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Sample records for inhibitor-1 pai-1 expression

  1. Functional importance of PAI-1 glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anni; Naessens, Dominik; Skottrup, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Structure-function studies of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have previously been performed mostly with non-glycosylated material expressed in E. coli. We have now studied the importance of PAI-1 glycosylation for its functional properties. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N......-glycosylated PAI-1 could be conferred upon PAI-1 expressed in HEK293 cells by mutational inactivation of one or the other glycosylation site. These findings reveal a novel functional role for glycosylation of a serpin. The glycosylation sites are localised between a-helix H and b-strand 2C and b-strand 3C and a...

  2. Functional importance of PAI-1 glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anni; Naessens, Dominik; Skottrup, Peter

    susceptible PAI-1 variant was not necessarily the one used when raising the antibody. This and other observations indicated that the carbohydrate moieties or the glycosylation sites are unlikely to be part of the epitopes for these antibodies. The antibody susceptibility characteristic for non......Structure-function studies of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have previously been performed mostly with non-glycosylated material expressed in E. coli. We have now studied the importance of PAI-1 glycosylation for its functional properties. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N......-linked glycosylation. Biochemical analysis of PAI-1 variants with substitutions of the Asn residues in each of these sites and expression in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells showed that only Asn211 and Asn 267, but not Asn331 are glycosylated, and revealed a differential composition of the carbohydrate...

  3. Vehicle-dependent Effects of Sphingosine 1-phosphate on Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Chiharu; Kurano, Makoto; Nishikawa, Masako; Kano, Kuniyuki; Dohi, Tomotaka; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Tomo; Aoki, Junken

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) has been suggested to be a positive regulator of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) in adipocytes, while some studies are not consistent with this prothrombotic property of S1P. Since S1P is bound to apolipoprotein M (apoM) on HDL or to albumin in plasma, we compared the properties of these two forms on the PAI-1 induction. Methods: We investigated the associations of S1P, apoM, and PAI-1 concentrations in the plasma of normal coronary artery (NCA), stable angina pectoris (SAP), and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subjects (n = 32, 71, and 38, respectively). Then, we compared the effects of S1P with various vehicles on the PAI-1 expression in 3T3L1 adipocytes. We also investigated the modulation of the PAI-1 levels in mice infected with adenovirus coding apoM. Results: Among ACS subjects, the PAI-1 level was positively correlated with the S1P level, but not the apoM level. In adipocytes, S1P bound to an apoM-rich vehicle induced PAI-1 expression to a lesser extent than the control vehicle, while S1P bound to an apoM-depleted vehicle induced PAI-1 expression to a greater extent than the control vehicle in 3T3L1 adipocytes. Additionally, apoM overexpression in mice failed to modulate the plasma PAI-1 level and the adipose PAI-1 expression level. S1P bound to albumin increased PAI-1 expression through the S1P receptor 2-Rho/ROCK-NFκB pathway. Conclusion: S1P bound to albumin, but not to apoM, induces PAI-1 expression in adipocytes, indicating that S1P can exert different properties on the pathogenesis of vascular diseases, depending on its vehicle. PMID:28321011

  4. PAI-1 mRNA expression and plasma level in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship with 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Ruiz-Quezada, Sandra Luz; Oregón-Romero, Edith; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa Elena; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; De la Cruz-Mosso, Ulises; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2012-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the synovial membrane, cartilage and bone. PAI-1 is a key regulator of the fibrinolytic system through which plasminogen is converted to plasmin. The plasmin activates the matrix metalloproteinase system, which is closely related with the joint damage and bone destruction in RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism with mRNA expression and PAI-1 plasma protein levels in RA patients. 113 RA patients and 123 healthy subjects (HS) were included in the study. The 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method; the PAI-1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR; and the soluble PAI-1 (sPAI-1) levels were quantified using an ELISA kit. No significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism were found between RA patients and HS. However, the 5G/5G genotype was the most frequent in both studied groups: RA (42%) and HS (44%). PAI-1 mRNA expression was slightly increased (0.67 fold) in RA patients with respect to HS (P = 0.0001). In addition, in RA patients, the 4G/4G genotype carriers showed increased PAI-1 mRNA expression (3.82 fold) versus 4G/5G and 5G/5G genotypes (P = 0.0001), whereas the sPAI-1 plasma levels did not show significant differences. Our results indicate that the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism is not a marker of susceptibility in the Western Mexico. However, the 4G/4G genotype is associated with high PAI-1 mRNA expression but not with the sPAI-1 levels in RA patients.

  5. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 removal using dextran sulphate columns. Evidence of PAI-1 homeostasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Vincent M G

    2009-08-01

    Patients with high plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen levels are prone to develop thrombosis. Lowering PAI-1 levels may offer a therapeutic option and help to better understand PAI-1 metabolism. We examined the effect on plasma PAI-1 levels of LDL-apheresis using dextran sulphate (DS) columns in 12 patients (9 male, 3 female, 49 +\\/- 10 years) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia and coronary artery disease. One plasma volume equivalent (2.3-4.0 l) was treated during each procedure (at flow rates of 23 +\\/- 2 ml\\/min). Lipids and PAI-1 antigen levels were measured in plasma before and immediately after 19 aphereses (once in 7 patients, twice in 3 patients and three times in 2 patients) and also at 3 and 7 days post apheresis in five of these patients and in the column eluates from 8 of these patients. DS-apheresis reduced plasma cholesterol (50 +\\/- 8%), triglyceride (45 +\\/- 27%), apolipoprotein B (59 +\\/- 10%) and PAI-1 antigen levels from 10.2 +\\/- 5.2 to 6.0 +\\/- 3.1 ng\\/ml (P = 0.005). The PAI-I changes were independent of circadian variation. PAI-I bound to the DS-columns (3.51 +\\/- 1.03 ng\\/ml filtered plasma) and the percent of filtered PAI-1 that was bound correlated inversely (r = -0.81, P < 0.02) with basal PAI-1 levels indicating a high affinity saturable binding process. In four patients, plasma PAI-1 levels post-apheresis were higher than expected based on the amount of PAI-removed by the DS columns. The difference between the expected and actual PAI-1 level post apheresis, reflecting PAI-1 secretion or extracellular redistribution, correlated inversely with basal PAI-1 levels (r = -0.83, P = 0.01). PAI-1 levels returned to baseline pre-apheresis values 7 days post apheresis. PAI-1 antigen may be removed from plasma without adverse effect, resulting temporarily in its extracellular redistribution and restoration to baseline levels over one week. PAI-1 redistribution particularly when baseline pre

  6. The Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1) Level and PAI-1 4G/5G Gene Polymorphism with the Formation and the Grade of Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Malik Ejder; Karakuş, Savas; Kurtulgan, Hande Küçük; Kılıçgün, Hasan; Erşan, Serpil; Bakır, Sevtap

    2017-08-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (Serpine 1), and it inhibits both tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator which are important in fibrinolysis. We aimed to find whether there is a possible association between PAI-1 level, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, and endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels in peripheral blood were determined in 82 patients with endometrial carcinoma and 76 female healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Then, the genomic DNA was extracted and screened by reverse hybridization procedure (Strip assay) to detect PAI 1 4G/5G polymorphism. The levels of PAI-1 in the patients were higher statistically in comparison to controls (P 5G polymorphism was quite different between patients and controls (P = 0.008), and 4G allelic frequency was significantly higher in the patients of endometrial cancer than in controls (P = 0.026). We found significant difference between Grade 1 and Grade 2+3 patients in terms of the PAI-1 levels (P = 0.047). There was no association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and the grades of endometrial cancer (P = 0.993). Our data suggest that the level of PAI-1 and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism are effective in the formation of endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels are also associated with the grades of endometrial cancer.

  7. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 in breast cancer - correlation with traditional prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampelj Maja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 play a key role in tumour invasion and metastasis. High levels of both proteolytic enzymes are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between traditional prognostic factors and uPA and PAI-1 expression in primary tumour of breast cancer patients.

  8. PAI-1 expression and its regulation by promoter 4G/5G polymorphism in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Han; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Young-Sik

    2011-10-01

    To characterise patients with high plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression as oral PAI-1 antagonists are currently in preclinical trials, and to determine whether the PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism regulates PAI-1 expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). PAI-1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 69 CCRCC specimens. In addition, the promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was investigated by both allele-specific PCR and direct DNA sequencing. PAI-1 was overexpressed in 25/69 (36.2%) patients with CCRCC. PAI-1 staining was intense in tumour cells with a high Fuhrman nuclear grade and in spindle-shaped tumour cells. PAI-1 expression was significantly associated with older age at diagnosis (p=0.027), high nuclear grade (p5G and 31.9% (22/69) 5G/5G. The homozygous 4G/4G or 5G/5G group showed a tendency for a high nuclear grade (p=0.05) but the 4G/5G polymorphism was not related to other prognostic parameters. PAI-1 expression was poorly correlated with its promoter 4G/5G polymorphism (Spearman ρ=0.088). CCRCC with high PAI-1 expression is characterised by older age, high nuclear grade, advanced stage, distant metastasis and/or shortened disease-free survival. PAI-1 expression is not affected by the promoter 4G/5G polymorphism.

  9. PPARα deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression possibly through PPARγ activation in the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Ohkura, Naoki; Horie, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → PPARα deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression. → Hepatic expressions of PPARγ and PCG-1α are induced by a ketogenic diet. → PPARγ antagonist attenuates a ketogenic diet-induced PAI-1 expression. → Ketogenic diet advances the phase of circadian clock in a PPARα-independent manner. -- Abstract: An increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and PAI-1 gene expression is under the control of molecular circadian clocks in mammals. We recently showed that PAI-1 expression is augmented in a phase-advanced circadian manner in mice fed with a ketogenic diet (KD). To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is involved in hypofibrinolytic status induced by a KD, we examined the expression profiles of PAI-1 and circadian clock genes in PPARα-null KD mice. Chronic administration of bezafibrate induced the PAI-1 gene expression in a PPARα-dependent manner. Feeding with a KD augmented the circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the hearts and livers of wild-type (WT) mice as previously described. The KD-induced mRNA expression of typical PPARα target genes such as Cyp4A10 and FGF21 was damped in PPARα-null mice. However, plasma PAI-1 concentrations were significantly more elevated in PPARα-null KD mice in accordance with hepatic mRNA levels. These observations suggest that PPARα activation is dispensable for KD-induced PAI-1 expression. We also found that hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and the hepatic expressions of PPARγ and its coactivator PCG-1α were more effectively induced in PPARα-null, than in WT mice on a KD. Furthermore, KD-induced hepatic PAI-1 expression was significantly suppressed by supplementation with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPARγ antagonist, in both WT and PPARα-null mice. PPARγ activation seems to be involved in KD-induced hypofibrinolysis by augmenting PAI-1 gene expression

  10. Global gene expression profiling in PAI-1 knockout murine heart and kidney: molecular basis of cardiac-selective fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asish K Ghosh

    Full Text Available Fibrosis is defined as an abnormal matrix remodeling due to excessive synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in tissues during wound healing or in response to chemical, mechanical and immunological stresses. At present, there is no effective therapy for organ fibrosis. Previous studies demonstrated that aged plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 knockout mice develop spontaneously cardiac-selective fibrosis without affecting any other organs. We hypothesized that differential expressions of profibrotic and antifibrotic genes in PAI-1 knockout hearts and unaffected organs lead to cardiac selective fibrosis. In order to address this prediction, we have used a genome-wide gene expression profiling of transcripts derived from aged PAI-1 knockout hearts and kidneys. The variations of global gene expression profiling were compared within four groups: wildtype heart vs. knockout heart; wildtype kidney vs. knockout kidney; knockout heart vs. knockout kidney and wildtype heart vs. wildtype kidney. Analysis of illumina-based microarray data revealed that several genes involved in different biological processes such as immune system processing, response to stress, cytokine signaling, cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, matrix organization and transcriptional regulation were affected in hearts and kidneys by the absence of PAI-1, a potent inhibitor of urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator. Importantly, the expressions of a number of genes, involved in profibrotic pathways including Ankrd1, Pi16, Egr1, Scx, Timp1, Timp2, Klf6, Loxl1 and Klotho, were deregulated in PAI-1 knockout hearts compared to wildtype hearts and PAI-1 knockout kidneys. While the levels of Ankrd1, Pi16 and Timp1 proteins were elevated during EndMT, the level of Timp4 protein was decreased. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report on the influence of PAI-1 on global gene expression profiling in the heart and kidney and its implication

  11. The effect of thyroid hormones on the white adipose tissue gene expression of PAI-1 and its serum concentration

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    C. Biz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 overexpression may play a significant role in this process. A positive correlation between adipose tissue gene expression of PAI-1 and its serum concentration has been reported. Furthermore, high serum levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 and PAI-1 have been observed in obese children. The present study evaluates the impact of thyroid hormone treatment on white adipose tissue PAI-1 gene expression and its serum concentration. Male Wistar rats (60 days old were treated for three weeks with T4 (50 µg/day, Hyper or with saline (control. Additionally, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated for 24 h with T4 (100 nM or T3 (100 nM. PAI-1 gene expression was determined by real-time PCR, while the serum concentration of PAI-1 was measured by ELISA using a commercial kit (Innovative Research, USA. Both the serum concentration of PAI-1 and mRNA levels were similar between groups in retroperitoneal and epididymal white adipose tissue. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in vitro treatment with T4 and T3 increased the gene expression of PAI-1, suggesting non-genomic and genomic effects, respectively. These results demonstrate that thyroid hormones have different effects in vitro and in vivo on PAI-1 gene expression in adipocytes.

  12. PAI-1 and EGFR expression in adult glioma tumors: toward a molecular prognostic classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muracciole, Xavier; Romain, Sylvie; Dufour, Henri; Palmari, Jacqueline; Chinot, Olivier; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Grisoli, Francois; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Martin, Pierre-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Molecular classification of gliomas is a major challenge in the effort to improve therapeutic decisions. The plasminogen activator system, including plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), plays a key role in tumor invasion and neoangiogenesis. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in the control of proliferation. The contribution of PAI-1 and EGFR to the survival of gliomas was retrospectively investigated. Methods and Materials: Fifty-nine adult gliomas treated by neurosurgery and conventional irradiation were analyzed, including 9 low-grade (2) and 50 high-grade (3-4) tumors (WHO classification). PAI-1 was measured on cytosols and EGFR on solubilized membranes using ELISA methods. Results: High PAI-1 levels were strongly associated with high histologic grade (p<0.001) and histologic necrosis (p<0.001). PAI-1 also correlated positively with patient age (p=0.05) and negatively with Karnofsky index (p=0.01). By univariate analysis of the high-grade population, higher PAI-1 (p<0.0001) and EGFR values (p=0.02) were associated with shorter overall survival. Only PAI-1 was an independent factor in multivariate analysis. Grade 3 tumors with low PAI-1 (100% 3-year overall survival rate) presented the same clinical outcome as the low-grade tumors. Conclusions: In this prognostic study, PAI-1 and EGFR expression revealed similarities and differences between high-grade gliomas that were not apparent by traditional clinical criteria. These data strongly support that biologic factors should be included in glioma classification and the design of clinical trials to treat more homogeneous populations

  13. Thiazolidinediones inhibit TNFα induction of PAI-1 independent of PPARγ activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.B.; Hu, Y.S.; Medcalf, R.L.; Simpson, R.W.; Dear, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) levels are observed in endothelial cells stimulated by tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα). Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) may inhibit elevated endothelial cell PAI-1 accounting, in part, for the putative atheroprotective effects of TZDs. In an endothelial cell line, Rosiglitazone (RG) and Pioglitazone (PG) inhibited induction of PAI-1 by TNFα. The specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) inhibitor, SR-202, failed to modulate this effect. RG also inhibited the effect of TNFα on a reporter gene construct harbouring the proximal PAI-1 promoter and PAI-1 mRNA in cells co-transfected with a dominant-negative PPARγ construct. RG and PG attenuated TNFα-mediated induction of trans-acting factor(s) Nur77/Nurr1 and binding of nuclear proteins (NP) to the cis-acting element (NBRE). SR-202 failed to modulate these effects. The observations suggest TZDs inhibit TNFα-mediated PAI-1 induction independent of inducible PPARγ activation and this may involve in the modulation of Nur77/Nurr1 expression and NP binding to the PAI-1 NBRE

  14. PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression possibly through PPAR{gamma} activation in the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Katsutaka, E-mail: k-ooishi@aist.go.jp [Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Uchida, Daisuke [Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohkura, Naoki [Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Horie, Shuichi [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Kagawa Nutrition University, Sakado, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression. {yields} Hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and PCG-1{alpha} are induced by a ketogenic diet. {yields} PPAR{gamma} antagonist attenuates a ketogenic diet-induced PAI-1 expression. {yields} Ketogenic diet advances the phase of circadian clock in a PPAR{alpha}-independent manner. -- Abstract: An increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and PAI-1 gene expression is under the control of molecular circadian clocks in mammals. We recently showed that PAI-1 expression is augmented in a phase-advanced circadian manner in mice fed with a ketogenic diet (KD). To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is involved in hypofibrinolytic status induced by a KD, we examined the expression profiles of PAI-1 and circadian clock genes in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice. Chronic administration of bezafibrate induced the PAI-1 gene expression in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Feeding with a KD augmented the circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the hearts and livers of wild-type (WT) mice as previously described. The KD-induced mRNA expression of typical PPAR{alpha} target genes such as Cyp4A10 and FGF21 was damped in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. However, plasma PAI-1 concentrations were significantly more elevated in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice in accordance with hepatic mRNA levels. These observations suggest that PPAR{alpha} activation is dispensable for KD-induced PAI-1 expression. We also found that hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and the hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and its coactivator PCG-1{alpha} were more effectively induced in PPAR{alpha}-null, than in WT mice on a KD. Furthermore, KD-induced hepatic PAI-1 expression was significantly suppressed by supplementation with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPAR{gamma} antagonist, in both WT and PPAR

  15. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G alleles frequency distribution in the Lebanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammaa, Dina M R; Sabbagh, Amira S; Taher, Ali T; Zaatari, Ghazi S; Mahfouz, Rami A R

    2008-09-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis. Increased plasma PAI-1 levels play an essential role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular risk and other diseases associated with thrombosis. The 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 promoter region has been extensively studied in different populations. We studied 160 healthy unrelated Lebanese individuals using a reverse hybridization PCR assay to detect the 5G/5G, 4G/5G and, 4G/4G genotypes of the PAI-1 gene and the frequencies of the 4G and 5G alleles. We found that 4G/5G genotype was the most prevalent (45.6%) followed by 5G/5G (36.9%) and 4G/4G (17.5%). The frequencies of the 4G and 5G alleles were calculated to be 0.403 and 0.597, respectively. Compared to other ethnic communities, the Lebanese population was found to harbour a relatively high prevalence of the rare 4G allele. This, in turn, may predispose this population to develop cardiovascular diseases and other thrombotic clinical conditions. This study aids to enhance our understanding of the genetic features of the Lebanese population.

  16. Biochemical Importance of Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Ann; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Skottrup, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a potential target for anti-thrombotic and anti-cancer therapy. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate here that PAI-1 expressed recombinantly or naturally by human cell lines display a heterogeneous glycosyla......The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a potential target for anti-thrombotic and anti-cancer therapy. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate here that PAI-1 expressed recombinantly or naturally by human cell lines display a heterogeneous...... with the glycosylation sites could be excluded as explanation for the differential reactivity. The latency transition of non-glycosylated, but not of glycosylated PAI-1, was strongly accelerated by a non-ionic detergent. The different biochemical properties of glycosylated and non-glycosylated PAI-1 depended...

  17. The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene -844 A/G and -675 4G/5G promoter polymorphism significantly influences plasma PAI-1 levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Lin, Sun; Huiya, Zhang; Bo, Liu; Wei, Wei; Yongmei, Guan

    2009-12-01

    Mutations in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene, along with increased PAI-1 levels, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We investigated a possible influence of the promoter polymorphism (-844 A/G and -675 4G/5G) in the PAI-1 gene on plasma PAI-1 levels in 126 PCOS patients and 97 healthy controls. Levels of total testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin, and PAI-1 were measured, and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), LH/FSH ratio, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G and -844 A/G gene polymorphisms were also performed. Total testosterone, fasting insulin, and PAI-1 levels; BMI, LH/FSH, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in PCOS patients than controls (P 5G or 5G/5G genotype. The plasma PAI-1 levels of the combination of the PAI-1 -844 A/A and -675 4G/4G or 4G/5G genotypes, or the coadunation of 4G/4G and -844 non-G/G (A/A + A/G) genotypes were significantly high in PCOS women compared with controls. A trend to a positive interaction between PAI-1 -675 4G/5G and -844 A/G gene polymorphism may elevate plasma PAI-1 levels and hypofibrinolysis, which is probably an important hereditary risk factor in PCOS.

  18. The prevalence of 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene in central serous chorioretinopathy and its association with plasma PAI-1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogutlu Sari, Esin; Yazici, Alper; Eser, Betül; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Kilic, Adil; Ermis, Sitki Samet; Koytak, Arif; Akşit, Hasan; Yakut, Tahsin

    2014-12-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a poorly understood disease and the choroidal circulation abnormality induced by the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) seems to be associated with the pathogenesis. There are many reports indicating that 4 G/5 G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene is a risk factor for several diseases related to the elevated serum levels of PAI-1. To evaluate the 4 G/5 G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene and its association with serum levels of PAI-1 in acute CSCR patients. Sixty CSCR patients and 50 healthy control patients were included. The PAI-1 4 G/5 G was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction technique. Serum PAI-1 level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Demographic data consisting of age, sex, body mass index (BMI) as well as genotype disturbances and serum PAI-1 levels were compared between the groups. Statistical significance for differences in the serum PAI-1 levels of each group with different genotypes was also analyzed. The CSCR group consisted of 40 male (66.7%) and 20 female (33.3%) patients with a mean age of 46.7 ± 8.39 years. The control group consisted of 32 male (64%) and 18 female (36%) healthy subjects with a mean age of 45.8 ± 8.39 years. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, sex and BMI. In the CSCR group the genotype frequencies were 4 G/4G: 30% (n = 18), 4G/5 G: 50% (n = 30), 5 G/5G: 20% (n = 12) and in the control group genotype frequencies were 34% (n = 17), 42% (n = 21) and 24% (n = 12), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of genotypes among the groups (chi-squared, p = 0.70). The CSCR group had a significantly higher serum PAI-1 concentration than the control group (p = 0.001). In both groups the mean plasma PAI-1 concentration did not vary significantly among the different genotypes (p > 0.05). Although our results demonstrated that the patients with acute CSCR have

  19. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Resina Draconis Reveals Loureirin B as a PAI-1 Inhibitor

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    Yu Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic diseases have become a global burden due to morbidity, mortality, and disability. Traditional Chinese medicine has been proven effective in removing blood stasis and promoting blood circulation, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 is a natural inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators. In this study, we screened four fractions of Resina Draconis (a traditional Chinese medicine extract for PAI-1 inhibitory activity. Bioactivity-guided purification and chromogenic substrate-based assay led to the identification of loureirin B as the major PAI-1 inhibitor, with an IC50 value of 26.10 μM. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that formation of the PAI-1/uPA complex was inhibited by loureirin B, and the inhibitory effect of loureirin B on PAI-1 was also confirmed by clot lysis assay. In vivo studies showed that loureirin B significantly prolonged the tail bleeding time and reduced the weight and size of arterial thrombus, reduced hydroxyproline level, and partly cured liver fibrosis in mice. Taken together, the results revealed loureirin B as a PAI-1 inhibitor, adding a new pharmacological target for loureirin B and uncovering a novel mechanism underlying the antithrombotic property of Resina Draconis, which might be useful in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as thrombosis and fibrosis.

  20. Induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) by hypoxia and irradiation in human head and neck carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, Daniela; Bayer, Christine; Geurts-Moespot, Anneke; Sweep, Fred CGJ; Pruschy, Martin; Mengele, Karin; Sprague, Lisa D; Molls, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) often contain highly radioresistant hypoxic regions, nonetheless, radiotherapy is a common treatment modality for these tumours. Reoxygenation during fractionated radiotherapy is desired to render these hypoxic tumour regions more radiosensitive. Hypoxia additionally leads to up-regulation of PAI-1, a protein involved in tumour progression and an established prognostic marker for poor outcome. However, the impact of reoxygenation and radiation on PAI-1 levels is not yet clear. Therefore, we investigated the kinetics of PAI-1 expression and secretion after hypoxia and reoxygenation, and determined the influence of ionizing radiation on PAI-1 levels in the two human SCCHN cell lines, BHY and FaDu. HIF-1α immunoblot was used to visualize the degree of hypoxia in the two cell lines. Cellular PAI-1 expression was investigated by immunofluorescence microscopy. ELISA was used to quantify relative changes in PAI-1 expression (cell lysates) and secretion (cell culture supernatants) in response to various lengths (2 – 4 h) of hypoxic exposure (< 0.66 % O 2 ), reoxygenation (24 h, 20 % O 2 ), and radiation (0, 2, 5 and 10 Gy). HIF-1α expression was induced between 2 and 24 h of hypoxic exposure. Intracellular PAI-1 expression was significantly increased in BHY and FaDu cells as early as 4 h after hypoxic exposure. A significant induction in secreted PAI-1 was seen after 12 to 24 h (BHY) and 8 to 24 h (FaDu) hypoxia, as compared to the normoxic control. A 24 h reoxygenation period caused significantly less PAI-1 secretion than a 24 h hypoxia period in FaDu cells. Irradiation led to an up-regulation of PAI-1 expression and secretion in both, BHY and FaDu cells. Our data suggest that both, short-term (~4 – 8 h) and long-term (~20 – 24 h) hypoxic exposure could increase PAI-1 levels in SCCHN in vivo. Importantly, radiation itself could lead to PAI-1 up-regulation in head and neck tumours, whereas reoxygenation of

  1. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) in breast cancer - correlation with traditional prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampelj, Maja; Arko, Darja; Cas-Sikosek, Nina; Kavalar, Rajko; Ravnik, Maja; Jezersek-Novakovic, Barbara; Dobnik, Sarah; Dovnik, Nina Fokter; Takac, Iztok

    2015-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) play a key role in tumour invasion and metastasis. High levels of both proteolytic enzymes are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between traditional prognostic factors and uPA and PAI-1 expression in primary tumour of breast cancer patients. 606 primary breast cancer patients were enrolled in the prospective study in the Department of gynaecological oncology and breast oncology at the University Medical Centre Maribor between the years 2004 and 2010. We evaluated the traditional prognostic factors (age, menopausal status, tumour size, pathohistological type, histologic grade, lymph node status, lymphovascular invasion and hormone receptor status), together with uPA and PAI-1. We used Spearman’s rank correlation, Mann Whitney U test and χ 2 test for statistical analysis. Our findings indicate a positive correlation between uPA and tumour size (p < 0.001), grade (p < 0.001), histological type (p < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.01) and a negative correlation between uPA and hormone receptor status (p < 0.001). They also indicate a positive correlation between PAI-1 and tumour size (p = 0.004), grade (p < 0.001), pathohistological type (p < 0.001) and negative correlation between PAI-1 and hormone receptor status (p = 0.002). Our study showed a relationship between uPA and PAI-1 and traditional prognostic factors. Their role as prognostic and predictive factors remains to be further evaluated

  2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is an independent prognostic factor of ovarian cancer and IMD-4482, a novel plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 inhibitor, inhibits ovarian cancer peritoneal dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Erika; Sawada, Kenjiro; Nakamura, Koji; Yoshimura, Akihito; Kinose, Yasuto; Kodama, Michiko; Hashimoto, Kae; Mabuchi, Seiji; Makino, Hiroshi; Morii, Eiichi; Yamaguchi, Yoichi; Yanase, Takeshi; Itai, Akiko; Morishige, Ken-Ichirou; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-10-27

    In the present study, the therapeutic potential of targeting plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in ovarian cancer was tested. Tissues samples from 154 cases of ovarian carcinoma were immunostained with anti-PAI-1 antibody, and the prognostic value was analyzed. Among the samples, 67% (104/154) showed strong PAI-1 expression; this was significantly associated with poor prognosis (progression-free survival: 20 vs. 31 months, P = 0.0033). In particular, among patients with stage II-IV serous adenocarcinoma, PAI-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor. The effect of a novel PAI-1 inhibitor, IMD-4482, on ovarian cancer cell lines was assessed and its therapeutic potential was examined using a xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. IMD-4482 inhibited in vitro cell adhesion to vitronectin in PAI-1-positive ovarian cancer cells, followed by the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation through dissociation of the PAI-urokinase receptor complex from integrin αVβ3. IMD-4482 caused G0/G1 cell arrest and inhibited the proliferation of PAI-1-positive ovarian cancer cells. In the xenograft model, IMD-4482 significantly inhibited peritoneal dissemination with the reduction of PAI-1 expression and the inhibition of focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Collectively, the functional inhibition of PAI-1 significantly inhibited ovarian cancer progression, and targeting PAI-1 may be a potential therapeutic strategy in ovarian cancer.

  3. Biochemical Importance of Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Ann; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2003-01-01

    The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a potential target for anti-thrombotic and anti-cancer therapy. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate here that PAI-1 expressed recombinantly or naturally by human cell lines display a heterogeneous glycosyla...

  4. PAI-1, a target gene of miR-143, regulates invasion and metastasis by upregulating MMP-13 expression of human osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirahata, Mio; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Kanda, Yusuke; Sugimoto, Yui; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Kawai, Akira; Ito, Hisao; Ochiya, Takahiro; Okada, Futoshi

    2016-05-01

    Despite recent improvements in the therapy for osteosarcoma, 30-40% of osteosarcoma patients die of this disease, mainly due to its lung metastasis. We have previously reported that intravenous injection of miR-143 significantly suppresses lung metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells (143B) in a mouse model. In this study, we examined the biological role and mechanism of miR-143 in the metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells. We identified plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as a direct target gene of miR-143. To determine the role of PAI-1 in human osteosarcoma cells, siRNA was transfected into 143B cells for knockdown of PAI-1 expression. An in vitro study showed that downregulation of PAI-1 suppressed cell invasion activity, but not proliferation. Moreover, injection of PAI-1 siRNA into a primary lesion in the osteosarcoma mouse model inhibited lung metastasis compared to control siRNA-injected mice, without influencing the proliferative activity of the tumor cells. Subsequent examination using 143B cells revealed that knockdown of PAI-1 expression resulted in downregulation of the expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), which is also a target gene of miR-143 and a proteolytic enzyme that regulates tumor-induced osteolysis. Immunohistochemical analysis using clinical samples showed that higher miR-143 expressing cases showed poor expression of PAI-1 in the primary tumor cells. All such cases belonged to the lung metastasis-negative group. Moreover, the frequency of lung metastasis-positive cases was significantly higher in PAI-1 and MMP-13 double-positive cases than in PAI-1 or MMP-13 single-positive or double-negative cases (P target gene of miR-143, regulates invasion and lung metastasis via enhancement of MMP-13 expression and secretion in human osteosarcoma cells, suggesting that these molecules could be potential therapeutic target genes for preventing lung metastasis in osteosarcoma patients. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer

  5. PAI-1 and IFN-γ in the regulation of innate immune homeostasis during sublethal yersiniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Han, Yuxia; Zhang, Dongxia; Zhang, Liangyan; Luo, Deyan

    2013-03-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-l), a key part of the fibrinolytic system, plays a critical host protective role during the acute phase of infection by regulating interferon(IFN)-γ release. IFN-γ regulates PAI-1 expression, which suggests an intricate interplay between PAI-1 and IFN-γ. Here, using the notion of a feedback loop, we report the complicated regulatory relationship between PAI-1 and IFN-γ. Mice were inoculated intravenously with 1×10(3) colony forming units of Yersinia enterocolitica; PAI-1 deficiency enhanced lethality (pimmune homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of local sustained delivery of sirolimus on the vascular PAI-1 and t-PA expression after angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E Yajun; He Nengshu; Fan Hailun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of local sustained delivery of sirolimus on the vascular inhibitor of plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1) and tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) expression after angioplasty. Methods: Experimental common carotid artery injury model was established in the rats. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were divided into experimental group (n=20) and control group (n=10). Adventitial administration of drug was applied. Pluronic F-127 gel containing sirolimus was administered to the exposed adventitial surface of injured carotid artery. The experimental group was divided into high concentration (600 μg/100 μl) sub-group and low concentration (300 μg/100μl) sub-group according to the concentration of sirolimus delivered. The effect of local sustained delivery sirolimus on vascular PAI-1 and t-PA expression after percutaneous angioplasty was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to control group, 15 and 30 days after injury local sustained delivery of sirolimus in both high concentration and low concentration sub-groups the expression of the PAI-1 in neointima was significantly enhanced (P 0.05). At 15 and 30 days after injury, the expression of t-PA in neointima was decreased in both high and low concentration sub-groups (P<0.05), and the expression of t-PA in media was significantly decreased in high concentration sub-group (P<0.05) while on significant difference could be detected in low concentration sub-group. Conclusion: Local sustained delivery of sirolimus can induce the high expression of PAI-1 and low expression of t-PA in neointima although it inhibits the proliferation of neointima in the same time, and the imbalanced expression of t-PA and PAI-1 may probably play an important role in the late formation of thrombosis after the placement of drug-eluting stent. (authors)

  7. Expression of uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 in Calcified Aortic Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlah Kochtebane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Our physiopathological assumption is that u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 are released by calcified aortic valves and play a role in the calcification of these valves. Methods. Sixty-five calcified aortic valves were collected from patients suffering from aortic stenosis. Each valve was incubated for 24 hours in culture medium. The supernatants were used to measure u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 concentrations; the valve calcification was evaluated using biphotonic absorptiometry. Results. Aortic stenosis valves expressed normal plasminogen activators concentrations and overexpressed PAI-1 (u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 mean concentrations were, resp., 1.69 ng/mL ± 0.80, 2.76 ng/mL ± 1.33, and 53.27 ng/mL ± 36.39. There was no correlation between u-PA and PAI-1 (r=0.3 but t-PA and PAI-1 were strongly correlated with each other (r=0.6. Overexpression of PAI-1 was proportional to the calcium content of the AS valves. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate a consistent increase of PAI-1 proportional to the calcification. The overexpression of PAI-1 may be useful as a predictive indicator in patients with aortic stenosis.

  8. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Controls Vascular Integrity by Regulating VE-Cadherin Trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Daniel

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, a serine protease inhibitor, is expressed and secreted by endothelial cells. Patients with PAI-1 deficiency show a mild to moderate bleeding diathesis, which has been exclusively ascribed to the function of PAI-1 in down-regulating fibrinolysis. We tested the hypothesis that PAI-1 function plays a direct role in controlling vascular integrity and permeability by keeping endothelial cell-cell junctions intact.We utilized PAI-039, a specific small molecule inhibitor of PAI-1, to investigate the role of PAI-1 in protecting endothelial integrity. In vivo inhibition of PAI-1 resulted in vascular leakage from intersegmental vessels and in the hindbrain of zebrafish embryos. In addition PAI-1 inhibition in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers leads to a marked decrease of transendothelial resistance and disrupted endothelial junctions. The total level of the endothelial junction regulator VE-cadherin was reduced, whereas surface VE-cadherin expression was unaltered. Moreover, PAI-1 inhibition reduced the shedding of VE-cadherin. Finally, we detected an accumulation of VE-cadherin at the Golgi apparatus.Our findings indicate that PAI-1 function is important for the maintenance of endothelial monolayer and vascular integrity by controlling VE-cadherin trafficking to and from the plasma membrane. Our data further suggest that therapies using PAI-1 antagonists like PAI-039 ought to be used with caution to avoid disruption of the vessel wall.

  9. PAI1 mediates fibroblast-mast cell interactions in skin fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincha, Neha; Hajam, Edries Yousaf; Badarinath, Krithika; Batta, Surya Prakash Rao; Masudi, Tafheem; Dey, Rakesh; Andreasen, Peter; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Samuel, Rekha; George, Renu; Danda, Debashish; Jacob, Paul Mazhuvanchary; Jamora, Colin

    2018-05-01

    Fibrosis is a prevalent pathological condition arising from the chronic activation of fibroblasts. This activation results from the extensive intercellular crosstalk mediated by both soluble factors and direct cell-cell connections. Prominent among these are the interactions of fibroblasts with immune cells, in which the fibroblast-mast cell connection, although acknowledged, is relatively unexplored. We have used a Tg mouse model of skin fibrosis, based on expression of the transcription factor Snail in the epidermis, to probe the mechanisms regulating mast cell activity and the contribution of these cells to this pathology. We have discovered that Snail-expressing keratinocytes secrete plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI1), which functions as a chemotactic factor to increase mast cell infiltration into the skin. Moreover, we have determined that PAI1 upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM1) expression on dermal fibroblasts, rendering them competent to bind to mast cells. This heterotypic cell-cell adhesion, also observed in the skin fibrotic disorder scleroderma, culminates in the reciprocal activation of both mast cells and fibroblasts, leading to the cascade of events that promote fibrogenesis. Thus, we have identified roles for PAI1 in the multifactorial program of fibrogenesis that expand its functional repertoire beyond its canonical role in plasmin-dependent processes.

  10. PAI-1-dependent endothelial cell death determines severity of radiation-induced intestinal injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rym Abderrahmani

    Full Text Available Normal tissue toxicity still remains a dose-limiting factor in clinical radiation therapy. Recently, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (SERPINE1/PAI-1 was reported as an essential mediator of late radiation-induced intestinal injury. However, it is not clear whether PAI-1 plays a role in acute radiation-induced intestinal damage and we hypothesized that PAI-1 may play a role in the endothelium radiosensitivity. In vivo, in a model of radiation enteropathy in PAI-1 -/- mice, apoptosis of radiosensitive compartments, epithelial and microvascular endothelium was quantified. In vitro, the role of PAI-1 in the radiation-induced endothelial cells (ECs death was investigated. The level of apoptotic ECs is lower in PAI-1 -/- compared with Wt mice after irradiation. This is associated with a conserved microvascular density and consequently with a better mucosal integrity in PAI-1 -/- mice. In vitro, irradiation rapidly stimulates PAI-1 expression in ECs and radiation sensitivity is increased in ECs that stably overexpress PAI-1, whereas PAI-1 knockdown increases EC survival after irradiation. Moreover, ECs prepared from PAI-1 -/- mice are more resistant to radiation-induced cell death than Wt ECs and this is associated with activation of the Akt pathway. This study demonstrates that PAI-1 plays a key role in radiation-induced EC death in the intestine and suggests that this contributes strongly to the progression of radiation-induced intestinal injury.

  11. PAI-1 gain-of-function genotype, factors increasing PAI-1 levels, and airway obstruction: The GALA II Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherenian, M G; Cho, S H; Levin, A; Min, J-Y; Oh, S S; Hu, D; Galanter, J; Sen, S; Huntsman, S; Eng, C; Rodriguez-Santana, J R; Serebrisky, D; Avila, P C; Kalhan, R; Smith, L J; Borrell, L N; Seibold, M A; Keoki Williams, L; Burchard, E G; Kumar, R

    2017-09-01

    PAI-1 gain-of-function variants promote airway fibrosis and are associated with asthma and with worse lung function in subjects with asthma. We sought to determine whether the association of a gain-of-function polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with airway obstruction is modified by asthma status, and whether any genotype effect persists after accounting for common exposures that increase PAI-1 level. We studied 2070 Latino children (8-21y) with genotypic and pulmonary function data from the GALA II cohort. We estimated the relationship of the PAI-1 risk allele with FEV1/FVC by multivariate linear regression, stratified by asthma status. We examined the association of the polymorphism with asthma and airway obstruction within asthmatics via multivariate logistic regression. We replicated associations in the SAPPHIRE cohort of African Americans (n=1056). Secondary analysis included the effect of the at-risk polymorphism on postbronchodilator lung function. There was an interaction between asthma status and the PAI-1 polymorphism on FEV 1 /FVC (P=.03). The gain-of-function variants, genotypes (AA/AG), were associated with lower FEV 1 /FVC in subjects with asthma (β=-1.25, CI: -2.14,-0.35, P=.006), but not in controls. Subjects with asthma and the AA/AG genotypes had a 5% decrease in FEV 1 /FVC (P<.001). In asthmatics, the risk genotype (AA/AG) was associated with a 39% increase in risk of clinically relevant airway obstruction (OR=1.39, CI: 1.01, 1.92, P=.04). These associations persisted after exclusion of factors that increase PAI-1 including tobacco exposure and obesity. The decrease in the FEV 1 /FVC ratio associated with the risk genotype was modified by asthma status. The genotype increased the odds of airway obstruction by 75% within asthmatics only. As exposures known to increase PAI-1 levels did not mitigate this association, PAI-1 may contribute to airway obstruction in the context of chronic asthmatic airway inflammation. © 2017

  12. The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in Serbian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 has a major role in inhibition of firinolysis and normal haemostasis. The presence of the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype leads to increased expression of PAI-1. High blood level of PAI-1 is associated with many diseases such as thrombosis, cerebral insult, myocardial infarction, pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and asthma. In this study, the prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant was determined in healthy subjects from Serbian population. Methods: The study was carried out in a group of 210 healthy subjects (105 women and 105 men. The presence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant was detected by PCR-RFLP analysis. Results: The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/4G genotype was 34.76% and it was increased compared to PAI-1 5G/5G genotype (19.05%. The most frequent was PAI-1 4G/5G genotype (46.19%. Allelic frequency for 4G allele was higher (0.58 compared to 5G allele (0.42. Conclusions: The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in Serbian population is similar to the neighboring populations. Results of this study represent the first data for Serbian population. This study could be useful for further research where the role of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant will be assessed in the pathogenesis of many diseases.

  13. Night-time restricted feeding normalises clock genes and Pai-1 gene expression in the db/db mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, T; Akiyama, M; Kuriyama, K; Sudo, M; Moriya, T; Shibata, S

    2004-08-01

    An increase in PAI-1 activity is thought to be a key factor underlying myocardial infarction. Mouse Pai-1 (mPai-1) activity shows a daily rhythm in vivo, and its transcription seems to be controlled not only by clock genes but also by humoral factors such as insulin and triglycerides. Thus, we investigated daily clock genes and mPai-1 mRNA expression in the liver of db/db mice exhibiting high levels of glucose, insulin and triglycerides. Locomotor activity was measured using an infrared detection system. RT-PCR or in situ hybridisation methods were applied to measure gene expression. Humoral factors were measured using measurement kits. The db/ db mice showed attenuated locomotor activity rhythms. The rhythmic expression of mPer2 mRNA was severely diminished and the phase of mBmal1 oscillation was advanced in the db/db mouse liver, whereas mPai-1 mRNA was highly and constitutively expressed. Night-time restricted feeding led to a recovery not only from the diminished locomotor activity, but also from the diminished Per2 and advanced mBmal1 mRNA rhythms. Expression of mPai-1 mRNA in db/db mice was reduced to levels far below normal. Pioglitazone treatment slightly normalised glucose and insulin levels, with a slight reduction in mPai-1 gene expression. We demonstrated that Type 2 diabetes impairs the oscillation of the peripheral oscillator. Night-time restricted feeding rather than pioglitazone injection led to a recovery from the diminished locomotor activity, and altered oscillation of the peripheral clock and mPai-1 mRNA rhythm. Thus, we conclude that scheduled restricted food intake may be a useful form of treatment for diabetes.

  14. A rapid detection method for PAI-1 promoter insertion/deletion polymorphism (4G/5G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annichino-Bizzacchi Joyce M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 is an important inhibitor of fibrinolysis, and increased levels of PAI-1 are associated with atheroma and myocardial infarction. A common 4G/5G insertion/deletion polymorphism located in the promoter region of PAI-1 gene has been described associated with PAI-1 activity in plasma levels. Genotyping of this polymorphism is commonly conducted with an allele-specific oligonucleotide melting technique. In the present study, we describe a quick, easy method for genotyping 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene.

  15. Concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA in induced sputum of asthma patients after allergen challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Moniuszko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and its inhibitor (PAI-1 are involved in tiisue remodeling and repair processes associated with acute and chronic inflammation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of allergen challenge on concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputum of house dust mite allergic asthmatics (HDM-AAs. Thirty HDM-AAs and ten healthy persons (HCswere recruited for the study. In 24 HDM-AAs bronchial challenge with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp and in 6 HDM-AAs sham challenege with saline were performed. In HDM-AAs sputum was induced 24 hours before (T0 and 24 hours (T24 after the challenge. Concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputum were determined using immunoenzymatic assays. At T0 in HDM-AAs mean sputum uPA (151 Âą 96 pg/ml and PAI-1 (4341 Âą 1262 pg/ml concentrations were higher than in HC (18.8 Âą 6.7 pg/ml; p=0.0002 and 596 Âą 180 pg/ml; p<0.0001; for uPA and PAI-1 respectively. After allergen challenge further increase in sputum uPA (187 Âą 144 pg/ml; p=0.03 and PAI-1 (6252 Âą 2323 pg/ml; p<0.0001 concentrations were observed. Moreover, in Dp challenged, but not in saline challenged HDM-AAs the mean uPA/PAI-1 ratio decreased significantly at T24. No significant increase in the studied parameters were found in sham challenged patients. In HDM-AAs allergen exposure leads to activation of the plasmin system in the airways. Greater increase of the PAI-1 concentration than uPA concentration after allergen challenge may promote airway remodeling and play an important role in the development of bronchial hyperreactivity.

  16. Concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA in induced sputum of asthma patients after allergen challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kowal,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and its inhibitor (PAI-1 are involved in tiisue remodeling and repairprocesses associated with acute and chronic inflammation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of allergen challengeon concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputum of house dust mite allergic asthmatics (HDM-AAs. ThirtyHDM-AAs and ten healthy persons (HCswere recruited for the study. In 24 HDM-AAs bronchial challenge with Dermatophagoidespteronyssinus (Dp and in 6 HDM-AAs sham challenege with saline were performed. In HDM-AAs sputumwas induced 24 hours before (T0 and 24 hours (T24 after the challenge. Concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputumwere determined using immunoenzymatic assays. At T0 in HDM-AAs mean sputum uPA (151±96 pg/ml and PAI-1(4341±1262 pg/ml concentrations were higher than in HC (18.8±6.7 pg/ml; p=0.0002 and 596±180 pg/ml; p<0.0001; foruPA and PAI-1 respectively. After allergen challenge further increase in sputum uPA (187±144 pg/ml; p=0.03 and PAI-1(6252±2323 pg/ml; p<0.0001 concentrations were observed. Moreover, in Dp challenged, but not in saline challengedHDM-AAs the mean uPA/PAI-1 ratio decreased significantly at T24. No significant increase in the studied parameters werefound in sham challenged patients. In HDM-AAs allergen exposure leads to activation of the plasmin system in the airways.Greater increase of the PAI-1 concentration than uPA concentration after allergen challenge may promote airway remodelingand play an important role in the development of bronchial hyperreactivity.

  17. Expression of urokinase plasminogen activator, its receptor and type-1 inhibitor in malignant and benign prostate tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usher, Pernille Autzen; Thomsen, Ole Frøkjær; Iversen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The plasminogen activation (PA) cascade participates in degradation of extracellular matrix during cancer invasion. We have studied the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) mRNA, uPA receptor (uPAR) mRNA and immunoreactivity, and type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) m......RNA and immunoreactivity in 16 prostate adenocarcinomas and 9 benign prostate hyperplasias. uPA mRNA and uPAR mRNA expression were found in 9 and 8 of the adenocarcinomas, respectively, and in 7 and 6 of the benign hyperplasias, respectively. In both malignant and benign lesions, expression of these 2 m...... proximity to cancer cell islands. No immunoreactivity and/or mRNA expression of uPA, uPAR or PAI-1 was observed in cancer cells or in other epithelial cells in any of the cases....

  18. Epistatic effects of polymorphisms in genes from the renin-angiotensin, bradykinin, and fibrinolytic systems on plasma t-PA and PAI-1 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Williams, Scott M.; Hebert, Patricia R.; Coffey, Christopher S.; Hillege, Hans L.; Navis, Gerjan; Vaughan, Douglas E.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Moore, Jason H.

    Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) directly influence thrombus formation and degradation and thereby risk for arterial thrombosis. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system has been linked to the production of PAI-1 expression via the angiotensin II

  19. Does plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 drive lymphangiogenesis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruyère, Françoise; Melen-Lamalle, Laurence; Blacher, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the function of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) during pathological lymphangiogenesis. PAI-1, the main physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activators is involved in pathological angiogenesis at least by controlling extracellular proteolysis and...

  20. Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cell migration and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Niamh M. [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Joyce, Myles R. [Department of Colorectal Surgery, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland); Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O’Brien, Timothy [Regenerative Medicine Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kerin, Michael J. [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Dwyer, Roisin M., E-mail: roisin.dwyer@nuigalway.ie [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •MSCs were directly co-cultured with colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on 3D scaffolds. •MSCs influence CRC protein/gene expression, proliferation and migration. •We report a significant functional role of MSC-secreted PAI-1 in colon cancer. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to engraft and integrate into the architecture of colorectal tumours, with little known regarding their fate following engraftment. This study aimed to investigate mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) and colon cancer cell (CCC) interactions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and colon cancer cells (HT29 and HCT-116) were cultured individually or in co-culture on 3-dimensional scaffolds. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested at day 1, 3 and 7. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array, ELISA (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) and RQ-PCR. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation in response to recombinant PAI-1, MSCs and MSCs + antibody to PAI-1 was analyzed using Transwell inserts and an MTS proliferation assay respectively. Chemi-array revealed secretion of a wide range of factors by each cell population, including PAI-1and MIF. ELISA analysis revealed Mesenchymal Stem Cells to secrete the highest levels of PAI-1 (MSC mean 10.6 ng/mL, CCC mean 1.01 ng/mL), while colon cancer cells were the principal source of MIF. MSC-secreted PAI-1 stimulated significant migration of both CCC lines, with an antibody to the chemokine shown to block this effect (67–88% blocking,). A cell-line dependant effect on CCC proliferation was shown for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 with HCT-116 cells showing decreased proliferation at all concentrations, and HT29 cells showing increased proliferation in the presence of higher PAI-1 levels. This is the first study to identify PAI-1 as an important mediator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/colon cancer cell interactions and highlights the

  1. Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cell migration and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, Niamh M.; Joyce, Myles R.; Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O’Brien, Timothy; Kerin, Michael J.; Dwyer, Roisin M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •MSCs were directly co-cultured with colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on 3D scaffolds. •MSCs influence CRC protein/gene expression, proliferation and migration. •We report a significant functional role of MSC-secreted PAI-1 in colon cancer. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to engraft and integrate into the architecture of colorectal tumours, with little known regarding their fate following engraftment. This study aimed to investigate mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) and colon cancer cell (CCC) interactions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and colon cancer cells (HT29 and HCT-116) were cultured individually or in co-culture on 3-dimensional scaffolds. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested at day 1, 3 and 7. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array, ELISA (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) and RQ-PCR. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation in response to recombinant PAI-1, MSCs and MSCs + antibody to PAI-1 was analyzed using Transwell inserts and an MTS proliferation assay respectively. Chemi-array revealed secretion of a wide range of factors by each cell population, including PAI-1and MIF. ELISA analysis revealed Mesenchymal Stem Cells to secrete the highest levels of PAI-1 (MSC mean 10.6 ng/mL, CCC mean 1.01 ng/mL), while colon cancer cells were the principal source of MIF. MSC-secreted PAI-1 stimulated significant migration of both CCC lines, with an antibody to the chemokine shown to block this effect (67–88% blocking,). A cell-line dependant effect on CCC proliferation was shown for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 with HCT-116 cells showing decreased proliferation at all concentrations, and HT29 cells showing increased proliferation in the presence of higher PAI-1 levels. This is the first study to identify PAI-1 as an important mediator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/colon cancer cell interactions and highlights the

  2. Effects of Pharmacological Inhibition and Genetic Deficiency of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmani, Rym; Francois, Agnes; Buard, Valerie; Benderitter, Marc; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Crandall, David L.; Milliat, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate effects of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) genetic deficiency and pharmacological PAI-1 inhibition with PAI-039 in a mouse model of radiation-induced enteropathy. Methods and Materials: Wild-type (Wt) and PAI-1 -/- knockout mice received a single dose of 19 Gy to an exteriorized localized intestinal segment. Sham and irradiated Wt mice were treated orally with 1 mg/g of PAI-039. Histological modifications were quantified using a radiation injury score. Moreover, intestinal gene expression was monitored by real-time PCR. Results: At 3 days after irradiation, PAI-039 abolished the radiation-induced increase in the plasma active form of PAI-1 and limited the radiation-induced gene expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), CTGF, PAI-1, and COL1A2. Moreover, PAI-039 conferred temporary protection against early lethality. PAI-039 treatment limited the radiation-induced increase of CTGF and PAI-1 at 2 weeks after irradiation but had no effect at 6 weeks. Radiation injuries were less severe in PAI-1 -/- mice than in Wt mice, and despite the beneficial effect, 3 days after irradiation, PAI-039 had no effects on microscopic radiation injuries compared to untreated Wt mice. Conclusions: A genetic deficiency of PAI-1 is associated with amelioration of late radiation enteropathy. Pharmacological inhibition of PAI-1 by PAI-039 positively impacts the early, acute phase increase in plasma PAI-1 and the associated radiation-induced gene expression of inflammatory/extracellular matrix proteins. Since PAI-039 has been shown to inhibit the active form of PAI-1, as opposed to the complete loss of PAI-1 in the knockout animals, these data suggest that a PAI-1 inhibitor could be beneficial in treating radiation-induced tissue injury in acute settings where PAI-1 is elevated.

  3. Evaluation of 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 as Prognostic Markers in Prostate Cancer

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    Tomasz Gondek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In carcinoma of prostate, a causative role of platelet 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 for tumor progression has been firmly established in tumor and/or adjacent tissue. Our goal was to investigate if 12-LOX and/or PAI-1 in patient’s plasma could be used to predict outcome of the disease. The study comprised 149 patients (age 70±9 divided into two groups: a study group with carcinoma confirmed by positive biopsy of prostate (n=116 and a reference group (n=33 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The following parameters were determined by the laboratory test in plasma or platelet-rich plasma: protein level of 12-LOX, PAI-1, thromboglobulin (TGB, prostate specific antigen (PSA, C-reactive protein (CRP, hemoglobin (HGB, and hematocrit (HCT, as well as red (RBC and white blood cells (WBC, number of platelets (PLT, international normalized ratio of blood clotting (INR, and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT. The only difference of significance was noticed in the concentration of 12-LOX in platelet rich plasma, which was lower in cancer than in BPH group. Standardization to TGB and platelet count increases the sensitivity of the test that might be used as a biomarker to assess risk for prostate cancer in periodically monitored patients.

  4. Association of plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G gene polymorphism with survival and chemotherapy-related vascular toxicity in non-seminomatous testicular cancer (TC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, E. C.; Zwart, N.; Meijer, C.; Boezen, H. M.; Suurmeijer, A. J.; van der Meer, J.; Hoekstra, H. J.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Sleijffer, D. T.; Gietema, J. A.

    5083 Background: High PAI-1 expression by tumor has been associated with poor prognosis in different cancer types, while high systemic PAI-1 levels may increase the risk of vascular thrombosis. We investigated whether the 4G/5G del/ins polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter (rs1799889; 4G might lead to

  5. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 regulates microglial motility and phagocytic activity

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    Jeon Hyejin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 is the primary inhibitor of urokinase type plasminogen activators (uPA and tissue type plasminogen activators (tPA, which mediate fibrinolysis. PAI-1 is also involved in the innate immunity by regulating cell migration and phagocytosis. However, little is known about the role of PAI-1 in the central nervous system. Methods In this study, we identified PAI-1 in the culture medium of mouse mixed glial cells by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Secretion of PAI-1 from glial cultures was detected by ELISA and western blotting analysis. Cell migration was evaluated by in vitro scratch-wound healing assay or Boyden chamber assay and an in vivo stab wound injury model. Phagocytic activity was measured by uptake of zymosan particles. Results The levels of PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression were increased by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ stimulation in both microglia and astrocytes. PAI-1 promoted the migration of microglial cells in culture via the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP 1/Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1 axis. PAI-1 also increased microglial migration in vivo when injected into mouse brain. PAI-1-mediated microglial migration was independent of protease inhibition, because an R346A mutant of PAI-1 with impaired PA inhibitory activity also promoted microglial migration. Moreover, PAI-1 was able to modulate microglial phagocytic activity. PAI-1 inhibited microglial engulfment of zymosan particles in a vitronectin- and Toll-like receptor 2/6-dependent manner. Conclusion Our results indicate that glia-derived PAI-1 may regulate microglial migration and phagocytosis in an autocrine or paracrine manner. This may have important implications in the regulation of brain microglial activities in health and disease.

  6. Gene expression of fibrinolytic factors urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in rabbit temporo-mandibular joint cartilage with disc displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jing; Gu, Zhi-yuan; Wu, Li-qun; Zhang, Yin-kai; Hu, Ji-an

    2005-06-20

    The urokinase plasminogen activator system is believed to play an important role in degradation of the extracellular matrix associated with cartilage and bone destruction; however its precise roles in temporomandibular disorders have not yet been clarified. The aims of this study were to investigate the gene expression of fibrinolytic factors urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the articular cartilage of rabbit temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with disc displacement (DD) and to probe the relationship between fibrinolytic activity and cartilage remodeling. Disc displacement of right joints was performed in 36 of 78 rabbits under investigation. The animals were sacrificed at 4 days and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, respectively. The right joints of these animals were harvested and processed for the examination of mRNA expression of uPA and PAI-1 in articular cartilage using in situ hybridization techniques. The expression of uPA and PAI-1 was co-expressed weakly in the chondrocytes from transitive zone to hypertrophic zone and mineralized zone, while no hybridizing signals were shown in proliferative zone and superficial zone in control rabbits. The most striking was the up-regulation of uPA and PAI-1 mRNA in 4-day rabbits postoperatively at the onset of cartilage degeneration. The strongest hybridizing signals for uPA and PAI-1 were seen in 2-week rabbits postoperatively. After 2 weeks, the expression of uPA and PAI-1 began to decrease and reached nearly normal level at 12 weeks. The expression of the uPA/PAI-1 system coincides with the pathological changes in condylar cartilage after DD. The uPA/PAI-1 system may be one of the essential mediators in articular cartilage remodeling.

  7. Resolving distinct molecular origins for copper effects on PAI-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Joel C; McClintock, Carlee S; Chu, Yuzhuo; Ware, Gregory L; McConnell, Kayla D; Emerson, Joseph P; Peterson, Cynthia B

    2017-10-01

    Components of the fibrinolytic system are subjected to stringent control to maintain proper hemostasis. Central to this regulation is the serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which is responsible for specific and rapid inhibition of fibrinolytic proteases. Active PAI-1 is inherently unstable and readily converts to a latent, inactive form. The binding of vitronectin and other ligands influences stability of active PAI-1. Our laboratory recently observed reciprocal effects on the stability of active PAI-1 in the presence of transition metals, such as copper, depending on the whether vitronectin was also present (Thompson et al. Protein Sci 20:353-365, 2011). To better understand the molecular basis for these copper effects on PAI-1, we have developed a gel-based copper sensitivity assay that can be used to assess the copper concentrations that accelerate the conversion of active PAI-1 to a latent form. The copper sensitivity of wild-type PAI-1 was compared with variants lacking N-terminal histidine residues hypothesized to be involved in copper binding. In these PAI-1 variants, we observed significant differences in copper sensitivity, and these data were corroborated by latency conversion kinetics and thermodynamics of copper binding by isothermal titration calorimetry. These studies identified a copper-binding site involving histidines at positions 2 and 3 that confers a remarkable stabilization of PAI-1 beyond what is observed with vitronectin alone. A second site, independent from the two histidines, binds metal and increases the rate of the latency conversion.

  8. Prognostic significance of urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA expression in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leissner, Philippe; Verjat, Thibault; Bachelot, Thomas; Paye, Malick; Krause, Alexander; Puisieux, Alain; Mougin, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    One of the most thoroughly studied systems in relation to its prognostic relevance in patients with breast cancer, is the plasminogen activation system that comprises of, among others, the urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA) and its main inhibitor, the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of uPA and PAI-1 at the mRNA level in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The study included a retrospective series of 87 patients with hormone-receptor positive and axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer. All patients received radiotherapy, adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy and five years of tamoxifen treatment. The median patient age was 54 and the median follow-up time was 79 months. Distant relapse occurred in 30 patients and 22 patients died from breast cancer during follow-up. We investigated the prognostic value of uPA and PAI-1 at the mRNA level as measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. uPA and PAI-1 gene expression was not found to be correlated with any of the established clinical and pathological factors. Metastasis-free Survival (MFS) and Breast Cancer specific Survival (BCS) were significantly shorter in patients expressing high levels of PAI-1 mRNA (p < 0.0001; p < 0.0001; respectively). In Cox multivariate analysis, the level of PAI-1 mRNA appeared to be the strongest prognostic factor for MFS (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 10.12; p = 0.0002) and for BCS (HR = 13.17; p = 0.0003). Furthermore, uPA gene expression was not significantly associated neither with MFS (p = 0.41) nor with BCS (p = 0.19). In a Cox-multivariate regression analysis, uPA expression did not demonstrate significant independent prognostic value. These findings indicate that high PAI-1 mRNA expression represents a strong and independent unfavorable prognostic factor for the development of metastases and for breast cancer specific survival in a population of hormone receptor- and lymph node-positive breast cancer

  9. Prognostic significance of urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA expression in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

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    Krause Alexander

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most thoroughly studied systems in relation to its prognostic relevance in patients with breast cancer, is the plasminogen activation system that comprises of, among others, the urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA and its main inhibitor, the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of uPA and PAI-1 at the mRNA level in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Methods The study included a retrospective series of 87 patients with hormone-receptor positive and axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer. All patients received radiotherapy, adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy and five years of tamoxifen treatment. The median patient age was 54 and the median follow-up time was 79 months. Distant relapse occurred in 30 patients and 22 patients died from breast cancer during follow-up. We investigated the prognostic value of uPA and PAI-1 at the mRNA level as measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results uPA and PAI-1 gene expression was not found to be correlated with any of the established clinical and pathological factors. Metastasis-free Survival (MFS and Breast Cancer specific Survival (BCS were significantly shorter in patients expressing high levels of PAI-1 mRNA (p PAI-1 mRNA appeared to be the strongest prognostic factor for MFS (Hazard Ratio (HR = 10.12; p = 0.0002 and for BCS (HR = 13.17; p = 0.0003. Furthermore, uPA gene expression was not significantly associated neither with MFS (p = 0.41 nor with BCS (p = 0.19. In a Cox-multivariate regression analysis, uPA expression did not demonstrate significant independent prognostic value. Conclusion These findings indicate that high PAI-1 mRNA expression represents a strong and independent unfavorable prognostic factor for the development of metastases and for breast cancer specific survival in a population of hormone receptor- and lymph node-positive breast cancer patients.

  10. Radiation induced changes in the expression of fibronectin, Pai-1, MMP in rat glomerular epithelial cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Yoon; Kim, Won Dong; Zheng, Ying; Ha, Tae Sun; Kim, Jae Sung; Cho, Moon June

    2006-01-01

    Renal irradiation can lead to the development of radiation nephropathy, and this is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix and final fibrosis. To determine the possible role of the glomerular epithelial cell, the radiation-induced changes in the expression of its genes associated with the extracellular matrix were analyzed. Rat glomerular epithelial cells (GEpC) were irradiated with a single dose of 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 Gy with using 6 MV LINAC (Siemens, USA), and the samples were collected 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-irradiation, respectively. Northern blotting, western blotting and zymography were used to measure the expression level of fibronectin (Fn), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (Pai-1), matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, 9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Irradiation with a single dose of 10 Gy resulted in a significant increase in Fn mRNA since 24 hours post-irradiation, and a single dose of 5 and 10 Gy significantly increased the Fn immunoreactive protein measured 48 hours post-irradiation. An increase in Pai-mRNA and protein was also observed and especially, a single dose of 10 Gy significantly increased the mRNA measured 24 and 48 hours post-irradiation. The active MMP-2 measured 24 hours post-irradiation slightly increased in a dose dependent manner, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. The levels of MMP-9, TIMP-2, t-PA and u-PA appeared unaltered after irradiation. Irradiation of the glomerular epithelial cells altered the expression of genes associated with the extracellular matrix, implying that the glomerular epithelial cell may be involved in the development of radiation nephropathy

  11. Radiation induced changes in the expression of fibronectin, Pai-1, MMP in rat glomerular epithelial cell

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    Park, Woo Yoon; Kim, Won Dong; Zheng, Ying; Ha, Tae Sun [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Sung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Moon June [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Renal irradiation can lead to the development of radiation nephropathy, and this is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix and final fibrosis. To determine the possible role of the glomerular epithelial cell, the radiation-induced changes in the expression of its genes associated with the extracellular matrix were analyzed. Rat glomerular epithelial cells (GEpC) were irradiated with a single dose of 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 Gy with using 6 MV LINAC (Siemens, USA), and the samples were collected 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-irradiation, respectively. Northern blotting, western blotting and zymography were used to measure the expression level of fibronectin (Fn), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (Pai-1), matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, 9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Irradiation with a single dose of 10 Gy resulted in a significant increase in Fn mRNA since 24 hours post-irradiation, and a single dose of 5 and 10 Gy significantly increased the Fn immunoreactive protein measured 48 hours post-irradiation. An increase in Pai-mRNA and protein was also observed and especially, a single dose of 10 Gy significantly increased the mRNA measured 24 and 48 hours post-irradiation. The active MMP-2 measured 24 hours post-irradiation slightly increased in a dose dependent manner, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. The levels of MMP-9, TIMP-2, t-PA and u-PA appeared unaltered after irradiation. Irradiation of the glomerular epithelial cells altered the expression of genes associated with the extracellular matrix, implying that the glomerular epithelial cell may be involved in the development of radiation nephropathy.

  12. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and plasma levels association in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana Moreira; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Fonseca Neto, Cirilo Pereira; Garcia, José Carlos Faria; Sousa, Marinez Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism may influence the PAI-1 expression. High plasma levels of PAI-1 are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study investigated the influence of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism on plasma PAI-1 levels and its association with CAD assessed by coronary angiography. Blood sample of 35 individuals with angiographically normal coronary arteries, 31 individuals presenting mild/moderate atheromatosis, 57 individuals presenting severe atheromatosis and 38 healthy individuals (controls) were evaluated. In patients and controls, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was determined by PCR amplification using allele-specific primers. Plasma PAI-1 levels were quantified by ELISA assay (American Diagnostica). No difference was found between groups regarding age, gender and body mass index. Plasma PAI-1 levels and 4G/4G genotype frequency were significantly higher in the severe atheromatosis group compared to the other groups (p5G/5G genotype (r=0.02, p=0.4511). In addition, in a multiple logistic regression model, adjusted for all the other variables, PAI-1 was observed to be independently associated with CAD > 70% (p<0.001). The most important finding of this study was the association between 4G/4G genotype, high plasma PAI-1 levels and coronary stenosis higher than 70% in Brazilian individuals. Whether high plasma PAI-1 levels are a decisive factor for atherosclerosis worsening or it is a consequence remains to be established.

  13. Association of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Gene -675 4G/5G and -844 A/G promoter polymorphism with risk of keloid in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Long, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yang

    2014-10-28

    A keloid is pathological scar caused by aberrant response to skin injuries, characterized by excessive accumulation of histological extracellular matrix, and occurs in genetically susceptible individuals. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of keloid. We investigated the association between PAI-1 polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with keloid risk. A total of 242 Chinese keloid patients and 207 controls were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction technique was used to determine PAI-1 promoter polymorphism (-675 4G/5G and -844 A/G) distribution. Plasma PAI-1 levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism between keloid patients and healthy controls. 4G/4G carriers were more likely to develop keloid. In contrast, the -844 A/G polymorphism distribution did not vary significantly between keloid patients and controls. The keloid patients group had a significantly higher plasma PAI-1 level than the control group. In the -675 4G/4G carrier population, the plasma PAI-1 levels were significant higher in keloid patients compared with controls. Our study provides evidence that PAI-1 promoter polymorphism -675 4G/5G and plasma PAI-1 level are associated with keloid risk. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism may be an important hereditary factor responsible for keloid development in the Chinese Han population.

  14. 4G/4G Genotype of PAI-1 Gene Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Stroke in Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, T.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kluft, C.; Giltay, E.J.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 ( PAI- 1) is the main inhibitor of fibrinolysis, and high levels may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The 4G/ 5G polymorphism affects PAI- 1 gene transcription with lower levels of plasma PAI- 1 in the presence of the 5G

  15. Inhibition of endothelial cell expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 by gemfibrozil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, S; Sawa, H; Sobel, B E

    1993-10-18

    Increased concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) in plasma are associated with impaired fibrinolysis and venous and arterial thrombo-embolic disease. In pilot studies designed to identify pharmacologic approaches capable of diminishing such increases, we found that gemfibrozil attenuated the stimulation of synthesis of PAI-1 in a human, immortal, hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) induced by platelets. The present study was performed to determine whether it exerts analogous effects in non-immortal endothelial cells and whether it may therefore facilitate fibrinolysis locally in vivo. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with pharmacologic concentrations of gemfibrozil. Gemfibrozil, 100 microM, suppressed basal PAI-1 production by 15% and attenuated the augmentation of synthesis of PAI-1 induced by lysates from platelets (4 x 10(7)/ml) by 36% over 24 h without inhibiting overall protein synthesis. In addition, the increases in PAI-1 mRNA otherwise induced by platelet lysates over 6 h were suppressed by 49% (Northern blots) without any demonstrable change in the intracellular half-life of PAI-1 mRNA. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated diminution of PAI-1 protein synthesis in parallel with the changes observed in PAI-1 mRNA. To determine whether these effects of gemfibrozil on endothelial cells in vitro were paralleled by consistent changes in the concentrations of PAI-1 in plasma in vivo, we studied rabbits with induced carotid artery thrombosis and thrombolysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 on adipogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroyen, Ilse; Jacobs, Frank; Cosemans, Leen; De Geest, Bart; Lijnen, H Roger

    2009-02-01

    To study the functional role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in obesity, the effect of its overexpression on de novo adipogenesis was evaluated in murine models in vivo. Therefore, 3T3-F442A preadipocytes expressing murine PAI-1 (mPAI-1) or control cells were injected in the back of male NUDE mice, which were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for four weeks. De novo fat pads that formed from the PAI-1 expressing cells were larger (21 +/- 2.4 mg vs. 14 +/- 1.4 mg; p = 0.017) and showed a higher adipocyte density (373 +/- 28 mm(-2) vs. 301 +/- 12 mm(-2); p = 0.03) as compared to those formed from control cells. In a second model, male NUDE mice were injected in the tail vein with an adenoviral construct expressing mPAI-1 or with the empty vector, and three days later with 3T3-F442A cells. After four weeks of HFD, total body weight and de novo fat pad weight were comparable for both groups. Mild adipocyte hypotrophy was observed in the de novo fat pads of the PAI-1 overexpressing mice (1180 +/- 33 microm(2) vs. 1285 +/- 32 microm(2); p = 0.024), whereas the blood vessel size was significantly smaller than in controls (30 +/- 1.8 microm(2) vs. 63 +/- 3.6 microm(2); p < 0.0001). Thus, the effect of local or systemic PAI-1 (over)expression on adipocyte or blood vessel size and density of de novo formed fat pads appears to be different, and concentration-dependent. Whereas local expression resulted in larger fat pads, systemic overexpression had no effect on de novo adipogenesis, although angiogenesis appeared to be impaired.

  17. A non-lethal traumatic/hemorrhagic insult strongly modulates the compartment-specific PAI-1 response in the subsequent polymicrobial sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Raeven

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 is a key factor in trauma- and sepsis-induced coagulopathy. We examined how trauma-hemorrhage (TH modulates PAI-1 responses in subsequent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP-induced sepsis, and the association of PAI-1 with septic outcomes. METHODS: Mice underwent TH and CLP 48 h later in three separate experiments. In experiment 1, mice were sacrificed pre- and post-CLP to characterize the trajectory of PAI-1 in plasma (protein and tissues (mRNA. Post-CLP dynamics in TH-CLP (this study and CLP-Only mice (prior study were then compared for modulatory effects of TH. In experiment 2, to relate PAI-1 changes to outcome, mice underwent TH-CLP and were sampled daily and followed for 14 days to compare non-survivors (DEAD and survivors (SUR. In experiment 3, plasma and tissue PAI-1 expression were compared between mice predicted to die (P-DIE and to live (P-LIVE. RESULTS: In experiment 1, an early post-TH rise of circulating PAI-1 was contrasted by a delayed (post-TH decrease of PAI-1 mRNA in organs. In the post-CLP phase, profiles of circulating PAI-1 were similar between TH-CLP and CLP-Only mice. Conversely, PAI-1 mRNA declined in the liver and heart of TH-CLP mice versus CLP-Only. In experiment 2, there were no DEAD/SUR differences in circulating PAI-1 prior to CLP. Post-CLP, circulating PAI-1 in DEAD was 2-4-fold higher than in SUR. PAI-1 increase heralded septic deaths up to 48 h prior but DEAD/SUR thrombomodulin (endothelial injury marker levels were identical. In experiment 3, levels of circulating PAI-1 and its hepatic gene expression were higher in P-DIE versus P-LIVE mice and those increases closely correlated with liver dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma modulated septic PAI-1 responses in a compartment-specific fashion. Only post-CLP increases in circulating PAI-1 predicted septic outcomes. In posttraumatic sepsis, pre-lethal release of PAI-1 was mostly of hepatic origin and was independent

  18. Low plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in thyroid carcinoma: uPA/PAI-1 paradox in cancer proggression

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    Bekir Ucan

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Serum PAI-1 levels were lower in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Our results might support the thesis of PAI-1 is expected to suppress cancer progression due to its ability to inhibit urokinase plasminogen activator activity. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(2.000: 121-125

  19. 4G/5G polymorphism modulates PAI-1 circulating levels in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Karla S; Sandrim, Valéria C

    2012-05-01

    The increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) has been described as a risk factor to thrombosis-related diseases. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the variant 4G of polymorphism 4G/5G located in promoter region of PAI-1 gene is associated with higher PAI-1 levels. We investigate the role of this polymorphism on circulating PAI-1 concentration in a population of 57 obese women (23%, 4G/4G; 49%, 4G/5G and 28%, 5G/5G genotypes). Our results demonstrate a genotype-specific modulation on PAI-1 levels in obese women, thus 5G/5G genotype presented significantly lower levels of plasma PAI-1 when compared to 4G/4G group (46 ± 19 ng/mL vs. 63 ± 13 ng/mL, respectively). Our findings indicate that obese carriers of 4G/4G genotype may have increased risk to develop thrombotic diseases.

  20. Tissue- and agonist-specific regulation of human and murine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoters in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, M; Painter, C A; Gleaves, L A; Schoenhard, J A; Atkinson, J B; Brown, N J; Vaughan, D E

    2003-11-01

    Numerous studies have described regulatory factors and sequences that control transcriptional responses in vitro. However, there is a paucity of information on the qualitative and quantitative regulation of heterologous promoters using transgenic strategies. In order to investigate the physiological regulation of human plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (hPAI-1) expression in vivo compared to murine PAI-1 (mPAI-1) and to test the physiological relevance of regulatory mechanisms described in vitro, we generated transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) driven by the proximal -2.9 kb of the hPAI-1 promoter. Transgenic animals were treated with Ang II, TGF-beta1 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to compare the relative activation of the human and murine PAI-1 promoters. Ang II increased EGFP expression most effectively in brain, kidney and spleen, while mPAI-1 expression was quantitatively enhanced most prominently in heart and spleen. TGF-beta1 failed to induce activation of the hPAI-1 promoter but potently stimulated mPAI-1 in kidney and spleen. LPS administration triggered robust expression of mPAI-1 in liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen and lung, while EGFP was induced only modestly in heart and kidney. These results indicate that the transcriptional response of the endogenous mPAI-1 promoter varies widely in terms of location and magnitude of response to specific stimuli. Moreover, the physiological regulation of PAI-1 expression likely involves a complex interaction of transcription factors and DNA sequences that are not adequately replicated by in vitro functional studies focused on the proximal -2.9 kb promoter.

  1. Monitoring PAI-1 and VEGF Levels in 6 Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma Xenografts During Fractionated Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Christine; Kielow, Achim; Schilling, Daniela; Maftei, Constantin-Alin; Zips, Daniel; Yaromina, Ala; Baumann, Michael; Molls, Michael; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that the plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are regulated by hypoxia and irradiation and are involved in neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo whether changes in PAI-1 and VEGF during fractionated irradiation could predict for radiation resistance. Methods and Materials: Six xenografted tumor lines from human squamous cell carcinomas (HSCC) of the head and neck were irradiated with 0, 3, 5, 10, and 15 daily fractions of 2 Gy. The PAI-1 and VEGF antigen levels in tumor lysates were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The amounts of PAI-1 and VEGF were compared with the dose to cure 50% of tumors (TCD 50 ). Colocalization of PAI-1, pimonidazole (hypoxia), CD31 (endothelium), and Hoechst 33342 (perfusion) was examined by immunofluorescence. Results: Human PAI-1 and VEGF (hVEGF) expression levels were induced by fractionated irradiation in UT-SCC-15, UT-SCC-14, and UT-SCC-5 tumors, and mouse VEGF (msVEGF) was induced only in UT-SCC-5 tumors. High hVEGF levels were significantly associated with radiation sensitivity after 5 fractions (P=.021), and high msVEGF levels were significantly associated with radiation resistance after 10 fractions (P=.007). PAI-1 staining was observed in the extracellular matrix, the cytoplasm of fibroblast-like stroma cells, and individual tumor cells at all doses of irradiation. Colocalization studies showed PAI-1 staining close to microvessels. Conclusions: These results indicate that the concentration of tumor-specific and host-specific VEGF during fractionated irradiation could provide considerably divergent information for the outcome of radiation therapy.

  2. Studies on the mechanism of fibrate-inhibited expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in cultured hepatocytes from cynomolgus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.; Kooistra, T.

    1997-01-01

    Fibrates are widely used drugs in hyperlipidemic disorders. In addition to lowering serum triglyceride levels, fibrates have also been shown to reduce elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in vivo. We demonstrate that fibrates suppress PAI-1 synthesis in cultured

  3. Pentoxifylline Regulates Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression and Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation in Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis

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    Jong-Geol Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF is a serious late complication of radiotherapy. In vitro studies have demonstrated that pentoxifylline (PTX has suppressing effects in extracellular matrix production in fibroblasts, while the antifibrotic action of PTX alone using clinical dose is yet unexplored. Materials and Methods. We used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histopathological analysis to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of PTX in a rat model of RILF. Results. Micro-CT findings showed that lung density, volume loss, and mediastinal shift are significantly increased at 16 weeks after irradiation. Simultaneously, histological analysis demonstrated thickening of alveolar walls, destruction of alveolar structures, and excessive collagen deposition in the irradiated lung. PTX treatment effectively attenuated the fibrotic changes based on both micro-CT and histopathological analyses. Western analysis also revealed increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor- (PAI- 1 and fibronectin (FN and PTX treatment reduced expression of PAI-1 and FN by restoring protein kinase A (PKA phosphorylation but not TGF-β/Smad in both irradiated lung tissues and epithelial cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the antifibrotic effect of PTX on radiation-induced lung fibrosis and its effect on modulation of PKA and PAI-1 expression as possible antifibrotic mechanisms.

  4. Platelets retain high levels of active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

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    Helén Brogren

    Full Text Available The vascular fibrinolytic system is crucial for spontaneous lysis of blood clots. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, the principal inhibitor of the key fibrinolytic enzyme tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, is present in platelets at high concentrations. However, the majority of PAI-1 stored in platelets has been considered to be inactive. Our recent finding (Brogren H, et al. Blood 2004 that PAI-1 de novo synthesized in platelets remained active for over 24 h, suggested that PAI-1 stored in the α-granules might be active to a larger extent than previously reported. To re-evaluate this issue, we performed experiments where the fraction of active PAI-1 was estimated by analyzing the tPA-PAI-1 complex formation. In these experiments platelets were lysed with Triton X-100 in the presence of serial dilutions of tPA and subsequently the tPA-PAI-1 complex was evaluated by Western blot. Also, using a non-immunologic assay, tPA was labeled with (125I, and (125I-tPA and (125I-tPA-PAI-1 was quantified by scintigraphy. Interestingly, both methods demonstrated that the majority (>50% of platelet PAI-1 is active. Further analyses suggested that pre-analytical procedures used in previous studies (sonication or freezing/thawing may have substantially reduced the activity of platelet PAI-1, which has lead to an underestimation of the proportion of active PAI-1. Our in vitro results are more compatible with the role of PAI-1 in clot stabilization as demonstrated in physiological and pathophysiological studies.

  5. Differential Regulation of PAI-1 in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bellomo, Carla; Korva, Miša; Papa, Anna; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Vaheri, Antti; Martinez, Valeria P; Strandin, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed the levels of circulating tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)–1 in acute hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The levels of tPA commonly increased in both diseases, whereas PAI-1 correlated with disease severity in HCPS but not in HFRS.

  6. Associação de níveis plasmáticos de PAI-1 e polimorfismo 4G/5G em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and plasma levels association in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Moreira Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O polimorfismo 4G/5G do inibidor ativador do plasminogênio tipo 1 (PAI-1 pode influenciar a expressão do PAI-1. Níveis plasmáticos elevados de PAI-1 estão associados com Doença Arterial Coronariana (DAC. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a influência do polimorfismo 4G/5G do PAI-1 nos níveis plasmáticos de PAI-1 e sua associação com DAC avaliada por angiografia coronária. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliada amostra de sangue de 35 indivíduos com artérias coronárias angiograficamente normais, 31 indivíduos apresentando ateromatose leve/moderada, 57 indivíduos apresentando ateromatose grave e 38 indivíduos saudáveis (controles. Em pacientes e controles, o polimorfismo 4G/5G do PAI-1 foi determinado por amplificação da proteína-C reativa utilizando primers específicos de alelo. Os níveis plasmáticos de PAI-1 foram quantificados pelo ensaio ELISA (American Diagnostica. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto a sexo, idade e índice de massa corporal. Níveis plasmáticos de PAI-1 e frequência do genótipo 4G/4G mostravam-se significativamente maiores no grupo com ateromatose grave em comparação com os outros grupos (p 70% (p BACKGROUND: Type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may influence the PAI-1 expression. High plasma levels of PAI-1 are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism on plasma PAI-1 levels and its association with CAD assessed by coronary angiography. METHODS: Blood sample of 35 individuals with angiographycally normal coronary arteries, 31 individuals presenting mild/moderate atheromatosis, 57 individuals presenting severe atheromatosis and 38 healthy individuals (controls were evaluated. In patients and controls, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was determined by PCR amplification using allele-specific primers. Plasma PAI-1 levels were quantified by ELISA assay (American Diagnostica

  7. Relationship between post-SARS osteonecrosis and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Zirong; Shi, Zhengcai; Wang, Bailiang; Gao, Fuqiang; Yang, Yurun; Guo, Wanshou

    2014-05-01

    To explore the correlation between post-severe acute respiratory symptom (SARS) patients with osteonecrosis, investigate the etiology of post-SARS osteonecrosis and select the sensitive molecular symbols for early diagnosis and distinguish the high-risk population. The studied subjects were divided into two groups. Sixty-two post-SARS patients with osteonecrosis were one group, and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy people were as normal controlled group. Empty stomach blood samples from cubital veins were collected from both groups. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction and solid phase oligonucleotide assay. The blood agents of post-SARS patients changed obviously with 15.64 ± 13.85 U/ml while the control group 7.96 ± 4.27 U/ml; 4G/4G genotype for the PAI-1 polymorphism detected in post-SARS group was more than that of the control group, but had no statistical significance. The plasma PAI activity was related to homozygote 4G/4G genotype. This reveals that homozygote 4G/4G genotype may be a susceptible gene mark to Chinese osteonecrosis patients. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is sensitive blood symbol for screening high-risk susceptible population; 4G/4G PAI-1 genotype may be an etiological factor in osteonecrosis.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: complete plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well studied in a large family belonging to the Old Order Amish population of eastern and southern Indiana. Additional cases in North ... Human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) deficiency: characterization of a large kindred with a null mutation in the PAI-1 gene. Blood. 1997 Jul 1;90( ...

  9. Increased Umbilical Cord PAI-1 Levels in Placental Insufficiency Are Associated with Fetal Hypoxia and Angiogenesis

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    Maxim D. Seferovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, a subset of pregnancies undergoes placental vascular dysregulation resulting in restricted blood flow and fetal hypoxemia. Altered transcription of hypoxic regulated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 has been associated with pregnancy complications and angiogenic regulation. Here we assessed circulating PAI-1 as an indicator of placental insufficiency. Venous umbilical PAI-1 of hypoxemic (VpO2 20 versus 35 mmHg, p<0.0001 placental insufficient pregnancies (resistance index 0.9 versus 0.63, p<0.05 (n=18 was compared to controls (n=12. PAI-1 was increased (~10-fold, p<0.001 and had a positive predictive ratio of 6.7. Further, PAI-1 levels correlated to blood oxygen (r=-0.68, p<0.0001. The plasma’s angiogenic potency measured in vitro was associated with umbilical cord blood PAI-1 levels (r=0.65, p<0.01. This association was attenuated by PAI-1 inhibiting antibody (p<0.001. The results demonstrate PAI-1 as a potential marker of placental insufficiency and identify its close association with pathological hypoxia and angiogenesis in a subset of growth restricted pregnancies.

  10. Differential control of MMP and t-PA/PAI-1 expressions by sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems in rat left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dab, Houcine; Hachani, Rafik; Hodroj, Wassim; Sakly, Mohsen; Bricca, Giampiero; Kacem, Kamel

    2009-10-05

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II (Ang II) has both direct (via AT1 receptors) and indirect (via sympathostimulator pathway) actions on the synthesis and activity of the enzymes involved in the extracellular matrix degradation in vivo. For this purpose, sympathectomy and blockade of the Ang II receptor AT1 were performed alone or in combination in normotensive rats. The mRNA of the plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1), the mRNA, protein and activity of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 were examined by Q-RT-PCR, immunoblotting and zymographic methods in the left ventricle. t-PA and PAI-1 mRNA were decreased after sympathectomy and remained unchanged after AT1 receptors blockade. mRNA was increased for t-PA and decreased by similar degree for PAI-1 after double treatment. MMPs mRNA and protein levels were decreased either after sympathectomy or AT1 receptors blockade and an additive effect was acquired after double treatment. MMPs activity was decreased by similar degree in the three treated groups. Deducted interpretations from our experimental approach suggest that Ang II inhibits directly (via AT1 receptors) and indirectly (via sympathostimulator pathway) t-PA mRNA synthesis. It seems unable to influence directly PAI-1 mRNA, but stimulates indirectly PAI-1 mRNA synthesis. Ang II stimulates directly (via AT1 receptors) and indirectly (via sympathostimulator pathway) MMPs synthesis at both transcriptional and protein levels. The enzymatic activity of MMPs does not seem to be influenced directly by Ang II but it could be stimulated indirectly (via sympathostimulator pathway).

  11. Accessibility of receptor-bound urokinase to type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubellis, M.V.; Andreasen, P.; Ragno, P.; Mayer, M.; Dano, K.; Blasi, F. (Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1989-07-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) interacts with a surface receptor and with specific inhibitors, such as plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). These interactions are mediated by two functionally independent domains of the molecule: the catalytic domain (at the carboxyl terminus) and the growth factor domain (at the amino terminus). The authors have now investigated whether PAI-1 can bind and inhibit receptor-bound uPA. Binding of {sup 125}I-labeled ATF (amino-terminal fragment of uPA) to human U937 monocyte-like cells can be competed for by uPA-PAI-1 complexes, but not by PAI-1 alone. Preformed {sup 125}I-labeled uPA-PAI-1 complexes can bind to uPA receptor with the same binding specificity as uPA. PAI-1 also binds to, and inhibits the activity of, receptor-bound uPA in U937 cells, as shown in U937 cells by a caseinolytic plaque assay. Plasminogen activator activity of these cells is dependent on exogenous uPA, is competed for by receptor-binding diisopropyl fluorophosphate-treated uPA, and is inhibited by the addition of PAI-1. In conclusion, in U937 cells the binding to the receptor does not shield uPA from the action of PAI-1. The possibility that in adherent cells a different localization of PAI-1 and uPA leads to protection of uPA from PAI-1 is to be considered.

  12. IMD-4690, a novel specific inhibitor for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, reduces allergic airway remodeling in a mouse model of chronic asthma via regulating angiogenesis and remodeling-related mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshifumi Tezuka

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 is the principal inhibitor of plasminogen activators, and is responsible for the degradation of fibrin and extracellular matrix. IMD-4690 is a newly synthesized inhibitor for PAI-1, whereas the effect on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling is still unclear. We examined the in vivo effects by using a chronic allergen exposure model of bronchial asthma in mice. The model was generated by an immune challenge for 8 weeks with house dust mite antigen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp. IMD-4690 was intraperitoneally administered during the challenge. Lung histopathology, hyperresponsiveness and the concentrations of mediators in lung homogenates were analyzed. The amount of active PAI-1 in the lungs was increased in mice treated with Dp. Administration with IMD-4690 reduced an active/total PAI-1 ratio. IMD-4690 also reduced the number of bronchial eosinophils in accordance with the decreased expressions of Th2 cytokines in the lung homogenates. Airway remodeling was inhibited by reducing subepithelial collagen deposition, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and angiogenesis. The effects of IMD-4690 were partly mediated by the regulation of TGF-β, HGF and matrix metalloproteinase. These results suggest that PAI-1 plays crucial roles in airway inflammation and remodeling, and IMD-4690, a specific PAI-1 inhibitor, may have therapeutic potential for patients with refractory asthma due to airway remodeling.

  13. IMD-4690, a novel specific inhibitor for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, reduces allergic airway remodeling in a mouse model of chronic asthma via regulating angiogenesis and remodeling-related mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Toshifumi; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Azuma, Masahiko; Goto, Hisatsugu; Uehara, Hisanori; Aono, Yoshinori; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Yoichi; Fujikawa, Tomoyuki; Itai, Akiko; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is the principal inhibitor of plasminogen activators, and is responsible for the degradation of fibrin and extracellular matrix. IMD-4690 is a newly synthesized inhibitor for PAI-1, whereas the effect on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling is still unclear. We examined the in vivo effects by using a chronic allergen exposure model of bronchial asthma in mice. The model was generated by an immune challenge for 8 weeks with house dust mite antigen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). IMD-4690 was intraperitoneally administered during the challenge. Lung histopathology, hyperresponsiveness and the concentrations of mediators in lung homogenates were analyzed. The amount of active PAI-1 in the lungs was increased in mice treated with Dp. Administration with IMD-4690 reduced an active/total PAI-1 ratio. IMD-4690 also reduced the number of bronchial eosinophils in accordance with the decreased expressions of Th2 cytokines in the lung homogenates. Airway remodeling was inhibited by reducing subepithelial collagen deposition, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and angiogenesis. The effects of IMD-4690 were partly mediated by the regulation of TGF-β, HGF and matrix metalloproteinase. These results suggest that PAI-1 plays crucial roles in airway inflammation and remodeling, and IMD-4690, a specific PAI-1 inhibitor, may have therapeutic potential for patients with refractory asthma due to airway remodeling.

  14. Serum bilirubin levels are inversely associated with PAI-1 and fibrinogen in Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Lee, Sung Won; Kim, Eun Sook; Shin, Juyoung; Moon, Sung Dae; Han, Je Ho; Cha, Bong Yun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress may contribute to atherosclerosis and increased activation of the coagulation pathway. Bilirubin may reduce activation of the hemostatic system to inhibit oxidative stress, which would explain its cardioprotective properties shown in many epidemiological studies. This study investigated the association of serum bilirubin with fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), respectively. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 968 subjects (mean age, 56.0 ± 11.2 years; 61.1% men) undergoing a general health checkup. Serum biochemistry was analyzed including bilirubin subtypes, insulin resistance (using homeostasis model of assessment [HOMA]), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and PAI-1. Compared with subjects with a total bilirubin (TB) concentration of 17.1 μmol/L had a smaller waist circumference, a lower triglyceride level, a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and decreased HOMA-IR and CRP levels. Correlation analysis revealed linear relationships of fibrinogen with TB and direct bilirubin (DB), whereas PAI-1 was correlated with DB. After adjustment for confounding factors, bilirubin levels were inversely associated with fibrinogen and PAI-1 levels, respectively. Multivariate regression models showed a negative linear relationship between all types of bilirubin and fibrinogen, whereas there was a significant linear relationship between PAI-1 and DB. High bilirubin concentrations were independently associated with low levels of fibrinogen and PAI-1, respectively. The association between TB and PAI-1 was confined to the highest TB concentration category whereas DB showed a linear association with PAI-1. Bilirubin may protect against the development of atherothrombosis by reducing the hemostatic response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypoxia dysregulates the production of adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 independent of reactive oxygen species in adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baoying; Lam, Karen S.L.; Wang Yu; Wu Donghai; Lam, Michael C.; Shen Jiangang; Wong Laiching; Hoo, Ruby L.C.; Zhang Jialiang; Xu Aimin

    2006-01-01

    Low plasma levels of adiponectin (hypoadiponectinemia) and elevated circulating concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 are causally associated with obesity-related insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism that mediates the aberrant production of these two adipokines in obesity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on production of adiponectin and PAI-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative PCR and immunoassays showed that ambient hypoxia markedly suppressed adiponectin mRNA expression and its protein secretion, and increased PAI-1 production in mature adipocytes. Dimethyloxallyl glycine, a stabilizer of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), mimicked the hypoxia-mediated modulations of these two adipokines. Hypoxia caused a modest elevation of ROS in adipocytes. However, ablation of intracellular ROS by antioxidants failed to alleviate hypoxia-induced aberrant production of adiponectin and PAI-1. On the other hand, the antioxidants could reverse hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced dysregulation of adiponectin and PAI-1 production. H 2 O 2 treatment decreased the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα), but had no effect on HIF-1α, whereas hypoxia stabilized HIF-1α and decreased expression of C/EBPα, but not PPARγ. Taken together, these data suggest that hypoxia and ROS decrease adiponectin production and augment PAI-1 expression in adipocytes via distinct signaling pathways. These effects may contribute to hypoadiponectinemia and elevated PAI-1 levels in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases

  16. Investigation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G promoter polymorphism in Indian venous thrombosis patients: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhudesai, Aniket; Shetty, Shrimati; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Kulkarni, Bipin

    2017-09-01

    The role of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism in venous thrombosis has been contradictory. PAI-1 4G/4G genotype is associated with elevated levels of PAI-1 resulting in a hypofibrinolytic state and a higher thrombotic risk. In this study, the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene in Indian patients with different types of venous thrombosis was investigated for its role in development of thrombosis. A total of 87 portal vein thrombosis (PVT), 71 Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), 156 cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT), and 163 deep vein thrombosis (DVT) patients were studied alongside 251 healthy controls for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism by allele-specific PCR. Frequency of 4G/4G genotype was higher in all groups in comparison with controls. 4G/4G was associated with PVT risk (OR=2.51, 95% CI=1.29-4.96, P=.0075), BCS risk (OR=5.98, 95% CI=2.68-13.42, P<.0001), and DVT risk (OR=1.75, 95% CI=0.98-3.02, P=.0225). This is the first case-control study from India establishing PAI-1 4G/4G as a strong risk factor for abdominal thrombosis (PVT and BCS). Statistically significant association was not found between 4G/4G genotype and CVT risk. PAI-1 4G/4G is a strong risk factor for venous thrombosis in Indian patients and should be included in laboratory testing panel of thrombophilia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 polymers, induced by inactivating amphipathic organochemical ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Katrine E; Einholm, Anja P; Christensen, Anni

    2003-01-01

    Negatively charged organochemical inactivators of the anti-proteolytic activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) convert it to inactive polymers. As investigated by native gel electrophoresis, the size of the PAI-1 polymers ranged from dimers to multimers of more than 20 units. As com...

  18. HIF-2alpha-dependent PAI-1 induction contributes to angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis, Theresa, E-mail: geis@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I—Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Döring, Claudia, E-mail: C.Doering@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Dr. Senckenberg Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Popp, Rüdiger, E-mail: popp@vrc.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Vascular Signalling, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Grossmann, Nina, E-mail: grossmann@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I—Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fleming, Ingrid, E-mail: fleming@vrc.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Vascular Signalling, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hansmann, Martin-Leo, E-mail: m.l.hansmann@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Dr. Senckenberg Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dehne, Nathalie, E-mail: dehne@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I—Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Brüne, Bernhard, E-mail: b.bruene@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I—Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    Hypoxia promotes progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), not only affecting tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but also angiogenesis and thus, increasing the risk of metastasis. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)-1α and -2α cause adaptation of tumors to hypoxia, still with uncertainties towards the angiogenic switch. We created a stable knockdown of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HepG2 cells and generated cocultures of HepG2 spheroids with embryonic bodies as an in vitro tumor model mimicking the cancer microenvironment. The naturally occuring oxygen and nutrient gradients within the cocultures allow us to question the role of distinct HIF isoforms in regulating HCC angiogenesis. In cocultures with a HIF-2α knockdown, angiogenesis was attenuated, while the knockdown of HIF-1α was without effect. Microarray analysis identified plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a HIF-2α target gene in HepG2 cells. The knockdown of PAI-1 in HepG2 cells also lowered angiogenesis. Blocking plasmin, the downstream target of PAI-1, with aprotinin in HIF-2α knockdown (k/d) cells proved a cause–effect relation and restored angiogenesis, with no effect on control cocultures. Suggestively, HIF-2α increases PAI-1 to lower concentrations of active plasmin, thereby supporting angiogenesis. We conclude that the HIF-2α target gene PAI-1 favors the angiogenic switch in HCC. - Highlights: • HepG2 were cocultured with stem cells to mimic a cancer microenvironment in vitro. • A knockdown of HIF-2α reduces angiogenesis. • PAI-1 was identified as a HIF-2α target gene in HCC by microarray analysis. • HIF-2α induces the angiogenic switch via inhibition of plasmin.

  19. HIF-2alpha-dependent PAI-1 induction contributes to angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geis, Theresa; Döring, Claudia; Popp, Rüdiger; Grossmann, Nina; Fleming, Ingrid; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Dehne, Nathalie; Brüne, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), not only affecting tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but also angiogenesis and thus, increasing the risk of metastasis. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)-1α and -2α cause adaptation of tumors to hypoxia, still with uncertainties towards the angiogenic switch. We created a stable knockdown of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HepG2 cells and generated cocultures of HepG2 spheroids with embryonic bodies as an in vitro tumor model mimicking the cancer microenvironment. The naturally occuring oxygen and nutrient gradients within the cocultures allow us to question the role of distinct HIF isoforms in regulating HCC angiogenesis. In cocultures with a HIF-2α knockdown, angiogenesis was attenuated, while the knockdown of HIF-1α was without effect. Microarray analysis identified plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a HIF-2α target gene in HepG2 cells. The knockdown of PAI-1 in HepG2 cells also lowered angiogenesis. Blocking plasmin, the downstream target of PAI-1, with aprotinin in HIF-2α knockdown (k/d) cells proved a cause–effect relation and restored angiogenesis, with no effect on control cocultures. Suggestively, HIF-2α increases PAI-1 to lower concentrations of active plasmin, thereby supporting angiogenesis. We conclude that the HIF-2α target gene PAI-1 favors the angiogenic switch in HCC. - Highlights: • HepG2 were cocultured with stem cells to mimic a cancer microenvironment in vitro. • A knockdown of HIF-2α reduces angiogenesis. • PAI-1 was identified as a HIF-2α target gene in HCC by microarray analysis. • HIF-2α induces the angiogenic switch via inhibition of plasmin

  20. Skip Regulates TGF-β1-Induced Extracellular Matrix Degrading Proteases Expression in Human PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Villar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether Ski-interacting protein (SKIP regulates TGF-β1-stimulated expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and uPA Inhibitor (PAI-1 in the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell model. Materials and Methods. PC-3 prostate cancer cell line was used. The role of SKIP was evaluated using synthetic small interference RNA (siRNA compounds. The expression of uPA, MMP-9, and PAI-1 was evaluated by zymography assays, RT-PCR, and promoter transactivation analysis. Results. In PC-3 cells TGF-β1 treatment stimulated uPA, PAI-1, and MMP-9 expressions. The knockdown of SKIP in PC-3 cells enhanced the basal level of uPA, and TGF-β1 treatment inhibited uPA production. Both PAI-1 and MMP-9 production levels were increased in response to TGF-β1. The ectopic expression of SKIP inhibited both TGF-β1-induced uPA and MMP-9 promoter transactivation, while PAI-1 promoter response to the factor was unaffected. Conclusions. SKIP regulates the expression of uPA, PAI-1, and MMP-9 stimulated by TGF-β1 in PC-3 cells. Thus, SKIP is implicated in the regulation of extracellular matrix degradation and can therefore be suggested as a novel therapeutic target in prostate cancer treatment.

  1. The association between PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Li, S-Y; Liu, M

    2017-08-15

    In this study, we aimed to analyze the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) -675 4G/5G polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. We included in 187 T2DM patients and 186 heathy controls between 2014 and 2017 from Tianjin Gong An Hospital, China. All patients and controls were ethnically Chinese Han population. The primers and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions were performed. Results from this case-control study suggested that PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism was not associated with T2DM risk in four genetic models. Additionally, PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism was not associated with clinical and laboratory characteristics, such as age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HbA1c. In conclusion, this case-control study suggested that PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism was not associated with T2DM risk in this population.

  2. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility: evidence from meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangqian; Cao, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Li, Bingjie; Tang, Min; Yuan, Wanqing; Fang, Jianzheng; Qian, Jian; Qin, Chao; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is expressed in many cancer cell types and allows the modulation of cancer growth, invasion and angiogenesis. To date, studies investigated the association between a functional polymorphism in PAI-1 (4G/5G) and risk of cancer have shown inclusive results. A meta-analysis based on 25 case-control studies was performed to address this issue. Odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with I(2) test. Overall, a significant increased risk of cancer was associated with the PAI-1 4G/4G polymorphism for the allele contrast (4G vs. 5G: OR = 1.10, CI = 1.03-1.18, I(2) = 49.5%), the additive genetic model (4G/4G vs. 5G/5G: OR = 1.21, CI = 1.06-1.39, I(2) = 51.9%), the recessive genetic model (4G/4G vs. 4G/5G+5G/5G: OR = 1.11, CI = 1.04-1.18, I(2) = 20.8%). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the results indicated that individuals with 4G/4G genotype had a significantly higher cancer risk among Caucasians (4G/4G vs. 5G/5G: OR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.09-1.59, I(2) = 59.6%; 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G: OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.04-1.21, I(2) = 3.6%; recessive model: OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.05-1.21, I(2) = 25.3%). The results of the present meta-analysis support an association between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and increasing cancer risk, especially among Caucasians, and those with 4G allele have a high risk to develop colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer.

  3. Causal effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 on coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Ci; Burgess, Stephen; Eicher, John D.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Huang, Jie; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Shin, So Youn; Ding, Jingzhong; Baumert, Jens; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Folkersen, Lasse; Smith, Nicholas L.; Williams, Scott M; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Kleber, Marcus E.; Becker, Diane M.; Truong, Vinh; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Tang, Weihong; Yang, Qiong; Sennblad, Bengt; Moore, Jason H; Williams, Frances M.K.; Dehghan, Abbas; Silbernagel, Günther; Schrijvers, Elisabeth M.C.; Smith, Shelly; Karakas, Mahir; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Silveira, Angela; Navis, Gerjan J.; Lohman, Kurt; Chen, Ming Huei; Peters, Annette; Goel, Anuj; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Chambers, John C.; Saleheen, Danish; Lundmark, Per; Psaty, Bruce M.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Carter, Angela M.; Meisinger, Christa; Peden, John F.; Bis, Joshua C.; McKnight, Barbara; Öhrvik, John; Taylor, Kent D.; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Seedorf, Udo; Collins, Rory; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Goodall, Alison H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Cushman, Mary; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Folsom, Aaron R.; Basu, Saonli; Matijevic, Nena; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Danesh, John; Clarke, Robert; Meigs, James B; Kathiresan, Sekar; Reilly, Muredach P; Klopp, Norman; Harris, Tamara B.; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Grant, Peter J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Watkins, Hugh; Spector, Timothy D; Becker, Lewis C; Tracy, Russell P.; März, Winfried; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Eriksson, Per; Cambien, Francois; Morange, Pierre Emmanuel; Koenig, Wolfgang; Soranzo, Nicole; van der Harst, Pim; Liu, Yongmei; Hamsten, Anders; Ehret, Georg B.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D; Verwoert, Germaine C; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Fox, Ervin R.; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; Linda Kao, Wen Hong; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G P; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.P.M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter R.; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J; Connell, John M; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N M; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W; Li, Yali; Young, J. Hunter; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S.; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Hoffman Bolton, Judith A.; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif C.; Voight, Benjamin F; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Sun, Yan V.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter M.; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Longstreth, W.T. jr.; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R.G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Rasheed, Asif; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U.S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee Hee; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. V.Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles N.; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli T.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien-Yin; Shyong Tai, E.; Cooper, Richard S.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan J.; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J.; Johnson, Toby; van der Lugt, Aad; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Hofman, Albert; Kraja, Aldi T.; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Ziegler, Andreas; Newman, Anne B; Schillert, Arne; Oostra, Ben A.; Thorsson, Bolli; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Fox, Caroline S.; White, Charles C.; Ballantyne, Christie; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Herrington, David M.; O'Leary, Daniel H.; Siscovick, David S.; Couper, David J; Halperin, Eran; Stoegerer, Eva Maria; Ernst, Florian; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Homuth, Georg; Heiss, Gerardo; Usala, Gianluca; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Shen, Haiqing; Erich Wichmann, H.; Schmidt, Helena; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Markus, Hugh S.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Lüdemann, Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Thiery, Joachim; Seissler, Jochen; Massaro, Joseph M.; Polak, Joseph F.; Cunningham, Julie; North, Kari E.; Petrovic, Katja E; Rice, Kenneth M.; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Launer, Lenore J.; de Andrade, Mariza; Feitosa, Mary F.; Kavousi, Maryam; Sitzer, Matthias; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Province, Michael A.; Nalls, Michael A.; Franceschini, Nora; Peyser, Patricia A.; Wolf, Philip A.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Schnabel, Renate B.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Chilukoti, Ravi Kumar; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sanna, Serena; Demissie, Serkalem; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Blankenberg, Stefan; Bevan, Steve; Elias-Smale, Suzette E.; Zeller, Tanja; Illig, Thomas; Münzel, Thomas; Howard, Timothy D.; Hoffmann, Udo; Schminke, Ulf; Nambi, Vijay; Post, Wendy S.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Li, Xia; Cheng, Yu Ching

    2017-01-01

    Background--Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays an essential role in the fibrinolysis system and thrombosis. Population studies have reported that blood PAI-1 levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, it is unclear whether the association

  4. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 suppresses endogenous fibrinolysis in a canine model of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, C.F.; Fujita, T.; Hutzelmann, J.E.; Mayer, E.J.; Shebuski, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the specific, fast-acting inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), binds to fibrin and has been found in high concentrations within arterial thrombi. These findings suggest that the localization of PAI-1 to a thrombus protects that same thrombus from fibrinolysis. In this study, clot-bound PAI-1 was assessed for its ability to suppress clot lysis in vivo. Autologous, canine whole blood clots were formed in the presence of increasing amounts of activated PAI-1 (0-30 micrograms/ml). Approximately 6-8% of the PAI-1 bound to the clots under the experimental conditions. Control and PAI-1-enriched clots containing iodine-125-labeled fibrin (ogen) were homogenized, washed to remove nonbound elements, and delivered to the lungs of anesthetized dogs where the homogenates subsequently underwent lysis by the endogeneous fibrinolytic system. 125I-labeled fibrin degradation products appeared in the blood of control animals within 10 minutes and were maximal by 90 minutes. PAI-1 reduced fibrin degradation product release in a dose-responsive manner at all times between 30 minutes and 5 hours (greater than or equal to 76% inhibition at 30 minutes, PAI-1 greater than or equal to 6 micrograms/ml). PAI-1 also suppressed D-dimer release from clots containing small amounts of human fibrin (ogen). t-PA administration attenuated the effects of PAI-1, whereas latent PAI-1 (20 micrograms/ml) had no effect on clot lysis. Blood levels of PA and PAI activity remained unaltered during these experiments. The results indicate that PAI-1 markedly inhibits endogenous fibrinolysis in vivo and, moreover, suggest that the localization of PAI-1 to a forming thrombus is an important physiological mechanism for subsequent thrombus stabilization

  5. The Pai-associated leuX specific tRNA5(Leu) affects type 1fimbriation in pathogenic Escherichia coli by control of FimB recombinase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, A.; Gally, D.; Olsen, Peter Bjarke

    1997-01-01

    The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536 (06:K15:H31) carries two large chromosomalpathogenicity islands (Pais). Both Pais are flanked by tRNA genes. Spontaneous deletion of Pai IIresults in truncation of the leuX tRNA5Leu gene. This tRNA is required for the expression of type 1fimbriae (Fim...

  6. The Association between PAI-1 Gene Promoter Polymorphism and Serum Serpin E1, MDA, and Hs-CRP Levels in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar Karimian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is caused by atherosclerosis. Studies have shown that a number of factors, including cellular binding molecules such as Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and hemostasis, are closely related to development and progression of CAD. Objectives: The present case-control study aimed to evaluate the association between Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and oxidative stress markers and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD. Patients and Methods: Blood was drawn and DNA was extracted from 90 subjects (46 patients with angiographically diagnosed CAD and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. Besides, the risk factors, serpin E1, Malondialdehyde (MDA, high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP, and lipid profile serum levels were measured by standard methods and were compared between the two study groups using independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriated. Results: Results: The frequency of 4G/4G genotype of PAI-1 gene was higher in the CAD patients than in the controls (28/46 (60.87% vs. 8/44 (18.18%, P < 0.01. Additionally, the serpin E1 plasma level was significantly higher in the CAD group carrying the 4G allele compared to those homozygous for the 5G allele (P = 0.016. Besides, a significant difference was found between the 4G/4G and 5G/5G subjects of the CAD group regarding plasma High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL (P < 0.01. Also, significant differences were observed among the three genotypes of both groups concerning the plasma levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL. However, no significant correlation was found between PAI-1 gene polymorphism and MDA serum level, hs-CRP, and risk of CAD. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggested that 4G/4G PAI

  7. The 4G/5G genetic polymorphism in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene is associated with differences in plasma PAI-1 activity but not with risk of myocardial infarction in the ECTIM study. Etude CasTemoins de I'nfarctus du Mycocarde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S; Green, F R; Scarabin, P Y; Nicaud, V; Bara, L; Dawson, S J; Humphries, S E; Evans, A; Luc, G; Cambou, J P

    1995-09-01

    We have investigated the interrelationships of plasma PAI-1 activity, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in the ECTIM study, a case-control study of MI based in Belfast, Lille, Strasbourg and Toulouse. Mean PAI-1 levels in cases were similar across all centres but in controls, levels in the French centres were significantly higher. Only in Belfast were PAIl1 levels higher in cases (11.7 AU/ml) than controls (10.5 AU/ml). The PAI-1 4G allele frequency was similar in cases and controls (0.55 and 0.54). In all groups, 4G homozygotes had the highest mean plasma PAI-1 level (4G4G vs 5G5G; cases overall: 14.2 vs 12.1AU/ml; controls overall: 15.0 vs 12.6AU/ml), with the heterozygotes generally intermediate. The data from Belfast are consistent with the literature implicating PAI-1 level as an MI risk factor. In ECTIM, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism is not a genetic risk factor for MI but is associated with PAI-1 activity. Thus homozygosity for the 4G allele may predispose to elevated PAI-1 and impaired fibrinolysis, perhaps requiring interaction with other genetic or environmental factors to influence MI risk.

  8. Enzyme immunoassay for measurement of murine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, employing a specific antibody produced by the DNA vaccine method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Takagi, Akira; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Yamamoto, Koji; Ito, Masafumi; Matsushita, Tadashi; Murate, Takashi; Saito, Hidehiko; Kojima, Tetsuhito

    2003-01-01

    We developed a sensitive immunoassay to determine the concentration of mouse plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The assay was a non-competitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the production of a specific polyclonal antibody against mouse plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) used both as a trapping and detecting antibody. This antibody was raised in a rabbit by direct introduction of the expression vector plasmid DNA encoding mouse PAI-1, instead of conventional immunization with the purified protein. The standard curve was constructed with a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mouse PAI-1 fusion protein (GST-mPAI-1) and dose-response of the assay was linear for GST-mPAI-1 between 6.25 and 100 pM. In order to assess the consistency of the assay, we measured PAI-1 antigen in normal mouse pooled plasma several times. We found that the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were 4.8% and 9.2%, respectively, indicating that the ELISA would be sufficiently repeatable and reproducible. In this assay, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice showed substantially higher levels (22-fold) of plasma PAI-1 antigen than did control mice (12.5+/-2.4 vs. 0.58+/-0.16 nM), similar to results reported elsewhere. Taken together, the DNA vaccine method is extremely useful for preparing specific antibodies against mouse PAI-1, which can be utilized to establish the ELISA and analyze the profile of PAI-1 distributions in mice under various conditions. This approach might also be useful for immunological investigation of other coagulation factors and related proteins.

  9. Induction of CD69 expression by cagPAI-positive Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki Mori; Chie Ishikawa; Masachika Senba

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and elucidate the molecular mech-anism that regulates inducible expression of CD69 by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) infection.METHODS: The expression levels of CD69 in a T-cell line, Jurkat, primary human peripheral blood mononu-clear cells (PBMCs), and CD4+T cells, were assessed by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry. Activation of CD69 promoter was detected by reporter gene. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in Jurkat cells infected with H. pylori was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The role of NF-κB signaling in H. pylori -induced CD69 expression was analyzed using inhibitors of NF-κB and dominant-negative mutants. The isogenic mutants with disrupted cag pathogenicity island ( cagPAI) and virD4 were used to elucidate the role of cagPAI-encoding type Ⅳ secretion system and CagA in CD69 expression.RESULTS: CD69 staining was detected in mucosal lymphocytes and macrophages in specimens of pa-tients with H. pylori -positive gastritis. Although cagPAI-positive H. pylori and an isogenic mutant of virD4 induced CD69 expression, an isogenic mutant of cag-PAI failed to induce this in Jurkat cells. H. pylori also induced CD69 expression in PBMCs and CD4+T cells. The activation of the CD69 promoter by H. pylori was mediated through NF-κB. Transfection of dominant-negative mutants of IκBs, IκB kinases, and NF-κB-inducing kinase inhibited H. pylori -induced CD69 activation. Inhibitors of NF-κB suppressed H. pylori -induced CD69 mRNA expression.CONCLUSION: The results suggest that H. pylori in-duces CD69 expression through the activation of NF-κB. cagPAI might be relevant in the induction of CD69 expression in T cells. CD69 in T cells may play a role in H. pylori -induced gastritis.

  10. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda de Lange

    Full Text Available Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT. We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009 but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%. Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  11. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R; Jerling, Johann C; Pieters, Marlien

    2013-01-01

    Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  12. Evaluation of the specificity of antigen assays for plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 : Comparison of two new commercial kits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, L.G.M.; Meijer, P.; Griensven, J. van; Kluft, C.

    1992-01-01

    t-PA depleted citrated plasma was used to prepare standards of different molecular forms of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). These standards were used to evaluate the specificity of two new PAI-1 antigen assays: the TintElize PAI-1 antigen assay (cat. no. 210221) and the Innotest PAI-1.

  13. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the evolution of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Zagorka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrinolytic activity in the acute stroke was examined by monitoring the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, as one of the indicators of fibrinolytic activity. Given the role of PAI-1 in the processes of atherogenesis and thrombogenesis, plasma PAI-1 level was measured in 59 patients (up to 50 years of age with atherothrombotic stroke (verified by computed tomography scanning or magnetic resonance imaging of brain in the period from 12 to 24 hours (I analysis and 30 days after the onset of stroke (II analysis; then, it was correlated with plasma PAI-1 level in the control group (57 healthy subjects, which was 2.86±0.70 U/ml. It was found that PAI-1 level was significantly higher in the acute stroke (I analysis: PAI-1 =4.10±1.40 U/ml, p<0.001; II analysis: PAI-1 =3.64+0.90 U/ml, p<0.001, while fibrinolytic activity was lower, especially on the first day from the stroke that was not completely increased even after 30 days. There was no difference in PAI-1 levels between the subgroups of patients with infarction and lacunar cerebral ischemia (p>0.05, as well as between females and males (p>0.05. Along with significantly increased fibrinogen level (4.65±1 g/l, in the controls - 2.83±0.64 g/l, p<0.001, significantly higher triglycerides (2.04±0.76 mmol/l, in the controls - 1.38+0.54 mmol/l, p<0.001 and lipoproteins(a (0.405±0.29 g/l, in the controls -0.172±0.14 g/l, p<0.001 were found, correlating with higher plasma PAI-1 level in these patients. The increased plasma level of PAI-1 pointed to possibility of decreased fibrinolytic activity in pathogenesis of ischemie stroke, as well as, risk of reinsult, which had been the greatest after the onset of stroke and declined gradually within several weeks.

  14. Synergistic induction of profibrotic PAI-1 by TGF-β and radiation depends on p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Jong, Edwin de; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced fibrosis is a severe side effect of radiotherapy. TGF-β and radiation synergistically induce expression of the profibrotic PAI-1 gene and this cooperation potentially involves p53. Here, we demonstrate that p53 is both indispensable and sufficient for the radiation effect inducing synergistic activation of PAI-1 by radiation and TGF-β.

  15. Conformational preludes to the latency transition in PAI-1 as determined by atomistic computer simulations and hydrogen/deuterium-exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael; Madsen, Jeppe B; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2017-01-01

    activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). We report the first multi-microsecond atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of PAI-1 and compare the data with experimental hydrogen/deuterium-exchange data (HDXMS). The simulations reveal notable conformational flexibility of helices D, E and F and major fluctuations...... are observed in the W86-loop which occasionally leads to progressive detachment of β-strand 2 A from β-strand 3 A. An interesting correlation between Cα-RMSD values from simulations and experimental HDXMS data is observed. Helices D, E and F are known to be important for the overall stability of active PAI-1......Both function and dysfunction of serine protease inhibitors (serpins) involve massive conformational change in their tertiary structure but the dynamics facilitating these events remain poorly understood. We have studied the dynamic preludes to conformational change in the serpin plasminogen...

  16. Global fibrinolytic activity, PAI-1 level, and 4G/5G polymorphism in Thai children with arterial ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesirinilkul, Rungrote; Sasanakul, Werasak; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Kadegasem, Praguywan; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Wongwerawattanakoon, Pakawan; Sirachainan, Nongnuch

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) and increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were reported to be risk factors of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) by some studies; however, these findings were not supported by other studies. The objective of this study was to determine the association of ECLT, PAI-1 level, and polymorphisms of 4G and 5G of PAI-1 gene to the development of AIS in Thai children. This study included patients aged 1-18 years old. Diagnosis of AIS was confirmed by imaging study. The control group was age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Demographic data were recorded, and blood was tested for ECLT, PAI-1 level, lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and 4G and 5G polymorphisms of PAI-1 gene. There were 70 subjects participating in this study, consisting of 30 patients and 40 controls. Demographic data, lipid profiles, and FBS were similar between the 2 groups. Furthermore, ECLT and PAI-1 level did not differ between patient and control groups; however, both showed significant correlation (r = .352, P = .006). The 4G/5G polymorphism was the most common genotype in both patient and control groups (69.0% vs. 80.0%). However, 4G and 5G polymorphisms of PAI-1 gene did not correlate with PAI-1 level in this study (P = .797). The PAI-1 level and 4G/5G polymorphism may not be a risk factor of AIS in this population. It was also found that the 4G/5G polymorphism was the most common PAI-1 genotype in this study. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasminogen-induced aggregation of PANC-1 cells requires conversion to plasmin and is inhibited by endogenous plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshet, Naamit; Lupu-Meiri, Monica; Espinoza, Ingrid; Fili, Oded; Shapira, Yuval; Lupu, Ruth; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Oron, Yoram

    2008-09-01

    PANC-1 cells express proteinase-activated receptors (PARs)-1, -2, and respond to their activation by transient elevation of cytosolic [Ca(2+)] and accelerated aggregation (Wei et al., 2006, J Cell Physiol 206:322-328). We studied the effect of plasminogen (PGN), an inactive precursor of the PAR-1-activating protease, plasmin (PN) on aggregation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. A single dose of PGN time- and dose-dependently promoted PANC-1 cells aggregation in serum-free medium, while PN did not. PANC-1 cells express urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), which continuously converted PGN to PN. This activity and PGN-induced aggregation were inhibited by the uPA inhibitor amiloride. PGN-induced aggregation was also inhibited by alpha-antiplasmin and by the PN inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA). Direct assay of uPA activity revealed very low rate, markedly enhanced in the presence of PGN. Moreover, in PGN activator inhibitor 1-deficient PANC-1 cells, uPA activity and PGN-induced aggregation were markedly potentiated. Two additional human PDAC cell lines, MiaPaCa and Colo347, were assayed for PGN-induced aggregation. Both cell lines responded by aggregation and exhibited PGN-enhanced uPA activity. We hypothesized that the continuous conversion of PGN to PN by endogenous uPA is limited by PN's degradation and negatively controlled by endogenously produced PAI-1. Indeed, we found that PANC-1 cells inactivate PN with t1/2 of approximately 7 h, while the continuous addition of PN promoted aggregation. Our data suggest that PANC-1 cells possess intrinsic, PAI-1-sensitive mechanism for promotion of aggregation and differentiation by prolonged exposure to PGN and, possibly, additional precursors of PARs agonists.

  18. Two distinct expression patterns of urokinase, urokinase receptor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in colon cancer liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illemann, Martin; Bird, Nigel; Majeed, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic growth and invasion by colon cancer cells in the liver requires the ability of the cancer cells to interact with the new tissue environment. Plasmin(ogen) is activated on cell surfaces by urokinase-type PA (uPA), and is regulated by uPAR and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). T...

  19. Decision impact and feasibility of different ASCO-recommended biomarkers in early breast cancer: Prospective comparison of molecular marker EndoPredict and protein marker uPA/PAI-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Ettl

    Full Text Available Adjuvant therapy decisions in early breast cancer are based on accurate risk assessment. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and plaminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 have been the first biomarkers in hormone receptor (HR positive breast cancer to reach highest level of evidence. The EndoPredict test (EPclin combines gene expression information with nodal status and tumor size. The aim of this prospective study was to compare uPA/PAI-1 and EPclin as prognostic biomarkers with regard to feasibility, risk stratification and impact on adjuvant therapy recommendation.395 patients with HR positive, HER2 negative, intermediate risk breast cancer were enrolled. Relations and concordance of histologic grading as well as EPclin and uPA/PAI-1 values were assessed by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and Cohen's Kappa. To compare decision impact of EPclin and uPA/PAI-1 three independent case discussions were held: One with known uPA/PAI-1 and EPclin results, one blinded to EPclin alone and another one blinded to both EPclin and uPA/PAI-1.EPclin could be determined in all 395 (100%, uPA/PAI-1 in 190 (48% of the tumor samples. EPclin allocated 250 patients (63% to the low-risk group and 145 patients (37% to the high-risk group, whereas uPA/PAI-1 allocated 88 patients (46% to the low-risk group and 102 patients (54% to the high-risk group. In 59% of cases, both tests showed concordant results. EPclin resulted more frequently in a change of therapy recommendation than the uPA/PAI-1 test (46% vs 24%. Recommendation of adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX was abandoned twice as often by EPclin (45% compared to uPA/PAI-1 (22%.In this first prospective comparison of EPclin and uPA/PAI-1 we found, that EPclin is superior to uPA/PAI-1 with respect to feasibility and decision impact. This leads to substantial avoidance of adjuvant CTX in endocrine-sensitive, HER2-negative breast cancer. Data collection for patients´ clinical outcome is ongoing.

  20. Relationship between visceral fat and PAI-1 in overweight men and women before and after weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockx, M.; Leenen, R.; Seidell, J.; Princen, H.M.G.; Kooistra, T.

    1999-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between visceral fat accumulation and plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in healthy, obese men and women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, 25 men and 25 premenopausal women, aged between 26 and 49 years, with an

  1. PAI-1 modulates cell migration in a LRP1-dependent manner via β-catenin and ERK1/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlova, Nina; Jensen, Jan Kristian; Chi, Tabughang Franklin

    2015-01-01

    was proposed to modulate the β-catenin pathway. Therefore, we used wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and MEFs deficient of LRP1 to study PAI-1 as modulator of the β-catenin pathway. We found that PAI-1 influences MEF proliferation and motility in a LRP1-dependent manner and that β...

  2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated in patients with COPD independent of metabolic and cardiovascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschki, Benjamin; Watz, Henrik; Holz, Olaf; Magnussen, Helgo; Olejnicka, Beata; Welte, Tobias; Rabe, Klaus F; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is associated with thrombosis, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and premature aging, which all are coexisting conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of PAI-1 in COPD with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular functions is unclear. Methods In this study, which was nested within a prospective cohort study, the serum levels of PAI-1 were cross-sectionally measured in 74 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV) and 18 controls without lung disease. In addition, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, ankle–brachial index, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and history of comorbidities were also determined. Results The serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls, independent of a broad spectrum of possible confounders including metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. A multivariate regression analysis revealed triglyceride and hs-CRP levels to be the best predictors of PAI-1 within COPD. GOLD Stages II and III remained independently associated with higher PAI-1 levels in a final regression analysis. Conclusion The data from the present study showed that the serum levels of PAI-1 are higher in patients with COPD and that moderate-to-severe airflow limitation, hypertriglyceridemia, and systemic inflammation are independent predictors of an elevated PAI-1 level. PAI-1 may be a potential biomarker candidate for COPD-specific and extra-pulmonary manifestations. PMID:28356730

  3. Proteolysis of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by Yersinia pestis remodulates the host environment to promote virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J L; Schroeder, J A; Zimbler, D L; Caulfield, A J; Lathem, W W

    2016-09-01

    Essentials Effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 on plague and its Y. pestis cleavage is unknown. An intranasal mouse model of infection was used to determine the role of PAI-1 in pneumonic plague. PAI-1 is cleaved and inactivated by the Pla protease of Y. pestis in the lung airspace. PAI-1 impacts both bacterial outgrowth and the immune response to respiratory Y. pestis infection. Click to hear Dr Bock discuss pathogen activators of plasminogen. Background The hemostatic regulator plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) inactivates endogenous plasminogen activators and aids in the immune response to bacterial infection. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, produces the Pla protease, a virulence factor that is required during plague. However, the specific hemostatic proteins cleaved by Pla in vivo that contribute to pathogenesis have not yet been fully elucidated. Objectives To determine whether PAI-1 is cleaved by the Pla protease during pneumonic plague, and to define the impact of PAI-1 on Y. pestis respiratory infection in the presence or absence of Pla. Methods An intranasal mouse model of pneumonic plague was used to assess the levels of total and active PAI-1 in the lung airspace, and the impact of PAI-1 deficiency on bacterial pathogenesis, the host immune response and plasmin generation following infection with wild-type or ∆pla Y. pestis. Results We found that Y. pestis cleaves and inactivates PAI-1 in the lungs in a Pla-dependent manner. The loss of PAI-1 enhances Y. pestis outgrowth in the absence of Pla, and is associated with increased conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. Furthermore, we found that PAI-1 regulates immune cell recruitment, cytokine production and tissue permeability during pneumonic plague. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that PAI-1 is an in vivo target of the Pla protease in the lungs, and that PAI-1 is a key regulator of the pulmonary innate immune response. We conclude that the inactivation of PAI-1 by Y

  4. Truncated Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Protein Protects From Pulmonary Fibrosis Mediated by Irradiation in a Murine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Joo; McKay-Corkum, Grace; Chung, Su; White, Ayla; Scroggins, Bradley T. [Radiation Oncology, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branches, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Mulligan-Kehoe, Mary Jo [Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Citrin, Deborah, E-mail: citrind@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Oncology, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the delivery of recombinant truncated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein (rPAI-1{sub 23}) would protect from the development of radiation-induced lung injury. Methods and Materials: C57Bl/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of rPAI-1{sub 23} (5.4 μg/kg/d) or vehicle for 18 weeks, beginning 2 days before irradiation (IR) (5 daily fractions of 6 Gy). Cohorts of mice were followed for survival (n=8 per treatment) and tissue collection (n=3 per treatment and time point). Fibrosis in lung was assessed with Masson-Trichrome staining and measurement of hydroxyproline content. Senescence was assessed with staining for β-galactosidase activity in lung and primary pneumocytes. Results: Hydroxyproline content in irradiated lung was significantly reduced in mice that received rPAI-1{sub 23} compared with mice that received vehicle (IR+vehicle: 84.97 μg/lung; IR+rPAI-1{sub 23}: 56.2 μg/lung, P=.001). C57Bl/6 mice exposed to IR+vehicle had dense foci of subpleural fibrosis at 19 weeks, whereas the lungs of mice exposed to IR+rPAI-1{sub 23} were largely devoid of fibrotic foci. Cellular senescence was significantly decreased by rPAI-1{sub 23} treatment in primary pneumocyte cultures and in lung at multiple time points after IR. Conclusions: These studies identify that rPAI-1{sub 23} is capable of preventing radiation-induced fibrosis in murine lungs. These antifibrotic effects are associated with increased fibrin metabolism, enhanced matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression, and reduced senescence in type 2 pneumocytes. Thus, rPAI-1{sub 23} is a novel therapeutic option for radiation-induced fibrosis.

  5. Truncated Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Protein Protects From Pulmonary Fibrosis Mediated by Irradiation in a Murine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Joo; McKay-Corkum, Grace; Chung, Su; White, Ayla; Scroggins, Bradley T.; Mitchell, James B.; Mulligan-Kehoe, Mary Jo; Citrin, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the delivery of recombinant truncated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein (rPAI-1_2_3) would protect from the development of radiation-induced lung injury. Methods and Materials: C57Bl/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of rPAI-1_2_3 (5.4 μg/kg/d) or vehicle for 18 weeks, beginning 2 days before irradiation (IR) (5 daily fractions of 6 Gy). Cohorts of mice were followed for survival (n=8 per treatment) and tissue collection (n=3 per treatment and time point). Fibrosis in lung was assessed with Masson-Trichrome staining and measurement of hydroxyproline content. Senescence was assessed with staining for β-galactosidase activity in lung and primary pneumocytes. Results: Hydroxyproline content in irradiated lung was significantly reduced in mice that received rPAI-1_2_3 compared with mice that received vehicle (IR+vehicle: 84.97 μg/lung; IR+rPAI-1_2_3: 56.2 μg/lung, P=.001). C57Bl/6 mice exposed to IR+vehicle had dense foci of subpleural fibrosis at 19 weeks, whereas the lungs of mice exposed to IR+rPAI-1_2_3 were largely devoid of fibrotic foci. Cellular senescence was significantly decreased by rPAI-1_2_3 treatment in primary pneumocyte cultures and in lung at multiple time points after IR. Conclusions: These studies identify that rPAI-1_2_3 is capable of preventing radiation-induced fibrosis in murine lungs. These antifibrotic effects are associated with increased fibrin metabolism, enhanced matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression, and reduced senescence in type 2 pneumocytes. Thus, rPAI-1_2_3 is a novel therapeutic option for radiation-induced fibrosis.

  6. Coronary thrombus in 34-year-old female patient with 4G/4G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Varol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors and hypofibrinolytic state may contribute to the likelihood of developing in myocardial infarction (MI in young women rather than traditional risk factors. High plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 level and PAI-1 gene polymorphism have been shown to be associated with thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction, deep venous thrombosis, and stroke. We determined 4G/4G polymorphism in a 34-year-old female patient with subacute anterior myocardial infarction and coronary thrombus in left anterior descending artery on coronary angiogram.

  7. Epigenetic alterations of the SERPINE1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    cells in oral carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, we found that PAI-1 was expressed in 18 of the 20 patients, mainly by cancer cells. Two showed PAI-1 positive stromal cells surrounding the tumor areas and five showed PAI-1 positive cells in tumor-adjacent normal epithelium. By real-time RT-PCR analysis......A high level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 or SERPINE1) in tumor extracts is a marker of a poor prognosis in human cancers, including oral carcinomas. However, the mechanisms responsible for the upregulation of PAI-1 in cancers remain unclear. Investigating specific PAI-1 expressing...

  8. Overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA with Diminished PAI-1 Related to Metastasis in Ductal Breast Cancer Patients Attending a Public Hospital in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Barajas-Castañeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix metalloproteases and the fibrinolytic system are important protease systems interacting with each other in charge of remodeling and recycling of tissues. Their role in tumor invasion and metastasis is often discussed. In this study several metalloproteases such as MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 together with molecules from the fibrinolytic system like uPA, its receptor uPAR, and its inhibitor, PAI-1, were studied by immune-histochemistry to establish a comparison with and without metastasis. From the (118 primary tumors of Mexican patients with ductal breast cancer studied, 56% were grade II and 69% were size T2; the group with metastatic ganglia included 64 samples (54.3%. In patients with metastasis the estimated expression of MMP-3 and uPA (resp., 28% and 45% was higher than that from no metastatic tumors; it means there is higher expression of both markers in metastatic tumors (p<0.05. At the same time, metastatic tumors showed statistically significant lower signal of PAI-1 (24% than tumors without metastasis (p<0.05. We concluded that overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA, altogether with diminished expression of PAI-1 from metastatic tumors, might be a crucial step towards metastasis in ductal breast cancer. Nevertheless, additional studies in different populations are necessary to establish a pattern.

  9. Immunohistochemical Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 (Timp-1 in Invasive Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suada Kuskunović

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinas-es (MMPs. Aim of this study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of TIMP-1 in invasive breast carcinomas, and to examine its association with classical clinico-pathological parameters, oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu protein expression. Immuno-histochemistry was used to determine the expression of TIMP-1 on 38 paraffin-embedded breast tissue specimens - 18 with invasive ductal carcinoma, 10 with invasive lobular carcinoma, and 10 specimens from patients with fibrocystic breast disease. TIMP-1 protein was immunodetected in the carcinoma cells, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells of the stroma in 92,9%, 65,8%, and 65,8% of cases, respectively. TIMP-1 protein expression in carcinoma cells showed positive correlation with TIMP-1 protein expression in peritumoural fibroblasts (p=0,010. Positive peritumoural fibroblast TIMP-1 expression was associated with histological tumour type with higher frequency in ductal carcinomas (p=0,023. Negative association was found between TIMP-1 protein expression in carcinoma cells and HER-2/neu nuclear staining (p=0,005. TIMP-1 may be particularly useful as a predictive marker in breast carcinoma when evaluated along with HER-2/neu protein being a promising indicator of favourable prognosis in breast carcinoma.

  10. Correlation between PAI-1, leptin and ferritin with HOMA in HIV/AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragović, Gordana; Sumarac-Dumanovic, Mirjana; Khawla, Al Musalhi; Soldatović, Ivan; Andjić, Mladen; Jevtović, Djordje; Nair, Devaki

    2018-06-22

    Data about correlation of interleukins (IL-1 α, IL-1 β, IFN γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10), adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) in HIV/AIDS patients are still limited. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible correlations of serum levels of PAI-1, leptin and ferritin with HOMA in HIV/AIDS patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). This cross-sectional study included 64 HIV/AIDS patients, all Caucasians, receiving cART at the HIV/AIDS Centre, Belgrade, Serbia. PAI-1, leptin, ferritin and insulin levels were measured using the Metabolic Syndrome Array I (Randox Laboratories Ltd., London, UK), while adiponectin and resistin levels were measured using Metabolic Syndrome Array II (Randox Laboratories Ltd., London, UK), interleukins (IL-1 α, IL-1 β, IFN γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10), MCP-1, TNF-α as well as VEGF was measured using Cytokine Array I (Randox Laboratories Ltd., London, UK). Insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA). Multicollinearity of independent variables in multivariate model was analyzed using Variance Inflation Factor. Correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between HOMA and waist circumference, body mass index, patients' age, number of cART combinations and triglycerides (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.050, p = 0.044, p = 0.002, respectively). HOMA negatively correlated with levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) (Rho = -0.282; p = 0.025). PAI-1 (Rho = 0.334; p = 0.007) and leptin (Rho = 0.492; p = 0.001) together with ferritin (Rho = 0.396, p = 0.001) positively and significantly correlated with HOMA. Levels of IL-1 α, IL-1 β, IFN

  11. The significance of fibrin binding by plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 for the mechanism of tissue-type plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, H. A.; Pannekoek, H.

    1995-01-01

    The specific, reversible interaction between plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and intact fibrin polymers was studied using both purified components and isolated activated platelets as a source of PAI-1. A key reagent in these experiments is a PAI-1 mutant, having its P1 reactive center

  12. Elevated circulating PAI-1 levels are related to lung function decline, systemic inflammation, and small airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang H

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hao Wang,1,2,* Ting Yang,1,2,* Diandian Li,1,2 Yanqiu Wu,1,2 Xue Zhang,1,2 Caishuang Pang,1,2 Junlong Zhang,3 Binwu Ying,3 Tao Wang,1,2 Fuqiang Wen1,2 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR participate in inflammation and tissue remolding in various diseases, but their roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are not yet clear. This study aimed to investigate if PAI-1 and suPAR were involved in systemic inflammation and small airway obstruction (SAO in COPD. Methods: Demographic and clinical characteristics, spirometry examination, and blood samples were obtained from 84 COPD patients and 51 healthy volunteers. Serum concentrations of PAI-1, suPAR, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and C-reactive protein (CRP were detected with Magnetic Luminex Screening Assay. Differences between groups were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or chi-square test. Pearson’s partial correlation test (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, cigarette status, and passive smoke exposure and multivariable linear analysis were used to explore the relationships between circulating PAI-1 and indicators of COPD. Results: First, we found that serum PAI-1 levels but not suPAR levels were significantly increased in COPD patients compared with healthy volunteers (125.56±51.74 ng/mL versus 102.98±36.62 ng/mL, P=0.007. Then, the

  13. Clinicopathological significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism in breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Han; Kim, Younghye; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Young-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Transcriptional expression of the PAI-1 can be controlled by PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism. However, the significance of PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism in breast cancer patients is contentious. To address this controversy, we conducted a meta-analysis for the relationships between PAI-1 promoter polymorphism and clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. Relevant published studies were identified using a search of PubMed, Embase, and the ISI Web of Science. The effect sizes of PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism on breast cancer risk, lymph node metastasis, histologic grade, and overall survival were calculated by odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio. The effect sizes were combined using a random-effects model. Individuals with 4G/4G genotype had a higher risk of breast cancer than those with the combined 4G/5G and 5G/5G genotypes (OR = 1.388; p = 0.031). Breast cancer patients with the 5G/5G genotype displayed lymph node metastasis more than patients with either the combined other genotypes (OR = 1.495; p = 0.027) or with the 4G/4G genotype (OR = 1.623; p = 0.018). However, the PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was not associated with histological grade or overall survival. PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with a relatively increased risk of breast cancer development and lymph node metastasis. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of PAI-1 4G/5G Promoter Polymorphism and Its Levels in the Development of Ischemic Stroke in Young Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Mohammad Suhail; Biswas, Arijit; Abdullah, Saleh Mohammed; Behari, Madhuri; Saxena, Renu

    2017-11-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene has been found to be associated with the pathogenesis and progression of vascular diseases including stroke. A 4G/5G, PAI-1 gene polymorphism has been found to be associated with the plasma PAI-1 levels in different ethnic populations but results are still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the potential association of 4G/5G polymorphism and plasma PAI-1 levels in the development of ischemic stroke (IS) in young Asian Indians. One hundred patients with IS and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls were studied. The 4G/5G polymorphism was genotyped in the study population through allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Plasma PAI-1 levels were evaluated using a commercial kit. The PAI-1 levels were significantly higher in patients when compared to the controls ( P = .03). The variant 4G allele for the PAI-I 4G/5G polymorphism showed both genotypic ( P = .0013, χ 2 = 10.303; odds ratio [OR] = 3.75) as well as allelic association ( P = .0004, χ 2 = 12.273; OR = 1.99) with IS. The homozygous variant 4G/4G also was found to be associated with the higher PAI-1 levels (0.005). The variant allele 4G of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and higher plasma PAI-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with IS in young Asian Indians.

  15. Metastasis of transgenic breast cancer in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almholt, Kasper; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Frandsen, Thomas Leth

    2003-01-01

    , high levels of PAI-1 as well as uPA are equally associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. PAI-1 is thought to play a vital role for the controlled extracellular proteolysis during tumor neovascularization. We have studied the effect of PAI-1 deficiency in a transgenic mouse model...... of metastasizing breast cancer. In these tumors, the expression pattern of uPA and PAI-1 resembles that of human ductal breast cancer and plasminogen is required for efficient metastasis. In a cohort of 63 transgenic mice that were either PAI-1-deficient or wild-type sibling controls, primary tumor growth...

  16. Influence of PAI-1 gene promoter-675 (4G/5G) polymorphism on fibrinolytic activity after cardiac surgery employing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolina, Agnese; Strike, Eva; Jaunalksne, Inta; Serova, Jelena; Romanova, Tatjana; Zake, Liene Nikitina; Sabelnikovs, Olegs; Vanags, Indulis

    2012-01-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene promoter contains 675 (4G/5G) polymorphism. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of the PAI-1 promoter-675 (4G/5G) polymorphism on the concentrations of PAI-1 and tissue plasminogen activator/PAI-1 (t-PA/PAI-1) complex and bleeding volume after on-pump cardiac surgery. A total of 90 patients were included in the study at Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital. Seven patients were excluded due to surgical bleeding. Eighty-three patients were classified according to the PAI-1 genotype: 21 patients had the 4G/4G genotype; 42, the 4G/5G genotype; and 20, the 5G/5G genotype. The following fibrinolysis parameters were recorded: the PAI-1 level preoperatively, D-dimer level at 0, 6, and 24 hours after surgery, and t-PA/PAI-1 complex level 24 hours postoperatively. A postoperative bleeding volume was registered in mL 24 hours after surgery. The patients with the 5G/5G genotype had significantly lower preoperative PAI-1 levels (17 [SD, 10.8] vs. 24 ng/mL [SD, 9.6], P=0.04), higher D-dimer levels at 6 hours (371 [SD, 226] vs. 232 ng/mL [SD, 185], P=0.03) and 24 hours (326 [SD, 207] vs. 209 ng/mL [SD, 160], P=0.04), and greater postoperative blood loss (568 [SD, 192] vs. 432 mL [168], P=0.02) compared with the 4G/4G carriers. There were no significant differences in the levels of the t-PA/PAI-1 complex comparing different genotype groups. The carriers of the 5G/5G genotype showed the lower preoperative PAI-1 levels, greater chest tube blood loss, and higher D-dimer levels indicating that the 5G/5G carriers may have enhanced fibrinolysis.

  17. The Role of TPA I/D and PAI-1 4G/5G Polymorphisms in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Maja; Starčević Čizmarević, Nada; Lovrečić, Luca; Klupka-Sarić, Inge; Stanković, Aleksandra; Gašparović, Iva; Dinčić, Evica; Stojković, Ljiljana; Rudolf, Gorazd; Šega Jazbec, Saša; Perković, Olivio; Sinanović, Osman; Sepčić, Juraj; Kapović, Miljenko; Peterlin, Borut

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have shown impaired fibrinolysis in multiple sclerosis (MS) and implicated extracellular proteolytic enzymes as important factors in demyelinating neuroinflammatory disorders. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) are key molecules in both fibrinolysis and extracellular proteolysis. In the present study, an association of the TPA Alu I/D and PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphisms with MS was analyzed within the Genomic Network for Multiple Sclerosis (GENoMS). Methods. The GENoMS includes four populations (Croatian, Slovenian, Serbian, and Bosnian and Herzegovinian) sharing the same geographic location and a similar ethnic background. A total of 885 patients and 656 ethnically matched healthy blood donors with no history of MS in their families were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. Results. TPA DD homozygosity was protective (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.63–0.99, P = 0.037) and PAI 5G5G was a risk factor for MS (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.01–1.66, P = 0.038). A significant effect of the genotype/carrier combination was detected in 5G5G/I carriers (OR = 1.39 95% CI 1.06–1.82, P = 0.017). Conclusions. We found a significantly harmful effect of the combination of the PAI-1 5G/5G genotype and TPA I allele on MS susceptibility, which indicates the importance of gene-gene interactions in complex diseases such as MS. PMID:24825926

  18. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated in patients with COPD independent of metabolic and cardiovascular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waschki B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Waschki,1–3 Henrik Watz,2,3 Olaf Holz,4,5 Helgo Magnussen,2,3 Beata Olejnicka,6 Tobias Welte,5,7 Klaus F Rabe,1,3 Sabina Janciauskiene5,7 1Pneumology, LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 2Pulmonary Research Institute at LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 3Airway Research Center North (ARCN, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 4Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover, Germany; 5Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Hannover, Germany; 6Department of Medicine, Trelleborg Hospital, Trelleborg, Sweden; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is associated with thrombosis, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and premature aging, which all are coexisting conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The role of PAI-1 in COPD with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular functions is unclear. Methods: In this study, which was nested within a prospective cohort study, the serum levels of PAI-1 were cross-sectionally measured in 74 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 18 controls without lung disease. In addition, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, adiponectin, ankle–brachial index, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and history of comorbidities were also determined. Results: The serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls, independent of a broad spectrum of possible confounders including metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. A multivariate regression analysis revealed

  19. Role of ACE and PAI-1 Polymorphisms in the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Saba; Azam, Aisha; Maqsood, Sundus Ijaz; Muslim, Irfan; Bashir, Shaheena; Fazal, Nosheen; Riaz, Moeen; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Ishaq, Mazhar; Waheed, Nadia Khalida; Qamar, Raheel; Azam, Maleeha

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we determined the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its sub-clinical classes in Pakistani type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 353 diabetic subjects including 160 DR and 193 diabetic non retinopathy (DNR) as well as 198 healthy controls were genotyped by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ACE Insertion/Deletion (ID) polymorphism, rs4646994 in intron 16 and PAI-1 4G/5G (deletion/insertion) polymorphism, rs1799768 in promoter region of the gene. To statistically assess the genotype-phenotype association, multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the genotype data of DR, DNR and control individuals as well as the subtypes of DR. The ACE genotype ID was found to be significantly associated with DR (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR) 1.870 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–3.36]) and its sub-clinical class non-proliferative DR (NPDR) (p = 0.006, OR 2.250 [95% CI = 1.098–4.620]), while PAI polymorphism did not show any association with DR in the current cohort. In conclusion in Pakistani population the ACE ID polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with DR and NPDR, but not with the severe form of the disease i.e. proliferative DR (PDR). PMID:26658948

  20. Role of ACE and PAI-1 Polymorphisms in the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Saleem

    Full Text Available In the present study we determined the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR and its sub-clinical classes in Pakistani type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 353 diabetic subjects including 160 DR and 193 diabetic non retinopathy (DNR as well as 198 healthy controls were genotyped by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR for ACE Insertion/Deletion (ID polymorphism, rs4646994 in intron 16 and PAI-1 4G/5G (deletion/insertion polymorphism, rs1799768 in promoter region of the gene. To statistically assess the genotype-phenotype association, multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the genotype data of DR, DNR and control individuals as well as the subtypes of DR. The ACE genotype ID was found to be significantly associated with DR (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR 1.870 [95% confidence interval (CI = 1.04-3.36] and its sub-clinical class non-proliferative DR (NPDR (p = 0.006, OR 2.250 [95% CI = 1.098-4.620], while PAI polymorphism did not show any association with DR in the current cohort. In conclusion in Pakistani population the ACE ID polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with DR and NPDR, but not with the severe form of the disease i.e. proliferative DR (PDR.

  1. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for a human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antalis, T.M.; Clark, M.A.; Barnes, T.; Lehrbach, P.R.; Devine, P.L.; Schevzov, G.; Goss, N.H.; Stephens, R.W.; Tolstoshev, P.

    1988-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor (mPAI-2) was purified to homogeneity from the U937 cell line and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotide probes derived from this sequence were used to screen a cDNA library prepared from U937 cells. One positive clone was sequenced and contained most of the coding sequence as well as a long incomplete 3' untranslated region (1112 base pairs). This cDNA sequence was shown to encode mPAI-2 by hybrid-select translation. A cDNA clone encoding the remainder of the mPAI-2 mRNA was obtained by primer extension of U937 poly(A) + RNA using a probe complementary to the mPAI-2 coding region. The coding sequence for mPAI-2 was placed under the control of the λ P/sub L/ promoter, and the protein expressed in Escherichia coli formed a complex with urokinase that could be detected immunologically. By nucleotide sequence analysis, mPAI-2 cDNA encodes a protein containing 415 amino acids with a predicted unglycosylated M/sub r/ of 46,543. The predicted amino acid sequence of mPAI-2 is very similar to placental PAI-2 and shows extensive homology with members of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. mPAI-2 was found to be more homologous to ovalbumin (37%) than the endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor, PAI-1 (26%). The 3' untranslated region of the mPAI-2 cDNA contains a putative regulatory sequence that has been associated with the inflammatory mediators

  2. Prevotella intermedia stimulates tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 expression via multiple signaling pathways in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su-Min; He, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Ming; Shu, Lei

    2011-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an important periodontal pathogen that induces various inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of P. intermedia on the plasminogen system in human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells and explored the signaling pathways involved. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-qPCR, we demonstrated that P. intermedia challenge increased tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-2 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but exerted no influence on urokinase-type plasminogen activator and PAI-1mRNA expression in hPDL cells. Prevotella intermedia stimulation also enhanced tPA protein secretion as confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot results revealed that P. intermedia treatment increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (p38). ERK, JNK and protein kinase C inhibitors significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced tPA and PAI-2 expression. Furthermore, p38 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors markedly decreased PAI-2 expression, whereas they showed no or little inhibition on tPA expression. In contrast, inhibition of protein kinase A greatly enhanced the upregulatory effect of P. intermedia on tPA and PAI-2 expression. Our results suggest that P. intermedia may contribute to periodontal tissue destruction by upregulating tPA and PAI-2 expression in hPDL cells via multiple signaling pathways. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Irradiation-induced regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in six human squamous cell carcinoma lines of the head and neck; Bestrahlungsinduzierte Regulation des Plasminogenaktivator-Inhibitor Typ 1 (PAI-1) und des vaskulaeren endothelialen Wachstumsfaktors (VEGF) in sechs Plattenepithelkarzinomzelllinien der Kopf-Hals-Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artman, Meri Tuuli

    2014-01-29

    Radiation therapy is frequently used to treat squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), although, it can be unsuccessful due to radiation resistance of the tumor. Currently, there are no established predictive markers for radiation resistance in SCCHN. The aim of this work was to investigate PAI-1 and VEGF secretion as markers for radiation resistance in six human SCCHN cell lines. The cell lines differed in their basal secretion levels and in their in vitro radiation sensitivity. PAI-1 and VEGF levels increased after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. A significant correlation was detected between radiation-induced PAI-1 and VEGF secretion, which suggests that irradiation-induced secretion of PAI-1 and VEGF are partially regulated by related mechanisms. However, neither basal levels nor radiation-induced PAI-1 and VEGF secretion correlated with radiation resistance. Therefore, PAI-1 and VEGF are most likely not predictive markers for radiation resistance in SCCHN.

  4. Overexpression of SERBP1 (Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA binding protein) in human breast cancer is correlated with favourable prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serce, Nuran Bektas; Knuechel, Ruth; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A; Dahl, Edgar; Boesl, Andreas; Klaman, Irina; Serényi, Sonja von; Noetzel, Erik; Press, Michael F; Dimmler, Arno; Hartmann, Arndt; Sehouli, Jalid

    2012-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) overexpression is an important prognostic and predictive biomarker in human breast cancer. SERBP1, a protein that is supposed to regulate the stability of PAI-1 mRNA, may play a role in gynaecological cancers as well, since upregulation of SERBP1 was described in ovarian cancer recently. This is the first study to present a systematic characterisation of SERBP1 expression in human breast cancer and normal breast tissue at both the mRNA and the protein level. Using semiquantitative realtime PCR we analysed SERBP1 expression in different normal human tissues (n = 25), and in matched pairs of normal (n = 7) and cancerous breast tissues (n = 7). SERBP1 protein expression was analysed in two independent cohorts on tissue microarrays (TMAs), an initial evaluation set, consisting of 193 breast carcinomas and 48 normal breast tissues, and a second large validation set, consisting of 605 breast carcinomas. In addition, a collection of benign (n = 2) and malignant (n = 6) mammary cell lines as well as breast carcinoma lysates (n = 16) were investigated for SERBP1 expression by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, applying non-radioisotopic in situ hybridisation a subset of normal (n = 10) and cancerous (n = 10) breast tissue specimens from the initial TMA were analysed for SERBP1 mRNA expression. SERBP1 is not differentially expressed in breast carcinoma compared to normal breast tissue, both at the RNA and protein level. However, recurrence-free survival analysis showed a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between abundant SERBP1 expression in breast carcinoma and favourable prognosis. Interestingly, overall survival analysis also displayed a tendency (P = 0.09) towards favourable prognosis when SERBP1 was overexpressed in breast cancer. The RNA-binding protein SERBP1 is abundantly expressed in human breast cancer and may represent a novel breast tumour marker with prognostic significance. Its potential involvement in the

  5. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-I-related regulation of procollagen I (α1 and α2) by antitransforming growth factor-β1 treatment during radiation-impaired wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan; Kopp, Juergen; Thorwarth, Michael; Roedel, Franz; Melnychenko, Ivan; Grabenbauer, Gerhard G.; Amann, Kerstin; Wehrhan, Falk

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 mediates transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGF-β 1 )-related signaling by stimulating collagen Type I synthesis in radiation-impaired wound healing. The regulation of α(I)-procollagen is contradictory in fibroblasts of different fibrotic lesions. It is not known whether anti-TGF-β 1 treatment specifically inhibits α(I)-procollagen synthesis. We used an experimental wound healing study to address anti-TGF-β 1 -associated influence on α(I)-procollagen synthesis. Methods and Materials: A free flap was transplanted into the preirradiated (40 Gy) or nonirradiated neck region of Wistar rats: Group 1 (n = 8) surgery alone; Group 2 (n = 14) irradiation and surgery; Group 3 (n = 8) irradiation and surgery and anti-TGF-β 1 treatment. On the 14th postoperative day, skin samples were processed for fibroblast culture, in situ hybridization for TGF-β 1 , immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting for PAI-1, α 1 /α 2 (I)-procollagen. Results: Anti-TGF-β 1 significantly reduced TGF-β 1 mRNA (p 1 treatment in vivo significantly reduced α 1 (I)-procollagen protein (p 2 (I)-procollagen expression. Conclusion: These results emphasize anti-TGF-β 1 treatment to reduce radiation-induced fibrosis by decreasing α 1 (I)-procollagen synthesis in vivo. α 1 (I)-procollagen and α 2 (I)-procollagen might be differentially regulated by anti-TGF-β 1 treatment. Increased TGF-β signaling in irradiated skin fibroblasts seemed to be reversible, as shown by a reduction in PAI-1 expression after anti-TGF-β 1 treatment

  6. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for a human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalis, T M; Clark, M A; Barnes, T; Lehrbach, P R; Devine, P L; Schevzov, G; Goss, N H; Stephens, R W; Tolstoshev, P

    1988-02-01

    Human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor (mPAI-2) was purified to homogeneity from the U937 cell line and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotide probes derived from this sequence were used to screen a cDNA library prepared from U937 cells. One positive clone was sequenced and contained most of the coding sequence as well as a long incomplete 3' untranslated region (1112 base pairs). This cDNA sequence was shown to encode mPAI-2 by hybrid-select translation. A cDNA clone encoding the remainder of the mPAI-2 mRNA was obtained by primer extension of U937 poly(A)+ RNA using a probe complementary to the mPAI-2 coding region. The coding sequence for mPAI-2 was placed under the control of the lambda PL promoter, and the protein expressed in Escherichia coli formed a complex with urokinase that could be detected immunologically. By nucleotide sequence analysis, mPAI-2 cDNA encodes a protein containing 415 amino acids with a predicted unglycosylated Mr of 46,543. The predicted amino acid sequence of mPAI-2 is very similar to placental PAI-2 (3 amino acid differences) and shows extensive homology with members of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. mPAI-2 was found to be more homologous to ovalbumin (37%) than the endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor, PAI-1 (26%). Like ovalbumin, mPAI-2 appears to have no typical amino-terminal signal sequence. The 3' untranslated region of the mPAI-2 cDNA contains a putative regulatory sequence that has been associated with the inflammatory mediators.

  7. Identification of a peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE)-like cis-element in mouse plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiegen; Li Xi; Huang Haiyan; Liu Honglei; Liu Deguo; Song Tanjing; Ma Chungu; Ma Duan; Song Houyan; Tang Qiqun

    2006-01-01

    PAI-1 is expressed and secreted by adipose tissue which may mediate the pathogenesis of obesity-associated cardiovascular complications. Evidence is presented in this report that PAI-1 is not expressed by preadipocyte, but significantly induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and the PAI-1 expression correlates with the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). A peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE)-like cis-element (-206TCCCCCATGCCCT-194) is identified in the mouse PAI-1 gene promoter by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) combined with transient transfection experiments; the PPRE-like cis-element forms a specific DNA-protein complex only with adipocyte nuclear extracts, not with preadipocyte nuclear extracts; the DNA-protein complex can be totally competed away by non-labeled consensus PPRE, and can be supershifted with PPARγ antibody. Mutation of this PPRE-like cis-element can abolish the transactivation of mouse PAI-1 promoter mediated by PPARγ. Specific PPARγ ligand Pioglitazone can significantly induce the PAI-1 expression, and stimulate the secretion of PAI-1 into medium

  8. Lack of association between level of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and estimates of tumor angiogenesis in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Riisbro, Rikke; Knoop, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) is involved in tumor invasion and progression. High levels of PAI-1 are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, and PAI-1 has been shown to play a role in angiogenic processes. Since estimates of tumor angiogenesis may predict poor prognosis...... we studied the relationship between PAI-1 and estimates of angiogenesis in breast cancer. Tumor tissue specimens from 438 breast cancer patients were included. Median follow-up was 10.3 years. Protein levels of PAI-1 were measured using an ELISA. Angiogenesis scores were performed using a Chalkley.......009) were independent markers of death from breast cancer. This study confirms high PAI-1 or high Chalkley counts as markers of poor prognosis in breast cancer patients, and suggests that the prognostic impact of PAI-1 is independent of its supposed involvement in tumor angiogenesis. Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin ExoU induces a PAF-dependent impairment of alveolar fibrin turnover secondary to enhanced activation of coagulation and increased expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the course of mice pneumosepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suassuna José HR

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ExoU, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin with phospholipase A2 activity, was shown to induce vascular hyperpermeability and thrombus formation in a murine model of pneumosepsis. In this study, we investigated the toxin ability to induce alterations in pulmonary fibrinolysis and the contribution of the platelet activating factor (PAF in the ExoU-induced overexpression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Methods Mice were intratracheally instilled with the ExoU producing PA103 P. aeruginosa or its mutant with deletion of the exoU gene. After 24 h, animal bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF were analyzed and lung sections were submitted to fibrin and PAI-1 immunohistochemical localization. Supernatants from A549 airway epithelial cells and THP-1 macrophage cultures infected with both bacterial strains were also analyzed at 24 h post-infection. Results In PA103-infected mice, but not in control animals or in mice infected with the bacterial mutant, extensive fibrin deposition was detected in lung parenchyma and microvasculature whereas mice BALF exhibited elevated tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity and PAI-1 concentration. ExoU-triggered PAI-1 overexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro assays, PA103-infected A549 cells exhibited overexpression of PAI-1 mRNA. Increased concentration of PAI-1 protein was detected in both A549 and THP-1 culture supernatants. Mice treatment with a PAF antagonist prior to PA103 infection reduced significantly PAI-1 concentrations in mice BALF. Similarly, A549 cell treatment with an antibody against PAF receptor significantly reduced PAI-1 mRNA expression and PAI-1 concentrations in cell supernatants, respectively. Conclusion ExoU was shown to induce disturbed fibrin turnover, secondary to enhanced procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity during P. aeruginosa pneumosepsis, by a PAF-dependent mechanism. Besides its possible pathophysiological relevance, in

  10. 4G/5G Polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene is associated with multiple organ dysfunction in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Muhammad Aminul; Takeyama, Naoshi; Harada, Makoto; Miki, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Akinori; Inoue, Sousuke; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kanou, Hideki; Hirakawa, Akihiko; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Impaired fibrinolysis is associated with a higher incidence of both multiple organ dysfunction and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is the chief inhibitor of fibrinolysis. We investigated the influence of the 4G/5G polymorphism (rs1799768) of the PAI-1 gene on the plasma PAI-1 level and the outcome of critically ill patients. In 41 consecutive patients admitted to the ICU, PAI-1 gene polymorphism was assessed, plasma PAI-1 and arterial lactate concentrations were measured and clinical severity scores were recorded. Homozygotes for the 4G allele had higher plasma levels of PAI-1 antigen. The mean ± SD PAI-1 antigen level was 193.31 ± 167.93 ng/ml for the 4G/4G genotype, 100.67 ± 114.16 ng/ml for the 4G/5G genotype and 0.43 ± 0.53 ng/ml for the 5G/5G genotype. There was a significant correlation between plasma PAI-1 and arterial lactate concentrations, as well as between PAI-1 and severity scores. The mortality rate was 63, 33 and 0% for patients with the 4G/4G, 4G/5G and 5G/5G genotypes, respectively. These results demonstrate that the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene affects the plasma PAI-1 concentration, which could impair fibrinolysis and cause organ failure, and thus the presence of the 4G allele increases the risk of death. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism, factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutations and the risk of VTE recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Kristina; Wang, Xiao; Svensson, Peter J; Sundquist, Jan; Hedelius, Anna; Larsson Lönn, Sara; Zöller, Bengt; Memon, Ashfaque A

    2015-11-25

    Plasminogen-activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is an important inhibitor of the plasminogen/plasmin system. PAI-1 levels are influenced by the 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter. We investigated the relationship between the PAI-1 polymorphism and VTE recurrence, and its possible modification by factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin (PTM) mutations. Patients (n=1,069) from the Malmö Thrombophilia Study were followed from discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment until diagnosis of VTE recurrence or the end of the study (maximum follow-up 9.8 years). One hundred twenty-seven patients (11.9 %) had VTE recurrence. PAI-1 was genotyped by TaqMan PCR. Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and acquired risk factors of VTE showed no evidence of an association between PAI-1 genotype and risk of VTE recurrence in the study population as a whole. However, by including an interaction term in the analysis we showed that FVL but not PTM modified the effect of PAI-1 genotype: patients with the 4G allele plus FVL had a higher risk of VTE recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) =2.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.5-3.3] compared to patients with the 4G allele but no FVL (reference group) or FVL irrespective of PAI-1 genotype (HR=1.8, 95 % CI=1.3-2.5). Compared to reference group, 5G allele irrespective of FVL was associated with lower risk of VTE recurrence only when compared with 4G allele together with FVL. In conclusion, FVL has a modifying effect on PAI-1 polymorphism in relation to risk of VTE recurrence. The role of PAI-1 polymorphism as a risk factor of recurrent VTE may be FVL dependent.

  12. Oral carcinogenesis is not achieved in different carcinogen-treated PAI-1 transgenic and wild-type mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgoustidis, Dimitris; Nisyrios, Themistoklis; Nkenke, Emeka; Lijnen, Roger; Ragos, Vassilis; Perrea, Despina; Donta, Ismini; Vaena, Apostolia; Yapijakis, Christos; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to assess the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in oral squamous cancer development and progression, two different carcinogen treatment protocols were conducted. Protocol I included mice from a PAI-1 transgenic (Tg) breed (n=56) and their wild-type (WT) counterparts (n=56), divided into one control group and two main experimental groups, treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) for 8 and 16 weeks, respectively. Protocol II included the same number and types of animals and groups, which were similarly treated with 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) in drinking water. Two drugs that affect plasma PAI-1 levels, enalapril and pravastatin, were administered to certain subgroups of animals in both protocols. None of the animals developed macroscopically-visible oral cancer lesions. Eleven animals under Protocol I and 52 animals under Protocol II died. Skin lesions were noted only in DMBA-treated animals (n=9). Almost all animals administered with 4-NQO developed alopecia and lost weight, while two of them developed stomach tumours, and one female mouse developed a large ovarian cyst. Transgenic mice may respond differently when used in well-established carcinogen models and oral carcinogenesis is hard to achieve in these rodents.

  13. Dual role for plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 as soluble and as matricellular regulator of epithelial alveolar cell wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquerlot, François; Galiacy, Stephane; Malo, Michel; Guignabert, Christophe; Lawrence, Daniel A; d'Ortho, Maria-Pia; Barlovatz-Meimon, Georgia

    2006-11-01

    Epithelium repair, crucial for restoration of alveolo-capillary barrier integrity, is orchestrated by various cytokines and growth factors. Among them keratinocyte growth factor plays a pivotal role in both cell proliferation and migration. The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) system also influences cell migration through proteolysis during epithelial repair. In addition, the complex formed by uPAR-uPA and matrix-bound plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) exerts nonproteolytic roles in various cell types. Here we present new evidence about the dual role of PAI-1 under keratinocyte growth factor stimulation using an in vitro repair model of rat alveolar epithelial cells. Besides proteolytic involvement of the uPA system, the availability of matrix-bound-PAI-1 is also required for an efficient healing. An unexpected decrease of healing was shown when PAI-1 activity was blocked. However, the proteolytic action of uPA and plasmin were still required. Moreover, immediately after wounding, PAI-1 was dramatically increased in the newly deposited matrix at the leading edge of wounds. We thus propose a dual role for PAI-1 in epithelial cell wound healing, both as a soluble inhibitor of proteolysis and also as a matrix-bound regulator of cell migration. Matrix-bound PAI-1 could thus be considered as a new member of the matricellular protein family.

  14. Inhibition of PAI-1 release from human endothelial cells by Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (Ashitaba chalcones is structure-dependent

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    Naoki Ohkura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (Ashitaba is a traditional herbal medicine and it is also regarded in Japan as a health food that might have antithrombotic properties. Ashitaba exudate suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, a risk factor for thrombotic diseases in mice. Xanthoangelol (XA and 4-hydroxyderricin (4-HD comprise > 95% of total chalcones from Ashitaba exudates that also contain trace amounts of other chalcone subtypes. The present study aimed to determine the effects of Ashitaba chalcones including xanthoangelols B (XB, D (XD, E (XE, F (XF and XA as well as 4-HD on PAI-1 levels in the medium of stimulated human EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Xanthoangelol (10 and #61549;M inhibited PAI-1 production at a rate of 77.1%, whereas the inhibition rates of XB, XD, XE and 4-HD were not significant. Xanthoangelol F was highly cytotoxic and thus its ability to inhibit PAI-1 production could not be evaluated. The side hydrocarbon chain of XA played an important role in the excretion of inhibitory activity. Small modifications of the hydrocarbon chain or small functional groups on the A ring measurably influenced the inhibitory activity of xanthoangelols. These findings warrant future research towards an understanding of the mechanism of antithrombotic action of Ashitaba as herbal medicine or antithrombotic health food. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 355-357

  15. Dual Diverse Dynamic Reversible Actions of Ankaferd on EPCR and PAI-1 Inside Vascular Endothelial Cells With and Without LPS

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    Afife Karabıyık

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS comprises a mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum ve Urtica dioica. ABS has been used as a topical haemostatic agent because of its antihaemorrhagic effect. Its haemostatic mechanism of action remains to be investigated. ABS does not affect individual levels of the coagulation factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI and XIII. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ABS on endothelium and immune response. So, we investigated the possible changes in EPCR and PAI-1 without and with LPS-challenge inside HUVECs. METHODS: 10 μL and 100 μL ABS is given to HUVECs in 5 min., 25 min., and 50 min.,6 hour and 24 hour time periods. 10 μg/ mL LPS has been added for one hour to observe the effects of LPS challenge on HUVECs and then the cells have been treated with ABS for the time period of 5 min., 25 min., 50 min. and 6 hours to observe ABS-effects on HUVECs. Total RNAs were isolated from HUVECs and then EPCR ve PAI-1 mRNA expression levels were investigated. RESULTS: It was microscopically observed that cells arised from the surface and adhered to each other after the ABS application to the HUVECs. Also, after 24 hours cells returned the normal growth and physiology. It suggests that the adhesive cellular functions of ABS may be reversible. 10 µl ABS have negative effect on EPCR and PAI-1 expressions. Moreover the effects increases with 100 µl ABS. EPCR and PAI-1 expression increased by time with LPS and 10 µl ABS. Expressions were very low during the first hour when LPS and 100 µl ABS were given but at the end of 6 hour, EPCR and PAI-1 expression increased similar to LPS and 10 µl ABS experiment. CONCLUSION: In this study, we observed that Ankaferd has dual diverse dynamic reversible actions depend on dose and concentration on EPCR and PAI-1 inside vascular endothelial cells in the model of HUVEC. ABS might have a role on numerous cellular

  16. PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism (rs1799768) contributes to tumor susceptibility: Evidence from meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Xie, Yanqi; Lin, Yiwei; Xu, Xianglai; Zhu, Yi; Mao, Yeqing; Hu, Zhenghui; Wu, Jian; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xiangyi; Qin, Jie; Xie, Liping

    2012-12-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), belonging to the urokinase plasminogen activation (uPA) system, is involved in cancer development and progression. The PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was shown to contribute to genetic susceptibility to cancer, although the results were inconsistent. To assess this relationship more precisely, a meta-analysis was performed. The electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched; data were extracted and analyzed independently by two reviewers. Ultimately, 21 eligible case-control studies with a total of 8,415 cancer cases and 9,208 controls were included. The overall odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) showed a statistically significant association between the PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism and cancer risk (4G/4G vs. 5G/5G: OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.07-1.47, P(heterogeneity)=0.001; 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G+5G/5G: OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.03-1.17, P(heterogeneity)=0.194; 4G/4G+4G/5G vs. 5G/5G: OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.01-1.35, P(heterogeneity)=0.041). In further subgroup analyses, the increased risk of cancer was observed in a subgroup of Caucasians with regards to endometrial cancer. Our meta-analysis suggests that the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism most likely contributes to susceptibility to cancer, particularly in Caucasians. Furthermore, the 4G allele may be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer.

  17. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larrañaga, Gabriela; Wingeyer, Silvia Perés; Graffigna, Mabel; Belli, Susana; Bendezú, Karla; Alvarez, Silvia; Levalle, Oscar; Fainboim, Hugo

    2008-07-01

    Fatty liver represents the liver component of metabolic syndrome and may be involved in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) synthesis. We studied plasma PAI-1 levels and relationships with risk factors for metabolic syndrome, including fatty liver, in 170 patients. Liver ultrasound scan was performed on all patients, and a liver biopsy was performed on those patients with chronically elevated transaminase levels. Plasma PAI-1 levels correlated significantly (P < .05) with body mass index, degree of steatosis, insulin resistance, insulin level, waist circumference, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol. However, only body mass index (beta = .455) and HDL-cholesterol (beta = .293) remained predictors of PAI-1 levels. Liver biopsy revealed a significant correlation (P < .05) between insulin resistance (r = 0.381) or insulin level (r = 0.519) and liver fibrosis. In patients presenting features of metabolic syndrome, plasma PAI-1 levels were mainly conditioned by the whole-body fat content.

  18. Fibrate-modulated expression of fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and apolipoprotein A-I in cultured cynomolgus monkey hepatocytes. Role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockx, M.; Princen, H.M.G.; Kooistra, T.

    1998-01-01

    Fibrates are used to lower plasma triglycerides and cholesterol levels in hyperlipidemic patients. In addition, fibrates have been found to alter the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I). We have investigated the in vitro

  19. Elevated Cytokines, Thrombin and PAI-1 in Severe HCPS Patients Due to Sin Nombre Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Bondu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sin Nombre Hantavirus (SNV, Bunyaviridae Hantavirus is a Category A pathogen that causes Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS with case fatality ratios generally ranging from 30% to 50%. HCPS is characterized by vascular leakage due to dysregulation of the endothelial barrier function. The loss of vascular integrity results in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, shock, multi-organ failure and death. Using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS measurements, we found that plasma samples drawn from University of New Mexico Hospital patients with serologically-confirmed HCPS, induce loss of cell-cell adhesion in confluent epithelial and endothelial cell monolayers grown in ECIS cultureware. We show that the loss of cell-cell adhesion is sensitive to both thrombin and plasmin inhibitors in mild cases, and to thrombin only inhibition in severe cases, suggesting an increasing prothrombotic state with disease severity. A proteomic profile (2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry of HCPS plasma samples in our cohort revealed robust antifibrinolytic activity among terminal case patients. The prothrombotic activity is highlighted by acute ≥30 to >100 fold increases in active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 which, preceded death of the subjects within 48 h. Taken together, this suggests that PAI-1 might be a response to the severe pathology as it is expected to reduce plasmin activity and possibly thrombin activity in the terminal patients.

  20. PAI-1–regulated miR-21 defines a novel age-associated fibrogenic pathway in muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardite, Esther; Perdiguero, Eusebio; Vidal, Berta; Gutarra, Susana; Serrano, Antonio L.

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of skeletal muscle homeostasis by substitution with fibrotic tissue constitutes the principal cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, yet the implicated fibrogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study identifies the extracellular PAI-1/urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) balance as an important regulator of microribonucleic acid (miR)–21 biogenesis, controlling age-associated muscle fibrosis and dystrophy progression. Genetic loss of PAI-1 in mdx dystrophic mice anticipated muscle fibrosis through these sequential mechanisms: the alteration of collagen metabolism by uPA-mediated proteolytic processing of transforming growth factor (TGF)–β in muscle fibroblasts and the activation of miR-21 expression, which inhibited phosphatase and tensin homologue and enhanced AKT signaling, thus endowing TGF-β with a remarkable cell proliferation–promoting potential. Age-associated fibrogenesis and muscle deterioration in mdx mice, as well as exacerbated dystrophy in young PAI-1−/− mdx mice, could be reversed by miR-21 or uPA-selective interference, whereas forced miR-21 overexpression aggravated disease severity. The PAI-1–miR-21 fibrogenic axis also appeared dysregulated in muscle of DMD patients, providing a basis for effectively targeting fibrosis and muscular dystrophies in currently untreatable individuals. PMID:22213800

  1. Inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity results in promotion of endogenous thrombolysis and inhibition of thrombus extension in models of experimental thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Biemond, B. J.; van Zonneveld, A. J.; ten Cate, J. W.; Pannekoek, H.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effect of inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity by a murine monoclonal anti-human PAI-1 antibody (MAI-12) on in vitro thrombolysis and on in vivo thrombolysis and thrombus extension in an experimental animal model for thrombosis. Thrombolysis, mediated

  2. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and coronary artery disease risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongshu; Jiang, Weihong; Ouyang, Mao; Yang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G polymorphism and this association with coronary artery disease (CAD). But definite conclusions can not be drawn. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 10 August 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 53 studies including 20921 CAD cases and 18434 controls were included. Significantly elevated CAD risk was found in overall analysis (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05-1.21, P = 0.0009). In the subgroup analysis by races, significantly increased risk was found in Caucasians (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.20, P = 0.005) and Asians (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.42, P = 0.04). In the subgroup analysis by gender, significant association was found in males (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.25, P = 0.0008), but was not found in females (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92-1.20, P = 0.47). In the subgroup analysis by age, young populations showed increased CAD risk (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.37, P = 0.02), but old populations did not show this association (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.82-1.24, P = 0.93). This meta-analysis provides the evidence that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may contribute to the CAD development.

  3. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and coronary artery disease risk: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongshu; Jiang, Weihong; Ouyang, Mao; Yang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G polymorphism and this association with coronary artery disease (CAD). But definite conclusions can not be drawn. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 10 August 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 53 studies including 20921 CAD cases and 18434 controls were included. Significantly elevated CAD risk was found in overall analysis (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05-1.21, P = 0.0009). In the subgroup analysis by races, significantly increased risk was found in Caucasians (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.20, P = 0.005) and Asians (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.42, P = 0.04). In the subgroup analysis by gender, significant association was found in males (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.25, P = 0.0008), but was not found in females (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92-1.20, P = 0.47). In the subgroup analysis by age, young populations showed increased CAD risk (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.37, P = 0.02), but old populations did not show this association (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.82-1.24, P = 0.93). This meta-analysis provides the evidence that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may contribute to the CAD development. PMID:25932140

  4. Influence of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1) 4G/5G polymorphism on circulating SERPINE-1 antigen expression in HCC associated with viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divella, Rosa; Mazzocca, Antonio; Gadaleta, Cosimo; Simone, Giovanni; Paradiso, Angelo; Quaranta, Michele; Daniele, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is heavily influenced by chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection. Elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1/PAI-1) have been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with viral infection. The gene encoding SERPINE1 is highly polymorphic and the frequently associated 4/5 guanosine (4G/5G) polymorphism in the gene promoter may influence its expression. Here, we investigated the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the 4G/5G polymorphism in patients with HCC, the influence of the 4G/5G polymorphism on plasma SERPINE1 levels and its association with viral infection. A total of 75 patients with HCC were enrolled: 32 (42.6%) were HBV(+)/HCV(+), 11 (14.6%) were only HCV(+), and 32 (42.6%) were negative for both viruses. A control group of healthy donors was also enrolled (n=50). SERPINE1 plasma concentrations were determined by ELISA and the detection of the promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was performed by an allele-specific PCR analysis. We found that the frequency of both the 4G/4G genotype (p=0.02) and the 4G allele (p=0.006) were significantly higher in patients with HCC compared to the control group, and particularly higher in patients with HCC co-infected with HBV(+)/HCV(+) than in those with no viral infection. We also found that patients with the 4G/4G genotype had significantly higher plasma SERPINE1 protein levels when compared with patients with the 4G/5G or 5G/5G genotype (p5G SERPINE1 polymorphism with a higher level of SERPINE1 protein in patients with HCC with HBV(+)/HCV(+) than those without infection, suggest the presence of two distinct pathogenic mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis, depending on the etiology.

  5. BAG3 regulates ECM accumulation in renal proximal tubular cells induced by TGF-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Li, De-Tian; Du, Zhen-Xian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Wang, Yan-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is increased in renal fibrosis using a rat unilateral ureteral obstruction model. The current study investigated the role of BAG3 in renal fibrosis using transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-treated human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. An upregulation of BAG3 in vitro models was observed, which correlated with the increased synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1. Blockade of BAG3 induction by shorting hairpin RNA suppressed the expression of ECM proteins but had no effect on PAI-1 expression induced by TGF-β1. Forced overexpression of BAG3 selectively increased collagens. TGF-β1-induced BAG3 expression in HK-2 cells was attenuated by ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK inhibitors. In addition, forced BAG3 overexpression blocked attenuation of collagens expression by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. These data suggest that ERK1/2 and JNK signaling events are involved in modulating the expression of BAG3, which would ultimately contribute to renal fibrosis by enhancing the synthesis and deposition of ECM proteins.

  6. Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 is an independent predictor of coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naya, Masanao; Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Inubushi, Masayuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Furumoto, Tomoo; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2007-01-01

    Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is related to cardiovascular events, but its role in subclinical coronary microvascular dysfunction remains unknown. Thus, in the present study it was investigated whether elevated plasma PAI-1 activity is associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertensive patients. Thirty patients with untreated essential hypertension and 10 age-matched healthy controls were studied prospectively. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15 O-water positron emission tomography. Clinical variables associated with atherosclerosis (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), and PAI-1 activity) were assessed to determine their involvement in coronary microvascular dysfunction. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced hyperemic MBF and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were significantly lower in hypertensive patients than in healthy controls (ATP-induced MBF: 2.77±0.82 vs 3.49±0.71 ml·g -1 ·min -1 ; p<0.02 and CFR: 2.95±1.06 vs 4.25±0.69; p<0.001). By univariate analysis, CFR was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.46, p<0.02), and inversely with HOMA-IR (r=-0.39, p<0.05) and PAI-1 activity (r=-0.61, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, elevated PAI-1 activity remained a significant independent determinant of diminished CFR. Elevated plasma PAI-1 activity was independently associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction, which suggests that plasma PAI-1 activity is an important clue linking hypofibrinolysis to the development of atherosclerosis. (author)

  7. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  8. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Activate Tristetraprolin Expression through Induction of Early Growth Response Protein 1 (EGR1 in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Sobolewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP promotes rapid decay of mRNAs bearing 3' UTR AU-rich elements (ARE. In many cancer types, loss of TTP expression is observed allowing for stabilization of ARE-mRNAs and their pathologic overexpression. Here we demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors (Trichostatin A, SAHA and sodium butyrate promote TTP expression in colorectal cancer cells (HCA-7, HCT-116, Moser and SW480 cells and cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa. We found that HDAC inhibitors-induced TTP expression, promote the decay of COX-2 mRNA, and inhibit cancer cell proliferation. HDAC inhibitors were found to promote TTP transcription through activation of the transcription factor Early Growth Response protein 1 (EGR1. Altogether, our findings indicate that loss of TTP in tumors occurs through silencing of EGR1 and suggests a therapeutic approach to rescue TTP expression in colorectal cancer.

  9. Saturated fatty acid intake can influence increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquio, D C L; de Piano, A; Campos, R M S; Sanches, P L; Corgosinho, F C; Carnier, J; Oyama, L M; do Nascimento, C M P O; de Mello, M T; Tufik, S; Dâmaso, A R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if saturated fatty acid intake adjusted by tertiles can influence metabolic, inflammation, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in obese adolescents. Body mass, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition of 108 obese adolescents were obtained. Fasting glucose, insulin, PAI-1, and CRP were determined. Insulin resistance was assessed by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity by Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). Dietetic intake was estimated by a 3-day dietary record, and volunteers were divided according to consumption of saturated fatty acids: tertile 1 [Low Saturated Fatty Acid Intake (Low-SFA): ≤12.14 g], tertile 2 [Moderate Saturated Fatty Intake (Moderate SFA intake): 12.15-20.48 g], and tertile 3 [High Saturated Fatty Acid Intake (High-SFA Intake); >20.48 g]. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA 7.0 software and the significance level was set at pstudy is that Moderate and High-SFA intakes presented significantly higher values of PAI-1 than Low-SFA Intake. PAI-1 was positively associated with saturated fatty intake, waist circumference, mean blood pressure, and HOMA-IR. SFA intake was predictor of PAI-1 independent of body fat, HOMA-IR and total-cholesterol. In addition, PAI-1 was an independent predictor of blood pressure. HOMA-IR and QUICKI presented significantly higher and lower, respectively, in High-SFA compared to Moderate-SFA intake. High-SFA influenced cardiovascular disease risks, since it increased PAI-1 and insulin resistance, and decreased insulin sensibility, leading to vicious cycle among food ingestion, pro-thrombotic state, and cardiovascular risks in obese adolescents. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Largazole, a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Salahuddin, E-mail: Salah.Ahmed@utoledo.edu [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, OH (United States); Riegsecker, Sharayah; Beamer, Maria; Rahman, Ayesha; Bellini, Joseph V. [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, OH (United States); Bhansali, Pravin; Tillekeratne, L.M. Viranga [Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2013-07-15

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of largazole (LAR), a marine-derived class I HDAC inhibitor, on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. LAR (1–5 μM) had no adverse effect on the viability of RA synovial fibroblasts. Among the different class I HDACs screened, LAR (0.5–5 μM) inhibited the constitutive expression of HDAC1 (0–30%). Surprisingly, LAR increased class II HDAC [HDAC6] by ∼ 220% with a concomitant decrease in HDAC5 [30–58%] expression in RA synovial fibroblasts. SAHA (5 μM), a pan-HDAC inhibitor, also induced HDAC6 expression in RA synovial fibroblasts. Pretreatment of RA synovial fibroblasts with LAR further enhanced TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. However, LAR inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-2 activity in RA synovial fibroblasts by 35% when compared to the TNF-α-treated group. Further, the addition of HDAC6 specific inhibitor Tubastatin A with LAR suppressed TNF-α + LAR-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and completely blocked MMP-2 activity, suggesting a role of HDAC6 in LAR-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. LAR also enhanced TNF-α-induced phospho-p38 and phospho-AKT expression, but inhibited the expression of phospho-JNK and nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 in RA synovial fibroblasts. These results suggest that LAR activates p38 and Akt pathways and influences class II HDACs, in particular HDAC6, to enhance some of the detrimental effects of TNF-α in RA synovial fibroblasts. Understanding the exact role of different HDAC isoenzymes in RA pathogenesis is extremely important in order to develop highly effective HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of RA. - Highlights: • Largazole enhances TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. • Largazole upregulates class II HDAC (HDAC6) in RA synovial fibroblasts. • Largazole also induces the expression of phospho-p38

  11. Association Between PAI-1 Activity Levels and t-PA Antigen with Glycemic Status in Prediabetic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Fachruddin Benyamin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate an association between fibrinolysis defect and glycemic status in prediabetic population by assessing the levels of t-PA antigen and PAI-1 activity. Methods: it was an observational study with cross-sectional approach. There were 72 subjects aged 30-50 years who had met the inclusion criteria. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM and glycemic index were determined based on the American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. The PAI-1 and t-PA antigen levels were measured quantitatively using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Analysis between the levels of t-PA antigen and PAI-1 activity was performed using ANOVA. Results: the t-PA antigen level was significantly higher in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and impaired fasting blood glucose (IFBG as well as subject with impaired fasting blood glucose (IFBG than those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT (p=0.047. The PAI-1 activity was significantly higher in subjects with IGT, IFBG and subjects with IFBG than NGT (p=0.024. There was a significant association between glycemic status in prediabetic subjects and PAI-1 activity (p=0.04. Conclusion: the level of t-PA antigen and PAI-1 activity were significantly higher in prediabetic subjects than those with NGT; and there was a significant association between glycemic status in prediabetic subjects and PAI-1 activity.

  12. Enhanced venous thrombus resolution in plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, S A; Chabasse, C; Mukhopadhyay, S; Hoofnagle, M H; Strickland, D K; Sarkar, R; Antalis, T M

    2014-10-01

    The resolution of deep vein thrombosis requires an inflammatory response and mobilization of proteases, such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), to degrade the thrombus and remodel the injured vein wall. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) with unique immunosuppressive and cell survival properties that was originally identified as an inhibitor of uPA. To investigate the role of PAI-2 in venous thrombus formation and resolution. Venous thrombus resolution was compared in wild-type C57BL/6, PAI-2(-/-) , and PAI-1(-/-) mice using the stasis model of deep vein thrombosis. Formed thrombi were harvested, thrombus weights were recorded, and tissue was analyzed for uPA and MMP activities, PAI-1 expression, and the nature of inflammatory cell infiltration. We found that the absence of PAI-2 enhanced venous thrombus resolution, while thrombus formation was unaffected. Enhanced venous thrombus resolution in PAI-2(-/-) mice was associated with increased uPA activity and reduced levels of PAI-1, with no significant effect on MMP-2 and -9 activities. PAI-1 deficiency resulted in an increase in thrombus resolution similar to PAI-2 deficiency, but additionally reduced venous thrombus formation and altered MMP activity. PAI-2-deficient thrombi had increased levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL2, which was associated with early enhanced neutrophil recruitment. These data identify PAI-2 as a novel regulator of venous thrombus resolution, which modulates several pathways involving both inflammatory and uPA activity mechanisms, distinct from PAI-1. Further examination of these pathways may lead to potential therapeutic prospects in accelerating thrombus resolution. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. The PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE I/D polymorphisms and risk of recurrent pregnancy loss: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ju; Choi, Young Min; Lee, Sung Ki; Yang, Kwang Moon; Paik, Eun Chan; Jeong, Hyeon Jeong; Jun, Jong Kwan; Han, Ae Ra; Hong, Min A

    2014-12-01

    Thrombophilia has been postulated to be a contributor to the pathophysiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). We investigated the role of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphisms in Korean patients with RPL. Genotyping was performed using the TaqMan assay in 227 RPL patients and 304 controls. The genotype distributions of both polymorphisms in the RPL group did not differ from those of controls. Because the frequency of being homozygous for ACE D/D and the PAI-I 4G/4G combination has been reported to be significantly higher in RPL patients, this was also analyzed. However, no significant difference was noted; 3.1% of RPL patients had both ACE D/D and PAI-I 4G/4G, as did 4.9% of controls (P = 0.791). The current study suggests that both polymorphisms, either alone or in combination, are not major determinants of the development of RPL in Korean women. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Meta-analysis of the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejiao; Liu, Yukun; Zhang, Rui; Tan, Jianping; Chen, Libin; Liu, Yinglin

    2015-04-11

    The association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) risk is still contradictory. We thus performed a meta-analysis. Relevant studies were searched for in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library. An odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and RPL risk. A total of 22 studies with 4306 cases and 3076 controls were included in this meta-analysis. We found that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased RPL risk (OR=1.89; 95% CI 1.34-2.67; P=0.0003). In the subgroup analysis by race, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased RPL risk in Caucasians (OR=2.23; 95% CI 1.44-3.46; P=0.0003). However, no significant association was observed in Asians (OR=1.47; 95% CI 0.84-2.59; P=0.18). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism might be associated with RPL development in Caucasians.

  15. Preoperative plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and serum C-reactive protein levels in patients with colorectal cancer. The RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Sørensen, Steen

    2000-01-01

    study we analyzed the association between plasma PAI-1 and serum CRP in patients scheduled for elective resection of colorectal cancer. In addition, the prognostic value of PAI-1 and CRP was studied in this patient cohort. METHODS: PAI-1 and CRP were analyzed in citrated plasma and serum, respectively......, excluding patients with Dukes' D disease showed serum CRP to be an independent prognostic variable (P study did not show a strong correlation between plasma PAI-1 and serum CRP in patients with colorectal cancer. Serum CRP was found to be a Dukes......BACKGROUND: Preoperative plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a prognostic variable in patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested, however, that plasma PAI-1 is a nonspecific prognostic parameter similar to the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP). In the present...

  16. The CYP2E1 inhibitor DDC up-regulates MMP-1 expression in hepatic stellate cells via an ERK1/2- and Akt-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; Cong, Min; Xu, Youqing; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong

    2013-06-05

    DDC (diethyldithiocarbamate) could block collagen synthesis in HSC (hepatic stellate cells) through the inhibition of ROS (reactive oxygen species) derived from hepatocyte CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450 2E1). However, the effect of DDC on MMP-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1), which is the main collagen degrading matrix metalloproteinase, has not been reported. In co-culture experiments, we found that DDC significantly enhanced MMP-1 expression in human HSC (LX-2) that were cultured with hepatocyte C3A cells either expressing or not expressing CYP2E1. The levels of both proenzyme and active MMP-1 enzyme were up-regulated in LX-2 cells, accompanied by elevated enzyme activity of MMP-1 and decreased collagen I, in both LX-2 cells and the culture medium. H2O2 treatment abrogated DDC-induced MMP-1 up-regulation and collagen I decrease, while catalase treatment slightly up-regulated MMP-1 expression. These data suggested that the decrease in ROS by DDC was partially responsible for the MMP-1 up-regulation. ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2), Akt (protein kinase B) and p38 were significantly activated by DDC. The ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and Akt inhibitor (T3830) abrogated the DDC-induced MMP-1 up-regulation. In addition, a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) improved MMP-1 up-regulation through the stimulation of ERK1/2. Our data indicate that DDC significantly up-regulates the expression of MMP-1 in LX-2 cells which results in greater MMP-1 enzyme activity and decreased collagen I. The enhancement of MMP-1 expression by DDC was associated with H2O2 inhibition and coordinated regulation by the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways. These data provide some new insights into treatment strategies for hepatic fibrosis.

  17. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luqian; Huang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies were performed to assess the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. In the present study, the possible association was investigated by a meta-analysis. Eligible articles were identified for the period up to June 2013. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were appropriately derived from random-effects models or fixed-effects models. Fourteen case-control studies with a total of 2487 cases and 3538 controls were eligible. In recessive model, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was associated with T2DM risk (OR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.07-1.41; P = 0.004). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant association was found among Asians (OR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.08-1.51; P = 0.005). This meta-analysis suggested that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may be associated with T2DM development. PMID:24040470

  18. Latency transition of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 is evolutionarily conserved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jendroszek, Agnieszka; Sønnichsen, Malene; Chana Munoz, Andres

    2017-01-01

    relevance of latency transition. In order to study the origin of PAI-1 latency transition, we produced PAI-1 from Spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and African lungfish (Protopterus sp.), which represent central species in the evolution of vertebrates. Although human PAI-1 and the non-mammalian PAI-1...

  19. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome risk: a meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Sun, Mei-Guo; Jiang, Rong; Ding, Rui; Che, Zhen; Chen, Yan-Yan; Yao, Ci-Jiang; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Cao, Ji-Yu

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have reported that excessive amounts of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) might increase the incidence of polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), but so far the published results were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the association between PAI-1 gene polymorphism and the susceptibility to PCOS by performing a meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies was conducted on google scholar, PubMed, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM). This meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 11.0 software and the pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Ten case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 2,079 cases and 1,556 controls. The results showed that PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism may increase the risk of PCOS, especially among Asian populations. However, there was no statistically significant association between the polymorphism and PCOS risk in Caucasians. Our meta-analysis suggests that PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism may contribute to increasing susceptibility to PCOS in Asians. Detection of the PAI-1 gene polymorphism might be a promising biomarker for the susceptibility of PCOS.

  20. PAI-1 levels predict response to fractionated irradiation in 10 human squamous cell carcinoma lines of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Christine; Schilling, Daniela; Hoetzel, Joerg; Egermann, Hannes Peter; Zips, Daniel; Yaromina, Ala; Geurts-Moespot, Anneke; Sprague, Lisa Deborah; Sweep, Fred; Baumann, Michael; Molls, Michael; Adam, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the relationships between hypoxia, VEGF and components of the plasminogen activation system (PAS) and to determine their influence on local tumour control after fractionated radiotherapy. Material and methods: Ten cell lines derived from human squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) were investigated in vitro and used to generate xenograft tumours. The pimonidazole hypoxic fraction in the total tumour area (pHF tot ) was used to measure hypoxia in pre-treatment tumours and the local tumour control (TCD 50 ) was used as the functional endpoint in vivo. For in vitro experiments, cells were cultured for 24 h under either normoxic or mild hypoxic (∼0.66% O 2 ) conditions. VEGF, PAI-1 and uPA antigen levels were determined by ELISA and uPA activity by an activity assay kit. Results: Of all the factors investigated, only PAI-1 expression correlated with TCD 50 (r = 0.80, p 0.010) and was significantly higher (p = 0.001) in more hypoxic than in less hypoxic tumours. Accordingly, PAI-1 secretion was significantly induced (2.4x) by in vitro hypoxia. Conclusions: These results suggest that pre-treatment PAI-1 levels are higher in more hypoxic tumours and can predict the response to fractionated irradiation in SCCHN

  1. Interactions of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with vitronectin involve an extensive binding surface and induce mutual conformational rearrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blouse, Grant E; Dupont, Daniel Miotto; Schar, Christine R

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore early events during the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with its cofactor vitronectin, we have applied a robust strategy that combines protein engineering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and rapid reaction kinetics. Fluorescence stopped-flow experiments de...

  2. E2F1-mediated transcriptional inhibition of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziczak, M; Müller, H; Helin, K

    2001-01-01

    but independent of binding to pocket-binding proteins, suggesting a novel mechanism for E2F-mediated negative gene regulation [Koziczak, M., Krek, W. & Nagamine, Y. (2000) Mol. Cell. Biol. 20, 2014-2022]. However, it remains to be seen whether endogenous E2F can exert a similar effect. We report here that down....... These results all indicate that endogenous E2F can directly repress the PAI-1 gene. DNase I hypersensitive-site analysis of the PAI-1 promoter suggested the involvement of conformation changes in chromatin structure of the PAI-1 promoter. 5' deletion analysis of the PAI-1 promoter showed that multiple sites...

  3. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 4G/5G and -844G/A variants in idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdoud, Kalthoum; Herbepin, Viviana G; Touraine, Renaud; Almawi, Wassim Y; Mahjoub, Touhami

    2013-09-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) regulates fibrinolysis, and the common promoter region variants -675G/A (4G/5G) and -844G/A are associated with increased thrombotic risk. Despite evidence linking altered fibrinolysis with adverse pregnancy events, including idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), the contribution of PAI-1 variants to RPL risk remains controversial. We investigated the association between the PAI-1 -844G/A and 4G/5G (-675G/A) variants with altered risk of RPL. This was a case-control study involving 304 women with confirmed RPL and 371 age- and ethnically matched control women. PAI-1 genotyping was performed by PCR single-specific primer -675 (G/A) and real-time PCR (-844G/A) analysis. Minor allele frequency (MAF) of 4G/5G (P 5G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was significantly associated with RPL under additive, dominant, and recessive genetic models; no association of -844G/A with RPL was seen irrespective of the genetic model tested. Taking common -844G/5G haplotype as reference (OR = 1.00), multivariate analysis confirmed the association of 4G-containing -844A/4G (P 5G, but not -844G/A, PAI-1 variant is associated with an increased risk of RPL. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Coexistence of ACE (I/D) and PAI-1 (4G/5G) gene variants in recurrent miscarriage in Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawińska, Grażyna; Barlik, Magdalena; Drews, Krzysztof; Różycka, Agata; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Ożarowski, Marcin; Klejewski, Andrzej; Czerny, Bogusław; Wolski, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is one of the most common obstetric complications. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic variants leading to an impaired balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis may contribute to elevated risk of pregnancy loss. The aim of the study was to investigate a possible association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, rs1799752) I/D and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1, rs1799768) 4G/5G polymorphisms with RM among Polish women. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of 152 women with a history of ≥ 2 consecutive pregnancy losses before 22 weeks of gestation, and 180 healthy controls with at least 1 live birth at term and no history of pregnancy loss. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used to identify the polymorphisms. No statistically significant differences were found in genotype and allele frequencies of the studied polymorphisms. The most relevant difference between the study group and controls was found for the ID genotype distribution of the ACE gene (52.6 vs. 46.7%, OR = 1.27, p = 0.28). The analysis of genotype coexistence revealed a higher incidence of the combination of the ACE II and the PAI-1 4G/4G genotypes in the control group (10.0 vs.5.9% in control group; p = 0.17). The obtained results suggest no apparent association between the ACE I/D, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphisms and increased RM susceptibility in the analyzed Polish population.

  5. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene is located at region q21.3-q22 of chromosome 7 and genetically linked with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, K.W.; Winqvist, R.; Riccio, A.

    1987-01-01

    The regional chromosomal location of the human gene for plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI1) was determined by three independent methods of gene mapping. PAI1 was localized first to 7cen-q32 and then to 7q21.3-q22 by Southern blot hybridization analysis of a panel of human and mouse somatic cell hybrids with a PAI1 cDNA probe and in situ hybridization, respectively. The authors frequent HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the PAI1 gene with an information content of 0.369. In family studies using this polymorphism, genetic linkage was found between PAI1 and the loci for erythropoietin (EPO), paraoxonase (PON), the met protooncogene (MET), and cystic fibrosis (CF), all previously assigned to the middle part of the long arm of chromosome 7. The linkage with EPO was closest with an estimated genetic distance of 3 centimorgans, whereas that to CF was 20 centimorgans. A three-point genetic linkage analysis and data from previous studies showed that the most likely order of these loci is EPO, PAI1, PON, (MET, CF), with PAI1 being located centromeric to CF. The PAI1 RFLP may prove to be valuable in ordering genetic markers in the CF-linkage group and may also be valuable in genetic analysis of plasminogen activation-related diseases, such as certain thromboembolic disorders and cancer

  6. MIB-1 (KI-67) proliferation index and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) protein expression in nephroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.I. Ghanem (Mazen); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); M.K. Sudaryo; R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); A.A. Al-Doray; R.J.M. Nijman (Rien); G.J. van Steenbrugge (Gert Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: A number of studies have indicated that the tumor proliferation marker MIB-1 and cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1) expression are of prognostic importance in a variety of cancers. The present study was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of these

  7. Selective Inhibitors of Kv11.1 Regulate IL-6 Expression by Macrophages in Response to TLR/IL-1R Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Hunter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which the platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule PECAM-1 regulates leukodiapedesis, vascular endothelial integrity, and proinflammatory cytokine expression in vivo is not known. We recently identified PECAM-1 as a negative regulator of Kv11.1, a specific voltage-gated potassium channel that functioned in human macrophages to reset a resting membrane potential following depolarization. We demonstrate here that dofetilide (DOF, a selective inhibitor of the Kv11.1 current, had a profound inhibitory effect on neutrophil recruitment in mice following TLR/IL-1R–elicited peritonitis or intrascrotal injection of IL-1β, but had no effect on responses seen with TNFα. Furthermore, inhibitors of Kv11.1 (DOF, E4031, and astemizole, but not Kv1.3 (margatoxin, suppressed the expression of IL-6 and MCP-1 cytokines by murine resident peritoneal macrophages, while again having no effect on TNFα. In contrast, IL-6 expression by peritoneal mesothelial cells was unaffected. Using murine P388 cells, which lack endogenous C/EBPβexpression and are unresponsive to LPS for the expression of both IL-6 and MCP-1, we observed that DOF inhibited LPS-induced expression of IL-6 mRNA following ectopic expression of wild-type C/EBPβ, but not a serine-64 point mutant. Finally, DOF inhibited the constitutive activation of cdk2 in murine peritoneal macrophages; cdk2 is known to phosphorylate C/EBPβ at serine-64. Taken together, our results implicate a potential role for Kv11.1 in regulating cdk2 and C/EBPβ activity, where robust transactivation of both IL-6 and MCP-1 transcription is known to be dependent on serine-64 of C/EBPβ. Our data might also explain the altered phenotypes displayed by PECAM-1 knockout mice in several disease models.

  8. Glucose-independent persistence of PAI-1 gene expression and H3K4 tri-methylation in type 1 diabetic mouse endothelium: implication in metabolic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Fumihiko; Mizutani, Shuki; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Naoki

    2013-03-29

    Clinical trials with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have identified a phenomenon known as "metabolic memory" in which previous periods of hyperglycemia result in the long-lasting deleterious impact on cardiovascular events. Emerging evidence shows that transient hyperglycemic exposure of human endothelial cells induces histone 3 lysine 4 mono-methylation (H3K4me1) on the promoter and persistent mRNA expression of RelA and IL-8 genes, suggesting that epigenetic histone modification and chromatin structure remodeling is a key event underlying metabolic memory. This burgeoning hypothesis, however, critically remains to be tested for relevance in the disease process of diabetes in vivo, and for broader applicability to an array of genes involved in endothelial dysfunction. To address this, we used type 1 diabetes mouse model induced by streptozocin to be hyperglycemic for 8 weeks, and isolated endothelial cells that were used either freshly after isolation or after 2 to 3-week cell culture in normoglycemic conditions. mRNA expression profiling in diabetic mouse endothelial cells revealed significant and persistent up-regulation of Serpine1 encoding PAI-1, the hypo-fibrinolytic mediator leading to thrombotic diseases in diabetes, along with Rock2, Fn1 and Ccl2, whereas only Serpine 1 was persistently elevated in high glucose-treated mouse endothelial cells. Chromosome immunoprecipitation assay in type 1 diabetic mouse endothelial cells showed predominant enrichment of H3K4 tri-methylation on Serpine1 promoter, suggesting a unique epigenetic regulation in diabetic mice as opposed to high glucose-treated human ECs. Our study demonstrates the importance of combining in vivo models of diabetes with high glucose-treated cell culture to better assess the epigenetic mechanisms relevant to disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 5G/5G genotype is a protecting factor preventing posttransplant diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Horng-Rong; Yang, Shun-Fa; Tsai, Jen-Pi; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Wu, Sheng-Wen; Tsai, Hui-Ching; Hung, Tung-Wei; Huang, Jun-Huang; Lian, Jong-Da

    2011-01-30

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. A connection between gestational diabetes mellitus and the functional -675 PAI-1 genotype has been reported. Therefore, we examined the role of the PAI-1 gene polymorphism in kidney transplant recipients. A total of 376 kidney transplant recipients were prospectively screened for posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM). Eighty-one (21.5%) patients were diagnosed with PTDM and the other 295 patients were non-diabetic following kidney transplantation. DNA samples were isolated from the sera and analyzed for the functional -675 4G/5G promoter polymorphisms of the PAI-1 gene. Kidney transplant recipients with PTDM were significantly associated with tacrolimus use (p=0.03), older age (p=0.036), and higher body mass index (p=0.001). The genotype distribution was significantly different between the patients with PTDM (genotype 4G/4G:4G/5G:5G/5G=33.3%:60.5%:6.2%) and those without PTDM (genotype 4G/4G:4G/5G:5G/5G=36.9%:44.1%:19.0%) (p=0.018). Patients with homozygosity for 5G had a significantly lower rate of PTDM (aOR, 0.286, p=0.022) and higher cumulative event-free probability of time to PTDM (log rank test, p=0.0058). Homozygosity for the 5G allele of the PAI-1 gene constitutes a protecting factor for the development of PTDM. Our findings are similar to a previous study on gestational diabetes mellitus, and strongly support a possible genetic role of PAI-1 in the development of PTDM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of decreased fibrinolytic activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism on the risk of venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic, Biljana A; Djeric, Mirjana J; Tomic, Branko V; Djordjevic, Valentina J; Bajkin, Branislav V; Mitic, Gorana P

    2018-01-01

    : Objective of our study is to determine whether decreased fibrinolytic activity or plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 4G/5G polymorphism influence the risk of venous thrombosis.Our case-control study included 100 patients with venous thrombosis, and 100 random controls. When patients were compared with random controls, unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Decreased fibrinolytic activity yielded a 2.7-fold increase in risk for venous thrombosis than physiological fibrinolytic activity (OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.22-5.98), when comparing patients with random controls. Adjustment for several putative confounders did not change the estimate (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.26-7.22). Analysis of venous thrombotic risk influenced by PAI-1 genotype, showed no influence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in comparison with 5G/5G genotype (OR 0.57 95% CI; 0.27-1.20).Decreased fibrinolytic activity increased, whereas PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism did not influence venous thrombosis risk in this study.

  11. Different radiolabelling methods alter the pharmacokinetic and biodistribution properties of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 2 (PAI-2) forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranson, Marie; Berghofer, Paula; Vine, Kara L.; Greguric, Ivan; Shepherd, Rachael; Katsifis, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tumour-associated urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a critical marker of invasion and metastasis, and it is recognised as having strong prognostic relevance as well as being a therapeutic target. The specific uPA inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 (PAI-2, SerpinB2) specifically targets cell bound uPA and is internalised. Furthermore, preclinical studies have established the “proof-of-principle” of uPA-targeting by PAI-2-cytotoxin conjugates in human carcinoma models. However, these studies also suggest that PAI-2 is rapidly cleared via the renal system with low total dose reaching the tumour. In this study, a comparative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and biodistribution (BD) analysis of different forms of PAI-2 labelled with the radioisotopes iodine-123 ( 123 I) and technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) was undertaken. Methods: The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and BD of wild-type, ΔCD-loop and PEGylated ΔCD-loop PAI-2 labelled with the commonly used diagnostic SPECT radioisotopes 99m Tc or 123 I were compared in mouse models of human prostate carcinoma. Whole body SPECT imaging was also performed. Results: Both wild-type and the shorter but active ΔCD-loop form of PAI-2 123 I-labelled indirectly via conjugation to free amine groups (termed 123 I-Bn-PAI-2) exhibited low tumour uptake, rapid excretion and similar PK profiles. Preliminary studies with a short branched-chain PEGylated 123 I-Bn-PAI-2 ΔCD-loop indicated an increase in blood retention time and tumour uptake. All 123 I-Bn-labelled radiotracers were largely excreted through the kidneys. By comparison, both wild-type 123 I-PAI-2 (labelled directly via tyrosine residues) and 99m Tc-PAI-2 displayed different PK/BD patterns compared to 123 I-Bn-PAI-2, suggesting greater liver based catabolism and thus slower elimination. SPECT imaging mimicked the BD results of all radiotracers. Conclusion: The different labelling methods gave distinct PAI-2 BD and tumour

  12. Dynamic changes in plasma tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and beta-thromboglobulin content in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ping; Wo, Da; Xu, Zeng-Guang; Wei, Wei; Mao, Hui-ming

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the corresponding variations of plasma tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activities, and beta-thromboglobulin (β-TG) content in patients during different stages of ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke is a common disease among aging people and its occurrence is associated with abnormalities in the fibrinolytic system and platelet function. However, few reports focus on the dynamic changes in the plasma fibrinolytic system and β-TG content in patients with ischemic stroke. Patients were divided into three groups: acute, convalescent and chronic. Plasma t-PA and PAI-1 activities were determined by chromogenic substrate analysis and plasma β-TG content was detected by radioimmunoassay. Patients in the acute stage of ischemic stroke had significantly increased levels of t-PA activity and β-TG content, but PAI-1 activity was significantly decreased. Negative correlations were found between plasma t-PA and PAI-1 activities and between plasma t-PA activity and β-TG content in patients with acute ischemic stroke. There were significant differences in plasma t-PA and PAI-1 activities in the aged control group, as well as in the acute, convalescent and chronic groups. It can be speculated that the increased activity of t-PA in patients during the acute stage was the result of compensatory function, and that the increase in plasma β-TG level not only implies the presence of ischemic stroke but is likely a cause of ischemic stroke. During the later stages of ischemic stroke, greater attention is required in monitoring levels of PAI-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Associação de níveis plasmáticos de PAI-1 e polimorfismo 4G/5G em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Moreira Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O polimorfismo 4G/5G do inibidor ativador do plasminogênio tipo 1 (PAI-1 pode influenciar a expressão do PAI-1. Níveis plasmáticos elevados de PAI-1 estão associados com Doença Arterial Coronariana (DAC. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a influência do polimorfismo 4G/5G do PAI-1 nos níveis plasmáticos de PAI-1 e sua associação com DAC avaliada por angiografia coronária. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliada amostra de sangue de 35 indivíduos com artérias coronárias angiograficamente normais, 31 indivíduos apresentando ateromatose leve/moderada, 57 indivíduos apresentando ateromatose grave e 38 indivíduos saudáveis (controles. Em pacientes e controles, o polimorfismo 4G/5G do PAI-1 foi determinado por amplificação da proteína-C reativa utilizando primers específicos de alelo. Os níveis plasmáticos de PAI-1 foram quantificados pelo ensaio ELISA (American Diagnostica. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto a sexo, idade e índice de massa corporal. Níveis plasmáticos de PAI-1 e frequência do genótipo 4G/4G mostravam-se significativamente maiores no grupo com ateromatose grave em comparação com os outros grupos (p 70% (p < 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: O achado mais importante deste estudo foi a associação entre o genótipo 4G/4G, elevados níveis plasmáticos de PAI-1 e estenose coronariana superior a 70% em indivíduos brasileiros. Ainda não foi estabelecido se elevados níveis plasmáticos de PAI-1 são um fator decisivo para o agravamento da aterosclerose ou se são uma consequência.

  14. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and coronary artery disease in the Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-yan

    2012-01-01

    The polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G gene has been indicated to be correlated with coronary artery disease (CAD) susceptibility, but study results are still debatable. The present meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and CAD in the Chinese Han population. A total of 879 CAD patients and 628 controls from eight separate studies were involved. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the distribution of the 4G allele frequency of PAI-1 4G/5G gene and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was assessed by the random effect model. The distribution of the 4 G allele frequency was 0.61 for the CAD group and 0.51 for the control group. The association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and CAD in the Chinese Han population was significant under an allelic genetic model (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.18 to 2.44, P = 0.004). The heterogeneity test was also significant (P5G gene polymorphism was implied to be associated with increased CAD risk. Carriers of the 4G allele of the PAI-1 4G/5G gene might predispose to CAD.

  15. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 serum levels and 4G/5G gene polymorphism in morbidly obese Hispanic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Alberto; Villagrán, Andrea; Vollrath, Valeska; Hanckes, Paulina; Salas, Roberto; Farah, Andrea; Solís, Nancy; Pizarro, Margarita; Escalona, Alex; Boza, Camilo; Pérez, Gustavo; Carrasco, Gonzalo; Padilla, Oslando; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio; Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Arab, Juan Pablo; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Arrese, Marco; Riquelme, Arnoldo

    2011-01-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) has been implicated in the regulation of fibrinolysis and extracellular matrix components. The single base pair guanine insertion/deletion polymorphism (4G/5G) within the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene influences PAI-1 synthesis and may modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. To evaluate the influence of PAI-1 serum levels and 4G/5G polymorphism on the risk of liver fibrosis associated to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in morbidly obese patients. Case-control study of 50 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and 71 non-obese subjects matched by age and sex. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed, including PAI-1 serum levels. Genomic DNA was obtained to assess the presence of 4G/5G polymorphism. BMI, insulinemia, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, hypertension and diabetes were significantly higher in obese patients compared to control subjects. PAI-1 serum levels observed in obese patients were significantly lower (10.63 ± 4.82) compared to controls (14.26 ± 11.4; p 5G promoter genotypes frequencies (p = 0.12). No differences were observed in PAI-1 plasma levels among obese patients with liver fibrosis (10.64 ± 4.35) compared to patients without liver fibrosis (10.61 ± 5.2; p = 0.985). PAI-1 4G/5G promoter genotypes frequencies were similar in patients with or without liver fibrosis associated to NASH (p = 0.6). Morbidly obese patients had significantly lower PAI-1 serum levels with similar PAI-1 4G/5G genotypes frequencies compared to non-obese subjects. The frequency of 4G/5G genotypes in Chilean Hispanic healthy subjects was similar to that described in other populations. No association was found between PAI-1 serum levels or 4G/5G genotype with liver fibrosis in obese patients.

  16. The association between the 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene and extension of postsurgical calf vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Filippo; Meli, Francesco; Raimondi, Francesco; Montalto, Salvatore; Cospite, Valentina; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of a plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) promoter polymorphism 4G/5G could significantly influence the proximal extension of vein thrombosis in spite of anticoagulant treatment in patients with calf vein thrombosis (CVT) following orthopaedic, urological and abdominal surgery. We studied 168 patients with CVT, who had undergone orthopaedic, urological and abdominal surgery, subdivided as follows: first, 50 patients with thrombosis progression; second, 118 patients without thrombosis progression. The 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was evaluated in all patients and in 70 healthy matched controls. We also studied PAI-1 activity in plasma. The presence of 4G/5G genotype was significantly increased in the group of patients with the extension of thrombotic lesions and was associated with an increase in CVT extension risk (odds ratio adjusted for sex 2.692; 95% confidence interval 1.302-4.702). Moreover, we observed a significant increase of PAI-1 plasma activity in patients with extension of thrombotic lesion vs. patients without extension (P=0.0001). Patients with 4G/5G genotype in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor - 1 gene present a higher risk of extension of thrombotic lesions.

  17. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in radiation-induced normal tissues injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmani, R.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an essential tool for cancer treatment, but there is a balance between benefits and risks related to the use of ionizing radiation: the objective is to deliver a maximum dose to the tumour to destroy or to sterilize it while protecting surrounding normal tissues. Radio-induced damages to normal tissues are therefore a limiting factor when increasing the dose delivered to the tumour. One of the objectives of this research thesis is to bring to the fore a relationship between the initiation of lesions and the development of late damages, more particularly in the intestine, and to identify the involved molecular actors and their inter-connectivity. After a first part presenting ionizing radiation, describing biological effects of ionizing radiation and their use in radiotherapy, presenting the intestine and the endothelium and discussing the intestine radio-sensitivity, discussing the radio-induced intestine damages and radiotherapy-induced complications, and presenting the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and its behaviour in presence of ionizing radiation, two articles are reproduced. The first one addresses the effect of a pharmacological inhibition and of genetic deficiency in PAI-1 on the evolution of radio-induced intestine lesions. The second one discusses the fact that radio-induced PAI-1-related death of endothelial cells determines the severity of early radio-induced intestine lesions

  18. The presence of PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE DD genotypes increases the risk of early-stage AVF thrombosis in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Yahya; Kayataş, Mansur; Yıldız, Gürsel; Özdemir, Öztürk; Candan, Ferhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between early arteriovenous fistula (AVF) thrombosis with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and thrombophilic factor gene polymorphisms. Thirty-five patients who suffered from three or more fistula thrombosis episodes in the early period after AVF operation and 33 control patients with no history of thrombosis for at least 3 years were enrolled in this study. Factor V G1691A Leiden, factor V H1299R (R2), prothrombin G20210A, factor XIIIV34L, β-fibrinogen-455 G-A, glycoprotein IIIa L33P human platelet antigens (HPA-1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C gene polymorphisms were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G genotype in the study group and 4G/4G genotype in the control group were significantly higher (p = 0.014). No significant difference was detected in terms of the 5G/5G genotype. With regard to the ACE gene polymorphism, the control group showed more ID genotype (19/33, 57.6%), whereas the study group showed more DD genotype (17/35, 48.6%). II genotype was similar in both groups (x(2) = 7.40, p = 0.025). The rate of ACE inhibitor-angiotensin II receptor blockers use was 5/35 in the study group (14.3%) and 5/33 in the control group (15.2%). Individuals with PAI-1 4G/5G genotype showed 5.03 times more risk of thrombosis when compared with 4G/4G and 5G/5G genotypes [p = 0.008, OR = 5.03, 95% confidence interval (1.44:17.64)]. Individuals with ACE DD genotype showed 4.25 times more risk of thrombosis when compared with II and ID [p = 0.008, OR = 4.25, 95% confidence interval (1.404:12.83)]. PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE DD genotypes are associated with increased risk for early AVF thrombosis.

  19. Plasminogen activator inhibitor I 4G/5G polymorphism in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armangil, Didem; Yurdakök, Murat; Okur, Hamza; Gürgey, Aytemiz

    2011-08-01

    Fibrin monomers inhibit surfactant function. 4G/5G insertion/deletion polymorphism plays an important role in the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) gene expression. To examine the genotype distribution of PAI-1 polymorphism in 60 infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and 53 controls, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used. The proportion of 4G/4G, 4G/5G, and 5G/5G genotypes did not differ statistically between the RDS and control groups (P > .05). Having PAI-1 4G/4G genotype polymorphism appears to increase the risk of RDS (odds ratio [OR] =1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-4.3), although it was not statistically significant. No relation was found between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphisms and RDS, but there was an increased risk associated with the 4G variant of the PAI-1 gene. We believe that our findings of increased 4G allele of the PAI-1 gene in infants with RDS would also help to clarify the pathogenesis of RDS.

  20. Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shakarami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL defined by two or more failed pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation. Several factors play a role in RPL including thrombophilic conditions which can be influenced by gene polymorphisms. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE genes are closely related to fibrinolytic process, embryonic development and pregnancy success. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between RPL and common polymorphisms in ACE and PAI-1 genes. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 100 women with recurrent abortions (at least two were selected as cases and 100 healthy women with two or more normal term deliveries without a history of abortion as controls. Total genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. The status of the PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE (D/I polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP. Results: Homozygosity for PAI-1 4G polymorphism was seen in 17 cases (17%, and 5 controls (5% (p=0.006 so patients with homozygote 4G mutation were significantly more prone to RPL in contrast to control group (OR: 4.63, % 95 CI: 1.55-13.84. In addition, 7 patients (7 %, and no one from the control group, were homozygote (I/I for ACE polymorphism (p=0.034, suggesting no significant associations between ACE D allele or DD genotype and RPL. Conclusion: Considering these results, because 4G/4G polymorphism for PAI-1 gene could be a thrombophilic variant leading to abortion, analysis of this mutation and other susceptibility factors are recommended in patients with RPL.

  1. Impact of the -675 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene on childhood IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su-Ryun; Kim, Cheon-Jong; Lee, Byung-Cheol

    2012-04-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an important regulator of the fibrinolytic pathway and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. The -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter is associated with altered PAI-1 transcription, suggesting that this polymorphism may be a candidate risk factor for diseases characterized by ECM accumulation, such as immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MesPGN). We genotyped childhood patients with biopsy-confirmed IgAN (n=111) and MesPGN (n=47), and healthy control subjects (n=230) for the -675 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The distribution of the 4G/4G (27.9%), 4G/5G (45.1%) and 5G/5G (27.0%) genotypes in IgAN patients was significantly different from the healthy controls (32.2, 54.3 and 13.5%, respectively) (p=0.0092). There was no significant difference in the genotype distributions of the 4G/5G polymorphism between MesPGN patients and the healthy controls. Regarding the impact of the polymorphism on IgAN, the 4G/4G genotype was markedly increased in patients with proteinuria (≥1,000 mg/day) and/or hypertension when compared to patients without proteinuria and hypertension (OR=5.23, 95% CI 1.34-20.38, P=0.0183). These findings indicate that the PAI-1 gene polymorphism may affect the susceptibility of childhood IgAN.

  2. Purification and characterization of bioactive his6-tagged recombinant human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) protein expressed at high yields in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lena Vinther; Lademann, Ulrik Axel; Andersen, Elisabeth Veyhe

    2014-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is an endogenous inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with reported tumor promoting, as well as inhibitory, effects. These paradoxical properties are presumably mediated by different biological functions, MMP-dependent as well as -indepen...... TIMP-1, which structurally and functionally is similar to endogenous human TIMP-1, while using an expression system that is adaptable to most biochemical and biomedical laboratories including those that do not perform protein purifications routinely.......Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is an endogenous inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with reported tumor promoting, as well as inhibitory, effects. These paradoxical properties are presumably mediated by different biological functions, MMP-dependent as well...... as -independent, and probably related to TIMP-1 levels of protein expression, post-translational modifications, and cellular localization. TIMP-1 is an N-glycosylated protein that folds into two functional domains, a C- and an N-terminal domain, with six disulfide bonds. Furthermore, TIMP-1 is processed in the N...

  3. Impact of the 4G/5G polymorphism in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene on primary nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuezhong; Wang, Chao; Tu, Haitao

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the four guanosines (4G)/five guanosines (5G) polymorphism in the gene coding for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) affects the clinical features of primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS). A cohort of 200 biopsy-diagnosed PNS patients was studied, with 40 healthy subjects as controls. The PAI-1 gene polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Associations between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and clinical features and pathological types of PNS were analyzed. The results indicated that the PAI-1 genotype distribution is significantly different between patients with PNS and healthy controls, with significantly higher numbers of the 4G/4G genotype and lower numbers of the 5G5G genotype detected in PNS patients compared to controls (both P5G genotypes, as well as of the 4G allele. The increased 4G frequency was also detected in patients with minimal change disease (MCD). Significantly increased international normalized ratio (INR) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were observed in 4G/4G compared to 5G/5G PNS subjects. The response to steroids was not significantly different among the three genotypes. In conclusion, the 4G allele of the PAI-1 gene appears to be associated with PNS, especially in MN and IgAN patients. These findings suggest that specific targeting may be required for the treatment of PNS patients with the 4G/4G genotype.

  4. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Induces the Expression of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1 in Human Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chinetti-Gbaguidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF is the initiator of the blood coagulation cascade after interaction with the activated factor VII (FVIIa. Moreover, the TF/FVIIa complex also activates intracellular signalling pathways leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines. The TF/FVIIa complex is inhibited by the tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is a transcription factor that, together with PPARα and PPARβ/δ, controls macrophage functions. However, whether PPARγ activation modulates the expression of TFP1-1 in human macrophages is not known. Here we report that PPARγ activation increases the expression of TFPI-1 in human macrophages in vitro as well as in vivo in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The induction of TFPI-1 expression by PPARγ ligands, an effect shared by the activation of PPARα and PPARβ/δ, occurs also in proinflammatory M1 and in anti-inflammatory M2 polarized macrophages. As a functional consequence, treatment with PPARγ ligands significantly reduces the inflammatory response induced by FVIIa, as measured by variations in the IL-8, MMP-2, and MCP-1 expression. These data identify a novel role for PPARγ in the control of TF the pathway.

  5. The Effect of PAI-1 4G/5G Polymorphism and Clinical Factors on Coronary Artery Occlusion in Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajinder Kumar Parpugga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Data on the impact of PAI-1-675 4G/5G genotype for fibrinolysis during myocardial infarction are inconsistent. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of clinical and genetic (PAI-1-675 4G/5G polymorphism factors with coronary artery occlusion in patients with myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods. PAI-1-675 4G/5G detection was achieved by using Sanger sequencing in a sample of patients hospitalized for stent implantation due to myocardial infarction. We categorized the patients into two groups: patients with coronary artery occlusion and patients without coronary artery occlusion according to angiographic evaluation. Results. We identified n=122 (32.4% 4G/4G, n=186 (49.5% 4G/5G, and n=68 (18.1% 5G/5G PAI-1 genotype carriers. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that only the 4G/5G genotype was associated with coronary artery occlusion (OR: 1.656 and 95% CI: 1.009–2.718, p=0.046. Conclusions. Our results showed that carriers of PAI-1 4G/5G genotype with myocardial infarction have increased odds of coronary artery occlusion more than 1.6 times in comparison to the carriers of homozygous genotypes.

  6. The Effect of PAI-1 4G/5G Polymorphism and Clinical Factors on Coronary Artery Occlusion in Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpugga, Tajinder Kumar; Tatarunas, Vacis; Skipskis, Vilius; Kupstyte, Nora; Zaliaduonyte-Peksiene, Diana; Lesauskaite, Vaiva

    2015-01-01

    Data on the impact of PAI-1-675 4G/5G genotype for fibrinolysis during myocardial infarction are inconsistent. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of clinical and genetic (PAI-1-675 4G/5G polymorphism) factors with coronary artery occlusion in patients with myocardial infarction. PAI-1-675 4G/5G detection was achieved by using Sanger sequencing in a sample of patients hospitalized for stent implantation due to myocardial infarction. We categorized the patients into two groups: patients with coronary artery occlusion and patients without coronary artery occlusion according to angiographic evaluation. We identified n = 122 (32.4%) 4G/4G, n = 186 (49.5%) 4G/5G, and n = 68 (18.1%) 5G/5G PAI-1 genotype carriers. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that only the 4G/5G genotype was associated with coronary artery occlusion (OR: 1.656 and 95% CI: 1.009-2.718, p = 0.046). Our results showed that carriers of PAI-1 4G/5G genotype with myocardial infarction have increased odds of coronary artery occlusion more than 1.6 times in comparison to the carriers of homozygous genotypes.

  7. Biochemical mechanism of action of a diketopiperazine inactivator of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einholm, Anja P; Pedersen, Katrine E; Wind, Troels

    2003-01-01

    -inactivated PAI-1 is inert to reaction with its target proteases and has a decreased susceptibility to non-target proteases, in spite of a generally increased proteolytic susceptibility of specific peptide bonds elsewhere in PAI-1. The properties of XR5118-inactivated PAI-1 were different from those of the so...

  8. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 5G/5G genotype is associated with early spontaneous recanalization of the infarct-related artery in patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliyan, Caglar E; Yuregir, Ozge O; Balli, Mehmet; Tekin, Kamuran; Akilli, Rabia E; Bozdogan, Sevcan T; Turkmen, Serdar; Deniz, Ali; Baykan, Oytun A; Aslan, Huseyin; Cayli, Murat

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to examine the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) genetic polymorphism and early spontaneous recanalization in patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Patients admitted to our emergency department with ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the first 6 h of symptom onset were included. An immediate primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed. Patients were grouped according to the initial patency of the infarct-related artery (IRA) as follows: total occlusion (TO) group [Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 0-1 flow in the IRA], partial recanalization group (TIMI 2 flow in the IRA), and complete recanalization (CR) group (TIMI 3 flow in the IRA). PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was detected using the real-time PCR method. There were 107 patients in the TO group, 30 patients in the partial recanalization group, and 45 patients in the CR group. When we evaluated degrees of patency according to the PAI-1 genotype, TO of the IRA was the highest in patients with the PAI 4G/4G genotype (PAI-1 4G/4G: 66.7%, PAI-1 4G/5G: 65.9%, PAI-1 5G/5G: 40.4%) and CR of the IRA was the highest in patients with the PAI 5G/5G genotype (PAI-1 5G/5G: 38.5%, PAI-1 4G/5G: 19.8%, PAI-1 4G/4G: 17.9%). The distribution of genotypes in different degrees of patency of IRA was statistically significant (P=0.029). In logistic regression analysis, the PAI-1 5G/5G genotype was associated independently with the spontaneous CR of the IRA (odds ratio: 2.875, 95% confidence interval [1.059-7.086], P=0.038). Patients with the PAI-1 5G/5G genotype seem to be luckier than others in terms of early spontaneous recanalization of the IRA. Further prospective studies with large patient populations are required for more precise results.

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 released from activated platelets plays a key role in thrombolysis resistance. Studies with thrombi generated in the Chandler loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, H. A.; van Swieten, P.; Heijnen, H. F.; Sixma, J. J.; Pannekoek, H.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which is released from the alpha-granules of activated platelets, in thrombolysis resistance, we employed a model (the "Chandler loop") that mimics the formation of arterial thrombi in vivo and that can be manipulated in

  10. Loss of mutL homolog-1 (MLH1) expression promotes acquisition of oncogenic and inhibitor-resistant point mutations in tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springuel, Lorraine; Losdyck, Elisabeth; Saussoy, Pascale; Turcq, Béatrice; Mahon, François-Xavier; Knoops, Laurent; Renauld, Jean-Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Genomic instability drives cancer progression by promoting genetic abnormalities that allow for the multi-step clonal selection of cells with growth advantages. We previously reported that the IL-9-dependent TS1 cell line sequentially acquired activating substitutions in JAK1 and JAK3 upon successive selections for growth factor independent and JAK inhibitor-resistant cells, suggestive of a defect in mutation avoidance mechanisms. In the first part of this paper, we discovered that the gene encoding mutL homolog-1 (MLH1), a key component of the DNA mismatch repair system, is silenced by promoter methylation in TS1 cells. By means of stable ectopic expression and RNA interference methods, we showed that the high frequencies of growth factor-independent and inhibitor-resistant cells with activating JAK mutations can be attributed to the absence of MLH1 expression. In the second part of this paper, we confirm the clinical relevance of our findings by showing that chronic myeloid leukemia relapses upon ABL-targeted therapy correlated with a lower expression of MLH1 messenger RNA. Interestingly, the mutational profile observed in our TS1 model, characterized by a strong predominance of T:A>C:G transitions, was identical to the one described in the literature for primitive cells derived from chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Taken together, our observations demonstrate for the first time a causal relationship between MLH1-deficiency and incidence of oncogenic point mutations in tyrosine kinases driving cell transformation and acquired resistance to kinase-targeted cancer therapies.

  11. Expression of Wnt-Inhibitors and SDF-1 in Whole Bone Marrow Biopsies in Association to the Osteolytic Bone Disease of Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Christensen, Jacob Haaber; Lyng, Maria Bibi

    Expression of Wnt-Inhibitors and SDF-1 in Whole Bone Marrow Biopsies in Association to the Osteolytic Bone Disease of Multiple Myeloma......Expression of Wnt-Inhibitors and SDF-1 in Whole Bone Marrow Biopsies in Association to the Osteolytic Bone Disease of Multiple Myeloma...

  12. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) regulates myogenesis and β1 integrin expression in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lluri, Gentian; Langlois, Garret D.; Soloway, Paul D.; Jaworski, Diane M.

    2008-01-01

    Myogenesis in vitro involves myoblast cell cycle arrest, migration, and fusion to form multinucleated myotubes. Extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity during these processes is maintained by the opposing actions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) proteases and their inhibitors, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Here, we report that TIMP-2, MMP-2, and MT1-MMP are differentially expressed during mouse myoblast differentiation in vitro. A specific role for TIMP-2 in myogenesis is demonstrated by altered TIMP-2 -/- myotube formation. When differentiated in horse serum-containing medium, TIMP-2 -/- myotubes are larger than wild-type myotubes. In contrast, when serum-free medium is used, TIMP-2 -/- myotubes are smaller than wild-type myotubes. Regardless of culture condition, myotube size is directly correlated with MMP activity and inversely correlated with β1 integrin expression. Treatment with recombinant TIMP-2 rescues reduced TIMP-2 -/- myotube size and induces increased MMP-9 activation and decreased β1 integrin expression. Treatment with either MMP-2 or MMP-9 similarly rescues reduced myotube size, but has no effect on β1 integrin expression. These data suggest a specific regulatory relationship between TIMP-2 and β1 integrin during myogenesis. Elucidating the role of TIMP-2 in myogenesis in vitro may lead to new therapeutic options for the use of TIMP-2 in myopathies and muscular dystrophies in vivo

  13. FoxM1 is a general target for proteasome inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppoor G Bhat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome inhibitors are currently in the clinic or in clinical trials, but the mechanism of their anticancer activity is not completely understood. The oncogenic transcription factor FoxM1 is one of the most overexpressed genes in human tumors, while its expression is usually halted in normal non-proliferating cells. Previously, we established that thiazole antibiotics Siomycin A and thiostrepton inhibit FoxM1 and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. Here, we report that Siomycin A and thiostrepton stabilize the expression of a variety of proteins, such as p21, Mcl-1, p53 and hdm-2 and also act as proteasome inhibitors in vitro. More importantly, we also found that well-known proteasome inhibitors such as MG115, MG132 and bortezomib inhibit FoxM1 transcriptional activity and FoxM1 expression. In addition, overexpression of FoxM1 specifically protects against bortezomib-, but not doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that negative regulation of FoxM1 by proteasome inhibitors is a general feature of these drugs and it may contribute to their anticancer properties.

  14. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in colorectal cancer liver metastases is associated with vascular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illemann, Martin; Eefsen, Rikke Helene Løvendahl; Bird, Nigel Charles

    2016-01-01

    several proteases, involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix components, are up-regulated. In liver metastases, their expression is growth pattern dependent. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is a strong prognostic marker in plasma from colorectal cancer patients...

  15. Consequences of PAI-1 specific deletion in endothelium on radiation-induced intestinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced injury to healthy tissues is a real public health problem, since they are one of the most limiting factors that restrict efficiency of radiation therapy. This problematic is also part of the French Cancer Plan 2014-2017, and involves clinical research. Concepts surrounding the development of radiation-induced damage have gradually evolved into a contemporary and integrated view of the pathogenesis, involving all compartments of target tissue. Among them, endothelium seems to be central in the sequence of interrelated events that lead to the development of radiation-induced damage, although there are rare concrete elements that support this concept. By using new transgenic mouse models, this PhD project provides a direct demonstration of an endothelium-dependent continuum in evolution of radiation-induced intestinal damage. Indeed, changes in the endothelial phenotype through targeted deletion of the gene SERPINE1, chosen because of its key role in the development of radiation enteritis, influences various parameters of the development of the disease. Thus, lack of PAI-1 secretion by endothelial cells significantly improves survival of the animals, and limits severity of early and late tissue damage after a localized small bowel irradiation. Furthermore, these mice partially KO for PAI-1 showed a decrease in the number of apoptotic intestinal stem cells in the hours following irradiation, a decrease in the macrophages infiltrate density one week after irradiation, and a change in the polarization of macrophages throughout the pathophysiological process. In an effort to protect healthy tissues from radiation therapy side effects, without hindering the cancer treatment, PAI-1 seems to be an obvious therapeutic target. Conceptually, this work represents the direct demonstration of the link between endothelium phenotype and radiation enteritis pathogenesis. (author)

  16. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    diet. Still, the relevance of GI in preventing the metabolic syndrome is controversial. Objectives The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks intake of a low glycemic index vs. a high glycemic index high-carbohydrate, low fat ad libitum diet on plasma PAI-1 activity...... to decrease during weight loss. However, the beneficial effects of healthy diets on PAI-1 levels may not solely depend on weight loss, but other factors may also play a role. For example better glycemic control has been observed in diabetic patients after a low glycemic index (GI) diet compared to a high GI...... and antigen levels in overweight women. Methods 45 healthy overweight women (BMI 27.6 ± 0.2 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to a parallel 10 week intervention with a low GI (n=23) or high GI (n=22) diet. Fasting blood samples were obtained before and after the 10 weeks. To study the postprandial effect of LGI...

  17. Progress of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhansheng JIANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pembrolizumab, an inhibitor target programmed death 1 (PD-1, was approved into the first line therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. It was a milestone that immune checkpoints drugs have played an important role in the treatment system of NSCLC. The results of clinical trials revealed the superiority of PD-1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1 inhibitors compared with chemotherapy in first-line, second-line and multidrug resistance phase therapy. Objective response rate (ORR was up to 80% with pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy, and progression-free survival (PFS with single pembrolizumab in first line was nearly 1 year (10.3 months, the hazard ratio for death fell by 40%. Overall survival (OS was more or less 1 year with single drug pembrolizumab, nivolumab and atezolizumab for second line therapy. PD-L1 expression was a predictor of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. The positive rate of PD-L1 (more than 1% in advanced NSCLC was about 60% with little difference between the tissue types. However, there was no gold standard test of PD-L1 expression.

  18. Role of -675 4G/5G in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene and -308G/A tumor necrosis factor-α gene polymorphisms in obese Argentinean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingeyer, Silvia D Perés; Graffigna, Mabel N; Belli, Susana H; Benetucci, Jorge; de Larrañaga, Gabriela F

    2012-05-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are increased in the circulation of obese persons. Because a direct link between PAI-1 and TNF-α in obesity has been observed, they are candidate genes for the development of obesity. We sought to evaluate the relation between the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the -675 4G/5G PAI-1 and -308 G/A TNF-α polymorphisms and their association with the risk for obesity in an Argentinean population. A group of 110 consecutive obese persons and a group of 111 lean controls were recruited. Polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the frequency of PAI-1 and TNF-α polymorphisms; serum fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid levels were measured by standard methods. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by using homeostasis model assessment. The -308 TNF-α and -675 4G/5G PAI-1 genotype distribution did not significantly differ between the groups (p=0.544 and p=0.327, respectively). Homeostasis model assessment was the only positive independent determinant of body mass index (R(2)=0.493; p<0.001). The -675 4G/5G PAI-1 and the -308 TNF-α polymorphism variants tested in this study, individually or combined, were not associated with obesity in an Argentinean population.

  19. 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene is associated with multiple organ dysfunction and septic shock in pneumonia induced severe sepsis: prospective, observational, genetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Activation of inflammation and coagulation are closely related and mutually interdependent in sepsis. The acute-phase protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a key element in the inhibition of fibrinolysis. Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been related to worse outcome in pneumonia. We aimed to evaluate the effect of functionally relevant 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene in pneumonia induced sepsis. Methods We enrolled 208 Caucasian patients with severe sepsis due to pneumonia admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were followed up until ICU discharge or death. Clinical data were collected prospectively and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Patients were stratified according to the occurrence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, septic shock or death. Results We found that carriers of the PAI-1 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes have a 2.74-fold higher risk for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.335 - 5.604; p = 0.006) and a 2.57-fold higher risk for septic shock (OR 95%CI = 1.180 - 5.615; p = 0.018) than 5G/5G carriers. The multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for independent predictors, such as age, nosocomial pneumonia and positive microbiological culture also supported that carriers of the 4G allele have a higher prevalence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.957; 95%CI = 1.306 -6.698; p = 0.009) and septic shock (aOR = 2.603; 95%CI = 1.137 - 5.959; p = 0.024). However, genotype and allele analyses have not shown any significant difference regarding mortality in models non-adjusted or adjusted for acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II. Patients bearing the 4G allele had higher disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score at admission (p = 0.007) than 5G/5G carriers. Moreover, in 4G allele carriers the length of ICU stay

  20. 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene is associated with multiple organ dysfunction and septic shock in pneumonia induced severe sepsis: prospective, observational, genetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madách, Krisztina; Aladzsity, István; Szilágyi, Agnes; Fust, George; Gál, János; Pénzes, István; Prohászka, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    Activation of inflammation and coagulation are closely related and mutually interdependent in sepsis. The acute-phase protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a key element in the inhibition of fibrinolysis. Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been related to worse outcome in pneumonia. We aimed to evaluate the effect of functionally relevant 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene in pneumonia induced sepsis. We enrolled 208 Caucasian patients with severe sepsis due to pneumonia admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were followed up until ICU discharge or death. Clinical data were collected prospectively and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Patients were stratified according to the occurrence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, septic shock or death. We found that carriers of the PAI-1 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes have a 2.74-fold higher risk for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.335 - 5.604; p = 0.006) and a 2.57-fold higher risk for septic shock (OR 95%CI = 1.180 - 5.615; p = 0.018) than 5G/5G carriers. The multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for independent predictors, such as age, nosocomial pneumonia and positive microbiological culture also supported that carriers of the 4G allele have a higher prevalence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.957; 95%CI = 1.306 -6.698; p = 0.009) and septic shock (aOR = 2.603; 95%CI = 1.137 - 5.959; p = 0.024). However, genotype and allele analyses have not shown any significant difference regarding mortality in models non-adjusted or adjusted for acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II. Patients bearing the 4G allele had higher disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score at admission (p = 0.007) than 5G/5G carriers. Moreover, in 4G allele carriers the length of ICU stay of non-survivors was longer

  1. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk: a meta-analysis in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuezhou; Chen, Weixian; Qian, Yun; Zeng, Yanying; Liu, Wenhua

    2014-12-01

    The guanosine insertion/deletion polymorphism (4G/5G) of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene has been suggested as a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS), but direct evidence from genetic association studies remains inconclusive even in Chinese population. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate this association. All of the relevant studies were identified from PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database and Chinese Wanfang database up to September 2013. Statistical analyses were conducted with Revman 5.2 and STATA 12.0 software. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) values were applied to evaluate the strength of the association. Heterogeneity was evaluated by Q-test and the I² statistic. The Begg's test and Egger's test were used to assess the publication bias. A significant association and a borderline association between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and IS were found under the recessive model (OR = 1.639, 95% CI = 1.136-2.364) and allelic model (OR = 1.256, 95% CI = 1.000-1.578), respectively. However, no significant association was observed under homogeneous comparison model (OR = 1.428, 95% CI = 0.914-2.233), heterogeneous comparison model (OR = 0.856, 95% CI = 0.689-1.063) and dominant model (OR = 1.036, 95% CI = 0.846-1.270). This meta-analysis suggested that 4G4G genotype of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism might be a risk factor for IS in the Chinese population.

  2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and coronary artery disease in the Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 4G/5G gene has been indicated to be correlated with coronary artery disease (CAD susceptibility, but study results are still debatable. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: The present meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and CAD in the Chinese Han population. A total of 879 CAD patients and 628 controls from eight separate studies were involved. The pooled odds ratio (OR for the distribution of the 4G allele frequency of PAI-1 4G/5G gene and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI was assessed by the random effect model. RESULTS: The distribution of the 4 G allele frequency was 0.61 for the CAD group and 0.51 for the control group. The association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and CAD in the Chinese Han population was significant under an allelic genetic model (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.18 to 2.44, P = 0.004. The heterogeneity test was also significant (P<0.0001. Meta-regression was performed to explore the heterogeneity source. Among the confounding factors, the heterogeneity could be explained by the publication year (P = 0.017, study region (P = 0.014, control group sample size (P = 0.011, total sample size (P = 0.011, and ratio of the case to the control group sample size (RR (P = 0.019. In a stratified analysis by the total sample size, significantly increased risk was only detected in subgroup 2 under an allelic genetic model (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.09 to 3.35, P = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: In the Chinese Han population, PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism was implied to be associated with increased CAD risk. Carriers of the 4G allele of the PAI-1 4G/5G gene might predispose to CAD.

  3. Analysis of a two-domain binding site for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex in low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, O M; Petersen, H H; Jacobsen, C; Moestrup, S K; Etzerodt, M; Andreasen, P A; Thøgersen, H C

    2001-07-01

    The low-density-lipoprotein-receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) is composed of several classes of domains, including complement-type repeats (CR), which occur in clusters that contain binding sites for a multitude of different ligands. Each approximately 40-residue CR domain contains three conserved disulphide linkages and an octahedral Ca(2+) cage. LRP is a scavenging receptor for ligands from extracellular fluids, e.g. alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)M)-proteinase complexes, lipoprotein-containing particles and serine proteinase-inhibitor complexes, like the complex between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In the present study we analysed the interaction of the uPA-PAI-1 complex with an ensemble of fragments representing a complete overlapping set of two-domain fragments accounting for the ligand-binding cluster II (CR3-CR10) of LRP. By ligand blotting, solid-state competition analysis and surface-plasmon-resonance analysis, we demonstrate binding to multiple CR domains, but show a preferential interaction between the uPA-PAI-1 complex and a two-domain fragment comprising CR domains 5 and 6 of LRP. We demonstrate that surface-exposed aspartic acid and tryptophan residues at identical positions in the two homologous domains, CR5 and CR6 (Asp(958,CR5), Asp(999,CR6), Trp(953,CR5) and Trp(994,CR6)), are critical for the binding of the complex as well as for the binding of the receptor-associated protein (RAP) - the folding chaperone/escort protein required for transport of LRP to the cell surface. Accordingly, the present work provides (1) an identification of a preferred binding site within LRP CR cluster II; (2) evidence that the uPA-PAI-1 binding site involves residues from two adjacent protein domains; and (3) direct evidence identifying specific residues as important for the binding of uPA-PAI-1 as well as for the binding of RAP.

  4. Clinical significance of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 expression and proliferation in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; Skjødt, Karsten; Mortensen, Leif Spange

    1999-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 is a negative cell cycle regulator linking extracellular growth-regulatory signals to the cell cycle machinery in G1. We investigated the pattern and prognostic value of p27Kip1 expression in a population-based group of 203 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL...... between p27Kip1 and Ki-67 expression. Low expression of p27Kip1, defined as nuclear p27Kip1 expression in lymphomas behaved differently as those with low p27Kip1...... expression tended to do better. Likewise, a high proliferation rate (Ki-67 >40%) was associated with poor survival in indolent and aggressive lymphomas. Multivariate analysis using the proportional hazards model showed that only p27Kip1, and not Ki-67, maintained independent prognostic significance...

  5. 4G/5G Polymorphism of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor -1 Gene Is Associated with Mortality in Intensive Care Unit Patients with Severe Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapru, Anil; Hansen, Helen; Ajayi, Temitayo; Brown, Ron; Garcia, Oscar; Zhuo, HanJing; Wiemels, Joseph; Matthay, Michael A.; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher plasma and pulmonary edema fluid levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are associated with increased mortality in patients with pneumonia and acute lung injury. The 4G allele of the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene is associated with higher PAI-1 levels and an increased incidence of hospitalizations for pneumonia. The authors hypothesized that the 4G allele would be associated with worse clinical outcomes (mortality and ventilator-free days) in patients with severe pneumonia. Methods The authors enrolled patients admitted with severe pneumonia in a prospective cohort. Patients were followed until hospital discharge. DNA was isolated from blood samples, and genotyping detection for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was carried out using Taqman-based allelic discrimination. Results A total of 111 patients were available for analysis. Distribution of genotypes was 4G/4G 26 of 111 (23%), 4G/5G 59 of 111 (53%), and 5G/5G 26 of 111 (23%). Of 111 patients, 32 (29%) died before hospital discharge and 105 patients (94%) received mechanical ventilation. Patients with the 4G/4G and the 4G/5G genotypes had higher mortality (35% vs. 8%, P = 0.007) and fewer ventilator-free days (median 4 vs. 13, P = 0.04) compared to patients with the 5G/5G genotype. Conclusions The 4G allele of the 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene is associated with fewer ventilator-free days and increased mortality in hospitalized patients with severe pneumonia. These findings suggest that PAI-1 may have a role in pathogenesis and that the 4G/5G polymorphism may be an important biomarker of risk in patients with severe pneumonia. PMID:19387177

  6. 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene is associated with mortality in intensive care unit patients with severe pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapru, Anil; Hansen, Helen; Ajayi, Temitayo; Brown, Ron; Garcia, Oscar; Zhuo, HanJing; Wiemels, Joseph; Matthay, Michael A; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine

    2009-05-01

    Higher plasma and pulmonary edema fluid levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are associated with increased mortality in patients with pneumonia and acute lung injury. The 4G allele of the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene is associated with higher PAI-1 levels and an increased incidence of hospitalizations for pneumonia. The authors hypothesized that the 4G allele would be associated with worse clinical outcomes (mortality and ventilator-free days) in patients with severe pneumonia. The authors enrolled patients admitted with severe pneumonia in a prospective cohort. Patients were followed until hospital discharge. DNA was isolated from blood samples, and genotyping detection for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was carried out using Taqman-based allelic discrimination. A total of 111 patients were available for analysis. Distribution of genotypes was 4G/4G 26 of 111 (23%), 4G/5G 59 of 111 (53%), and 5G/5G 26 of 111 (23%). Of 111 patients, 32 (29%) died before hospital discharge and 105 patients (94%) received mechanical ventilation. Patients with the 4G/4G and the 4G/5G genotypes had higher mortality (35% vs. 8%, P = 0.007) and fewer ventilator-free days (median 4 vs. 13, P = 0.04) compared to patients with the 5G/5G genotype. The 4G allele of the 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene is associated with fewer ventilator-free days and increased mortality in hospitalized patients with severe pneumonia. These findings suggest that PAI-1 may have a role in pathogenesis and that the 4G/5G polymorphism may be an important biomarker of risk in patients with severe pneumonia.

  7. Calcium regulates caveolin-1 expression at the transcriptional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Kan, Qi-Ming; Li, Yan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Sato, Toshinori; Yamagata, Sadako; Yamagata, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Caveolin-1 expression is regulated by calcium signaling at the transcriptional level. ► An inhibitor of or siRNA to L-type calcium channel suppressed caveolin-1 expression. ► Cyclosporine A or an NFAT inhibitor markedly reduced caveolin-1 expression. ► Caveolin-1 regulation by calcium signaling is observed in several mouse cell lines. -- Abstract: Caveolin-1, an indispensable component of caveolae serving as a transformation suppressor protein, is highly expressed in poorly metastatic mouse osteosarcoma FBJ-S1 cells while highly metastatic FBJ-LL cells express low levels of caveolin-1. Calcium concentration is higher in FBJ-S1 cells than in FBJ-LL cells; therefore, we investigated the possibility that calcium signaling positively regulates caveolin-1 in mouse FBJ-S1 cells. When cells were treated with the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, cyclosporin A (a calcineurin inhibitor), or INCA-6 (a nuclear factor of activated T-cells [NFAT] inhibitor), caveolin-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels decreased. RNA silencing of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C resulted in suppression of caveolin-1 expression. This novel caveolin-1 regulation pathway was also identified in mouse NIH 3T3 cells and Lewis lung carcinoma cells. These results indicate that caveolin-1 is positively regulated at the transcriptional level through a novel calcium signaling pathway mediated by L-type calcium channel/Ca 2+ /calcineurin/NFAT.

  8. Whole grain wheat sourdough bread does not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adults with normal or impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, K A; Tucker, A J; Duncan, A M; Graham, T E; Robinson, L E

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest whole grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through alterations in glucose metabolism and subsequent effects on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a novel biomarker for CVD. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption versus refined white bread on PAI-1. Normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14; age 53 ± 6 y; BMI 26.5 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14; age 57 ± 7 y; BMI 35.7 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)) adults incorporated whole grain wheat sourdough (162.5 g) or white (168.8 g) bread into their diet, for 6 wk in a randomized crossover study. Pre- and post-intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for PAI-1 (primary outcome), as well as glucose, insulin and glucagon (secondary outcomes) at fasting and postprandially after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, insulin, glucagon and PAI-1 antigen and activity were not different between treatments in either NGI or HGI adults. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was lower (19%, P = 0.02) after 6 wk consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread compared to white bread in the HGI group, with no differences in insulin or glucagon iAUC in either group. Our data showed decreased glucose iAUC after an OGTT following 6 wk whole grain wheat bread consumption in adults with differing glycemic/insulinemic status, but no improvements in PAI-1 or fasting glycemic parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C/T polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the association between the PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and PCOS using: (1) allele contrast (2) homozygote contrast, (3) recessive, and (4) dominant models. For meta-analysis, nine studies of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with 2384 subjects (PCOS, 1615; controls, 769) and eight studies of the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism with 1270 study subjects were included. Meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G allele (OR=0.949, 95% CI=0.671-1.343, p=0.767). Stratification by ethnicity, however, indicated a significant association between the PAI-1 4G allele and PCOS in Turkish and Asian populations (OR=0.776, 95% CI=0.602-0.999, p=0.049; OR=1.749, 95% CI=1.297-2.359, p=2.5×10(-5) respectively). In addition, meta-analysis indicated an association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G4G+4G5G genotype in Europeans (OR=1.406, 95% CI=1.025-1.928, p=0.035). However, meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677T allele (OR=0.998, 95% CI=0.762-1.307, p=0.989), including Europeans (OR=0.806, 95% CI=0.610-1.063, p=0.126). Meta-analysis showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism using homozygote contrast, and recessive and dominant models. In conclusion, meta-analysis suggests the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to PCOS in European, Turkish, and Asian populations, but the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to PCOS in Europeans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tumor marker utility and prognostic relevance of cathepsin B, cathepsin L, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1, CEA and CA 19-9 in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herszényi, László; Farinati, Fabio; Cardin, Romilda; István, Gábor; Molnár, László D; Hritz, István; De Paoli, Massimo; Plebani, Mario; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    Cathepsin B and L (CATB, CATL), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 play an important role in colorectal cancer invasion. The tumor marker utility and prognostic relevance of these proteases have not been evaluated in the same experimental setting and compared with that of CEA and CA-19-9. Protease, CEA and CA 19-9 serum or plasma levels were determined in 56 patients with colorectal cancer, 25 patients with ulcerative colitis, 26 patients with colorectal adenomas and 35 tumor-free control patients. Protease, CEA, CA 19-9 levels have been determined by ELISA and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively; their sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy have been calculated and correlated with clinicopathological staging. The protease antigen levels were significantly higher in colorectal cancer compared with other groups. Sensitivity of PAI-1 (94%), CATB (82%), uPA (69%), CATL (41%) were higher than those of CEA or CA 19-9 (30% and 18%, respectively). PAI-1, CATB and uPA demonstrated a better accuracy than CEA or CA 19-9. A combination of PAI-1 with CATB or uPA exhibited the highest sensitivity value (98%). High CATB, PAI-1, CEA and CA 19-9 levels correlated with advanced Dukes stages. CATB (P = 0.0004), CATL (P = 0.02), PAI-1 (P = 0.01) and CA 19-9 (P = 0.004) had a significant prognostic impact. PAI-1 (P = 0.001), CATB (P = 0.04) and CA 19-9 (P = 0.02) proved as independent prognostic variables. At the time of clinical detection proteases are more sensitive indicators for colorectal cancer than the commonly used tumor markers. Determinations of CATB, CATL and PAI-1 have a major prognostic impact in patients with colorectal cancer

  11. The irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib interacts with the PARP1 inhibitor niraparib to kill ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L; Samuel, Peter; Avogadri-Connors, Francesca; Cutler, Richard E; Lalani, Alshad S; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2018-06-03

    The irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib has been shown to rapidly down-regulate the expression of ERBB1/2/4 as well as the levels of c-MET, PDGFRα and mutant RAS proteins via autophagic degradation. Neratinib interacted in an additive to synergistic fashion with the approved PARP1 inhibitor niraparib to kill ovarian cancer cells. Neratinib and niraparib caused the ATM-dependent activation of AMPK which in turn was required to cause mTOR inactivation, ULK-1 activation and ATG13 phosphorylation. The drug combination initially increased autophagosome levels followed later by autolysosome levels. Preventing autophagosome formation by expressing activated mTOR or knocking down of Beclin1, or knock down of the autolysosome protein cathepsin B, reduced drug combination lethality. The drug combination caused an endoplasmic reticulum stress response as judged by enhanced eIF2α phosphorylation that was responsible for reducing MCL-1 and BCL-XL levels and increasing ATG5 and Beclin1 expression. Knock down of BIM, but not of BAX or BAK, reduced cell killing. Expression of activated MEK1 prevented the drug combination increasing BIM expression and reduced cell killing. Downstream of the mitochondrion, drug lethality was partially reduced by knock down of AIF, but expression of dominant negative caspase 9 was not protective. Our data demonstrate that neratinib and niraparib interact to kill ovarian cancer cells through convergent DNA damage and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. Cell killing required the induction of autophagy and was cathepsin B and AIF -dependent, and effector caspase independent.

  12. Induction of TLR-2 and TLR-5 expression by Helicobacter pylori switches cagPAI-dependent signalling leading to the secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneesh Kumar Pachathundikandi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent for developing gastritis, gastric ulcer, and even gastric cancer. Virulent strains carry the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI encoding a type-IV secretion system (T4SS for injecting the CagA protein. However, mechanisms of sensing this pathogen through Toll-like receptors (TLRs and downstream signalling pathways in the development of different pathologies are widely unclear. Here, we explored the involvement of TLR-2 and TLR-5 in THP-1 cells and HEK293 cell lines (stably transfected with TLR-2 or TLR-5 during infection with wild-type H. pylori and isogenic cagPAI mutants. H. pylori triggered enhanced TLR-2 and TLR-5 expression in THP-1, HEK293-TLR2 and HEK293-TLR5 cells, but not in the HEK293 control. In addition, IL-8 and TNF-α cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells was induced in a cagPAI-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that HEK293 cells are not competent for the uptake of T4SS-delivered CagA, and are therefore ideally suited for studying TLR signalling in the absence of T4SS functions. HEK293 control cells, which do not induce TLR-2 and TLR-5 expression during infection, only secreted cytokines in small amounts, in agreement with T4SS functions being absent. In contrast, HEK293-TLR2 and HEK293-TLR5 cells were highly competent for inducing the secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α cytokines in a cagPAI-independent manner, suggesting that the expression of TLR-2 or TLR-5 has profoundly changed the capability to trigger pro-inflammatory signalling upon infection. Using phospho-specific antibodies and luciferase reporter assays, we further demonstrate that H. pylori induces IRAK-1 and IκB phosphorylation in a TLR-dependent manner, and this was required for activation of transcription factor NF-κB. Finally, NF-κB activation in HEK293-TLR2 and HEK293-TLR5 cells was confirmed by expressing p65-GFP which was translocated from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. These data indicate that H. pylori-induced expression

  13. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Yoshizaki, Takayuki; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Ieko, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. ► Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-κB activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  14. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  15. 4G/5G Variant of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Gene and Severe Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension: Subgroup Analyses of Variants of Angiotensinogen and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Gen; Ohta, Kaori; Yamada, Hideto; Hata, Akira; Minakami, Hisanori; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Tamashiro, Hiko; Fujimoto, Seiichiro

    2009-01-01

    Background Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a common cause of perinatal mortality. It is believed to result from the interaction of several factors, including those related to the blood coagulation system. We performed genotyping and subgroup analyses to determine if the 4G/5G genotypes of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene (PAI-1) play a role in the pathogenesis of PIH, and to evaluate possible interactions of the PAI-1 polymorphisms with those of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3). Methods An association study of PAI-1 polymorphism, and subgroup analyses of common variants of AGT and NOS3, among 128 patients with PIH and 376 healthy pregnant controls. Results No significant differences were found between the cases and controls in the frequencies of allele 4G or the 4G/4G genotype. In subgroup analyses, after adjustment for multiple comparison, a significant association with the AGT TT genotype was found among women with the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype, and an association with the NOS3 GA+AA genotype was found among women with the 5G/5G or 4G/5G genotypes. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are at least 2 pathways in the pathogenesis of severe PIH. However, with respect to early prediction and prevention of severe PIH, although the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype alone was not a risk factor for severe PIH, the fact that PAI-1 genotypes are associated with varying risks for severe PIH suggests that PAI-1 genotyping of pregnant women, in combination with other tests, may be useful in the development of individualized measures that may prevent severe PIH. PMID:19838007

  16. House dust mite induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in EoL-1 human eosinophilic leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Byoung Chul; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Eun Soo; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2007-10-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) is considered to be the most common indoor allergen associated with bronchial asthma. In this study, we investigated whether crude extract of the HDM Dermatophagoides farinae could activate human eosinophilic leukemic cells (EoL-1) to induce upregulation of cell-surface adhesion molecules. When EoL-1 cells were incubated with D. farinae extract, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) significantly increased on the cell surfaces compared to cells incubated with medium alone. In contrast, surface expression of CD11b and CD49d in EoL-1 cells was not affected by D. farinae extract. In addition, pretreatment of cells with NF-kappaB inhibitor (MG-132) or JNK inhibitor (SP600125) significantly inhibited ICAM-1 expression promoted by HDM extract. However, neither p38 MAP kinase inhibitor nor MEK inhibitor prevented HDM-induced ICAM-1 expression in EoL-1 cells. These results suggest that crude extract of D. farinae induces ICAM-1 expression in EoL-1 cells through signaling pathways involving both NF-kappaB and JNK.

  17. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism in association with diabetes and diabetic complications susceptibility: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuanfeng; Liu, Xiaoyun; Yang, Fan; Cui, Dai; Shi, Yun; Shen, Chong; Tang, Wei; Yang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and susceptibility to diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic coronary artery disease (CAD). A literature-based search was conducted to identify all relevant studies. The fixed or random effect pooled measure was calculated mainly at the allele level to determine heterogeneity bias among studies. Further stratified analyses and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Publication bias was examined by the modified Begg's and Egger's test. Twenty published articles with twenty-seven outcomes were included in the meta-analysis: 6 studies with a total of 1,333 cases and 3,011 controls were analyzed for the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetes risk, 7 studies with 1,060 cases and 1,139 controls for DN risk, 10 studies with 1,327 cases and 1,557 controls for DR and 4 studies with 610 cases and 1,042 controls for diabetic CAD risk respectively. Using allelic comparison (4G vs. 5G), the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism was observed to have no significant association with diabetes (REM OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96, 1.20), DN (REM OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.98, 1.25), DR (REM OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.97, 1.22) or diabetic CAD risk (REM OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.81, 1.42), and similar results were obtained in the dominant, recessive and co-dominant models. Our meta-analyses suggest that the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism might not be a risk factor for DM, DN, DR or diabetic CAD risk in the populations investigated. This conclusion warrants confirmation by further studies.

  18. Common TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms are not associated with disease severity or outcome from Gram negative sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kirstine Marie; Lindboe, Sarah Bjerre; Petersen, Anncatrine Luisa

    2007-01-01

    consecutive adult patients with culture proven Gram negative bacteremia admitted to a Danish hospital between 2000 and 2002. Analysis for commonly described SNPs of tumor necrosis-alpha, (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), CD14...... hazard regression analysis, increasing age, polymicrobial infection and haemoglobin levels were associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: We did not find any association between TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms and outcome of Gram negative sepsis. Other host factors...... appear to be more important than the genotypes studied here in determining the severity and outcome of Gram negative sepsis....

  19. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 suppresses apoptosis of mouse bone marrow stromal cell line MBA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L-J; Luo, X-H; Xie, H; Zhou, H-D; Yuan, L-Q; Wang, M; Liao, E-Y

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the action of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) on apoptosis and differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal cell line MBA-1. TIMP-1 did not affect alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, suggesting that it is not involved in osteoblastic differentiation in MBA-1 cells. However, TIMP-1 inhibited MBA-1 apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed increased Bcl-2 protein expression and decreased Bax protein expression with TIMP-1 treatment. TIMP-1 decreased cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in MBA-1 cells. TIMP-1 activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125 abolished its antiapoptotic activity. To investigate whether antiapoptotic action of TIMP-1 was mediated through its inhibition on MMP activities, we constructed mutant TIMP-1 by side-directed mutagenesis, which abolished the inhibitory activity of MMPs by deletion of Cys1 to Ala4. Wild-type TIMP-1 and mutant TIMP-1 expression plasmids were transfected in MBA-1 cells, and results showed that mutant TIMP-1 still protected the induced MBA-1 cell against apoptosis. These data suggest that TIMP-1 antiapoptotic actions are mediated via the PI3-kinase and JNK signaling pathways and independent of TIMP-1 inhibition of MMP activities.

  20. Angiotensin II reduces cardiac AdipoR1 expression through AT1 receptor/ROS/ERK1/2/c-Myc pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, an abundant adipose tissue-derived protein, exerts protective effect against cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mediate the beneficial effects of adiponectin on the cardiovascular system. However, the alteration of AdipoRs in cardiac remodeling is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of angiotensin II (AngII on cardiac AdipoRs expression and explored the possible molecular mechanism. AngII infusion into rats induced cardiac hypertrophy, reduced AdipoR1 but not AdipoR2 expression, and attenuated the phosphorylations of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, and those effects were all reversed by losartan, an AngII type 1 (AT1 receptor blocker. AngII reduced expression of AdipoR1 mRNA and protein in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, which was abolished by losartan, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. The antioxidants including reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenger NAC, NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, Nox2 inhibitor peptide gp91 ds-tat, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I inhibitor rotenone attenuated AngII-induced production of ROS and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2. AngII-reduced AdipoR1 expression was reversed by pretreatment with NAC, apocynin, gp91 ds-tat, rotenone, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that AngII provoked the recruitment of c-Myc onto the promoter region of AdipoR1, which was attenuated by PD98059. Moreover, AngII-induced DNA binding activity of c-Myc was inhibited by losartan, NAC, apocynin, gp91 ds-tat, rotenone, and PD98059. c-Myc small interfering RNA abolished the inhibitory effect of AngII on AdipoR1 expression. Our results suggest that AngII inhibits cardiac AdipoR1 expression in vivo and in vitro and AT1 receptor/ROS/ERK1/2/c-Myc pathway is required for the downregulation of AdipoR1 induced by AngII.

  1. Association between the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and risk of venous thromboembolism: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiarong; Wang, Chengdi; Chen, Nan; Shu, Chi; Guo, Xiaojiang; He, Yazhou; Zhou, Yanhong

    2014-12-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism was considered to be associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), while evidence remains inadequate. To provide a more accurate estimation of this relationship, we performed an updated meta-analysis of all eligible studies. A systematical search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Cqvip databases to identify relevant studies published before March 6(th) 2014. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using the fixed/random-effects model using Review Manager 5.1 and STATA 12.0. A total of 34 studies with 3561 cases and 5693 controls were analyzed. Overall, significant association between the PAI-1 4G/5G variant and VTE risk in total population (dominant model: OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.13-1.54) was observed. And this variant was also related to the deep vein thrombosis risk (dominant model: OR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.24-2.06, P=0.0003). In the subgroup analyses on ethnicity, significant results were obtained in both Asians (dominant model: OR=2.08, 95%CI: 1.29-3.35, P=0.003) and Caucasians (dominant model: OR=1.31, 95%CI: 1.10-1.56, P=0.003). However, no significant association was found in patients with provoked VTE. In terms of subgroup analyses on co-existence of other thrombotic risk factors, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was significantly associated with VTE risk in patients with factor V Leiden mutation (dominant model: OR=1.72, 95%CI: 1.17-2.53), but not in patients with cancer or surgery. Our findings demonstrate the role of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism being a risk candidate locus for VTE susceptibility, especially in patients with other genetic thrombophilic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Do serum angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and their receptor Tie-2 and 4G/5G variant of PAI-1 gene have a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Manal; El-Khayat, Waleed

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate whether serum angiogenesis markers such as angiopoietins (Ang-1, Ang-2) and their receptor (Tie-2) are altered in women with preeclampsia. We also performed genotyping to determine if the 4G/5G genotypes of -675 PAI-1 gene may play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Sixty-eight pregnant women with preeclampsia were compared to 35 normotensive pregnant women and 24 normotensive nonpregnant women in a cross-sectional study. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, levels of serum Ang-1 and Ang-2, and Tie-2 were measured. A single base pair insertion/deletion 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Serum levels of Ang-1 and Tie-2 were significantly different among the study groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.025, respectively) being lower in the preeclamptic group. Positive significant correlation was found between Ang-2 and Tie-2, (r = 0.26, P = 0.024). The frequency of the genotypes (4G/5G, 4G/4G, and 5G/5G) differed among the groups (P = 0.001). Also, the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressures differed significantly according to the PAI-1 genotype being higher in those bearing the 4G allele; P = 0.04 and P = 0.023, respectively. Sera Ang-1 and Ang-2, and Tie-2 as well as variants of 4G/5G of PAI-1 polymorphism have positive implications in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  3. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, represses hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha expression through translational inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Hutt

    Full Text Available Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α is a master regulator of tumor angiogenesis being one of the major targets for cancer therapy. Previous studies have shown that Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi block tumor angiogenesis through the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. As such, Vorinostat (Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid/SAHA and Romidepsin, two HDACis, were recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Although HDACis have been shown to affect HIF-1α expression by modulating its interactions with the Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone axis or its acetylation status, the molecular mechanisms by which HDACis inhibit HIF-1α expression need to be further characterized. Here, we report that the FDA-approved HDACi Vorinostat/SAHA inhibits HIF-1α expression in liver cancer-derived cell lines, by a new mechanism independent of p53, prolyl-hydroxylases, autophagy and proteasome degradation. We found that SAHA or silencing of HDAC9 mechanism of action is due to inhibition of HIF-1α translation, which in turn, is mediated by the eukaryotic translation initiation factor--eIF3G. We also highlighted that HIF-1α translation is dramatically inhibited when SAHA is combined with eIF3H silencing. Taken together, we show that HDAC activity regulates HIF-1α translation, with HDACis such as SAHA representing a potential novel approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Redefining the expression and function of the inhibitor of differentiation 1 in mammary gland development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of poorly differentiated cells is a hallmark of breast neoplasia and progression. Thus an understanding of the factors controlling mammary differentiation is critical to a proper understanding of breast tumourigenesis. The Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1 protein has well documented roles in the control of mammary epithelial differentiation and proliferation in vitro and breast cancer progression in vivo. However, it has not been determined whether Id1 expression is sufficient for the inhibition of mammary epithelial differentiation or the promotion of neoplastic transformation in vivo. We now show that Id1 is not commonly expressed by the luminal mammary epithelia, as previously reported. Generation and analysis of a transgenic mouse model of Id1 overexpression in the mammary gland reveals that Id1 is insufficient for neoplastic progression in virgin animals or to prevent terminal differentiation of the luminal epithelia during pregnancy and lactation. Together, these data demonstrate that there is no luminal cell-autonomous role for Id1 in mammary epithelial cell fate determination, ductal morphogenesis and terminal differentiation.

  5. Natural inhibitors of tumor-associated proteases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdolen, U.; Krol, J.; Sato, S.; Schmitt, M.; Magdolen, V.; Krueger, A.; Mueller, M.M.; Sperl, S.

    2002-01-01

    The turnover and remodelling of extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential part of many normal biological processes including development, morphogenesis, and wound healing. ECM turnover also occurs in severe pathological situations like artherosclerosis, fibrosis, tumor invasion and metastasis. The major proteases involved in this turnover are serine proteases (especially the urokinase-type plasminogen activator/plasmin system), matrix metalloproteases (a family of about 20 zinc-dependent endopeptidases including collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, and membrane-type metalloproteases), and cysteine proteases. In vivo, the activity of these proteases is tightly regulated in the extracellular space by zymogen activation and/or controlled inhibition. In the present review, we give an overview on the structure and biochemical properties of important tumor-associated protease inhibitors such as plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and type 2 (PAI-1, PAI-2), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1, -2, -3, and -4), and the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C. Interestingly, some of these inhibitors of tumor-associated proteases display multiple functions which rather promote than inhibit tumor progression, when the presence of inhibitors in the tumor tissue is not balanced. (author)

  6. Expressions of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9) and Their Inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Pryczynicz, Anna; Iwanowicz, Piotr; Niewiński, Andrzej; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Hapanowicz, Jerzy; Jagodzińska, Dorota; Kemona, Andrzej; Guzińska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) belong to a group of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The study group comprised 34 patients with UC and 10 patients with CD. Evaluation of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 expression in tissue samples was performed using immunohistochemistry. The overexpression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 was dominant in both the glandular epithelium and inflammatory infiltration in UC patients. In contrast, in CD subjects the positive expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 was in glandular tubes while mainly MMP-7 and TIMP-2 expression was in inflammatory infiltration. Metalloproteinases' expression was associated with the presence of erosions, architectural tissue changes, and inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria of UC patients. The expression of metalloproteinase inhibitors correlated with the presence of eosinophils and neutrophils in UC and granulomas in CD patients. Our studies indicate that the overexpression of metalloproteinases and weaker expression of their inhibitors may determine the development of IBD. It appears that MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 may be a potential therapeutic target and the use of their inhibitors may significantly reduce UC progression.

  7. Expressions of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 and Their Inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jakubowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC belong to a group of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. The study group comprised 34 patients with UC and 10 patients with CD. Evaluation of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 expression in tissue samples was performed using immunohistochemistry. The overexpression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 was dominant in both the glandular epithelium and inflammatory infiltration in UC patients. In contrast, in CD subjects the positive expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 was in glandular tubes while mainly MMP-7 and TIMP-2 expression was in inflammatory infiltration. Metalloproteinases’ expression was associated with the presence of erosions, architectural tissue changes, and inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria of UC patients. The expression of metalloproteinase inhibitors correlated with the presence of eosinophils and neutrophils in UC and granulomas in CD patients. Our studies indicate that the overexpression of metalloproteinases and weaker expression of their inhibitors may determine the development of IBD. It appears that MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 may be a potential therapeutic target and the use of their inhibitors may significantly reduce UC progression.

  8. 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese patients: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Hong; Wang, Li-Mei; Zhou, Na

    2015-09-01

    To date, case-control studies on the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have provided controversial results. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched for studies to include in the present meta-analysis. The fixed effects and random effects models showed that the 4G allele was associated with a risk of PCOS compared with the 5G allele in Chinese patients (OR = 2.05; 95 % CI = 1.56-2.69), but not in Caucasian patients (OR = 1.05; 95 % CI = 0.81-1.37). The contrast of homozygotes and the recessive and dominant models produced the same pattern of results as the allele contrast. Our pooled data suggest evidence for a major role of PAI-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism in the pathogenesis of PCOS among Chinese patients.

  9. Independent prognostic value of angiogenesis and the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S.; Overgaard, Jens; Rose, C.

    2003-01-01

    in breast cancer, we have evaluated the prognostic value of those factors in a total of 228 patients with primary, unilateral, invasive breast cancer, evaluated at a median follow-up time of 12 years. Microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34 and quantitated by the Chalkley...... counting technique. The levels of PAI-1 and its target proteinase uPA in tumour extracts were analysed by ELISA. The Chalkley count was not correlated with the levels of uPA or PAI-1. High values of uPA, PAI-1, and Chalkley count were all significantly correlated with a shorter recurrence-free survival.......6 (1.01–2.69) and 1.4 (1.02–1.81), respectively. For overall survival, the Chalkley count, but not PAI-1, was of significant independent prognostic value. The risk of death was 1.7 (1.30–2.15) for Chalkley counts in the upper tertile compared to the lower one. We conclude that the PAI-1 level...

  10. Common TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms are not associated with disease severity or outcome from Gram negative sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen-Olsen Jesper

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate genes associated with sepsis and septic shock with conflicting results. Only few studies have combined the analysis of multiple SNPs in the same population. Methods Clinical data and DNA from consecutive adult patients with culture proven Gram negative bacteremia admitted to a Danish hospital between 2000 and 2002. Analysis for commonly described SNPs of tumor necrosis-α, (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA, CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 was done. Results Of 319 adults, 74% had sepsis, 19% had severe sepsis and 7% were in septic shock. No correlation between severity or outcome of sepsis was observed for the analyzed SNPs of TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 or TLR-4. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, increasing age, polymicrobial infection and haemoglobin levels were associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion We did not find any association between TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms and outcome of Gram negative sepsis. Other host factors appear to be more important than the genotypes studied here in determining the severity and outcome of Gram negative sepsis.

  11. Flavonoids Are Inhibitors of Human Organic Anion Transporter 1 (OAT1)–Mediated Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua; Wang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) has been reported to be involved in the nephrotoxicity of many anionic xenobiotics. As current clinically used OAT1 inhibitors are often associated with safety issues, identifying potent OAT1 inhibitors with little toxicity is of great value in reducing OAT1-mediated drug nephrotoxicity. Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic compounds with exceptional safety records. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of 18 naturally occurring flavonoids, and some of their glycosides, on the uptake of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) in both OAT1-expressing and OAT1-negative LLC-PK1 cells. Most flavonoid aglycones produced substantial decreases in PAH uptake in OAT1-expressing cells. Among the flavonoids screened, fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin exhibited the strongest effect and produced complete inhibition of OAT1-mediated PAH uptake at a concentration of 50 μM. Further concentration-dependent studies revealed that both morin and luteolin are potent OAT1 inhibitors, with IC50 values of flavonoid aglycones, all flavonoid glycosides had negligible or small effects on OAT1. In addition, the role of OAT1 in the uptake of fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin was investigated and fisetin was found to be a substrate of OAT1. Taken together, our results indicate that flavonoids are a novel class of OAT1 modulators. Considering the high consumption of flavonoids in the diet and in herbal products, OAT1-mediated flavonoid-drug interactions may be clinically relevant. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the nephroprotective role of flavonoids in relation to drug-induced nephrotoxicity mediated by the OAT1 pathway. PMID:25002746

  12. Seed-Specific Stable Expression of the ?-AI1 Inhibitor in Coffee Grains and the In Vivo Implications for the Development of the Coffee Berry Borer

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, ?rika V. S.; Bezerra, Caroline A.; Romero, Juan V.; Valencia, Jorge W. A.; Valencia-Jim?nez, Arnubio; Pimenta, Lucas M.; Barbosa, Aulus E. A. D.; Silva, Maria C. M.; Meneguim, Ana M.; S?, Maria Eug?nia L.; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-S?, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of coffee (Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the ?-amylase inhibitor-1 (?-AI1) gene. The ?-AI1 inhibitor shows ...

  13. Analysis of the binding of pro-urokinase and urokinase-plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein using a Fab fragment selected from a phage-displayed Fab library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, I. R.; Moestrup, S. K.; van den Berg, B. M.; Pannekoek, H.; Nielsen, M. S.; van Zonneveld, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor (LRP) mediates endocytosis of a number of structurally unrelated ligands, including complexes of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) or urokinase plasminogen

  14. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 and Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 and Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein Expression Defines the Proliferative Nature of Cervical Cancer Stem Cells. ... of cervical cancer stem cells and also to validate them in initial and advanced stages of cervical cancer. Keywords: Cervical cancer, ALDH1, BALB/c-nu/nu, HeLa cells, RKIP, Sox2 ...

  15. Effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor-apocynin on the expression of Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1 exposed renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate whether NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin preconditioning induces expression of Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1 to protect against renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury (RI/RI in rats. Rats were pretreated with 50 mg/kg apocynin, then subjected to 45 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion. The results indicated that apocynin preconditioning improved the recovery of renal function and nitroso-redox balance, reduced oxidative stress injury and inflammation damage, and upregulated expression of SHP-1 as compared to RI/RI group. Therefore our study demonstrated that apocynin preconditioning provided a protection to the kidney against I/R injury in rats partially through inducing expression of SHP-1.

  16. Relationship of metabolic syndrome and its components with -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Cruz-Mosso Ulises

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several association studies have shown that -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms are related with increase of PAI-1 levels, obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in PAI-1 gene and its association with metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of Mexican mestizo children. Methods This study included 100 children with an age range between 6-11 years divided in two groups: a 48 children diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and b 52 children metabolically healthy without any clinical and biochemical alteration. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of the following criteria: fasting glucose levels ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol th percentile, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 95th percentile and insulin resistance HOMA-IR ≥ 2.4. The -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results For the -844 G/A polymorphism, the G/A genotype (OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 1.11-7.08; p = 0.015 and the A allele (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.43; p = 0.015 were associated with metabolic syndrome. The -844 G/A and A/A genotypes were associated with increase in plasma triglycerides levels (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.16 to 6.04; p = 0.02, decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.06 to 5.42; p = 0.03 and obesity (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.17-5.92; p = 0.01. The C/G and G/G genotypes of the HindIII C/G polymorphism contributed to a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol levels (179 vs. 165 mg/dL; p = 0.02 in comparison with C/C genotype. Conclusions The -844 G/A PAI-1 polymorphism is related with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and the HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphism was associated with the

  17. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors suppress UV-induced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression at the posttranscriptional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagoe, S.; Kohda, T.; Oishi, M.

    1991-01-01

    Gene expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is induced not only by trans activation mediated through a gene product (tat) encoded by the virus but also by treatment of virus-carrying cells with DNA-damaging agents such as UV light. Employing an artificially constructed DNA in which the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was placed under the control of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, we analyzed the induction process in HeLa cells and found that inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase suppressed UV-induced HIV-1 gene expression but not tat-mediated expression. We also found that suppression occurs at the posttranscriptional level. These results indicate that HIV-1 gene expression is activated by at least two different mechanisms, one of which involves poly-ADP ribosylation. A possible new role of poly-ADP ribosylation in the regulation of specific gene expression is also discussed

  18. Ribonuclease inhibitor 1 regulates erythropoiesis by controlling GATA1 translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennupati, Vijaykumar; Veiga, Diogo Ft; Maslowski, Kendle M; Andina, Nicola; Tardivel, Aubry; Yu, Eric Chi-Wang; Stilinovic, Martina; Simillion, Cedric; Duchosal, Michel A; Quadroni, Manfredo; Roberts, Irene; Sankaran, Vijay G; MacDonald, H Robson; Fasel, Nicolas; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Schneider, Pascal; Hoang, Trang; Allam, Ramanjaneyulu

    2018-04-02

    Ribosomal proteins (RP) regulate specific gene expression by selectively translating subsets of mRNAs. Indeed, in Diamond-Blackfan anemia and 5q- syndrome, mutations in RP genes lead to a specific defect in erythroid gene translation and cause anemia. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of selective mRNA translation and involvement of ribosomal-associated factors in this process. Ribonuclease inhibitor 1 (RNH1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that binds to and inhibits pancreatic-type ribonucleases. Here, we report that RNH1 binds to ribosomes and regulates erythropoiesis by controlling translation of the erythroid transcription factor GATA1. Rnh1-deficient mice die between embryonic days E8.5 and E10 due to impaired production of mature erythroid cells from progenitor cells. In Rnh1-deficient embryos, mRNA levels of Gata1 are normal, but GATA1 protein levels are decreased. At the molecular level, we found that RNH1 binds to the 40S subunit of ribosomes and facilitates polysome formation on Gata1 mRNA to confer transcript-specific translation. Further, RNH1 knockdown in human CD34+ progenitor cells decreased erythroid differentiation without affecting myelopoiesis. Our results reveal an unsuspected role for RNH1 in the control of GATA1 mRNA translation and erythropoiesis.

  19. Acetylation of FoxO1 Activates Bim Expression to Induce Apoptosis in Response to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Depsipeptide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor induced apoptosis are incompletely understood. In this study, depsipeptide, a novel HDAC inhibitor, was shown to be able to induce significant apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer cells. Further study showed that Bim, a BH3-only proapoptotic protein, was significantly upregulated by depsipeptide in cancer cells, and Bim's function in depsipeptide-induced apoptosis was confirmed by knockdown of Bim with RNAi. In addition, we found that depsipeptide-induced expression of Bim was directly dependent on acetylation of forkhead box class O1 (FoxO1 that is catalyzed by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein, and indirectly induced by a decreased four-and-a-half LIM-domain protein 2. Moreover, our results demonstrated that FoxO1 acetylation is required for the depsipeptide-induced activation of Bim and apoptosis, using transfection with a plasmid containing FoxO1 mutated at lysine sites and a luciferase reporter assay. These data show for the first time that an HDAC inhibitor induces apoptosis through the FoxO1 acetylation-Bim pathway.

  20. PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism is associated with angiographic patency in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients treated with thrombolytic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Bugra; Cagliyan, Caglar E; Elbasan, Zafer; Uysal, Onur K; Kalkan, Gulhan Y; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Tekin, Kamuran; Bozdogan, Sevcan T; Ozalp, Ozge; Duran, Mustafa; Sahin, Durmus Y; Cayli, Murat

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and patency of the infarct-related artery after thrombolysis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Acute STEMI patients who received thrombolytic therapy within first 12 h were included in our study. The PAI-1 4G/5G promoter region insertion/deletion polymorphism was studied from venous blood samples. Patients with the PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism were included in group 1 and the others were included in group 2. Coronary angiography was performed in all patients in the first 24 h after receiving thrombolytic therapy. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 0-1 flow in the infarct-related artery was considered as 'no flow', TIMI 2 flow as 'slow flow', and TIMI 3 flow as 'normal flow'. A total of 61 patients were included in our study. Thirty patients (49.2%) were positive for the PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism, whereas 31 of them (50.8%) were in the control group. There were significantly more patients with 'no flow' (14 vs. 6; P=0.02) and less patients with 'normal flow' (8 vs. 19; P=0.02) in group 1. In addition, time to thrombolytic therapy (TTT) was maximum in the 'no flow' group and minimum in the 'normal flow' group (P=0.005). In the logistic regression analysis, TTT (odds ratio: 0.9898; 95% confidence interval: 0.982-0.997; P=0.004) and the PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism (odds ratio: 4.621; 95% confidence interval: 1.399-15.268; P5G gene polymorphism and TTT are associated independently with 'no flow' after thrombolysis in patients with STEMI.

  1. Premonitory Awareness in Stuttering Scale (PAiS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholin, Joana; Heiler, Sabrina; Whillier, Alexander; Sommer, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Anticipation of stuttering events in persistent developmental stuttering is a frequent but inadequately measured phenomenon that is of both theoretical and clinical importance. Here, we describe the development and preliminary testing of a German version of the Premonitory Awareness in Stuttering Scale (PAiS): a 12-item questionnaire assessing immediate and prospective anticipation of stuttering that was translated and adapted from the Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS) (Woods, Piacentini, Himle, & Chang, 2005). After refining the preliminary PAiS scale in a pilot study, we administered a revised version to 21 adults who stutter (AWS) and 21 age, gender and education-matched control participants. Results demonstrated that the PAiS had good internal consistency and discriminated the two speaker groups very effectively, with AWS reporting anticipation of speech disruptions significantly more often than adults with typical speech. Correlations between the PAiS total score and both the objective and subjective measures of stuttering severity revealed that AWS with high PAiS scores produced fewer stuttered syllables. This is possibly because these individuals are better able to adaptively use these anticipatory sensations to modulate their speech. These results suggest that, with continued refinement, the PAiS has the potential to provide clinicians and researchers with a practical and psychometrically sound tool that can quantify how a given AWS anticipates upcoming stuttering events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu

    2007-01-01

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation in an IκBα-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor IκB kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-κB inhibitor IκB. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations

  3. Genetic variants in TGFβ-1 and PAI-1 as possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbers, Florentine S.M.; Boekel, Naomi B.; Broek, Alexandra J. van den; Hien, Richard van; Cornelissen, Sten; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Veer, Laura J. van’t; Leeuwen, Flora E. van; Schmidt, Marjanka K.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: It has been established that radiotherapy can increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Genetic variants, which play a role in the tissue, damage response and angiogenesis regulating TGFβ pathway might give us insight into the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced CVD. We examined the effects of two polymorphisms, TGFβ1 29C > T and PAI-1 5G > 4G, on CVD incidence. Materials and methods: This retrospective cohort study included 422 10-year breast cancer survivors, aged 4G and CVD risk. Conclusion: Our study suggests there might be an association between the TGFβ1 29C > T polymorphism and CVD risk in long-term breast cancer survivors.

  4. Roles of tissue plasminogen activator and its inhibitor in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Ling; Wu; Dong-Mei; Zhan; Shu-Hong; Xi; Xiang-Lian; He

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of tissue plasminogen activator(t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor(PAI)in proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR) and to discuss the correlations among t-PA, PAI and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) expressions.METHODS:A total of 36 vitreous samples were collected from 36 patients with PDR(PDR group), and 17 vitreous samples from 17 patients with idiopathic macular hole were used as control. The concentrations of t-PA, PAI and VEGF in samples were determined by ELISA method. The correlations among t-PA, PAI and VEGF expressions were discussed.RESULTS:The concentrations of t-PA, PAI and VEGF in the PDR group were significantly higher than those in the control group(P <0.001). The t-PA and PAI expressions were highly correlated with the VEGF expression(P <0.001).CONCLUSION:In addition to VEGF, a variety of bioactive substances, such as t-PA and PAI, are involved in the pathogenesis involved in the angiogenesis of PDR.VEGF can activate t-PA expression, resulting in collagen tissue degradation and angiogenesis. VEGF may also activate the mechanism for endogenous anti-neovascularization.

  5. Early Pregnancy Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... cohort study of 195 normotensive, aproteinuric pregnant women without prior history of gestational hypertension. The women were attending the Antenatal Clinic at The Lagos University Teaching Hospital and were within 24 weeks gestation at recruitment. The outcome measures were PAI-1, systolic blood ...

  6. 4G/5G and A-844G Polymorphisms of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Associated with Glioblastoma in Iran--a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooyan, Honari; Ahmad, Ebrahimi; Azadeh, Rakhshan

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive and malignant brain tumor. Risk factors are largely unknown however, although several biomarkers have been identified which may support development, angiogenesis and invasion of tumor cells. One of these biomarkers is PAI-1. 4G/5G and A-844G are two common polymorphisms in the gene promotor of PAI 1 that may be related to high transcription and expression of this gene. Studies have shown that the prevalence of the 4G and 844G allele is significantly higher in patients with some cancers and genetic disorders. We here assessed the association of 4G/5G and A-844G polymorphisms with glioblastoma cancer risk in Iranians in a case-control study. All 71 patients with clinically confirmed and 140 volunteers with no history and symptoms of glioblastoma as control group were screened for 4G/5G and A-844G polymorphisms of PAI-1, using ARMS-PCR. Genotype and allele frequencies of case and control groups were analyzed using the DeFinetti program. Our results showed significant associations between 4G/5G (p=0.01824) and A-844G (p=0.02012) polymorphisms of the PAI-1 gene with glioblastoma cancer risk in our Iranian population. The results of this study supporting an association of the PAI-1 4G/5G (p=0.01824) and A-844G (p=0.02012) polymorphisms with increasing glioblastoma cancer risk in Iranian patients.

  7. Hydrogenated fat diet intake during pregnancy and lactation modifies the PAI-1 gene expression in white adipose tissue of offspring in adult life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Eliane B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We examine whether feeding pregnant and lactating rats hydrogenated fats rich in trans fatty acids modifies the plasma lipid profiles and the expression of adipokines involved with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in their 90-day-old offspring. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats were fed with either a control diet (C group or one enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat (T group. Upon weaning, the male pups were sorted into four groups: CC, mothers were receiving C and pups were kept on C; CT, mothers were receiving C and pups were fed with T; TT, mothers were receiving T and pups were kept on T; TC, mothers were receiving T and pups were fed with C. Pups' food intake and body weight were quantified weekly and the pups were killed at day 90 of life by decapitation. Blood and carcass as well as retroperitoneal, epididymal, and subcutaneous white adipose tissues were collected. Food intake and body weight were lower in TC and TT, and metabolic efficiency was reduced in TT. Offspring of TT and TC rats had increased white adipose tissue PAI-1 gene expression. Insulin receptor was higher in TT than other groups. Ingestion of hydrogenated vegetable fat by the mother during gestation and lactation could promote deleterious consequences, even after the withdrawal of the causal factor.

  8. The -675 4G/5G polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene is associated with risk of asthma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wei; Li, Bing; Xiu, Qing-Yu

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies assessed the association of -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter region of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 gene with asthma in different populations. However, most studies reported inconclusive results. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene and asthma susceptibility. Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, HuGE Literature Finder, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Weipu Database were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in the dominant model, recessive model, codominant model, and additive model. Eight studies involving 1817 cases and 2327 controls were included. Overall, significant association between 4G/5G polymorphism and asthma susceptibility was observed for 4G4G+4G5G vs. 5G5G (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.12-2.18, P = 0.008), 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G+5G/5G (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.06-1.80, P = 0.02), 4G/4G vs. 5G/5G (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.17-2.76, P = 0.007), 4G/5G vs. 5G/5G (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.07-1.84, P = 0.02), and 4G vs. 5G (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.68, P = 0.008). This meta-analysis suggested that the -675 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene was a risk factor of asthma.

  9. IGF1 regulates RUNX1 expression via IRS1/2: Implications for antler chondrocyte differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Duan, Cui-Cui; Geng, Shuang; Wang, Kai; Yu, Hai-Fan; Yue, Zhan-Peng; Guo, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Although IGF1 is important for the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, its underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. Here we addressed the physiologic function of IGF1 in antler cartilage and explored the interplay of IGF1, IRS1/2 and RUNX1 in chondrocyte differentiation. The results showed that IGF1 was highly expressed in antler chondrocytes. Exogenous rIGF1 could increase the proliferation of chondrocytes and cell proportion in the S phase, whereas IGF1R inhibitor PQ4...

  10. Sildenafil protects against bile duct ligation induced hepatic fibrosis in rats: Potential role for silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Motteleb, Dalia M; Ibrahim, Islam A A E-H; Elshazly, Shimaa M

    2017-11-15

    Hepatic fibrosis is a potential health problem that may end with life-threatening cirrhosis and primary liver cancer. Recent studies point out to the protective effects of silent information regulator1 (SIRT1), against different models of organs fibrosis. This work aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of sildenafil (SIRT1 activator) against hepatic fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Firstly, three different doses of sildenafil (5, 10, 20mg/kg/day) were investigated; to detect the most protective one against BDL induced liver dysfunction and hepatic fibrosis. The most protective dose is then used; to study its effect on BDL induced SIRT1 downregulation, imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant status, increased inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis. Sildenafil (20mg/kg/day) was the most protective one, it caused upregulation of SIRT1, reduction of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increase in expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), hemeoxygenease (HO)-1, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Hepatic content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) expression & content displayed significant reductions with sildenafil treatment, Furthermore, sildenafil caused marked reductions of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β content, expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin, collagen I (α1) and hydroxyproline content. However, sildenafil protective effects were significantly reduced by co-administration of EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitor). Our work showed, for the first time that, sildenafil has promising protective effects against BDL induced liver dysfunction and hepatic fibrosis. These effects may be, in part, mediated by up regulation of SIRT1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Activity and expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and matrix metalloproteinases in human colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Dong; Song, Kyoung-Sub; Li, Ge; Choi, Hoon; Park, Hae-Duck; Lim, Kyu; Hwang, Byung-Doo; Yoon, Wan-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) are involved in colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis. There is still debate whether the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 differs between tumors located in the colon and rectum. We designed this study to determine any differences in the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA system between colon and rectal cancer tissues. Cancer tissue samples were obtained from colon carcinoma (n = 12) and rectal carcinomas (n = 10). MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were examined using gelatin zymography and Western blotting; their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), were assessed by Western blotting. uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activity of uPA was assessed by casein-plasminogen zymography. In both colon and rectal tumors, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 protein levels were higher than in corresponding paired normal mucosa, while TIMP-2 level in tumors was significantly lower than in normal mucosa. The enzyme activities or protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and their endogenous inhibitors did not reach a statistically significant difference between colon and rectal cancer compared with their normal mucosa. In rectal tumors, there was an increased activity of uPA compared with the activity in colon tumors (P = 0.0266), however urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) showed no significant difference between colon and rectal cancer tissues. These findings suggest that uPA may be expressed differentially in colon and rectal cancers, however, the activities or protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, PAI-1 and uPAR are not affected by tumor location in the colon or the rectum

  12. The Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 4G/5G Polymorphism and the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba; Mansour, Malek; Sayeh, Aicha; Bedoui, Ines; Mrad, Meriem; Riahi, Anis; Mrissa, Ridha; Nsiri, Brahim

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Tunisian patients. We analyzed the genotype and allele frequency distribution of the PAI-1 polymorphism in 60 Tunisian patients with AD and 120 healthy controls. The results show a significantly increased risk of AD in carriers of the 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes versus the wild-type 5G/5G genotype (4G/4G: 28.33% in patients vs 10.0% in controls; P 5G: 55.0% in patients vs 38.33% in controls; OR = 4.45; P < 10 -3 ). The 4G allele was also more frequently found in patients compared with controls; P < 10 -3 ; OR = 3.07. For all participants and by gender, homozygotic carriers (4G/4G) were at an increased risk of AD over heterozygotes and women were at an increased risk over their male genotype counterparts. The odds ratio for AD among 4G/4G carriers for any group was approximately twice that of heterozygotes in the same group. Women homozygotes ranked highest for AD risk (OR = 20.8) and, in fact, women heterozygotes (OR = 9.03) ranked higher for risk than male homozygotes (OR = 6.12). These preliminary exploratory results should be confirmed in a larger study.

  13. Frequency of polymorphisms and protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A in central nervous system tumors

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    Mev Dominguez Valentin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Genetic investigation of central nervous system (CNS tumors provides valuable information about the genes regulating proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, migration and apoptosis in the CNS. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of genetic polymorphisms (codon 31 and 3' untranslated region, 3'UTR and protein expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A gene in patients with and without CNS tumors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, at the Molecular Biology Laboratory, Pediatric Oncology Department, Hospital das Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto. METHODS: 41 patients with CNS tumors and a control group of 161 subjects without cancer and paires for sex, age and ethnicity were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Protein analysis was performed on 36 patients with CNS tumors, using the Western Blotting technique. RESULTS: The frequencies of the heterozygote (Ser/Arg and polymorphic homozygote (Arg/Arg genotypes of codon 31 in the control subjects were 28.0% and 1.2%, respectively. However, the 3'UTR site presented frequencies of 24.2% (C/T and 0.6% (T/T. These frequencies were not statistically different (P > 0.05 from those seen in the patients with CNS tumors (19.4% and 0.0%, codon 31; 15.8% and 2.6%, 3'UTR site. Regarding the protein expression in ependymomas, 66.67% did not express the protein CDKN1A. The results for medulloblastomas and astrocytomas were similar: neither of them expressed the protein (57.14% and 61.54%, respectively. CONCLUSION: No significant differences in protein expression patterns or polymorphisms of CDKN1A in relation to the three types of CNS tumors were observed among Brazilian subjects.

  14. The adaptor SASH1 acts through NOTCH1 and its inhibitor DLK1 in a 3D model of lumenogenesis involving CEACAM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Kandis; Chean, Jennifer; Nguyen, Tung; Chen, Charng-Jui; Shively, John E

    2017-10-15

    CEACAM1 transfection into breast cancer cells restores lumen formation in a 3D culture model. Among the top up-regulated genes that were associated with restoration of lumen formation, the adaptor protein SASH1 was identified. Furthermore, SASH1 was shown to be critical for lumen formation by RNAi inhibition. Upon analyzing the gene array from CEACAM1/MCF7 cells treated with SASH1 RNAi, DLK1, an inhibitor of NOTCH1 signaling, was found to be down-regulated to the same extent as SASH1. Subsequent treatment of CEACAM1/MCF7 cells with RNAi to DLK1 also inhibited lumen formation, supporting its association with SASH1. In agreement with the role of DLK1 as a NOTCH1 inhibitor, NOTCH1, as well as its regulated genes HES1 and HEY1, were down-regulated in CEACAM1/MCF7 cells by the action of DLK1 RNAi, and up-regulated by SASH1 RNAi. When CEACAM1/MCF7 cells were treated with a γ-secretase inhibitor known to inhibit NOTCH signaling, lumen formation was inhibited. We conclude that restoration of lumen formation by CEACAM1 regulates the NOTCH1 signaling pathway via the adaptor protein SASH1 and the NOTCH1 inhibitor DLK1. These data suggest that the putative involvement of NOTCH1 as a tumor-promoting gene in breast cancer may depend on its lack of regulation in cancer, whereas its involvement in normal lumen formation requires activation of its expression, and subsequently, inhibition of its signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Histone deacetylase inhibitors reduce the number of herpes simplex virus-1 genomes initiating expression in individual cells

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    Lev Shapira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many viral particles can enter a single cell, the number of viral genomes per cell that establish infection is limited. However, mechanisms underlying this restriction were not explored in depth. For herpesviruses, one of the possible mechanisms suggested is chromatinization and silencing of the incoming genomes. To test this hypothesis, we followed infection with three herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 fluorescence-expressing recombinants in the presence or absence of histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi’s. Unexpectedly, a lower number of viral genomes initiated expression in the presence of these inhibitors. This phenomenon was observed using several HDACi: Trichostatin A (TSA, Suberohydroxamic Acid (SBX, Valporic Acid (VPA and Suberoylanilide Hydoxamic Acid (SAHA. We found that HDACi presence did not change the progeny outcome from the infected cells but did alter the kinetic of the gene expression from the viral genomes. Different cell types (HFF, Vero and U2OS, which vary in their capability to activate intrinsic and innate immunity, show a cell specific basal average number of viral genomes establishing infection. Importantly, in all cell types, treatment with TSA reduced the number of viral genomes. ND10 nuclear bodies are known to interact with the incoming herpes genomes and repress viral replication. The viral immediate early protein, ICP0, is known to disassemble the ND10 bodies and to induce degradation of some of the host proteins in these domains. HDACi treated cells expressed higher levels of some of the host ND10 proteins (PML and ATRX, which may explain the lower number of viral genomes initiating expression per cell. Corroborating this hypothesis, infection with three HSV-1 recombinants carrying a deletion in the gene coding for ICP0, show a reduction in the number of genomes being expressed in U2OS cells. We suggest that alterations in the levels of host proteins involved in intrinsic antiviral defense may result in

  16. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and retinopathy risk in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis

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    Zhang Tengyue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence has suggested that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 is a candidate for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy. Studies have reported that insertion/deletion polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene may influence the risk of this disease. To comprehensively address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Methods Data were retrieved in a systematic manner and analyzed using Review Manager and STATA Statistical Software. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of associations. Results Nine studies with 1, 217 cases and 1, 459 controls were included. Allelic and genotypic comparisons between cases and controls were evaluated. Overall analysis suggests a marginal association of the 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.26; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.04 to 1.64; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.52. In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we found an association among the Caucasian population (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.30; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.74; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.13 to 1.77. When stratified by the average duration of diabetes, patients with diabetes histories longer than 10 years have an elevated susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy than those with shorter histories (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.08 to 2.00. We also detected a higher risk in hospital-based studies (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G+4G/5G: OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.57. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggested that 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene potentially increased the risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes and showed a discrepancy in different ethnicities. A higher susceptibility in patients with longer duration of

  17. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and retinopathy risk in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tengyue; Pang, Chong; Li, Ningdong; Zhou, Elaine; Zhao, Kanxing

    2013-01-02

    Mounting evidence has suggested that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a candidate for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy. Studies have reported that insertion/deletion polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene may influence the risk of this disease. To comprehensively address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Data were retrieved in a systematic manner and analyzed using Review Manager and STATA Statistical Software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. Nine studies with 1, 217 cases and 1, 459 controls were included. Allelic and genotypic comparisons between cases and controls were evaluated. Overall analysis suggests a marginal association of the 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.26; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.04 to 1.64; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.52). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we found an association among the Caucasian population (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.30; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.74; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.13 to 1.77). When stratified by the average duration of diabetes, patients with diabetes histories longer than 10 years have an elevated susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy than those with shorter histories (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.08 to 2.00). We also detected a higher risk in hospital-based studies (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G+4G/5G: OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.57). The present meta-analysis suggested that 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene potentially increased the risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes and showed a discrepancy in different ethnicities. A higher susceptibility in patients with longer duration of diabetes (more than 10 years) indicated a gene

  18. The Human Tyrosyl-DNA Phosphodiesterase 1 (hTdp1) Inhibitor NSC120686 as an Exploratory Tool to Investigate Plant Tdp1 Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macovei, Anca; Pagano, Andrea; Sabatini, Maria Elisa; Grandi, Sofia; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2018-03-28

    The hTdp1 (human tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1) inhibitor NSC120686 has been used, along with topoisomerase inhibitors, as a pharmacophoric model to restrain the Tdp1 activity as part of a synergistic treatment for cancer. While this compound has an end-point application in medical research, in plants, its application has not been considered so far. The originality of our study consists in the use of hTdp1 inhibitor in Medicago truncatula cells, which, unlike human cells, contain two Tdp1 genes. Hence, the purpose of this study was to test the hTdp1 inhibitor NSC120686 as an exploratory tool to investigate the plant Tdp1 genes, since their characterization is still in incipient phases. To do so, M. truncatula calli were exposed to increasing (75, 150, 300 μM) concentrations of NSC120686. The levels of cell mortality and DNA damage, measured via diffusion assay and comet assay, respectively, were significantly increased when the highest doses were used, indicative of a cytotoxic and genotoxic threshold. In addition, the NSC120686-treated calli and untreated MtTdp1α -depleted calli shared a similar response in terms of programmed cell death (PCD)/necrosis and DNA damage. Interestingly, the expression profiles of MtTdp1α and MtTdp1β genes were differently affected by the NSC120686 treatment, as MtTdp1α was upregulated while MtTdp1β was downregulated. The NSC120686 treatment affected not only the MtTdp1 genes but also other genes with roles in alternative DNA repair pathways. Since the expression patterns of these genes were different than what was observed in the MtTdp1α -depleted plants, it could be hypothesized that the NSC120686 treatment exerts a different influence compared to that resulting from the lack of the MtTdp1α gene function.

  19. NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase-1 Expression Sensitizes Malignant Melanoma Cells to the HSP90 Inhibitor 17-AAG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Shuya; Arakawa, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Ayaka; Shigeeda, Wataru; Yasuhira, Shinji; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Akasaka, Toshihide; Shibazaki, Masahiko; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    The KEAP1-NRF2 pathway regulates cellular redox homeostasis by transcriptional induction of genes associated with antioxidant synthesis and detoxification in response to oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that KEAP1 mutation elicits constitutive NRF2 activation and resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) and dacarbazine (DTIC) in human melanomas. The present study was conducted to clarify whether an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, efficiently eliminates melanoma with KEAP1 mutation, as the NRF2 target gene, NQO1, is a key enzyme in 17-AAG bioactivation. In melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines with or without KEAP1 mutations, NQO1 expression and 17-AAG sensitivity are inversely correlated. NQO1 is highly expressed in normal melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines despite the presence of wild-type KEAP1, and the NQO1 expression is dependent on NRF2 activation. Because either CDDP or DTIC produces reactive oxygen species that activate NRF2, we determined whether these agents would sensitize NQO1-low melanoma cells to 17-AAG. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the 17-AAG and CDDP combination was detected in four out of five NQO1-low cell lines, but not in the cell line with KEAP1 mutation. These data indicate that 17-AAG could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma with KEAP1 mutation or NQO1 expression.

  20. Evaluation of Serum Fibrinogen, Plasminogen, α2-Anti-Plasmin, and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Levels (PAI and Their Correlation with Presence of Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 DM

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    Sefika Burcak Polat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness in the world. Retinopathy can still progress despite optimal metabolic control. The aim of the study was to determine whether different degrees of DR (proliferative or nonproliferative were associated with abnormally modulated hemostatic parameters in patients with T1DM. Method. 52 T1DM patients and 40 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Patients were subdivided into three categories. Group I was defined as those without retinopathy, group II with NPRP, and group III with PRP. We compared these subgroups with each other and the control group (Group IV according to the serum fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-anti-plasmin (α2-anti-plasmin, and PAI. Results. We detected that PAI-1, serum fibrinogen, and plasminogen levels were similar between the diabetic and control groups (P=0.209, P=0.224, and P=0.244, resp., whereas α2-anti-plasmin was higher in Groups I, II, and III compared to the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05, and P<0.001, resp.. There was a positive correlation between serum α2-anti-plasmin and HbA1c levels (r=0,268, P=0.031. Conclusion. To our knowledge there is scarce data in the literature about α2-anti-plasmin levels in type 1 diabetes. A positive correlation between α2-anti-plasmin with HbA1c suggests that fibrinolytic markers may improve with disease regulation and better glycemic control.

  1. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Harunori; Kitano, Masayasu; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Miyazawa, Keiji; Hla, Timothy; Sano, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► MH7A cells and CD4 + T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. ► S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4 + T cells. ► The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4 + T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4 + T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4 + T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-α in MH7A cells and CD4 + T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4 + T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  2. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Harunori [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Kitano, Masayasu, E-mail: mkitano6@hyo-med.ac.jp [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi [Department of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima Kobe, Hyogo 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Miyazawa, Keiji [Discovery Research III, Research and Development, Kissei Pharmaceutical Company, 4365-1 Hodakakashiwara, Azumino, Nagano 399-8304 (Japan); Hla, Timothy [Center for Vascular Biology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 69, NY 10065 (United States); Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  3. Ribavirin restores ESR1 gene expression and tamoxifen sensitivity in ESR1 negative breast cancer cell lines

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    Sappok Anne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tumor growth is estrogen independent in approximately one-third of all breast cancers, which makes these patients unresponsive to hormonal treatment. This unresponsiveness to hormonal treatment may be explained through the absence of the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1. The ESR1 gene re-expression through epigenetic modulators such as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and/or histone deacetylase inhibitors restores tamoxifen sensitivity in ESR1 negative breast cancer cell lines and opens new treatment horizons in patients who were previously associated with a poor prognosis. In the study presented herein, we tested the ability of ribavirin, which shares some structural similarities with the DNA-methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine and which is widely known as an anti-viral agent in the treatment of hepatitis C, to restore ESR1 gene re-expression in ESR1 negative breast cancer cell lines. In our study we identified ribavirin to restore ESR1 gene re-expression alone and even more in combination with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA - up to 276 fold induction. Ribavirin and analogs could pave the way to novel translational research projects that aim to restore ESR1 gene re-expression and thus the susceptibility to tamoxifen-based endocrine treatment strategies.

  4. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays.

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    Marlien Pieters

    Full Text Available Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g, platelet-containing (352 g and platelet-rich plasma (200 g were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly

  5. Polymorphism 4G/5G of the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene as a risk factor for the development of allergic rhinitis symptoms in patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampalo, Marina; Jukic, Irena; Bingulac-Popovic, Jasna; Marunica, Ivona; Petlevski, Roberta; Pavlisa, Gordana; Popovic-Grle, Sanja

    2017-06-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a glycoprotein which has a role in tissue remodelling after inflammatory processes. The objective is to investigate the frequency of PAI-1 gene polymorphism (4G/5G) in patients with a lung ventilation dysfunction in asthma and allergic rhinitis. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotypes of polymorphism of PAI-1 4G/5G and ABO were determined using the methods of RT-PCR and PCR-SSP. Study group includes 145 adult patients diagnosed with chronic asthma, with all clinically relevant parameters and the laboratory markers of pO 2 , IgE and eosinophils in sputum and nasal swab. In the processing of data, appropriate statistical tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, median, interquartile ranges, χ 2 and Mann-Whitney U tests) were used. Patients with symptoms of allergic rhinitis were significantly younger and had an almost four time higher levels of IgE (P = 0.001), higher pO 2 (P = 0.002) and PEF (P = 0.036), compared to those who do not have these symptoms. Genotype PAI 4G/4G is significantly more common in patients with allergic rhinitis (28.1% vs. 16.1%; P = 0.017) compared to the genotype 5G/5G. Carriers of the genotype 4G/5G also have a borderline statistical significance. There were no statistically significant difference in the incidence of allergic rhinitis in the carriers of any ABO genotypes. The frequency of PAI genotype 4G/4G is significantly more common in patients with allergic rhinitis. The results suggest that the carriers of at least one 4G allele are at a higher risk for developing symptoms of allergic rhinitis in asthma.

  6. Increased expression of metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2, MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 (TIMP-1, TIMP-2), and EMMPRIN (CD147) in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak-Kujda, Donata; Kapelko-Slowik, Katarzyna; Prajs, Iwona; Dybko, Jarosław; Wolowiec, Dariusz; Biernat, Monika; Slowik, Miroslaw; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    Activity of metalloproteinases (MMP) is controlled both by specific tissue inhibitors (TIMP) and activators (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, EMMPRIN). There are few data available concerning concentration the bone marrow of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, or EMMPRIM expression by bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We studied 40 newly diagnosed, untreated patients: 18 males and 22 females with de novo MM and 11 healthy controls. Bone marrow was collected prior to therapy. BMSCs were derived by culturing bone marrow cells on MesenCult. Protein concentrations were determined in bone marrow plasma and culture supernatants by ELISA. EMMPRIN expression by BMSCs was assessed by flow cytometry. The median concentrations of MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in both marrow plasma and culture supernatants were significantly higher in MM patients than controls. EMMPRIN expression and ratios MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 were higher in MM patients, our results demonstrate that in MM patients MMP-2 and MMP-9 are secreted in higher amounts and are not balanced by inhibitors.

  7. Acquired resistance to HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG and increased metastatic potential are associated with MUC1 expression in colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Ban, Li-Li; Luo, Gang; Li, Zhi-Yao; Li, Yun-Feng; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Wang, Xi-Cai; Jin, Cong-Guo; Ye, Jia-Gui; Ma, Ding-Ding; Xie, Qing; Huang, You-Guang

    2016-06-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone required for the stability and function of many proteins. The chaperoning of oncoproteins by HSP90 enhances the survival, growth, and invasive potential of cancer cells. HSP90 inhibitors are promising new anticancer agents, in which the benzoquinone ansamycin 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is currently in clinical evaluation. However, the implications of acquired resistance to this class of drug remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we have generated isogenic human colon cancer cell lines that are resistant to 17-AAG by continued culturing in the compound. Cross-resistance was found with another HSP90 inhibitor 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin. The resistant cells showed obvious morphology changes with a metastatic phenotype and significant increases in migration and adhesion to collagens. Western blotting analysis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecular markers found that expression of E-cadherin downregulated, whereas expression of N-cadherin and β-catenin upregulated in the resistant cells. Mucin 1 (MUC1) has been reported to mediate metastasis as well as chemical resistance in many cancers. Here, we found that MUC1 expression was significantly elevated in the acquired drug resistance cells. 17-AAG treatment could decrease MUC1 more in parental cells than in acquired 17-AAG-resistant cells. Further study found that knockdown of MUC1 expression by small interfering RNA could obviously re-sensitize the resistant cells to 17-AAG treatment, and decrease the cell migration and adhesion. These were coupled with a downregulation in N-cadherin and β-catenin. The results indicate that HSP90 inhibitor therapies in colon carcinomas could generate resistance and increase metastatic potential that might mediated by upregulation of MUC1 expression. Findings from this study further our understanding of the potential clinical effects of HSP90-directed therapies in

  8. The -675 4G/5G polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene is associated with risk of asthma: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of studies assessed the association of -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter region of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 gene with asthma in different populations. However, most studies reported inconclusive results. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene and asthma susceptibility. METHODS: Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, HuGE Literature Finder, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and Weipu Database were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of association in the dominant model, recessive model, codominant model, and additive model. RESULTS: Eight studies involving 1817 cases and 2327 controls were included. Overall, significant association between 4G/5G polymorphism and asthma susceptibility was observed for 4G4G+4G5G vs. 5G5G (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.12-2.18, P = 0.008, 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G+5G/5G (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.06-1.80, P = 0.02, 4G/4G vs. 5G/5G (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.17-2.76, P = 0.007, 4G/5G vs. 5G/5G (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.07-1.84, P = 0.02, and 4G vs. 5G (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.68, P = 0.008. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that the -675 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene was a risk factor of asthma.

  9. Chemotherapy treatment is associated with altered PD-L1 expression in lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojkó, Lívia; Reiniger, Lilla; Téglási, Vanda

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: While the predictive value of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein expression for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy of lung cancer has been extensively studied, the impact of standard platinum-based chemotherapy on PD-L1 or programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) expression is unkn...... expression of TC in a subset of patients, therefore, rebiopsy and re-evaluation of PD-L1 expression may be necessary for the indication of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.......Objectives: While the predictive value of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein expression for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy of lung cancer has been extensively studied, the impact of standard platinum-based chemotherapy on PD-L1 or programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) expression...... is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in PD-L1 expression of tumor cells (TC) and immune cells (IC), in PD-1 expression of IC, and in the amount of stromal mononuclear cell infiltration after platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Materials and methods: We...

  10. Imprinted CDKN1C is a tumor suppressor in rhabdoid tumor and activated by restoration of SMARCB1 and histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Algar

    Full Text Available SMARCB1 is deleted in rhabdoid tumor, an aggressive paediatric malignancy affecting the kidney and CNS. We hypothesized that the oncogenic pathway in rhabdoid tumors involved epigenetic silencing of key cell cycle regulators as a consequence of altered chromatin-remodelling, attributable to loss of SMARCB1, and that this hypothesis if proven could provide a biological rationale for testing epigenetic therapies in this disease. We used an inducible expression system to show that the imprinted cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1C is a downstream target for SMARCB1 and is transcriptionally activated by increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation at the promoter. We also show that CDKN1C expression induces cell cycle arrest, CDKN1C knockdown with siRNA is associated with increased proliferation, and is able to compete against the anti-proliferative effect of restored SMARCB1 expression. The histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi, Romidepsin, specifically restored CDKN1C expression in rhabdoid tumor cells through promoter histone H3 and H4 acetylation, recapitulating the effect of SMARCB1 on CDKNIC allelic expression, and induced cell cycle arrest in G401 and STM91-01 rhabdoid tumor cell lines. CDKN1C expression was also shown to be generally absent in clinical specimens of rhabdoid tumor, however CDKN1A and CDKN1B expression persisted. Our observations suggest that maintenance of CDKN1C expression plays a critical role in preventing rhabdoid tumor growth. Significantly, we report for the first time, parallels between the molecular pathways of SMARCB1 restoration and Romidepsin treatment, and demonstrate a biological basis for the further exploration of histone deacetylase inhibitors as relevant therapeutic reagents in the treatment of rhabdoid tumor.

  11. 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and -308 A/G tumor necrosis factor-α promoter gene polymorphisms in Argentinean lupus patients: focus on lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Sebastián Andrés; Aranda, Federico; Allievi, Alberto; Orden, Alberto Omar; Perés Wingeyer, Silvia; Trobo, Rosana; Alvarez, Analía; Eimon, Alicia; Barreira, Juan Carlos; Schneeberger, Emilce; Dal Pra, Fernando; Sarano, Judith; Hofman, Julio; Chamorro, Julián; de Larrañaga, Gabriela

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between the 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and -308 A/G tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) polymorphisms and the clinical and biochemical features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in an Argentinean patient cohort. A total of 402 patients were studied, including 179 SLE patients and 223 healthy individuals. PCR-RLFP was used to determine the genotypes of the 4G/5G PAI-1 and -308 A/G TNF-α polymorphisms. SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) (n = 86) were compared with patients without LN (n = 93). Additionally, LN patients were divided into proliferative LN and non-proliferative LN groups according to the results of the renal biopsies. No significant differences were noted in the genotype distributions or allele frequencies of these TNF-α and PAI-1 polymorphisms between SLE patients and controls. There were higher numbers of criteria for SLE, more lupus flares and higher damage scores in LN patients, but there were similar frequencies of anti-phospholipid antibody (APA) positivity and anti-phospholipid syndrome. No significant difference was noted for any studied variable between the proliferative LN and non-proliferative LN groups except for the presence of APA. We found no significant differences in the TNF-α and PAI-1 genotype distributions or allele frequencies between groups. We found that the -308 A/G TNF-α and 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to SLE in an Argentinean population. We also did not find any association between the presence of any specific allele or genotype and the development of LN in SLE patients. Finally, no association was noted between either of the two polymorphisms and the severity of renal disease.

  12. TGF-β1 modulates the homeostasis between MMPs and MMP inhibitors through p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in highly invasive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Luciana R; Terra, Letícia F; Wailemann, Rosângela AM; Labriola, Leticia; Sogayar, Mari C

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis is the main factor responsible for death in breast cancer patients. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, known as tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), and the membrane-associated MMP inhibitor (RECK), are essential for the metastatic process. We have previously shown a positive correlation between MMPs and their inhibitors expression during breast cancer progression; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this coordinate regulation remain unknown. In this report, we investigated whether TGF-β1 could be a common regulator for MMPs, TIMPs and RECK in human breast cancer cell models. The mRNA expression levels of TGF-β isoforms and their receptors were analyzed by qRT-PCR in a panel of five human breast cancer cell lines displaying different degrees of invasiveness and metastatic potential. The highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cell line was treated with different concentrations of recombinant TGF-β1 and also with pharmacological inhibitors of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. The migratory and invasive potential of these treated cells were examined in vitro by transwell assays. In general, TGF-β2, TβRI and TβRII are over-expressed in more aggressive cells, except for TβRI, which was also highly expressed in ZR-75-1 cells. In addition, TGF-β1-treated MDA-MB-231 cells presented significantly increased mRNA expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, TIMP-2 and RECK. TGF-β1 also increased TIMP-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels but downregulated RECK expression. Furthermore, we analyzed the involvement of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2, representing two well established Smad-independent pathways, in the proposed mechanism. Inhibition of p38MAPK blocked TGF-β1-increased mRNA expression of all MMPs and MMP inhibitors analyzed, and prevented TGF-β1 upregulation of TIMP-2 and MMP-2 proteins. Moreover, ERK1/2 inhibition increased RECK and prevented the TGF-β1 induction of pro-MMP-9 and TIMP-2 proteins. TGF-β1-enhanced migration and invasion capacities were blocked by p

  13. HIV-1 integrase inhibitors are substrates for the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Andrea

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of diketoacid-containing derivatives as inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase (IN (IN inhibitors, IINs has played a major role in validating this enzyme as an important target for antiretroviral therapy. Since the in vivo efficacy depends on access of these drugs to intracellular sites where HIV-1 replicates, we determined whether the IINs are recognized by the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein (P-gp thereby reducing their intracellular accumulation. To address the effect of IINs on drug transport, nine quinolonyl diketo acid (DKA derivatives active on the HIV-1 IN strand transfer (ST step and with EC50 ranging from 1.83 to >50 μm in cell-based assays were tested for their in vitro interaction with P-gp in the CEM-MDR cell system. IINs were investigated for the inhibition and induction of the P-gp function and expression as well as for multidrug resistance (MDR reversing ability. Results The HIV-1 IINs act as genuine P-gp substrates by inhibiting doxorubicin efflux and inducing P-gp functional conformation changes as evaluated by the modulation of UIC2 mAb epitope. Further, IINs chemosensitize MDR cells to vinblastine and induce P-gp expression in drug sensitive revertants of CEM-MDR cells. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that HIV-1 IINs are P-gp substrates. This biological property may influence the absorption, distribution and elimination of these novels anti HIV-1 compounds.

  14. The −675 4G/5G Polymorphism in Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Gene Is Associated with Risk of Asthma: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Qing-yu

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of studies assessed the association of −675 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter region of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 gene with asthma in different populations. However, most studies reported inconclusive results. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene and asthma susceptibility. Methods Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, HuGE Literature Finder, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Weipu Database were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in the dominant model, recessive model, codominant model, and additive model. Results Eight studies involving 1817 cases and 2327 controls were included. Overall, significant association between 4G/5G polymorphism and asthma susceptibility was observed for 4G4G+4G5G vs. 5G5G (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.12–2.18, P = 0.008), 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G+5G/5G (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.06–1.80, P = 0.02), 4G/4G vs. 5G/5G (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.17–2.76, P = 0.007), 4G/5G vs. 5G/5G (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.07–1.84, P = 0.02), and 4G vs. 5G (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.08–1.68, P = 0.008). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that the −675 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene was a risk factor of asthma. PMID:22479620

  15. Resveratrol protects leukemic cells against cytotoxicity induced by proteasome inhibitors via induction of FOXO1 and p27Kip1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Bao-Qin; Du, Zhen-Xian; Gao, Yan-Yan; Li, Chao; Li, Ning; Guan, Yifu; Wang, Hua-Qin

    2011-01-01

    It was reported recently that resveratrol could sensitize a number of cancer cells to the antitumoral effects of some conventional chemotherapy drugs. The current study was designed to investigate whether resveratrol could sensitize leukemic cells to proteasome inhibitors. Leukemic cells were treated with MG132 alone or in combination with resveratrol. Cell viability was investigated using MTT assay, and induction of apoptosis and cell cycle distribution was measured using flow cytometry. Western blot and real-time RT-PCR were used to investigate the expression of FOXO1 and p27 Kip1 . CHIP was performed to investigate the binding of FOXO1 to the p27 Kip1 promoter. Resveratrol strongly reduced cytotoxic activities of proteasome inhibitors against leukemic cells. MG132 in combination with resveratrol caused cell cycle blockade at G1/S transition via p27 Kip1 accumulation. Knockdown of p27 Kip1 using siRNA dramatically attenuated the protective effects of resveratrol on cytotoxic actions of proteasome inhibitors against leukemic cells. Resveratrol induced FOXO1 expression at the transcriptional level, while MG132 increased nuclear distribution of FOXO1. MG132 in combination with resveratrol caused synergistic induction of p27 Kip1 through increased recruitment of FOXO1 on the p27 Kip1 promoter. Resveratrol may have the potential to negate the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitors via regulation of FOXO1 transcriptional activity and accumulation of p27 Kip1

  16. 17-AAG, a Hsp90 inhibitor, attenuates the hypoxia-induced expression of SDF-1alpha and ILK in mouse RPE cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye Qing; Zhang, Xiao Mei; Wang, Xiao Dan; Wang, Bin Jie; Wang, Wei

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of SDF-1alpha and ILK expression in mouse retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in response to hypoxia, and the effect of 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, on the hypoxia-induced expression of SDF-1alpha and ILK. RPE cells were cultured with 200 micromol/L cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) for different times (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 72 h) to imitate chemical hypoxia. Pretreatment of 17-AAG was 1 h prior to hypoxic insult. Cellular viability after 17-AAG treatment was assessed by MTT assay, and the changes of SDF-1alpha and ILK expression were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Up-regulation of SDF-1alpha and ILK expression in response to hypoxia was observed. One hour pretreatment of 17-AAG could remarkably decreased the hypoxia-induced SDF-1alpha and ILK expression in vitro. Our results indicated that SDF-1alpha and ILK involved in the hypoxic response of RPE cells, and 1 h pretreatment of 17-AAG had an inhibitive effect on the hypoxia-induced SDF-1alpha and ILK expression.

  17. Class 1-Selective Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors Enhance HIV Latency Reversal while Preserving the Activity of HDAC Isoforms Necessary for Maximal HIV Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikos, Thomas D; Painter, Mark M; Sebastian Kettinger, Nadia T; Terry, Valeri H; Collins, Kathleen L

    2018-03-15

    Combinations of drugs that affect distinct mechanisms of HIV latency aim to induce robust latency reversal leading to cytopathicity and elimination of the persistent HIV reservoir. Thus far, attempts have focused on combinations of protein kinase C (PKC) agonists and pan-histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) despite the knowledge that HIV gene expression is regulated by class 1 histone deacetylases. We hypothesized that class 1-selective HDIs would promote more robust HIV latency reversal in combination with a PKC agonist than pan-HDIs because they preserve the activity of proviral factors regulated by non-class 1 histone deacetylases. Here, we show that class 1-selective agents used alone or with the PKC agonist bryostatin-1 induced more HIV protein expression per infected cell. In addition, the combination of entinostat and bryostatin-1 induced viral outgrowth, whereas bryostatin-1 combinations with pan-HDIs did not. When class 1-selective HDIs were used in combination with pan-HDIs, the amount of viral protein expression and virus outgrowth resembled that of pan-HDIs alone, suggesting that pan-HDIs inhibit robust gene expression induced by class 1-selective HDIs. Consistent with this, pan-HDI-containing combinations reduced the activity of NF-κB and Hsp90, two cellular factors necessary for potent HIV protein expression, but did not significantly reduce overall cell viability. An assessment of viral clearance from in vitro cultures indicated that maximal protein expression induced by class 1-selective HDI treatment was crucial for reservoir clearance. These findings elucidate the limitations of current approaches and provide a path toward more effective strategies to eliminate the HIV reservoir. IMPORTANCE Despite effective antiretroviral therapy, HIV evades eradication in a latent form that is not affected by currently available drug regimens. Pharmacologic latency reversal that leads to death of cellular reservoirs has been proposed as a strategy for

  18. Statin and rottlerin small-molecule inhibitors restrict colon cancer progression and metastasis via MACC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Manisha; Kobelt, Dennis; Walther, Wolfgang; Voss, Cynthia; Smith, Janice; Specker, Edgar; Neuenschwander, Martin; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Dahlmann, Mathias; Radetzki, Silke; Preissner, Robert; von Kries, Jens Peter; Schlag, Peter Michael; Stein, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    MACC1 (Metastasis Associated in Colon Cancer 1) is a key driver and prognostic biomarker for cancer progression and metastasis in a large variety of solid tumor types, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC). However, no MACC1 inhibitors have been identified yet. Therefore, we aimed to target MACC1 expression using a luciferase reporter-based high-throughput screening with the ChemBioNet library of more than 30,000 compounds. The small molecules lovastatin and rottlerin emerged as the most potent MACC1 transcriptional inhibitors. They remarkably inhibited MACC1 promoter activity and expression, resulting in reduced cell motility. Lovastatin impaired the binding of the transcription factors c-Jun and Sp1 to the MACC1 promoter, thereby inhibiting MACC1 transcription. Most importantly, in CRC-xenografted mice, lovastatin and rottlerin restricted MACC1 expression and liver metastasis. This is-to the best of our knowledge-the first identification of inhibitors restricting cancer progression and metastasis via the novel target MACC1. This drug repositioning might be of therapeutic value for CRC patients.

  19. HDAC inhibitors enhance neratinib activity and when combined enhance the actions of an anti-PD-1 immunomodulatory antibody in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L; Poklepovic, Andrew; Avogadri-Connors, Francesca; Cutler, Richard E; Lalani, Alshad S; Dent, Paul

    2017-10-27

    Patients whose NSCLC tumors become afatinib resistant presently have few effective therapeutic options to extend their survival. Afatinib resistant NSCLC cells were sensitive to clinically relevant concentrations of the irreversible pan-HER inhibitor neratinib, but not by the first generation ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor lapatinib. In multiple afatinib resistant NSCLC clones, HDAC inhibitors reduced the expression of ERBB1/3/4, but activated c-SRC, which resulted in higher total levels of ERBB1/3 phosphorylation. Neratinib also rapidly reduced the expression of ERBB1/2/3/4, c-MET and of mutant K-/N-RAS; K-RAS co-localized with phosphorylated ATG13 and with cathepsin B in vesicles. Combined exposure of cells to [neratinib + HDAC inhibitors] caused inactivation of mTORC1 and mTORC2, enhanced autophagosome and subsequently autolysosome formation, and caused an additive to greater than additive induction of cell death. Knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 prevented HDAC inhibitors or neratinib from reducing ERBB1/3/4 and K-/N-RAS expression and reduced [neratinib + HDAC inhibitor] lethality. Neratinib and HDAC inhibitors reduced the expression of multiple HDAC proteins via autophagy that was causal in the reduced expression of PD-L1, PD-L2 and ornithine decarboxylase, and increased expression of Class I MHCA. In vivo , neratinib and HDAC inhibitors interacted to suppress the growth of 4T1 mammary tumors, an effect that was enhanced by an anti-PD-1 antibody. Our data support the premises that neratinib lethality can be enhanced by HDAC inhibitors, that neratinib may be a useful therapeutic tool in afatinib resistant NSCLC, and that [neratinib + HDAC inhibitor] exposure facilitates anti-tumor immune responses.

  20. Gene-expression analysis of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 and their tissue inhibitors in chronic periapical inflammatory lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Naida; Kurtovic-Kozaric, Amina; Pojskic, Naris; Sulejmanagic, Nedim; Todorovic, Ljubomir

    2016-03-01

    Periapical inflammatory lesions have been investigated previously, but understanding of pathogenesis of these lesions (granulomas and radicular cysts) at the molecular level is still questionable. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in the development of periapical pathology, specifically inflammation and tissue destruction. To elucidate pathogenesis of periapical granulomas and radicular cysts, we undertook a detailed analysis of gene expression of MMP-1, MMP-2 and their tissue inhibitors, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. A total of 149 samples were analyzed using real-time PCR (59 radicular cysts, 50 periapical granulomas and 40 healthy gingiva samples as controls) for expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 genes. The determination of best reference gene for expression analysis of periapical lesions was done using a panel of 12 genes. We have shown that β-actin and GAPDH are not the most stable reference controls for gene expression analysis of inflammatory periapical tissues and healthy gingiva. The most suitable reference gene was determined to be SDHA (a succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein [Fp]). We found that granulomas (n = 50) and radicular cysts (n = 59) exhibited significantly higher expression of all four examined genes, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, when compared to healthy gingiva (n = 40; P periapical inflammatory lesions. Since the abovementioned markers were not differentially expressed in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts, the challenge of finding the genetic differences between the two lesions still remains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1: Mechanisms of its synergistic regulation by growth factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiaoling [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    My research is on the synergistic regulation of PAI-1 by EGF and TGF-β. The mechanism of synergistic regulation of PAI-1 by EGF and TGF-β are addressed. Methods are described for effective identification of RNA accessible sites for antisense oligodexoxynucleotides (ODNs) and siRNA. In this study effective AS-ODN sequences for both Lcn2 and Bcl2 were identified by in vitro tiled microarray studies. Our results suggest that hybridization of ODN arrays to a target mRNA under physiological conditions might be used as a rapid and reliable in vitro method to accurately identify targets on mRNA molecules for effective antisense and potential siRNA activity in vivo.

  2. Discovery of natural mouse serum derived HIV-1 entry inhibitor(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, M; Chen, Y; Xi, J; Ru, S; Ji, M; Zhang, D; Fang, Q; Tang, B

    Among rationally designed human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) inhibitors, diverse natural factors have showed as potent anti-HIV activity in human blood. We have discovered that the boiled supernatant of healthy mouse serum could suppress HIV-1 entry, and exhibited reduced inhibitory activity after trypsin digestion. Further analysis demonstrated that only the fraction containing 10-25 K proteins could inhibit HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These results suggest that the 10-25 K protein(s) is novel natural HIV-1 entry inhibitor(s). Our findings provide important information about novel natural HIV entry inhibitors in mouse serum.

  3. Binding of the Inhibitor Protein IF1 to Bovine F1-ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bason, John V.; Runswick, Michael J.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2011-01-01

    In the structure of bovine F1-ATPase inhibited with residues 1–60 of the bovine inhibitor protein IF1, the α-helical inhibitor interacts with five of the nine subunits of F1-ATPase. In order to understand the contributions of individual amino acid residues to this complex binding mode, N-terminal deletions and point mutations have been introduced, and the binding properties of each mutant inhibitor protein have been examined. The N-terminal region of IF1 destabilizes the interaction of the inhibitor with F1-ATPase and may assist in removing the inhibitor from its binding site when F1Fo-ATPase is making ATP. Binding energy is provided by hydrophobic interactions between residues in the long α-helix of IF1 and the C-terminal domains of the βDP-subunit and βTP-subunit and a salt bridge between residue E30 in the inhibitor and residue R408 in the C-terminal domain of the βDP-subunit. Several conserved charged amino acids in the long α-helix of IF1 are also required for establishing inhibitory activity, but in the final inhibited state, they are not in contact with F1-ATPase and occupy aqueous cavities in F1-ATPase. They probably participate in the pathway from the initial interaction of the inhibitor and the enzyme to the final inhibited complex observed in the structure, in which two molecules of ATP are hydrolysed and the rotor of the enzyme turns through two 120° steps. These findings contribute to the fundamental understanding of how the inhibitor functions and to the design of new inhibitors for the systematic analysis of the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. PMID:21192948

  4. Tofacitinib and analogs as inhibitors of the histone kinase PRK1 (PKN1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskyi, Dmytro; Rumpf, Tobias; Eib, Julia; Lumbroso, Alexandre; Slynko, Inna; Klaeger, Susan; Heinzlmeir, Stephanie; Forster, Michael; Gehringer, Matthias; Pfaffenrot, Ellen; Bauer, Silke Mona; Schmidtkunz, Karin; Wenzler, Sandra; Metzger, Eric; Kuster, Bernhard; Laufer, Stefan; Schüle, Roland; Sippl, Wolfgang; Breit, Bernhard; Jung, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    The histone kinase PRK1 has been identified as a potential target to combat prostate cancer but selective PRK1 inhibitors are lacking. The US FDA -approved JAK1-3 inhibitor tofacitinib also potently inhibits PRK1 in vitro. We show that tofacitinib also inhibits PRK1 in a cellular setting. Using tofacitinib as a starting point for structure-activity relationship studies, we identified a more potent and another more selective PRK1 inhibitor compared with tofacitinib. Furthermore, we found two potential PRK1/JAK3-selectivity hotspots. The identified inhibitors and the selectivity hotspots lay the basis for the development of selective PRK1 inhibitors. The identification of PRK1, but also of other cellular tofacitinib targets, has implications on its clinical use and on future development of tofacitinib-like JAK inhibitors. [Formula: see text].

  5. The pro-urokinase plasminogen-activation system in the presence of serpin-type inhibitors and the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Niels; List, Karin; Andreasen, Peter A

    2003-01-01

    The reciprocal pro-enzyme activation system of plasmin, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and their respective zymogens is a potent mechanism in the generation of extracellular proteolytic activity. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) acts as a negative regulator. This system...... is complicated by a poorly understood intrinsic reactivity of the uPA pro-enzyme (pro-uPA) before proteolytic activation, directed against both plasminogen and PAI-1. We have studied the integrated activation mechanism under the repression of PAI-1 in a purified system. A covalent reaction between pro...

  6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism in infertile women with and without endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Filho, Rubens P; Brandes, Ariel; Christofolini, Denise M; Lerner, Tatiana G; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio P

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate PAI-1 genotypes in a group of infertile women with or without endometriosis and control subjects. Case-control study. Human Reproduction Center of Medicina do ABC Faculty. One hundred and forty infertile women with endometriosis, 64 women with idiopathic infertility and 148 fertile women as control subjects. The PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. Genotype distribution and allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene. The frequencies of genotypes 4G/4G, 4G/5G and 5G/5G of the PAI-1 gene in the infertile women with endometriosis were 38.6, 37.1 and 24.3%, respectively, and in the control group 24.3, 33.8 and 41.9%, respectively (p=0.003). When the infertile women with endometriosis were divided according to their endometriosis stage, genotypes 4G/4G, 4G/5G and 5G/5G were identified, respectively, in 36.7, 32.9 and 30.4% of the patients with minimal/mild endometriosis (p=0.102) and in 41.0, 42.6 and 16.4% of the patients with moderate/severe endometriosis (p=0.001); in the women with idiopathic infertility, these genotypes were found at a frequency of 29.7, 34.3 and 36%, respectively (p=0.637). The data suggest that, in Brazilian women, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may be associated with a risk of endometriosis-associated infertility. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Mammalian protein secretion without signal peptide removal. Biosynthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 in U-937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, R.D.; Wun, T.C.; Sadler, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) is a serine protease inhibitor that regulates plasmin generation by inhibiting urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator. The primary structure of PAI-2 suggests that it may be secreted without cleavage of a single peptide. To confirm this hypothesis we have studied the glycosylation and secretion of PAI-2 in human monocytic U-937 cells by metabolic labeling, immunoprecipitation, glycosidase digestion, and protein sequencing. PAI-2 is variably glycosylated on asparagine residues to yield intracellular intermediates with zero, one, two, or three high mannose-type oligosaccharide units. Secretion of the N-glycosylated species began by 1 h of chase and the secreted molecules contained both complex-type N-linked and O-linked oligosaccharides. Enzymatically deglycosylated PAI-2 had an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of the nonglycosylated precursor and also to that of PAI-2 synthesized in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate from synthetic mRNA derived from full length PAI-2 cDNA. The amino-terminal protein sequence of secreted PAI-2 began with the initiator methionine residue. These results indicate that PAI-2 is glycosylated and secreted efficiently without the cleavage of a signal peptide. PAI-2 shares this property with its nearest homologue in the serine protease inhibitor family, chicken ovalbumin, and appears to be the first well characterized example of this phenomenon among natural mammalian proteins

  8. Suppression of Homologous Recombination by insulin-like growth factor-1 inhibition sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Oreekha; Beauchamp, Marie-Claude; Nader, Paul Abou; Laskov, Ido; Iqbal, Sanaa; Philip, Charles-André; Yasmeen, Amber; Gotlieb, Walter H.

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of homologous recombination (HR) is found in close to 50 % of ovarian and breast cancer. Tumors with BRCA1 mutations show increased expression of the Insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R). We previously have shown that inhibition of IGF-1R results in growth inhibition and apoptosis of ovarian tumor cells. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between HR and sensitivity to IGF-1R inhibition. Further, we hypothesized that IGF-1R inhibition might sensitize HR proficient cancers to Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Using ovarian and breast cancer cellular models with known BRCA1 status, we evaluated their HR functionality by RAD51 foci formation assay. The 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) of Insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor kinase inhibitor (IGF-1Rki) in these cells was assessed, and western immunoblotting was performed to determine the expression of proteins involved in the IGF-1R pathway. Moreover, IGF-1R inhibitors were added on HR proficient cell lines to assess mRNA and protein expression of RAD51 by qPCR and western blot. Also, we explored the interaction between RAD51 and Insulin receptor substance 1 (IRS-1) by immunoprecipitation. Next, combination effect of IGF-1R and PARP inhibitors was evaluated by clonogenic assay. Cells with mutated/methylated BRCA1 showed an impaired HR function, and had an overactivation of the IGF-1R pathway. These cells were more sensitive to IGF-1R inhibition compared to HR proficient cells. In addition, the IGF-IR inhibitor reduced RAD51 expression at mRNA and protein levels in HR proficient cells, and sensitized these cells to PARP inhibitor. Targeting IGF-1R might lead to improved personalized therapeutic approaches in cancer patients with HR deficiency. Targeting both PARP and IGF-1R might increase the clinical efficacy in HR deficient patients and increase the population of patients who may benefit from PARP inhibitors

  9. Enhanced cerebrovascular expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 via the MEK/ERK pathway during cerebral ischemia in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddahi Aida

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral ischemia is usually characterized by a reduction in local blood flow and metabolism and by disruption of the blood-brain barrier in the infarct region. The formation of oedema and opening of the blood-brain barrier in stroke is associated with enhanced expression of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1. Results Here, we found an infarct volume of 24.8 ± 2% and a reduced neurological function after two hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, followed by 48 hours of recirculation in rat. Immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed enhanced expression of MMP-9, TIMP-1, and phosphorylated ERK1/2 in the smooth muscle cells of the ischemic MCA and associated intracerebral microvessels. The specific MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, given intraperitoneal zero or 6 hours after the ischemic event, reduced the infarct volume significantly (11.8 ± 2% and 14.6 ± 3%, respectively; P Conclusion These data are the first to show that the elevated vascular expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1, associated with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier following focal ischemia, are transcriptionally regulated via the MEK/ERK pathway.

  10. HDAC inhibitors repress BARD1 isoform expression in acute myeloid leukemia cells via activation of miR-19a and/or b.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Lepore

    Full Text Available Over the past years BARD1 (BRCA1-associated RING domain 1 has been considered as both a BRCA1 (BReast Cancer susceptibility gene 1, early onset interactor and tumor suppressor gene mutated in breast and ovarian cancers. Despite its role as a stable heterodimer with BRCA1, increasing evidence indicates that BARD1 also has BRCA1-independent oncogenic functions. Here, we investigate BARD1 expression and function in human acute myeloid leukemias and its modulation by epigenetic mechanism(s and microRNAs. We show that the HDACi (histone deacetylase inhibitor Vorinostat reduces BARD1 mRNA levels by increasing miR-19a and miR-19b expression levels. Moreover, we identify a specific BARD1 isoform, which might act as tumor diagnostic and prognostic markers.

  11. Novel orally bioavailable EZH1/2 dual inhibitors with greater antitumor efficacy than an EZH2 selective inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Daisuke; Kanno, Osamu; Watanabe, Jun; Kinoshita, Junzo; Hirasawa, Makoto; Nosaka, Emi; Shiroishi, Machiko; Takizawa, Takeshi; Yasumatsu, Isao; Horiuchi, Takao; Nakao, Akira; Suzuki, Keisuke; Yamasaki, Tomonori; Nakajima, Katsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Miho; Yamazaki, Takanori; Yadav, Ajay Singh; Adachi, Nobuaki

    2017-10-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) methylates histone H3 lysine 27 and represses gene expression to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) or its close homolog EZH1 functions as a catalytic subunit of PRC2, so there are two PRC2 complexes containing either EZH2 or EZH1. Tumorigenic functions of EZH2 and its synthetic lethality with some subunits of SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes have been observed. However, little is known about the function of EZH1 in tumorigenesis. Herein, we developed novel, orally bioavailable EZH1/2 dual inhibitors that strongly and selectively inhibited methyltransferase activity of both EZH2 and EZH1. EZH1/2 dual inhibitors suppressed trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 in cells more than EZH2 selective inhibitors. They also showed greater antitumor efficacy than EZH2 selective inhibitor in vitro and in vivo against diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells harboring gain-of-function mutation in EZH2. A hematological cancer panel assay indicated that EZH1/2 dual inhibitor has efficacy against some lymphomas, multiple myeloma, and leukemia with fusion genes such as MLL-AF9, MLL-AF4, and AML1-ETO. A solid cancer panel assay demonstrated that some cancer cell lines are sensitive to EZH1/2 dual inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. No clear correlation was detected between sensitivity to EZH1/2 dual inhibitor and SWI/SNF mutations, with a few exceptions. Severe toxicity was not seen in rats treated with EZH1/2 dual inhibitor for 14 days at drug levels higher than those used in the antitumor study. Our results indicate the possibility of EZH1/2 dual inhibitors for clinical applications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. Identification of human flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) inhibitors using a machine learning based consensus virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Amit Laxmikant; Chandra, Sharat; Singh, Deependra Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Banerjee, Dibyendu

    2017-07-25

    Human Flap endonuclease1 (FEN1) is an enzyme that is indispensable for DNA replication and repair processes and inhibition of its Flap cleavage activity results in increased cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging agents (cisplatin, temozolomide, MMS, etc.), with the potential to improve cancer prognosis. Reports of the high expression levels of FEN1 in several cancer cells support the idea that FEN1 inhibitors may target cancer cells with minimum side effects to normal cells. In this study, we used large publicly available, high-throughput screening data of small molecule compounds targeted against FEN1. Two machine learning algorithms, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF), were utilized to generate four classification models from huge PubChem bioassay data containing probable FEN1 inhibitors and non-inhibitors. We also investigated the influence of randomly selected Zinc-database compounds as negative data on the outcome of classification modelling. The results show that the SVM model with inactive compounds was superior to RF with Matthews's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.67 for the test set. A Maybridge database containing approximately 53 000 compounds was screened and top ranking 5 compounds were selected for enzyme and cell-based in vitro screening. The compound JFD00950 was identified as a novel FEN1 inhibitor with in vitro inhibition of flap cleavage activity as well as cytotoxic activity against a colon cancer cell line, DLD-1.

  13. HIV-1 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanangamudi, Murugesan; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Design of inhibitors for HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition (HIV-1 RT) is one of the successful chemotherapies for the treatment of HIV infection. Among the inhibitors available for HIV-1 RT, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have shown to be very promising......: The conformation dependent-alignment based (CoMFA and CoMSIA) methods have been proven very successful ligand based strategy in the drug design. Here, CoMFA and CoMSIA studies reported for structurally distinct NNRTIs including thiazolobenzimidazole, dipyridodiazepinone, 1,1,3-trioxo [1,2,4]-thiadiazine...

  14. Andrographolide inhibits hypoxia-induced hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and endothelin 1 expression through the heme oxygenase 1/CO/cGMP/MKP-5 pathways in EA.hy926 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Chih; Su, Shih-Li; Lin, Wan-Chun; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Yang, Ya-Chen; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Haw-Wen

    2018-03-01

    Andrographolide is a potent anti-inflammatory agent found in Andrographis paniculata. Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor with pro-inflammatory properties secreted in response to hypoxia. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 5 (MKP-5) is a dual-specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates threonine and tyrosine residues of MAPKs. We showed previously that hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression and ET-1 secretion are dependent on p38 MAPK in EA.hy926 cells. Here, we investigate what role MKP-5 plays in andrographolide's inhibition of hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α and ET-1. Hypoxic conditions were created using the hypoxia-mimetic agent CoCl 2 . Andrographolide enhanced HO-1 and MKP-5 expression and cellular cGMP content in addition to inhibiting hypoxia-induced ROS generation. Concomitantly, the HO-1 byproduct CO and the cGMP analogue 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) increased MKP-5 expression, and pretreatment with CO and 8-Br-cGMP inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and ET-1 expression. Transfection of HO-1 siRNA or pretreatment with the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP-9 or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a specific inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, reduced andrographolide-induced MKP-5 expression. Moreover, silencing MKP-5 or treatment with the phosphatase inhibitor vanadate abrogated andrographolide's suppressing hypoxia-induced p38 MAPK activation and HIF-1α expression. The inhibition of hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and ET-1 expression by andrographolide is likely associated with HO-1/CO/cGMP/MKP-5 pathways, which is involved in inhibiting hypoxia-induced p38 MAPK activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors for Immuno-oncology: From Antibodies to Small Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qiaohong; Jiao, Peifu; Jin, Peng; Su, Gaoxing; Dong, Jinlong; Yan, Bing

    2018-02-12

    The recent regulatory approvals of immune checkpoint protein inhibitors, such as ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab ushered a new era in cancer therapy. These inhibitors do not attack tumor cells directly but instead mobilize the immune system to re-recognize and eradicate tumors, which endows them with unique advantages including durable clinical responses and substantial clinical benefits. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, a pillar of immune checkpoint protein inhibitors, have demonstrated unprecedented clinical efficacy in more than 20 cancer types. Besides monoclonal antibodies, diverse PD- 1/PD-L1 inhibiting candidates, such as peptides, small molecules have formed a powerful collection of weapons to fight cancer. The goal of this review is to summarize and discuss the current PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors including candidates under clinical development, their molecular interactions with PD-1 or PD-L1, the disclosed structureactivity relationships of peptides and small molecules as inhibitors. Current PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors under clinical development are exclusively dominated by antibodies. The molecular interactions of therapeutic antibodies with PD-1 or PD-L1 have been gradually elucidated for the design of novel inhibitors. Various peptides and traditional small molecules have been investigated in preclinical model to discover novel PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Peptides and small molecules may play an important role in immuno-oncology because they may bind to multiple immune checkpoint proteins via rational design, opening opportunity for a new generation of novel PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Anagrelide represses GATA-1 and FOG-1 expression without interfering with thrombopoietin receptor signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, M; Donovan, H; Singh, N; Butcher, L; Erusalimsky, J D

    2010-10-01

     Anagrelide is a selective inhibitor of megakaryocytopoiesis used to treat thrombocytosis in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders. The effectiveness of anagrelide in lowering platelet counts is firmly established, but its primary mechanism of action remains elusive.  Here, we have evaluated whether anagrelide interferes with the major signal transduction cascades stimulated by thrombopoietin in the hematopoietic cell line UT-7/mpl and in cultured CD34(+) -derived human hematopoietic cells. In addition, we have used quantitative mRNA expression analysis to assess whether the drug affects the levels of known transcription factors that control megakaryocytopoiesis.  In UT-7/mpl cells, anagrelide (1μm) did not interfere with MPL-mediated signaling as monitored by its lack of effect on JAK2 phosphorylation. Similarly, the drug did not affect the phosphorylation of STAT3, ERK1/2 or AKT in either UT-7/mpl cells or primary hematopoietic cells. In contrast, during thrombopoietin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation of normal hematopoietic cultures, anagrelide (0.3μm) reduced the rise in the mRNA levels of the transcription factors GATA-1 and FOG-1 as well as those of the downstream genes encoding FLI-1, NF-E2, glycoprotein IIb and MPL. However, the drug showed no effect on GATA-2 or RUNX-1 mRNA expression. Furthermore, anagrelide did not diminish the rise in GATA-1 and FOG-1 expression during erythropoietin-stimulated erythroid differentiation. Cilostamide, an exclusive and equipotent phosphodiesterase III (PDEIII) inhibitor, did not alter the expression of these genes.  Anagrelide suppresses megakaryocytopoiesis by reducing the expression levels of GATA-1 and FOG-1 via a PDEIII-independent mechanism that is differentiation context-specific and does not involve inhibition of MPL-mediated early signal transduction events. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  17. High Incidence of ACE/PAI-1 in Association to a Spectrum of Other Polymorphic Cardiovascular Genes Involving PBMCs Proinflammatory Cytokines in Hypertensive Hypercholesterolemic Patients: Reversibility with a Combination of ACE Inhibitor and Statin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBacha, Jeanne d'Arc; Khoury, Mira; Mouawad, Charbel; Haddad, Katia; Hamoui, Samar; Azar, Albert; Fajloun, Ziad; Makdissy, Nehman

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are significantly high in the Lebanese population with the two most predominant forms being atherosclerosis and venous thrombosis. The purpose of our study was to assess the association of a spectrum of CVD related genes and combined state of hypertension hypercholesterolemia (HH) in unrelated Lebanese. Twelve polymorphisms were studied by multiplex PCR and reverse hybridization of DNA from 171 healthy individuals and 144 HH subjects. Two genes were significantly associated with HH: ACE (OR: 9.20, PACE activity and PAI-I increased significantly with Del/Del and 4G/5G genotypes. The co-expression of Del/4G(+/+) was detected in 113 out of 171 (66.0%) controls and 125 out of 144 (86.8%) HH subjects. Del/4G(-/-) was detected in only 6 (3.5%) controls and undetected in the HH group. Three venous thrombosis related genes [FV(Leiden), MTHFR(A1298C) and FXIII(V34L)] were significantly related to the prominence of the co-expression of Del/4G(+/+). A range of 2 to 8 combined polymorphisms co-expressed per subject where 5 mutations were the most detected. In Del/4G(+/+) subjects, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced significant elevated levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α contrary to IL-10, and no variations occurred for IL-4. ACE inhibitor (ramipril) in combination with statin (atorvastatin) and not alone reversed significantly the situation. This first report from Lebanon sheds light on an additional genetic predisposition of a complex spectrum of genes involved in CVD and suggests that the most requested gene FVL by physicians may not be sufficient to diagnose eventual future problems that can occur in the cardiovascular system. Subjects expressing the double mutations (Del/4G) are at high risk for the onset of CVDs.

  18. TGFb signalling inhibits DLK1 expression during chondrogenesis in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Saamanen, Anna-Marja

    2011-01-01

    the effect of a number of signalling molecules on DLK1 expression during in vitro chondrogenic differentiation in mouse embryonic limb bud mesenchymal micromass cultures and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) pellet cultures. Dlk1 was initially expressed during mesenchymal condensation and chondrocyte...... proliferation, in parallel with expression of Sox9 and Col2a1, and was down-regulated upon expression of Col10a1 by hypertrophic chondrocytes. Among a number of molecules that affected chondrogenesis, TGF-b signalling regulated Dlk1expression. TGF-b1-induced chondrogenesis was associated with decreased Dlk1...... expression and these effects were abolished by the TGF-b signalling inhibitor SB4311542 suggesting an involvement of DLK1/FA1 in mediating the function of TGF-b1 signalling in chondrogenesis. In support of this hypothesis, we found that TGF-b1 enhanced chondrocyte differentiation in dlk1-/- MEF compared...

  19. Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 Expression by Engineered TALE Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Pedro; Gaj, Thomas; Santa-Marta, Mariana; Barbas, Carlos F; Goncalves, Joao

    2016-01-01

    The presence of replication-competent HIV-1 -which resides mainly in resting CD4+ T cells--is a major hurdle to its eradication. While pharmacological approaches have been useful for inducing the expression of this latent population of virus, they have been unable to purge HIV-1 from all its reservoirs. Additionally, many of these strategies have been associated with adverse effects, underscoring the need for alternative approaches capable of reactivating viral expression. Here we show that engineered transcriptional modulators based on customizable transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins can induce gene expression from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter, and that combinations of TALE transcription factors can synergistically reactivate latent viral expression in cell line models of HIV-1 latency. We further show that complementing TALE transcription factors with Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances HIV-1 expression in latency models. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TALE transcription factors are a potentially effective alternative to current pharmacological routes for reactivating latent virus and that combining synthetic transcriptional activators with histone deacetylase inhibitors could lead to the development of improved therapies for latent HIV-1 infection.

  20. Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 Expression by Engineered TALE Transcription Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Perdigão

    Full Text Available The presence of replication-competent HIV-1 -which resides mainly in resting CD4+ T cells--is a major hurdle to its eradication. While pharmacological approaches have been useful for inducing the expression of this latent population of virus, they have been unable to purge HIV-1 from all its reservoirs. Additionally, many of these strategies have been associated with adverse effects, underscoring the need for alternative approaches capable of reactivating viral expression. Here we show that engineered transcriptional modulators based on customizable transcription activator-like effector (TALE proteins can induce gene expression from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter, and that combinations of TALE transcription factors can synergistically reactivate latent viral expression in cell line models of HIV-1 latency. We further show that complementing TALE transcription factors with Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances HIV-1 expression in latency models. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TALE transcription factors are a potentially effective alternative to current pharmacological routes for reactivating latent virus and that combining synthetic transcriptional activators with histone deacetylase inhibitors could lead to the development of improved therapies for latent HIV-1 infection.

  1. DPP4 inhibitors promote biological functions of human endothelial progenitor cells by targeting the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 inhibitors(oral hypoglycemic agentshave beneficial effects during the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the role of DPP4inhibitorsonthe biological functions of cultured human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. After treating EPCs with the DPP4 inhibitors sitagliptin and vildagliptin, we examined the mRNA expression of DPP4, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF,VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2,endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, caspase-3,stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, chemokine (C-X-C motif receptor 4 (CXCR4 were measured by RT-PCR. The protein expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 was determined by Western blot; cell proliferation was tested by the MTT method, and DPP4 activity was determined by a DPP4 assay. Our results revealed that DPP4 expression and activity were inhibited following the treatment with various doses of DPP4 inhibitors. Cell proliferation and the expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2andeNOS were up regulated, while cell apoptosis was inhibited by DPP4 inhibitors in a dose-dependent manner. DPP4 inhibitors activated the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway, shown by the elevated expression of SDF-1/CXCR4. This further proved that after the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway was blocked by its inhibitor ADM3100, the effects of DPP4 inhibitors on the proliferation and apoptosis, and the expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2and eNOS of EPCs were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that DPP4 inhibitors promote the biological functions of human EPCs by up regulating the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway.

  2. Drug Discovery of Host CLK1 Inhibitors for Influenza Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of influenza virus makes antiviral drugs less effective, which is considered to be a major bottleneck in antiviral therapy. The key proteins in the host cells, which are related with the replication cycle of influenza virus, are regarded as potential drug targets due to their distinct advantage of lack of evolution and drug resistance. Cdc2-like kinase 1 (CLK1 in the host cells is responsible for alternative splicing of the M2 gene of influenza virus during influenza infection and replication. In this study, we carried out baculovirus-mediated expression and purification of CLK1 and established a reliable screening assay for CLK1 inhibitors. After a virtual screening of CLK1 inhibitors was performed, the activities of the selected compounds were evaluated. Finally, several compounds with strong inhibitory activity against CLK1 were discovered and their in vitro anti-influenza virus activities were validated using a cytopathic effect (CPE reduction assay. The assay results showed that clypearin, corilagin, and pinosylvine were the most potential anti-influenza virus compounds as CLK1 inhibitors among the compounds tested. These findings will provide important information for new drug design and development in influenza treatment, and CLK1 may be a potent drug target for anti-influenza drug screening and discovery.

  3. IDH1/2 Mutations Sensitize Acute Myeloid Leukemia to PARP Inhibition and This Is Reversed by IDH1/2-Mutant Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Remco J; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Nagata, Yasunobu; Khurshed, Mohammed; Przychodzen, Bartolomiej; Makishima, Hideki; Xu, Mingjiang; Bleeker, Fonnet E; Wilmink, Johanna W; Carraway, Hetty E; Mukherjee, Sudipto; Sekeres, Mikkael A; van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P

    2018-04-01

    Purpose: Somatic mutations in IDH1/2 occur in approximately 20% of patients with myeloid neoplasms, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). IDH1/2 MUT enzymes produce D -2-hydroxyglutarate ( D 2HG), which associates with increased DNA damage and improved responses to chemo/radiotherapy and PARP inhibitors in solid tumor cells. Whether this also holds true for IDH1/2 MUT AML is not known. Experimental Design: Well-characterized primary IDH1 MUT , IDH2 MUT , and IDH1/2 WT AML cells were analyzed for DNA damage and responses to daunorubicin, ionizing radiation, and PARP inhibitors. Results: IDH1/2 MUT caused increased DNA damage and sensitization to daunorubicin, irradiation, and the PARP inhibitors olaparib and talazoparib in AML cells. IDH1/2 MUT inhibitors protected against these treatments. Combined treatment with a PARP inhibitor and daunorubicin had an additive effect on the killing of IDH1/2 MUT AML cells. We provide evidence that the therapy sensitivity of IDH1/2 MUT cells was caused by D 2HG-mediated downregulation of expression of the DNA damage response gene ATM and not by altered redox responses due to metabolic alterations in IDH1/2 MUT cells. Conclusions: IDH1/2 MUT AML cells are sensitive to PARP inhibitors as monotherapy but especially when combined with a DNA-damaging agent, such as daunorubicin, whereas concomitant administration of IDH1/2 MUT inhibitors during cytotoxic therapy decrease the efficacy of both agents in IDH1/2 MUT AML. These results advocate in favor of clinical trials of PARP inhibitors either or not in combination with daunorubicin in IDH1/2 MUT AML. Clin Cancer Res; 24(7); 1705-15. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Benjamin J. [Department of Molecular and Systems Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Rojas, Itzel Y. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Murray, Iain A. [Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lee, Seokwon; Hazlett, Haley F. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Perdew, Gary H. [Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Tomlinson, Craig R., E-mail: Craig.R.Tomlinson@Dartmouth.edu [Department of Molecular and Systems Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) plays a key role in the immune system by regulating tryptophan levels and T cell differentiation. Several tumor types overexpress IDO1 to avoid immune surveillance making IDO1 of interest as a target for therapeutic intervention. As a result, several IDO1 inhibitors are currently being tested in clinical trials for cancer treatment as well as several other diseases. Many of the IDO1 inhibitors in clinical trials naturally bear structural similarities to the IDO1 substrate tryptophan, as such, they fulfill many of the structural and functional criteria as potential AHR ligands. Using mouse and human cell-based luciferase gene reporter assays, qPCR confirmation experiments, and CYP1A1 enzyme activity assays, we report that some of the promising clinical IDO1 inhibitors also act as agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), best known for its roles in xenobiotic metabolism and as another key regulator of the immune response. The dual role as IDO antagonist and AHR agonist for many of these IDO target drugs should be considered for full interrogation of their biological mechanisms and clinical outcomes. - Highlights: • Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors are in cancer clinical trials. • Some IDO1 inhibitors also potently activate AHR signaling. • The dual role of the IDO1 inhibitors may explain some past paradoxical findings. • AHR induction studies must be included in assessing clinical suitability.

  5. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, Benjamin J.; Rojas, Itzel Y.; Murray, Iain A.; Lee, Seokwon; Hazlett, Haley F.; Perdew, Gary H.; Tomlinson, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) plays a key role in the immune system by regulating tryptophan levels and T cell differentiation. Several tumor types overexpress IDO1 to avoid immune surveillance making IDO1 of interest as a target for therapeutic intervention. As a result, several IDO1 inhibitors are currently being tested in clinical trials for cancer treatment as well as several other diseases. Many of the IDO1 inhibitors in clinical trials naturally bear structural similarities to the IDO1 substrate tryptophan, as such, they fulfill many of the structural and functional criteria as potential AHR ligands. Using mouse and human cell-based luciferase gene reporter assays, qPCR confirmation experiments, and CYP1A1 enzyme activity assays, we report that some of the promising clinical IDO1 inhibitors also act as agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), best known for its roles in xenobiotic metabolism and as another key regulator of the immune response. The dual role as IDO antagonist and AHR agonist for many of these IDO target drugs should be considered for full interrogation of their biological mechanisms and clinical outcomes. - Highlights: • Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors are in cancer clinical trials. • Some IDO1 inhibitors also potently activate AHR signaling. • The dual role of the IDO1 inhibitors may explain some past paradoxical findings. • AHR induction studies must be included in assessing clinical suitability.

  6. Sensitization of multidrug-resistant human cancer cells to Hsp90 inhibitors by down-regulation of SIRT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Bong; Lee, Su-Hoon; Um, Jee-Hyun; Oh, Won Keun; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kang, Chi-Dug; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Hsp90 inhibitors as anticancer agents was limited in multidrug-resistant (MDR) human cancer cells due to induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) such as Hsp70/Hsp27 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux. In the present study, we showed that resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors of MDR human cancer cells could be overcome with SIRT1 inhibition. SIRT1 knock-down or SIRT1 inhibitors (amurensin G and EX527) effectively suppressed the resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors (17-AAG and AUY922) in several MDR variants of human lymphoblastic leukemia and human breast cancer cell lines. SIRT1 inhibition down-regulated the expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and subsequently Hsps and facilitated Hsp90 multichaperone complex disruption via hyperacetylation of Hsp90/Hsp70. These findings were followed by acceleration of ubiquitin ligase CHIP-mediated mutant p53 (mut p53) degradation and subsequent down-regulation of P-gp in 17-AAG-treated MDR cancer cells expressing P-gp and mut p53 after inhibition of SIRT1. Therefore, combined treatment with Hsp90 inhibitor and SIRT1 inhibitor could be a more effective therapeutic approach for Hsp90 inhibitor-resistant MDR cells via down-regulation of HSF1/Hsps, mut p53 and P-gp. PMID:26416354

  7. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with coronary artery disease risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huifeng; Dong, Pingshuan; Yang, Xuming; Liu, Zhenghao

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk using a meta-analysis. All eligible studies were identified through a search of PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Database of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals, and China Biology Medical literature database (CBM) before June 2014. The association between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and CAD risk was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 72 studies including 23557 cases and 21526 controls were eventually collected. The PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was significant associated with CAD risk in overall population (OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.28, P 5G polymorphism was a risk factor for CAD.

  8. Checkpoint Inhibition: Programmed Cell Death 1 and Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand Inhibitors in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasboas, Jose Caetano; Ansell, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by a reactive immune infiltrate surrounding relatively few malignant cells. In this scenario, active immune evasion seems to play a central role in allowing tumor progression. Immune checkpoint inhibitor pathways are normal mechanisms of T-cell regulation that suppress immune effector function following an antigenic challenge. Hodgkin lymphoma cells are able to escape immune surveillance by co-opting these mechanisms. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway in particular is exploited in HL as the malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells express on their surface cognate ligands (PD-L1/L2) for the PD-1 receptor and thereby dampen the T-cell-mediated antitumoral response. Monoclonal antibodies that interact with and disrupt the PD-1:PD-L1/L2 axis have now been developed and tested in early-phase clinical trials in patients with advanced HL with encouraging results. The remarkable clinical activity of PD-1 inhibitors in HL highlights the importance of immune checkpoint pathways as therapeutic targets in HL. In this review, we discuss the rationale for targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 in the treatment of HL. We will evaluate the published clinical data on the different agents and highlight the safety profile of this class of agents. We discuss the available evidence on the use of biomarkers as predictors of response to checkpoint blockade and summarize the areas under active investigation in the use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for the treatment of HL.

  9. Seed-specific stable expression of the alpha-AI1 inhibitor in coffee grains and the in vivo implications for the development of the coffee berry borer

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, E. V. S.; Bezerra, C. A.; Romero, J. V.; Valencia, J. W. A.; Valencia-Jimenez, A.; Pimenta, L. M.; Barbosa, Aead; Silva, M. C. M.; Meneguim, A. M.; Sa, M. E. L.; Engler, G.; de Almeida-Engler, J.; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-Sa, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of coffee (Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alpha-AI1) gene. The alpha-AI1 inhi...

  10. Dietary Lecithin Decreases Skeletal Muscle COL1A1 and COL3A1 Gene Expression in Finisher Gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Akit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin on skeletal muscle gene expression of collagen precursors and enzymes involved in collagen synthesis and degradation. Finisher gilts with an average start weight of 55.9 ± 2.22 kg were fed diets containing either 0, 4, 20 or 80 g/kg soybean lecithin prior to harvest for six weeks and the rectus abdominis muscle gene expression profile was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Lecithin treatment down-regulated Type I (α1 procollagen (COL1A1 and Type III (α1 procollagen (COL3A1 mRNA expression ( p < 0.05, respectively, indicating a decrease in the precursors for collagen synthesis. The α-subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H mRNA expression also tended to be down-regulated ( p = 0.056, indicating a decrease in collagen synthesis. Decreased matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 mRNA expression may reflect a positive regulatory response to the reduced collagen synthesis in muscle from the pigs fed lecithin ( p = 0.035. Lecithin had no effect on tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13 and lysyl oxidase mRNA expression. In conclusion, lecithin down-regulated COL1A1 and COL3A1 as well as tended to down-regulate α-subunit P4H expression. However, determination of muscle collagen content and solubility are required to support the gene functions.

  11. Development of a novel non-radioactive cell-based method for the screening of SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitors using 1-NBDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Chi; Yang, Su-Fu; Huang, Ching-Chun; Lin, Tzung-Sheng; Liang, Pi-Hui; Lin, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Lih-Ching

    2013-08-01

    Sodium-coupled glucose co-transporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 play important roles in intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption of glucose, respectively. Blocking SGLT2 is a novel mechanism for lowering the blood glucose level by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and selective SGLT2 inhibitors are under development for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, it has been reported that perturbation of SGLT1 is associated with cardiomyopathy and cancer. Therefore, both SGLT1 and SGLT2 are potential therapeutic targets. Here we report the development of a non-radioactive cell-based method for the screening of SGLT inhibitors using COS-7 cells transiently expressing human SGLT1 (hSGLT1), CHO-K1 cells stably expressing human SGLT2 (hSGLT2), and a novel fluorescent d-glucose analogue 1-NBDG as a substrate. Our data indicate that 1-NBDG can be a good replacement for the currently used isotope-labeled SGLT substrate, (14)C-AMG. The Michaelis constant of 1-NBDG transport (0.55 mM) is similar to that of d-glucose (0.51 mM) and AMG (0.40 mM) transport through hSGLT1. The IC50 values of a SGLT inhibitor phlorizin for hSGLT1 obtained using 1-NBDG and (14)C-AMG were identical (0.11 μM) in our cell-based system. The IC50 values of dapagliflozin, a well-known selective SGLT2 inhibitor, for hSGLT2 and hSGLT1 determined using 1-NBDG were 1.86 nM and 880 nM, respectively, which are comparable to the published results obtained using (14)C-AMG. Compared to (14)C-AMG, the use of 1-NBDG is cost-effective, convenient and potentially more sensitive. Taken together, a non-radioactive system using 1-NBDG has been validated as a rapid and reliable method for the screening of SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitors.

  12. Irradiation-induced regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in six human squamous cell carcinoma lines of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artman, Meri Tuuli

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is frequently used to treat squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), although, it can be unsuccessful due to radiation resistance of the tumor. Currently, there are no established predictive markers for radiation resistance in SCCHN. The aim of this work was to investigate PAI-1 and VEGF secretion as markers for radiation resistance in six human SCCHN cell lines. The cell lines differed in their basal secretion levels and in their in vitro radiation sensitivity. PAI-1 and VEGF levels increased after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. A significant correlation was detected between radiation-induced PAI-1 and VEGF secretion, which suggests that irradiation-induced secretion of PAI-1 and VEGF are partially regulated by related mechanisms. However, neither basal levels nor radiation-induced PAI-1 and VEGF secretion correlated with radiation resistance. Therefore, PAI-1 and VEGF are most likely not predictive markers for radiation resistance in SCCHN.

  13. Tea Contains Potent Inhibitors of Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Junfeng; Li, Zhe; Xing, Shu; Ho, Wanting Tina; Fu, Xueqi; Zhao, Zhizhuang Joe

    2011-01-01

    Tea is widely consumed all over the world. Studies have demonstrated the role of tea in prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases including diabetes and obesity, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. PTP1B is a widely expressed tyrosine phosphatase which has been defined as a target for therapeutic drug development to treat diabetes and obesity. In screening for inhibitors of PTP1B, we found that aqueous extracts of teas exhibited potent PTP1B inhibitory effects with an IC50 val...

  14. Inhibitors of nuclease and redox activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laev, Sergey S; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F; Lavrik, Olga I

    2017-05-01

    Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein which is essential in the base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions caused by oxidation and alkylation. This protein hydrolyzes DNA adjacent to the 5'-end of an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site to produce a nick with a 3'-hydroxyl group and a 5'-deoxyribose phosphate moiety or activates the DNA-binding activity of certain transcription factors through its redox function. Studies have indicated a role for APE1/Ref-1 in the pathogenesis of cancer and in resistance to DNA-interactive drugs. Thus, this protein has potential as a target in cancer treatment. As a result, major efforts have been directed to identify small molecule inhibitors against APE1/Ref-1 activities. These agents have the potential to become anticancer drugs. The aim of this review is to present recent progress in studies of all published small molecule APE1/Ref-1 inhibitors. The structures and activities of APE1/Ref-1 inhibitors, that target both DNA repair and redox activities, are presented and discussed. To date, there is an urgent need for further development of the design and synthesis of APE1/Ref-1 inhibitors due to high importance of this protein target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Postnatal changes of gene expression for tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 and cystatins S and C, in rat submandibular gland demonstrated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, T; Abe, K

    1999-01-01

    The rat submandibular gland is not fully developed at birth and definitive differentiation takes place postnatally. The steady-state mRNA expression for the four proteinase inhibitor molecules, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2, and cystatins S and C, and for a housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), in rat submandibular glands was measured by quantitative competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at different stages of postnatal development. The gene-expression patterns of TIMP-1 and -2 relative to G3PDH were similar to each other. The TIMP-2 and cystatin C genes were more highly expressed than those of TIMP-1 and cystatin S at all stages. Moreover, the gene expressions of TIMP-1 and -2, and of cystatins S and C, were predominant between 1 and 7, and 7 and 12 weeks of age, respectively, and coincided developmentally with the regression of terminal tubule cells and the differentiation of granular convoluted tubule cells, respectively. Quantitative competitive RT-PCR allowed accurate measurement of small changes in the steady-state concentrations of these proteinase-inhibitor mRNA molecules.

  16. Beyond gastric acid reduction: Proton pump inhibitors induce heme oxygenase-1 in gastric and endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Jan C.; Grosser, Nina; Waltke, Christian; Schulz, Stephanie; Erdmann, Kati; Domschke, Wolfram; Schroeder, Henning; Pohle, Thorsten

    2006-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been demonstrated to prevent gastric mucosal injury by mechanisms independent of acid inhibition. Here we demonstrate that both omeprazole and lansoprazole protect human gastric epithelial and endothelial cells against oxidative stress. This effect was abrogated in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnBG. Exposure to either PPI resulted in a strong induction of HO-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, and led to an increased activity of this enzyme. Expression of cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 remained unaffected, and COX-inhibitors did not antagonize HO-1 induction by PPIs. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense protein HO-1 is a target of PPIs in both endothelial and gastric epithelial cells. HO-1 induction might account for the gastroprotective effects of PPIs independently of acid inhibition, especially in NSAID gastropathy. Moreover, our findings provide additional perspectives for a possible but yet unexplored use of PPIs in vasoprotection

  17. Beyond gastric acid reduction: Proton pump inhibitors induce heme oxygenase-1 in gastric and endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Jan C [Department of Medicine B, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Grosser, Nina [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Waltke, Christian [Department of Medicine B, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Schulz, Stephanie [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Erdmann, Kati [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Domschke, Wolfram [Department of Medicine B, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Schroeder, Henning [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Pohle, Thorsten [Department of Medicine B, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2006-07-07

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been demonstrated to prevent gastric mucosal injury by mechanisms independent of acid inhibition. Here we demonstrate that both omeprazole and lansoprazole protect human gastric epithelial and endothelial cells against oxidative stress. This effect was abrogated in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnBG. Exposure to either PPI resulted in a strong induction of HO-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, and led to an increased activity of this enzyme. Expression of cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 remained unaffected, and COX-inhibitors did not antagonize HO-1 induction by PPIs. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense protein HO-1 is a target of PPIs in both endothelial and gastric epithelial cells. HO-1 induction might account for the gastroprotective effects of PPIs independently of acid inhibition, especially in NSAID gastropathy. Moreover, our findings provide additional perspectives for a possible but yet unexplored use of PPIs in vasoprotection.

  18. Egr-1 Upregulates Siva-1 Expression and Induces Cardiac Fibroblast Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Zins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The early growth response transcription factor Egr-1 controls cell specific responses to proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Expression of Egr-1 and downstream transcription is closely controlled and cell specific upregulation induced by processes such as hypoxia and ischemia has been previously linked to multiple aspects of cardiovascular injury. In this study, we showed constitutive expression of Egr-1 in cultured human ventricular cardiac fibroblasts, used adenoviral mediated gene transfer to study the effects of continuous Egr-1 overexpression and studied downstream transcription by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and siRNA transfection. Apoptosis was assessed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry in the presence of caspase inhibitors. Overexpression of Egr-1 directly induced apoptosis associated with caspase activation in human cardiac fibroblast cultures in vitro assessed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Apoptotic induction was associated with a caspase activation associated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and transient downstream transcriptional up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic gene product Siva-1. Suppression of Siva-1 induction by siRNA partially reversed Egr-1 mediated loss of cell viability. These findings suggest a previously unknown role for Egr-1 and transcriptional regulation of Siva-1 in the control of cardiac accessory cell death.

  19. Effects and Mechanisms of Checkpoint Inhibitors (CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1 Inhibitors as New Immunotherapeutic Agents for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Çelik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG began to be used for bladder cancer, our understanding of the importance of immune mechanisms in bladder cancer has steadily grown. With developments in immunotherapy in recent years, the use of new immunotherapeutic agents for bladder cancer, especially chemotherapy-resistant invasive and metastatic cancers, has opened the way for research in this area. Of these new therapeutic agents, this article reviews studies published on PubMed or listed on the ClinicalTrials.gov website as of December 2017 regarding the effects and mechanisms of action of checkpoint inhibitors [cytotoxic t-lymphocyte associated protein-4, programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1 and PD-1 ligand inhibitors] on bladder cancer. Because checkpoint inhibitors were first used for chemotherapy-resistant bladder cancer after identification of positive expression in tumor cells and especially in tumor-infiltrating mononuclear cells, significant objective response rates and survival advantages have been reported. Research continues regarding the use of these agents as first- and second-line treatment for metastatic disease in combination with chemotherapy; their efficacy in neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and bladder-preserving approaches to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC disease, and their use in non-muscle-invasize bladder cancer (NMIBC, especially BCG-refractory disease. Depending on the results of these ongoing studies, immunotherapy may direct the treatment of bladder cancer in the future.

  20. Porcine Knock-in Fibroblasts Expressing hDAF on α-1,3-Galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) Gene Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Woo; Kim, Hye-Min; Lee, Sang Mi; Kang, Man-Jong

    2012-10-01

    The Galactose-α1,3-galactose (α1,3Gal) epitope is responsible for hyperacute rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF) is a cell surface regulatory protein that serves as a complement inhibitor to protect self cells from complement attack. The generation of α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) knock-out pigs expressing DAF is a necessary step for their use as organ donors for humans. In this study, we established GGTA1 knock-out cell lines expressing DAF from pig ear fibroblasts for somatic cell nuclear transfer. hDAF expression was detected in hDAF knock-in heterozygous cells, but not in normal pig cells. Expression of the GGTA1 gene was lower in the knock-in heterozygous cell line compared to the normal pig cell. Knock-in heterozygous cells afforded more effective protection against cytotoxicity with human serum than with GGTA1 knock-out heterozygous and control cells. These cell lines may be used in the production of GGTA1 knock-out and DAF expression pigs for xenotransplantation.

  1. Lysosomal degradation of receptor-bound urokinase-type plasminogen activator is enhanced by its inhibitors in human trophoblastic choriocarcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Henning; Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Ebbesen, P.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitors PAI-1 and PAI-2 on the binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) to its receptor in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR. With 125I-labeled ligands in whole-cell binding assays, both uncomplexed u-PA and u......, with the highest density of grains over the membrane at cell-cell interphases, but, after incubation at 37 degrees C, 17 and 27% of the grains for u-PA and u-PA-PAI-1 complexes, respectively, appeared over lysosomal-like bodies. These findings suggest that the u-PA receptor possesses a clearance function......-PA-inhibitor complexes bound to the receptor with a Kd of approximately 100 pM at 4 degrees C. Transferring the cells to 37 degrees C led to degradation to amino acids of up to 50% of the cell-bound u-PA-inhibitor complexes, whereas the degradation of uncomplexed u-PA was 15%; the remaining ligand was recovered...

  2. A Mos1 transposase in vivo assay to screen new HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Mariana; Loreto, Elgion L S

    2018-04-01

    The integrase and transposase enzymes of retrovirus and transposons, respectively, share the catalytic DDE domain. In vitro assays showed that inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase generally inhibit the mariner Mos1 transposase. Using a Drosophila strain in which the mobilisation of the mariner element can be quantified by mosaic eyes, we showed that flies maintained in medium containing 210 µM to 4 mM of raltegravir, or 1 or 2 mM of dolutegravir, which are HIV-1 integrase inhibitor used in AIDS treatment, have 23-33% less somatic mobilisation in mosaic eyes when treated with raltegravir and 28-32% when treated with dolutegravir. The gene expression of the mariner transposase gene, estimated by qPCR, is similar among treated and control flies. The results suggest that in vivo assays using Drosophila can be used as a primary screening of inhibitory drugs for transposase and retroviral integrase. The advantages of this assay are that it is easy, quick, cheap and is an in vivo test, meaning that the tested substance has to have been taken in by cells and has arrived at the target site, which is not the case when in vitro assays are applied.

  3. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) inhibits macrophage apoptosis by stimulating STAT3 activity and survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerborn, Renata; Becker, Susen; Potì, Francesco; Nagel, Petra; Brodde, Martin; Schmidt, Harmut; Christoffersen, Christina; Ceglarek, Uta; Burkhardt, Ralph; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2017-02-01

    Macrophage apoptosis is critically involved in atherosclerosis. We here examined the effect of anti-atherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) and its component sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on apoptosis in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Mitochondrial or endoplasmic reticulum-dependent apoptosis was induced by exposure of macrophages to etoposide or thapsigargin/fukoidan, respectively. Cell death induced by these compounds was inhibited by S1P as inferred from reduced annexin V binding, TUNEL staining, and caspase 3, 9 and 12 activities. S1P induced expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family proteins cIAP1, cIAP2 and survivin, but only the inhibitor of survivin expression YM155 and not the cIAP1/2 blocker GDC0152 reversed the inhibitory effect of S1P on apoptosis. Moreover, S1P activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and the stimulatory effect of S1P on survivin expression and inhibitory effects on apoptosis were attenuated by STAT3 or JAK2 inhibitors, S3I-201 or AG490, respectively. The effects of S1P on STAT3 activation, survivin expression and macrophage apoptosis were emulated by HDL, HDL lipids, and apolipoprotein (apo) M-containing HDL, but not by apoA-I or HDL deprived of S1P or apoM. In addition, JTE013 and CAY10444, S1P receptor 2 and 3 antagonists, respectively, compromised the S1P and HDL capacities to stimulate STAT3 activation and survivin expression, and to inhibit apoptosis. HDL-associated S1P inhibits macrophage apoptosis by stimulating STAT3 activity and survivin expression. The suppression of macrophage apoptosis may represent a novel mechanism utilized by HDL to exert its anti-atherogenic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced cerebrovascular expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 via the MEK/ERK pathway during cerebral ischemia in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddahi, Aida; Chen, Qingwen; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    . Immunocytochemistry showed no overlap in expression between MMP-9/TIMP-1 and the astrocyte/glial cell marker GFAP in the vessel walls. CONCLUSION: These data are the first to show that the elevated vascular expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1, associated with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier following focal ischemia......BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia is usually characterized by a reduction in local blood flow and metabolism and by disruption of the blood-brain barrier in the infarct region. The formation of oedema and opening of the blood-brain barrier in stroke is associated with enhanced expression...... microscopy revealed enhanced expression of MMP-9, TIMP-1, and phosphorylated ERK1/2 in the smooth muscle cells of the ischemic MCA and associated intracerebral microvessels. The specific MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, given intraperitoneal zero or 6 hours after the ischemic event, reduced the infarct volume...

  5. Thrombophilic Genetic Factors PAI-1, MTHFRC677T, V Leiden 506Q, and Prothrombin 20210A in Noncirrhotic Portal Vein Thrombosis and Budd-Chiari Syndrome in a Caucasian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario D’Amico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombophilic genetic factors PAI-1, MTHFRC677T, V Leiden 506Q, and Prothrombin 20210A were studied as risk factors in 235 Caucasian subjects: 85 patients with abdominal thrombosis (54 with portal vein thrombosis (PVT and 31 with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS without liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and 150 blood bank donors. Seventy-five patients with PVT/BCS showed associated disease or particular clinical status (46 PVT/29 BCS: 37 myeloproliferative neoplasm (20 PVT/17 BCS, 12 abdominal surgery (10 PVT/2 BCS, 10 contraception or pregnancy (6 PVT/4 BCS, 7 abdominal acute disease (6 PVT/1 BCS, and 9 chronic disease (4 PVT/5 BCS; ten patients did not present any association (8 PVT/2 BCS. PAI-14G-4G, MTHFR677TT, and V Leiden 506Q were significantly frequent (OR 95% CI and χ2 test with P value in abdominal thrombosis; in these patients PAI-14G-4G and MTHFR677TT distributions deviated from that expected from a population in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (PAI-1: χ2=13.8, P<0.001; MTHFR677: χ2=7.1, P<0.01, whereas the equilibrium was respected in healthy controls. V Leiden Q506 and Prothrombin 20210A were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium both in patients with abdominal thrombosis and healthy controls. Our study shows an important role of PAI-14G-4G and MTHFR677TT in abdominal thrombosis without liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of a selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor via the stimulation of heme oxygenase-1 in LPS-activated mice and J774.1 murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Bum Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 converts inactive cortisone to the active cortisol. 11β-HSD1 may be involved in the resolution of inflammation. In the present study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of 2-(3-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated C57BL/6J mice and macrophages. LPS increased 11β-HSD1 activity and expression in macrophages, which was inhibited by KR-66344. In addition, KR-66344 increased survival rate in LPS treated C57BL/6J mice. HO-1 mRNA expression level was increased by KR-66344, and this effect was reversed by the HO competitive inhibitor, ZnPP, in macrophages. Moreover, ZnPP reversed the suppression of ROS formation and cell death induced by KR-66344. ZnPP also suppressed animal survival rate in LPS plus KR-66344 treated C57BL/6J mice. In the spleen of LPS-treated mice, KR-66344 prevented cell death via suppression of inflammation, followed by inhibition of ROS, iNOS and COX-2 expression. Furthermore, LPS increased NFκB-p65 and MAPK phosphorylation, and these effects were abolished by pretreatment with KR-66344. Taken together, KR-66344 protects against LPS-induced animal death and spleen injury by inhibition of inflammation via induction of HO-1 and inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity. Thus, we concluded that the selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor may provide a novel strategy in the prevention/treatment of inflammatory disorders in patients.

  7. Seed-Specific Stable Expression of the α-AI1 Inhibitor in Coffee Grains and the In Vivo Implications for the Development of the Coffee Berry Borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Érika V S; Bezerra, Caroline A; Romero, Juan V; Valencia, Jorge W A; Valencia-Jiménez, Arnubio; Pimenta, Lucas M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Silva, Maria C M; Meneguim, Ana M; Sá, Maria Eugênia L; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F

    Genetic transformation of coffee ( Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the α-amylase inhibitor-1 ( α-AI1 ) gene. The α-AI1 inhibitor shows considerable activity toward digestive enzymes of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei . This insect pest expends its life cycle almost entirely in coffee berries. Transgene containment in the fruit is important to meeting food and environmental safety requirements for releasing genetically modified (GM) crops. PCR analysis of T2 coffee plants showed a Mendelian single-copy segregation pattern. Ectopic transgene expression was only detected in coffee grains, as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR analysis of different plant tissues. An intense immunocytochemical signal associated with α-AI1 protein expression was localized to endospermic cells. In addition, a delay in the larval development of CBB was observed after challenging transgenic coffee seeds with the insect. These results indicate that the PHA-L promoter might be a useful tool in coffee for the seed-specific expression of genes related to coffee bean productivity, quality and pest protection. The biotechnological applicability of the α-AI1 gene for controlling CBB is also discussed. This work is the first report showing a seed-specific transgene expression in coffee plants.

  8. SF-1 (NR5A1) expression is stimulated by the PKA pathway and is essential for the PKA-induced activation of LIPE expression in Y-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcenty, K; Holysz, M; Trzeciak, W H

    2015-10-01

    In the adrenal cortex, corticotropin induces the expression of several genes encoding proteins involved in the synthesis and intracellular transport of steroid hormones via the protein kinase A (PKA) signalling pathway, and this process is mediated by steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). This study was designed to elucidate the influence of the PKA and PKC pathways on the expression of the SF-1 gene in mouse adrenocortical cells, line Y-1. It has also been attempted to answer the question whether or not SF-1 plays a role in the PKA-induced expression of LIPE gene encoding hormone-sensitive lipase/cholesteryl esterase, which supplies cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis. In this study, we found that stimulation of the PKA pathway caused a significant increase in SF-1 expression, and that this effect was abolished by the PKA inhibitor, H89. Decreased SF-1 gene transcript levels were seen with the simultaneous activation of PKA and PKC, suggesting a possible interaction between the PKA and PKC pathways. It was also observed that SF-1 increased the transcriptional activity of the LIPE gene by interacting with the SF-1 response element located in promoter A. Moreover, transient silencing of SF-1 expression with specific siRNAs abolished PKA-stimulated transcription of the LIPE gene, indicating that SF-1 is an important regulator of LIPE expression in Y-1 cells and thus could play a role in the regulation of the cholesterol supply for adrenal steroidogenesis.

  9. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pieters (Marlien); S.A. Barnard (Sunelle A.); D.T. Loots (Du Toit); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDue to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen

  10. Prognostic significance of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) gene expression in rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, Susumu; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Kohei; Uchida, Keiichi; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Kusunoki, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Most cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis. The elevated glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression has been reported to be associated with resistance to therapeutic agents and a poor prognosis. We wondered whether GLUT1 expression was associated with the clinical outcome in rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and whether glycolysis inhibition could represent a novel anticancer treatment. We obtained total RNA from residual cancer cells using microdissection from a total of 52 rectal cancer specimens from patients who underwent preoperative CRT. We performed transcriptional analyzes, and studied the association of the GLUT1 gene expression levels with the clinical outcomes. In addition, we examined each proliferative response of three selected colorectal cancer cell lines to a glycolysis inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvic acid (3-BrPA), with regard to their expression of the GLUT1 gene. An elevated GLUT1 gene expression was associated with a high postoperative stage, the presence of lymph node metastasis, and distant recurrence. Moreover, elevated GLUT1 gene expression independently predicted both the recurrence-free and overall survival. In the in vitro studies, we observed that 3-BrPA significantly suppressed the proliferation of colon cancer cells with high GLUT1 gene expression, compared with those with low expression. An elevated GLUT1 expression may be a useful predictor of distant recurrence and poor prognosis in rectal cancer patients after preoperative CRT. (author)

  11. CITED1 Expression in Liver Development and Hepatoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Murphy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoblastoma, the most common pediatric liver cancer, consists of epithelial mixed embryonal/fetal (EMEF and pure fetal histologic subtypes, with the latter exhibiting a more favorable prognosis. Few embryonal histology markers that yield insight into the biologic basis for this prognostic discrepancy exist. CBP/P-300 interacting transactivator 1 (CITED1, a transcriptional co-activator, is expressed in the self-renewing nephron progenitor population of the developing kidney and broadly in its malignant analog, Wilms tumor (WT. In this current study, CITED1 expression is detected in mouse embryonic liver initially on post-coitum day 10.5 (e10.5, begins to taper by e14.5, and is undetectable in e18.5 and adult livers. CITED1 expression is detected in regenerating murine hepatocytes following liver injury by partial hepatectomy and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine. Importantly, while CITED1 is undetectable in normal human adult livers, 36 of 41 (87.8% hepatoblastoma specimens express CITED1, where it is enriched in EMEF specimens compared to specimens of pure fetal histology. CITED1 overexpression in Hep293TT human hepatoblastoma cells induces cellular proliferation and upregulates the Wnt inhibitors Kringle containing transmembrane protein 1 (KREMEN1 and CXXC finger protein 4 (CXXC4. CITED1 mRNA expression correlates with expression of CXXC4 and KREMEN1 in clinical hepatoblastoma specimens. These data show that CITED1 is expressed during a defined time course of liver development and is no longer expressed in the adult liver but is upregulated in regenerating hepatocytes following liver injury. Moreover, as in WT, this embryonic marker is reexpressed in hepatoblastoma and correlates with embryonal histology. These findings identify CITED1 as a novel marker of hepatic progenitor cells that is re-expressed following liver injury and in embryonic liver tumors.

  12. Areca nut components affect COX-2, cyclin B1/cdc25C and keratin expression, PGE2 production in keratinocyte is related to reactive oxygen species, CYP1A1, Src, EGFR and Ras signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Chewing of betel quid (BQ increases the risk of oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF, possibly by BQ-induced toxicity and induction of inflammatory response in oral mucosa.Primary gingival keratinocytes (GK cells were exposed to areca nut (AN components with/without inhibitors. Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl- thiazol- 2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. mRNA and protein expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blotting. PGE2/PGF2α production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.Areca nut extract (ANE stimulated PGE2/PGF2α production, and upregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1 and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1, but inhibited expression of keratin 5/14, cyclinB1 and cdc25C in GK cells. ANE also activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, Src and Ras signaling pathways. ANE-induced COX-2, keratin 5, keratin 14 and cdc25C expression as well as PGE2 production were differentially regulated by α-naphthoflavone (a CYP 1A1/1A2 inhibitor, PD153035 (EGFR inhibitor, pp2 (Src inhibitor, and manumycin A (a Ras inhibitor. ANE-induced PGE2 production was suppressed by piper betle leaf (PBL extract and hydroxychavicol (two major BQ components, dicoumarol (aQuinone Oxidoreductase--NQO1 inhibitor and curcumin. ANE-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by catalase and enhanced by dicoumarol, suggesting that AN components may contribute to the pathogenesis of OSF and oral cancer via induction of aberrant differentiation, cytotoxicity, COX-2 expression, and PGE2/PGF2α production.CYP4501A1, reactive oxygen species (ROS, EGFR, Src and Ras signaling pathways could all play a role in ANE-induced pathogenesis of oral cancer. Addition of PBL into BQ and curcumin consumption could inhibit the ANE-induced inflammatory response.

  13. Tissue-specific expression and regulation by 1,25(OH)2D3 of chick protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, G S; Henry, H L

    1997-02-01

    The heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) protein is a specific and potent competitive inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Previously, it has been shown that vitamin D status affects chick kidney PKI activity: a 5- to 10-fold increase in PKI activity was observed in kidneys of chronically vitamin D-deficient chicks and treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) in cultured kidney cells resulted in a 95% decrease in PKI activity. The authors have recently cloned the cDNA for chick kidney PKI and have used the coding sequence to study the regulation of PKI mRNA. Northern analysis showed the expression of two PKI messages, which are 2.7 and 3.3 kb in size. These mRNAs are expressed in brain, muscle, testis, and kidney, but not in pancreas, liver, or intestine. PKI mRNA steady-state levels are downregulated by 47% in kidneys from vitamin D-replete chicks as compared to vitamin D-deficient chicks. PKI mRNA levels in brain, muscle, and testis are not affected by vitamin D status. Treatment of primary chick kidney cultures treated with 10(-7) M 1,25(OH)2D3 for 24h resulted in a 20-30% decrease in PKI mRNA. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment does not affect the stability of PKI mRNA as determined by treatment of cell cultures with actinomycin D. This study shows that 1,25(OH)2D3 directly and tissue-specifically downregulates PKI mRNA in the chick kidney.

  14. Inhibitor of CDK interacting with cyclin A1 (INCA1) regulates proliferation and is repressed by oncogenic signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumer, Nicole; Tickenbrock, Lara; Tschanter, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The cell cycle is driven by the kinase activity of cyclin/CDK complexes which is negatively regulated by CDK inhibitor proteins. Recently, we identified INCA1 as interaction partner and substrate of cyclin A1 in complex with CDK2. On a functional level, we identified a novel cyclin binding site...... in the INCA1 protein. INCA1 inhibited CDK2 activity and cell proliferation. The inihibitory effects depended on the cyclin-interacting domain. Mitogenic and oncogenic signals suppressed INCA1 expression, while it was induced by cell cycle arrest. We established a deletional mouse model that showed increased...... CDK2 activity in spleen with altered spleen architecture in Inca1-/- mice. Inca1-/- embryonic fibroblasts showed an increase in the fraction of S-phase cells. Furthermore, blasts from ALL and AML patients expressed significantly reduced INCA1 levels highlighting its relevance for growth control...

  15. Autocrine CSF-1 and CSF-1 Receptor Co-expression Promotes Renal Cell Carcinoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Julia; Kriegsmann, Jörg; Schimanski, Carl Christoph; Schwartz, Melvin M.; Schwarting, Andreas; Kelley, Vicki R.

    2011-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is increasing in incidence but the molecular mechanisms regulating its growth remain elusive. Co-expression of the monocytic growth factor CSF-1 and its receptor CSF-1R on renal tubular epithelial cells (TEC) will promote proliferation and anti-apoptosis during regeneration of renal tubules. Here we show that a CSF-1-dependent autocrine pathway is also responsible for the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). CSF-1 and CSF-1R were co-expressed in RCC and TEC proximally adjacent to RCC. CSF-1 engagement of CSF-1R promoted RCC survival and proliferation and reduced apoptosis, in support of the likelihood that CSF-1R effector signals mediate RCC growth. In vivo CSF-1R blockade using a CSF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor decreased RCC proliferation and macrophage infiltration in a manner associated with a dramatic reduction in tumor mass. Further mechanistic investigations linked CSF-1 and EGF signaling in RCC. Taken together, our results suggest that budding RCC stimulates the proximal adjacent microenvironment in the kidney to release mediators of CSF-1, CSF-1R and EGF expression in RCC. Further, our findings imply that targeting CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling may be therapeutically effective in RCC. PMID:22052465

  16. Low expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in glioblastoma predicts longer patient survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Karina; Offenberg, Hanne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    In colorectal cancer and breast cancer a high TIMP-1 level has been shown to correlate with a shorter overall patient survival and it has been suggested that TIMP-1 is involved in tumour invasion, proliferation and apoptosis in different types of cancers. TIMP-1 is known to be expressed in glioma...

  17. CINPA1 Is an Inhibitor of Constitutive Androstane Receptor That Does Not Activate Pregnane X Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Milu T; Lin, Wenwei; Wu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that enhance the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics by modulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Elevated levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting from CAR activation in various cancers, promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, leading to reduced therapeutic effectiveness and acquired drug resistance. CAR inhibitors, in combination with existing chemotherapeutics, could therefore be used to attenuate multidrug resistance in cancers. Interestingly, all previously reported CAR inverse-agonists are also activators of PXR, rendering them mechanistically counterproductive in tissues where both these xenobiotic receptors are present and active. We used a directed high-throughput screening approach, followed by subsequent mechanistic studies, to identify novel, potent, and specific small-molecule CAR inhibitors that do not activate PXR. We describe here one such inhibitor, CINPA1 (CAR inhibitor not PXR activator 1), capable of reducing CAR-mediated transcription with an IC50 of ∼70 nM. CINPA1 1) is a specific xenobiotic receptor inhibitor and has no cytotoxic effects up to 30 µM; 2) inhibits CAR-mediated gene expression in primary human hepatocytes, where CAR is endogenously expressed; 3) does not alter the protein levels or subcellular localization of CAR; 4) increases corepressor and reduces coactivator interaction with the CAR ligand-binding domain in mammalian two-hybrid assays; and 5) disrupts CAR binding to the promoter regions of target genes in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. CINPA1 could be used as a novel molecular tool for understanding CAR function. PMID:25762023

  18. Active inhibitor-1 maintains protein hyper-phosphorylation in aging hearts and halts remodeling in failing hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Tracy J; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Haghighi, Kobra; Anjak, Ahmad; Cai, Wenfeng; Jiang, Min; Nicolaou, Persoulla; Pylar, George; Karakikes, Ioannis; Rapti, Kleopatra; Rubinstein, Jack; Hajjar, Roger J; Kranias, Evangelia G

    2013-01-01

    Impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium cycling and depressed contractility are key characteristics in heart failure. Defects in sarcoplasmic reticulum function are characterized by decreased SERCA2a Ca-transport that is partially attributable to dephosphorylation of its regulator phospholamban by increased protein phosphatase 1 activity. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 through activation of its endogenous inhibitor-1 has been shown to enhance cardiac Ca-handling and contractility as well as protect from pathological stress remodeling in young mice. In this study, we assessed the long-term effects of inducible expression of constitutively active inhibitor-1 in the adult heart and followed function and remodeling through the aging process, up to 20 months. Mice with inhibitor-1 had normal survival and similar function to WTs. There was no overt remodeling as evidenced by measures of left ventricular end-systolic and diastolic diameters and posterior wall dimensions, heart weight to tibia length ratio, and histology. Higher phosphorylation of phospholamban at both Ser16 and Thr17 was maintained in aged hearts with active inhibitor-1, potentially offsetting the effects of elevated Ser2815-phosphorylation in ryanodine receptor, as there were no increases in arrhythmias under stress conditions in 20-month old mice. Furthermore, long-term expression of active inhibitor-1 via recombinant adeno-associated virus type 9 gene transfer in rats with pressure-overload induced heart failure improved function and prevented remodeling, associated with increased phosphorylation of phospholamban at Ser16 and Thr17. Thus, chronic inhibition of protein phosphatase 1, through increases in active inhibitor-1, does not accelerate age-related cardiomyopathy and gene transfer of this molecule in vivo improves function and halts remodeling in the long term.

  19. Sp1 is a transcription repressor to stanniocalcin-1 expression in TSA-treated human colon cancer cells, HT29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Alice Y S; Yeung, B H Y; Ching, L Y; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-08-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that, stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) was a target of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and was involved in trichostatin A (TSA) induced apoptosis in the human colon cancer cells, HT29. In this study, we reported that the transcriptional factor, specificity protein 1 (Sp1) in association with retinoblastoma (Rb) repressed STC1 gene transcription in TSA-treated HT29 cells. Our data demonstrated that, a co-treatment of the cells with TSA and Sp1 inhibitor, mithramycin A (MTM) led to a marked synergistic induction of STC1 transcript levels, STC1 promoter (1 kb)-driven luciferase activity and an increase of apoptotic cell population. The knockdown of Sp1 gene expression in TSA treated cells, revealed the repressor role of Sp1 in STC1 transcription. Using a protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OKA), an increase of Sp1 hyperphosphorylation and so a reduction of its transcriptional activity, led to a significant induction of STC1 gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that Sp1 binding on STC1 proximal promoter in TSA treated cells. The binding of Sp1 to STC1 promoter was abolished by the co-treatment of MTM or OKA in TSA-treated cells. Re-ChIP assay illustrated that Sp1-mediated inhibition of STC1 transcription was associated with the recruitment of another repressor molecule, Rb. Collectively our findings identify STC1 is a downstream target of Sp1. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene may not contribute to the risk of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T-T; Yuan, L; Yang, Y-M; Ren, Y

    2014-08-01

    The association between the -675 4G/5G polymorphism in PAI-1 gene and PCOS has been studied with inconclusive results. We sought to investigate this inconsistency by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis on the polymorphism. Searches were performed in the PubMed, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang databases, covering all papers. Statistical analysis was performed using Revman5.2 and STATA11.0 software. A total of 11 case-control studies were extracted on the polymorphism involving 1861 PCOS cases and 1187 controls. The results showed that, no significant increased/decreased risk were found for the polymorphism for PCOS: OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.77-1.66, p = 0.52 for 4G4G + 4G5G vs. 5G5G; OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.66-1.49, p = 0.96 for 4G4G vs. 5G5G + 4G5G; OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.66-1.79, p = 0.76 for 4G4G vs. 5G5G; OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.78-1.58, p = 0.56 for 4G5G vs. 5G5G; OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.71-1.41, p = 0.99 for 4G vs. 5G. In the further subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we did not find a significant association between the polymorphism for PCOS risk in either Asians or Europeans. Our findings demonstrated that -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene might not be a risk factor for the development of PCOS.

  1. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol disrupts sodium butyrate-induced p21WAF1/CIP1 expression and maturation while reciprocally potentiating apoptosis in human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Roberto R; Almenara, Jorge A; Cartee, Leanne; Betts, Vicki; Chellappan, Srikumar P; Grant, Steven

    2002-02-01

    Interactions between the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol (FP) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (SB) have been examined in human leukemia cells (U937) in relation to differentiation and apoptosis. Whereas 1 mM of SB or 100 nM of FP minimally induced apoptosis (4% and 10%, respectively) at 24 h, simultaneous exposure of U937 cells to these agents dramatically increased cell death (e.g., approximately 60%), reflected by both morphological and Annexin/propidium iodide-staining features, procaspase 3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Similar interactions were observed in human promyelocytic (HL-60), B-lymphoblastic (Raji), and T-lymphoblastic (Jurkat) leukemia cells. Coadministration of FP opposed SB-mediated accumulation of cells in G0G1 and differentiation, reflected by reduced CD11b expression, but instead dramatically increased procaspase-3, procaspase-8, Bid, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, as well as mitochondrial damage (e.g., loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release). FP also blocked SB-related p21WAF1-CIP1 induction through a caspase-independent mechanism and triggered the caspase-mediated cleavage of p27KIP1 and retinoblastoma protein. The latter event was accompanied by a marked reduction in retinoblastoma protein/E2F1 complex formation. However, FP did not modify the extent of SB-associated acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Treatment of cells with FP/SB also resulted in the caspase-mediated cleavage of Bcl-2 and caspase-independent down-regulation of Mcl-1. Levels of cyclins A, D1, and E, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis also declined in SB/FP-treated cells. Finally, FP/SB coexposure potently induced apoptosis in two primary acute myelogenous leukemia samples. Together, these findings demonstrate that FP, when combined with SB, induces multiple perturbations in cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins, which oppose leukemic cell differentiation but instead

  2. Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Is Involved in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)-Enhanced Cell Motility and Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 Expression in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Yang; Chang, Sunny Li-Yun; Fong, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the primary malignancy of bone that is characterized by a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis, and is therefore associated with poor prognoses. Chondrosarcoma further shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small molecule in the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcome of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on cell motility in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma cell lines had significantly higher cell motility and BDNF expression compared to normal chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased cell motility and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in human chondrosarcoma cells. BDNF-mediated cell motility and MMP-1 up-regulation were attenuated by Trk inhibitor (K252a), ASK1 inhibitor (thioredoxin), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and p38 inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, BDNF also promoted Sp1 activation. Our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration and invasion activity of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-1 expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, ASK1, JNK/p38, and Sp1. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis. PMID:23892595

  3. Fem1b, a proapoptotic protein, mediates proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subauste, M Cecilia; Sansom, Owen J; Porecha, Nehal; Raich, Natacha; Du, Liqin; Maher, Joseph F

    2010-02-01

    In the treatment of colon cancer, the development of resistance to apoptosis is a major factor in resistance to therapy. New molecular approaches to overcome apoptosis resistance, such as selectively upregulating proapoptotic proteins, are needed in colon cancer therapy. In a mouse model with inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) tumor suppressor gene, reflecting the pathogenesis of most human colon cancers, the gene encoding feminization-1 homolog b (Fem1b) is upregulated in intestinal epithelium following Apc inactivation. Fem1b is a proapoptotic protein that interacts with apoptosis-inducing proteins Fas, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1), and apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1). Increasing Fem1b expression induces apoptosis of cancer cells, but effects on colon cancer cells have not been reported. Fem1b is a homolog of feminization-1 (FEM-1), a protein in Caenorhabditis elegans that is regulated by proteasomal degradation, but whether Fem1b is likewise regulated by proteasomal degradation is unknown. Herein, we found that Fem1b protein is expressed in primary human colon cancer specimens, and in malignant SW620, HCT-116, and DLD-1 colon cancer cells. Increasing Fem1b expression, by transfection of a Fem1b expression construct, induced apoptosis of these cells. We found that proteasome inhibitor treatment of SW620, HCT-116, and DLD-1 cells caused upregulation of Fem1b protein levels, associated with induction of apoptosis. Blockade of Fem1b upregulation with morpholino antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of these cells. In conclusion, the proapoptotic protein Fem1b is downregulated by the proteasome in malignant colon cancer cells and mediates proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of these cells. Therefore, Fem1b could represent a novel molecular target to overcome apoptosis resistance in therapy of colon cancer.

  4. Camel Milk Modulates the Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Regulated Genes, Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1, in Murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that camel milk may aid in prevention and treatment of numerous cases of cancer yet, the exact mechanism was not investigated. Therefore, we examined the ability of camel milk to modulate the expression of a well-known cancer-activating gene, Cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1, and cancer-protective genes, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1 and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1, in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Our results showed that camel milk significantly inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, the most potent Cyp1a1 inducer and known carcinogenic chemical, at mRNA, protein, and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, camel milk significantly decreased the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE-dependent luciferase activity, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism is involved. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of camel milk was associated with a proportional increase in heme oxygenase 1. On the other hand, camel milk significantly induced Nqo1 and Gsta1 mRNA expression level in a concentration-dependent fashion. The RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely blocked the induction of Nqo1 mRNA by camel milk suggesting the requirement of de novo RNA synthesis through a transcriptional mechanism. In conclusion, camel milk modulates the expression of Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1 at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  5. Expression of the helix-loop-helix protein inhibitor of DNA binding-1 (ID-1) is activated by all-trans retinoic acid in normal human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villano, C.M.; White, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The ID (inhibitor of differentiation or DNA binding) helix-loop-helix proteins are important mediators of cellular differentiation and proliferation in a variety of cell types through regulation of gene expression. Overexpression of the ID proteins in normal human keratinocytes results in extension of culture lifespan, indicating that these proteins are important for epidermal differentiation. Our hypothesis is that the ID proteins are targets of the retinoic acid signaling pathway in keratinocytes. Retinoids, vitamin A analogues, are powerful regulators of cell growth and differentiation and are widely used in the prevention and treatment of a variety of cancers in humans. Furthermore, retinoic acid is necessary for the maintenance of epithelial differentiation and demonstrates an inhibitory action on skin carcinogenesis. We examined the effect of all-trans retinoic acid on expression of ID-1, -2, -3, and -4 in normal human keratinocytes and found that exposure of these cells to all-trans retinoic acid causes an increase in both ID-1 and ID-3 gene expression. Furthermore, our data show that this increase is mediated by increased transcription involving several cis-acting elements in the distal portion of the promoter, including a CREB-binding site, an Egr1 element, and an YY1 site. These data demonstrate that the ID proteins are direct targets of the retinoic acid signaling pathway. Given the importance of the ID proteins to epidermal differentiation, these results suggest that IDs may be mediating some of the effects of all-trans retinoic acid in normal human keratinocytes

  6. Activation of CD147 with Cyclophilin A Induces the Expression of IFITM1 through ERK and PI3K in THP-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CD147, as a receptor for Cyclophilins, is a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein. In order to identify genes that are induced by activation of CD147, THP-1 cells were stimulated with Cyclophilin A and differentially expressed genes were detected using PCR-based analysis. Interferon-induced transmembrane 1 (IFITM1 was detected to be induced and it was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. CD147-induced expression of IFITM1 was blocked by inhibitors of ERK, PI3K, or NF-κB, but not by inhibitors of p38, JNK, or PKC. IFITM1 appears to mediate inflammatory activation of THP-1 cells since cross-linking of IFITM1 with specific monoclonal antibody against it induced the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as IL-8 and MMP-9. These data indicate that IFITM1 is one of the pro-inflammatory mediators that are induced by signaling initiated by the activation of CD147 in macrophages and activation of ERK, PI3K, and NF-κB is required for the expression of IFITM1.

  7. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for a human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor.

    OpenAIRE

    Antalis, T M; Clark, M A; Barnes, T; Lehrbach, P R; Devine, P L; Schevzov, G; Goss, N H; Stephens, R W; Tolstoshev, P

    1988-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor (mPAI-2) was purified to homogeneity from the U937 cell line and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotide probes derived from this sequence were used to screen a cDNA library prepared from U937 cells. One positive clone was sequenced and contained most of the coding sequence as well as a long incomplete 3' untranslated region (1112 base pairs). This cDNA sequence was shown to encode mPAI-2 by hybrid-select translation. A cDNA clone encoding t...

  8. Plasma Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Levels in Angiographically Defined Coronary Artery Disease Among Saudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Habib

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD and to determine its correlation with its severity.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA. Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.Results: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006 and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015.Conclusion: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.

  9. Allosteric Mutant IDH1 Inhibitors Reveal Mechanisms for IDH1 Mutant and Isoform Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xiaoling; Baird, Daniel; Bowen, Kimberly; Capka, Vladimir; Chen, Jinyun; Chenail, Gregg; Cho, YoungShin; Dooley, Julia; Farsidjani, Ali; Fortin, Pascal; Kohls, Darcy; Kulathila, Raviraj; Lin, Fallon; McKay, Daniel; Rodrigues, Lindsey; Sage, David; Touré, B. Barry; van der Plas, Simon; Wright, Kirk; Xu, Ming; Yin, Hong; Levell, Julian; Pagliarini, Raymond A. (Novartis)

    2017-03-01

    Oncogenic IDH1 and IDH2 mutations contribute to cancer via production of R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Here, we characterize two structurally distinct mutant- and isoform-selective IDH1 inhibitors that inhibit 2-HG production. Both bind to an allosteric pocket on IDH1, yet shape it differently, highlighting the plasticity of this site. Oncogenic IDH1R132H mutation destabilizes an IDH1 “regulatory segment,” which otherwise restricts compound access to the allosteric pocket. Regulatory segment destabilization in wild-type IDH1 promotes inhibitor binding, suggesting that destabilization is critical for mutant selectivity. We also report crystal structures of oncogenic IDH2 mutant isoforms, highlighting the fact that the analogous segment of IDH2 is not similarly destabilized. This intrinsic stability of IDH2 may contribute to observed inhibitor IDH1 isoform selectivity. Moreover, discrete residues in the IDH1 allosteric pocket that differ from IDH2 may also guide IDH1 isoform selectivity. These data provide a deeper understanding of how IDH1 inhibitors achieve mutant and isoform selectivity.

  10. The irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib interacts with the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax to kill mammary cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L; Avogadri-Connors, Francesca; Cutler, Richard E; Lalani, Alshad S; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2018-03-04

    The irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor, neratinib, down-regulates the expression of ERBB1/2/4 as well as the levels of MCL-1 and BCL-XL. Venetoclax (ABT199) is a BCL-2 inhibitor. At physiologic concentrations neratinib interacted in a synergistic fashion with venetoclax to kill HER2 + and TNBC mammary carcinoma cells. This was associated with the drug-combination: reducing the expression and phosphorylation of ERBB1/2/3; in an eIF2α-dependent fashion reducing the expression of MCL-1 and BCL-XL and increasing the expression of Beclin1 and ATG5; and increasing the activity of the ATM-AMPKα-ULK1 S317 pathway which was causal in the formation of toxic autophagosomes. Although knock down of BAX or BAK reduced drug combination lethality, knock down of BAX and BAK did not prevent the drug combination from increasing autophagosome and autolysosome formation. Knock down of ATM, AMPKα, Beclin1 or over-expression of activated mTOR prevented the induction of autophagy and in parallel suppressed tumor cell killing. Knock down of ATM, AMPKα, Beclin1 or cathepsin B prevented the drug-induced activation of BAX and BAK whereas knock down of BID was only partially inhibitory. A 3-day transient exposure of established estrogen-independent HER2 + BT474 mammary tumors to neratinib or venetoclax did not significantly alter tumor growth whereas exposure to [neratinib + venetoclax] caused a significant 7-day suppression of growth by day 19. The drug combination neither altered animal body mass nor behavior. We conclude that venetoclax enhances neratinib lethality by facilitating toxic BH3 domain protein activation via autophagy which enhances the efficacy of neratinib to promote greater levels of cell killing.

  11. Upregulated ROS production induced by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 on XBP1 gene expression and cell apoptosis in Tca-8113 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-ying; Ren, Xiao-yan; Wang, Wei-hua; Zhang, Ying-xin; Chen, Shuang-feng; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Le-xin

    2014-07-01

    Exposure of Tca-8113 cells to proteasome inhibitor carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG-132) causing apoptosis is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1) is an important regulator of a subset of genes active during ER stress, which is related to cell survival and is required for tumor growth. The present study is to evaluate the effect of MG-132 on ROS production, XBP1 gene expression, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), ASK1 and c-jun protein expression in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line Tca-8113 cells. ROS production was measured by reactive oxygen species assay. X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) mRNA was analyzed by real-time-PCR, TRAF2, ASK1 and c-jun protein were investigated by western blot and immunocytochemistry respectively. The result indicated that ROS production, TRAF2, ASK1 and c-jun were elevated in MG-132 treated cells. Giving ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) largely prevented the effects of MG-132. Furthermore, treating with MG-132 lead to decreased XBP1 mRNA expression but could not completely block the expression of XBP1. Taken together, these findings provide the evidence that MG-132 induced ER stress lead to Tca-8113 cells apoptosis through ROS generation and TRAF2-ASK1-JNK signal pathway activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Id1 and Id3 expression is associated with increasing grade of prostate cancer: Id3 preferentially regulates CDKN1B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Patel, Divya; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2012-01-01

    As transcriptional regulators of basic helix–oop–helix (bHLH) transcription and non-bHLH factors, the inhibitor of differentiation (Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4) proteins play a critical role in coordinated regulation of cell growth, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis. Id1 regulates prostate cancer (PCa) cell proliferation, apoptosis, and androgen independence, but its clinical significance in PCa remains controversial. Moreover, there is lack of evidence on the expression of Id2 and Id3 in PCa progression. In this study we investigated the expression of Id2 and Id3 and reevaluated the expression of Id1 in PCa. We show that increased Id1 and Id3 protein expression is strongly associated with increasing grade of PCa. At the molecular level, we report that silencing either Id1 or Id3 attenuates cell cycle. Although structurally and mechanistically similar, our results show that both these proteins are noncompensatory at least in PCa progression. Moreover, through gene silencing approaches we show that Id1 and Id3 primarily attenuates CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN1B (p27), respectively. We also demonstrate that silencing Id3 alone significantly attenuates proliferation of PCa cells as compared with Id1. We propose that increased Id1 and Id3 expression attenuates all three cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKN2B, -1A, and -1B) resulting in a more aggressive PCa phenotype

  13. CINPA1 is an inhibitor of constitutive androstane receptor that does not activate pregnane X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Milu T; Lin, Wenwei; Wu, Jing; Chen, Taosheng

    2015-05-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that enhance the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics by modulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Elevated levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting from CAR activation in various cancers, promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, leading to reduced therapeutic effectiveness and acquired drug resistance. CAR inhibitors, in combination with existing chemotherapeutics, could therefore be used to attenuate multidrug resistance in cancers. Interestingly, all previously reported CAR inverse-agonists are also activators of PXR, rendering them mechanistically counterproductive in tissues where both these xenobiotic receptors are present and active. We used a directed high-throughput screening approach, followed by subsequent mechanistic studies, to identify novel, potent, and specific small-molecule CAR inhibitors that do not activate PXR. We describe here one such inhibitor, CINPA1 (CAR inhibitor not PXR activator 1), capable of reducing CAR-mediated transcription with an IC50 of ∼70 nM. CINPA1 1) is a specific xenobiotic receptor inhibitor and has no cytotoxic effects up to 30 µM; 2) inhibits CAR-mediated gene expression in primary human hepatocytes, where CAR is endogenously expressed; 3) does not alter the protein levels or subcellular localization of CAR; 4) increases corepressor and reduces coactivator interaction with the CAR ligand-binding domain in mammalian two-hybrid assays; and 5) disrupts CAR binding to the promoter regions of target genes in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. CINPA1 could be used as a novel molecular tool for understanding CAR function. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. [Neratinib + Valproate] exposure permanently reduces ERBB1 and RAS expression in 4T1 mammary tumors and enhances M1 macrophage infiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L.; Rais, Rumeesa; Kirkwood, John; Avogadri-Connors, Francesca; Cutler, Richard E.; Lalani, Alshad S.; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib has been shown in vitro to rapidly reduce the expression of ERBB1/2/4 and RAS proteins via autophagic/lysosomal degradation. We have recently demonstrated that neratinib and valproate interact to suppress the growth of 4T1 mammary tumors but had not defined whether the [neratinib + valproate] drug combination, in a mouse, had altered the biology of the 4T1 cells. Exposure of 4T1 mammary tumors to [neratinib + valproate] for three days resulted, t...

  15. Baseline β-catenin, programmed death-ligand 1 expression and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes predict response and poor prognosis in BRAF inhibitor-treated melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Daniela; Romano, Emanuela; Rulli, Eliana; Merelli, Barbara; Nassini, Romina; De Logu, Francesco; Bieche, Ivan; Baroni, Gianna; Cattaneo, Laura; Xue, Gongda; Mandalà, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The activation of oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin pathway in melanoma contributes to a lack of T-cell infiltration. Whether baseline β-catenin expression in the context of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) overexpression correlates with prognosis of metastatic melanoma patients (MMPs) treated with mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAPK inhibitor (MAPKi) monotherapy, however, has not been fully clarified. Sixty-four pre-treatment formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded melanoma samples from MMP treated with a BRAF inhibitor (n = 39) or BRAF and MEK inhibitors (n = 25) were assessed for presence of β-catenin, PD-L1, cluster of differentiation (CD)8, CD103 and forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) expression by immunohistochemistry, and results were correlated with clinical outcome. Quantitative assessment of mRNA transcripts associated with Wnt/β-catenin pathway and immune response was performed in 51 patients. We found an inverse correlation between tumoural β-catenin expression and the level of CD8, CD103 or forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) positivity in the tumour microenvironment (TME). By multivariate analysis, PD-L1 <5% (odds ratio, OR 0.12, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.03-0.53, p = 0.005) and the presence of CD8+ T cells (OR 18.27, 95%CI 2.54-131.52, p = 0.004) were significantly associated with a higher probability of response to MAPKi monotherapy. Responding patients showed a significantly increased expression of mRNA transcripts associated with adaptive immunity and antigen presentation. By multivariate analysis, progression-free survival (PFS) (hazards ratio (HR) = 0.25 95%CI 0.10-0.61, p = 0.002) and overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.24 95%CI 0.09-0.67, p = 0.006) were longer in patients with high density of CD8+ T cells and β-catenin <10% than those without CD8+ T cells infiltration and β-catenin ≥10%. Our findings provide evidence that in the context of MAPKi monotherapy, immune subsets in the (TME) and

  16. Identification of a D-amino acid decapeptide HIV-1 entry inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggiano, Cesar; Jiang Shibo; Lu Hong; Zhao Qian; Liu Shuwen; Binley, James; Blondelle, Sylvie E.

    2006-01-01

    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion into host cells involves three major steps, each being a potential target for the development of entry inhibitors: gp120 binding to CD4, gp120-CD4 complex interacting with a coreceptor, and gp41 refolding to form a six-helix bundle. Using a D-amino acid decapeptide combinatorial library, we identified peptide DC13 as having potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitory activity, and effectively inhibiting infection by several laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 strains. While DC13 did not block binding of gp120 to CD4, nor disrupt the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, it effectively blocked the binding of an anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody and chemokine SDF-1α to CXCR4-expressing cells. However, because R5-using primary viruses were also neutralized, the antiviral activity of DC13 implies additional mode(s) of action. These results suggest that DC13 is a useful HIV-1 coreceptor antagonist for CXCR4 and, due to its biostability and simplicity, may be of value for developing a new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors

  17. Hsp27 promotes ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux through the PI3K/PKCζ/Sp1 pathway in THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Hai-Jun; Zhao, Guo-Jun; Chen, Wu-Jun; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Gao-Feng; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2017-09-05

    Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a putative biomarker and therapeutic target in atherosclerosis. This study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying Hsp27 effects on ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and cellular cholesterol efflux. THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells were infected with adenovirus to express wild-type Hsp27, hyper-phosphorylated Hsp27 mimic (3D Hsp27), antisense Hsp27 or hypo-phosphorylated Hsp27 mimic (3A Hsp27). Wild-type and 3D Hsp27 were found to up-regulate ABCA1 mRNA and protein expression and increase cholesterol efflux from cells. Expression of antisense or 3A Hsp27 suppressed the expression of ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, over-expression of wild-type and 3D Hsp27 significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated specificity protein 1 (Sp1), protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). In addition, the up-regulation of ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux induced by 3D Hsp27 was suppressed by inhibition of Sp1, PKCζ and PI3K with specific kinase inhibitors. Taken together, our results revealed that Hsp27 may up-regulate the expression of ABCA1 and promotes cholesterol efflux through activation of the PI3K/PKCζ/Sp1 signal pathway in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Our findings may partly explain the mechanisms underlying the anti-atherogenic effect of Hsp27. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential expression levels of collagen 1A2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4, and cathepsin B in intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, R Arun; Paul, Pradip; Purushottam, Meera; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Somanna, Sampath; Jain, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) express a variety of differentially expressed genes when compared to the normal artery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression level of a few genes in the aneurysm wall and to correlate them with various clinicoradiological factors. The mRNA level of collagen 1A2 (COL1A2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4 (TIMP4), and cathepsin B (CTSB) genes were studied in 23 aneurysmal walls and 19 superficial temporal arteries harvested from 23 patients undergoing clipping of IAs, by real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The mean fold change of COL1A2 gene between the aneurysm sample and the superficial temporal artery (STA) sample was 2.46 ± 0.12, that of TIMP4 gene was 0.31 ± 0, and that of CTSB gene was 31.47 ± 39.01. There was a positive correlation of TIMP4 expression level with maximum diameter of aneurysm (P = 0.008) and fundus of aneurysm (P = 0.012). The mean fold change of CTSB of patients who had preoperative hydrocephalus in the computed tomogram (CT) scan of the head at admission was 56.16 and that of the patients who did not have hydrocephalus was 13.51 (P = 0.008). The mean fold change of CTSB of patients who developed fresh postoperative deficits or worsening of the preexisting deficits was 23.64 and that of the patients who did not develop was 42.22 (P = 0.039). COL1A2 gene and CTSB genes were overexpressed, and TIMP4 gene was underexpressed in the aneurysmal sac compared to STA and their expression levels were associated with a few clinicoradiological factors.

  19. Sphingosine-1-phosphate suppresses chondrosarcoma metastasis by upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 through suppressing miR-101 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Hao; Yang, Dong-Ying; Lin, Chih-Yang; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yuan-Li

    2017-10-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignancy form of bone cancer, exhibiting resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy as well as developing high metastasis ability in late-stage tumors. Thus, understanding the metastatic processes of chondrosarcoma is considered a strategy for the treatment of this disease. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid, is produced intracellularly by sphingosine kinase (SphK) and is regarded as a second signaling molecule that regulates inflammation, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. However, the effect of S1P on chondrosarcoma remains uncertain. As demonstrated by the transwell, immunoblotting, and real-time PCR analyses, we found that S1P inhibited cell migration and MMP-2 expression through the upregulation of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) expression in human chondrosarcoma cells. Additionally, we also showed that microRNA (miRNA)-101, which targets the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of TIMP-3, decreased significantly following S1P treatment. After transfection with miR-101 mimics, the S1P-regulated cell migration and TIMP-3 expression were both reversed. Furthermore, we also showed that the S1P-inhibited cell migration is mediated through the c-Src/MEK/ERK signaling axis. Meanwhile, the in vivo study indicated that overexpression of SphK1 decreases chondrosarcoma metastasis to the lungs. Our results illustrate the clinical significance between SphK1, TIMP-3, and miR-101 in human chondrosarcoma patients. Taken together, our results suggest that S1P and miR-101 may prove to be potential therapeutic targets for future chondrosarcoma treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Treadmill exercise alleviates diabetic cardiomyopathy by suppressing plasminogen activator inhibitor expression and enhancing eNOS in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengji, Wang; Xianjin, Fan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the biological mechanism of the effect of different intensity exercises on diabetic cardiomyopathy. 87 raise specific pathogen SPF healthy 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, fed 6 weeks with high-fat diet for rats were used, and a diabetic model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin - randomly selected 43 rats were divided into Diabetic control group (DCG, n  = 10), Diabetic exercise group 1 (DEG1, n  = 11), Diabetic exercise group 2 (DEG2, n  = 11) and Diabetic exercise group 3 (DEG3, n  = 11). The rats in DEG1 were forced to run on a motorized treadmill, the exercise load consisted of running at a speed of 10 m/min, the exercise load of the rats in DEG2 were running at a speed of 15 m/min, the exercise load of the rats in DEG3 were running at a speed of 20 m/min, for one hour once a day for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise intervention, glucose metabolism-related indexes in rats such as blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated serum protein (GSP) and insulin (FINS); cardiac fibrinolytic system parameters such as PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), Von Willebrand factor (vWF), protein kinase C (PKC) and diacylglycerol (DAG); and serum level of NO, eNOS and T-NOS were measured. Compared with DCG, fasting blood glucose and GSP were decreased, while insulin sensitivity index and insulin level were increased in all rats of the three exercise groups. FBG decrease was statistically significant ( P  diabetic rats; myocardial PAI-1 in DEG1, DEG2 and DEG3 rats decreased significantly ( P  diabetic cardiomyopathy by affecting the levels of PAI-1 and eNOS, and there is a dependence on intensity. © 2018 The authors.

  1. Structure-Based Design of Potent and Selective 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Kinase-1 (PDK1) Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Jesus R.; Becker, Christopher J.; Blackledge, Charles W.; Duquenne, Celine; Feng, Yanhong; Grant, Seth W.; Heerding, Dirk; Li, William H.; Miller, William H.; Romeril, Stuart P.; Scherzer, Daryl; Shu, Arthur; Bobko, Mark A.; Chadderton, Antony R.; Dumble, Melissa; Gardiner, Christine M.; Gilbert, Seth; Liu, Qi; Rabindran, Sridhar K.; Sudakin, Valery; Xiang, Hong; Brady, Pat G.; Campobasso, Nino; Ward, Paris; Axten, Jeffrey M. (GSKPA)

    2014-10-02

    Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1(PDK1) is a master regulator of the AGC family of kinases and an integral component of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. As this pathway is among the most commonly deregulated across all cancers, a selective inhibitor of PDK1 might have utility as an anticancer agent. Herein we describe our lead optimization of compound 1 toward highly potent and selective PDK1 inhibitors via a structure-based design strategy. The most potent and selective inhibitors demonstrated submicromolar activity as measured by inhibition of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates as well as antiproliferative activity against a subset of AML cell lines. In addition, reduction of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates was demonstrated in vivo in mice bearing OCl-AML2 xenografts. These observations demonstrate the utility of these molecules as tools to further delineate the biology of PDK1 and the potential pharmacological uses of a PDK1 inhibitor.

  2. Targeting colorectal cancer cells by a novel sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor PF-543

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, TongFa; Gao, DaQuan; Fang, Zheng-yu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we showed that PF-543, a novel sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) inhibitor, exerted potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects against a panel of established (HCT-116, HT-29 and DLD-1) and primary human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Its sensitivity was negatively associated with SphK1 expression level in the CRC cells. Surprisingly, PF-543 mainly induced programmed necrosis, but not apoptosis, in the CRC cells. CRC cell necrotic death was detected by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and mitochondrial P53-cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D) complexation. Correspondingly, the necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 largely attenuated PF-543-induced cytotoxicity against CRC cells. Meanwhile, the Cyp-D inhibitors (sanglifehrin A and cyclosporin A), or shRNA-mediated knockdown of Cyp-D, remarkably alleviated PF-543-induced CRC cell necrotic death. Reversely, over-expression of wild-type Cyp-D in HCT-116 cells significantly increased PF-543's sensitivity. In vivo, PF-543 intravenous injection significantly suppressed HCT-116 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, whiling remarkably improving the mice survival. The in vivo activity by PF-543 was largely attenuated when combined with the Cyp-D inhibitor cyclosporin A. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PF-543 exerts potent anti-CRC activity in vitro and in vivo. Mitochondrial programmed necrosis pathway is likely the key mechanism responsible for PF-543's actions in CRC cells. - Highlights: • PF-543 is anti-proliferative and cytotoxic to established and primary CRC cells. • PF-543 induces programmed necrosis, but not apoptosis, in CRC cells. • Modulation of mitochondrial protein cyclophilin-D alters PF-543's sensitivity. • PF-543 inhibits HCT-116 xenograft growth in SCID mice, improving mice survival. • Co-administration of cyclophilin-D inhibitor CsA inhibits PF-543's activity in vivo.

  3. Targeting colorectal cancer cells by a novel sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor PF-543

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, TongFa [Department of Anal-colorectal Surgery, HangZhou First People' s Hospital, HangZhou (China); Gao, DaQuan [Hematological Department, HangZhou First People' s Hospital, HangZhou (China); Fang, Zheng-yu, E-mail: fangzhengyu158@sina.com [Department of Anal-colorectal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou (China)

    2016-02-12

    In this study, we showed that PF-543, a novel sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) inhibitor, exerted potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects against a panel of established (HCT-116, HT-29 and DLD-1) and primary human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Its sensitivity was negatively associated with SphK1 expression level in the CRC cells. Surprisingly, PF-543 mainly induced programmed necrosis, but not apoptosis, in the CRC cells. CRC cell necrotic death was detected by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and mitochondrial P53-cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D) complexation. Correspondingly, the necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 largely attenuated PF-543-induced cytotoxicity against CRC cells. Meanwhile, the Cyp-D inhibitors (sanglifehrin A and cyclosporin A), or shRNA-mediated knockdown of Cyp-D, remarkably alleviated PF-543-induced CRC cell necrotic death. Reversely, over-expression of wild-type Cyp-D in HCT-116 cells significantly increased PF-543's sensitivity. In vivo, PF-543 intravenous injection significantly suppressed HCT-116 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, whiling remarkably improving the mice survival. The in vivo activity by PF-543 was largely attenuated when combined with the Cyp-D inhibitor cyclosporin A. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PF-543 exerts potent anti-CRC activity in vitro and in vivo. Mitochondrial programmed necrosis pathway is likely the key mechanism responsible for PF-543's actions in CRC cells. - Highlights: • PF-543 is anti-proliferative and cytotoxic to established and primary CRC cells. • PF-543 induces programmed necrosis, but not apoptosis, in CRC cells. • Modulation of mitochondrial protein cyclophilin-D alters PF-543's sensitivity. • PF-543 inhibits HCT-116 xenograft growth in SCID mice, improving mice survival. • Co-administration of cyclophilin-D inhibitor CsA inhibits PF-543's activity in vivo.

  4. Suppression of LFA-1 expression by spermine is associated with enhanced methylation of ITGAL, the LFA-1 promoter area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Kano

    Full Text Available Spermine and spermidine, natural polyamines, suppress lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1 expression and its associated cellular functions through mechanisms that remain unknown. Inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase, which is required for polyamine synthesis, in Jurkat cells by 3 mM D,L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine hydrochloride (DFMO significantly decreased spermine and spermidine concentrations and was associated with decreased DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt activity, enhanced demethylation of the LFA-1 gene (ITGAL promoter area, and increased CD11a expression. Supplementation with extracellular spermine (500 µM of cells pretreated with DFMO significantly increased polyamine concentrations, increased Dnmt activity, enhanced methylation of the ITGAL promoter, and decreased CD11a expression. It has been shown that changes in intracellular polyamine concentrations affect activities of -adenosyl-L-methionine-decaroboxylase, and, as a result, affect concentrations of the methyl group donor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, and of the competitive Dnmt inhibitor, decarboxylated SAM. Additional treatments designed to increase the amount of SAM and decrease the amount of decarboxylated SAM-such as treatment with methylglyoxal bis-guanylhydrazone (an inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-decaroboxylase and SAM supplementation-successfully decreased CD11a expression. Western blot analyses revealed that neither DFMO nor spermine supplementation affected the amount of active Ras-proximate-1, a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases and a key protein for regulation of CD11a expression. The results of this study suggest that polyamine-induced suppression of LFA-1 expression occurs via enhanced methylation of ITGAL.

  5. Regulation of UGT1A1 and HNF1 transcription factor gene expression by DNA methylation in colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Mario

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1 is a pivotal enzyme involved in metabolism of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan commonly used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer. We previously demonstrated aberrant methylation of specific CpG dinucleotides in UGT1A1-negative cells, and revealed that methylation state of the UGT1A1 5'-flanking sequence is negatively correlated with gene transcription. Interestingly, one of these CpG dinucleotides (CpG -4 is found close to a HNF1 response element (HRE, known to be involved in activation of UGT1A1 gene expression, and within an upstream stimulating factor (USF binding site. Results Gel retardation assays revealed that methylation of CpG-4 directly affect the interaction of USF1/2 with its cognate sequence without altering the binding for HNF1-alpha. Luciferase assays sustained a role for USF1/2 and HNF1-alpha in UGT1A1 regulation in colon cancer cells. Based on the differential expression profiles of HNF1A gene in colon cell lines, we also assessed whether methylation affects its expression. In agreement with the presence of CpG islands in the HNF1A promoter, treatments of UGT1A1-negative HCT116 colon cancer cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor restore HNF1A gene expression, as observed for UGT1A1. Conclusions This study reveals that basal UGT1A1 expression in colon cells is positively regulated by HNF1-alpha and USF, and negatively regulated by DNA methylation. Besides, DNA methylation of HNF1A could also play an important role in regulating additional cellular drug metabolism and transporter pathways. This process may contribute to determine local inactivation of drugs such as the anticancer agent SN-38 by glucuronidation and define tumoral response.

  6. Valproic acid decreases urothelial cancer cell proliferation and induces thrombospondin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byler Timothy K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of bladder cancer recurrence is a central challenge in the management of this highly prevalent disease. The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (sodium valproate has anti-angiogenic properties and has been shown to decrease bladder cancer growth in model systems. We have previously shown reduced expression of thrombospondin-1 in a mouse model and in human bladder cancer relative to normal urothelium. We speculated that inhibition of angiogenesis by valproate might be mediated by this anti-angiogenic protein. Methods Bladder cancer cell lines UMUC3 and T24 were treated with valproate or another histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, in culture for a period of three days. Proliferation was assessed by alamar blue reduction. Gene expression was evaluated by reverse transcription of RNA and quantitative PCR. Results Proliferation assays showed treatment with valproate or vorinostat decreased proliferation in both cell lines. Histone deacetylase inhibition also increased relative expression of thrombospondin-1 up to 8 fold at 5 mM valproate. Conclusions Histone deacetylase inhibitors warrant further study for the prevention or treatment of bladder cancer.

  7. MCT1 modulates cancer cell pyruvate export and growth of tumors that co-express MCT1 and MCT4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Candice Sun; Graham, Nicholas A.; Gu, Wen; Camacho, Carolina Espindola; Mah, Vei; Maresh, Erin L.; Alavi, Mohammed; Bagryanova, Lora; Krotee, Pascal A. L.; Gardner, Brian K.; Behbahan, Iman Saramipoor; Horvath, Steve; Chia, David; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Hurvitz, Sara A.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Critchlow, Susan E.; Kurdistani, Siavash K.; Goodglick, Lee; Braas, Daniel; Graeber, Thomas G.; Christofk, Heather R.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibition is thought to block tumor growth through disruption of lactate transport and glycolysis. Here we show MCT1 inhibition impairs proliferation of glycolytic breast cancer cells co-expressing MCT1 and MCT4 via disruption of pyruvate rather than lactate export. MCT1 expression is elevated in glycolytic breast tumors, and high MCT1 expression predicts poor prognosis in breast and lung cancer patients. Acute MCT1 inhibition reduces pyruvate export but does not consistently alter lactate transport or glycolytic flux in breast cancer cells that co-express MCT1 and MCT4. Despite the lack of glycolysis impairment, MCT1 loss-of-function decreases breast cancer cell proliferation and blocks growth of mammary fat pad xenograft tumors. Our data suggest MCT1 expression is elevated in glycolytic cancers to promote pyruvate export, which when inhibited enhances oxidative metabolism and reduces proliferation. This study presents an alternative molecular consequence of MCT1 inhibitors further supporting their use as anti-cancer therapeutics. PMID:26876179

  8. Influence of Expression Plasmid of Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 shRNA on Hepatic Precancerous Fibrosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Shu, Fu-Li; Jiang, Yu-Feng; Huang, Xin-En

    2015-01-01

    In this study, influence caused by expression plasmids of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) short hairpin RNA (shRNA) on mRNA expression of CTGF,TIMP-1,procol-α1 and PCIII in hepatic tissue with hepatic fibrosis, a precancerous condition, in rats is analyzed. To screen and construct shRNA expression plasimid which effectively interferes RNA targets of CTGF and TIMP-1 in rats. 50 cleaning Wistar male rats are allocated randomly at 5 different groups after precancerous fibrosis models and then injection of shRNA expression plasimids. Plasmid psiRNA-GFP-Com (CTGF and TIMP-1 included), psiRNA-GFP-CTGF, psiRNA-GFP-TIMP-1 and psiRNA- DUO-GFPzeo of blank plasmid are injected at group A, B, C and D, respectively, and as model control group that none plasimid is injected at group E. In 2 weeks after last injection, to hepatic tissue at different groups, protein expression of CTGF, TIMP-1, procol-α1and PC III is tested by immunohistochemical method and,mRNA expression of CTGF,TIMP-1,procol-α1 and PCIII is measured by real-time PCR. One-way ANOVA is used to comparison between-groups. Compared with model group, there is no obvious difference of mRNA expression among CTGF,TIMP-1,procol-α1,PC III and of protein expression among CTGF, TIMP-1, procol-α1, PC III in hepatic tissue at group injected with blank plasmid. Expression quantity of mRNA of CTGF, TIMP-1, procol-α1 and PCIII at group A, B and C decreases, protein expression of CTGF, TIMP-1, procol-α1, PC III in hepatic tissue is lower, where the inhibition of combination RNA interference group (group A) on procol-α1 mRNA transcription and procol-α1 protein expression is superior to that of single interference group (group B and C) (P<0.01 or P<0.05). RNA interference on CTGF and/or TIMP-1 is obviously a inhibiting factor for mRNA and protein expression of CTGF, TIMP-1, procol-α1 and PCIII. Combination RNA interference on genes of CTGF and TIMP-1 is superior

  9. [Effect of ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway Inhibitor PD98059 on the Expression of Ras, BRaf, MEK, ERK1/2 in Marrow Nucleated Red Blood Cells of CMS Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuan-Fang; Ji, Lin-Hua; Feng, Ting-Ting; Liu, Fang; Cui, Sen; Su, Juan

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effect of ERK1 / 2 signaling pathway inhibitor PD98059 on Ras, Raf, MEK, ERK1, ERK2 expression in order to explore a new way for basic research and clinical treatment of the chronic mountain sickness(CMS). Sixteen CMS patients were selected, the bone marrow was collected for isolation of monomuclear cells (MNC), the cells were sorted by using CD71 and CD235a antibody magnetic beads, then positive cells were diveded into 5 groups: blank control, DMSO and PD98059 5, 10 and 20 µmol/L, and were cultured in hypoxid condition for 72 hours. The Ras-GTP levels in supernatant was detected by ELISA, the RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of BRaf, MEK, ERK1, ERK2 mRNA in nucleated red blood cells, and the Western blot method was used to detect expression of BRaf, MEK, ERK1, ERK2 protein. PD98059 had no effect on the level of Ras-GTP in each groups. Compared with the blank control group, the expression levels of BRaf, MEK mRNA in DMSO group were not statistically significant (P values were 0.826, 0.298). Compared with the PD98059 20 mol/L group, the expression level of ERK1/2 mRNA was statistically significant (P=0.001, 0.002). Compared with the blank control group, expression levels of p-BRaf, p-MEK protein in DMSO group were not statistically significant (P=0.370, 0.351). Compared with the PD98059 20 mol/L group, the difference of p-ERK1/2 protein level in other 4 groups were statistically significant (P values were <0.001, 0.007). PD98059 can up-regulate the expressions of ERK1/2 miRNA and p-ERK1/2 protein in bone marrow nucleated red blood cells, the Ras / Raf / MEK / ERK 1/2 pathway is the main signal transduction pathway in regulating bone marrow nucleated red blood cells, suggesting that Ras/Raf /MEK /ERK 1/2 pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic mountain sickness process.

  10. PTP1B inhibitor promotes endothelial cell motility by activating the DOCK180/Rac1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Yan, Feng; Ye, Qing; Wu, Xiao; Jiang, Fan

    2016-04-07

    Promoting endothelial cell (EC) migration is important not only for therapeutic angiogenesis, but also for accelerating re-endothelialization after vessel injury. Several recent studies have shown that inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) may promote EC migration and angiogenesis by enhancing the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) signalling. In the present study, we demonstrated that PTP1B inhibitor could promote EC adhesion, spreading and migration, which were abolished by the inhibitor of Rac1 but not RhoA GTPase. PTP1B inhibitor significantly increased phosphorylation of p130Cas, and the interactions among p130Cas, Crk and DOCK180; whereas the phosphorylation levels of focal adhesion kinase, Src, paxillin, or Vav2 were unchanged. Gene silencing of DOCK180, but not Vav2, abrogated the effects of PTP1B inhibitor on EC motility. The effects of PTP1B inhibitor on EC motility and p130Cas/DOCK180 activation persisted in the presence of the VEGFR2 antagonist. In conclusion, we suggest that stimulation of the DOCK180 pathway represents an alternative mechanism of PTP1B inhibitor-stimulated EC motility, which does not require concomitant VEGFR2 activation as a prerequisite. Therefore, PTP1B inhibitor may be a useful therapeutic strategy for promoting EC migration in cardiovascular patients in which the VEGF/VEGFR functions are compromised.

  11. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Activity of 1,2,3-Triazolobenzodiazepine BET Bromodomain Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Phillip P; Garnier, Jean-Marc; Hatfaludi, Tamas; Xu, Zhen; Segal, David; Jarman, Kate E; Jousset, Hélène; Garnham, Alexandra; Feutrill, John T; Cuzzupe, Anthony; Hall, Peter; Taylor, Scott; Walkley, Carl R; Tyler, Dean; Dawson, Mark A; Czabotar, Peter; Wilks, Andrew F; Glaser, Stefan; Huang, David C S; Burns, Christopher J

    2017-12-14

    A number of diazepines are known to inhibit bromo- and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins. Their BET inhibitory activity derives from the fusion of an acetyl-lysine mimetic heterocycle onto the diazepine framework. Herein we describe a straightforward, modular synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazolobenzodiazepines and show that the 1,2,3-triazole acts as an effective acetyl-lysine mimetic heterocycle. Structure-based optimization of this series of compounds led to the development of potent BET bromodomain inhibitors with excellent activity against leukemic cells, concomitant with a reduction in c- MYC expression. These novel benzodiazepines therefore represent a promising class of therapeutic BET inhibitors.

  12. Mechanism for the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Motoko; Ishihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Aki; Hong, Jangja; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Zee, Okpyo; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    EoL-1 cells have a FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene which causes the transformation of eosinophilic precursor cells into leukemia cells. Recently, we suggested that the induction of differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils by the HDAC inhibitors apicidin and n-butyrate is due to the continuous inhibition of HDACs. However, neither apicidin nor n-butyrate inhibited the expression of FIP1L1-PDGFRA mRNA, although both these inhibitors suppressed cell proliferation. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed whether the levels of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha protein and phosphorylated-Stat5 involved in the signaling for the proliferation of EoL-1 cells are attenuated by HDAC inhibitors. EoL-1 cells were incubated in the presence of apicidin, TSA or n-butyrate. FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha and phosphorylated-Stat5 were detected by Western blotting. Treatment of EoL-1 cells with apicidin at 100 nM or n-butyrate at 500 microM decreased the levels of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha protein and phosphorylated-Stat5, while that with trichostatin A at 30 nM did not. The decrease in the level of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha protein caused by apicidin and n-butyrate might be one of the mechanisms by which EoL-1 cells are induced to differentiate into eosinophils by these HDAC inhibitors.

  13. The conformational control inhibitor of tyrosine kinases DCC-2036 is effective for imatinib-resistant cells expressing T674I FIP1L1-PDGFRα.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Shen

    Full Text Available The cells expressing the T674I point mutant of FIP1-like-1-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (FIP1L1-PDGFRα in hypereosinophilics syndrome (HES are resistant to imatinib and some second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. There is a desperate need to develop therapy to combat this acquired drug resistance. DCC-2036 has been synthesized as a third-generation TKI to combat especially the Bcr-Abl T315I mutant in chronic myeloid leukemia. This study evaluated the effect of DCC-2036 on FIP1L1-PDGFRα-positive cells, including the wild type (WT and the T674I mutant. The in vitro effects of DCC-2036 on the PDGFRα signal pathways, proliferation, cell cycling and apoptosis of FIP1L1-PDGFRα-positive cells were investigated, and a nude mouse xenograft model was employed to assess the in vivo antitumor activity. We found that DCC-2036 decreased the phosphorylated levels of PDGFRα and its downstream targets without apparent effects on total protein levels. DCC-2036 inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis with MEK-dependent up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim in FIP1L1-PDGFRα-positive cells. DCC-2036 also exhibited in vivo antineoplastic activity against cells with T674I FIP1L1-PDGFRα. In summary, FIP1L1-PDGFRα-positive cells are sensitive to DCC-2036 regardless of their sensitivity to imatinib. DCC-2036 may be a potential compound to treat imatinib-resistant HES.

  14. CK1δ in lymphoma: gene expression and mutation analyses and validation of CK1δ kinase activity for therapeutic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Sophia Winkler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of lymphoid neoplasms has improved considerably during the last decades. However, treatment response for some lymphoid neoplasms is still poor, indicating the need for new therapeutic approaches. One promising new strategy is the inhibition of kinases regulating key signal transduction pathways, which are of central importance in tumorigenesis. Kinases of the CK1 family may represent an attractive drug target since CK1 expression and/or activity are associated with the pathogenesis of malignant diseases. Over the last years efforts were taken to develop highly potent and selective CK1-specific inhibitor compounds and their therapeutic potential has now to be proved in pre-clinical trials. Therefore, we analyzed expression and mutational status of CK1δ in several cell lines representing established lymphoma entities, and also measured the mRNA expression level in primary lymphoma tissue as well as non-neoplastic blood cells. For a selection of lymphoma cell lines we furthermore determined CK1δ kinase activity and demonstrated therapeutic potential of CK1-specific inhibitors as a putative therapeutic option in the treatment of lymphoid neoplasms.

  15. Development and evaluation of a phenotypic assay monitoring resistance formation to protease inhibitors in HIV-1-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehringer, Heike; Von der Helm, Klaus; Seelmeir, Sigrid; Weissbrich, Benedikt; Eberle, Josef; Nitschko, Hans

    2003-05-01

    A novel phenotypic assay, based on recombinant expression of the HIV-1-protease was developed and evaluated; it monitors the formation of resistance to protease inhibitors. The HIV-1 protease-encoding region from the blood sample of patients was amplified, ligated into the expression vector pBD2, and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli TG1 cells. The resulting recombinant enzyme was purified by a newly developed one-step acid extraction protocol. The protease activity was determined in presence of five selected HIV protease inhibitors and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) to the respective protease inhibitors determined. The degree of resistance was expressed in terms of x-fold increase in IC(50) compared to the IC(50) value of an HIV-1 wild type protease preparation. The established test system showed a reproducible recombinant expression of each individual patients' HIV-1 protease population. Samples of nine clinically well characterised HIV-1-infected patients with varying degrees of resistance were analysed. There was a good correlation between clinical parameters and the results obtained by this phenotypic assay. For the majority of patients a blind genotypic analysis of the patients' protease domain revealed a fair correlation to the results of the phenotypic assay. In a minority of patients our phenotypic results diverged from the genotypic ones. This novel phenotypic assay can be carried out within 8-10 days, and offers a significant advantage in time to the current employed phenotypic tests.

  16. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 entry by chloride channel inhibitors tamoxifen and NPPB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Kai [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Maoyun [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Xiang, Yangfei; Ma, Kaiqi [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Jin, Fujun [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Xiao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Shaoxiang [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yifei, E-mail: twang-yf@163.com [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • We analyze the anti-HSV potential of chloride channel inhibitors. • Tamoxifen and NPPB show anti-HSV-1 and anti-ACV-resistant HSV-1 activities. • HSV-1 infection induces intracellular chloride concentration increasing. • Tamoxifen and NPPB inhibit HSV-1 early infection. • Tamoxifen and NPPB prevent the fusion process of HSV-1. - Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is very common worldwide and can cause significant health problems from periodic skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. Appearance of drug-resistant viruses in clinical therapy has made exploring novel antiviral agents emergent. Here we show that chloride channel inhibitors, including tamoxifen and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl-propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), exhibited extensive antiviral activities toward HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV viruses. HSV-1 infection induced chloride ion influx while treatment with inhibitors reduced the increase of intracellular chloride ion concentration. Pretreatment or treatment of inhibitors at different time points during HSV-1 infection all suppressed viral RNA synthesis, protein expression and virus production. More detailed studies demonstrated that tamoxifen and NPPB acted as potent inhibitors of HSV-1 early entry step by preventing viral binding, penetration and nuclear translocation. Specifically the compounds appeared to affect viral fusion process by inhibiting virus binding to lipid rafts and interrupting calcium homeostasis. Taken together, the observation that tamoxifen and NPPB can block viral entry suggests a stronger potential for these compounds as well as other ion channel inhibitors in antiviral therapy against HSV-1, especially the compound tamoxifen is an immediately actionable drug that can be reused for treatment of HSV-1 infections.

  17. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 entry by chloride channel inhibitors tamoxifen and NPPB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Kai; Chen, Maoyun; Xiang, Yangfei; Ma, Kaiqi; Jin, Fujun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Shaoxiang; Wang, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the anti-HSV potential of chloride channel inhibitors. • Tamoxifen and NPPB show anti-HSV-1 and anti-ACV-resistant HSV-1 activities. • HSV-1 infection induces intracellular chloride concentration increasing. • Tamoxifen and NPPB inhibit HSV-1 early infection. • Tamoxifen and NPPB prevent the fusion process of HSV-1. - Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is very common worldwide and can cause significant health problems from periodic skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. Appearance of drug-resistant viruses in clinical therapy has made exploring novel antiviral agents emergent. Here we show that chloride channel inhibitors, including tamoxifen and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl-propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), exhibited extensive antiviral activities toward HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV viruses. HSV-1 infection induced chloride ion influx while treatment with inhibitors reduced the increase of intracellular chloride ion concentration. Pretreatment or treatment of inhibitors at different time points during HSV-1 infection all suppressed viral RNA synthesis, protein expression and virus production. More detailed studies demonstrated that tamoxifen and NPPB acted as potent inhibitors of HSV-1 early entry step by preventing viral binding, penetration and nuclear translocation. Specifically the compounds appeared to affect viral fusion process by inhibiting virus binding to lipid rafts and interrupting calcium homeostasis. Taken together, the observation that tamoxifen and NPPB can block viral entry suggests a stronger potential for these compounds as well as other ion channel inhibitors in antiviral therapy against HSV-1, especially the compound tamoxifen is an immediately actionable drug that can be reused for treatment of HSV-1 infections

  18. [The mechanisms of p21WAF1/Cip-1 expression in MOLT-4 cell line induced by TSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Liu, Mei-Ju; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Qian, Jun-Jie; Dong, Yan; Liu, Hua; Sun, Guo-Jing; Mei, Zhu-Zhong; Liu, Bin; Tian, Bao-Lei; Sun, Zhi-Xian

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the function and molecular mechanism of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) expression in MOLT-4 cells induced by HDAC inhibitor TSA, the expression pattern of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) and the distribution of cell cycle in TSA treated cells were analyzed. The results showed that TSA could effectively induce G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis of MOLT-4 cells. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that p21(WAF1/Cip-1) were upregulated quickly before cell arrested in G(2)/M and began decreasing at the early stage of apoptosis. Meanwhile, the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 could inhibit the decrease of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) at the early stage of apoptosis, which showed that proteasome pathway involved in p21(WAF1/Cip-1) degradation during the TSA induced G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis responses. This study also identified that the protein level of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) was highly associated with the cell cycle change induced by TSA. Compared to cells treated by TSA only, exposure MOLT-4 cells to TSA meanwhile treatment with MG-132 increased the protein level of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) and increased the numbers of cell in G(2)/M-phase, whereas the cell apoptosis were delayed. It is concluded that p21(WAF1/Cip-1) plays a significant role in G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis signaling induced by TSA in MOLT-4 cells.

  19. [Neratinib + Valproate] exposure permanently reduces ERBB1 and RAS expression in 4T1 mammary tumors and enhances M1 macrophage infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L; Rais, Rumeesa; Kirkwood, John; Avogadri-Connors, Francesca; Cutler, Richard E; Lalani, Alshad S; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2018-01-19

    The irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib has been shown in vitro to rapidly reduce the expression of ERBB1/2/4 and RAS proteins via autophagic/lysosomal degradation. We have recently demonstrated that neratinib and valproate interact to suppress the growth of 4T1 mammary tumors but had not defined whether the [neratinib + valproate] drug combination, in a mouse, had altered the biology of the 4T1 cells. Exposure of 4T1 mammary tumors to [neratinib + valproate] for three days resulted, two weeks later, in tumors that expressed less ERBB1, K-RAS, N-RAS, indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and had increased Class I MHCA expression. Tumors previously exposed to [neratinib + valproate] grew more slowly than those exposed to vehicle control and contained more CD8+ cells and activated NK cells. M1 but not M2 macrophage infiltration was significantly enhanced by the drug combination. In vitro exposure of 4T1 tumor cells to [neratinib + valproate] variably reduced the expression of histone deacetylases 1-11. In vivo , prior exposure of tumors to [neratinib + valproate] permanently reduced the expression of HDACs 1-3, 6 and 10. Combined knock down of HDACs 1/2/3 or of 3/10 rapidly reduced the expression IDO-1, and ODC and increased the expression of MHCA. H&E staining of normal tissues at animal nadir revealed no obvious cyto-architectural differences between control and drug-treated animals. We conclude that [neratinib + valproate] evolves 4T1 tumors to grow more slowly and to be more sensitive to checkpoint immunotherapy antibodies.

  20. ERK1/2 mediates glucose-regulated POMC gene expression in hypothalamic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Yunting; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Feiyuan; Wang, Yun; Gu, Jiang; Ma, Lian; Ho, Guyu

    2015-04-01

    Hypothalamic glucose-sensing neurons regulate the expression of genes encoding feeding-related neuropetides POMC, AgRP, and NPY - the key components governing metabolic homeostasis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is postulated to be the molecular mediator relaying glucose signals to regulate the expression of these neuropeptides. Whether other signaling mediator(s) plays a role is not clear. In this study, we investigated the role of ERK1/2 using primary hypothalamic neurons as the model system. The primary neurons were differentiated from hypothalamic progenitor cells. The differentiated neurons possessed the characteristic neuronal cell morphology and expressed neuronal post-mitotic markers as well as leptin-regulated orexigenic POMC and anorexigenic AgRP/NPY genes. Treatment of cells with glucose dose-dependently increased POMC and decreased AgRP/NPY expression with a concurrent suppression of AMPK phosphorylation. In addition, glucose treatment dose-dependently increased the ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Blockade of ERK1/2 activity with its specific inhibitor PD98059 partially (approximately 50%) abolished glucose-induced POMC expression, but had little effect on AgRP/NPY expression. Conversely, blockade of AMPK activity with its specific inhibitor produced a partial (approximately 50%) reversion of low-glucose-suppressed POMC expression, but almost completely blunted the low-glucose-induced AgRP/NPY expression. The results indicate that ERK1/2 mediated POMC but not AgRP/NPY expression. Confirming the in vitro findings, i.c.v. administration of PD98059 in rats similarly attenuated glucose-induced POMC expression in the hypothalamus, but again had little effect on AgRP/NPY expression. The results are indicative of a novel role of ERK1/2 in glucose-regulated POMC expression and offer new mechanistic insights into hypothalamic glucose sensing. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Anti-tumor effect and mechanism of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor through matrix metalloproteinase 14 pathway in PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyuan; Gu, Zhuoyu; Xiao, Zhiwei; Zhou, Ting; Li, Jun; Sun, Kan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, can attenuate proliferation, migration, invasion and MMP-14 expression in pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 and the possible anti-tumor mechanism of celecoxib. Human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 cells were treated with diverse concentrations of celecoxib (20, 60, 100 μmol/L). Cell proliferation, invasion and migration capabilities were measured by MTT colorimetry, transwell invasion assay, and scratch assay separately. At the same time, the protein expression of COX-2 and MMP-14 was assessed by ELISA. The capabilities of proliferation, invasion and migration in PANC-1 cells were attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner after treated with celecoxib, followed by the down-regulation of the protein expression of COX-2 and MMP-14. In addition, MMP-14 expression was significantly positively correlated with COX-2 expression. COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib can inhibit the proliferation, invasion and migration of PANC-1 cells via down-regulating the expression of MMP-14 in a concentration-dependent manner, thus contributing to its anti-tumor effect in pancreatic cancer.

  2. CD147 Promotes CXCL1 Expression and Modulates Liver Fibrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Pu Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs release pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic factors. CXC chemokine-ligand-1 (CXCL1 is expressed on HSCs. We previously found that the CD147 is overexpressed in activated HSCs. In this study, we showed an important role of CD147 in promoting liver fibrosis by activating HSCs and upregulating expression of chemokines. Specifically, we found that CD147 specific deletion in HSCs mice alleviated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and inhibited HSCs activation. Overexpression of CD147 upregulated the secretion of CXCL1. Meanwhile, CXCL1 promoted HSCs activation through autocrine. Treating with PI3K/AKT inhibitor could effectively suppress CD147-induced CXCL1 expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that CD147 regulates CXCL1 release in HSCs by PI3K/AKT signaling. Inhibition of CD147 attenuates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and inflammation. Therefore, administration of targeting CD147 could be a promising therapeutic strategy in liver fibrosis.

  3. NBM-HD-1: A Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor with Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jan Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HDAC inhibitors (HDACis have been developed as promising anticancer agents in recent years. In this study, we synthesized and characterized a novel HDACi, termed NBM-HD-1. This agent was derived from the semisynthesis of propolin G, isolated from Taiwanese green propolis (TGP, and was shown to be a potent suppressor of tumor cell growth in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and rat glioma cells (C6, with an IC50 ranging from 8.5 to 10.3 μM. Western blot demonstrated that levels of p21(Waf1/Cip1, gelsolin, Ac-histone 4, and Ac-tubulin markedly increased after treatment of cancer cells with NBM-HD-1. After NBM-HD-1 treatment for 1–4 h, p-PTEN and p-AKT levels were markedly decreased. Furthermore, we also found the anticancer activities of NBM-HD-1 in regulating cell cycle regulators. Treatment with NBM-HD-1, p21(Waf1/Cip1 gene expression had markedly increased while cyclin B1 and D1 gene expressions had markedly decreased. On the other hand, we found that NBM-HD-1 increased the expressions of tumor-suppressor gene p53 in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, we showed that NBM-HD-1 exhibited potent antitumor activity in a xenograft model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that this compound, NBM-HD-1, is a novel and potent HDACi with anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Attenuation of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice by vaccinating against TGF-β1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobao Fan

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 is the pivotal pro-fibrogenic cytokine in hepatic fibrosis. Reducing the over-produced expression of TGF-β1 or blocking its signaling pathways is considered to be a promising therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of attenuating hepatic fibrosis by vaccination against TGF-β1 with TGF-β1 kinoids. Two TGF-β1 kinoid vaccines were prepared by cross-linking TGF-β1-derived polypeptides (TGF-β1(25-[41-65] and TGF-β1(30-[83-112] to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH. Immunization with the two TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently elicited the production of high-levels of TGF-β1-specific antibodies against in BALB/c mice as tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Western blotting. The antisera neutralized TGF-β1-induced growth-inhibition on mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu and attenuated TGF