ToM) in adults with ADHD. Deficits in social cognition, especially ToM, were significantly more pronounced in ASD compared with ADHD. General cognitive impairment has contributed to social cognitive deficits in ADHD. Performance of individuals with ADHD on social cognition lies intermediate between ASD and healthy controls. However, developmental trajectories of social cognition probably differ between ADHD and ASD as social cognitive deficits in ADHD might be improving with age in most individuals. There is a need for studies investigating a potential subtype of ADHD with persistent social cognitive deficits and exploring longitudinal changes in social cognition during development.
Full Text Available Bearing in mind that the adaptive behaviour is one of the defining parameters of intellectual disability, determining of the influence of inhibitory control on adaptive functioning in children with mild intellectual disability was defined as a basic aim of this research. The sample covered 95 children with mild intellectual disability (MID, of both genders, from 10 to 14 years of age. By analysis of the data of schools' pedagogical-psychological departments, data on age and intellectual abilities of participants were collected. Inhibitory control was estimated by Go no Go task, consisted of Conflict Response and Response Delay sets. Adaptive skills data were gained on the basis of a standardized interview with special education teachers, by applying of AAMR Scale of adaptive functioning. On the basis of factor analysis, Scale scores were grouped in five factors: Personal independence, Social Independence, Personal and Social Responsibility, Social Adaptability and Personal Adaptability. Significance of relations among the observed variables was established by Pearson's correlation coefficient, by partial correlation coefficient and multifactorial variance analysis. Based on the analysis of results a statistically significant relationship between errors in the execution of tasks that belong to the set of conflict motor responses and adaptive functioning (p≤0.000 was established. The relationship between errors that belong to the set of the response delay, and adaptive functioning is not statistically significant (p=0.324. Inhibition of the interference response is a significant factor of practical (partial η2=0.227, conceptual (partial η2=0.341 and social (partial η2=0.131 adaptive skills, while the response delay is significantly associated with the conceptual skills (p=0.029 only. Inhibitory control did not prove itself a significant factor in behaviour problems of externalizing and internalized type.
Nancy A. Pike
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease [CHD] show a range of memory deficits, which can dramatically impact their clinical outcomes and quality of life. However, few studies have identified predictors of these memory changes. The purpose of this investigation was to identify predictors of memory deficits in adolescents and young adults with CHD after surgical palliation compared to healthy controls. Method: 156 adolescents and young adults [80 CHD and 76 controls; age 14-21 years] were recruited and administered an instrument to assess memory [Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2nd Edition – general memory index (GMI score] and completed questionnaires that measure anxiety, depression, sleepiness, health status, and self-efficacy. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to assess group differences, and logistic regression to identify predictors of memory deficits. Results: CHD subjects consisted of 58% males, median age 17 years, 41% Hispanic, and medians of 2 previous heart surgeries and 14 years since last surgery. Memory deficits [GMI < 85] were identified in 50% CHD compared to 4% healthy controls [median GMI 85 vs. 108, p <0.001]. Of GMI subscale medians, CHD subjects had significantly worse memory performance vs. healthy controls [verbal 88 vs. 105, p <0.001; attention 88 vs. 109, p<0.001; working memory 86 vs. 108, p <0.001]. No significant differences appeared between groups for visual memory. Multiple clinical and psychosocial factors were identified which were statistically different on bivariate analyses between the subjects with and without memory deficits. By multivariate analysis, male gender, number of surgeries, anxiety, and self-efficacy emerged as independent predictors of memory deficits. Conclusion: Adolescents and young adults with CHD, more than a decade since their last surgery, show significant verbal, attention and working memory deficits over controls. To enhance
Rollins, Brandi Y; Loken, Eric; Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L
Background: Mothers use a range of feeding practices to limit children's intake of palatable snacks (eg, keeping snacks out of reach, not bringing snacks into the home), but less is known about the effects of these practices on children's eating and weight outcomes. Objective: The objective was to identify distinct feeding practice profiles and evaluate the interactive effects of these profiles and girls’ temperament (inhibitory control and approach) on girls’ eating behaviors and weight outcomes at 5 and 7 y. Design: Participants included 180 mother-daughter dyads; measures were mothers’ reports of controlling feeding practices and girls’ height and weight, eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) at 5 y, and inhibitory control (a measure of behavioral inhibition) and approach (a measure of appetitive motivation) at 7 y. Results: Latent profile analysis of maternal feeding practices showed 4 feeding profiles based on maternal use of limit-setting practices and keeping snacks out of girls’ physical reach, a restrictive practice: Unlimited Access to Snacks, Sets Limits+Does Not Restrict Snacks, Sets Limits+Restricts High Fat/Sugar Snacks, and Sets Limits+Restricts All Snacks. Girls whose mothers used Sets Limits+Restricts All Snacks had a higher approach and EAH at 5 y. Low inhibitory control girls whose mothers used Sets Limits+Restricts All Snacks or Unlimited Access to Snacks had greater increases in EAH and body mass index (BMI) from 5 to 7 y. Conclusions: Effects of maternal control on girls’ EAH and BMI may differ by the type of practice used (eg, limit-setting or restrictive practices). Girls with low inhibitory control were more susceptible to the negative effects of low and high control. PMID:24284443
Allom, Vanessa; Mullan, Barbara
Inhibitory control training has been shown to influence eating behaviour in the laboratory; however, the reliability of these effects is not yet established outside the laboratory, nor are the mechanisms responsible for change in behaviour. Two online Stop-Signal Task training interventions were conducted to address these points. In Study 1, 72 participants completed baseline and follow-up measures of inhibitory control, self-regulatory depletion, fat intake and body-mass index. Participants were randomly assigned to complete one of three Stop-Signal Tasks daily for ten days: food-specific inhibition--inhibition in response to unhealthy food stimuli only, general inhibition--inhibition was not contingent on type of stimuli, and control--no inhibition. While fat intake did not decrease, body-mass index decreased in the food-specific condition and change in this outcome was mediated by changes in vulnerability to depletion. In Study 2, the reliability and longevity of these effects were tested by replicating the intervention with a third measurement time-point. Seventy participants completed baseline, post-intervention and follow-up measures. While inhibitory control and vulnerability to depletion improved in both training conditions post-intervention, eating behaviour and body-mass index did not. Further, improvements in self-regulatory outcomes were not maintained at follow-up. It appears that while the training paradigm employed in the current studies may improve self-regulatory outcomes, it may not necessarily improve health outcomes. It is suggested that this may be due to the task parameters, and that a training paradigm that utilises a higher proportion of stop-signals may be necessary to change behaviour. In addition, improvements in self-regulation do not appear to persist over time. These findings further current conceptualisations of the nature of self-regulation and have implications for the efficacy of online interventions designed to improve eating
Wolf, I.; Tost, H.; Ruf, M.; Ende, G.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder of early childhood onset. Defining symptoms are chronic impairments of attention, impulse control and motor hyperactivity that frequently persist until adulthood. Miscellaneous causes of the disorder have been discussed. Accumulating evidence from imaging- and molecular genetic studies strengthened the theory of ADHS being a predominantly inherited disorder of neurobiological origin. In the last 15 years, non-invasive brain imaging methods were successfully implemented in pediatric research. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies gave major insight into the neurobiological correlates of executive malfunction, inhibitory deficits and psychomotoric soft signs. These findings are in good accordance with brain morphometric data indicating a significant volumetric decrease of major components of striato-thalamo-cortical feedback loops, primarily influencing prefrontal executive functioning (e.g. basal ganglia). Empirical evidence points to a broad array of associated behavioral disturbances like deficient visuomotor abilities and oculomotor dysfunctions. This paper reviews the current empirical evidence derived from prior imaging studies. Special emphasis is given to the relevance of oculomotor dysfunctions in clinical and research settings, as well as their assessment in the MR environment. (orig.) [de
Tong, Leslie M; Djukic, Biljana; Arnold, Christine; Gillespie, Anna K; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Wang, Max M; Zhang, Olivia; Knoferle, Johanna; Rubenstein, John L R; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Huang, Yadong
Excitatory and inhibitory balance of neuronal network activity is essential for normal brain function and may be of particular importance to memory. Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, two major players in Alzheimer's disease (AD), cause inhibitory interneuron impairments and aberrant neuronal activity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in AD-related mouse models and humans, leading to learning and memory deficits. To determine whether replacing the lost or impaired interneurons rescues neuronal signaling and behavioral deficits, we transplanted embryonic interneuron progenitors into the hippocampal hilus of aged apoE4 knock-in mice without or with Aβ accumulation. In both conditions, the transplanted cells developed into mature interneurons, functionally integrated into the hippocampal circuitry, and restored normal learning and memory. Thus, restricted hilar transplantation of inhibitory interneurons restores normal cognitive function in two widely used AD-related mouse models, highlighting the importance of interneuron impairments in AD pathogenesis and the potential of cell replacement therapy for AD. More broadly, it demonstrates that excitatory and inhibitory balance are crucial for learning and memory, and suggests an avenue for investigating the processes of learning and memory and their alterations in healthy aging and diseases. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349506-10$15.00/0.
This study examined the use of a progressive delay procedure with and without a concurrent activity to teach self-control to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Three participants were initially required to wait progressively longer periods of time for access to preferred edible reinforcers. After demonstrating this…
Howell, David R; Lynall, Robert C; Buckley, Thomas A; Herman, Daniel C
An emerging area of research has identified that an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury may exist upon returning to sports after a sport-related concussion. The mechanisms underlying this recently discovered phenomenon, however, remain unknown. One theorized reason for this increased injury risk includes residual neuromuscular control deficits that remain impaired despite clinical recovery. Thus, the objectives of this review were: (1) to summarize the literature examining the relationship between concussion and risk of subsequent injury and (2) to summarize the literature for one mechanism with a theorized association with this increased injury risk, i.e., neuromuscular control deficits observed during gait after concussion under dual-task conditions. Two separate reviews were conducted consistent with both specified objectives. Studies published before 9 December, 2016 were identified using PubMed, Web of Science, and Academic Search Premier (EBSCOhost). Inclusion for the objective 1 search included dependent variables of quantitative measurements of musculoskeletal injury after concussion. Inclusion criteria for the objective 2 search included dependent variables pertaining to gait, dynamic balance control, and dual-task function. A total of 32 studies were included in the two reviews (objective 1 n = 10, objective 2 n = 22). According to a variety of study designs, athletes appear to have an increased risk of sustaining a musculoskeletal injury following a concussion. Furthermore, dual-task neuromuscular control deficits may continue to exist after patients report resolution of concussion symptoms, or perform normally on other clinical concussion tests. Therefore, musculoskeletal injury risk appears to increase following a concussion and persistent motor system and attentional deficits also seem to exist after a concussion. While not yet experimentally tested, these motor system and attentional deficits may contribute to the risk of sustaining a
Froemke, Robert C
Synapses are highly plastic and are modified by changes in patterns of neural activity or sensory experience. Plasticity of cortical excitatory synapses is thought to be important for learning and memory, leading to alterations in sensory representations and cognitive maps. However, these changes must be coordinated across other synapses within local circuits to preserve neural coding schemes and the organization of excitatory and inhibitory inputs, i.e., excitatory-inhibitory balance. Recent studies indicate that inhibitory synapses are also plastic and are controlled directly by a large number of neuromodulators, particularly during episodes of learning. Many modulators transiently alter excitatory-inhibitory balance by decreasing inhibition, and thus disinhibition has emerged as a major mechanism by which neuromodulation might enable long-term synaptic modifications naturally. This review examines the relationships between neuromodulation and synaptic plasticity, focusing on the induction of long-term changes that collectively enhance cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance for improving perception and behavior.
Baumeister, Sarah; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Rechtsteiner, Stefanie; Zangl, Maria; Ruf, Matthias; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker, Regina; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Holtmann, Martin; Laucht, Manfred; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel
Inhibitory response control has been extensively investigated in both electrophysiological (ERP) and hemodynamic (fMRI) studies. However, very few multimodal results address the coupling of these inhibition markers. In fMRI, response inhibition has been most consistently linked to activation of the anterior insula and inferior frontal cortex (IFC), often also the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). ERP work has established increased N2 and P3 amplitudes during NoGo compared to Go conditions in most studies. Previous simultaneous EEG-fMRI imaging reported association of the N2/P3 complex with activation of areas like the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) and anterior insula. In this study we investigated inhibitory control in 23 healthy young adults (mean age=24.7, n=17 for EEG during fMRI) using a combined Flanker/NoGo task during simultaneous EEG and fMRI recording. Separate fMRI and ERP analysis yielded higher activation in the anterior insula, IFG and ACC as well as increased N2 and P3 amplitudes during NoGo trials in accordance with the literature. Combined analysis modelling sequential N2 and P3 effects through joint parametric modulation revealed correlation of higher N2 amplitude with deactivation in parts of the default mode network (DMN) and the cingulate motor area (CMA) as well as correlation of higher central P3 amplitude with activation of the left anterior insula, IFG and posterior cingulate. The EEG-fMRI results resolve the localizations of these sequential activations. They suggest a general role for allocation of attentional resources and motor inhibition for N2 and link memory recollection and internal reflection to P3 amplitude, in addition to previously described response inhibition as reflected by the anterior insula. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shireen, Erum; Pervez, Sidra; Masroor, Maria; Ali, Wafa Binte; Rais, Qudsia; Khalil, Samira; Tariq, Anum; Haleem, Darakshan Jabeen
Stress is defined as a non specific response of body to any physiological and psychological demand. Preclinical studies have shown that an uncontrollable stress condition produces neurochemical and behavioral deficits. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that a decrease in the responsiveness of somatodendritic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-1A receptors following adaptation to stress could attenuate haloperidol induced acute parkinsonian like effect. Results showed that single exposure (2h) to immobilization stress markedly decreased food intake, growth rate and locomotor activity but these stress-induced behavioral deficits were not observed following repeated (2h/day for 5 days) exposure of immobilization stress suggesting behavioral tolerance occurs to similar stress. An important finding of present study is a reversal of haloperidol-induced motor deficits in animals exposed to repeated immobilization stress than respective control animals. It is suggested that stress induced possible desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT-1A as well as 5-HT-2C receptors could release dopamine system from the inhibitory influence of serotonin. On the other hand, an increase in the effectiveness of postsynaptic 5-HT-1A receptors elicits a direct stimulatory influence on the activity of dopaminergic neuron and is possibly involved in the reversal of haloperidol-induced parkinsonian like symptoms in repeatedly immobilized rats.
Lukowski, Angela F; Koss, Marlene; Burden, Matthew J; Jonides, John; Nelson, Charles A; Kaciroti, Niko; Jimenez, Elias; Lozoff, Betsy
Iron deficiency in infancy negatively impacts a variety of neurodevelopmental processes at the time of nutrient insufficiency, with persistent central nervous system alterations and deficits in behavioral functioning, despite iron therapy. In rodent models, early iron deficiency impairs the hippocampus and the dopamine system. We examined the possibility that young adults who had experienced chronic, severe, iron deficiency as infants would exhibit deficits on neurocognitive tests with documented frontostriatal (Trail Making Test, Intra-/Extra-dimensional Shift, Stockings of Cambridge, Spatial Working Memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing) and hippocampal specificity (Pattern Recognition Memory, Spatial Recognition Memory). Participants with chronic, severe iron deficiency in infancy performed less well on frontostriatal-mediated executive functions, including inhibitory control, set-shifting, and planning. Participants also exhibited impairment on a hippocampus-based recognition memory task. We suggest that these deficits may result from the long-term effects of early iron deficiency on the dopamine system, the hippocampus, and their interaction.
Preuss, Hanna; Pinnow, Marlies; Schnicker, Katja; Legenbauer, Tanja
Although there is preliminary evidence that inhibitory control training improves impulsive eating, less is known about the effects on eating behaviour and weight loss in clinical samples. Sixty-nine treatment-seeking adults with obesity (binge-eating disorder 33.3%; other specific feeding and eating disorders 40.6%) were randomly blockwise allocated to ImpulsE, an intervention to improve inhibitory control and emotion regulation abilities or a guideline-appropriate cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based treatment as usual. Self-reported and performance-based impulsivity, eating disorder pathology and BMI were compared at baseline (T1), post-treatment (T2) and 1- or 3-month follow-up. ImpulsE led to better food-specific inhibition performance (p = .004), but groups did not differ regarding improvements in global Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) score at T2. At 3-month follow-up, binge eaters benefited most from ImpulsE (p = .028) and completers of ImpulsE demonstrated a significantly greater weight reduction (p = .030). The current findings propose ImpulsE as a promising approach to treat obesity, illustrating acceptability and additional benefits for course of weight. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van
In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German–English bilinguals, German–English–Language
Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan
The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to direct their attention and exert cognitive control in a forced instruction dichotic listening (DL) task. The performance of 29 adults with ADHD was compared with 58......-forced condition), or to focus and report either the right- or left-ear syllable (forced-right and forced-left condition). This procedure is presumed to tap distinct cognitive processes: perception (non-forced condition), orienting of attention (forced-right condition), and cognitive control (forced-left condition......). Adults with ADHD did not show significant impairment in the conditions tapping perception and attention orientation, but were significantly impaired in their ability to report the left-ear syllable during the forced-left instruction condition, whereas the control group showed the expected left...
Johnstone, Stuart J; Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R
Previous research has shown that children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder of the Combined Type (AD/HDcom) have problems with response inhibition, with poorer task performance and atypical inhibition-related ERPs relative to control subjects, while little is known about response inhibition in children with Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder of the Predominantly Inattentive Type (AD/HDin). In this study children with AD/HDin (N=12), AD/HDcom (N=13) and age-matched controls (N=13) aged between 8 and 14 years completed a Stop-signal task, with visual Go and auditory Stop-signal stimuli, while EEG was recorded. The results indicated that the groups did not differ on any inhibitory task performance measure, but the AD/HD groups showed more errors of omission to Go stimuli than controls. ERPs to the visual Go stimuli differed between children with AD/HDin and controls (increased central N1 and N2, decreased central P2 and increased parietal P3), while the AD/HDcom group showed only minor scalp distribution differences for N2 and P3. The AD/HDin group showed amplitude differences from controls to Stop signals (larger central N1 and parietal P3; reduced midline N2) and did not show a Successful vs. Failed inhibition effect for P3. The AD/HDcom group showed reduced parietal P3 to Stop signals, with the Trial Type effect present for N2 but not P3. These data suggest that the apparent atypical inhibitory processing at N2 and P3 may stem, at least in part, from atypical early sensory/alerting processing of all stimuli in children with AD/HDin.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The contribution of circadian system and sleep pressure influences on executive performance as a function of age has never been studied. The aim of our study was to determine the age-related evolution of inhibitory motor control (i.e., ability to suppress a prepotent motor response and sustained attention under controlled high or low sleep pressure conditions. METHODS: 14 healthy young males (mean age = 23 ± 2.7; 20-29 years and 11 healthy older males (mean age = 68 ± 1.4; 66-70 years were recruited. The volunteers were placed for 40 hours in "constant routine". In the "Sleep Deprivation SD" condition, the volunteer was kept awake for 40 hours to obtain a high sleep pressure condition interacting with the circadian process. In the "NAP" condition, the volunteer adopted a short wake/sleep cycle (150/75 min resulting in a low sleep pressure condition to counteract the homeostatic pressure and investigate the circadian process. Performances were evaluated by a simple reaction time task and a Go/Nogo task repeated every 3H45. RESULTS: In the SD condition, inhibitory motor control (i.e., ability to inhibit an inappropriate response was impaired by extended wakefulness equally in both age groups (P<.01. Sustained attention (i.e. ability to respond accurately to appropriate stimuli on the executive task decreased under sleep deprivation in both groups, and even more in young participants (P<.05. In the NAP condition, age did not influence the time course of inhibitory motor control or sustained attention. In the SD and NAP conditions, older participants had a less fluctuating reaction time performance across time of day than young participants (P<.001. CONCLUSION: Aging could be a protective factor against the effects of extended wakefulness especially on sustained attention failures due to an attenuation of sleep pressure with duration of time awake.
Full Text Available Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control.
Sakuda, Shohei; Prabowo, Diyan Febri; Takagi, Keiko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Mori, Mihoko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi
Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III) and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:24674936
Groom, Madeleine J; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F; Batty, Martin J; Liddle, Elizabeth B; Roberts, Katherine L; Cahill, John D; Liotti, Mario; Hollis, Chris
Theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) posit either executive deficits and/or alterations in motivational style and reward processing as core to the disorder. Effects of motivational incentives on electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and relationships between motivation and stimulant medication have not been explicitly tested. Children (9-15 years) with combined-type ADHD (n = 28) and matched typically developing children (CTRL) (n = 28) performed a go/no-go task. Electroencephalogram data were recorded. Amplitude of two event-related potentials, the N2 and P3 (markers of response conflict and attention), were measured. The ADHD children were all stimulant responders tested on and off their usual dose of methylphenidate; CTRLs were never medicated. All children performed the task under three motivational conditions: reward; response cost; and baseline, in which points awarded/deducted for inhibitory performance varied. There were effects of diagnosis (CTRL > ADHD unmedicated), medication (on > off), and motivation (reward and/or response cost > baseline) on N2 and P3 amplitude, although the N2 diagnosis effect did not reach statistical significance (p = .1). Interactions between motivation and diagnosis/medication were nonsignificant (p > .1). Motivational incentives increased amplitudes of electrophysiological correlates of response conflict and attention in children with ADHD, towards the baseline (low motivation) amplitudes of control subjects. These results suggest that, on these measures, motivational incentives have similar effects in children with ADHD as typically developing CTRLs and have additive effects with stimulant medication, enhancing stimulus salience and allocation of attentional resources during response inhibition. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cortese, S.; Ferrin, M.; Brandeis, D.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Daley, D.; Dittmann, R.W.; Holtmann, M.; Santosh, P.; Stevenson, J.; Stringaris, A.; Zuddas, A.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.
OBJECTIVE: The authors performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials to examine the effects of cognitive training on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, neuropsychological deficits, and academic skills in children/adolescents with ADHD. METHOD: The authors searched
Bolfer, Cristiana; Pacheco, Sandra Pasquali; Tsunemi, Miriam Harumi; Carreira, Walter Souza; Casella, Beatriz Borba; Casella, Erasmo Barbante
To compare children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), before and after the use of methylphenidate, and a control group, using tests of working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility. Neuropsychological tests were administrated to 53 boys, 9-12 years old: the WISC-III digit span backward, and arithmetic; Stroop Color; and Trail Making Tests. The case group included 23 boys with ADHD, who were combined type, treatment-naive, and with normal intelligence without comorbidities. The control group (n = 30) were age and gender matched. After three months on methylphenidate, the ADHD children were retested. The control group was also retested after three months. Before treatment, ADHD children had lower scores than the control group on the tests (p ≤ 0.001) and after methylphenidate had fewer test errors than before (p ≤ 0.001). Methylphenidate treatment improves the working memory, inhibitory control and mental flexibility of ADHD boys.
Baijot, S; Deconinck, N; Slama, H; Massat, I; Colin, C
This study compares behavioral and electrophysiological (P300) responses recorded in a cued continuous performance task (CPT-AX) performed by children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined subtype (ADHD-com) and age-matched healthy controls. P300 cognitive-evoked potentials and behavioral data were recorded in eight children with ADHD (without comorbidity) and nine control children aged 8-12 years while performing a CPT-AX task. Such task enables to examine several kinds of false alarms and three different kinds of P300 responses: the "Cue P300", the "Go P300" and the "NoGo P300", respectively, associated with preparatory processing/attentional orienting, motor/response execution and motor/response inhibition. Whereas hit rates were about 95% in each group, ADHD children made significantly more false alarm responses (inattention- and inhibition-related) than control children. ADHD children had a marginally smaller Cue P300 than the control children. Behavioral and electrophysiological findings both highlighted inhibition and attention deficits in ADHD-com children in the CPT-AX task. A rarely studied kind of false alarm, the "Other" FA, seems to be a sensitive FA to take into account, even if its interpretation remains unclear.
De Ridder, D.T.D.; de Boer, Benjamin; Lugtig, P.J.; Bakker, A.B.; van Hooft, E.A.J.
The present study investigated whether a conceptual distinction between two components of self-control (inhibitory and initiatory self-control) is empirically valid. To that purpose, a series of confirmative factor analyses were employed in two samples (total N = 577), providing support for a
Full Text Available Executive functions (EFs is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes controlled by a complex neural activity, which allow the production of different types of behaviors seeking to achieve specific objectives, one of them being inhibitory control. There is a wide consensus that clinical and behavioral alterations associated with EF, such as inhibitory control, are present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between executive dysfunction, frontal-subcortical neural circuit changes, and the psychopathological processes associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. A revision on the role of frontal-subcortical neural circuits and their presumable abnormal functioning and the high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms could explain the difficulties with putting effector mechanisms into action, giving individuals the necessary tools to act efficiently in their environment. Although neuronal substrate data about ADHD and PTSD has been reported in the literature, it is isolated. Therefore, this review highlights the overlapping of neural substrates in the symptomatology of ADHD and PTSD disorders concerning EFs, especially in the inhibitory component. Thus, the changes related to impaired EF that accompany disorders like ADHD and PTSD could be explained by disturbances that have a direct or indirect impact on the functioning of these loops. Initially, the theoretical model of EF according to current neuropsychology will be presented, focusing on the inhibitory component. In a second stage, this component will be analyzed for each of the disorders of interest, considering the clinical aspects, the etiology and the neurobiological basis. Additionally, commonalities between the two neuropsychiatric conditions will be taken into consideration from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional inhibition. Finally, the
Martínez, Lía; Prada, Edward; Satler, Corina; Tavares, Maria C. H.; Tomaz, Carlos
Executive functions (EFs) is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes controlled by a complex neural activity, which allow the production of different types of behaviors seeking to achieve specific objectives, one of them being inhibitory control. There is a wide consensus that clinical and behavioral alterations associated with EF, such as inhibitory control, are present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between executive dysfunction, frontal-subcortical neural circuit changes, and the psychopathological processes associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A revision on the role of frontal-subcortical neural circuits and their presumable abnormal functioning and the high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms could explain the difficulties with putting effector mechanisms into action, giving individuals the necessary tools to act efficiently in their environment. Although, neuronal substrate data about ADHD and PTSD has been reported in the literature, it is isolated. Therefore, this review highlights the overlapping of neural substrates in the symptomatology of ADHD and PTSD disorders concerning EFs, especially in the inhibitory component. Thus, the changes related to impaired EF that accompany disorders like ADHD and PTSD could be explained by disturbances that have a direct or indirect impact on the functioning of these loops. Initially, the theoretical model of EF according to current neuropsychology will be presented, focusing on the inhibitory component. In a second stage, this component will be analyzed for each of the disorders of interest, considering the clinical aspects, the etiology and the neurobiological basis. Additionally, commonalities between the two neuropsychiatric conditions will be taken into consideration from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional inhibition. Finally, the implications and future
Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Darcey M; Goodrich, J Marc; Farrington, Amber L; Phillips, Beth M
Children's self-regulation, including components of executive function such as inhibitory control, is related concurrently and longitudinally with elementary school children's reading and math abilities. Although several recent studies have examined links between preschool children's self-regulation or executive function and their academic skill development, few included large numbers of Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Among the fastest growing segments of the U.S. school-age population, many of these children are at significant risk of academic difficulties. We examined the relations between inhibitory control and academic skills in a sample containing a large number of Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Overall, the children demonstrated substantial academic risk based on preschool-entry vocabulary scores in the below-average range. Children completed assessments of language, literacy, and math skills in English and Spanish, when appropriate, at the start and end of their preschool year, along with a measure of inhibitory control, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which was administered at the start of the preschool year in the child's dominant conversational language. Scores on this last measure were lower for children for whom it was administered in Spanish. For both English and Spanish outcomes, those scores were significantly and uniquely associated with higher scores on measures of phonological awareness and math skills but not vocabulary or print knowledge skills.
Domazet, Sidsel L; Tarp, Jakob; Huang, Tao
OBJECTIVES: To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. METHODS: The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh gra...
Miranda-Casas, Ana; Baixauli-Fortea, Immaculada; Colomer-Diago, Carla; Roselló-Miranda, Belén
Although the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria do not overlap, the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of autism is quite high. At the same time, children with ADHD can have autistic traits, the most prevalent being social and communication difficulties. The analysis of the combination of executive functions and theory of mind (ToM) deficits could help to explain the overlap and differentiation between the two disorders. To review the findings of empirical studies in which children with ADHD and autism have been compared on indicators of executive functions and ToM. The literature review suggests the existence of distinct patterns in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and ADHD when the executive functioning is segmented by components. Children with ADHD experience deficits in inhibitory control, while children with ASD have problems with cognitive flexibility and planning. Regarding the domain of the mentalist skills, there are developmental differences, as well as differences in their severity. Younger children with ASD have greater deficiencies in the ToM compared to children with ADHD, and a primary deficit in social orientation. Although important progress has been made, some issues remain to be clarified, among which we can highlight the analysis of how ToM development affects poor executive functions development, using longitudinal studies that analyze the developmental paths of children with ASD and children with ADHD.
Lisa Katharina Pendt
Full Text Available Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance.
Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G
In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals performed the Simon task and the Attentional Networks Task (ANT). Language proficiencies and socioeconomic status were controlled. We found that the Simon effect advantage, reported in earlier research for bilingual children and adults over monolinguals, differed across groups, with bilinguals and trilinguals showing enhanced conflict resolution over monolinguals and marginally so over second-language learners. In the ANT, bilinguals and trilinguals displayed enhanced conflict resolution over second-language learners. This extends earlier research to child second-language learners and trilinguals, who were in the process of becoming proficient in an additional language, while corroborating earlier findings demonstrating enhanced executive control in bilinguals assumed to be caused by continuous inhibitory control processes necessary in competition resolution between two (or possibly more) languages. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children, both for early second-language learners and for early bilinguals and trilinguals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Overdevest, Gijsbert M; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C
In patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation, it is generally recommended to reserve surgical treatment for those who suffer from intolerable pain or those who demonstrate persistent symptoms after conservative management. Controversy exists about the necessity of early surgical intervention for those patients that have an additional motor deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the recovery of motor deficit among patients receiving early surgery to those receiving prolonged conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. This subgroup analysis focuses on 150 (53%) of 283 patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms at baseline (before randomization) were accompanied by a motor deficit. Motor deficit was assessed through manual muscle testing and graded according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. In total, 150 patients with 6 to 12 weeks of sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms were accompanied by a moderate (MRC Grade 4) or severe (MRC Grade 3) motor deficit were randomly allocated to early surgery or prolonged conservative treatment. Repeated standardized neurologic examinations were performed at baseline and at 8, 26, and 52 weeks after randomization. This study was supported by a grant from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW) and the Hoelen Foundation The Hague. Sciatica recovered among seven (10%) of the 70 patients assigned to early surgery before surgery could be performed, and of the 80 patients assigned to conservative treatment, 32 patients (40%) were treated surgically because of intolerable pain. Baseline severity of motor deficit was graded moderate in 84% of patients and severe in 16% of patients. Motor deficit recovered significantly faster among patients allocated to early surgery (p=.01), but the difference was no longer significant at 26 (p=.21) or 52 weeks (p=.92). At 1 year, complete recovery of motor
Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Kuzmanovic, B
ObjectiveAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often linked with impulsive and aggressive behaviour, indexed by high comorbidity rates between ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). The present study aimed to investigate underlying neural activity of reactive aggression...... in children with ADHD and comorbid DBD using functional neuroimaging techniques (fMRI). MethodEighteen boys with ADHD (age 9-14years, 10 subjects with comorbid DBD) and 18 healthy controls were administered a modified fMRI-based version of the Point Subtraction Aggression Game' to elicit reactive aggressive...... activation of regions belonging to the insula and the middle temporal sulcus. ConclusionData support the hypothesis that deficient inhibitory control mechanisms are related to increased impulsive aggressive behaviour in young people with ADHD and comorbid DBD....
Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.
In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German…
Farbiash, Tali; Berger, Andrea
Inhibitory control (IC) - one of the most critical functions underlying a child's ability to self-regulate - develops significantly throughout the kindergarten years. Experiencing negative emotions imposes challenges on executive functioning and may specifically affect IC. In this study, we examined kindergartners' IC and its related brain activity during a negative emotional situation: 58 children (aged 5.5-6.5 years) performed an emotion-induction Go/NoGo task. During this task, we recorded children's performance and brain activity, focusing on the fronto-central N2 component in the event-related potential (ERP) and the power of its underlying theta frequency. Compared to Go trials, inhibition of NoGo trials was associated with larger N2 amplitudes and theta power. The negative emotional experience resulted in better IC performance and, at the brain level, in larger theta power. Source localization of this effect showed that the brain activity related to IC during the negative emotional experience was principally generated in the posterior frontal regions. Furthermore, the band power measure was found to be a more sensitive index for children's inhibitory processes than N2 amplitudes. This is the first study to focus on kindergartners' IC while manipulating their emotional experience to induce negative emotions. Our findings suggest that a kindergartner's experience of negative emotion can result in improved IC and increases in associated aspects of brain activity. Our results also suggest the utility of time-frequency analyses in the study of brain processes associated with response inhibition in young children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Conditioned inhibition (CI is demonstrated in classical conditioning when a stimulus is used to signal the omission of an otherwise expected outcome. This basic learning ability is involved in a wide range of normal behaviour - and thus its disruption could produce a correspondingly wide range of behavioural deficits. The present study employed a computer-based task to measure conditioned excitation and inhibition in the same discrimination procedure. Conditioned inhibition by summation test was clearly demonstrated. Additionally summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning (difference scores were calculated in order to explore how performance related to individual differences in a large sample of normal participants (n=176 following exclusion of those not meeting the basic learning criterion. The individual difference measures selected derive from two biologically-based personality theories, Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (1982 and Eysenck’s psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism theory (1991. Following the behavioural tasks, participants completed the behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system scales (BIS/BAS and the Eysenck personality questionnaire revised short scale (EPQ-RS. Analyses of the relationship between scores on each of the scales and summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning suggested that those with higher BAS (specifically the drive sub-scale and higher EPQ-RS neuroticism showed reduced levels of excitatory conditioning. Inhibitory conditioning was similarly attenuated in those with higher EPQ-RS neuroticism, as well as in those with higher BIS scores. Thus the findings are consistent with higher levels of neuroticism being accompanied by generally impaired associative learning, both inhibitory and excitatory. There was also evidence for some dissociation in the effects of behavioural activation and behavioural inhibition on excitatory and inhibitory learning respectively.
-signal in all clinical groups compared to controls, distinct Stop-signal related deficits became evident in the clinical groups. Both children with AD/HD and ODD/CD showed deficits in behavioural response-inhibition accompanied by decreased central conflict signalling or inhibition processes. Neither behavioural nor neural markers of inhibitory deficits as found in AD/HD-only and ODD/CD-only were additive. Instead, children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD showed similar or even less prominent inhibition deficits than the other clinical groups. Hence, the AD/HD+ODD/CD-group may represent a separate clinical entity.
Naaijen, Jill; Bralten, Janita; Poelmans, Geert
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often co-occur. Both are highly heritable; however, it has been difficult to discover genetic risk variants. Glutamate and GABA are main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain; their balance...... within glutamatergic and GABAergic genes were investigated using the MAGMA software in an ADHD case-only sample (n=931), in which we assessed ASD symptoms and response inhibition on a Stop task. Gene set analysis for ADHD symptom severity, divided into inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms...... is essential for proper brain development and functioning. In this study we investigated the role of glutamate and GABA genetics in ADHD severity, autism symptom severity and inhibitory performance, based on gene set analysis, an approach to investigate multiple genetic variants simultaneously. Common variants...
Mohammad Taghi Saeedi
Full Text Available Introduction: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have serious social skill deficits and problems in relation with peers. This study aimed to compare theory of mind (ToM in drug-naïve children with ADHD with those with no psychiatric disorders at the same age. Methods: This cross-sectional study was established in child and adolescent psychiatry clinic of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Tabriz, Iran. Drug naïve, male children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD were enrolled as well as age and intelligence quotient (IQ matched healthy controls. Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL, Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4, and Conner’s Parents Rating Scales-Revised (CPRS were used to measure psychiatric disorders and Sally-Anne False Belief Task, and The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task (child for components of ToM. Results: A total of 30 children completed the study in each group. Half of children with ADHD could not give the expected answer in Sally-Anne False Belief Task, which was significantly lower than controls. They also showed a significantly lower performance in The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task. Severity of ADHD was not correlated with a score of The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task. Conclusion: Children with ADHD have deficits in ToM compared with age and IQ matched controls in terms of social cognition and social sensitivity.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to extend the application of the reflective-impulsive model to restrained eating and explore the effect of automatic attention (impulsive system on food choices. Furthermore, we examined the moderating effects of general inhibitory control (G-IC and food-specific inhibitory control (F-IC on successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters (US-REs. Automatic attention was measured using “the EyeLink 1000,” which tracked eye movements during the process of making food choices, and G-IC and F-IC were measured using the Stop-Signal Task. The results showed that food choices were related to automatic attention and that G-IC and F-IC moderated the predictive relationship between automatic attention and food choices. Furthermore, among successful restrained eaters (S-REs, automatic attention to high caloric foods did not predict food choices, regardless of whether G-IC or F-IC was high or low. Whereas food choice was positively correlated with automatic attention among US-REs with poor F-IC, this pattern was not observed in those with poor G-IC. In conclusion, the S-REs had more effective self-management skills and their food choices were affected less by automatic attention and inhibitory control. Unsuccessful restrained eating was associated with poor F-IC (not G-IC and greater automatic attention to high caloric foods. Thus, clinical interventions should focus on enhancing F-IC, not G-IC, and on reducing automatic attention to high caloric foods.
Cohen-Gilbert, J E; Killgore, W D S; White, C N; Schwab, Z J; Crowley, D J; Covell, M J; Sneider, J T; Silveri, M M
Social cognition matures dramatically during adolescence and into early adulthood, supported by continued improvements in inhibitory control. During this time, developmental changes in interpreting and responding to social signals such as facial expressions also occur. In the present study, subjects performed a Go No-Go task that required them to respond or inhibit responding based on threat or safety cues present in facial expressions. Subjects (N = 112) were divided into three age groups: adolescent (12-15 years), emerging adult (18-25 years) and adult (26-44 years). Analyses revealed a significant improvement in accuracy on No-Go trials, but not Go trials, during both safe and threat face conditions, with changes evident through early adulthood. In order to better identify the decision-making processes responsible for these changes in inhibitory control, a drift diffusion model (DDM) was fit to the accuracy and reaction time data, generating measures of caution, response bias, nondecision time (encoding + motor response), and drift rate (face processing efficiency). Caution and nondecision time both increased significantly with age while bias towards the Go response decreased. Drift rate analyses revealed significant age-related improvements in the ability to map threat faces to a No-Go response while drift rates on all other trial types were equivalent across age groups. These results suggest that both stimulus-independent and stimulus-dependent processes contribute to improvements in inhibitory control in adolescence with processing of negative social cues being specifically impaired by self-regulatory demands. Findings from this novel investigation of emotional responsiveness integrated with inhibitory control may provide useful insights about healthy development that can be applied to better understand adolescent risk-taking behavior and the elevated incidence of related forms of psychopathology during this period of life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
O'Reilly, Kally C; Perica, Maria I; Fenton, André A
Cognitive impairments are amongst the most debilitating deficits of schizophrenia and the best predictor of functional outcome. Schizophrenia is hypothesized to have a neurodevelopmental origin, making animal models of neurodevelopmental insult important for testing predictions that early insults will impair cognitive function. Rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at gestational day 17 display morphological, physiological and behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. Here we investigate the cognitive abilities of adult MAM rats. We examined brain activity in MAM rats by histochemically assessing cytochrome oxidase enzyme activity, a metabolic marker of neuronal activity. To assess cognition, we used a hippocampus-dependent two-frame active place avoidance paradigm to examine learning and spatial memory, as well as cognitive control and flexibility using the same environment and evaluating the same set of behaviors. We confirmed that adult MAM rats have altered hippocampal morphology and brain function, and that they are hyperactive in an open field. The latter likely indicates MAM rats have a sensorimotor gating deficit that is common to many animal models used for schizophrenia research. On first inspection, cognitive control seems impaired in MAM rats, indicated by more errors during the two-frame active place avoidance task. Because MAM rats are hyperactive throughout place avoidance training, we considered the possibility that the hyperlocomotion may account for the apparent cognitive deficits. These deficits were reduced on the basis of measures of cognitive performance that account for motor activity differences. However, though other aspects of memory are intact, the ability of MAM rats to express trial-to-trial memory is delayed compared to control rats. These findings suggest that spatial learning and cognitive abilities are largely intact, that the most prominent cognitive deficit is specific to acquiring memory in the MAM
Drechsler, Renate; Rizzo, Patrizia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
Reward-related processes are impaired in children with ADHD. Whether these deficits can be ascribed to an aversion to delay or to an altered responsiveness to magnitude, frequency, valence, or the probability of rewards still needs to be explored. In the present study, children with ADHD and normal controls aged 7 to 10 years performed a simple probabilistic discounting task. They had to choose between alternatives where the magnitude of rewards was inversely related to the probability of outcomes. As a result, children with ADHD opted more frequently for less likely but larger rewards than normal controls. Shifts of the response category after positive or negative feedback, however, occurred as often in children with ADHD as in control children. In children with ADHD, the frequency of risky choices was correlated with neuropsychological measures of response time variability but unrelated to measures of inhibitory control. It is concluded that the tendency to select less likely but larger rewards possibly represents a separate facet of dysfunctional reward processing, independent of delay aversion or altered responsiveness to feedback.
Li, Huiyan; Sun, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Jinghua
An excitatory-inhibitory recurrent neuronal network is established to numerically study the effect of inhibitory neurons on the synchronization degree of neuronal systems. The obtained results show that, with the number of inhibitory neurons and the coupling strength from an inhibitory neuron to an excitatory neuron increasing, inhibitory neurons can not only reduce the synchronization degree when the synchronization degree of the excitatory population is initially higher, but also enhance it when it is initially lower. Meanwhile, inhibitory neurons could also help the neuronal networks to maintain moderate synchronized states. In this paper, we call this effect as modulation effect of inhibitory neurons. With the obtained results, it is further revealed that the ratio of excitatory neurons to inhibitory neurons being nearly 4 : 1 is an economic and affordable choice for inhibitory neurons to realize this modulation effect.
Drechsler, R; Rizzo, P; Steinhausen, H-C
Inappropriate risk-taking and disadvantageous decision-making have been described as major behavioural characteristics of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However these behaviours are difficult to measure in laboratory contexts and recent studies have yielded inconsistent results which might be related to task characteristics. The present study adopted the Game of Dice Task, a test procedure in which risks are made explicit and the load on working memory is minimal. As a result, preadolescents with ADHD (N = 23) made significantly more risky choices and suffered major losses of money compared to normal controls (N = 24) but only when they played the game a second time. Differences in risk-taking correlated significantly with hyperactivity as rated by parents and with inhibitory control, but not with working memory performance. The results are discussed in the context of current theories of ADHD.
Froehlich, Tanya E; Antonini, Tanya N; Brinkman, William B; Langberg, Joshua M; Simon, John O; Adams, Ryan; Fredstrom, Bridget; Narad, Megan E; Kingery, Kathleen M; Altaye, Mekibib; Matheson, Heather; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N
Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate (MPH), improve the academic performance of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the mechanism by which MPH exerts an effect on academic performance is unclear. We examined MPH effects on math performance and investigated possible mediation of MPH effects by changes in time on-task, inhibitory control, selective attention, and reaction time variability. Children with ADHD aged 7 to 11 years (N = 93) completed a timed math worksheet (with problems tailored to each individual's level of proficiency) and 2 neuropsychological tasks (Go/No-Go and Child Attention Network Test) at baseline, then participated in a 4-week, randomized, controlled, titration trial of MPH. Children were then randomly assigned to their optimal MPH dose or placebo for 1 week (administered double-blind) and repeated the math and neuropsychological tasks (posttest). Baseline and posttest videorecordings of children performing the math task were coded to assess time on-task. Children taking MPH completed 23 more math problems at posttest compared to baseline, whereas the placebo group completed 24 fewer problems on posttest versus baseline, but the effects on math accuracy (percent correct) did not differ. Path analyses revealed that only change in time on-task was a significant mediator of MPH's improvements in math productivity. MPH-derived math productivity improvements may be explained in part by increased time spent on-task, rather than improvements in neurocognitive parameters, such as inhibitory control, selective attention, or reaction time variability.
Tsirlin, Inna; Colpa, Linda; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F
Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined as a reduction in visual acuity that cannot be corrected by optical means. It has been associated with low-level deficits. However, research has demonstrated a link between amblyopia and visual attention deficits in counting, tracking, and identifying objects. Visual search is a useful tool for assessing visual attention but has not been well studied in amblyopia. Here, we assessed the extent of visual search deficits in amblyopia using feature and conjunction search tasks. We compared the performance of participants with amblyopia (n = 10) to those of controls (n = 12) on both feature and conjunction search tasks using Gabor patch stimuli, varying spatial bandwidth and orientation. To account for the low-level deficits inherent in amblyopia, we measured individual contrast and crowding thresholds and monitored eye movements. The display elements were then presented at suprathreshold levels to ensure that visibility was equalized across groups. There was no performance difference between groups on feature search, indicating that our experimental design controlled successfully for low-level amblyopia deficits. In contrast, during conjunction search, median reaction times and reaction time slopes were significantly larger in participants with amblyopia compared with controls. Amblyopia differentially affects performance on conjunction visual search, a more difficult task that requires feature binding and possibly the involvement of higher-level attention processes. Deficits in visual search may affect day-to-day functioning in people with amblyopia.
Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Hagl, Elke; Nowak, Dennis A
Healthy subjects adjust their grip force economically to the weight of a hand-held object. In addition, inertial loads, which arise from arm movements with the grasped object, are anticipated by parallel grip force modulations. Internal forward models have been proposed to predict the consequences of voluntary movements. Anesthesia of the fingers impairs grip force economy but the feedforward character of the grip force/load coupling is preserved. To further analyze the role of sensory input for internal forward models and to characterize the consequences of central nervous system damage for anticipatory grip force control, we measured grip force behavior in neurological patients. We tested a group of stroke patients with varying degrees of impaired fine motor control and sensory loss, a single patient with complete and permanent differentation from all tactile and proprioceptive input, and a group of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that exclusively impairs the motor system without affecting sensory modalities. Increased grip forces were a common finding in all patients. Sensory deficits were a strong but not the only predictor of impaired grip force economy. The feedforward mode of grip force control was typically preserved in the stroke patients despite their central sensory deficits, but was severely disturbed in the patient with peripheral sensory deafferentation and in a minority of stroke patients. Moderate deficits of feedforward control were also obvious in ALS patients. Thus, the function of the internal forward model and the precision of grip force production may depend on a complex anatomical and functional network of sensory and motor structures and their interaction in time and space.
Krawczyk, Daniel C; Hanten, Gerri; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Li, Xiaoqi; Schnelle, Kathleen P; Merkley, Tricia L; Vasquez, Ana C; Cook, Lori G; McClelland, Michelle; Chapman, Sandra B; Levin, Harvey S
Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) exhibit deficits in executive control, which may impact their reasoning abilities. Analogical reasoning requires working memory and inhibitory abilities. In this study, we tested adolescents with moderate to severe TBI and typically developing (TD) controls on a set of picture analogy problems. Three factors were varied: complexity (number of relations in the problems), distraction (distractor item present or absent), and animacy (living or non-living items in the problems). We found that TD adolescents performed significantly better overall than TBI adolescents. There was also an age effect present in the TBI group where older participants performed better than younger ones. This age effect was not observed in the TD group. Performance was affected by complexity and distraction. Further, TBI participants exhibited lower performance with distractors present than TD participants. The reasoning deficits exhibited by the TBI participants were correlated with measures of executive function that required working memory updating, attention, and attentional screening. Using MRI-derived measures of cortical thickness, correlations were carried out between task accuracy and cortical thickness. The TD adolescents showed negative correlations between thickness and task accuracy in frontal and temporal regions consistent with cortical maturation in these regions. This study demonstrates that adolescent TBI results in impairments in analogical reasoning ability. Further, TBI youth have difficulty effectively screening out distraction, which may lead to failures in comprehension of the relations among items in visual scenes. Lastly, TBI youth fail to show robust cortical-behavior correlations as observed in TD individuals.
Daniel C Krawczyk
Full Text Available Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI exhibit deficits in executive control, which may impact their reasoning abilities. Analogical reasoning requires working memory and inhibitory abilities. In this study, we tested adolescents with moderate to severe TBI and typically-developing (TD controls on a set of picture analogy problems. Three factors were varied: complexity (number of relations in the problems, distraction (distractor item present or absent, and animacy (living or non-living items in the problems. We found that TD adolescents performed significantly better overall than TBI adolescents. There was also an age effect present in the TBI group where older participants performed better than younger ones. This age effect was not observed in the TD group. Performance was affected by complexity and distraction. Further, TBI participants exhibited lower performance with distractors present than TD participants. The reasoning deficits exhibited by the TBI participants were correlated with measures of executive function that required working memory updating, attention, and attentional screening. Using MRI-derived measures of cortical thickness, correlations were carried out between task accuracy and cortical thickness. The TD adolescents showed negative correlations between thickness and task accuracy in frontal and temporal regions consistent with cortical maturation in these regions. This study demonstrates that adolescent TBI results in impairments in analogical reasoning ability. Further, TBI youth have difficulty effectively screening out distraction, which may lead to failures in comprehension of the relations among items in visual scenes. Lastly, TBI youth fail to show robust cortical-behavior correlations as observed in TD individuals.
Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Matsuo, Kayako; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
The frontoparietal control network, anatomically and functionally interposed between the dorsal attention network and default mode network, underpins executive control functions. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly exhibit deficits in executive functions, which are mainly mediated by the frontoparietal control network. Involvement of the frontoparietal control network based on the anterior prefrontal cortex in neurobiological mechanisms of ADHD has yet to be tested. We used resting-state functional MRI and seed-based correlation analyses to investigate functional connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in a sample of 25 children with ADHD (7-14 years; mean 9.94 ± 1.77 years; 20 males), and 25 age-, sex-, and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children. All participants had limited in-scanner head motion. Spearman's rank correlations were used to test the associations between altered patterns of functional connectivity with clinical symptoms and executive functions, measured by the Conners' Continuous Performance Test and Spatial Span in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Compared with TD children, children with ADHD demonstrated weaker connectivity between the right anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right ventrolateral PFC, and between the left anterior PFC and the right inferior parietal lobule. Furthermore, this aberrant connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in ADHD was associated with symptoms of impulsivity and opposition-defiance, as well as impaired response inhibition and attentional control. The findings support potential integration of the disconnection model and the executive dysfunction model for ADHD. Atypical frontoparietal control network may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of ADHD.
Cassotti, Mathieu; Agogué, Marine; Camarda, Anaëlle; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire
Developmental cognitive neuroscience studies tend to show that the prefrontal brain regions (known to be involved in inhibitory control) are activated during the generation of creative ideas. In the present article, we discuss how a dual-process model of creativity--much like the ones proposed to account for decision making and reasoning--could…
Hammer, Michael J; Murphy, Caitlin A; Abrams, Trisha M
Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) often experience substantial impairment of swallow control, and are typically unaware of the presence or severity of their impairments suggesting that these individuals may also experience airway sensory deficits. However, the degree to which impaired swallow function in PD may relate to airway sensory deficits has yet to be formally tested. The purpose of this study was to examine whether airway sensory function is associated with swallow impairment in PD. Eighteen PD participants and 18 healthy controls participated in this study and underwent endoscopic assessment of airway somatosensory function, endoscopic assessment of swallow function, and clinical ratings of swallow and disease severity. PD participants exhibited abnormal airway somatosensory function and greater swallow impairment compared with healthy controls. Swallow and sensory deficits in PD were correlated with disease severity. Moreover, PD participants reported similar self-rated swallow function as healthy controls, and swallow deficits were correlated with sensory function suggesting an association between impaired sensory function and poor self-awareness of swallow deficits in PD. These results suggest that control of swallow is influenced by airway somatosensory function, that swallow-related deficits in PD are related to abnormal somatosensation, and that swallow and airway sensory function may degrade as a function of disease severity. Therefore, the basal ganglia and related neural networks may play an important role to integrate airway sensory input for swallow-related motor control. Furthermore, the airway deficits observed in PD suggest a disintegration of swallow-related sensory and motor control.
Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vivo may operate in high-conductance states, in which the major part of the neuron's input conductance is due to synaptic activity, sometimes several-fold larger than the resting conductance. We examine here the contribution of inhibition in such high-conductance states. At the level of the absolute conductance values, several studies have shown that cortical neurons in vivo are characterized by strong inhibitory conductances. However, conductances are balanced and spiking activity is mostly determined by fluctuations, but not much is known about excitatory and inhibitory contributions to these fluctuations. Models and dynamic-clamp experiments show that, during high-conductance states, spikes are mainly determined by fluctuations of inhibition, or by inhibitory noise. This stands in contrast to low-conductance states, in which excitatory conductances determine spiking activity. To determine these contributions from experimental data, maximum likelihood methods can be designed and applied to intracellular recordings in vivo. Such methods indicate that action potentials are indeed mostly correlated with inhibitory fluctuations in awake animals. These results argue for a determinant role for inhibitory fluctuations in evoking spikes, and do not support feed-forward modes of processing, for which opposite patterns are predicted.
Saund, Jasjot; Dautan, Daniel; Rostron, Claire; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Gerdjikov, Todor V
Corticostriatal circuits are widely implicated in the top-down control of attention including inhibitory control and behavioural flexibility. However, recent neurophysiological evidence also suggests a role for thalamic inputs to striatum in behaviours related to salient, reward-paired cues. Here, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to investigate the role of parafascicular (Pf) thalamic inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) in rats. The 5CSRTT requires sustained attention in order to detect spatially and temporally distributed visual cues and provides measures of inhibitory control related to impulsivity (premature responses) and compulsivity (perseverative responses). Rats underwent bilateral Pf injections of the DREADD vector, AAV2-CaMKIIa-HA-hM4D(Gi)-IRES-mCitrine. The DREADD agonist, clozapine N-oxide (CNO; 1 μl bilateral; 3 μM) or vehicle, was injected into DMS 1 h before behavioural testing. Task parameters were manipulated to increase attention load or reduce stimulus predictability respectively. We found that inhibition of the Pf-DMS projection significantly increased perseverative responses when stimulus predictability was reduced but had no effect on premature responses or response accuracy, even under increased attentional load. Control experiments showed no effects on locomotor activity in an open field. These results complement previous lesion work in which the DMS and orbitofrontal cortex were similarly implicated in perseverative responses and suggest a specific role for thalamostriatal inputs in inhibitory control.
Combs, Dennis R; Chapman, Dustin; Waguspack, Jace; Basso, Michael R; Penn, David L
Deficits in emotion perception are common in people with schizophrenia and current research has focused on improving these deficits. In our previous research, we demonstrated that directing attention to salient facial features via attention shaping can improve these deficits among inpatients. In this study, we examined the efficacy of an enhanced attention shaping program that contains 192 emotional expressions from which 25 are randomly presented for training. We extended our previous work by using repeated administrations of the shaping intervention and testing its effect in outpatients with schizophrenia and impaired controls. Fifteen participants with schizophrenia and fourteen college student controls with emotion perception deficits were randomly assigned to 1, 3 or 5 sessions of attention shaping. Participants completed 2 outcome measures of emotion perception, the FEIT and BLERT, not presented during the training, and underwent eye tracking at pre and post-tests. All conditions and groups improved, but the largest improvements on the BLERT and FEIT were found for persons assigned to the 5 session condition. Performance on the shaping program was positively correlated with the two outcome measures of emotion perception. There was less support for changes in visual scanning of faces as there was a relative reduction in total scanning time from pre-test to post-test. Results are interpreted in terms of the efficacy of attention shaping as a means to improve emotion perception deficits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brakebusch, Cord; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Asztely, Fredrik
to be less prominent in mutant than in wild-type mice. Brevican-deficient mice showed significant deficits in the maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, no obvious impairment of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission was found, suggesting a complex cause for the LTP defect....... Detailed behavioral analysis revealed no statistically significant deficits in learning and memory. These data indicate that brevican is not crucial for brain development but has restricted structural and functional roles....
Full Text Available A series of computer simulations using variants of a formal model of attention (Melara & Algom, 2003 probed the role of rejection positivity (RP, a slow-wave electroencephalographic (EEG component, in the inhibitory control of distraction. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded as participants performed auditory selective attention tasks. Simulations that modulated processes of distractor inhibition accounted well for reaction-time (RT performance, whereas those that modulated target excitation did not. A model that incorporated RP from actual EEG recordings in estimating distractor inhibition was superior in predicting changes in RT as a function of distractor salience across conditions. A model that additionally incorporated momentary fluctuations in EEG as the source of trial-to-trial variation in performance precisely predicted individual RTs within each condition. The results lend support to the linking proposition that RP controls the speed of responding to targets through the inhibitory control of distractors.
Maria Jesus Maraver
Full Text Available Different types of interventions have focused on trying to improve Executive Functions (EF due to their essential role in human cognition and behavior regulation. Although EF are thought to be diverse, most training studies have targeted cognitive processes related to working memory (WM, and fewer have focused on training other control mechanisms, such as inhibitory control (IC. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the differential impact of training WM and IC as compared with control conditions performing non-executive control activities. Young adults were divided into two training (WM/IC and two (active/passive control conditions. Over six sessions, the training groups engaged in three different computer-based adaptive activities (WM or IC, whereas the active control group completed a program with low control-demanding activities that mainly involved processing speed. In addition, motivation and engagement were monitored through the training. The WM-training activities required maintenance, updating and memory search processes, while those from the IC group engaged response inhibition, and interference control. All participants were pre- and post-tested in criterion tasks (n-back and Stroop, near transfer measures of WM (Operation Span and IC (Stop-Signal. Non-trained far transfer outcome measures included an abstract reasoning test (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices and a well-validated experimental task (AX-CPT that provides indices of cognitive flexibility considering proactive/reactive control. Training results revealed that strongly motivated participants reached higher levels of training improvements. Regarding transfer effects, results showed specific patterns of near transfer effects depending on the type of training. Interestingly, it was only the IC training group that showed far transfer to reasoning. Finally, all trained participants showed a shift towards a more proactive mode of cognitive control, highlighting a
Moreno, Sylvain; Farzan, Faranak
Training programs aimed to improve cognitive skills have either yielded mixed results or remain to be validated. The limited benefits of such regimens are largely attributable to weak understanding of (1) how (and which) interventions provide the most cognitive improvements; and (2) how brain networks and neural mechanisms that underlie specific cognitive abilities can be modified selectively. Studies indicate that music training leads to robust and long-lasting benefits to behavior. Importantly, behavioral advantages conferred by music extend beyond perceptual abilities to even nonauditory functions, such as inhibitory control (IC) and its neural correlates. Alternative forms of arts engagement or brain training do not appear to yield such enhancements, which suggests that music uniquely taps into brain networks subserving a variety of auditory as well as domain-general mechanisms such as IC. To account for such widespread benefits of music training, we propose a framework of transfer effects characterized by three dimensions: level of processing, nature of the transfer, and involvement of executive functions. We suggest that transfer of skills is mediated through modulation of general cognitive processes, in particular IC. We believe that this model offers a viable framework to test the extent and limitations of music-related changes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Talaverano, M Inmaculada; Villalobos-González, Luis; Ribalta-Pizarro, Camila; Pastenes, Claudio
The influence of controlled water deficit on the phenolic composition and gene expression of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1, VvMYBPA2 and VvMYB4a in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins throughout ripening was investigated. The assay was carried out on own-rooted Vitis vinifera plants cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a commercial vineyard from veraison until commercial harvest. Three irrigation regimes were used from veraison until harvest with the following treatments: T1: 3.6 mm day -1 ; T2: 1.8 mm day -1 and T3: 0.3 mm day -1 . The content of total phenols and total anthocyanins in grape skins increased during ripening, but water deficit did not produce differences among treatments in the total anthocyanin concentration. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) decreased throughout ripening, although approximately 25 days after veraison (DAV), their content slightly increased. This effect was more pronounced in the most restrictive treatment (T3). A similar pattern was observed in the transcript abundance of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1 and VvMYB4a. PAs separation revealed differences in concentration but not in the proportion among fractions among the irrigation treatments. Additionally, controlled water deficit increased the mean degree of polymerization and the flavan-3-ol polymeric concentration in grape skins throughout ripening but with no effects on the extent of PAs galloylation. Our results suggest that the water status of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines affects the gene expression for proteins involved in the synthesis of PAs, increasing their concentration and also their composition, with further evidence for the efficacy of a convenient, controlled water deficit strategy for grapevine cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kärgel, Christian; Massau, Claudia; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Borchardt, Viola; Krueger, Tillmann H C; Tenbergen, Gilian; Kneer, Jonas; Wittfoth, Matthias; Pohl, Alexander; Gerwinn, Hannah; Ponseti, Jorge; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M; Mohnke, Sebastian; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris
Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40). As compared to offending pedophiles, non-offending pedophiles exhibited superior inhibitory control as reflected by significantly lower rate of commission errors. Group-by-condition interaction analysis also revealed inhibition-related activation in the left posterior cingulate and the left superior frontal cortex that distinguished between offending and non-offending pedophiles, while no significant differences were found between pedophiles and healthy controls. Both areas showing distinct activation pattern among pedophiles play a critical role in linking neural networks that relate to effective cognitive functioning. Data therefore suggest that heightened inhibition-related recruitment of these areas as well as decreased amount of commission errors is related to better inhibitory control in pedophiles who successfully avoid committing hands-on sexual offences against children. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1092-1104, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of environmental enrichment (EE on memory, cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the brain of adult rats subjected to experimental pneumococcal meningitis during infancy. Methods: On postnatal day 11, the animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension intracisternally at 1 × 106 CFU/mL and remained with their mothers until age 21 days. Animals were divided into the following groups: control, control + EE, meningitis, and meningitis + EE. EE began at 21 days and continued until 60 days of age (adulthood. EE consisted of a large cage with three floors, ramps, running wheels, and objects of different shapes and textures. At 60 days, animals were randomized and subjected to habituation to the open-field task and the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. After the tasks, the hippocampus and CSF were isolated for analysis. Results: The meningitis group showed no difference in performance between training and test sessions of the open-field task, suggesting habituation memory impairment; in the meningitis + EE group, performance was significantly different, showing preservation of habituation memory. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, there were no differences in behavior between training and test sessions in the meningitis group, showing aversive memory impairment; conversely, differences were observed in the meningitis + EE group, demonstrating aversive memory preservation. In the two meningitis groups, IL-4, IL-10, and BDNF levels were increased in the hippocampus, and BDNF levels in the CSF. Conclusions: The data presented suggest that EE, a non-invasive therapy, enables recovery from memory deficits caused by neonatal meningitis.
Kurt P. Schulz
Full Text Available Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD.
Schulz, Kurt P; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Fan, Jin; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Dima, Danai; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M
Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD.
Plessen, Kerstin J; Royal, Jason M; Peterson, Bradley S
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are common and debilitating neuropsychiatric illnesses that typically onset in the preschool years. Recently, both conditions have been subject to neuroimaging studies, with the aim of understanding...... contrast these findings with those in ADHD without comorbid tic disorders. RESULTS: The frequent comorbidity of TS and ADHD may reflect a common underlying neurobiological substrate, and studies confirm the hypothesized involvement of fronto-striatal circuits in both TS and ADHD. However, poor inhibitory...
Lax, Nichola Z.; Grady, John; Laude, Alex; Chan, Felix; Hepplewhite, Philippa D.; Gorman, Grainne; Whittaker, Roger G.; Ng, Yi; Cunningham, Mark O.
Aims Mitochondrial disorders are among the most frequently inherited cause of neurological disease and arise due to mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear DNA. Currently, we do not understand the specific involvement of certain brain regions or selective neuronal vulnerability in mitochondrial disease. Recent studies suggest γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA)‐ergic interneurones are particularly susceptible to respiratory chain dysfunction. In this neuropathological study, we assess the impact of mitochondrial DNA defects on inhibitory interneurones in patients with mitochondrial disease. Methods Histochemical, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent assays were performed on post‐mortem brain tissue from 10 patients and 10 age‐matched control individuals. We applied a quantitative immunofluorescent method to interrogate complex I and IV protein expression in mitochondria within GABAergic interneurone populations in the frontal, temporal and occipital cortices. We also evaluated the density of inhibitory interneurones in serial sections to determine if cell loss was occurring. Results We observed significant, global reductions in complex I expression within GABAergic interneurones in frontal, temporal and occipital cortices in the majority of patients. While complex IV expression is more variable, there is reduced expression in patients harbouring m.8344A>G point mutations and POLG mutations. In addition to the severe respiratory chain deficiencies observed in remaining interneurones, quantification of GABAergic cell density showed a dramatic reduction in cell density suggesting interneurone loss. Conclusions We propose that the combined loss of interneurones and severe respiratory deficiency in remaining interneurones contributes to impaired neuronal network oscillations and could underlie development of neurological deficits, such as cognitive impairment and epilepsy, in mitochondrial disease. PMID:25786813
Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.
Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mihoko; Komori, Yuko; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Sasabayashi, Daiki; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio
Deficit schizophrenia is a homogeneous subtype characterized by a trait-like feature of primary and prominent negative symptoms, but the etiologic factors related to this specific subtype remain largely unknown. This magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to examine gross brain morphology that probably reflects early neurodevelopment in 38 patients with deficit schizophrenia, 37 patients with non-deficit schizophrenia, and 59 healthy controls. Potential brain neurodevelopmental markers investigated in this study were the adhesio interthalamica (AI), cavum septi pellucidi (CSP), and surface morphology (i.e., olfactory sulcus depth, sulcogyral pattern, and number of orbital sulci) of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The subtype classification of schizophrenia patients was based on the score of Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome. The deficit schizophrenia group had a significantly shorter AI compared with the non-deficit group and controls. The deficit group, but not the non-deficit group, was also characterized by an altered distribution of the OFC sulcogyral pattern, as well as fewer posterior orbital sulcus compared with controls. Other neurodevelopmental markers did not differentiate the deficit and non-deficit subgroups. These results suggest that the deficit subtype of schizophrenia and its clinical manifestation may be at least partly related to prominent neurodevelopmental pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adisetiyo, Vitria; Gray, Kevin M
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are nearly three times more likely to develop substance use disorders (SUD) than their typically developing peers. Our objective was to review the existing neuroimaging research on high-risk ADHD (ie, ADHD with disruptive behavior disorders, familial SUD and/or early substance use), focusing on impulsivity as one possible mechanism underlying SUD risk. A PubMed literature search was conducted using combinations of the keywords "ADHD," "substance use," "substance use disorder," "SUD," "addiction," "dependence," "abuse," "risk," "brain" "MRI," "imaging" and "neuroimaging." Studies had to include cohorts that met diagnostic criteria for ADHD; studies of individuals with ADHD who all met criteria for SUD were excluded. Eight studies met the search criteria. Individuals with high-risk ADHD have hyperactivation in the motivation-reward processing brain network during tasks of impulsive choice, emotion processing, and risky decision-making. During response inhibition tasks, they have hypoactivation in the inhibitory control brain network. However, studies focusing on this latter circuit found hypoactivation during inhibitory control tasks, decreased white matter microstructure coherence and reduced cortical thickness in ADHD independent of substance use history. An exaggerated imbalance between the inhibitory control network and the motivation-reward processing network is theorized to distinguish individuals with high-risk ADHD. Preliminary findings suggest that an exaggerated aberrant reward processing network may be the driving neural correlate of increased SUD risk in ADHD. Neural biomarkers of increased SUD risk in ADHD could help clinicians identify which patients may benefit most from SUD prevention. Thus, more neuroimaging research on this vulnerable population is needed. (Am J Addict 2017;26:99-111). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Parent , Boris; Cabrera Bosquet , Llorenç; Cané , Maria Angela; Chaumont , François; Alvarez Prado , Santiago; CALDEIRA JuNIOR , Cecilio Frois; Lacube , Sébastien; Fleury , Delphine; Welcker , Claude; Tuberosa , Roberto; Tardieu , Francois
Maintenance of expansive growth under water deficit has been selected as a key target trait of DROPS because of its early response in drying conditions, its large genetic variability, its partially common control with reproductive growth and its consequences on light interception and transpiration. Development of methods to measure shoot growth in Phenotyping platforms (PhenoArch and Phenodyn, M3P, Montpellier, France; The Plant Accelerator, Adelaide, Australia) allowed identification of a...
Agnes S. Chan
Full Text Available Executive dysfunctions have been found to be related to repetitive/disinhibited behaviors and social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of a Shaolin-medicine-based dietary modification on improving executive functions and behavioral symptoms of ASD and exploring the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Twenty-four children with ASD were randomly assigned into the experimental (receiving dietary modification for one month and the control (no modification groups. Each child was assessed on his/her executive functions, behavioral problems based on parental ratings, and event-related electroencephalography (EEG activity during a response-monitoring task before and after the one month. The experimental group demonstrated significantly improved mental flexibility and inhibitory control after the diet modification, which continued to have a large effect size within the low-functioning subgroup. Such improvements coincided with positive evaluations by their parents on social communication abilities and flexible inhibitory control of daily behaviors and significantly enhanced event-related EEG activity at the rostral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the control group did not show any significant improvements. These positive outcomes of a one-month dietary modification on children with ASD have implicated its potential clinical applicability for patients with executive function deficits.
Yao, Yuan-Wei; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Yip, Sarah W; Chen, Pin-Ru; Li, Song; Xu, Jiansong; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi
A growing body of evidence indicates that both inhibition and decision-making deficits play essential roles in the development and maintenance of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Clarifying whether impaired decision-making among individuals with IGD is related to poor inhibition will advance our understanding of IGD and contribute to intervention development. However, the relationship between these two functions remains unclear. In this study, we sought to systemically examine inhibitory processes, decision-making and the relationship between the two among individuals with IGD. Thirty-four individuals with IGD and 32 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. In comparison to HCs, IGD subjects demonstrated inhibition deficits during performance of the gaming-related Go/No-Go task and impaired decision-making under risk. In addition, errors on No-Go trials during the gaming-related Go/No-Go task were positively associated with decision-making impairments under risk but not under ambiguity among IGD subjects. These results suggest individuals with IGD are impaired in some aspects of inhibition and decision-making functions, and that decision-making deficits under risk are linked to poor inhibition specifically related to gaming cues, which has implications for the development of novel intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
David L Pennington
Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC as well as light drinking controls (CON, the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU, and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control.All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control.PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON.Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further elucidation of these distinctive
Cassotti, Mathieu; Agogué, Marine; Camarda, Anaëlle; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire
Developmental cognitive neuroscience studies tend to show that the prefrontal brain regions (known to be involved in inhibitory control) are activated during the generation of creative ideas. In the present article, we discuss how a dual-process model of creativity-much like the ones proposed to account for decision making and reasoning-could broaden our understanding of the processes involved in creative ideas generation. When generating creative ideas, children, adolescents, and adults tend to follow "the path of least resistance" and propose solutions that are built on the most common and accessible knowledge within a specific domain, leading to fixation effect. In line with recent theory of typical cognitive development, we argue that the ability to resist the spontaneous activation of design heuristics, to privilege other types of reasoning, might be critical to generate creative ideas at all ages. In the present review, we demonstrate that inhibitory control at all ages can actually support creativity. Indeed, the ability to think of something truly new and original requires first inhibiting spontaneous solutions that come to mind quickly and unconsciously and then exploring new ideas using a generative type of reasoning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean
Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.
Wengaard, Eivind Johannessen; Kristoffersen, Morten; Harris, Anette; Gundersen, Hilde
Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V⋅O2max), muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male ...
Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Teti, Douglas M.
This study examined the contribution of child temperament, parenting, and their interaction on inhibitory control development in a sample of maltreated and non-maltreated preschool children. One hundred and eighteen mother–child dyads were drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which maternal warm autonomy support, warm guidance, and strict/hostile control were observationally coded during a joint teaching task. Independent assess...
Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.
This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…
Albrecht, B.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Tannock, R.; Uebel, H.; Banaschewski, T.
Deficits in interference control are ascribed to patients suffering from ADHD by a number of cognitive theories. However, previous research using the Stroop Colour Word Interference Task has demonstrated mixed results that may be explained by methodological issues (e.g., possible impact of colour
Lu, Yao; Wu, Junjie; Dunlap, Susan; Chen, Baoguo
Ambiguous words are hard to learn, yet little is known about what causes this difficulty. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the representations of new and prior meanings of ambiguous words in second language (L2) learning, and to explore the function of inhibitory control on L2 ambiguous word learning at the initial stage of learning. During a 4-day learning phase, Chinese-English bilinguals learned 30 novel English words for 30 min per day using bilingual flashcards. Half of the words to be learned were unambiguous (had one meaning) and half were ambiguous (had two semantically unrelated meanings learned in sequence). Inhibitory control was introduced as a subject variable measured by a Stroop task. The semantic representations established for the studied items were probed using a cross-language semantic relatedness judgment task, in which the learned English words served as the prime, and the targets were either semantically related or unrelated to the prime. Results showed that response latencies for the second meaning of ambiguous words were slower than for the first meaning and for unambiguous words, and that performance on only the second meaning of ambiguous words was predicted by inhibitory control ability. These results suggest that, at the initial stage of L2 ambiguous word learning, the representation of the second meaning is weak, probably interfered with by the representation of the prior learned meaning. Moreover, inhibitory control may modulate learning of the new meanings, such that individuals with better inhibitory control may more effectively suppress interference from the first meaning, and thus learn the new meaning more quickly.
Full Text Available Ambiguous words are hard to learn, yet little is known about what causes this difficulty. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the representations of new and prior meanings of ambiguous words in second language (L2 learning, and to explore the function of inhibitory control on L2 ambiguous word learning at the initial stage of learning. During a 4-day learning phase, Chinese–English bilinguals learned 30 novel English words for 30 min per day using bilingual flashcards. Half of the words to be learned were unambiguous (had one meaning and half were ambiguous (had two semantically unrelated meanings learned in sequence. Inhibitory control was introduced as a subject variable measured by a Stroop task. The semantic representations established for the studied items were probed using a cross-language semantic relatedness judgment task, in which the learned English words served as the prime, and the targets were either semantically related or unrelated to the prime. Results showed that response latencies for the second meaning of ambiguous words were slower than for the first meaning and for unambiguous words, and that performance on only the second meaning of ambiguous words was predicted by inhibitory control ability. These results suggest that, at the initial stage of L2 ambiguous word learning, the representation of the second meaning is weak, probably interfered with by the representation of the prior learned meaning. Moreover, inhibitory control may modulate learning of the new meanings, such that individuals with better inhibitory control may more effectively suppress interference from the first meaning, and thus learn the new meaning more quickly.
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI affects structural connectivity, triggering the reorganization of structural–functional circuits in a manner that remains poorly understood. We focus here on brain network reorganization in relation to postural control deficits after TBI. We enrolled young participants who had suffered moderate to severe TBI, comparing them to young, typically developing control participants. TBI patients (but not controls recruited prefrontal regions to interact with two separated networks: (1 a subcortical network, including parts of the motor network, basal ganglia, cerebellum, hippocampus, amygdala, posterior cingulate gyrus, and precuneus; and (2 a task-positive network, involving regions of the dorsal attention system, together with dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal regions. We also found that the increased prefrontal connectivity in TBI patients was correlated with some postural control indices, such as the amount of body sway, whereby patients with worse balance increased their connectivity in frontal regions more strongly. The increased prefrontal connectivity found in TBI patients may provide the structural scaffolding for stronger cognitive control of certain behavioral functions, consistent with the observations that various motor tasks are performed less automatically following TBI and that more cognitive control is associated with such actions. Using a new hierarchical atlas whose modules are relevant for both structure and function, we found increased structural and functional connectivity in prefrontal regions in TBI patients as compared to controls, in addition to a general pattern of overall decreased connectivity across the TBI brain. Although this increased prefrontal connectivity reflected interactions between brain areas when participants were at rest, the enhanced connectivity was found to be negatively correlated with active behavior such as postural control performance. Thus our findings, obtained
Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.
Gerstadt, Hong, and Diamond (1994) investigated the development of inhibitory control in children aged 3 1/2 - 7 years using the day-night task. In two studies we build on Gerstadt et al.'s findings with a measure of inhibitory control that can be used throughout childhood. In Study 1 (twenty-four 3 1/2-year-olds and sixteen 5-year-olds) we…
Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Amado, Patricia; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz
Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment (SVCI) is a clinical continuum of vascular-related cognitive impairment, including Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI) and Vascular Dementia. Deficits in Executive Function (EF) are hallmarks of the disorder, but the best methods to assess this function have yet to be determined. The insidious and almost predictable course of SVCI and the multidimensional concept of EF suggest that a temporal dissociation of impairments in EF domains exists early in the disorder. This study aims to review and analyze data from the literature about performance of VaMCI patients on the most used EF tests through a meta-analytic approach. Medline, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched, using the terms: "vascular mild cognitive impairment" OR "vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" OR "vascular mild neurocognitive disorder" AND "dysexecutive" OR "executive function". Meta-analyses were conducted for each of the selected tests, using random-effect models. Systematic review showed major discrepancies among the results of the studies included. Meta-analyses evidenced poorer performance on the Trail-Making Test part B and the Stroop color test by VaMCI patients compared to controls. A continuum of EF impairments has been proposed in SVCI. Early deficits appear to occur in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control.
Patel, Ryan; Qu, Chaoling; Xie, Jennifer Y; Porreca, Frank; Dickenson, Anthony H
Pontine noradrenergic neurones form part of a descending inhibitory system that influences spinal nociceptive processing. Weak or absent descending inhibition is a common feature of chronic pain patients. We examined the extent to which the descending noradrenergic system is tonically active, how control of spinal neuronal excitability is integrated into thalamic relays within sensory-discriminative projection pathways, and how this inhibitory control is altered after nerve injury. In vivo electrophysiology was performed in anaesthetised spinal nerve ligated (SNL) and sham-operated rats to record from wide dynamic range neurones in the ventral posterolateral thalamus (VPL). In sham rats, spinal block of α2-adrenoceptors with atipamezole resulted in enhanced stimulus-evoked and spontaneous firing in the VPL, and produced conditioned place avoidance. However, in SNL rats these conditioned avoidance behaviours were absent. Furthermore, inhibitory control of evoked neuronal responses was lost but spinal atipamezole markedly increased spontaneous firing. Augmenting spinal noradrenergic tone in neuropathic rats with reboxetine, a selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor, modestly reinstated inhibitory control of evoked responses in the VPL but had no effect on spontaneous firing. In contrast, clonidine, an α2 agonist, inhibited both evoked and spontaneous firing, and exhibited increased potency in SNL rats compared to sham controls. These data suggest descending noradrenergic inhibitory pathways are tonically active in sham rats. Moreover, in neuropathic states descending inhibitory control is diminished, but not completely absent, and distinguishes between spontaneous and evoked neuronal activity. These observations may have implications for how analgesics targeting the noradrenergic system provide relief.
Full Text Available Systemic inflammation causes learning and memory deficits through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the pathogenesis of memory loss associated with inflammation and found that we could reverse memory deficits by pharmacologically inhibiting α5-subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A (α5GABAA receptors and deleting the gene associated with the α5 subunit. Acute inflammation reduces long-term potentiation, a synaptic correlate of memory, in hippocampal slices from wild-type mice, and this reduction was reversed by inhibition of α5GABAA receptor function. A tonic inhibitory current generated by α5GABAA receptors in hippocampal neurons was increased by the key proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Interleukin-1β also increased the surface expression of α5GABAA receptors in the hippocampus. Collectively, these results show that α5GABAA receptor activity increases during inflammation and that this increase is critical for inflammation-induced memory deficits.
Dang, Mai T.; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Cheetham, Chad C.; Lu, Jun; Vo, Viet; Lovinger, David M.; Li, Yuqing
DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia is an inherited movement disorder associated with mutations in DYT1 that codes for torsinA protein. The most common mutation seen in this gene is a trinucleotide deletion of GAG. We previously reported a motor control deficit on a beam-walking task in our Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in heterozygous mice. In this report we show the reversal of this motor deficit with the anticholinergic trihexyphenidyl (THP), a drug commonly used to treat movement problems in ...
Kawase, Miki; Hanba, Yuko T; Katsuhara, Maki
We investigated the photosynthetic capacity and plant growth of tobacco plants overexpressing ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) aquaporin McMIPB under (1) a well-watered growth condition, (2) a well-watered and temporal higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD) condition, and (3) a soil water deficit growth condition to investigate the effect of McMIPB on photosynthetic responses under moderate soil and atmospheric humidity and water deficit conditions. Transgenic plants showed a significantly higher photosynthesis rate (by 48 %), higher mesophyll conductance (by 52 %), and enhanced growth under the well-watered growth condition than those of control plants. Decreases in the photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance from ambient to higher VPD were slightly higher in transgenic plants than those in control plants. When plants were grown under the soil water deficit condition, decreases in the photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance were less significant in transgenic plants than those in control plants. McMIPB is likely to work as a CO2 transporter, as well as control the regulation of stomata to water deficits.
van der Oord, S.; Geurts, H.M.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Oosterlaan, J.
Objective: Inhibition deficits, including deficits in prepotent response inhibition and interference control, are core deficits in ADHD. The predictive value of prepotent response inhibition and interference control was assessed for outcome in a 10-week treatment trial with methylphenidate. Methods:
1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0433 TITLE: Disruption of Trophic Inhibitory Signaling in Autism Sepctrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Anis...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Disruption of Trophic Inhibitory Signaling in Autism Sepctrum Disorders 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0433 5c. PROGRAM...chloride co-transporters that control EGABA could be used as a corrective strategy for the synaptic and circuit disruptions demonstrated in the
Harlé, Katia M; Stewart, Jennifer L; Zhang, Shunan; Tapert, Susan F; Yu, Angela J; Paulus, Martin P
Bayesian ideal observer models quantify individuals' context- and experience-dependent beliefs and expectations about their environment, which provides a powerful approach (i) to link basic behavioural mechanisms to neural processing; and (ii) to generate clinical predictors for patient populations. Here, we focus on (ii) and determine whether individual differences in the neural representation of the need to stop in an inhibitory task can predict the development of problem use (i.e. abuse or dependence) in individuals experimenting with stimulants. One hundred and fifty-seven non-dependent occasional stimulant users, aged 18-24, completed a stop-signal task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. These individuals were prospectively followed for 3 years and evaluated for stimulant use and abuse/dependence symptoms. At follow-up, 38 occasional stimulant users met criteria for a stimulant use disorder (problem stimulant users), while 50 had discontinued use (desisted stimulant users). We found that those individuals who showed greater neural responses associated with Bayesian prediction errors, i.e. the difference between actual and expected need to stop on a given trial, in right medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, anterior insula, and thalamus were more likely to exhibit problem use 3 years later. Importantly, these computationally based neural predictors outperformed clinical measures and non-model based neural variables in predicting clinical status. In conclusion, young adults who show exaggerated brain processing underlying whether to 'stop' or to 'go' are more likely to develop stimulant abuse. Thus, Bayesian cognitive models provide both a computational explanation and potential predictive biomarkers of belief processing deficits in individuals at risk for stimulant addiction. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please
Norman, Luke J; Carlisi, Christina O; Christakou, Anastasia; Murphy, Clodagh M; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Giampietro, Vincent; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Michael; Mataix-Cols, David; Rubia, Katya
The aim of the current paper is to provide the first comparison of computational mechanisms and neurofunctional substrates in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during decision making under ambiguity. Sixteen boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD, and 20 matched control subjects (12-18 years of age) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Iowa Gambling Task. Brain activation was compared between groups using three-way analysis of covariance. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis was used to compare computational modeling parameters between groups. Patient groups shared reduced choice consistency and relied less on reinforcement learning during decision making relative to control subjects, while adolescents with ADHD alone demonstrated increased reward sensitivity. During advantageous choices, both disorders shared underactivation in ventral striatum, while OCD patients showed disorder-specific underactivation in the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex. During outcome evaluation, shared underactivation to losses in patients relative to control subjects was found in the medial prefrontal cortex and shared underactivation to wins was found in the left putamen/caudate. ADHD boys showed disorder-specific dysfunction in the right putamen/caudate, which was activated more to losses in patients with ADHD but more to wins in control subjects. The findings suggest shared deficits in using learned reward expectancies to guide decision making, as well as shared dysfunction in medio-fronto-striato-limbic brain regions. However, findings of unique dysfunction in the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex in OCD and in the right putamen in ADHD indicate additional, disorder-specific abnormalities and extend similar findings from inhibitory control tasks in the disorders to the domain of decision making under ambiguity. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by
Ramirez, Luz Angela; Arenas, Angela Maria; Henao, Gloria Cecilia
Introduction: This investigation describes and compares characteristics of visual, semantic and auditory memory in a group of children diagnosed with combined-type attention deficit with hyperactivity, attention deficit predominating, and a control group. Method: 107 boys and girls were selected, from 7 to 11 years of age, all residents in the…
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katie L; Leppink, Eric W; Grant, Jon E
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a relatively common problem, but the neuropsychological profile of affected individuals has seldom been studied outside of criminal justice recruitment settings. Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29 years) were recruited from the general community by media advertisements. Participants with ASPD (n = 17), free from substance use disorders, were compared with matched controls (n = 229) using objective computerized neuropsychological tasks tapping a range of cognitive domains. Compared with controls, individuals with ASPD showed significantly elevated pathological gambling symptoms, previous illegal acts, unemployment, greater nicotine consumption, and relative impairments in response inhibition (Stop-Signal Task) and decision-making (less risk adjustment, Cambridge Gamble Task). General response speed, set-shifting, working memory, and executive planning were intact. ASPD was also associated with higher impulsivity and venturesomeness on the Eysenck Questionnaire. These findings implicate impaired inhibitory control and decision-making in the pathophysiology of ASPD, even in milder manifestations of the disorder. Future work should explore the neural correlates of these impairments and use longitudinal designs to examine the temporal relationship between these deficits, antisocial behavior, and functional impairment. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Polderman, T.J.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Verhulst, F.C.; Posthuma, D.; Boomsma, D.I.
It is assumed that attention problems (AP) are related to impaired executive functioning. We investigated the association between AP and inhibitory control and tested to what extent the association was due to genetic factors shared with IQ. Data were available from 3 independent samples of 9-, 12-,
Full Text Available Although young children can accurately determine that two rows contain the same number of coins when they are placed in a one-to-one correspondence, children younger than 7 years of age erroneously think that the longer row contains more coins when the coins in one of the rows are spread apart. To demonstrate that prefrontal inhibitory control is necessary to succeed at this task (Piaget's conservation-of-number task, we studied the relationship between the percentage of BOLD signal changes in the brain areas activated in this developmental task and behavioral performance on a Stroop task and a Backward Digit Span task. The level of activation in the right insula/inferior frontal gyrus was selectively related to inhibitory control efficiency (i.e., the Stroop task, whereas the activation in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS was selectively related to the ability to manipulate numerical information in working memory (i.e., the Backward Digit Span task. Taken together, the results indicate that to acquire number conservation, children's brains must not only activate the reversibility of cognitive operations (supported by the IPS but also inhibit a misleading length-equal-number strategy (supported by the right insula/inferior frontal gyrus.
Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Hepark, Sevket; Kan, Cornelis C; Barendregt, Henk P; Buitelaar, Jan K; Speckens, Anne E M
To examine whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) would enhance attenuated amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing performance monitoring biomarkers of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty adult ADHD patients took part in a randomised controlled study investigating ERP and clinical measures pre-to-post MBCT. Twenty-six patients were randomly allocated to MBCT, 24 to a wait-list control. Main outcome measures included error processing (ERN, Pe), conflict monitoring (NoGo-N2), and inhibitory control (NoGo-P3) ERPs concomitant to a continuous performance task (CPT-X). Inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity ADHD symptoms, psychological distress and social functioning, and mindfulness skills were also assessed. MBCT was associated with increased Pe and NoGo-P3 amplitudes, coinciding with reduced 'hyperactivity/impulsivity' and 'inattention' symptomatology. Specific to the MBCT; enhanced Pe amplitudes correlated with a decrease in hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and increased 'act-with-awareness' mindfulness skill, whereas, enhanced P3 correlated with amelioration in inattention symptoms. MBCT enhanced ERP amplitudes associated with motivational saliency and error awareness, leading to improved inhibitory regulation. MBCT suggests having comparable modulation on performance monitoring ERP amplitudes as pharmacological treatments. Further study and development of MBCT as a treatment for ADHD is warranted, in addition to its potential scope for clinical applicability to broader defined externalising disorders and clinical problems associated with impairments of the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Locascio, Gianna; Mahone, E Mark; Eason, Sarah H; Cutting, Laurie E
Emerging research supports the contribution of executive function (EF) to reading comprehension; however, a unique pattern has not been established for children who demonstrate comprehension difficulties despite average word recognition ability (specific reading comprehension deficit; S-RCD). To identify particular EF components on which children with S-RCD struggle, a range of EF skills was compared among 86 children, ages 10 to 14, grouped by word reading and comprehension abilities: 24 average readers, 44 with word recognition deficits (WRD), and 18 S-RCD. An exploratory principal components analysis of EF tests identified three latent factors, used in subsequent group comparisons: Planning/ Spatial Working Memory, Verbal Working Memory, and Response Inhibition. The WRD group exhibited deficits (relative to controls) on Verbal Working Memory and Inhibition factors; S-RCD children performed more poorly than controls on the Planning factor. Further analyses suggested the WRD group's poor performance on EF factors was a by-product of core deficits linked to WRD (after controlling for phonological processing, this group no longer showed EF deficits). In contrast, the S-RCD group's poor performance on the planning component remained significant after controlling for phonological processing. Findings suggest reading comprehension difficulties are linked to executive dysfunction; in particular, poor strategic planning/organizing may lead to reading comprehension problems.
Feng, Haiyan; Du, Liqing; Liu, Shenghui; Zhang, Xiumei
The potted pineapple cultivar ‘Comte de paris’ was used to study the influence of deficit irrigation on fruit sugar accumulation in greenhouse during the fruit enlargement period. The study included a control (normal irrigation) and two treatment groups, moderate deficit (50% of the control irrigation) and severe deficit (25% of the control irrigation). The results indicated that the deficit irrigation significantly decreased the sucrose accumulation. The sucrose content in the fruits of moderate deficit irrigation was the lowest. During the mature period, the deficit irrigation decreased the sucrose phosophate synthase activity(SPS) an increased the sucrose synthase (SS) and neutral invertase (NI). The moderate deficit irrigation significantly improved the acid invertase activity(AI). However, it was inhibited by the severe deficit irrigation. In general, the moderate treatment reduced the SPS activity and enhanced the NI and AI activities, while the severe treatment decreased the SPS and AI activities.
Frontolimbic neural circuit changes in emotional processing and inhibitory control associated with clinical improvement following transference-focused psychotherapy in borderline personality disorder.
Perez, David L; Vago, David R; Pan, Hong; Root, James; Tuescher, Oliver; Fuchs, Benjamin H; Leung, Lorene; Epstein, Jane; Cain, Nicole M; Clarkin, John F; Lenzenweger, Mark F; Kernberg, Otto F; Levy, Kenneth N; Silbersweig, David A; Stern, Emily
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by self-regulation deficits, including impulsivity and affective lability. Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) is an evidence-based treatment proven to reduce symptoms across multiple cognitive-emotional domains in BPD. This pilot study aimed to investigate neural activation associated with, and predictive of, clinical improvement in emotional and behavioral regulation in BPD following TFP. BPD subjects (n = 10) were scanned pre- and post-TFP treatment using a within-subjects design. A disorder-specific emotional-linguistic go/no-go functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to probe the interaction between negative emotional processing and inhibitory control. Analyses demonstrated significant treatment-related effects with relative increased dorsal prefrontal (dorsal anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal, and frontopolar cortices) activation, and relative decreased ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampal activation following treatment. Clinical improvement in constraint correlated positively with relative increased left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation. Clinical improvement in affective lability correlated positively with left posterior-medial orbitofrontal cortex/ventral striatum activation, and negatively with right amygdala/parahippocampal activation. Post-treatment improvements in constraint were predicted by pre-treatment right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex hypoactivation, and pre-treatment left posterior-medial orbitofrontal cortex/ventral striatum hypoactivation predicted improvements in affective lability. These preliminary findings demonstrate potential TFP-associated alterations in frontolimbic circuitry and begin to identify neural mechanisms associated with a psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Thurstone, Christian; Riggs, Paula D.; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine hydrochloride versus placebo on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescents receiving motivational interviewing/cognitive behavioral therapy (MI/CBT) for SUD. Method: This single-site, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between December…
Weslley Quirino Alves da Silva
Full Text Available Pleasure is a key factor for physical activity behavior in sedentary individuals. Inhibitory cognitive control may play an important role in pleasure perception while exercising, especially at high intensities. In addition, separate work suggests that autonomic regulation and cerebral hemodynamics influence the affective and cognitive responses during exercise.We investigated the effects of exercise intensity on affect, inhibitory control, cardiac autonomic function, and prefrontal cortex (PFC oxygenation.Thirty-seven sedentary young adults performed two experimental conditions (exercise and control in separate sessions in a repeated-measures design. In the exercise condition, participants performed a maximum graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer as we continuously measured oxygen consumption, heart rate variability (HRV, and PFC oxygenation. At each of 8 intensity levels we also measured inhibitory control (Stroop test, associative and dissociative thoughts (ADT, and affective/pleasure ratings. In the control condition, participants sat motionless on a cycle ergometer without active pedaling, and we collected the same measures at the same points in time as the exercise condition. We evaluated the main effects and interactions of exercise condition and intensity level for each measure using two-way repeated measures ANOVAs. Additionally, we evaluated the relationship between affect and inhibitory control, ADT, HRV, and PFC oxygenation using Pearson's correlation coefficients.For exercise intensities below and at the ventilatory threshold (VT, participants reported feeling neutral, with preservation of inhibitory control, while intensities above the VT were associated with displeasure (p<0.001, decreased inhibitory control and HRV (p<0.001, and increased PFC oxygenation (p<0.001. At the highest exercise intensity, pleasure was correlated with the low-frequency index of HRV (r = -0.34; p<0.05 and the low-frequency/high-frequency HRV ratio (r
Spencer, Andrea E; Marin, Marie-France; Milad, Mohammed R; Spencer, Thomas J; Bogucki, Olivia E; Pope, Amanda L; Plasencia, Natalie; Hughes, Brittany; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Fitzgerald, Maura; Uchida, Mai; Biederman, Joseph
We examined whether non-traumatized subjects with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have dysfunctional activation in brain structures mediating fear extinction, possibly explaining the statistical association between ADHD and other disorders characterized by aberrant fear processing such as PTSD. Medication naïve, non-traumatized young adult subjects with (N=27) and without (N=20) ADHD underwent a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction protocol in a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. Skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded as a measure of conditioned response. Compared to healthy controls, ADHD subjects had significantly greater insular cortex activation during early extinction, lesser dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation during late extinction, lesser ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activation during late extinction learning and extinction recall, and greater hippocampal activation during extinction recall. Hippocampal and vmPFC deficits were similar to those documented in PTSD subjects compared to traumatized controls without PTSD. Non-traumatized, medication naive adults with ADHD had abnormalities in fear circuits during extinction learning and extinction recall, and some findings were consistent with those previously documented in subjects with PTSD compared to traumatized controls without PTSD. These findings could explain the significant association between ADHD and PTSD as well as impaired emotion regulation in ADHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raine, A; Phil, D; Stoddard, J; Bihrle, S; Buchsbaum, M
Previous research has suggested that links between autonomic nervous system functioning and violence are strongest in those who come from benign home backgrounds, but there appears to be no similar research using brain-imaging measures of central nervous system functioning. It was hypothesized that murderers who had no early psychosocial deprivation (e.g., no childhood abuse, family neglect) would demonstrate lower prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with early psychosocial deprivation and a group of normal controls. Murderers from a previous study, which showed prefrontal deficits in murderers, were assessed for psychosocial deprivation and divided into those with and without deprivation. Murderers without any clear psychosocial deficits were significantly lower on prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with psychosocial deficits and controls. These results suggest that murderers lacking psychosocial deficits are characterized by prefrontal deficits. It is argued that among violent offenders without deprived home backgrounds, the "social push" to violence is minimized, and consequently, brain abnormalities provide a relatively stronger predisposition to violence in this group.
Driscoll, Lori L; Strupp, Barbara J
In designing screens to assess potential neurotoxicants, the paramount goal is that the selected assessment tools detect dysfunction if it exists. This goal is particularly challenging in the case of cognitive assessments. Cognition is not a unitary phenomenon, and indeed there is growing evidence that different aspects of cognitive functioning are subserved by distinct neural systems. As a result, if a particular neurotoxicant selectively damages certain neural systems but not others, it can impair some cognitive, sensory, or affective functions, but leave many others intact. Accordingly, studies with human subjects use batteries of cognitive tests, cognizant of the fact that no one test is capable of detecting all forms of cognitive dysfunction. In contrast, assessment of cognitive functioning in non-human animal developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies typically consists of a single, presumably representative, "learning and memory" task that is expected to detect all potential effects on cognitive functioning. Streamlining the cognitive assessment in these studies saves time and money, but these shortcuts can have serious consequences if the aspect of cognitive functioning that is impaired is not tapped by the single selected task. In particular, executive functioning - a constellation of cognitive functions which enables the organism to focus on multiple streams of information simultaneously, and revise plans as necessary - is poorly assessed in most animal DNT studies. The failure to adequately assess these functions - which include attention, working memory, inhibitory control, and planning - is particularly worrisome in light of evidence that the neural systems that subserve these functions may be uniquely vulnerable to early developmental insults. We illustrate the importance of tapping these areas of functioning in DNT studies by describing the pattern of effects produced by early developmental Pb exposure. Rats exposed to lead (Pb) early in development
Lea, Sarah E; Matt Alderson, R; Patros, Connor H G; Tarle, Stephanie J; Arrington, Elaine F; Grant, DeMond M
Converging findings from recent research suggest a functional relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related hyperactivity and demands on working memory (WM) in both children and adults. Excessive motor activity such as restlessness and fidgeting are not pathognomonic symptoms of ADHD, however, and are often associated with other diagnoses such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Further, previous research indicates that anticipatory processing associated with anxiety can directly interfere with storage and rehearsal processes of WM. The topographical similarity of excessive motor activity seen in both ADHD and anxiety disorders, as well as similar WM deficits, may indicate a common relationship between WM deficits and increased motor activity. The relationship between objectively measured motor activity (actigraphy) and PH and visuospatial WM demands in adults with ADHD (n = 21), adults with GAD (n = 21), and healthy control adults (n = 20) was examined. Although all groups exhibited significant increases in activity from control to WM conditions, the ADHD group exhibited a disproportionate increase in activity, while activity exhibited by the GAD and healthy control groups was not different. Findings indicate that ADHD-related hyperactivity is uniquely related to WM demands, and appear to suggest that adults with GAD are no more active relative to healthy control adults during a cognitively demanding laboratory task. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Vivekanandhan, S
There is paucity of research in the putative role of hormonal biomarkers in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The current study aimed to analyze the clinical profile, socio-demographic status, co-morbidity, hormonal biomarkers namely Thyroid hormones and Cortisol in children with ADHD and compare them with healthy controls and to explore the association of the hormonal biomarkers with severity of ADHD. Thirty children with DSM-IV TR diagnosis of ADHD were assessed using semi structured proforma, Conners' Parent Rating Scale revised short (CPRS - R: S) , Mini international neuropsychiatric interview for children and adolescents and Childrens' Global Assessment Scale as well as serum levels of total Triiodothyronine (T3) ,total Thyroxine (T4) , Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Cortisol using chemiluminescent immunometric assay and compared with 30 age- and gender -matched controls. The typical profile of cases of ADHD was of a male with mean age of 9.47 years (S.D=2.43) belonging to Hyperactive subtype of ADHD. Serum T4 was significantly lower in cases compared to controls. No significant difference was found in serum T3, TSH and Cortisol levels. No significant correlation between the CPRS : R-S scores and the hormonal biomarkers. There is need for exploration of Serum T4 as putative biomarker for ADHD with replication in future studies. It may also be important to report the negative finding of Cortisol as a biomarker of ADHD in the context of effective utilization of resources for research with special relevance to resource deficit developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is the capacity generated by experience to modify the neural function and, thereby, adapt our behaviour. Long-term plasticity of glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission occurs in a concerted manner, finely adjusting the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I balance. Imbalances of E/I function are related to several neurological diseases including epilepsy. Several evidences have demonstrated that astrocytes are able to control the synaptic plasticity, with astrocytes being active partners in synaptic physiology and E/I balance. Here, we revise molecular evidences showing the epileptic stage as an abnormal form of long-term brain plasticity and propose the possible participation of astrocytes to the abnormal increase of glutamatergic and decrease of GABAergic neurotransmission in epileptic networks.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To effectively manage current task demands, attention must be focused on task-relevant information while task-irrelevant information is rejected. However, in everyday life, people must cope with emotions, which may interfere with actual task demands and may challenge functional attention allocation. Control of interfering emotions has been associated with the proper functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. As DLPFC dysfunction is evident in subjects with ADHD and in subjects with alcohol dependence, the current study sought to examine the bottom-up effect of emotional distraction on task performance in both disorders. METHODS: Male adults with ADHD (n = 22, male adults with alcohol dependence (n = 16, and healthy controls (n = 30 performed an emotional working memory task (n-back task. In the background of the task, we presented neutral and negative stimuli that varied in emotional saliency. RESULTS: In both clinical groups, a working memory deficit was evident. Moreover, both clinical groups displayed deficient emotional interference control. The n-back performance of the controls was not affected by the emotional distractors, whereas that of subjects with ADHD deteriorated in the presence of low salient distractors, and that of alcoholics did not deteriorate until high salient distractors were presented. Subsequent to task performance, subjects with ADHD accurately recognized more distractors than did alcoholics and controls. In alcoholics, picture recognition accuracy was negatively associated with n-back performance, suggesting a functional association between the ability to suppress emotional distractors and successful task performance. In subjects with ADHD, performance accuracy was negatively associated with ADHD inattentive symptoms, suggesting that inattention contributes to the performance deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with ADHD and alcoholics both display an emotional interference control
Assis, Melissa S; Soares, Aluízio C; de Sousa, Dircilei N; Eudes-Filho, João; Faro, Lilian Rosana F; Carneiro, Fabiana P; da Silva, Mônica V; Motoyama, Andrea B; de Souza, Greice Maria R; Marchiori, Stéphanie; de Lima, Nadyelle T; Boëchat-Barros, Raphael; Ferreira, Vania M
There are many studies that have sought to find drug therapies to prevent harm arising from sepsis. Such studies have represented a progress in the support to septic patients and also in the development of new pharmacological alternatives. Our interest was to investigate the caffeine effect on sepsis behavioural and memory impairments. Male rats were anaesthetized and the surgery was made to allow exposure of the cecum, which was then squeezed to extrude a small amount of faeces from the perforation site, which was later placed back into the peritoneal cavity. This procedure, which served to generate experimental sepsis, is herein referred to as ceccum ligation and perforation (CLP). The caffeine (10 mg/kg) was administered by gavage route, once daily, during 7 or 14 consecutive days to investigate the effects of acute or subchronic caffeine treatment on long-term behavioural and cognitive deficits induced by CLP. On the last day, one hour after caffeine administration, the animals were submitted to open-field, elevated plus-maze (EPM), forced swimming, and step-down inhibitory avoidance tests. The results showed that caffeine increased the percentage of open arm entries and open arm time in the EPM test, and reduced the immobility time when compared to the sham-operated group. The caffeine also increased the latency in the inhibitory avoidance test platform. Our results demonstrated that the caffeine improved behavioural changes and improved the neurocognitive deficits of sepsis-surviving animals. It is possible that blockage of the adenosine receptors may be responsible for the results here observed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Paltineanu, C.; Septar, L.; Moale, C.; Nicolae, S.; Nicola, C.
During three years a deficit irrigation experiment was performed on peach response under the semi-arid conditions of south-eastern Romania. Three sprinkler-irrigated treatments were investigated: fully irrigated, deficit irrigation treatment, and non-irrigated control treatment. Soil water content ranged between 60 and 76% of the plant available soil water capacity in fully irrigated, between 40 and 62% in deficit irrigation treatment, and between 30 and 45% in control. There were significant differences in fruit yield between the treatments. Irrigation water use efficiency was maximum in deficit irrigation treatment. Fruit yield correlated significantly with irrigation application. Total dry matter content, total solids content and titrable acidity of fruit were significantly different in the irrigated treatments vs. the control. Significant correlation coefficients were found between some fruit chemical components. For the possible future global warming conditions, when water use becomes increasingly restrictive, deficit irrigation will be a reasonable solution for water conservation in regions with similar soil and climate conditions.
Yang, Rongwang; Gao, Weijia; Li, Rong; Zhao, Zhengyan
With early initiation of thyroxine supplementation, children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) retain some subtle deficits, such as attention and inhibitory control problems. This study assessed the effects of atomoxetine on cognitive functions in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with CH. In a 6-month, open-labeled pilot study, 12 children were recruited and received atomoxetine. The measures of efficacy were scores on the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, version IV (SNAP-IV) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S). The cognitive functions were evaluated with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Chinese Children, Digit Span, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Stroop test. A statistically significant difference was found between the mean CGI-S and SNAP-IV scores before and after treatment (p Atomoxetine appears to be useful in improving ADHD symptoms, as well as cognitive functions, in children with CH. Larger, randomized, double-blinded, clinical trials are required to replicate these results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Loeber, Sabine; Duka, Theodora
To investigate whether acute alcohol would affect performance of a conditioned behavioural response to obtain a reward outcome and impair performance in a task measuring inhibitory control to provide new knowledge of how the acute effects of alcohol might contribute to the transition from alcohol use to dependence. A randomized controlled between-subjects design was employed. The laboratory of experimental psychology at the University of Sussex. Thirty-two light to moderate social drinkers recruited from the undergraduate and postgraduate population. After the administration of alcohol (0.8 g/kg) or placebo participants underwent an instrumental reward-seeking procedure, with abstract stimuli serving as S+ (always predicting a win of 10 pence) and S- (always predicting a loss of 10 pence). In addition, a Stop Signal task was administered before and after the administration of alcohol. Participants of the alcohol group performed the behavioural response to obtain the reward outcome more often than placebo subjects in trials associated with loss of money. This finding was observed, although alcohol was not affecting explicit knowledge of stimulus-response outcome contingencies and acquisition of conditioned attentional and emotional responses. In addition, alcohol increased Stop Signal reaction time indicating disinhibiting effects of alcohol, and this was associated positively with response probability to the S-. These results demonstrate that alcohol is affecting inhibitory control of behavioural responses to external signals even when associated with punishment, contributing in this way to the transition from alcohol use to dependence.
Full Text Available Inhibitory control is the ability to suppress competing, dominant, automatic or prepotent cognitive processing at perceptual, intermediate, and output stages. Inhibitory control is a key cognitive function of typical and atypical child development. This study examined age-related trends of Stroop-like interference in 3–12-year-old children and young adults by administration of a computerized Stroop-like big–small task with reduced working memory demand. This task used a set of pictures displaying a big and small circle in black and included the same condition and the opposite condition. In the same condition, each participant was instructed to say ‘big’ when viewing the big circle and to say ‘small’ when viewing the small circle. In the opposite condition, each participant was instructed to say ‘small’ when viewing the big circle and to say ‘big’ when viewing the small circle. The opposite condition required participants to inhibit the prepotent response of saying the same, a familiar response to a perceptual stimulus. Results of this study showed that Stroop-like interference decreased markedly in children in terms of error rates and correct RT. There was no deterioration of performance occurring between the early trials and the late trials in the sessions of the day–night task. Moreover, pre-test failure rate was relatively low in this study. The Stroop-like big–small task is a useful tool to assess the development of inhibitory control in young children in that the task is easy to understand and has small working memory demand.
Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Krauel, Kerstin; Hinrichs, Hermann; Fischer, Jochen; Malecki, Ulrike; Schuetze, Hartmut; Wolff, Stephan; Jansen, Olav; Duezel, Emrah; Baving, Lioba
Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show deficits in working memory (WM) which may be related to prefrontal dysfunction. Methylphenidate (MPH) can restore WM deficits in ADHD by enhancing prefrontal activity. At the same time, changes in striatal activation could cause ADHD patients to be more interference-sensitive during working memory tasks. However, it is unclear whether MPH reduces WM distractibility in ADHD. In this fMRI study, 12 ADHD patients and 12 healthy controls participated on two separate days in a delayed-match-to-sample test. During the delay interval, a distractor stimulus was presented in half of the trials. Children and adolescents with ADHD received MPH only on one of the two sessions. Behavioral data analyses revealed that MPH normalized WM in ADHD. However, MPH did not improve WM performance when a distractor was presented during the delay interval. Functional images showed that MPH enhanced prefrontal activity during the delay in ADHD patients when no distractor was present. If the delay was interrupted by a distractor, only healthy controls showed activation of the caudate. In patients with ADHD, however, in line with behavioral data, MPH did not enhance caudate activity. In healthy youth, caudate activity is involved in interference control allowing the successful maintenance of information in working memory even in the presence of distraction. Our findings suggest that interference control, linked to caudate activity, is not adequately enhanced by MPH in ADHD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ribeiro, Maria J; Violante, Inês R; Bernardino, Inês; Edden, Richard A E; Castelo-Branco, Miguel
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive deficits. In particular, executive dysfunction is recognized as a core deficit of NF1, including impairments in executive attention and inhibitory control. Yet, the neural mechanisms behind these important deficits are still unknown. Here, we studied inhibitory control in a visual go/no-go task in children and adolescents with NF1 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16 per group). We applied a multimodal approach using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), to study the evoked brain responses, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of GABA and glutamate + glutamine in the medial frontal cortex, a brain region that plays a pivotal role in inhibitory control, and also in a control region, the occipital cortex. Finally, we run correlation analyses to identify the relationship between inhibitory control, levels of neurotransmitters, and EEG markers of neural function. Individuals with NF1 showed impaired impulse control and reduced EEG correlates of early visual processing (parieto-occipital P1) and inhibitory control (frontal P3). MRS data revealed a reduction in medial frontal GABA+/tCr (total Creatine) levels in the NF1 group, in parallel with the already reported reduced occipital GABA levels. In contrast, glutamate + glutamine/tCr levels were normal, suggesting the existence of abnormal inhibition/excitation balance in this disorder. Notably, medial frontal but not occipital GABA levels correlated with general intellectual abilities (IQ) in NF1, and inhibitory control in both groups. Surprisingly, the relationship between inhibitory control and medial frontal GABA was reversed in NF1: higher GABA was associated with a faster response style whereas in controls it was related to a cautious strategy. Abnormal GABAergic physiology appears, thus, as an important factor underlying impaired cognition in NF1, in a level and
Dang, Mai T; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Cheetham, Chad C; Lu, Jun; Vo, Viet; Lovinger, David M; Li, Yuqing
DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia is an inherited movement disorder associated with mutations in DYT1 that codes for torsinA protein. The most common mutation seen in this gene is a trinucleotide deletion of GAG. We previously reported a motor control deficit on a beam-walking task in our Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in heterozygous mice. In this report we show the reversal of this motor deficit with the anticholinergic trihexyphenidyl (THP), a drug commonly used to treat movement problems in dystonia patients. THP also restored the reduced corticostriatal long-term depression (LTD) observed in these mice. Corticostriatal LTD has long been known to be dependent on D2 receptor activation. In this mouse model, striatal D2 receptors were expressed at lower quantities in comparison to wild-type mice. Furthermore, the mice were also partially resistant to FPL64176, an agonist of L-type calcium channels that have been previously reported to cause severe dystonic-like symptoms in wild-type mice. Our findings collectively suggest that altered communication between cholinergic interneurons and medium spiny neurons is responsible for the LTD deficit and that this synaptic plasticity modification may be involved in the striatal motor control abnormalities in our mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The most typical and well known inhibitory action in the cortical microcircuit is a strong inhibition on the target neuron by axo-somatic synapses. However, it has become clear that synaptic inhibition in the cortex is much more diverse and complicated. Firstly, at least ten or more inhibitory non-pyramidal cell subtypes engage in diverse inhibitory functions to produce the elaborate activity characteristic of the different cortical states. Each distinct non-pyramidal cell subtype has its own independent inhibitory function. Secondly, the inhibitory synapses innervate different neuronal domains, such as axons, spines, dendrites and soma, and their IPSP size is not uniform. Thus cortical inhibition is highly complex, with a wide variety of anatomical and physiological modes. Moreover, the functional significance of the various inhibitory synapse innervation styles and their unique structural dynamic behaviors differ from those of excitatory synapses. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the inhibitory mechanisms of the cortical microcircuit.
Scherbaum, Stefan; Frisch, Simon; Dshemuchadse, Maja
Selective attention and its adaptation by cognitive control processes are considered a core aspect of goal-directed action. Often, selective attention is studied behaviorally with conflict tasks, but an emerging neuroscientific method for the study of selective attention is EEG frequency tagging. It applies different flicker frequencies to the stimuli of interest eliciting steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) in the EEG. These oscillating SSVEPs in the EEG allow tracing the allocation of selective attention to each tagged stimulus continuously over time. The present behavioral investigation points to an important caveat of using tagging frequencies: The flicker of stimuli not only produces a useful neuroscientific marker of selective attention, but interacts with the adaptation of selective attention itself. Our results indicate that RT patterns of adaptation after response conflict (so-called conflict adaptation) are reversed when flicker frequencies switch at once. However, this effect of frequency switches is specific to the adaptation by conflict-driven control processes, since we find no effects of frequency switches on inhibitory control processes after no-go trials. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding and propose precautions that should be taken into account when studying conflict adaptation using frequency tagging in order to control for the described confounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rominger, Christian; Bleier, Angelika; Fitz, Werner; Marksteiner, Josef; Fink, Andreas; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M
Social cognitive impairments may represent a core feature of schizophrenia and above all are a strong predictor of positive psychotic symptoms. Previous studies could show that reduced inhibitory top-down control contributes to deficits in theory of mind abilities and is involved in the genesis of hallucinations. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between auditory inhibition, affective theory of mind and the experience of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, 20 in-patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls completed a social cognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test) and an inhibitory top-down Dichotic Listening Test. Schizophrenia patients with greater severity of hallucinations showed impaired affective theory of mind as well as impaired inhibitory top-down control. More dysfunctional top-down inhibition was associated with poorer affective theory of mind performance, and seemed to mediate the association between impairment to affective theory of mind and severity of hallucinations. The findings support the idea of impaired theory of mind as a trait marker of schizophrenia. In addition, dysfunctional top-down inhibition may give rise to hallucinations and may further impair affective theory of mind skills in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang Lei; Jin Zhen; Zeng Yawei; Wang Yan; Zang Yufeng
Objective: To investigate the brain activation map during Go-NoGo tasks in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls using functional MRI. Methods: Block designed BOLD functional MRI scan covering the whole brain was performed on 10 boys having ADHD and 11 healthy boys. The 2 groups were matched by age, sex, and handedness. Executing advanced inhibitory Go-NoGo tasks served as stimuli for all subjects. The fMRI data was analyzed by SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) software with statistic t-test to generate the activation map. Results: (1) The normal children showed significant activations in left thalamus and right cingulate gyrus and fewer activations in right middle frontal gyrus during stimulate controlled Go task, but the children with ADHD showed less activations in left thalamus. (2) In response controlled Go task, the normal children showed activations in right insula, cingulate gyrus and left frontal gyrus, while the ADHD children showed lower power of response in the right middle frontal gyrus.(3) In NoGo task, right middle frontal gyrus was the dominant activated regions, and left anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus and right thalamus also had some activations in normal children, while the activations of right prefrontal decreased and the thalamus increased in ADHD boys. Conclusion: In children with ADHD, some dysfunctional brain areas, mainly the prefrontal lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus were found. Thalamus was also involved according to the brain activation map
Lei, Zhang; Zhen, Jin; Yawei, Zeng; Yan, Wang [fMRI Center, Lab of Cognition Science and Learning, National Education Ministry and Department of Radiology, 306 Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Yufeng, Zang
Objective: To investigate the brain activation map during Go-NoGo tasks in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls using functional MRI. Methods: Block designed BOLD functional MRI scan covering the whole brain was performed on 10 boys having ADHD and 11 healthy boys. The 2 groups were matched by age, sex, and handedness. Executing advanced inhibitory Go-NoGo tasks served as stimuli for all subjects. The fMRI data was analyzed by SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) software with statistic t-test to generate the activation map. Results: (1) The normal children showed significant activations in left thalamus and right cingulate gyrus and fewer activations in right middle frontal gyrus during stimulate controlled Go task, but the children with ADHD showed less activations in left thalamus. (2) In response controlled Go task, the normal children showed activations in right insula, cingulate gyrus and left frontal gyrus, while the ADHD children showed lower power of response in the right middle frontal gyrus.(3) In NoGo task, right middle frontal gyrus was the dominant activated regions, and left anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus and right thalamus also had some activations in normal children, while the activations of right prefrontal decreased and the thalamus increased in ADHD boys. Conclusion: In children with ADHD, some dysfunctional brain areas, mainly the prefrontal lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus were found. Thalamus was also involved according to the brain activation map.
Laura S van Velzen
Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, motor response inhibition and interference control have received considerable scientific effort and attention, due to their important role in behavior and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Results of neuroimaging studies indicate that motor response inhibition and interference control are dependent on cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC circuits. Structural and functional abnormalities within the CSTC circuits have been reported for many neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and related disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, Tourette’s syndrome (TS and trichotillomania. These disorders also share impairments in motor response inhibition and interference control, which may underlie some of their behavioral and cognitive symptoms. Results of task-related neuroimaging studies on inhibitory functions in these disorders show that impaired task performance is related to altered recruitment of the CSTC circuits. Previous research has shown that inhibitory performance is dependent upon dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin signaling, neurotransmitters that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders. In this review we discuss the common and disorder-specific pathophysiological mechanisms of inhibition-related dysfunction in OCD and related disorders.
Pennington, Charlotte R; Qureshi, Adam; Monk, Rebecca L; Heim, Derek
Previous research indicates that users of illicit substances exhibit diminished cognitive function under stereotype threat. Advancing this research, the current study aimed to examine the effects of stereotype threat on alcohol users' inhibitory control. It also examined whether drinkers demonstrate a greater approach bias towards alcohol-related relative to neutral stimuli. Fifty-five participants were assigned randomly to a stereotype threat condition, in which they were primed with a negative stereotype linking drinking behavior to cognitive decline, or a non-threat control condition. All participants then completed a modified version of the Cued Go/No-Go Association Test that exposed participants to alcohol-related and neutral pictorial stimuli and sound cues. Stereotype threatened participants demonstrated a speed-accuracy trade off, taking significantly longer to respond to go-trials with equivalent accuracy to the control condition. They also showed reduced response accuracy to both alcohol-related and neutral stimuli in reversed instruction trials. Participants in the control condition were both more accurate and quicker to respond to alcohol-related stimuli compared to neutral stimuli. These results suggest that awareness of negative stereotypes pertaining to alcohol-related impulsivity may have a harmful effect on inhibitive cognitive performance. This may have implications for public health campaigns and for methodological designs with high levels of procedural signaling with respect to not inadvertently inducing stereotype threat and impacting impulsivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abi-Jaoude, Elia; Segura, Barbara; Cho, Sang Soo; Crawley, Adrian; Sandor, Paul
The capacity to regulate urges is an important human characteristic associated with a range of social and health outcomes. Self-regulatory capacity has been postulated to have a limited reserve, which when depleted leads to failure. The authors aimed to investigate the neural correlates of self-regulatory fatigability. Functional MRI was used to detect brain activations in 19 right-handed healthy subjects during inhibition of eye blinking, in a block design. The increase in number of blinks during blink inhibition from the first to the last block was used as covariate of interest. There was an increase in the number of eye blinks escaping inhibitory control across blink inhibition blocks, whereas there was no change in the number of eye blinks occurring during rest blocks. Inhibition of blinking activated a wide network bilaterally, including the inferior frontal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and caudate. Deteriorating performance was associated with activity in orbitofrontal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, rostroventral anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, somatosensory, and parietal areas. As anticipated, effortful eye-blink control resulted in activation of prefrontal control areas and regions involved in urge and interoceptive processing. Worsening performance was associated with activations in brain areas involved in urge, as well as regions involved in motivational evaluation. These findings suggest that self-regulatory fatigability is associated with relatively less recruitment of prefrontal cortical regions involved in executive control.
Jonathan A Kopechek
Full Text Available RNA interference has potential therapeutic value for cardiac disease, but targeted delivery of interfering RNA is a challenge. Custom designed microbubbles, in conjunction with ultrasound, can deliver small inhibitory RNA to target tissues in vivo. The efficacy of cardiac RNA interference using a microbubble-ultrasound theranostic platform has not been demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that custom designed microbubbles and ultrasound can mediate effective delivery of small inhibitory RNA to the heart. Microbubble and ultrasound mediated cardiac RNA interference was tested in transgenic mice displaying cardiac-restricted luciferase expression. Luciferase expression was assayed in select tissues of untreated mice (n = 14. Mice received intravenous infusion of cationic microbubbles bearing small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase (n = 9 or control RNA (n = 8 during intermittent cardiac-directed ultrasound at mechanical index of 1.6. Simultaneous echocardiography in a separate group of mice (n = 3 confirmed microbubble destruction and replenishment during treatment. Three days post treatment, cardiac luciferase messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly lower in ultrasound-treated mice receiving microbubbles loaded with small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase compared to mice receiving microbubbles bearing control RNA (23±7% and 33±7% of control mice, p<0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively. Passive cavitation detection focused on the heart confirmed that insonification resulted in inertial cavitation. In conclusion, small inhibitory RNA-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound directed at the heart significantly reduced the expression of a reporter gene. Ultrasound-targeted destruction of RNA-loaded microbubbles may be an effective image-guided strategy for therapeutic RNA interference in cardiac disease.
Alexandra eSebastian; Patrick eJung; Annegret eKrause-Utz; Klaus eLieb; Christian eSchmahl; Oliver eTuescher; Oliver eTuescher
Disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity as used in clinical terms is very broadly defined and entails different categories including personality traits as well as different cognitive functions such as emotion regulation or interference resolution and impulse control. Impulse control as an executive function, however, is neither cognitively nor neurobehaviorally a unitary fu...
Sebastian, Alexandra; Jung, Patrick; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Lieb, Klaus; Schmahl, Christian; Tüscher, Oliver
Disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity as used in clinical terms is very broadly defined and entails different categories including personality traits as well as different cognitive functions such as emotion regulation or interference resolution and impulse control. Impulse control as an executive function, however, is neither cognitively nor neurobehaviorally a unitary fu...
Ewing, Samuel G; Grace, Anthony A
Existing antipsychotic drugs are most effective at treating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia but their relative efficacy is low and they are associated with considerable side effects. In this study deep brain stimulation of the ventral hippocampus was performed in a rodent model of schizophrenia (MAM-E17) in an attempt to alleviate one set of neurophysiological alterations observed in this disorder. Bipolar stimulating electrodes were fabricated and implanted, bilaterally, into the ventral hippocampus of rats. High frequency stimulation was delivered bilaterally via a custom-made stimulation device and both spectral analysis (power and coherence) of resting state local field potentials and amplitude of auditory evoked potential components during a standard inhibitory gating paradigm were examined. MAM rats exhibited alterations in specific components of the auditory evoked potential in the infralimbic cortex, the core of the nucleus accumbens, mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, and ventral hippocampus in the left hemisphere only. DBS was effective in reversing these evoked deficits in the infralimbic cortex and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus of MAM-treated rats to levels similar to those observed in control animals. In contrast stimulation did not alter evoked potentials in control rats. No deficits or stimulation-induced alterations were observed in the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices, the shell of the nucleus accumbens or ventral tegmental area. These data indicate a normalization of deficits in generating auditory evoked potentials induced by a developmental disruption by acute high frequency, electrical stimulation of the ventral hippocampus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gelade, K.; Janssen, T.W.P.; Bink, M.; van Mourik, R.; Maras, A.; Oosterlaan, J.
Objective: The efficacy of neurofeedback as treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and whether neurofeedback is a viable alternative for stimulant medication, are still intensely debated subjects. The current randomised controlled trial compared neurofeedback to (1) optimally
Byrne, N. G.; Muir, T. C.
The response of the bovine retractor penis (BRP) to stimulation of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) inhibitory nerves and to an inhibitory extract prepared from this muscle have been studied using intracellular microelectrode, sucrose gap and conventional mechanical recording techniques. Both inhibitory nerve stimulation and inhibitory extract hyperpolarized the membrane potential and relaxed spontaneous or guanethidine (3 X 10(-5) M)-induced tone. These effects were accompanied by an increase in membrane resistance. Following membrane potential displacement from an average value of -53 +/- 7 mV (n = 184; Byrne & Muir, 1984) inhibitory potentials to nerve stimulation were abolished at approximately -30 mV; there was no evidence of reversal. Displacement by inward hyperpolarizing current over the range -45 to -60 mV increased the inhibitory response to nerve stimulation and to inhibitory extract; at more negative potential values (above approximately -60 mV) the inhibitory potential decreased and was abolished (approximately -103 mV). There was no evidence of reversal. Removal of [K+]o reversibly reduced hyperpolarization to nerve stimulation and inhibitory extract. No enhancement was observed. Increasing the [K+]o to 20 mM reduced the inhibitory potential to nerve stimulation but this was restored by passive membrane hyperpolarization. Inhibitory potentials were obtained at membrane potential values exceeding that of the estimated EK (-49 mV). [Cl-]o-free or [Cl-]o-deficient solutions reduced and abolished (after some 20-25 min) the hyperpolarization produced by inhibitory nerve stimulation or inhibitory extract. The inhibitory potential amplitude following nerve stimulation was not restored by passive displacement of the membrane potential from -26 to -104 mV approximately. Ouabain (1-5 X 10(-5) M) reduced then (45-60 min later) abolished the inhibitory potential to nerve stimulation. The effects of this drug on the extract were not investigated. It is
Full Text Available Water shortage is a major abiotic stress for crop production worldwide, limiting the productivity of crop species, especially in dry-land agricultural areas. This investigation aimed to classify the water-deficit tolerance in mutant rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica genotypes during the reproductive stage. Proline content in the flag leaf of mutant lines increased when plants were subjected to water deficit. Relative water content (RWC in the flag leaf of different mutant lines dropped in relation to water deficit stress. A decrease RWC was positively related to chlorophyll a degradation. Chlorophyll a , chlorophyll b , total chlorophyll , total carotenoids , maximum quantum yield of PSII , stomatal conductance , transpiration rate and water use efficiency in mutant lines grown under water deficit conditions declined in comparison to the well-watered, leading to a reduction in net-photosynthetic rate. In addition, when exposed to water deficit, panicle traits, including panicle length and fertile grains were dropped. The biochemical and physiological data were subjected to classify the water deficit tolerance. NSG19 (positive control and DD14 were identified as water deficit tolerant, and AA11, AA12, AA16, BB13, BB16, CC12, CC15, EE12, FF15, FF17, G11 and IR20 (negative control as water deficit sensitive, using Ward's method.
Nardone, Raffaele; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Golaszewski, Stefan; Frey, Vanessa N; Orioli, Andrea; Trinka, Eugen
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and affects up to 80 % of patients with liver cirrhosis. By definition, MHE is characterized by psychomotor slowing and subtle cognitive deficits, but obvious clinical manifestations are lacking. Given its covert nature, MHE is often underdiagnosed. This study was aimed at detecting neurophysiological changes, as assessed by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), involved in the early pathogenesis of the HE. We investigated motor cortex excitability in 15 patients with MHE and in 15 age-matched age-matched cirrhotic patients without MHE; the resting motor threshold, the short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and the intracortical facilitation (ICF) were examined. Paired-pulse TMS revealed significant increased SICI and reduced ICF in the patients with MHE. These findings may reflect abnormalities in intrinsic brain activity and altered organization of functional connectivity networks. In particular, the results suggest a shift in the balance between intracortical inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms towards a net increase of inhibitory neurotransmission. Together with other neurophysiological (in particular EEG) and neuroimaging techniques, TMS may thus provide early markers of cerebral dysfunction in cirrhotic patients with MHE.
Hanaie, Ryuzo; Mohri, Ikuko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Tachibana, Masaya; Matsuzaki, Junko; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Norihiko; Taniike, Masako
In addition to social and communicative deficits, many studies have reported motor deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study investigated the macro and microstructural properties of the corpus callosum (CC) of 18 children with ASD and 12 typically developing controls using diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We aimed to explore…
Geladé, Katleen; Janssen, Tieme W. P.; Bink, Marleen; van Mourik, Rosa; Maras, Athanasios; Oosterlaan, Jaap
The efficacy of neurofeedback as a treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and whether neurofeedback is a viable alternative for stimulant medication, is still an intensely debated subject. The current randomized controlled trial compared neurofeedback to (1) optimally
Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Baumeister, Sarah; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred
There is accumulating evidence relating maternal smoking during pregnancy to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) without elucidating specific mechanisms. Research investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of this disorder has implicated deficits during response inhibition. Attempts to uncover the effect of prenatal exposure to nicotine on inhibitory control may thus be of high clinical importance. To clarify the influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy (hereafter referred to as prenatal smoking) on the neural circuitry of response inhibition and its association with related behavioral phenotypes such as ADHD and novelty seeking in the mother's offspring. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed for the offspring at 25 years of age during a modified Eriksen flanker/NoGo task, and voxel-based morphometry was performed to study brain volume differences of the offspring. Prenatal smoking (1-5 cigarettes per day [14 mothers] or >5 cigarettes per day [24 mothers]) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were determined using standardized parent interviews at the offspring's age of 3 months and over a period of 13 years (from 2 to 15 years of age), respectively. Novelty seeking was assessed at 19 years of age. Analyses were adjusted for sex, parental postnatal smoking, psychosocial and obstetric adversity, maternal prenatal stress, and lifetime substance abuse. A total of 178 young adults (73 males) without current psychopathology from a community sample followed since birth (Mannheim, Germany) participated in the study. Functional magnetic resonance imaging response, morphometric data, lifetime ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking. Participants prenatally exposed to nicotine exhibited a weaker response in the anterior cingulate cortex (t168 = 4.46; peak Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] coordinates x = -2, y = 20, z = 30; familywise error [FWE]-corrected P = .003), the right inferior frontal gyrus (t168 = 3.65; peak MNI
Solovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis
The syndrome of attention deficit disorder is one of the most frequent pictures of disabilities in pre-scholars. The present study analyses the results of fulfillment of tasks for mechanisms of control and spatial functions. 14 pre-scholars with attention deficit disorder took part in the study. The neuropsychological evaluation was applied before…
Atomoxetine Treatment Strengthens an Anti-Correlated Relationship between Functional Brain Networks in Medication-Naïve Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.
Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Although atomoxetine demonstrates efficacy in individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, its treatment effects on brain resting-state functional connectivity remain unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate major brain functional networks in medication-naïve adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the efficacy of atomoxetine treatment on resting-state functional connectivity. After collecting baseline resting-state functional MRI scans from 24 adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (aged 18-52 years) and 24 healthy controls (matched in demographic characteristics), the participants with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were randomly assigned to atomoxetine (n=12) and placebo (n=12) arms in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome was functional connectivity assessed by a resting-state functional MRI. Seed-based functional connectivity was calculated and compared for the affective, attention, default, and cognitive control networks. At baseline, we found atypical cross talk between the default, cognitive control, and dorsal attention networks and hypoconnectivity within the dorsal attention and default networks in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Our first-ever placebo-controlled clinical trial incorporating resting-state functional MRI showed that treatment with atomoxetine strengthened an anticorrelated relationship between the default and task-positive networks and modulated all major brain networks. The strengthened anticorrelations were associated with improving clinical symptoms in the atomoxetine-treated adults. Our results support the idea that atypical default mode network task-positive network interaction plays an important role in the pathophysiology of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Strengthening this atypical relationship following atomoxetine treatment suggests an important pathway to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity
Blume, Friederike; Hudak, Justin; Dresler, Thomas; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; K?hnhausen, Jan; Renner, Tobias J.; Gawrilow, Caterina
Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from attention deficits, motor hyperactivity, and impulsive behaviour. These impairments are experienced at home, at school, and with friends. Functional imaging studies show that ADHD behaviour and impairments in executive functions (EFs) are mirrored by aberrant neurophysiological functioning. Moreover, several studies show that ADHD behaviour, impairments in EFs, and a lack of self-control contribute to poor sc...
Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta
The present research explored the cortical correlates of rewarding mechanisms and cortical 'unbalance' effect in internet addiction (IA) vulnerability. Internet Addiction Inventory (IAT) and personality trait (Behavioural Inhibition System, BIS; Behavioural Activation System, BAS) were applied to 28 subjects. Electroencephalographic (EEG, alpha frequency band) and response times (RTs) were registered during a Go-NoGo task execution in response to different online stimuli: gambling videos, videogames or neutral stimuli. Higher-IAT (more than 50 score, with moderate or severe internet addiction) and lower-IAT (internet addiction). Alpha band and RTs were affected by IAT, with significant bias (reduced RTs) for high-IAT in response to gambling videos and videogames; and by BAS, BAS-Reward subscale (BAS-R), since not only higher-IAT, but also BAS and BAS-R values determined an increasing of left prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity (alpha reduction) in response to videogames and gambling stimuli for both Go and NoGo conditions, in addition to decreased RTs for these stimuli categories. The increased PFC responsiveness and the lateralisation (left PFC hemisphere) effect in NoGo condition was explained on the basis of a 'rewarding bias' towards more rewarding cues and a deficit in inhibitory control in higher-IAT and higher-BAS subjects. In contrast lower-IAT and lower-BAS predicted a decreased PFC response and increased RTs for NoGo (inhibitory mechanism). These results may support the significance of personality (BAS) and IAT measures for explaining future internet addiction behaviour based on this observed 'vulnerability'.
Xue, Chun-Mei; Wang, Xue; Yang, Jia-Li; Zhang, Yue-Hua
Researching the effect of three kinds of Bacillus and their mixed strains inhibitory on common fungal diseases of conservatory vegetables. The results showed that B. megaterium culture medium had a significant inhibition effect on Cucumber Fusarium wilt, and the inhibition rate was up to 84.36%; B. mucilaginosus and B. megaterium sterile superna-tant had an obvious inhibitory effect on brown disease of eggplant, and the inhibition rate as high as 85.49%; B. subtilis sterile supernatant had a good inhibitory effect on the spore germination of C. Fusarium wilt, and the inhibition rate was 76.83%. The results revealed that Bacillus had a significant inhibitory effect on five common fungal pathogens. Three kinds of Bacillus can be used for the prevention and control of common fungal diseases in conservatory vegetables.
In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs
Thomas, Philip; Mortensen, Martin; Hosie, Alastair M; Smart, Trevor G
Importing functional GABAA receptors into synapses is fundamental for establishing and maintaining inhibitory transmission and for controlling neuronal excitability. By introducing a binding site for an irreversible inhibitor into the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit channel lining region that can be accessed only when the receptor is activated, we have determined the dynamics of receptor mobility between synaptic and extrasynaptic locations in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We demonstrate that the cell surface GABAA receptor population shows no fast recovery after irreversible inhibition. In contrast, after selective inhibition, the synaptic receptor population rapidly recovers by the import of new functional entities within minutes. The trafficking pathways that promote rapid importation of synaptic receptors do not involve insertion from intracellular pools, but reflect receptor diffusion within the plane of the membrane. This process offers the synapse a rapid mechanism to replenish functional GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses and a means to control synaptic efficacy.
Full Text Available In the mammalian brain, GABAergic synaptic transmission provides inhibitory balance to glutamatergic excitatory drive and controls neuronal output. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of GABAergic synapses remain largely unclear. Here, we report that NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDARs in individual immature neurons are the upstream signaling molecules essential for GABAergic synapse development, which requires signaling via Calmodulin binding motif in the C0 domain of the NMDAR GluN1 subunit. Interestingly, in neurons lacking NMDARs, whereas GABAergic synaptic transmission is strongly reduced, the tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors is increased, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for the lack of synaptic inhibition. These results demonstrate a crucial role for NMDARs in specifying the development of inhibitory synapses, and suggest an important mechanism for controlling the establishment of the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition in the developing brain.
Forman, Evan M; Shaw, Jena A; Goldstein, Stephanie P; Butryn, Meghan L; Martin, Lindsay M; Meiran, Nachshon; Crosby, Ross D; Manasse, Stephanie M
Obesity is largely attributable to excess caloric intake, in particular from "junk" foods, including salty snack foods. Evidence suggests that neurobiological preferences to consume highly hedonic foods translate (via implicit processes) into poor eating choices, unless overturned by inhibitory mechanisms or interrupted by explicit processes. The primary aim of the current study was to test the independent and combinatory effects of a computerized inhibitory control training (ICT) and a mindful decision-making training (MDT) designed to facilitate de-automatization. We randomized 119 habitual salty snack food eaters to one of four short, training conditions: MDT, ICT, both MDT and ICT, or neither (i.e., psychoeducation). For 7 days prior to the intervention and 7 days following the intervention, participants reported on their salty snack food consumption 2 times per day, on 3 portions of their days, using a smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment system. Susceptibility to emotional eating cues was measured at baseline. Results indicated that the effect of MDT was consistent across levels of trait emotional eating, whereas the benefit of ICT was apparent only at lower levels of emotional eating. No synergistic effect of MDT and ICT was detected. These results provide qualified support for the efficacy of both types of training for decreasing hedonically-motivated eating. Moderation effects suggest that those who eat snack foods for reasons unconnected to affective experiences (i.e., lower in emotional eating) may derive benefit from a combination of ICT and MDT. Future research should investigate the additive benefit of de-automization training to standard weight loss interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abbes, Zeineb; Bouden, Asma; Amado, Isabelle; Chantal Bourdel, Marie; Tabbane, Karim; Béchir Halayem, Mohamed
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder currently defined by clinical history and behavioral report of impairment. The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. The sample included 40 children (M=9 years) who performed the "Attention network test". Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N=20) were compared to a control group (N=20). The group of children with ADHD showed slower reaction times in all conditions (mean RT=866 ms; SD=234,063). Children with ADHD showed a significant impairment in their executive control system compared to healthy subjects, with slower reaction times in incongruent conditions and lower accuracy scores (RT=1064 ms; F(1.38) p=0.02). Our results showed that spatial orienting and alerting in ADHD was no different than controls (p=0,68). ADHD group showed a greater variable response (p=0,0001). The present study showed that impairment in executive control system and variability measures are the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD.
Cakar, Uros; Grozdanic, Nada; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Pejin, Boris; Nastasijevic, Branislav; Markovic, Bojan; Dordevic, Brizita
Fruit wines are well known for their profound health-promoting properties including both enzyme activations and inhibitions. They may act preventive in regard to diabetes melitus and other chronic diseases. Potential α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of fruit wines made from blueberry, black chokeberry, blackberry, raspberry and sour cherry was the subject of this study. In order to increase the alcohol content due to enriched extraction of total phenolics, sugar was added in the fruit pomace of the half of the examined fruit wine samples. Compared with acarbose used as a positive control (IC50 = 73.78 µg/mL), all fruit wine samples exhibited higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Indeed, blueberry wine samples stood out, both prepared with IC50 = 24.14 µg/mL, lyophilised extract yield 3.23% and without IC50 = 46.39 µg/mL, lyophilised extract yield 2.89% and with addition of sugar before fermentation. Chlorogenic acid predominantly contributed to α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the blueberry, black chokeberry and sour cherry wine samples. However, ellagic acid, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor possessing a planar structure, only slightly affected the activity of the blueberry wine samples, due to the lower concentration. In addition to this, molecular docking study of chlorogenic acid pointed out the importance of binding energy (-8.5 kcal/mol) for the inhibition of the enzyme. In summary, fruit wines made from blueberry should be primarily taken into consideration as a medicinal food targeting diabetes mellitus type 2 in the early stage, if additional studies would confirm their therapeutic potential for the control of postprandial hyperglycemia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.
Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.
Whiteford, Kelly L; Oxenham, Andrew J
Congenital amusia is a music perception disorder believed to reflect a deficit in fine-grained pitch perception and/or short-term or working memory for pitch. Because most measures of pitch perception include memory and segmentation components, it has been difficult to determine the true extent of pitch processing deficits in amusia. It is also unclear whether pitch deficits persist at frequencies beyond the range of musical pitch. To address these questions, experiments were conducted with amusics and matched controls, manipulating both the stimuli and the task demands. First, we assessed pitch discrimination at low (500Hz and 2000Hz) and high (8000Hz) frequencies using a three-interval forced-choice task. Amusics exhibited deficits even at the highest frequency, which lies beyond the existence region of musical pitch. Next, we assessed the extent to which frequency coding deficits persist in one- and two-interval frequency-modulation (FM) and amplitude-modulation (AM) detection tasks at 500Hz at slow (f m =4Hz) and fast (f m =20Hz) modulation rates. Amusics still exhibited deficits in one-interval FM detection tasks that should not involve memory or segmentation. Surprisingly, amusics were also impaired on AM detection, which should not involve pitch processing. Finally, direct comparisons between the detection of continuous and discrete FM demonstrated that amusics suffer deficits in both coding and segmenting pitch information. Our results reveal auditory deficits in amusia extending beyond pitch perception that are subtle when controlling for memory and segmentation, and are likely exacerbated in more complex contexts such as musical listening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kingdon, Danielle; Cardoso, Christopher; McGrath, Jennifer J.
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms are common in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD and ADHD groups both display executive function impairments; however, there is ongoing debate whether the pattern and magnitude of executive function deficits differs between these two types of disorders. Methods An electronic literature search was conducted (PubMed, PsychInfo; 1972–2013) to identify studies comparing the executive functioning of children with FASD with ADHD or control groups. FASD groups included those with and without dysmorphy (i.e., FAS, pFAS, ARND, and other FASD diagnoses). Effect sizes (Hedges’ g, standardized mean difference) were calculated. Random effects meta-analytic models were performed using the metafor package for R. Results Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria (FASD N = 2,115; ADHD N = 453; controls N = 1,990). Children with FASD showed the strongest and most consistent deficits in planning, fluency, and set-shifting compared to controls (Hedges’ g = −0.94, −0.78) and children with ADHD (Hedges’ g = −0.72, −0.32). FASD was associated with moderate to large impairments in working memory, compared to controls (Hedges’ g = −.84, −.58) and small impairments relative to groups with ADHD (Hedges’ g = −.26). Smaller and less consistent deficits were found on measures of inhibition and vigilance relative to controls (Hedges’ g = −0.52, −0.31); FASD and ADHD were not differentiated on these measures. Moderator analyses indicated executive dysfunction was associated with older age, dysmorphy, and larger group differences in IQ. Sex and diagnostic system were not consistently related to effect size. Conclusions While FASD is associated with global executive impairments, executive function weaknesses are most consistent for measures of planning, fluency, and set-shifting. Neuropsychological measures assessing these executive function domains may improve differential diagnosis
Carbine, Kaylie A; Christensen, Edward; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Larson, Michael J
Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded. Participants recorded food intake using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall system. Inhibiting responses toward high-calorie stimuli elicited a larger (i.e., more negative) no-go N2 amplitude; inhibiting responses toward low-calorie stimuli elicited a smaller no-go N2 amplitude. Participants were more accurate during the high-calorie than low-calorie task, but took longer to respond on go trials toward high-calorie rather than low-calorie stimuli. When controlling for age, gender, and BMI, larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted lower caloric intake (β = 0.17); low-calorie N2 difference amplitude was not related to caloric intake (β = -0.03). Exploratory analyses revealed larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted carbohydrate intake (β = 0.22), but not protein (β = 0.08) or fat (β = 0.11) intake. Results suggest that withholding responses from high-calorie foods requires increased recruitment of inhibitory control processes, which may be necessary to regulate food consumption, particularly for foods high in calories and carbohydrates. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Responses to incongruent trials were slower than congruent for linguistic (F(1,126.3=44.9, p.05. While confrontation naming and category fluency were highly correlated (r=.77, p<.001, correlations between linguistic and non-linguistic inhibition and between word retrieval and linguistic/non-linguistic inhibition were non-significant. This large group study poses challenges to theories of bilingual advantage and the role of non-lexical inhibitory measures in word retrieval in PWA.
Early life cognitive abilities and body weight: cross-sectional study of the association of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and sustained attention with BMI percentiles in primary school children.
Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M
The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494.
Luo, Fei; Zheng, Jian; Sun, Xuan; Deng, Wei-Ke; Li, Bao Ming; Liu, Fang
Neural mechanism underlying memory retrieval has been extensively studied in the hippocampus and amygdala. However, little is known about the role of medial prefrontal cortex in long-term memory retrieval. We evaluate this issue in one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) paradigm. Our results showed that, 1) inactivation of mPFC by local infusion of GABA A -receptor agonist muscimol caused severe deficits in retrieval of 1-day and 7-day but had no effects on 2-h inhibitory avoidance memory; 2) the protein level of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in mPFC were significantly increased following retrieval of 1-day and 7-day IA memory, so did the numbers of phosphorylated-ERK (pERK) and phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) labeled neurons; 3) intra-mPFC infusion of ERK kinase inhibitor PD98095 significantly reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 and phosphorylated-CREB labeled cells, and severely impaired retrieval of 7-day IA memory when the drugs were administrated 30min prior to test. The present study provides evidence that retrieval of long-lasting memory for inhibitory avoidance requires mPFC and involves the ERK-CREB signaling cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sjöwall, Douglas; Thorell, Lisa B
The present study aimed at improving our understanding of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study included 52 children in the ADHD group and 72 controls (age 4-6 years). Both laboratory measures and teacher reports of executive deficits (i.e., working memory, inhibition, and shifting), delay-related behaviors (i.e., the preference for minimizing delay), and emotional functions (i.e., emotion recognition and regulation) were included. Variable-oriented analyses were complemented with person-oriented analyses (i.e., identifying the proportion of patients considered impaired). Results showed that the ADHD group differed from controls with regard to all measures of executive functioning and most measures of delay-related behaviors, but few differences were found for emotional functioning. A substantial subgroup (23%) of children with ADHD did not have a neuropsychological deficit in any domain. There were subgroups with executive or delay-related deficits only, but no pure emotional subgroup. The overlap between different neuropsychological deficits was much larger when teacher reports were used as opposed to laboratory measures. Regarding functional impairments, large mean differences were found between the ADHD group and controls. However, neuropsychological deficits were not able to explain individual variations in daily life functioning among children with ADHD. In conclusion, the present study identified some important methodological and theoretical issues regarding the role of neuropsychological functioning in preschool ADHD.
Brown, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Xing; Dudman, Joshua Tate
Dysfunction of the basal ganglia produces severe deficits in the timing, initiation, and vigor of movement. These diverse impairments suggest a control system gone awry. In engineered systems, feedback is critical for control. By contrast, models of the basal ganglia highlight feedforward circuitry and ignore intrinsic feedback circuits. In this study, we show that feedback via axon collaterals of substantia nigra projection neurons control the gain of the basal ganglia output. Through a combination of physiology, optogenetics, anatomy, and circuit mapping, we elaborate a general circuit mechanism for gain control in a microcircuit lacking interneurons. Our data suggest that diverse tonic firing rates, weak unitary connections and a spatially diffuse collateral circuit with distinct topography and kinetics from feedforward input is sufficient to implement divisive feedback inhibition. The importance of feedback for engineered systems implies that the intranigral microcircuit, despite its absence from canonical models, could be essential to basal ganglia function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02397.001. Copyright © 2014, Brown et al.
Adriana Suzart Ungaretti Rossi
Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I and 29 matched controls, aged 7 to 15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. Fractional anisotropy values were obtained for 20 fibre tracts, and brain-behaviour correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability, vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE, processing speed (Hit RT, selective attention (Omissions, sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change, error profile (Response Style and inhibitory control (Perseverations. Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the typically developing participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fibre tracts analysed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average fractional anisotropy values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white-matter structure of the long associative fibres that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.
Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7-15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners' continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.
Benítez-Burraco, A; Herrera, E; Cuetos, F
Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative condition involving motor, cognitive, and linguistic deficits. It is important to know why all these different deficits co-occur in the affected people. This paper aims to clarify whether these comorbid deficits result from the selective impairment of a computational primitive, namely, a context-sensitive computational ability according to Chomsky's Hierarchy (a well-established research tool in comparative neuroscience). A total of 15 medicated subjects with Parkinson disease and 15 controls were selected. They were matched in age and education. A battery of tasks was designed to test 3 different domains (motor capacities, cognition, and language) and 2 different computational abilities (context-free and context-sensitive operations). Significant differences between groups were observed only regarding the linguistic task involving context-sensitive computations (correferences). The observed deficits in our patients with Parkinson disease cannot be explained in terms of the selective impairment of one only unspecific, low-level computational process. At the same time, differences between patients and controls are expected to be greater if the former are not medicated. Moreover, we should pursue in the search of (this kind of) computational primitives than can be selectively impaired in people with Parkinson disease, because they may help to achieve an earlier diagnosis of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Yang, Fei-Fei; Zhou, Jing; Hu, Xiao; Cong, Zhao-Qing; Liu, Chun-Yu; Pan, Rui-Le; Chang, Qi; Liu, Xin-Min; Liao, Yong-Hong
Self-microemulsifying (SME) drug delivery system has been developed to increase oral bioavailabilities, and inhibitory excipients are capable of improving oral bioavailability by inhibiting enzyme mediated intestinal metabolism. However, the potential of enzyme inhibitory excipients containing SME in boosting resveratrol bioavailability remains largely uninvestigated. In this study, we set out to prepare SME-1 with UGT inhibitory excipients (excipients without inhibitory activities named SME-2 as control) to increase the bioavailability of RES by inhibiting intestinal metabolism. Results demonstrated that similar physicochemical properties such as size, polydistribution index and in vitro release, cellular uptake and permeability in Caco-2 cells as well as in vivo lymphatic distribution between inhibitory SME-1 and non-inhibitory SME-2 were observed. In vivo study demonstrated that the molar ratios of RES-G/RES were 7.25±0.48 and 5.06±2.42 for free drug and SME-2, respectively, and the molar ratio decreased to 0.36±0.10 in SME-1 group. Pharmacokinetic study confirmed that the inhibitory excipients containing SME demonstrated potential in increasing bioavailability of RES from 6.5% for the free RES and 12.9% for SME-2 to 76.1% in SME-1 through modulating the glucuronidation by UGT inhibitory excipients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
He, Zhi; Liao, Yun; Zheng, Min; Zeng, Fan-Dian; Guo, Lian-Jun
Piracetam is the derivate of gamma-aminobutyric acid, which improves the cognition,memory,consciousness, and is widely applied in the clinical treatment of brain dysfunction. In the present experiments, we study the effects of piracetam on chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats and observe its influence on amino acids, synaptic plasticity in the Perforant path-CA3 pathway and apoptosis in vivo. Cerebral hypoperfusion for 30 days by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries induced marked amnesic effects along with neuron damage, including: (1) spatial learning and memory deficits shown by longer escape latency and shorter time spent in the target quadrant; (2) significant neuronal loss and nuclei condensation in the cortex and hippocampus especially in CA1 region; (3) lower induction rate of long term potentiation, overexpression of BAX and P53 protein, and lower content of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in hippocampus. Oral administration of piracetam (600 mg/kg, once per day for 30 days) markedly improved the memory impairment, increased the amino acid content in hippocampus, and attenuated neuronal damage. The ability of piracetam to attenuate memory deficits and neuronal damage after hypoperfusion may be beneficial in cerebrovascular type dementia.
Beauchamp Maria K
Full Text Available Abstract Emerging evidence suggests that individuals with COPD demonstrate reductions in balance control that may be associated with an increased fall risk. The purpose of this review is to: 1 provide a brief overview of balance control and its assessment; 2 review relevant literature describing balance impairment in individuals with COPD; and 3 highlight important areas for future research. The observation of balance deficits and an increased fall risk in patients with COPD suggests the need for including balance assessment and training for patients enrolled in pulmonary rehabilitation who may be vulnerable. Further studies are needed to determine which aspects of balance are affected and to examine the impact of interventions.
Full Text Available Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC is described as one possible mechanism of acupuncture analgesia. This study investigated the analgesic effect of acupuncture without stimulation compared to nonpenetrating sham acupuncture (NPSA and cold-pressor-induced DNIC. Forty-five subjects received each of the three interventions in a randomized order. The analgesic effect was measured using pressure algometry at the second toe before and after each of the interventions. Pressure pain detection threshold (PPDT rose from 299 kPa (SD 112 kPa to 364 kPa (SD 144, 353 kPa (SD 135, and 467 kPa (SD 168 after acupuncture, NPSA, and DNIC test, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between acupuncture and NPSA at any time, but a significantly higher increase of PPDT in the DNIC test compared to acupuncture and NPSA. PPDT decreased after the DNIC test, whereas it remained stable after acupuncture and NPSA. Acupuncture needling at low pain stimulus intensity showed a small analgesic effect which did not significantly differ from placebo response and was significantly less than a DNIC-like effect of a painful noninvasive stimulus.
Merker, Sören; Reif, Andreas; Ziegler, Georg C; Weber, Heike; Mayer, Ute; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Conzelmann, Annette; Johansson, Stefan; Müller-Reible, Clemens; Nanda, Indrajit; Haaf, Thomas; Ullmann, Reinhard; Romanos, Marcel; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Pauli, Paul; Strekalova, Tatyana; Jansch, Charline; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Haavik, Jan; Ribasés, Marta; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with profound cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial impairments with persistence across the life cycle. Our initial genome-wide screening approach for copy number variants (CNVs) in ADHD implicated a duplication of SLC2A3, encoding glucose transporter-3 (GLUT3). GLUT3 plays a critical role in cerebral glucose metabolism, providing energy for the activity of neurons, which, in turn, moderates the excitatory-inhibitory balance impacting both brain development and activity-dependent neural plasticity. We therefore aimed to provide additional genetic and functional evidence for GLUT3 dysfunction in ADHD. Case-control association analyses of SLC2A3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and CNVs were conducted in several European cohorts of patients with childhood and adult ADHD (SNP, n = 1,886 vs. 1,988; CNV, n = 1,692 vs. 1,721). These studies were complemented by SLC2A3 expression analyses in peripheral cells, functional EEG recordings during neurocognitive tasks, and ratings of food energy content. Meta-analysis of all cohorts detected an association of SNP rs12842 with ADHD. While CNV analysis detected a population-specific enrichment of SLC2A3 duplications only in German ADHD patients, the CNV + rs12842 haplotype influenced ADHD risk in both the German and Spanish cohorts. Duplication carriers displayed elevated SLC2A3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood cells and altered event-related potentials reflecting deficits in working memory and cognitive response control, both endophenotypic traits of ADHD, and an underestimation of energy units of high-caloric food. Taken together, our results indicate that both common and rare SLC2A3 variation impacting regulation of neuronal glucose utilization and energy homeostasis may result in neurocognitive deficits known to contribute to ADHD risk. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Gustafsson, Peik; Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Ode, Amanda; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Haglund, Nils; Källén, Karin
To investigate whether children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have lower levels of Vitamin D3 at birth than matched controls. Umbilical cord blood samples collected at birth from 202 children later diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were analysed for vitamin D content and compared with 202 matched controls. 25-OH vitamin D3 was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. No differences in cord blood vitamin D concentration were found between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (median 13.0 ng/ml) and controls (median 13.5 ng/ml) (p = 0.43). In a logistic regression analysis, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed a significant association with maternal age (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.99) but not with vitamin D levels (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.02). We found no difference in intrauterine vitamin D levels between children later developing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and matched control children. However, the statistical power of the study was too weak to detect an eventual small to medium size association between vitamin D levels and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; King Yiu, Fung
Increasing evidence suggests that children with developmental dyslexia exhibit a deficit not only at the segmental level of phonological processing but also, by extension, at the suprasegmental level. However, it remains unclear whether such a suprasegmental phonological processing deficit is due to a difficulty in processing acoustic cues of speech rhythm, such as rise time and intensity. This study set out to investigate to what extent suprasegmental phonological processing (i.e., Cantonese lexical tone perception) and rise time sensitivity could distinguish Chinese children with dyslexia from typically developing children. Sixteen children with dyslexia and 44 age-matched controls were administered a Cantonese lexical tone perception task, psychoacoustic tasks, a nonverbal reasoning ability task, and word reading and dictation tasks. Children with dyslexia performed worse than controls on Cantonese lexical tone perception, rise time, and intensity. Furthermore, Cantonese lexical tone perception appeared to be a stable indicator that distinguishes children with dyslexia from controls, even after controlling for basic auditory processing skills. These findings suggest that suprasegmental phonological processing (i.e., lexical tone perception) is a potential factor that accounts for reading difficulty in Chinese.
Hoegl, Thomas; Bender, Stephan; Buchmann, Johannes; Kratz, Oliver; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut
Motor system excitability can be tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation CFMS). In this article, an overview of recent methodological developments and research findings related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is provided. Different TMS parameters that reflect the function of interneurons in the motor cortex may represent neurophysiological markers of inhibition in ADHD, particularly the so-called intracortical inhibition. In children with a high level of hyperactivity and impulsivity, intracortical inhibition was comparably low at rest as shortly before the execution of a movement. TMS-evoked potentials can also be measured in the EEG so that investigating processes of excitability is not restricted to motor areas in future studies. The effects of methylphenidate on motor system excitability may be interpreted in the sense of a 'fine-tuning' with these mainly dopaminergic effects also depending on genetic parameters (DAT1 transporter). A differentiated view on the organization of motor control can be achieved by a combined analysis of TMS parameters and event-related potentials. Applying this bimodal approach, strong evidence for a deviant implementation of motor control in children with ADHD and probably compensatory mechanisms (with involvement of the prefrontal cortex) was obtained. These findings, which contribute to a better understanding of hyperactivity/impulsivity, inhibitory processes and motor control in ADHD as well as the mechanisms of medication, underline the relevance of TMS as a neurophysiological method in ADHD research.
Nakano, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Eri; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Yamada, Kosumi; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Koji
Plant growth inhibitory alkaloids were isolated from the extract of mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.] leaves. Their chemical structures were established by ESI-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra analysis. The I50 value (concentration required for 50% inhibition of control) for root growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seedlings was 400 microM for 3''''-oxo-juliprosopine, 500 microM for secojuliprosopinal, and 100 microM for a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine, respectively. On the other hand, the minimum concentration exhibiting inhibitory effect on shoot growth of cress seedlings was 10 microM for 3''''-oxo-juliprosopine, 100 microM for secojuliprosopinal, and 1 microM for a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine, respectively. Among these compounds, a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of cress seedlings.
D'Agati, Elisa; Moavero, Romina; Cerminara, Caterina; Curatolo, Paolo
The neurobiological basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in tuberous sclerosis complex is still largely unknown. Cortical tubers may disrupt several brain networks that control different types of attention. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic discharges may perturb the development of brain systems that underpin attentional and hyperactive functions during a critical early stage of brain maturation. Comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders is frequent in children with tuberous sclerosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also reflect a direct effect of the abnormal genetic program. Treatment of children with tuberous sclerosis complex with combined symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy may represent a challenge for clinicians, because antiepileptic therapy and drugs used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may aggravate the clinical picture of each other.
Arnsten, Amy F T; Rubia, Katya
This article aims to review basic and clinical studies outlining the roles of prefrontal cortical (PFC) networks in the behavior and cognitive functions that are compromised in childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and how these map into the neuroimaging evidence of circuit abnormalities in these disorders. Studies of animals, normally developing children, and patients with neurodevelopmental disorders were reviewed, with focus on neuroimaging studies. The PFC provides "top-down" regulation of attention, inhibition/cognitive control, motivation, and emotion through connections with posterior cortical and subcortical structures. Dorsolateral and inferior PFC regulate attention and cognitive/inhibitory control, whereas orbital and ventromedial structures regulate motivation and affect. PFC circuitries are very sensitive to their neurochemical environment, and small changes in the underlying neurotransmitter systems, e.g. by medications, can produce large effects on mediated function. Neuroimaging studies of children with neurodevelopmental disorders show altered brain structure and function in distinctive circuits respecting this organization. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder show prominent abnormalities in the inferior PFC and its connections to striatal, cerebellar, and parietal regions, whereas children with conduct disorder show alterations in the paralimbic system, comprising ventromedial, lateral orbitofrontal, and superior temporal cortices together with specific underlying limbic regions, regulating motivation and emotion control. Children with major depressive disorder show alterations in ventral orbital and limbic activity, particularly in the left hemisphere, mediating emotions. Finally, children with obsessive-compulsive disorder appear to have a dysregulation in orbito-fronto-striatal inhibitory control pathways, but also deficits in dorsolateral fronto-parietal systems of attention. Altogether, there is a good correspondence
Inadequate energy intake induces changes in endogenous glucose production (GP) to preserve muscle mass. Whether addition provision of dietary protein modulates GP response to energy deficit is unclear. The objective was to determine whether exercise-induced energy deficit effects on glucose metaboli...
Mammarella, Irene C; Caviola, Sara; Giofrè, David; Borella, Erika
Deficits in executive functions have been hypothesized and documented for children with severe mathematics anxiety (MA) or developmental dyscalculia, but the role of inhibition-related processes has not been specifically explored. The main aim of the present study was to shed further light on the specificity of these profiles in children in terms of working memory (WM) and the inhibitory functions involved. Four groups of children between 8 and 10 years old were selected: one group with developmental dyscalculia (DD) and no MA, one with severe MA and developmental dyscalculia (MA-DD), one with severe MA and no DD (MA), and one with typical development (TD). All children were presented with tasks measuring two inhibition-related functions, that is, proactive interference and prepotent response, and a WM task. The results showed that children with severe MA (but no DD) were specifically impaired in the proactive interference task, while children with DD (with or without MA) failed in the WM task. Our findings point to the importance of distinguishing the cognitive processes underlying these profiles.
Full Text Available The study investigates long-term recognition memory in congenital prosopagnosia (CP, a lifelong impairment in face identification that is present from birth. Previous investigations of processing deficits in CP have mostly relied on short-term recognition tests to estimate the scope and severity of individual deficits. We firstly report on a controlled test of long-term (one year recognition memory for faces and objects conducted with a large group of participants with CP. Long-term recognition memory is significantly impaired in eight CP participants (CPs. In all but one case, this deficit was selective to faces and didn't extend to intra-class recognition of object stimuli. In a test of famous face recognition, long-term recognition deficits were less pronounced, even after accounting for differences in media consumption between controls and CPs. Secondly, we combined test results on long-term and short-term recognition of faces and objects, and found a large heterogeneity in severity and scope of individual deficits. Analysis of the observed heterogeneity revealed a dissociation of CP into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. Thirdly, we found that among CPs self-assessment of real-life difficulties, based on a standardized questionnaire, and experimentally assessed face recognition deficits are strongly correlated. Our results demonstrate that controlled tests of long-term recognition memory are needed to fully assess face recognition deficits in CP. Based on controlled and comprehensive experimental testing, CP can be dissociated into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. The CP subtypes identified align with those found in prosopagnosia caused by cortical lesions; they can be interpreted with respect to a hierarchical neural system for face perception.
Stollhoff, Rainer; Jost, Jürgen; Elze, Tobias; Kennerknecht, Ingo
The study investigates long-term recognition memory in congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a lifelong impairment in face identification that is present from birth. Previous investigations of processing deficits in CP have mostly relied on short-term recognition tests to estimate the scope and severity of individual deficits. We firstly report on a controlled test of long-term (one year) recognition memory for faces and objects conducted with a large group of participants with CP. Long-term recognition memory is significantly impaired in eight CP participants (CPs). In all but one case, this deficit was selective to faces and didn't extend to intra-class recognition of object stimuli. In a test of famous face recognition, long-term recognition deficits were less pronounced, even after accounting for differences in media consumption between controls and CPs. Secondly, we combined test results on long-term and short-term recognition of faces and objects, and found a large heterogeneity in severity and scope of individual deficits. Analysis of the observed heterogeneity revealed a dissociation of CP into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. Thirdly, we found that among CPs self-assessment of real-life difficulties, based on a standardized questionnaire, and experimentally assessed face recognition deficits are strongly correlated. Our results demonstrate that controlled tests of long-term recognition memory are needed to fully assess face recognition deficits in CP. Based on controlled and comprehensive experimental testing, CP can be dissociated into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. The CP subtypes identified align with those found in prosopagnosia caused by cortical lesions; they can be interpreted with respect to a hierarchical neural system for face perception.
Correa, Diogo Goulart; Doring, Thomas M.; Wilner, Nina Ventura; Cabral, Rafael Ferracini; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Psychology, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Leite, Sarah C.B.; Bahia, Paulo R.V. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether normal controls and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with and without planning deficits differ on white matter integrity. A total of 34 HIV-positive patients with planning deficits were compared with 13 HIV-positive patients without planning deficits and 19 gender-, age-, and education-matched control subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed along 30 noncolinear directions in a 1.5-T scanner. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis, a white matter skeleton was created, and a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations with a threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The median, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and bilateral uncinate fasciculi. Compared to HIV-positive patients without planning deficits, patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and right uncinate fascicule. DTI can detect extensive white matter abnormalities in the normal-appearing white matter of HIV-positive patients with planning deficits compared with controls and HIV-positive patients without planning deficits. (orig.)
Correa, Diogo Goulart; Doring, Thomas M.; Wilner, Nina Ventura; Cabral, Rafael Ferracini; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Leite, Sarah C.B.; Bahia, Paulo R.V.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether normal controls and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with and without planning deficits differ on white matter integrity. A total of 34 HIV-positive patients with planning deficits were compared with 13 HIV-positive patients without planning deficits and 19 gender-, age-, and education-matched control subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed along 30 noncolinear directions in a 1.5-T scanner. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis, a white matter skeleton was created, and a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations with a threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The median, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and bilateral uncinate fasciculi. Compared to HIV-positive patients without planning deficits, patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and right uncinate fascicule. DTI can detect extensive white matter abnormalities in the normal-appearing white matter of HIV-positive patients with planning deficits compared with controls and HIV-positive patients without planning deficits. (orig.)
Jambhulkar, S.J.; Joshua, D.C.; Goswamy, D.G.
A gamma ray induced disease mimicking mutant called luchai lesion was isolated in the rice variety White Luchai 112. The appearance of small light red lesions and their development continued from seedling to flowering. The lesions appeared gradually on older leaves and their uncontrolled spread eventually lead to leaf senescence. They resembled the disease spots caused by Magnaporthe grisea. However, pathological studies ruled out the possibility of pathogen mediated disease symptoms. Genetic studies revealed that lesions were governed by a dominant gene; however, their expression was suppressed in presence of a non-linked inhibitory gene. It is hypothesised that the plant cells of the mutant are able to sense inbuilt spontaneous signals leading to lesion development, but in presence of an inhibitory gene the signals are suppressed by perturbation in the signal transduction pathway [it
Hopkins, Zoë; Yuill, Nicola; Branigan, Holly P.
Background: Two experiments investigated the contribution of conflict inhibition to pragmatic deficits in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Typical adults' tendency to reuse interlocutors' referential choices (lexical alignment) implicates communicative perspective-taking, which is regulated by conflict inhibition. We examined whether…
Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Doyle, Alysa E; Seidman, Larry J; Wilens, Timothy E; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L; Faraone, Stephen V
The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as at least 2 executive function measures impaired. Significantly more children and adolescents with ADHD had EFDs than did control participants. ADHD with EFDs was associated with an increased risk for grade retention and a decrease in academic achievement relative to (a) ADHD alone, (b) controlled socioeconomic status, (c) learning disabilities, and (d) IQ. No differences were noted in social functioning or psychiatric comorbidity. Children and adolescents with ADHD and EFDs were found to be at high risk for significant impairments in academic functioning. These results support screening children with ADHD for EFDs to prevent academic failure.
de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, Marta; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Valenza, Marie Carmen; Pareja, Juan A
: The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force between patients with minimal, moderate/mild, or severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy age- and hand dominance-matched controls. : A case-control study was conducted. The subtests of the Purdue Pegboard Test (one-hand and bilateral pin placements and assemblies) and pinch grip force between the thumb and the remaining four fingers of the hand were bilaterally evaluated in 66 women with minimal (n = 16), moderate (n = 16), or severe (n = 34) CTS and in 20 age- and hand-matched healthy women. The differences among the groups were analyzed using different mixed models of analysis of variance. : A two-way mixed analysis of variance revealed significant differences between groups, not depending on the presence of unilateral or bilateral symptoms (side), for the one-hand pin placement subtest: patients showed bilateral lower scores compared with controls (P < 0.001), without differences among those with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS (P = 0.946). The patients also exhibited lower scores in bilateral pin placement (P < 0.001) and assembly (P < 0.001) subtests, without differences among them. The three-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences among groups (P < 0.001) and fingers (P < 0.001), not depending on the presence of unilateral/bilateral symptoms (P = 0.684), for pinch grip force: patients showed bilateral lower pinch grip force in all fingers compared with healthy controls, without differences among those with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS. : The current study revealed similar bilateral deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS, supporting that fine motor control deficits are a common feature of CTS not associated with electrodiagnostic findings.
van Ewijk, Hanneke; Weeda, Wouter D.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in
Harata, Daichi; Tsuchiya, Yuya; Miyoshi, Tomoyuki; Yanai, Tokuma; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Tomoaki
In the several types of amyloidoses, participation of oxidative stresses in the pathogenesis and the effect of antioxidants on amyloidosis have been reported. Meanwhile, the relationship between oxidative stresses and pathogenesis of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is still unclear. In this study, we used an antioxidant, Brazilian propolis, to investigate the inhibitory effects on AA amyloidosis. The results showed that AA deposition was inhibited by administration of propolis. Increased expression of antioxidant markers was detected in molecular biological examinations of mice treated with propolis. Although serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were strongly correlated with the immunoreactive area of AA deposits in the control group, the correlation was weaker in the propolis-treated groups. In addition, there were no changes in SAA levels between the control group and the propolis-treated groups. The results indicate that propolis, an antioxidant, may induce inhibitory effects against AA amyloidosis.
Maurage, P; Campanella, S; Philippot, P; Martin, S; de Timary, P
It is well established that chronic alcoholism is associated with a deficit in the decoding of emotional facial expression (EFE). Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether this deficit is specifically for emotions or due to a more general impairment in visual or facial processing. This study was designed to clarify this issue using multiple control tasks and the subtraction method. Eighteen patients suffering from chronic alcoholism and 18 matched healthy control subjects were asked to perform several tasks evaluating (1) Basic visuo-spatial and facial identity processing; (2) Simple reaction times; (3) Complex facial features identification (namely age, emotion, gender, and race). Accuracy and reaction times were recorded. Alcoholic patients had a preserved performance for visuo-spatial and facial identity processing, but their performance was impaired for visuo-motor abilities and for the detection of complex facial aspects. More importantly, the subtraction method showed that alcoholism is associated with a specific EFE decoding deficit, still present when visuo-motor slowing down is controlled for. These results offer a post hoc confirmation of earlier data showing an EFE decoding deficit in alcoholism by strongly suggesting a specificity of this deficit for emotions. This may have implications for clinical situations, where emotional impairments are frequently observed among alcoholic subjects.
Malek, Ayyoub; Amiri, Shahrokh; Sadegfard, Majid; Abdi, Salman; Amini, Saeedeh
The current study attempted to investigate factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children without co-morbidities. In this case-control study, 164 ADHD children who attended the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran were compared with 166 normal children selected in a random-cluster method from primary and secondary schools. Clinical interviews based on DSM-IV-TR using K-SADS were used to diagnose ADHD cases and to select the control group. Participants were matched for age. We used chi-square and binary logistic regression for data analysis. Among the associated factors with ADHD were gender and maternal employment. Boys (OR 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.34 - 0.86) and those children with working mothers (OR 0.16: 95% confidence interval: 0.06 - 0.86) suffered more from ADHD. The birth season, family size, birth order, and parental kinship were not among risk factors for ADHD. The results of the study show that maternal employment and male gender are among the associated risk factors for ADHD.
Plessen, Kerstin J; Royal, Jason M; Peterson, Bradley S
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are common and debilitating neuropsychiatric illnesses that typically onset in the preschool years. Recently, both conditions have been subject to neuroimaging studies, with the aim of understanding...... contrast these findings with those in ADHD without comorbid tic disorders. RESULTS: The frequent comorbidity of TS and ADHD may reflect a common underlying neurobiological substrate, and studies confirm the hypothesized involvement of fronto-striatal circuits in both TS and ADHD. However, poor inhibitory...... their underlying neurobiological correlates. OBJECTIVE: The relation of TS and ADHD is discussed against the background of findings from previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies. METHODS: We review the designs and major findings of previous studies that have examined TS with comorbid ADHD, and we briefly...
Early Life Cognitive Abilities and Body Weight: Cross-Sectional Study of the Association of Inhibitory Control, Cognitive Flexibility, and Sustained Attention with BMI Percentiles in Primary School Children
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children’s body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm, a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education, family characteristics (parental body weight, and children’s lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children’s body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility are associated with children’s body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494.
Dores, Artemisa R; Barbosa, Fernando; Carvalho, Irene P; Almeida, Isabel; Guerreiro, Sandra; da Rocha, Benedita Martins; Cunha, Gil; Castelo Branco, Miguel; de Sousa, Liliana; Castro Caldas, Alexandre
The purpose of this study is to present an fMRI paradigm, based on the Williams inhibition test (WIT), to study attentional and inhibitory control and their neuroanatomical substrates. We present an index of the validity of the proposed paradigm and test whether the experimental task discriminates the behavioral performances of healthy participants from those of individuals with acquired brain injury. Stroop and Simon tests present similarities with WIT, but this latter is more demanding. We analyze the BOLD signal in 10 healthy participants performing the WIT. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the inferior prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex were defined for specified region of interest analysis. We additionally compare behavioral data (hits, errors, reaction times) of the healthy participants with those of eight acquired brain injury patients. Data were analyzed with GLM-based random effects and Mann-Whitney tests. Results show the involvement of the defined regions and indicate that the WIT is sensitive to brain lesions. This WIT-based block design paradigm can be used as a research methodology for behavioral and neuroimaging studies of the attentional and inhibitory components of executive functions.
Domazet, Sidsel L; Tarp, Jakob; Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Andersen, Lars Bo; Froberg, Karsten; Bugge, Anna
To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the scholastic or cognitive performance.
Sidsel L Domazet
Full Text Available To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents.The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer.Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance.Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the scholastic or cognitive
Bubenzer-Busch, S; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Kuzmanovic, B; Gaber, T J; Helmbold, K; Ullisch, M G; Baurmann, D; Eickhoff, S B; Fink, G R; Zepf, F D
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often linked with impulsive and aggressive behaviour, indexed by high comorbidity rates between ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). The present study aimed to investigate underlying neural activity of reactive aggression in children with ADHD and comorbid DBD using functional neuroimaging techniques (fMRI). Eighteen boys with ADHD (age 9-14 years, 10 subjects with comorbid DBD) and 18 healthy controls were administered a modified fMRI-based version of the 'Point Subtraction Aggression Game' to elicit reactive aggressive behaviour. Trials consisted of an 'aggression phase' (punishment for a fictitious opponent) and an 'outcome phase' (presentation of the trial outcome). During the aggression phase, higher aggressive responses of control children were accompanied by higher activation of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex and the temporoparietal junction. Patients displayed inverted results. During the outcome phase, comparison between groups and conditions showed differential activation in the dorsal striatum and bilateral insular when subjects gained points. Losing points was accompanied by differential activation of regions belonging to the insula and the middle temporal sulcus. Data support the hypothesis that deficient inhibitory control mechanisms are related to increased impulsive aggressive behaviour in young people with ADHD and comorbid DBD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cheng, Dazhi; Yan, Xiuxian; Gao, Zhijie; Xu, Keming; Chen, Qian
Neuropsychological studies indicate that new-onset childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is associated with deficits in attention and executive functioning. However, the contribution of these deficits to impaired academic performance remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether attention and executive functioning deficits account for the academic difficulties prevalent in patients with new-onset CAE. We analyzed cognitive performance in several domains, including language, mathematics, psychomotor speed, spatial ability, memory, general intelligence, attention, and executive functioning, in 35 children with new-onset CAE and 33 control participants. Patients with new-onset CAE exhibited deficits in mathematics, general intelligence, attention, and executive functioning. Furthermore, attention deficits, as measured by a visual tracing task, accounted for impaired arithmetic performance in the new-onset CAE group. Therefore, attention deficits, rather than impaired general intelligence or executive functioning, may be responsible for arithmetic performance deficits in patients with new-onset CAE.
This thesis examined inhibition, executive functioning and their possible relation to childhood problems of hyperactivity and inattention, in its clinical form referred to as Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD). Concurrent as well as longitudinal relations were of interest, and both clinical and non-clinical samples were studied. Study I demonstrated concurrent relations between executive inhibition and both hyperactivity and conduct problems in preschool. However, the relation ...
Sean M. Molnar
Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking is prevalent among young adults and is a public issue of increasing importance. Its initiation and maintenance are associated with deficits in the capacity to inhibit automatic processing in favor of non-habitual responses. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine behavioral and brain activity indices of cognitive control during the Stroop task as a function of binge drinking. Heavy episodic drinkers (HED reported consuming 5+/6+ drinks in two hours at least five times in the past six months and were compared to light drinkers (LED who reported two or fewer binge episodes but were matched on demographics, intelligence and family history of alcoholism. Greater conflict-induced activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and thalamus was observed in HED participants and it was positively correlated with alcohol intake and alcohol-related harmful consequences. HEDs maintained intact accuracy but at a cost of prolonged reaction times to high-conflict trials and increased ratings of task difficulty. Greater activation of the areas implicated in cognitive control is consistent with compensatory network expansion to meet higher cognitive demands. These results provide further insight into degradation of cognitive control in HEDs which may benefit development of detection and prevention strategies.
Shen, Christina; Popescu, Florin C; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Tam T M; Dettling, Michael; Neuhaus, Andres H
Attention deficits, among other cognitive deficits, are frequently observed in schizophrenia. Although valid and reliable neurocognitive tasks have been established to assess attention deficits in schizophrenia, the hierarchical value of those tests as diagnostic discriminants on a single-subject level remains unclear. Thus, much research is devoted to attention deficits that are unlikely to be translated into clinical practice. On the other hand, a clear hierarchy of attention deficits in schizophrenia could considerably aid diagnostic decisions and may prove beneficial for longitudinal monitoring of therapeutic advances. To propose a diagnostic hierarchy of attention deficits in schizophrenia, we investigated several facets of attention in 86 schizophrenia patients and 86 healthy controls using a set of established attention tests. We applied state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms to determine attentive test variables that enable an automated differentiation between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. After feature preranking, hypothesis building, and hypothesis validation, the polynomial support vector machine classifier achieved a classification accuracy of 90.70% ± 2.9% using psychomotor speed and 3 different attention parameters derived from sustained and divided attention tasks. Our study proposes, to the best of our knowledge, the first hierarchy of attention deficits in schizophrenia by identifying the most discriminative attention parameters among a variety of attention deficits found in schizophrenia patients. Our results offer a starting point for hierarchy building of schizophrenia-associated attention deficits and contribute to translating these concepts into diagnostic and therapeutic practice on a single-subject level. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Stein, Mark A; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Krone, Beth; Rajwan, Estrella; Newcorn, Jeffrey H
This study examined the effects of atomoxetine (ATX) and OROS methylphenidate (MPH) on laboratory measures of inhibitory control and attention in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It was hypothesized that performance would be improved by both treatments, but response profiles would differ because the medications work via different mechanisms. One hundred and two youth (77 male; mean age = 10.5 ± 2.7 years) with ADHD received ATX (1.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg) and MPH (52.4 ± 16.6 mg) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Medication was titrated in 4-6-week blocks separated by a 2-week placebo washout. Inhibitory control and attention measures were obtained at baseline, following washout, and at the end of each treatment using Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II), which provided age-adjusted T-scores for reaction time (RT), reaction time variability (RT variability), and errors. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were performed, with Time (premedication, postmedication) and Treatment type (ATX, MPH) entered as within-subject factors. Data from the two treatment blocks were checked for order effects and combined if order effects were not present. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00183391. Main effects for Time on RT (p = .03), RTSD (p = .001), and omission errors (p = .01) were significant. A significant Drug × Time interaction indicated that MPH improved RT, RTSD, and omission errors more than ATX (p attention in youth with ADHD. However, the dissociation of cognitive and behavioral change with treatment indicates that CPT measures cannot be considered proxies for symptomatic improvement. Further research on the dissociation of cognitive and behavioral endpoints for ADHD is indicated. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Spiegel, Ivo; Mardinly, Alan R; Gabel, Harrison W; Bazinet, Jeremy E; Couch, Cameron H; Tzeng, Christopher P; Harmin, David A; Greenberg, Michael E
The nervous system adapts to experience by inducing a transcriptional program that controls important aspects of synaptic plasticity. Although the molecular mechanisms of experience-dependent plasticity are well characterized in excitatory neurons, the mechanisms that regulate this process in inhibitory neurons are only poorly understood. Here, we describe a transcriptional program that is induced by neuronal activity in inhibitory neurons. We find that, while neuronal activity induces expression of early-response transcription factors such as Npas4 in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons, Npas4 activates distinct programs of late-response genes in inhibitory and excitatory neurons. These late-response genes differentially regulate synaptic input to these two types of neurons, promoting inhibition onto excitatory neurons while inducing excitation onto inhibitory neurons. These findings suggest that the functional outcomes of activity-induced transcriptional responses are adapted in a cell-type-specific manner to achieve a circuit-wide homeostatic response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mehlhase, Heike; Bakos, Sarolta; Landerl, Karin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina
Dissociations between reading and spelling problems are likely to be associated with different underlying cognitive deficits, and with different deficits in orthographic learning. In order to understand these differences, the current study examined orthographic learning using a printed-word learning paradigm. Children (4th grade) with isolated reading, isolated spelling and combined reading and spelling problems were compared to children with age appropriate reading and spelling skills on their performance during learning novel words and symbols (non-verbal control condition), and during immediate and delayed reading and spelling recall tasks. No group differences occurred in the non-verbal control condition. In the verbal condition, initial learning was intact in all groups, but differences occurred during recall tasks. Children with reading fluency deficits showed slower reading times, while children with spelling deficits were less accurate, both in reading and spelling recall. Children with isolated spelling problems showed no difficulties in immediate spelling recall, but had problems in remembering the spellings 2 hours later. The results suggest that different orthographic learning deficits underlie reading fluency and spelling problems: Children with isolated reading fluency deficits have no difficulties in building-up orthographic representations, but access to these representations is slowed down while children with isolated spelling deficits have problems in storing precise orthographic representations in long-term memory.
Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Full Text Available Detailed research is carried out to ascertain the inhibitory effect of waste glass powder (WGP on alkali-silica reaction (ASR expansion induced by waste glass aggregate in this paper. The alkali reactivity of waste glass aggregate is examined by two methods in accordance with the China Test Code SL352-2006. The potential of WGP to control the ASR expansion is determined in terms of mean diameter, specific surface area, content of WGP and curing temperature. Two mathematical models are developed to estimate the inhibitory efficiency of WGP. These studies show that there is ASR risk with an ASR expansion rate over 0.2% when the sand contains more than 30% glass aggregate. However, WGP can effectively control the ASR expansion and inhibit the expansion rate induced by the glass aggregate to be under 0.1%. The two mathematical models have good simulation results, which can be used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of WGP on ASR risk.
Full Text Available Roots of Boesenbergia rotunda (L. Mansf. are prominent ingredients in the cuisine of several Asian countries, including Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, and China. An extract prepared from the roots of this plant showed strong inhibitory activity against enzymes α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase and was subjected to chromatographic separation to identify the active components. Three new biflavonoids of the flavanone-chalcone type (9, 12, and 13 were isolated, along with 12 known compounds. Among the 15 isolates, the three new compounds showed stronger inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase than the drug acarbose but displayed lower pancreatic lipase inhibitory effect than the drug orlistat. The results indicated the potential of B. rotunda roots as a functional food for controlling after-meal blood glucose levels.
Paula Monteiro Souza
Full Text Available The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05 tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC₅₀ value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC₅₀ value of 13.14 µg/mL. Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.
Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.
Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…
Bennett-Back, Odeya; Keren, Amit; Zelnik, Nathanel
This prospective study explores the prevalence and characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy, compared with its prevalence in their siblings. Among 40 patients with benign epilepsy, 28 (70%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: 19 with the inattentive type, one with the hyperactive type, and eight with the combined type. In the control group of 12 siblings, only two (16.7%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Pattentional difficulties was evident in children whose seizures were more resistant and required more than one antiepileptic drug for seizure control. Children with more epileptiform features in their electroencephalograms were also more subject to signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Larger scale studies are required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to control post-prandial hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In vitro inhibitory effects of crude Sclerocarya birrea stem bark (SBSB) extracts against human urinary α-amylase and Bacillus steatothermophilus α-glucosidase were ...
Lin, Yu-Ju; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
We evaluated the psychiatric comorbidities in adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a function of recalled symptom onset before and after the age of 7 years and whether the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were associated with psychiatric comorbidities. In all, 214 adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 174 non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls (aged 17-40 years) received psychiatric interviews to confirm their previous and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder status and other psychiatric diagnoses. Demographics and risks of lifetime psychiatric disorders were compared among three groups: (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset between 7 and 12 years (late-onset) and (3) non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls. We also tested the effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on the risk of later psychiatric comorbidities by Cox regression analyses. Regardless of the age of onset, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. There were similar comorbid patterns between early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, increased severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was associated with higher risks of oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, dysthymia and sleep disorder but not major depression, which was associated with the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Our findings suggest that elevating the threshold of age of onset to 12 years in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition would not
Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy
We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…
Kramer, Hannah J; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat
This study compared the relative difficulty of the happy-sad inhibitory control task (say "happy" for the sad face and "sad" for the happy face) against other card tasks that varied by the presence and type (focal vs. peripheral; negative vs. positive) of emotional information in a sample of 4- to 11-year-olds and adults (N = 264). Participants also completed parallel "name games" (direct labeling). All age groups made more errors and took longer to respond to happy-sad compared to other versions, and the relative difficulty of happy-sad increased with age. The happy-sad name game even posed a greater challenge than some opposite games. These data provide insight into the impact of emotions on cognitive processing across a wide age range. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire
Jean Piaget underestimated the cognitive capabilities of infants, preschoolers, and elementary schoolchildren, and overestimated the capabilities of adolescents and even adults which are often biased by illogical intuitions and overlearned strategies (i.e., “fast thinking” in Daniel Kahneman’s words). The crucial question is now to understand why, despite rich precocious knowledge about physical and mathematical principles observed over the last three decades in infants and young children, older children, adolescents and even adults are nevertheless so often bad reasoners. We propose that inhibition of less sophisticated solutions (or heuristics) by the prefrontal cortex is a domain-general executive ability that supports children’s conceptual insights associated with more advanced Piagetian stages, such as number-conservation and class inclusion. Moreover, this executive ability remains critical throughout the whole life and even adults may sometimes need “prefrontal pedagogy” in order to learn inhibiting intuitive heuristics (or biases) in deductive reasoning tasks. Here we highlight some of the discoveries from our lab in the field of cognitive development relying on two methodologies used for measuring inhibitory control: brain imaging and mental chronometry (i.e., the negative priming paradigm). We also show that this new approach opens an avenue for re-examining persistent errors in standard classroom-learning tasks. PMID:24994993
Full Text Available Jean Piaget underestimated the cognitive capabilities of infants, preschoolers, and elementary schoolchildren, and overestimated the capabilities of adolescents and even adults which are often biased by illogical intuitions and overlearned strategies (i.e., fast thinking in Daniel Kahneman’s words. The crucial question is now to understand why, despite rich precocious knowledge about physical and mathematical principles observed over the last three decades in infants and young children, older children, adolescents and even adults are nevertheless so often bad reasoners. We propose that inhibition of less sophisticated solutions (or heuristics by the prefrontal cortex is a domain-general executive ability that supports children’s conceptual insights associated with more advanced Piagetian stages, such as number conservation and class inclusion. Moreover, this executive ability remains critical throughout the whole life and even adults may sometimes need prefrontal pedagogy in order to learn inhibiting intuitive heuristics (or biases in deductive reasoning tasks. Here we highlight some of the discoveries from our lab in the field of cognitive development relying on two methodologies used for measuring inhibitory control: brain imaging and mental chronometry (i.e., the negative-priming paradigm. We also show that this new approach opens an avenue for re-examining persistent errors in standard classroom-learning tasks.
Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire
Jean Piaget underestimated the cognitive capabilities of infants, preschoolers, and elementary schoolchildren, and overestimated the capabilities of adolescents and even adults which are often biased by illogical intuitions and overlearned strategies (i.e., "fast thinking" in Daniel Kahneman's words). The crucial question is now to understand why, despite rich precocious knowledge about physical and mathematical principles observed over the last three decades in infants and young children, older children, adolescents and even adults are nevertheless so often bad reasoners. We propose that inhibition of less sophisticated solutions (or heuristics) by the prefrontal cortex is a domain-general executive ability that supports children's conceptual insights associated with more advanced Piagetian stages, such as number-conservation and class inclusion. Moreover, this executive ability remains critical throughout the whole life and even adults may sometimes need "prefrontal pedagogy" in order to learn inhibiting intuitive heuristics (or biases) in deductive reasoning tasks. Here we highlight some of the discoveries from our lab in the field of cognitive development relying on two methodologies used for measuring inhibitory control: brain imaging and mental chronometry (i.e., the negative priming paradigm). We also show that this new approach opens an avenue for re-examining persistent errors in standard classroom-learning tasks.
Foscarin, Simona; Raha-Chowdhury, Ruma; Fawcett, James W; Kwok, Jessica C F
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in perineuronal nets (PNNs) from the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in the control of plasticity and memory. Removing PNNs reactivates plasticity and restores memory in models of Alzheimer's disease and ageing. Their actions depend on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of CS proteoglycans, which are mainly sulfated in the 4 (C4S) or 6 (C6S) positions. While C4S is inhibitory, C6S is more permissive to axon growth, regeneration and plasticity. C6S decreases during critical period closure. We asked whether there is a late change in CS-GAG sulfation associated with memory loss in aged rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed a progressive increase in C4S and decrease in C6S from 3 to 18 months. GAGs extracted from brain PNNs showed a large reduction in C6S at 12 and 18 months, increasing the C4S/C6S ratio. There was no significant change in mRNA levels of the chondroitin sulfotransferases. PNN GAGs were more inhibitory to axon growth than those from the diffuse extracellular matrix. The 18-month PNN GAGs were more inhibitory than 3-month PNN GAGs. We suggest that the change in PNN GAG sulfation in aged brains renders the PNNs more inhibitory, which lead to a decrease in plasticity and adversely affect memory.
Niccolai, Valentina; van Dijk, Hanneke; Franzkowiak, Stephanie; Finis, Jennifer; Südmeyer, Martin; Jonas, Melanie; Thomalla, Götz; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten; Münchau, Alexander; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja
Inhibitory oscillatory mechanisms subserving tic compensation have been put forward in Tourette syndrome. Modulation of the beta rhythm (15-25 Hz) as the well-established oscillatory movement execution-inhibition indicator was tested during a cognitive-motor task in patients with Tourette syndrome. Performing a Go/NoGo task, 12 patients with Tourette syndrome and 12 matched controls were recorded using whole-head magnetoencephalography. Compared to healthy participants, patients showed less beta suppression in the sensorimotor area and enhanced beta power in parieto-occipital brain regions contralaterally to the response hand. Average beta power and power gain correlated negatively with tic severity. Increased motor inhibitory as well as visuomotor attentional processes are likely to subserve tic compensation. Correlational results suggest that stronger inhibitory compensation accompanies less tic severity. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
McLeavey, Breda C.; And Others
Compared self-poisoning patients with psychiatric patients and nonpatient controls on problem-solving skills and locus of control. The psychiatric and self-poisoning groups showed deficits on interpersonal problem solving compared with nonpatient controls. The self-poisoning group performed below or at the level of the psychiatric group. Locus of…
Kidwell, Katherine M; Hankey, Maren; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Nelson, Timothy D
To examine the longitudinal associations among sleep, executive control (EC), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. In this longitudinal study (N = 271), parents answered questions about sleep problems when children were 3 years old, children completed a comprehensive EC task battery at 4.5 years, and teachers completed standardized measures of child ADHD symptoms in 4th grade. Latent moderated structural equation models demonstrated that sleep problems at 3 years and EC deficits at 4.5 years were associated with ADHD symptoms in 4th grade. EC moderated the relationship between sleep problems and hyperactivity/impulsivity, such that children with both sleep problems and poor EC were particularly at risk for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Sleep problems and EC deficits early in development were associated with increased risk for ADHD symptoms in elementary school. Early assessment and intervention to promote healthy sleep and EC development may be helpful in ADHD prevention. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Ersland, Lars; Plessen, Kerstin J
Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults...... groups. Results: The ADHD group showed a significant reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region compared to the controls. Conclusion: The reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region in the ADHD group may reflect a glutamatergic deficit in prefrontal neuronal circuitry in adults with ADHD...... with ADHD and healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-nine adults with ADHD and 38 healthy controls were included. We used Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging with single voxel point-resolved spectroscopy to measure the ratio of glutamate to creatine (Glu/Cre) in the left and the right midfrontal region in the two...
Pearce, Brad; Garvin, Sicily; Grove, Jakob
Objective: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a soluble mediator that helps govern the interaction between cytokines and stress hormones (e.g. cortisol). We determined if maternal MIF levels predicted subsequent preterm delivery (PTD). Study Design: A nested case-control study...
Up Noh, Sun; Lee, Won-Young; Kim, Won-Serk; Lee, Yong-Taek; Jae Yoon, Kyung
Background Diabetic neuropathy originating in distal lower extremities is associated with pain early in the disease course, overwhelming in the feet. However, the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy remains unclear. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor has been implicated in the onset of neuropathic pain and the development of diabetes. Objective of this study was to observe pain syndromes elicited in the footpad of diabetic neuropathy rat model and to assess the contributory role of migration inhibitory factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Methods Diabetic neuropathy was made in Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin. Pain threshold was evaluated using von Frey monofilaments for 24 weeks. On comparable experiment time after streptozotocin injection, all footpads were prepared for following procedures; glutathione assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling staining, immunohistochemistry staining, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot. Additionally, human HaCaT skin keratinocytes were treated with methylglyoxal, transfected with migration inhibitory factor/control small interfering RNA, and prepared for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results As compared to sham group, pain threshold was significantly reduced in diabetic neuropathy group, and glutathione was decreased in footpad skin, simultaneously, cell death was increased. Over-expression of migration inhibitory factor, accompanied by low expression of glyoxalase-I and intraepidermal nerve fibers, was shown on the footpad skin lesions of diabetic neuropathy. But, there was no significance in expression of neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators such as transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, mas-related G protein coupled receptor D, nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 between diabetic neuropathy group and sham group. Intriguingly
Jones, Jennifer L; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Lucker, Jay; Drayna, Dennis
The goal of this study was to investigate auditory function in individuals with deficits in musical pitch perception. We hypothesized that such individuals have deficits in nonspeech areas of auditory processing. We screened 865 randomly selected individuals to identify those who scored poorly on the Distorted Tunes test (DTT), a measure of musical pitch recognition ability. Those who scored poorly were given a comprehensive audiologic examination, and those with hearing loss or other confounding audiologic factors were excluded from further testing. Thirty-five individuals with tune deafness constituted the experimental group. Thirty-four individuals with normal hearing and normal DTT scores, matched for age, gender, handedness, and education, and without overt or reported psychiatric disorders made up the normal control group. Individual and group performance for pure-tone frequency discrimination at 1000 Hz was determined by measuring the difference limen for frequency (DLF). Auditory processing abilities were assessed using tests of pitch pattern recognition, duration pattern recognition, and auditory gap detection. In addition, we evaluated both attention and short- and long-term memory as variables that might influence performance on our experimental measures. Differences between groups were evaluated statistically using Wilcoxon nonparametric tests and t-tests as appropriate. The DLF at 1000 Hz in the group with tune deafness was significantly larger than that of the normal control group. However, approximately one-third of participants with tune deafness had DLFs within the range of performance observed in the control group. Many individuals with tune deafness also displayed a high degree of variability in their intertrial frequency discrimination performance that could not be explained by deficits in memory or attention. Pitch and duration pattern discrimination and auditory gap-detection ability were significantly poorer in the group with tune deafness
Kooistra, Libbe; Ramage, Barbara; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Wormsbecker, Shirley; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J
There is an ongoing debate regarding the diagnostic overlap between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Differential diagnosis is important because of treatment implications. Children aged 7-10years (47 ADHD, 30 FASD, 39 controls) participated.
Li, Zheng-Qian; Rong, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Ya-Jie; Ni, Cheng; Tian, Xiao-Sheng; Mo, Na; Chui, De-Hua; Guo, Xiang-Yang
Highlights: •Isoflurane induces hippocampal IL-1β elevation and cognitive deficits in aged rats. •Isoflurane transiently activates the canonical NF-κB pathway in aged rat hippocampus. •NF-κB inhibitor mitigates isoflurane-induced IL-1β elevation and cognitive deficits. •We report a linkage between NF-κB signaling, IL-1β expression, and cognitive changes. -- Abstract: Although much recent evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation contributes to volatile anesthetic-induced cognitive deficits, there are few existing mechanistic explanations for this inflammatory process. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane on canonical nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling, and to explore its association with hippocampal interleukin (IL)-1β levels and anesthetic-related cognitive changes in aged rats. After a 4-h exposure to 1.5% isoflurane in 20-month-old rats, increases in IκB kinase and IκB phosphorylation, as well as a reduction in the NF-κB inhibitory protein (IκBα), were observed in the hippocampi of isoflurane-exposed rats compared with control rats. These events were accompanied by an increase in NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation at 6 h after isoflurane exposure and hippocampal IL-1β elevation from 1 to 6 h after isoflurane exposure. Nevertheless, no significant neuroglia activation was observed. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate markedly suppressed the IL-1β increase and NF-κB signaling, and also mitigated the severity of cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze task. Overall, our results demonstrate that isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits may stem from upregulation of hippocampal IL-1β, partially via activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway, in aged rats
Goghari, Vina M; Sponheim, Scott R
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are typically separated in diagnostic systems. Behavioural, cognitive, and brain abnormalities associated with each disorder nonetheless overlap. We evaluated the diagnostic specificity of facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to determine whether select aspects of emotion recognition differed for the two disorders. The investigation used an experimental task that included the same facial images in an emotion recognition condition and an age recognition condition (to control for processes associated with general face recognition) in 27 schizophrenia patients, 16 bipolar I patients, and 30 controls. Schizophrenia and bipolar patients exhibited both shared and distinct aspects of facial emotion recognition deficits. Schizophrenia patients had deficits in recognizing angry facial expressions compared to healthy controls and bipolar patients. Compared to control participants, both schizophrenia and bipolar patients were more likely to mislabel facial expressions of anger as fear. Given that schizophrenia patients exhibited a deficit in emotion recognition for angry faces, which did not appear due to generalized perceptual and cognitive dysfunction, improving recognition of threat-related expression may be an important intervention target to improve social functioning in schizophrenia. PMID:23218816
Russo, Maitê M; Lemos, Thiago; Imbiriba, Luís A; Ribeiro, Nathalia L; Vargas, Claudia D
Loss of vision is well known to affect postural control in blind subjects. This effect has classically been framed in terms of deficit or compensation depending on whether body sway increases or decreases in comparison with that of sighted subjects with the eyes open. However, studies have shown that postural responses can be modulated by the context and that changes in postural sway may not necessarily mean a worsened or improved postural control. The goal of our study was to test whether balance is affected by the context in blind subjects. Additional to the quantification of center of pressure (COP) displacement, measurements of body motion (COG) and the correspondent net neuromuscular response (COP-COG) were evaluated in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Thirty-eight completely blind and thirty-two sighted subjects participated of this study. The volunteers were asked to stand barefoot on a force platform for 60 s in two different conditions: feet apart and feet together. Sighted participants performed the tests with both the eyes open and eyes closed. Results showed that the COP-COG displacements in the blind group were greater than those of the sighted group with eyes open in almost all conditions tested, but not in eyes closed condition. However, the COP and COG results confirmed that the postural responses were context dependent. Together these results suggest that total visual loss does not just lead to a balance deficit or compensation, but to a specific postural signature that might imply in enhancing COP, COG and/or COP-COG in specific postural conditions.
Burgess, Gregory C; Depue, Brendan E; Ruzic, Luka; Willcutt, Erik G; Du, Yiping P; Banich, Marie T
Attentional control difficulties in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might reflect poor working memory (WM) ability, especially because WM ability and attentional control rely on similar brain regions. The current study examined whether WM ability might explain group differences in brain activation between adults with ADHD and normal control subjects during attentional demand. Participants were 20 adults with ADHD combined subtype with no comorbid psychiatric or learning disorders and 23 control subjects similar in age, IQ, and gender. The WM measures were obtained from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Brain activation was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a Color-Word Stroop task. Group differences in WM ability explained a portion of the activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which has been related to the creation and maintenance of an attentional set for task-relevant information. In addition, greater WM ability predicted increased activation of brain regions related to stimulus-driven attention and response selection processes in the ADHD group but not in the control group. The inability to maintain an appropriate task set in young adults with combined type ADHD, associated with decreased activity in left DLPFC, might in part be due to poor WM ability. Furthermore, in individuals with ADHD, higher WM ability might relate to increased recruitment of stimulus-driven attention and response selection processes, perhaps as a compensatory strategy. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neuropsychological studies using traditional tasks of inhibitory functions, such as the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and the Go/No-Go Task have revealed that the frontal lobe is responsible for several types of inhibitory functions. However, the detailed psychological nature of the inhibitory functions and the precise location of their critical foci within the frontal lobe remain to be investigated. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides spatial and temporal resolution that allowed us to illuminate at least 4 frontal regions involved in inhibitory functions: the dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and rostral parts of the frontal lobe and the presupplementary motor area (preSMA). The ventrolateral part of the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere was activated during response inhibition. The preSMA in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition of proactive interference immediately after the dimension changes of the WCST. The rostral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition long after the dimension changes. The dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated at the dimension changes in the first time, but not in the second time. These findings provide clues to our understanding of functional differentiation of inhibitory functions and their localization in the frontal lobe. (author)
D'Souza, Annalise A; Moradzadeh, Linda; Wiseheart, Melody
The current study investigated whether long-term experience in music or a second language is associated with enhanced cognitive functioning. Early studies suggested the possibility of a cognitive advantage from musical training and bilingualism but have failed to be replicated by recent findings. Further, each form of expertise has been independently investigated leaving it unclear whether any benefits are specifically caused by each skill or are a result of skill learning in general. To assess whether cognitive benefits from training exist, and how unique they are to each training domain, the current study compared musicians and bilinguals to each other, plus to individuals who had expertise in both skills, or neither. Young adults ( n = 153) were categorized into one of four groups: monolingual musician; bilingual musician; bilingual non-musician; and monolingual non-musician. Multiple tasks per cognitive ability were used to examine the coherency of any training effects. Results revealed that musically trained individuals, but not bilinguals, had enhanced working memory. Neither skill had enhanced inhibitory control. The findings confirm previous associations between musicians and improved cognition and extend existing evidence to show that benefits are narrower than expected but can be uniquely attributed to music compared to another specialized auditory skill domain. The null bilingual effect despite a music effect in the same group of individuals challenges the proposition that young adults are at a performance ceiling and adds to increasing evidence on the lack of a bilingual advantage on cognition.
van Dijke, Annemiek; van 't Wout, Mascha; Ford, Julian D; Aleman, André
Although deficits in facial affect processing have been reported in schizophrenia as well as in borderline personality disorder (BPD), these disorders have not yet been directly compared on facial affect labeling. Using degraded stimuli portraying neutral, angry, fearful and angry facial expressions, we hypothesized more errors in labeling negative facial expressions in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Patients with BPD were expected to have difficulty in labeling neutral expressions and to display a bias towards a negative attribution when wrongly labeling neutral faces. Patients with schizophrenia (N = 57) and patients with BPD (N = 30) were compared to patients with somatoform disorder (SoD, a psychiatric control group; N = 25) and healthy control participants (N = 41) on facial affect labeling accuracy and type of misattributions. Patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in labeling angry and fearful expressions compared to the healthy control group and patients with BPD showed deficits in labeling neutral expressions compared to the healthy control group. Schizophrenia and BPD patients did not differ significantly from each other when labeling any of the facial expressions. Compared to SoD patients, schizophrenia patients showed deficits on fearful expressions, but BPD did not significantly differ from SoD patients on any of the facial expressions. With respect to the type of misattributions, BPD patients mistook neutral expressions more often for fearful expressions compared to schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, and less often for happy compared to schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that although schizophrenia and BPD patients demonstrate different as well as similar facial affect labeling deficits, BPD may be associated with a tendency to detect negative affect in neutral expressions.
Annemiek van Dijke
Full Text Available Although deficits in facial affect processing have been reported in schizophrenia as well as in borderline personality disorder (BPD, these disorders have not yet been directly compared on facial affect labeling. Using degraded stimuli portraying neutral, angry, fearful and angry facial expressions, we hypothesized more errors in labeling negative facial expressions in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Patients with BPD were expected to have difficulty in labeling neutral expressions and to display a bias towards a negative attribution when wrongly labeling neutral faces. Patients with schizophrenia (N = 57 and patients with BPD (N = 30 were compared to patients with somatoform disorder (SoD, a psychiatric control group; N = 25 and healthy control participants (N = 41 on facial affect labeling accuracy and type of misattributions. Patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in labeling angry and fearful expressions compared to the healthy control group and patients with BPD showed deficits in labeling neutral expressions compared to the healthy control group. Schizophrenia and BPD patients did not differ significantly from each other when labeling any of the facial expressions. Compared to SoD patients, schizophrenia patients showed deficits on fearful expressions, but BPD did not significantly differ from SoD patients on any of the facial expressions. With respect to the type of misattributions, BPD patients mistook neutral expressions more often for fearful expressions compared to schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, and less often for happy compared to schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that although schizophrenia and BPD patients demonstrate different as well as similar facial affect labeling deficits, BPD may be associated with a tendency to detect negative affect in neutral expressions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity
Johanna C. Badcock
Full Text Available The National Institute of Mental Health initiative called the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC project aims to provide a new approach to understanding mental illness grounded in the fundamental domains of human behaviour and psychological functioning. To this end the RDoC framework encourages researchers and clinicians to think outside the [diagnostic]box, by studying symptoms, behaviours or biomarkers that cut across traditional mental illness categories. In this article we examine and discuss how the RDoC framework can improve our understanding of psychopathology by zeroing in on hallucinations- now widely recognized as a symptom that occurs in a range of clinical and non-clinical groups. We focus on a single domain of functioning - namely cognitive [inhibitory] control - and assimilate key findings structured around the basic RDoC units of analysis, which span the range from observable behaviour to molecular genetics. Our synthesis and critique of the literature provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emergence of auditory hallucinations, linked to the individual dynamics of inhibitory development before and after puberty; favours separate developmental trajectories for clinical and nonclinical hallucinations; yields new insights into co-occurring emotional and behavioural problems; and suggests some novel avenues for treatment.
Ortiz, Rosario; Jimenez, Juan E.; Miranda, Eduardo Garcia; Rosquete, Remedios Guzman; Hernandez-Valle, Isabel; Rodrigo, Mercedes; Estevez, Adelina; Diaz, Alicia; Exposito, Sergio Hernandez
The aims of this study were (a) to determine whether Spanish children with reading disabilities (RD) show a speech perception deficit and (b) to explore the locus and nature of this perceptive deficit. A group of 29 children with RD, 41 chronological age-matched controls, and 27 reading ability-matched younger controls were tested on tasks of…
Terauchi, Akiko; Timmons, Kendall M; Kikuma, Koto; Pechmann, Yvonne; Kneussel, Matthias; Umemori, Hisashi
Specific formation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses is crucial for proper functioning of the brain. Fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) and FGF7 are postsynaptic-cell-derived presynaptic organizers necessary for excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic differentiation, respectively, in the hippocampus. For the establishment of specific synaptic networks, these FGFs must localize to appropriate synaptic locations - FGF22 to excitatory and FGF7 to inhibitory postsynaptic sites. Here, we show that distinct motor and adaptor proteins contribute to intracellular microtubule transport of FGF22 and FGF7. Excitatory synaptic targeting of FGF22 requires the motor proteins KIF3A and KIF17 and the adaptor protein SAP102 (also known as DLG3). By contrast, inhibitory synaptic targeting of FGF7 requires the motor KIF5 and the adaptor gephyrin. Time-lapse imaging shows that FGF22 moves with SAP102, whereas FGF7 moves with gephyrin. These results reveal the basis of selective targeting of the excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic organizers that supports their different synaptogenic functions. Finally, we found that knockdown of SAP102 or PSD95 (also known as DLG4), which impairs the differentiation of excitatory synapses, alters FGF7 localization, suggesting that signals from excitatory synapses might regulate inhibitory synapse formation by controlling the distribution of the inhibitory presynaptic organizer. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Chen, Yongfu; Li, Changkun; Xue, Jiangang; Kwok, Lai-yu; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Heping; Menghe, Bilige
Hypertension affects up to 30% of the adult population in most countries. It is a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke. Owing to the increased health awareness of consumers, the application of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides produced by Lactobacillushelveticus to prevent or control high blood pressure has drawn wide attention. A total of 59 L. helveticus strains were isolated from traditional fermented dairy products and the ACE-inhibitory activity of the fermented milks produced with the isolated microorganisms was assayed. The ACE-inhibitory activity of 38 L. helveticus strains was more than 50%, and 3 strains (IMAU80872, IMAU80852, and IMAU80851) expressing the highest ACE-inhibitory activity were selected for further studies. Particularly, the gastrointestinal protease tolerance and thermostability of the ACE-inhibitory activity in the fermented milks were assessed. Based on these 2 criteria, IMAU80872 was found to be superior over the other 2 strains. Furthermore, IMAU80872 exhibited a high in vitro ACE-inhibitory activity at the following fermentation conditions: fermentation temperature at 40°C, inoculation concentration of 1×10(6) cfu/mL, and fermentation for 18h. Finally, by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we observed changes of the metabolome along the milk fermentation process of IMAU80872. Furthermore, 6 peptides were identified, which might have ACE-inhibitory activity. In conclusion, we identified a novel ACE-inhibitory L. helveticus strain suitable for the production of fermented milk or other functional dairy products. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Ersland, Lars; Plessen, Kerstin J
Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults...
Wright, William J; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dong, Yan
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) gates motivated behaviors through the functional output of principle medium spiny neurons (MSNs), whereas dysfunctional output of NAc MSNs contributes to a variety of psychiatric disorders. Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) are sparsely distributed throughout the NAc, forming local feedforward inhibitory circuits. It remains elusive how FSI-based feedforward circuits regulate the output of NAc MSNs. Here, we investigated a distinct subpopulation of NAc FSIs that express the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1). Using a combination of paired electrophysiological recordings and pharmacological approaches, we characterized and compared feedforward inhibition of NAc MSNs from CB1 + FSIs and lateral inhibition from recurrent MSN collaterals. We observed that CB1 + FSIs exerted robust inhibitory control over a large percentage of nearby MSNs in contrast to local MSN collaterals that provided only sparse and weak inhibitory input to their neighboring MSNs. Furthermore, CB1 + FSI-mediated feedforward inhibition was preferentially suppressed by endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling, whereas MSN-mediated lateral inhibition was unaffected. Finally, we demonstrated that CB1 + FSI synapses onto MSNs are capable of undergoing experience-dependent long-term depression in a voltage- and eCB-dependent manner. These findings demonstrated that CB1 + FSIs are a major source of local inhibitory control of MSNs and a critical component of the feedforward inhibitory circuits regulating the output of the NAc.
Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni
Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Miguel, Carmen Sílvia; Chaim-Avancini, Tiffany M; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues
Background The cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been well characterized, but few studies have evaluated the cognitive abilities of adults with NF1 and ADHD. Objectives We investigated 1) the cognitive profile of an adult patient with NF1 and inattention problems, 2) changes in his cognition after 14 months of follow-up, and 3) whether the patient exhibited comorbid NF1 and ADHD or secondary ADHD-like symptoms. Methods We administered neuropsychological tests of executive function, attention, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial function, and language during two evaluations separated by 14 months. Results We found no changes in sustained attention, language, or verbal memory. Visual memory, verbal learning, selective attention inhibitory control, and problem solving declined over time, whereas visual search, psychomotor speed, visuospatial function, and mental flexibility improved. Conclusion Our patient exhibited a cognitive profile characteristic of both NF1 and ADHD, leading to the hypothesis that the patient had comorbid ADHD instead of secondary ADHD-like symptoms. More studies are necessary to characterize the cognition of patients with NF1 and ADHD. PMID:25848279
George, Sophie A; Rodriguez-Santiago, Mariana; Riley, John; Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Liberzon, Israel
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic, debilitating disorder. Only two pharmacological agents are approved for PTSD treatment, and they often do not address the full range of symptoms nor are they equally effective in all cases. Animal models of PTSD are critical for understanding the neurobiology involved and for identification of novel therapeutic targets. Using the rodent PTSD model, single prolonged stress (SPS), we have implicated aberrant excitatory neural transmission and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) upregulation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC) in fear memory abnormalities associated with PTSD. The objective of this study is to examine the potential protective effect of antiepileptic phenytoin (PHE) administration on SPS-induced extinction retention deficits and GR expression. Forty-eight SPS-treated male Sprague Dawley rats or controls were administered PHE (40, 20 mg/kg, vehicle) for 7 days following SPS stressors; then, fear conditioning, extinction, and extinction retention were tested. Fear conditioning and extinction were unaffected by SPS or PHE, but SPS impaired extinction retention, and both doses of PHE rescued this impairment. Similarly, SPS increased GR expression in the mPFC and dorsal HPC, and PHE prevented SPS-induced GR upregulation in the mPFC. These data demonstrate that PHE administration can prevent the development of extinction retention deficits and upregulation of GR. PHE exerts inhibitory effects on voltage-gated sodium channels and decreases excitatory neural transmission via glutamate antagonism. If glutamate hyperactivity in the days following SPS contributes to SPS-induced deficits, then these data may suggest that the glutamatergic system constitutes a target for secondary prevention.
Full Text Available Protein by-products from the extractio