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Sample records for inhibitor diet indicating

  1. Evaluation of diet quality indicators in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Several indices evaluate the quality of diet. The indices are based on nutrient requirements and dietary guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases (to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The Healthy Eating Index, Healthy Diet Indicator, and Diet Quality Index consist of components, which represent different aspects of a healthy diet. The indicators of diet quality are based on dietary intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls.  The aim of the research was to evaluate the nutrition of adults according to the selected criteria of three diet quality indicators: Healthy Eating Index, Healthy Diet Indicator, Diet Quality Index. 234 nutrition daily records were evaluated (from 78 probands per 3 days. Nutritional intake and blood biochemical parameters were defined in 56 females and 22 men (72% and 28% respectively aged from 24 to 62 years. The nutritional software Alimenta 4.3e (Food Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2004 was used to calculate the nutrient intake. The evaluation of nutrition intake was focused on four parameters/recommendations of the Healthy Eating Index (to reduce total fat intake to 30% or less of energy, to reduce saturated fatty acid intake to less than 10% of energy, to reduce cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg daily, to limit total daily intake of sodium to 2400 mg or less, on five parameters/recommendations of the Healthy Diet Indicator (saturated fatty acids 0-10% of energy intake, polyunsaturated fatty acids 3-7% of energy intake, protein 10-15% of energy intake, dietary fiber 27-40 g, cholesterol 0-300 mg, on five parameters/recommendations of the Diet Quality Index (to reduce total fat intake to 30% or less of energy, to reduce saturated fatty acid intake to less than 10% of energy, to reduce cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg daily, to limit total daily intake of sodium to 2400 mg or less, to maintain adequate calcium intake – approximately

  2. Selective and membrane-permeable small molecule inhibitors of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase reverse high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

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    Neelakantan, Harshini; Vance, Virginia; Wetzel, Michael D; Wang, Hua-Yu Leo; McHardy, Stanton F; Finnerty, Celeste C; Hommel, Jonathan D; Watowich, Stanley J

    2018-01-01

    There is a critical need for new mechanism-of-action drugs that reduce the burden of obesity and associated chronic metabolic comorbidities. A potentially novel target to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes is nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT), a cytosolic enzyme with newly identified roles in cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. To validate NNMT as an anti-obesity drug target, we investigated the permeability, selectivity, mechanistic, and physiological properties of a series of small molecule NNMT inhibitors. Membrane permeability of NNMT inhibitors was characterized using parallel artificial membrane permeability and Caco-2 cell assays. Selectivity was tested against structurally-related methyltransferases and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) salvage pathway enzymes. Effects of NNMT inhibitors on lipogenesis and intracellular levels of metabolites, including NNMT reaction product 1-methylnicotianamide (1-MNA) were evaluated in cultured adipocytes. Effects of a potent NNMT inhibitor on obesity measures and plasma lipid were assessed in diet-induced obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Methylquinolinium scaffolds with primary amine substitutions displayed high permeability from passive and active transport across membranes. Importantly, methylquinolinium analogues displayed high selectivity, not inhibiting related SAM-dependent methyltransferases or enzymes in the NAD + salvage pathway. NNMT inhibitors reduced intracellular 1-MNA, increased intracellular NAD + and S-(5'-adenosyl)-l-methionine (SAM), and suppressed lipogenesis in adipocytes. Treatment of diet-induced obese mice systemically with a potent NNMT inhibitor significantly reduced body weight and white adipose mass, decreased adipocyte size, and lowered plasma total cholesterol levels. Notably, administration of NNMT inhibitors did not impact total food intake nor produce any observable adverse effects. These results support development of small molecule NNMT inhibitors as therapeutics to

  3. A systematic review of diet quality indices in relation to obesity.

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    Asghari, Golaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Yuzbashian, Emad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-04-01

    Tools, called 'diet/dietary quality indices', evaluate the level of adherence to a specified pattern or a set of recommendations in populations. Yet, there are no review studies providing unanimous comprehensive results of dietary indices on obesity. We reviewed observational studies, focusing on the association of diet quality indices with general obesity or abdominal obesity in adults. We systematically conducted a search in all English language publications available on MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and Embase between January 1990 and January 2016. Among the wide variety of indices and weight-derived variables, studies with dietary-guideline-based indices and mean changes for weight gain or OR for general obesity and abdominal obesity were selected. From a total of 479 articles, thirty-four studies were selected for the current review, ten of which had prospective designs and twenty-six had cross-sectional designs. Associations of weight status with the original Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and other versions of the HEI including alternative HEI, HEI-2005 and HEI-05 were examined in thirteen studies, with ten studies revealing significant associations. The HEI was a better general obesity predictor in men than in women. Diet scores lacked efficacy in assessing overall diet quality and demonstrated no significant findings in developing countries, in comparison with US populations. In addition, indices based on dietary diversity scores were directly associated with weight gain. Despite the insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions about the relation between dietary indices and obesity, HEI was found to be inversely associated with obesity and diversity-based indices were positively associated with obesity.

  4. Soybean diet breast tumor incidence in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troll, W.; Wiesner, R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between feeding a diet rich in protease inhibitors and the reduction of mammary cancer induced by x-irradiation in Sprague-Dawley rats was examined. Of a total of 145 irradiated animals, 44% of the 45 rats fed a raw soybean diet containing a high concentration of protease inhibitor developed mammary tumors as compared to 74% of 50 rats fed a casein diet containing no protease inhibitor. Animals fed Purina rat chow which contained low levels of protease inhibitor exhibited a 70% mammary tumor incidence. No spontaneous neoplasms were found in any of the non-irradiated animals on the raw soybean diet whereas about 10% of the animals on the protease-free diet developed tumors. Thus, soybeans which are rich in protease inhibitors reduced the induction of mammary cancer in x-irradiated rats. This suggested that diets rich in protease inhibitors may contribute to reducing cancer incidence in man. (author)

  5. A Consensus Proposal for Nutritional Indicators to Assess the Sustainability of a Healthy Diet: The Mediterranean Diet as a Case Study.

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    Donini, Lorenzo M; Dernini, Sandro; Lairon, Denis; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Del Balzo, Valeria; Giusti, Anna-Maria; Burlingame, Barbara; Belahsen, Rekia; Maiani, Giuseppe; Polito, Angela; Turrini, Aida; Intorre, Federica; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Berry, Elliot M

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the multiple effects of diets on public health nutrition, society, and environment. Sustainability and food security are closely interrelated. The traditional Mediterranean Diet (MD) is recognized as a healthier dietary pattern with a lower environmental impact. As a case study, the MD may guide innovative inter-sectorial efforts to counteract the degradation of ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, and homogeneity of diets due to globalization through the improvement of sustainable healthy dietary patterns. This consensus position paper defines a suite of the most appropriate nutrition and health indicators for assessing the sustainability of diets based on the MD. In 2011, an informal International Working Group from different national and international institutions was convened. Through online and face-to-face brainstorming meetings over 4 years, a set of nutrition and health indicators for sustainability was identified and refined. Thirteen nutrition indicators of sustainability relating were identified in five areas. Biochemical characteristics of food (A1. Vegetable/animal protein consumption ratios; A2. Average dietary energy adequacy; A3. Dietary Energy Density Score; A4. Nutrient density of diet), Food Quality (A5. Fruit and vegetable consumption/intakes; A6. Dietary Diversity Score), Environment (A7. Food biodiversity composition and consumption; A8. Rate of Local/regional foods and seasonality; A9. Rate of eco-friendly food production and/or consumption), Lifestyle (A10. Physical activity/physical inactivity prevalence; A11. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern), Clinical Aspects (A12. Diet-related morbidity/mortality statistics; A13. Nutritional Anthropometry). A standardized set of information was provided for each indicator: definition, methodology, background, data sources, limitations of the indicator, and references. The selection and analysis of these indicators has been performed (where possible) with

  6. A consensus proposal for nutritional indicators to assess the sustainability of a healthy diet: the Mediterranean diet as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo M Donini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence of the multiple effects of diets on public health nutrition, society and environment. Sustainability and food security are closely inter-related. The traditional Mediterranean Diet (MD is recognized as a healthier dietary pattern with a lower environmental impact. As a case study, the MD may guide innovative inter-sectorial efforts to counteract the degradation of ecosystems, loss of biodiversity and homogeneity of diets due to globalization, through the improvement of sustainable healthy dietary patterns.This consensus position paper defines a suite of the most appropriate nutrition and health indicators for assessing the sustainability of diets based on the MD.Methods: In 2011, an informal International Working Group from different national and international institutions was convened. Through online and face-to-face brainstorming meetings over four years, a set of nutrition and health indicators for sustainability was identified and refined.Results: Thirteen nutrition indicators of sustainability relating were identified in five areas: •Biochemical characteristics of food (A1. Vegetable/animal protein consumption ratios; (A2. Average dietary energy adequacy; (A3. Dietary energy density score; (A4. Nutrient density of diet: •Food Quality (A5. Fruit and vegetable consumption/intakes; (A6. Dietary diversity score: •Environment (A7. Food biodiversity composition and consumption; (A8. Rate of Local/regional foods and seasonality; (A9. Rate of eco-friendly food production and/or consumption: •Lifestyle (A10. Physical activity/Physical inactivity prevalence; (A11. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern•Clinical Aspects; (A12. Diet-related morbidity/mortality statistics; (A13. Nutritional Anthropometry. A standardized set of information was provided for each indicator: definition, methodology, background, data sources, limitations of the indicator and references.Conclusions: The selection and

  7. Serum biochemical indices of Finisher Broiler Chickens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4 week feeding trial was conducted using 180 five-week old Hubbard broiler chickens to determine the effect of feeding variously processed roselle(Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds on serum biochemical indices with a view to determining the potential of roselle seed as an alternative to soybeans. Five broiler finisher diets were ...

  8. EXPERIMENT ON EFFECTS OF LOE-PROTEIN DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH α-KETOACIDS ON HYPERTROPHY OF DIABETIC GLOMERULUS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LEVEL OF CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P27

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yi; Yuan, Weijie; Dong, Ting; Wang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids was reported to have renoprotective roles in diabetic nephropathy via inhibiting glomerular hypertrophy, however, the mechanism has not yet been fully clarified. the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 play an important role in hypertrophy of diabetic glomerulus, The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and the effect of low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids on hypertrophy o...

  9. Use of dietary indices to control for diet in human gut microbiota studies.

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    Bowyer, Ruth C E; Jackson, Matthew A; Pallister, Tess; Skinner, Jane; Spector, Tim D; Welch, Ailsa A; Steves, Claire J

    2018-04-25

    Environmental factors have a large influence on the composition of the human gut microbiota. One of the most influential and well-studied is host diet. To assess and interpret the impact of non-dietary factors on the gut microbiota, we endeavoured to determine the most appropriate method to summarise community variation attributable to dietary effects. Dietary habits are multidimensional with internal correlations. This complexity can be simplified by using dietary indices that quantify dietary variance in a single measure and offer a means of controlling for diet in microbiota studies. However, to date, the applicability of different dietary indices to gut microbiota studies has not been assessed. Here, we use food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data from members of the TwinsUK cohort to create three different dietary measures applicable in western-diet populations: The Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Healthy Food Diversity index (HFD-Index). We validate and compare these three indices to determine which best summarises dietary influences on gut microbiota composition. All three indices were independently validated using established measures of health, and all were significantly associated with microbiota measures; the HEI had the highest t values in models of alpha diversity measures, and had the highest number of associations with microbial taxa. Beta diversity analyses showed the HEI explained the greatest variance of microbiota composition. In paired tests between twins discordant for dietary index score, the HEI was associated with the greatest variation of taxa and twin dissimilarity. We find that the HEI explains the most variance in, and has the strongest association with, gut microbiota composition in a western (UK) population, suggesting that it may be the best summary measure to capture gut microbiota variance attributable to habitual diet in comparable populations.

  10. Índices dietéticos para avaliação da qualidade de dietas Dietetic indices for assessment of diet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre dieta e saúde pode ser avaliada pelo nível de alguns componentes do alimento (nutrientes, tipos de alimento, grupo ou grupos de alimentos e padrões alimentares. A associação entre estes parâmetros e várias doenças crônicas pode ser analisada por meio da adoção de instrumentos dietéticos de avaliação global de dietas e, para tanto, vários índices têm sido propostos. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever os diferentes índices para avaliação da qualidade de dietas, incluindo o Índice de Nutrientes, Escore da Variedade da Dieta, Escore da Diversidade da Dieta, Índice de Qualidade da Dieta, Índice de Alimentação Saudável, Índice de Qualidade da Dieta Revisado, Índice de Alimentação Saudável Alternativo, Contagem de Alimentos Recomendados e Escore da Dieta Mediterrânea Alternativo, bem como suas derivações. Esses índices apresentam uma evolução do conceito de qualidade, enfatizando as propriedades funcionais dos fatores dietéticos relacionados à redução do risco das doenças mais prevalentes na atualidade.The relation between diet and health can be evaluated by the level of some food components (nutrients, kinds of food, group or food groups and eating patterns. The association between these parameters and some chronic diseases can be examined by dietary instruments of global diet assessments and some indices have been considered for this end. The aim of this work was to describe the different indices for assessing diet quality, including the Index of Nutrients, Dietary Variety Score, Dietary Diversity Score, Diet Quality Index, Healthy Eating Index, Diet Quality Index Revised, Alternative Healthy Eating Index, Recommended Food Score, Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, as well as their derivations. These indices show an improvement in the concept of quality, emphasizing the functional properties of food components related to risk reduction of the most prevalent diseases nowadays.

  11. Potential Expanded Indications for Neprilysin Inhibitors

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    Riddell, Elizabeth; Vader, Justin M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The goal of this article is to review potential expanded indications for neprilysin inhibitors. This article reviews the rationale and design for ongoing and future trials of sacubitril/valsartan in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease. Recent findings Randomized trial data are lacking for use of sacubitril/valsartan in acute heart failure and advanced heart failure. Mechanistic data from animal studies suggest a role for neprilysin inhibition in the treatment of post-myocardial infarction systolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Beyond the cardiovascular system, renal and neurological function may be impacted by neprilysin inhibition. Forthcoming randomized trials will address the clinical impact of sacubitril/valsartan on these conditions. Summary Neprolysin inhibition with sacubitril/valsartan offers a new therapeutic strategy with a broad range of potential therapeutic actions. In PARADIGM-HF, the combination of neprolysin and RAAS inhibition was proven to be superior to enalapril for patients with stable NYHA class II–III heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Preliminary data suggests it may also have a role in other cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease. Several ongoing and planned studies will determine the extent of its benefit for these other indications. PMID:28281174

  12. Surf zone fish diet as an indicator of environmental and anthropogenic influences

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    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Zalmon, Ilana Rosental

    2017-10-01

    Changes in species' abundance have been used as indicators of environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. However, sublethal, e.g., diet, changes should be detected before some alterations in the composition and structure of fish assemblages occur as a result of ecological negative impacts. The objective of the present study was to assess possible changes in surf zone fish diet in response to environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. Surf zone fish were sampled and their stomach contents were analyzed on two sandy beaches under different levels of human pressure in Southeastern Brazil. Habitat variables related to seasonality, food availability, anthropogenic disturbance, upwelling and river influence were measured as follows: (1) wave height; (2) water temperature; (3) intertidal macroinvertebrates abundance; (4) solid waste amount; (5) salinity; (6) particulate organic carbon (POC) and (7) chlorophyll a (Chl a). Our results showed the influence of seasonality, prey abundance and hydrodynamics in prey selection, and diet overlap between typical surf zone residents. A literature search was also performed and it shows that insects and Emerita brasiliensis eggs, which were the main food item consumed by some surf zone fish at urbanized Brazilian beaches, are unusual worldwide. Furthermore, solid waste was related to high consumption of insects by pompanos fish in urbanized areas, suggesting that this fish diet could be a sublethal indicator of human impact on sandy beaches.

  13. Comparison of Three Diet Quality Indices for Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

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    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mortazavi Najafabadi, Mojgan; Moeinzadeh, Firouzeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-08-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have specific dietary needs due to recommended dietary restrictions. However, there is no specific index for evaluating the quality of diet in patients with CKD.   OBJECTIVE: To define and compare three specific diet quality indices in patients with CKD. Two hundred twenty-one subjects with CKD were selected for this cross-sectional study. The patients' Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Total protein intake per body weight (TP/BW), animal protein intake per body weight (AP/BW) and animal protein to vegetable protein ratio (AP/VP) were defined as diet quality indices. Renal function was measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr). Patients in the highest tertile of TP/BW and tertile of AP/BW consumed more amounts of nutrients which should be limited in CKD (i.e., sodium, potassium and phosphorus). Subjects in the last tertile of AP/BW had higher BUN and Cr. A marginally significant increased risk of higher stage of CKD across the tertiles of AP/BW was observed after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.56; P = 0.08). The results showed that AP/BW is a good diet quality index and is marginally associated with being in higher stages of CKD.

  14. CHECKPOINT INHIBITOR IMMUNE THERAPY: Systemic Indications and Ophthalmic Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvin, Lauren A; Shields, Carol L; Orloff, Marlana; Sato, Takami; Shields, Jerry A

    2018-06-01

    To review immune checkpoint inhibitor indications and ophthalmic side effects. A literature review was performed using a PubMed search for publications between 1990 and 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are designed to treat system malignancies by targeting one of three ligands, leading to T-cell activation for attack against malignant cells. These ligands (and targeted drug) include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4, ipilimumab), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1, pembrolizumab, nivolumab), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1, atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab). These medications upregulate the immune system and cause autoimmune-like side effects. Ophthalmic side effects most frequently manifest as uveitis (1%) and dry eye (1-24%). Other side effects include myasthenia gravis (n = 19 reports), inflammatory orbitopathy (n = 11), keratitis (n = 3), cranial nerve palsy (n = 3), optic neuropathy (n = 2), serous retinal detachment (n = 2), extraocular muscle myopathy (n = 1), atypical chorioretinal lesions (n = 1), immune retinopathy (n = 1), and neuroretinitis (n = 1). Most inflammatory side effects are managed with topical or periocular corticosteroids, but advanced cases require systemic corticosteroids and cessation of checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Checkpoint inhibitors enhance the immune system by releasing inhibition on T cells, with risk of autoimmune-like side effects. Ophthalmologists should include immune-related adverse events in their differential when examining cancer patients with new ocular symptoms.

  15. The intake of saturated fat and dietary fibre: a possible indicator of diet quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Fagt, Sisse; Groth, Margit Velsing

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess if a simple dietary quality index (SDQI) is a useful indicator for nutritional quality in the Danish diet. Data from the Danish National Dietary Survey 2000-2 for adults (n 3151; age 18-75 years) were used to construct an SDQI based on the intake of diet......-dense foods, for example, salty snacks, confectionery, and beverages, for example, soft drinks and alcohol. The SDQI is a simple and useful tool to characterise the diet quality of Danish adults....

  16. Characterization of the Mamestra configurata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval midgut protease complement and adaptation to feeding on artificial diet, Brassica species, and protease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Martin A; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Baldwin, Douglas; Noakes, Amy; Toprak, Umut

    2010-10-01

    The midgut protease profiles from 5th instar Mamestra configurata larvae fed various diets (standard artificial diet, low protein diet, low protein diet with soybean trypsin inhibitor [SBTI], or Brassica napus) were characterized by one-dimensional enzymography in gelatin gels. The gut protease profile of larvae fed B. napus possessed protease activities of molecular masses of approximately 33 and 55 kDa, which were not present in the guts of larvae fed artificial diet. Similarly, larvae fed artificial diet had protease activities of molecular masses of approximately 21, 30, and 100 kDa that were absent in larvae fed B. napus. Protease profiles changed within 12 to 24 h after switching larvae from artificial diet to plant diet and vice versa. The gut protease profiles from larvae fed various other brassicaceous species and lines having different secondary metabolite profiles did not differ despite significant differences in larval growth rates on the different host plants. Genes encoding putative digestive proteolytic enzymes, including four carboxypeptidases, five aminopeptidases, and 48 serine proteases, were identified in cDNA libraries from 4th instar M. configurata midgut tissue. Many of the protease-encoding genes were expressed at similar levels on all diets; however, three chymoptrypsin-like genes (McSP23, McSP27, and McSP37) were expressed at much higher levels on standard artificial diet and diet containing SBTI as was the trypsin-like gene McSP34. The expression of the trypsin-like gene McSP50 was highest on B. napus. The adaptation of M. configurata digestive biochemistry to different diets is discussed in the context of the flexibility of polyphagous insects to changing diet sources.

  17. Towards data-driven decision-making for sustainable diets in Vietnam: Identifying priority indicators through stakeholder engagement

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    Mayton, H.; Beal, T.; Rubin, J.; Sanchez, A.; Heller, M.; Hoey, L.; Khoury, C. K.; Jones, A.

    2017-12-01

    Globally, food systems impact and are impacted by the sustainability of environmental, societal, political, and public health factors. At the center of these systems are human diets, which vary substantially by culture and region, and have significant influence on human health, community livelihoods, climate change, and natural resources. However, rapidly growing and highly diverse lower middle-income countries like Vietnam face challenges in gathering data and defining clear policy intervention points and approaches that will provide a net-positive systemic influence across sectors. A new collaboration, Entry points to Advance Transitions towards Sustainable diets (EATS), between the University of Michigan and the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) aims to identify ways that existing data and insights into the policy process can be leveraged to inform decision-making on where and how to intervene to effectively shift multiple axes of food systems to enhance the sustainability of diets. As a first step towards developing a model that other policy communities could follow, researchers aggregated and characterized approximately 50 major existing datasets on food, agriculture, and nutrition in Vietnam. They also created a conceptual framework for evaluating the sustainability of diets and for characterizing existing datasets, including eight domains and over 200 unique, measurable indicators. Figure 1 summarizes these domains and their key relationships, which forms a foundation for identifying leverage points that can positively impact multiple aspects of sustainable diets. Researchers then engaged food system stakeholders through informal interviews, surveys, and collaborative workshops to prioritize indicators and identify additional relevant data sources. Stakeholders included national government, research, NGO, and private sector representatives from across the range of identified domains. The key indicators identified by stakeholders will

  18. Indications and Use of the Gluten Contamination Elimination Diet for Patients with Non-Responsive Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Maureen M; Cureton, Pamela; Fasano, Alessio

    2017-10-18

    For the majority of patients diagnosed with celiac disease, once a gluten-free diet is initiated, symptoms improve within weeks and may completely resolve in months. However, up to 30% of patients may show signs, symptoms or persistent small intestinal damage after one year on a gluten-free diet. These patients require evaluation for other common GI etiologies and assessment of their celiac disease status in order to make a diagnosis and suggest treatment. Here, we propose an approach to evaluating patients with celiac disease with persistent symptoms, persistently elevated serology, and or persistent villous atrophy despite a gluten-free diet. We detail how to diagnose and distinguish between non-responsive and refractory celiac disease. Finally, we introduce the indications for use of the gluten contamination elimination diet and provide information for practitioners to implement the diet when necessary in their practice.

  19. Effect of diet on serotonergic neurotransmission in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Faisal; Patel, Akash; Mattison, Charles; Bose, Sumit; Krishnamohan, Raathathulaksi; Sweeney, Emily; Sandhu, Sarina; Nel, Wynand; Rais, Afsha; Sandhu, Ranbir; Ngu, Nguasaah; Sharma, Sushil

    2013-02-01

    Depression is characterized by sadness, purposelessness, irritability, and impaired body functions. Depression causes severe symptoms for several weeks, and dysthymia, which may cause chronic, low-grade symptoms. Treatment of depression involves psychotherapy, medications, or phototherapy. Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that an appropriate diet can reduce symptoms of depression. The neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT), synthesized in the brain, plays an important role in mood alleviation, satiety, and sleep regulation. Although certain fruits and vegetables are rich in 5-HT, it is not easily accessible to the CNS due to blood brain barrier. However the serotonin precursor, tryptophan, can readily pass through the blood brain barrier. Tryptophan is converted to 5-HT by tryptophan hydroxylase and 5-HTP decarboxylase, respectively, in the presence of pyridoxal phosphate, derived from vitamin B(6). Hence diets poor in tryptophan may induce depression as this essential amino acid is not naturally abundant even in protein-rich foods. Tryptophan-rich diet is important in patients susceptible to depression such as certain females during pre and postmenstrual phase, post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic pain, cancer, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Carbohydrate-rich diet triggers insulin response to enhance the bioavailability of tryptophan in the CNS which is responsible for increased craving of carbohydrate diets. Although serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are prescribed to obese patients with depressive symptoms, these agents are incapable of precisely regulating the CNS serotonin and may cause life-threatening adverse effects in the presence of monoamine oxidase inhibitors. However, CNS serotonin synthesis can be controlled by proper intake of tryptophan-rich diet. This report highlights the clinical significance of tryptophan-rich diet and vitamin B(6) to boost serotonergic neurotransmission in

  20. Relationship between diet-related indicators and overweight and obesity in older adults in rural Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M; Moriya, S; Yokoyama, T

    2017-01-01

    To identify the relationship between diet-related indicators and overweight and obesity in older adults in rural Japan. Cross-sectional survey. Obira, Hokkaido, Japan. Local residents aged between 65 and 74 years, except for those with poor health, were included. A health- and diet-related questionnaire was applied to participants house-to-house by trained health professionals. The following indicators were examined: number of meals, number of balanced meals, food diversity, food group diversity, chewing ability, alcohol intake habit, smoking habit, instrumental activities of daily living scores, age, and residing alone or with family. Of 550 residents, 317 residents completely responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 41 were had low body mass index (BMI≤20) and were excluded. This resulted in a sample of 307 subjects comprising 117 men and 190 women; 37.6% and 46.8% of men and women were classified as obese (BMI≥25), respectively. Women with a normal BMI (20diet-related indicators compared with women with high BMI. The mean number of meals per day of normal men was significantly higher than of obese men. Using logistic regression analysis (stepwise), it was found that the number of meals per day was associated with obesity in men (OR=3.02; 95% CI 0.91-9.98; P=0.071), and food diversity was significantly associated with obesity in women (OR=1.95; 95% CI 1.12-3.38; P=0.018). The associations between dietary indicators and obesity differed by sex. Food diversity may be a potential indicator to measure nutritional status in women.

  1. The association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and diet quality indices in Iranian adults: results from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, Leila; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Akhavanzanjani, Mohsen; Taheri, Marzieh; Golshahi, Jafar; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association between dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and dietary quality indices in Iranian adults. This cross section was conducted among 1571 Iranian adults aged  ≥19 years. GI, GL and diet quality indices were estimated by 24-h recall and DDS was calculated using a validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire. Participants who were in the top tertile of GI had lower healthy eating index (HEI) (57.2 ± 7.8 versus 55.6 ± 8.7; p diet quality indices may suggest the relevance of carbohydrate source in determining the diet quality indices.

  2. Effect of ionizing radiation on reducing the several inhibitors in codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    The medium for Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L) was sterilized using ionizing radiation (0, 5, 15 and 25 KGy) or heat (cooking for 40 minutes.). inhibitors were also added either on the top of the diet or by mixing it with the diet. The results showed that all Codling moth larvae in the ionizing radiation sterilized diet died before reaching the 4th larval instar. Results of using both radiation and cooking for sterilizing the diet gave variable results; those treated with 15 KGy gave significantly more moths with higher weight and more fecundity. The results also showed that increasing the amount of microbial inhibitors in diet negatively affected the number of produced moth and their biological characteristics. Consequently irradiation could be a mean for reducing the amount of chemical inhibitors added to the diet. (author)

  3. Consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets alters biochemical indices in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Osmund Falade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is thermally oxidized to increase its palatability and this has been a usual practice in most homes. This study sought to assess the biochemical responses of rats to thermally oxidized palm oil diets. Therefore, Wistar strain albino rats (Rattus norveigicus were fed with fresh palm oil (control and thermally oxidized palm oil (test groups diets and water ad libitum for 30 days. Then, the malondialdehyde (MDA contents and total protein of the plasma and liver were determined. Subsequently, the plasma liver function markers [alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin (ALB and total bilirubin (TBIL ] and the lipid profile [triglyceride (TRIG, total cholesterol (T-CHOL, high density lipoprotein (HDL-CHOL and low density lipoprotein (LDL-CHOL ] were assayed. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the plasma and liver total protein, ALB, TRIG and HDL-CHOL of the test groups when compared with the control. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05 in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP, TBIL, T-CHOL, LDL-CHOL and plasma/liver MDA of the test groups when compared with the control. These effects were most pronounced in rats fed with 20 min-thermally oxidized palm oil diet. Hence, consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets had deleterious effects on biochemical indices in rats. Therefore, cooking with and/or consumption of palm oil subjected to heat treatment for several long periods of time should be discouraged in our homes as this might have deleterious effects on human health.

  4. Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indic and Custard Apple (Annona reticulata Diets on Sterility of House Rat (Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Nidhi Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different plant products diets – i neem (Azadirachta indic A. Juss oil mixed diet (neem oil mixed @ 80 ml/kg of normal diet, ii neem seed powder mixed diet (neem seed powder mixed @ 80 g/kg of normal diet and iii custard apple (Annona reticulata L. seed powder mixed diet (custard apple seed powder mixed @ 80 g/kg of normal diet were separately fed to mature rats (Rattus rattus with single dose feeding of 80 g per pair in a day on 13th week-age during the experimenting years, 2012/013 and 2013/014. In control group only normal diet without neem and custard apple constituents were fed. Sterility test of rat was conducted up to 38 and 28 weeks-age in first and second year, respectively. The test rats were fed normal diet during whole experimenting periods except the one day when they were fed only the neem or custard apple mixed diet on the age of 13th week. Efficacy of the mixed diets on rat-sterility was determined based on pregnancy and parturition by the rats. The two years' results confirmed that all the tested three mixed diets – neem oil mixed diet, neem seed powder mixed diet, and custard apple seed powder mixed diet were effective to stop pregnancy and parturition in rats during whole experimenting periods up to 38 and 28 weeks-age with single dose feeding of 80 g per pair (40 gm/rat in a day on 13th week-age of the rats; whereas the pregnancy and parturition were observed in the rats that were fed only the normal diet. It is expected, neem and custard apple mixed diets can be utilized in reducing the economically important rodent populations in rice-wheat cropping system in future.

  5. Effect of Metformin and Flutamide on Anthropometric Indices and Laboratory Tests in Obese/Overweight PCOS Women under Hypocaloric Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mania; Golsorkhtabaramiri, Masoumeh; Esmaeilzadeh, Sedigheh; Ghofrani, Faeze; Bijani, Ali; Ghorbani, Leila; Delavar, Moloud Agajani

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of metformin and flutamide alone or in combination with anthropometric indices and laboratory tests of obese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. This single blind clinical trial was performed on 120 PCOS women. At the beginning, hypocaloric diet was recommended for the patients. After one month while they were on the diet, the patients were randomly divided in 4 groups; metformin (500 mg, 3/day), flutamide (250 mg, 2/day), combined, metformin (500 mg, 3/day) with flutamide (250 mg, 2/day) and finally placebo group. The patients were treated for 6 months. Anthropometric indices and laboratory tests (fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin levels, lipid profile and androgens) were measured. A one-way ANOVA (Post Hoc) and paired t-test were performed to analyze data. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. After treatment, reduction in weight, BMI, hip circumference was significantly greater in the metformin group in comparison to other groups (phypocaloric diet.

  6. New Specimens of Yanornis Indicate a Piscivorous Diet and Modern Alimentary Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xiaoting; O'Connor, Jingmai K.; Huchzermeyer, Fritz; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2014-01-01

    A crop adapted for an herbivorous diet of seeds has previously been documented in the Early Cretaceous birds Sapeornis and Hongshanornis. Here we report on several specimens of Yanornis that preserve a crop containing fish. One specimen preserves two whole fish in the oesophagus, indicating that Early Cretaceous birds shared trophic specializations with Neornithes for the increased energetic demands of flight – namely the storing of food for later consumption when the stomach is full. Whole f...

  7. Gluten-Free Diet Indications, Safety, Quality, Labels, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami, Kamran; Bold, Justine; Parr, Alison; Johnson, Matt W.

    2017-01-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the safest treatment modality in patient with coeliac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders. Contamination and diet compliance are important factors behind persistent symptoms in patients with gluten related-disorders, in particular CD. How much gluten can be tolerated, how safe are the current gluten-free (GF) products, what are the benefits and side effects of GFD? Recent studies published in Nutrients on gluten-free products? quality, availability, saf...

  8. Effect of Metformin and Flutamide on Anthropometric Indices and Laboratory Tests in Obese/Overweight PCOS Women under Hypocaloric Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mania; Golsorkhtabaramiri, Masoumeh; Esmaeilzadeh, Sedigheh; Ghofrani, Faeze; Bijani, Ali; Ghorbani, Leila; Delavar, Moloud Agajani

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate the effect of metformin and flutamide alone or in combination with anthropometric indices and laboratory tests of obese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. Methods This single blind clinical trial was performed on 120 PCOS women. At the beginning, hypocaloric diet was recommended for the patients. After one month while they were on the diet, the patients were randomly divided in 4 groups; metformin (500 mg, 3/day), flutamide (250 mg, 2/day), combined, metformin (500 mg, 3/day) with flutamide (250 mg, 2/day) and finally placebo group. The patients were treated for 6 months. Anthropometric indices and laboratory tests (fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin levels, lipid profile and androgens) were measured. A one-way ANOVA (Post Hoc) and paired t-test were performed to analyze data. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results After treatment, reduction in weight, BMI, hip circumference was significantly greater in the metformin group in comparison to other groups (pobese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. PMID:25473629

  9. Interspecific differences between D. pulex and D. magna in tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J Kuster

    Full Text Available It is known that cyanobacteria negatively affect herbivores due to their production of toxins such as protease inhibitors. In the present study we investigated potential interspecific differences between two major herbivores, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, in terms of their tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors. Seven clones each of D. magna and of D. pulex were isolated from different habitats in Europe and North America. To test for interspecific differences in the daphnids' tolerance to cyanobacteria, their somatic and population growth rates were determined for each D. magna and D. pulex clone after exposure to varying concentrations of two Microcystis aeruginosa strains. The M. aeruginosa strains NIVA and PCC(- contained either chymotrypsin or trypsin inhibitors, but no microcystins. Mean somatic and population growth rates on a diet with 20% NIVA were significantly more reduced in D. pulex than in D. magna. On a diet with 10% PCC(-, the population growth of D. pulex was significantly more reduced than that of D. magna. This indicates that D. magna is more tolerant to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors than D. pulex. The reduction of growth rates was possibly caused by an interference of cyanobacterial inhibitors with proteases in the gut of Daphnia, as many other conceivable factors, which might have been able to explain the reduced growth, could be excluded as causal factors. Protease assays revealed that the sensitivities of chymotrypsins and trypsins to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors did not differ between D. magna and D. pulex. However, D. magna exhibited a 2.3-fold higher specific chymotrypsin activity than D. pulex, which explains the observed higher tolerance to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors of D. magna. The present study suggests that D. magna may control the development of cyanobacterial blooms more efficiently than D. pulex due to differences in their tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease

  10. EXPERIMENT ON EFFECTS OF LOE-PROTEIN DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH α-KETOACIDS ON HYPERTROPHY OF DIABETIC GLOMERULUS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LEVEL OF CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids was reported to have renoprotective roles in diabetic nephropathy via inhibiting glomerular hypertrophy, however, the mechanism has not yet been fully clarified. the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 play an important role in hypertrophy of diabetic glomerulus, The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and the effect of low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids on hypertrophy of diabetic glomerulus in rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats were given low-protein diet(5□ protein in fodder, LPD groupor low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids(5□ protein in fodder including 1□ protein supplied by α-keto acids, LPD+α-KA groupor normal-protein diet(10□protein in fodder, NPD groupfor 8 weeks□The p27 protein of glomerular lysate was detected with Western Blot. The extracellular matrix (ECMprotein(type IV collagen and fibronectin of glomerular lysate and 24 h urine albumin were examined with ELISA□ Image analysis system was used to detect the diameter of each glomerulus. Glomerular p27 protein increased in diabetic rats no matter what kinds of diet were given, meanwhile,the 24h urine albumin, glomerular ECM,glomerular diameter elevated as well as the ratio of kidney weight over body weight in diabetic rats□Both low-protein diet and low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids could attenuate changes occurred in diabetic rats with normal-protein diet□Glomerular p27 level(8.6±2.3 vs 11.1±3.6,P〈0.01,24 h urine albumin(13.21±2.49μg□24 h vs (18.13±3.23μg□24 h,P〈0.01,glomerular diameter(652±73μm2 vs (721±75μm2,P〈0.05,and the ratio of kidney weight over body weight(11.02±1.72 vs 12.03±1.85,P〈0.05were lower in LPD+α-KA group than LPD group. Solely glomerular p27 level was linearly related with the ratio of kidney weight over body weight in diabetic rats□The blood glucose and serum albumin

  11. Gluten-Free Diet Indications, Safety, Quality, Labels, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Kamran; Bold, Justine; Parr, Alison; Johnson, Matt W

    2017-08-08

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the safest treatment modality in patient with coeliac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders. Contamination and diet compliance are important factors behind persistent symptoms in patients with gluten related-disorders, in particular CD. How much gluten can be tolerated, how safe are the current gluten-free (GF) products, what are the benefits and side effects of GFD? Recent studies published in Nutrients on gluten-free products' quality, availability, safety, as well as challenges related to a GFD are discussed.

  12. Prevention of palatable diet-induced hyperphagia in rats by central injection of a VEGFR kinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Audrey; Bobilev, Anastasia; Negrao, Nuria Waddington; Cai, Haini; Shen, Ping

    2015-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated a critical role of a VEGFR-like signaling pathway in hunger-driven overeating of sugar-rich food in Drosophila larvae. In the current study, we investigate whether the VEGFR signaling mechanism plays a similar role in the feeding behavior of vertebrates using male Sprague Dawley rats. Young rats were treated intracerebroventrically (i.c.v.) with a single dose (2 μg) of VEGFR2 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor V (VTKI-V), an N-cyclopropylnaphthamide compound that selectively inhibits the kinase activity of VEGFR2 at subnanomolar concentrations. We find that animals treated with VTKI-V showed markedly attenuated overconsumption of palatable food that is sweet and fatty. The subsequent meal pattern analysis reveals that is achieved by consumption of smaller, shorter meals. Furthermore, i.c.v. injection of VTKI-V decreased body weight gain in animals fed with CHOW or palatable food. These inhibitory effects of the drug were detectable within 24h and persisted for at least five days. Given that body weight was affected by the drug regardless of diet while food intake was selectively altered in palatable diet fed animals, these results raise the possibility that i.c.v. injection of VTKI-V may interfere the functions of two separate VEGFR-mediated mechanisms: one promotes overconsumption of palatable food, and the other mediates body weight gain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physico- chemical study of Ceratitis capitata rearing diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sghiri, Mohamed Ali; Maddouri Fakri

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition of the microbial growth in the rearing diet of ceratitis capitata made it possible to increase the productivity in pupae. The follow-up of the microbial load and the physicochemical parameters of the diets used with varous microbial inhibitors (potassium sorbate in combination with sodium benzoate with varous amounts, on the one hand, and of another share, nipagine in combination with sodium benzoate also with varous amounts) during a rearing of ceratitis capitata on the laboratory scale made it possible to select the diet D as being the most favorable diet. Indeed, a stability of the physico chemical parameters as well as a weak evolution of the microbial load are noted in this diet. (author). 16 refs

  14. Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) obstructs Spodoptera frugiperda trypsins expressed during adaptive mechanisms against plant protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Suzy Wider; de Oliveira, Caio Fernando Ramalho; Zério, Neide Graciano; Parra, José Roberto Postali; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are elements of a common plant defense mechanism induced in response to herbivores. The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, a highly polyphagous lepidopteran pest, responds to various PIs in its diet by expressing genes encoding trypsins. This raises the question of whether the PI-induced trypsins are also inhibited by other PIs, which we posed as the hypothesis that Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) inhibits PI-induced trypsins in S. frugiperda. In the process of testing our hypothesis, we compared its properties with those of selected PIs, soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI), Inga vera trypsin inhibitor (IVTI), Adenanthera pavonina trypsin inhibitor (ApTI), and Entada acaciifolia trypsin inhibitor (EATI). We report that ILTI is more effective in inhibiting the induced S. frugiperda trypsins than SKTI and the other PIs, which supports our hypothesis. ILTI may be more appropriate than SKTI for studies regarding adaptive mechanisms to dietary PIs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  16. Virgin olive oil, palm olein and coconut oil diets do not raise cell adhesion molecules and thrombogenicity indices in healthy Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, P T; Ng, T K W; Lee, V K M; Nesaretnam, K

    2015-06-01

    Effects of high-protein diets that are rich in saturated fats on cell adhesion molecules, thrombogenicity and other nonlipid markers of atherosclerosis in humans have not been firmly established. We aim to investigate the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared separately with virgin olive oil (OO), palm olein (PO) and coconut oil (CO) on cell adhesion molecules, lipid inflammatory mediators and thromobogenicity indices in healthy adults. A randomized cross-over intervention with three dietary sequences, using virgin OO, PO and CO as test fats, was carried out for 5 weeks on each group consisting of 45 men and women. These test fats were incorporated separately at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. For fasting and nonfasting blood samples, no significant differences were observed on the effects of the three test-fat diets on thrombaxane B2 (TXB2), TXB2/PGF1α ratios and soluble intracellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules. The OO diet induced significantly lower (Pvirgin OO do not alter the thrombogenicity indices-cellular adhesion molecules, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and TXB2/prostacyclin (PGF1α) ratios. However, the OO diet lowered plasma proinflammatory LTB4, whereas the PO diet raised the antiaggregatory plasma PGF1α in healthy Malaysian adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00941837.

  17. The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Mai T.; Wehrli, Suzanne; Dang, Chi V.; Curran, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The altered metabolism of cancer cells has long been viewed as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In particular, brain tumors often display heightened glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen. A subset of medulloblastoma, the most prevalent malignant brain tumor in children, arises as a consequence of activating mutations in the Hedgehog (HH) pathway, which has been shown to promote aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that a low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet would suppress tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of medulloblastoma. However, we found that the ketogenic diet did not slow the growth of spontaneous tumors or allograft flank tumors, and it did not exhibit synergy with a small molecule inhibitor of Smoothened. Serum insulin was significantly reduced in mice fed the ketogenic diet, but no alteration in PI3 kinase activity was observed. These findings indicate that while the ketogenic diet may be effective in inhibiting growth of other tumor types, it does not slow the growth of HH-medulloblastoma in mice. PMID:26192445

  18. The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai T Dang

    Full Text Available The altered metabolism of cancer cells has long been viewed as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In particular, brain tumors often display heightened glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen. A subset of medulloblastoma, the most prevalent malignant brain tumor in children, arises as a consequence of activating mutations in the Hedgehog (HH pathway, which has been shown to promote aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that a low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet would suppress tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of medulloblastoma. However, we found that the ketogenic diet did not slow the growth of spontaneous tumors or allograft flank tumors, and it did not exhibit synergy with a small molecule inhibitor of Smoothened. Serum insulin was significantly reduced in mice fed the ketogenic diet, but no alteration in PI3 kinase activity was observed. These findings indicate that while the ketogenic diet may be effective in inhibiting growth of other tumor types, it does not slow the growth of HH-medulloblastoma in mice.

  19. Sex-Related Differences in Hematological Parameters and Organosomatic Indices of Oreochromis niloticus Exposed to Aflatoxin B1 Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Marijani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-week feeding experiment was conducted to assess whether males and females of Oreochromis niloticus exhibit differences in their hematological responses and organosomatic indices to dietary AFB1 contamination. Triplicate groups of O. niloticus (initial body weight: 24.1 ± 0.6 g were fed with four diets (Diets 1 to 4 containing 0, 20, 200, and 2,000 μg AFB1 kg−1. A significant decrease (P<0.05 in hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cells (RBC, and hematocrit (Hct was observed in AFB1 exposure groups, with the lowest levels recorded in the 2000 μg AFB1 kg−1 treatment. A significant increase in mean white blood cells (WBC, neutrophils, and lymphocytes was observed in AFB1 exposure groups. No sex-related differences in RBC, WBC, lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils levels were observed. However, hemoglobin and hematocrit values for female O. niloticus were significantly lower than those for male O. niloticus. Organosomatic indices showed that the relative liver, kidney, and spleen weights were significantly higher (P<0.05 in the AFB1 supplemented group than in the control group. However, the effect of aflatoxin on organosomatic indices does not depend on sex but rather depends on the dose of aflatoxin in the diet. These results provide useful information for monitoring changes in the health status of male and female O. niloticus.

  20. Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller (Lepidoptera: pyrallidae on two commercial pistachio cultivars and an artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimeh Teimouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller were studied in a growth chamber under controlled conditions (29 ± 2 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D hours on two commercial Pistachio cultivars (Akbari and Kalequchi and an artificial diet. Feeding indices of E. ceratoniae larvae differed significantly on three hosts (P < 0.05. The relative consumption rate was calculated to be 5.36 ± 0.009, 11.10 ± 1.49 and 10.631 ± 0.599 (mg/mg/day on artificial diet, Akbari and Kalequchi cultivars, respectively. Carob moth larvae reared on Akbari cultivar showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD (5.64 ± 0.43. The highest amount of efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI was obtained on artificial diet but approximate digestibility (AD was the lowest on this diet. The highest enzymatic activities of alpha-amylase, general proteases and lipase were observed in the midgut of larvae reared on artificial diet. Total protein and lipid value were highest in larvae that were reared on artificial diet.

  1. Stable isotope ratios indicate diet and habitat use in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeninger, M J; Iwaniec, U T; Glander, K E

    1997-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in animal tissue for indicating aspects of species behavioral strategy. We analyzed hair from individuals representing four species of New World monkeys (Alouatta palliata, the mantled howler; Ateles geoffroyi, the spider monkey; Cebus capucinus, the capuchin; and Brachyteles arachnoides, the woolly-spider monkey or muriqui) for delta 13C and delta 15N using previously developed methods. There are no significant differences in either carbon or nitrogen ratios between sexes, sampling year, or year of analysis. Seasonal differences in delta 13C reached a low level of significance but do not affect general patterns. Variation within species was similar to that recorded previously within single individuals. The omega 13C data show a bimodal distribution with significant difference between the means. The two monkey populations living in an evergreen forest were similar to each other and different from the other two monkey populations that inhabited dry, deciduous forests. This bimodal distribution is independent of any particular species' diet and reflects the level of leaf cover in the two types of forest. The delta 15N data display three significantly different modes. The omnivorous capuchins were most positive reflecting a trophic level offset. The spider monkeys and the muriquis were similar to one another and significantly more positive than the howlers. This distribution among totally herbivorous species correlates with the ingestion of legumes by the howler monkey population. In combination, these data indicate that museum-curated primate material can be analyzed to yield information on forest cover and diet in populations and species lacking behavioral data.

  2. Genetic ablation or chemical inhibition of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein attenuates diet-induced hepatic glucose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishova, Ekaterina Y; Stoll, Janis M; Ersoy, Baran A; Shrestha, Sudeep; Scapa, Erez F; Li, Yingxia; Niepel, Michele W; Su, Ya; Jelicks, Linda A; Stahl, Gregory L; Glicksman, Marcie A; Gutierrez-Juarez, Roger; Cuny, Gregory D; Cohen, David E

    2011-08-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, synonym StARD2) is a highly specific intracellular lipid binding protein that is enriched in liver. Coding region polymorphisms in both humans and mice appear to confer protection against measures of insulin resistance. The current study was designed to test the hypotheses that Pctp-/- mice are protected against diet-induced increases in hepatic glucose production and that small molecule inhibition of PC-TP recapitulates this phenotype. Pctp-/- and wildtype mice were subjected to high-fat feeding and rates of hepatic glucose production and glucose clearance were quantified by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies and pyruvate tolerance tests. These studies revealed that high-fat diet-induced increases in hepatic glucose production were markedly attenuated in Pctp-/- mice. Small molecule inhibitors of PC-TP were synthesized and their potencies, as well as mechanism of inhibition, were characterized in vitro. An optimized inhibitor was administered to high-fat-fed mice and used to explore effects on insulin signaling in cell culture systems. Small molecule inhibitors bound PC-TP, displaced phosphatidylcholines from the lipid binding site, and increased the thermal stability of the protein. Administration of the optimized inhibitor to wildtype mice attenuated hepatic glucose production associated with high-fat feeding, but had no activity in Pctp-/- mice. Indicative of a mechanism for reducing glucose intolerance that is distinct from commonly utilized insulin-sensitizing agents, the inhibitor promoted insulin-independent phosphorylation of key insulin signaling molecules. These findings suggest PC-TP inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in the management of hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Du, Wenhua; Shao, Shanshan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhou, Lingyan; Jing, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg) (V-HFD). After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR for gene expression levels, and western blots for protein expression levels. ER stress was induced in HepG2 cells with palmitic acid and the effects of vildagliptin were investigated. Results. HFD mice showed increased liver weight/body weight (20.27%) and liver triglycerides (314.75%) compared to CD mice, but these decreased by 9.27% and 21.83%, respectively, in V-HFD mice. In the liver, HFD induced the expression of ER stress indicators significantly, which were obviously decreased by vildagliptin. In vitro, the expressions of molecular indicators of ER stress were reduced in HepG2 when vildagliptin was administered. Conclusions. Vildagliptin alleviates hepatic ER stress in a mouse high fat diet model. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin directly reduced ER stress. Therefore, vildagliptin may be a potential agent for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  4. Description of the healthy eating indices-based diet quality in Turkish adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, Eda; Karacil Ermumcu, Merve Seyda; Mortas, Hande

    2017-03-20

    This study aims to describe the dietary status of Turkish adults using two different versions of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). In this cross sectional study, 494 healthy participants (311 females) with randomly selected and living in Ankara were included between September 2013 and March 2014. A questionnaire was completed and anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were performed. The 24-h dietary recall of individuals was collected. Diet quality was measured through HEI-2005 and HEI-2010 scores. The mean age, body mass index (BMI), HEI-2005 and HEI-2010 scores of individuals were 32.9 ± 10.8 years; 25.0 ± 4.8 kg/m 2 ; 56.1 ± 13.9 and 41.5 ± 13.7 points, respectively. Significant differences were found between mean HEI-2005 and HEI-2010 scores (p diet quality needs to be improved according to mean HEI-2005 score, had poorer diet based on mean HEI-2010 scores. The highest mean HEI-2005 and HEI-2010 scores were stated in female, in subjects had low education levels, aged 51 years or older and in overweight groups (p healthy eating indices were correlated positively with BMI and age CONCLUSION: Diet qualities of the individuals are associated with age, gender, education and BMI. Although the components and scores in HEI-2010 version were changed from the version of HEI-2005, the changes may encourage healthy choices of some food group. HEI-2010 gives more attention to food quality than HEI-2005. Thus, in the present study it was concluded that HEI-2010 provided more precise results about diet quality.

  5. Faecal nitrogen: a potential indicator of red and roe deer diet quality in forest habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, 1-2 (2005), s. 89-98 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/D053; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : free-living ungulates * faecal indicators * diet quality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2005 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/54/1-2/89-98.pdf

  6. Novel Peptidase Kunitz Inhibitor from Platypodium elegans Seeds Is Active against Spodoptera frugiperda Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Suellen Rodrigues; Bezerra, Cézar da Silva; Lourenço de Oliveira, Daniella Gorete; Souza Lima, Letícia; Maria Neto, Simone; Ramalho de Oliveira, Caio Fernando; Valério Verbisck, Newton; Rodrigues Macedo, Maria Lígia

    2018-02-14

    A novel Kunitz-type inhibitor from Platypodium elegans seeds (PeTI) was purified and characterized. The mass spectrometry analyses of PeTI indicated an intact mass of 19 701 Da and a partial sequence homologous to Kunitz inhibitors. PeTI was purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatographies. A complex with a 1:1 ratio was obtained only for bovine trypsin, showing a K i = 0.16 nM. Stability studies showed that PeTI was stable over a wide range of temperature (37-80 °C) and pH (2-10). The inhibitory activity of PeTI was affected by dithiothreitol (DTT). Bioassays of PeTI on Spodoptera frugiperda showed negative effects on larval development and weight gain, besides extending the insect life cycle. The activities of digestive enzymes, trypsin and chymotrypsin, were reduced by feeding larvae with 0.2% PeTI in an artificial diet. In summary, we describe a novel Kunitz inhibitor with promising biotechnological potential for pest control.

  7. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 is required for high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjære, Even; Andersen, Charlotte; Myrmel, Lene Secher

    2015-01-01

    -induced glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis using the Timp1 null mice. METHODS: Timp1 knockout (TKO) and wild type (TWT) mice were fed chow, high-fat diet (HFD) or intermediate fat and sucrose diet (IFSD). We determined body weight, body composition, lipid content of the liver, energy intake, energy...... and had lower energy efficiency than TWT mice when fed HFD, but not when fed chow or IFSD. Importantly, TKO mice were protected from development of HFD- as well as IFSD-induced glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and altered expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation....... CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results indicate that TIMP-1 contributes to the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance and may be a potential therapeutic target....

  8. Teneligliptin: a DPP-4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishimoto M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Miyako KishimotoDepartment of Diabetes and Metabolic Medicine, Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; Diabetes and Metabolism Information Center, Diabetes Research Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors have recently emerged as a new class of antidiabetic that show favorable results in improving glycemic control with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Teneligliptin, a novel DPP-4 inhibitor, exhibits a unique structure characterized by five consecutive rings, which produce a potent and long-lasting effect. Teneligliptin is currently used in cases showing insufficient improvement in glycemic control even after diet control and exercise or a combination of diet control, exercise, and sulfonylurea- or thiazolidine-class drugs. In adults, teneligliptin is orally administered at a dosage of 20 mg once daily, which can be increased up to 40 mg per day. Because the metabolites of this drug are eliminated via renal and hepatic excretion, no dose adjustment is necessary in patients with renal impairment. The safety profile of teneligliptin is similar to those of other available DPP-4 inhibitors. However, caution needs to be exercised when administering teneligliptin to patients who are prone to QT prolongation. One study has reported that the postprandial blood glucose-lowering effects of teneligliptin administered prior to breakfast were sustained throughout the day, and the effects observed after dinner were similar to those observed after breakfast or lunch. Thus, although clinical data for this new drug are limited, this drug shows promise in stabilizing glycemic fluctuations throughout the day and consequently suppressing the progression of diabetic complications. However, continued evaluation in long-term studies and clinical trials is required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the drug as well as to identify additional indications for its clinical use

  9. The effect of renal diet in association with enalapril or benazepril on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whether different ACE-inhibitors have distinct kidney protective effects is unknown; it is therefore hypothesized that renal diets and enalapril or benazepril have different beneficial effects in proteinuric CKD dogs. Forty-four dogs with proteinuric CKD (IRIS stages 1-4) were enrolled in the study and were fed renal diet for 30 ...

  10. Identification and characterization of digestive serine proteases from inhibitor-resistant Helicoverpa zea larval midgut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpicella, M.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Jongsma, M.A.; Gallerani, R.; Ceci, L.R.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Protease inhibitors mediate a natural form of plant defence against insects, by interfering with the digestive system of the insect. In this paper, affinity chromatography was used to isolate trypsins and chymotrypsins from Helicoverpa zea larvae, which had been raised on inhibitor-containing diet.

  11. Thromboxane synthesis inhibitors and postprandial jejunal capillary exchange capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangino, M J; Chou, C C

    1988-05-01

    The effects of thromboxane synthesis inhibitors (imidazole and U 63557A; Upjohn) and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, mefenamic acid, on jejunal capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc) were determined in dogs before and during the presence of predigested food in the jejunal lumen. The jejunal Kfc increased significantly soon after the placement of a predigested test food containing all major constituents of diet. The Kfc remained elevated as long as the food was present in the lumen (15 min). Mefenamic acid (10 mg/kg iv) did not significantly alter resting jejunal Kfc or alter the food-induced increase in Kfc. Imidazole (5.0 mg/min ia) or U 63557A (5.0 mg/kg iv) per se significantly increased jejunal Kfc. Placement of digested food further increased the Kfc to levels significantly higher than those observed before administration of the two thromboxane synthase inhibitors. Production of thromboxane B2 by jejunal tissue was significantly reduced and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (the stable hydrolysis product of prostacyclin) production was significantly increased after administration of U 63557A. Our study indicates that the relative production of endogenous thromboxanes and other prostanoids modulates jejunal capillary exchange capacity in the absence or presence of digested food in the jejunal lumen.

  12. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD, high fat diet (HFD, and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg (V-HFD. After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR for gene expression levels, and western blots for protein expression levels. ER stress was induced in HepG2 cells with palmitic acid and the effects of vildagliptin were investigated. Results. HFD mice showed increased liver weight/body weight (20.27% and liver triglycerides (314.75% compared to CD mice, but these decreased by 9.27% and 21.83%, respectively, in V-HFD mice. In the liver, HFD induced the expression of ER stress indicators significantly, which were obviously decreased by vildagliptin. In vitro, the expressions of molecular indicators of ER stress were reduced in HepG2 when vildagliptin was administered. Conclusions. Vildagliptin alleviates hepatic ER stress in a mouse high fat diet model. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin directly reduced ER stress. Therefore, vildagliptin may be a potential agent for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  13. Novel Indications for Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, beyond Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Campbell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK is a critical terminal enzyme in the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR pathway. BTK activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies. Targeting this pathway has emerged as a novel target in B-cell malignancies, of which ibrutinib is the first-in-class agent. A few other BTK inhibitors (BTKi are also under development (e.g., acalabrutinib. While the predominant action of BTKi is the blockade of B-cell receptor pathway within malignant B-cells, increasing the knowledge of off-target effects as well as a potential role for B-cells in proliferation of solid malignancies is expanding the indication of BTKi into non-hematological malignancies. In addition to the expansion of the role of BTKi monotherapy, combination therapy strategies utilizing ibrutinib with established regimens and combination with modern immunotherapy compounds are being explored.

  14. A consensus proposal for nutritional indicators to assess the sustainability of a healthy diet: the Mediterranean diet as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo M Donini; Barbara Burlingame

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence of the multiple effects of diets on public health nutrition, society and environment. Sustainability and food security are closely inter-related. The traditional Mediterranean Diet (MD) is recognized as a healthier dietary pattern with a lower environmental impact. As a case study, the MD may guide innovative inter-sectorial efforts to counteract the degradation of ecosystems, loss of biodiversity and homogeneity of diets due to globalization, through ...

  15. A consensus proposal for nutritional indicators to assess the sustainability of a healthy diet: the mediterranean diet as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Donini, Lorenzo M.; Dernini, Sandro; Lairon, Denis; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Amiot, Marie Josephe; Del Balzo, Valeria; Giusti, Anna-Maria; Burlingame, Barbara; Belahsen, Rekia; Maiani, Giuseppe; Polito, Angela; Turrini, Aida; Intorre, Federica; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Berry, Elliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence of the multiple effects of diets on public health nutrition, society, and environment. Sustainability and food security are closely interrelated. The traditional Mediterranean Diet (MD) is recognized as a healthier dietary pattern with a lower environmental impact. As a case study, the MD may guide innovative inter-sectorial efforts to counteract the degradation of ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, and homogeneity of diets due to globalization through t...

  16. Assessment of the haematological indices of albino rats fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Haematology, jackfruit, bulb, seed, supplementation. INTRODUCTION ... Albokhadaim, 2015) and humans (Lavy,. 1994 .... Table 2: Body weights and daily food intake of control and rats fed jackfruit seed diet (g). Experimental.

  17. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  18. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD) and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver.

  19. A Hamster Model of Diet-Induced Obesity for Preclinical Evaluation of Anti-Obesity, Anti-Diabetic and Lipid Modulating Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise S Dalbøge

    Full Text Available Unlike rats and mice, hamsters develop hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia when fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Because hyperlipidemia is a hallmark of human obesity, we aimed to develop and characterize a novel diet-induced obesity (DIO and hypercholesterolemia Golden Syrian hamster model.Hamsters fed a highly palatable fat- and sugar-rich diet (HPFS for 12 weeks showed significant body weight gain, body fat accumulation and impaired glucose tolerance. Cholesterol supplementation to the diet evoked additional hypercholesterolemia. Chronic treatment with the GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg, SC, BID, 27 days, normalized body weight and glucose tolerance, and lowered blood lipids in the DIO-hamster. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin (3.0 mg/kg, PO, QD also improved glucose tolerance. Treatment with peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36, 1.0 mg/kg/day or neuromedin U (NMU, 1.5 mg/kg/day, continuously infused via a subcutaneous osmotic minipump for 14 days, reduced body weight and energy intake and changed food preference from HPFS diet towards chow. Co-treatment with liraglutide and PYY3-36 evoked a pronounced synergistic decrease in body weight and food intake with no lower plateau established. Treatment with the cholesterol uptake inhibitor ezetimibe (10 mg/kg, PO, QD for 14 days lowered plasma total cholesterol with a more marked reduction of LDL levels, as compared to HDL, indicating additional sensitivity to cholesterol modulating drugs in the hyperlipidemic DIO-hamster. In conclusion, the features of combined obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and hypercholesterolemia in the DIO-hamster make this animal model useful for preclinical evaluation of novel anti-obesity, anti-diabetic and lipid modulating agents.

  20. Dietary diversity as an indicator of micronutrient adequacy of the diet of 5-8 year old Indian rural children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rani, V.R.; Arends, D.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Measures of dietary diversity are relatively simple and associated with nutrient adequacy and nutritional status. The aim of this study is to validate dietary diversity score (DDS) as an indicator of nutrient adequacy of diet of Indian rural children aged five to eight years.

  1. Application of calculated NMR parameters, aromaticity indices and wavefunction properties for evaluation of corrosion inhibition efficiency of pyrazine inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Hadi; Manzetti, Sergio; Dargahi, Maryam; Roonasi, Payman; Khalilnia, Zahra

    2018-01-01

    In light of the importance of developing novel corrosion inhibitors, a series of quantum chemical calculations were carried out to evaluate 15N chemical shielding CS tensors as well as aromaticity indexes including NICS, HOMA, FLU, and PDI of three pyrazine derivatives, 2-methylpyrazine (MP), 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP). The NICS parameters have been shown in previous studies to be paramount to the prediction of anti-corrosion properties, and have been combined here with HOMA, FLU and PDI and detailed wavefunction analysis to determine the effects from bromination and methylation on pyrazine. The results show that the electron density around the nitrogens, represented by CS tensors, can be good indicators of anti-corrosion efficiency. Additionally, the NICS, FLU and PDI, as aromaticity indicators of molecule, are well correlated with experimental corrosion inhibition efficiencies of the studied inhibitors. Bader sampling and detailed wavefunction analysis shows that the major effects from bromination on the pyrazine derivatives affect the Laplacian of the electron density of the ring, delocalizing the aromatic electrons of the carbon atoms into lone pairs and increasing polarization of the Laplacian values. This feature is well agreement with empirical studies, which show that ABP is the most efficient anti-corrosion compound followed by AP and MP, a property which can be attributed and predicted by derivation of the Laplacian of the electron density of the ring nuclei. This study shows the importance of devising DFT methods for development of new corrosion inhibitors, and the strength of electronic and nuclear analysis, and depicts most importantly how corrosion inhibitors composed of aromatic moieties may be modified to increase anti-corrosive properties.

  2. Chronic Stress Is Associated with Indicators of Diet Quality in Habitual Breakfast Skippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widaman, Adrianne M; Witbracht, Megan G; Forester, Shavawn M; Laugero, Kevin D; Keim, Nancy L

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies suggest skipping breakfast is associated with lower diet quality, but possible reasons underlying this relationship are not clear. Our aim was to determine the relationship between chronic stress and variations in diet quality in the context of breakfast eating or breakfast skipping. Based on morning eating habits, 40 breakfast eaters and 35 breakfast skippers participated in a cross-sectional study. Diet assessment was based on unannounced 24-hour recalls. Women, ages 18 to 45 years, with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m 2 ) Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Stress and executive function were evaluated with validated questionnaires and a computer-based task, respectively. Diet characteristics of breakfast eating and breakfast skipping were evaluated as nutrient densities (amounts per 1,000 kcal) and compared using a one-way analysis of covariance, with body mass index as covariate. Diet and stress variable associations were assessed using Pearson correlations. Despite no observed differences in daily energy intake between breakfast skipping and breakfast eating, overall diet quality (P=0.001), whole grains (P=0.002), fruit (P=0.002), empty calories (P=0.050), fiber (P=0.001), calcium (P=0.001), potassium (P=0.033), and folate (P=0.013) intakes were higher in breakfast eating. In the evening, breakfast skipping consumed more added sugars (P=0.012) and saturated fat (P=0.006). In breakfast skipping, reported stress was associated with empty calories (r=-0.39; P=0.027) and evening intake of added sugars (r=0.501; P=0.005). These relationships were not observed in breakfast eating. Breakfast skippers were less likely to meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and consumed more empty calories at night. Chronic stress was related to evening eating choices and overall empty calories in the diet of breakfast skippers, whereas breakfast eaters' dietary intake did not appear to be affected by chronic stress. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition

  3. Association of Vitamin D with Diet Quality, Sun Exposure, Physical Activity, Sociodemographic and Anthropometrics Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sharifi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D has been linked to health conditions and many serious diseases including cardiovascular, diabetes, and cancer. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between vitamin D with diet quality, sun exposure, physical activity, sociodemographic, and anthropometrics indices. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 180 subjects (90 males and 90 females aged from 14 to 57 years were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and anthropometric data, physical activity and food intake information. The correlation between serum vitamin D with these variables was analyzed. Results: Significant difference was noted between two genders regarding age, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, job, income, physical activity, LDL, HDL, TG, and cholesterol. Low quality diets denoted to a mean global score of 47±6.3 and 46±6.4 in male and females, respectively. No significant difference was found between diet quality, calcium intake (1310±734 mg, and vitamin D intake (1.8±1.5 mg with serum vitamin D level. Further analysis revealed that there was a significant positive correlation between cholesterol and saturated fat intake and serum vitamin D. Between two genders, the correlation between physical activity (p<0.005, sitting time(p<0.04, and income (p<0.04 with serum vitamin D level was significant. Conclusion: Based on significant correlation between serum vitamin D level, with cholesterol, saturated fat intake, physical activity and income, we can conclude that physical activity has correlation with a favorable vitamin D status.

  4. Creation and Initial Validation of the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M; Namasivayam-MacDonald, Ashwini M; Guida, Brittany T; Cichero, Julie A; Duivestein, Janice; Hanson, Ben; Lam, Peter; Riquelme, Luis F

    2018-05-01

    To assess consensual validity, interrater reliability, and criterion validity of the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale, a new functional outcome scale intended to capture the severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia, as represented by the degree of diet texture restriction recommended for the patient. Participants assigned International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale scores to 16 clinical cases. Consensual validity was measured against reference scores determined by an author reference panel. Interrater reliability was measured overall and across quartile subsets of the dataset. Criterion validity was evaluated versus Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) scores assigned by survey respondents to the same case scenarios. Feedback was requested regarding ease and likelihood of use. Web-based survey. Respondents (N=170) from 29 countries. Not applicable. Consensual validity (percent agreement and Kendall τ), criterion validity (Spearman rank correlation), and interrater reliability (Kendall concordance and intraclass coefficients). The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale showed strong consensual validity, criterion validity, and interrater reliability. Scenarios involving liquid-only diets, transition from nonoral feeding, or trial diet advances in therapy showed the poorest consensus, indicating a need for clear instructions on how to score these situations. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale showed greater sensitivity than the FOIS to specific changes in diet. Most (>70%) respondents indicated enthusiasm for implementing the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale. This initial validation study suggests that the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale has strong consensual and criterion validity and can be used reliably by clinicians

  5. Haematological indicators in hybrid mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos with regard to the use of meal from whole white lupin seeds in their diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zapletal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to assess the effect of replacing soybean meal with the meal from whole white lupin seeds (Lupinus albus of the Zulika variety in diets on selected haematological indicators in 40-day-old fattened hybrid mallard ducks. A total of 180 Cherry Valley ducks were divided into three groups (E1, E2, and control. The control group was fed a diet containing soybean meal. Soybean meal replaced with 50% and 100% meal of white lupin seeds were used in group E1 and group E2, respectively. At the end of the fattening, 12 ducks (6 males and 6 females were randomly selected from each group for a haematological examination. From the result of this study, it is clear that the effect of the diet was found only on the slightly varying number of white blood cells and on the proportion of monocytes. Ducks of group E2 showed a slight increase in the total number of leukocytes which was accompanied by a decrease in the percentage share of monocytes (P < 0.05. Based on the results, it can be claimed that the replacement of soybean meal with meal from the Zulika variety of whole white lupin seeds in the diet did not have a negative effect on the determined blood indicators. Therefore, whole white lupin seeds were successfully used as the important protein component of the diet for fattening hybrid mallard ducks.

  6. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Du, Wenhua; Shao, Shanshan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhou, Lingyan; Jing, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg) (V-HFD). After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission el...

  7. Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil mitigates high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and vascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Nibrass Taher; Yaseen, Awny H; Said, Eman; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2017-04-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial therapeutic outcome of Rho kinase inhibitor (fasudil) against hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial and vascular injury in rabbits together with diet modification. Sixteen male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group which received standard rabbit chow, hypercholesterolemic control group, and treated groups which received cholesterol-rich rabbit chow (1.5% cholesterol) for 8 weeks. Treated groups received either fasudil (100 mg/kg/day) or rosuvastatin (2.5 mg/kg/day) starting from the ninth week for further 4 weeks with interruption of the cholesterol-rich chow. Biochemical assessment of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and myocardial oxidative/antioxidant biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH), besides biochemical assessment of serum nitric oxide (NO), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), was conducted. Serum vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and serum Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1) were also evaluated along with histopathological examination of aorta specimens. Fasudil administration significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and LDL and significantly increased serum HDL, with concomitant decrease in serum CK and LDH activities, NO, and restoration of serum TAC. Myocardial MDA significantly declined; SOD activity and GSH contents were restored. Serum ROCK-1 and VCAM-1 levels significantly declined as well. Vascular improvement was confirmed with histopathological examination, which revealed normal aortic intema with the absence of atheromas. Fasudil has promising anti-atherogenic activity mediated primarily via alleviation of hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress and modulation of inflammatory response.

  8. Associations between added sugar (solid vs. liquid) intakes, diet quality, and adiposity indicators in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JiaWei; Shang, Lei; Light, Kelly; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of different forms of added sugar intake on diet quality or their association with obesity among youth. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-h recalls in 613 Canadian children (aged 8-10 years). Added sugars (mean of 3-day intakes) were categorized according to source (solid or liquid). Dietary intake and the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (« HEI-C ») were compared across tertiles of solid and liquid added sugars separately as were adiposity indicators (body mass index (BMI), fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference). Cross-sectional associations were examined in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, and physical activity (7-day accelerometer). Added sugar contributed 12% of total energy intake (204 kcal) on average, of which 78% was from solid sources. Higher consumption of added sugars from either solid or liquid source was associated with higher total energy, lower intake of micronutrients, vegetables and fruit, and lower HEI-C score. Additionally liquid sources were associated with lower intake of dairy products. A 10-g higher consumption of added sugars from liquid sources was associated with 0.4 serving/day lower of vegetables and fruit, 0.4-kg/m(2) higher BMI, a 0.5-kg higher fat mass, and a 0.9-cm higher waist circumference whereas the associations of added sugars from solid sources and adiposity indicators tended to be negative. In conclusion, higher consumption of added sugar from either solid or liquid sources was associated with lower overall diet quality. Adiposity indicators were only positively associated with added sugars from liquid sources.

  9. Comparison of a low-fat diet to a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, body composition, and risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in free-living, overweight men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckling, Kelly A; O'Sullivan, Caitriona; Saari, Dayna

    2004-06-01

    Overweight and obese men and women (24-61 yr of age) were recruited into a randomized trial to compare the effects of a low-fat (LF) vs. a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on weight loss. Thirty-one subjects completed all 10 wk of the diet intervention (retention, 78%). Subjects on the LF diet consumed an average of 17.8% of energy from fat, compared with their habitual intake of 36.4%, and had a resulting energy restriction of 2540 kJ/d. Subjects on the LC diet consumed an average of 15.4% carbohydrate, compared with habitual intakes of about 50% carbohydrate, and had a resulting energy restriction of 3195 kJ/d. Both groups of subjects had significant weight loss over the 10 wk of diet intervention and nearly identical improvements in body weight and fat mass. LF subjects lost an average of 6.8 kg and had a decrease in body mass index of 2.2 kg/m2, compared with a loss of 7.0 kg and decrease in body mass index of 2.1 kg/m2 in the LC subjects. The LF group better preserved lean body mass when compared with the LC group; however, only the LC group had a significant decrease in circulating insulin concentrations. Group results indicated that the diets were equally effective in reducing systolic blood pressure by about 10 mm Hg and diastolic pressure by 5 mm Hg and decreasing plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 bioactivity. Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were increased in the LC only, at the 2- and 4-wk time points. These data suggest that energy restriction achieved by a very LC diet is equally effective as a LF diet strategy for weight loss and decreasing body fat in overweight and obese adults.

  10. The distorting effect of varying diets on fecal glucocorticoid measurements as indicators of stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, A. Charlotte; Abelson, Klas S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The physiological stress response is frequently gauged in animals, non-invasively, through measuring glucocorticoids in excreta. A concern with this method is, however, the unknown effect of variations in diets on the measurements. With an energy dense diet, leading to reduced defecation, will low...... concentrations of glucocorticoids be artificially inflated? Can this effect be overcome by measuring the total output of glucocorticoids in excreta? In a controlled laboratory setting we explored the effect in mice. When standard mouse chow – high in dietary fiber – was replaced with a 17% more energy-dense diet...

  11. Combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin with orlistat or sibutramine further improves the body-weight reduction and glucose homeostasis of obese rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Steven P; Cheetham, Sharon C; Headland, Katie R; Dickinson, Keith; Grempler, Rolf; Mayoux, Eric; Mark, Michael; Klein, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed the potential of the sodium glucose-linked transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitor empagliflozin to decrease body weight when administered alone or in combination with the clinically effective weight-loss agents orlistat and sibutramine in obese rats fed a cafeteria diet. Female Wistar rats were exposed to a cafeteria diet to induce obesity. Empagliflozin was dosed once daily (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 28 days. Combination studies were subsequently performed using a submaximal empagliflozin dose (10 mg/kg) with either sibutramine or orlistat. Body weight, food, and water intake were recorded daily. The effect of drug treatment on glucose tolerance, relevant plasma parameters, and carcass composition was determined. Empagliflozin dose-dependently reduced body weight, plasma leptin, and body fat though increased urinary glucose excretion. The combination of empagliflozin and orlistat significantly reduced body weight compared to animals treated with either drug alone, and significantly improved glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and leptin compared to vehicle-treated controls. The effect of sibutramine to improve glycemic control in an oral glucose-tolerance test was also significantly increased, with empagliflozin and combination treatment leading to a reduction in carcass fat greater than that observed with either drug alone. These data demonstrate that empagliflozin reduces body weight in cafeteria-fed obese rats. In combination studies, empagliflozin further improved the body-weight or body-fat loss of animals in comparison to orlistat or sibutramine alone. Such studies may indicate improved strategies for the treatment of obese patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes.

  12. Deregulation of arginase induces bone complications in high-fat/high-sucrose diet diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Anil; Sangani, Rajnikumar; Kolhe, Ravindra; Toque, Haroldo A; Cain, Michael; Wong, Abby; Howie, Nicole; Shinde, Rahul; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Yao, Lin; Chutkan, Norman; Hunter, Monty; Caldwell, Ruth B; Isales, Carlos; Caldwell, R William; Fulzele, Sadanand

    2016-02-15

    A balanced diet is crucial for healthy development and prevention of musculoskeletal related diseases. Diets high in fat content are known to cause obesity, diabetes and a number of other disease states. Our group and others have previously reported that activity of the urea cycle enzyme arginase is involved in diabetes-induced dysregulation of vascular function due to decreases in nitric oxide formation. We hypothesized that diabetes may also elevate arginase activity in bone and bone marrow, which could lead to bone-related complications. To test this we determined the effects of diabetes on expression and activity of arginase, in bone and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). We demonstrated that arginase 1 is abundantly present in the bone and BMSCs. We also demonstrated that arginase activity and expression in bone and bone marrow is up-regulated in models of diabetes induced by HFHS diet and streptozotocin (STZ). HFHS diet down-regulated expression of healthy bone metabolism markers (BMP2, COL-1, ALP, and RUNX2) and reduced bone mineral density, bone volume and trabecular thickness. However, treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH) prevented these bone-related complications of diabetes. In-vitro study of BMSCs showed that high glucose treatment increased arginase activity and decreased nitric oxide production. These effects were reversed by treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH). Our study provides evidence that deregulation of l-arginine metabolism plays a vital role in HFHS diet-induced diabetic complications and that these complications can be prevented by treatment with arginase inhibitors. The modulation of l-arginine metabolism in disease could offer a novel therapeutic approach for osteoporosis and other musculoskeletal related diseases. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Inhibition of p38 MAPK during cellular activation modulate gene expression of head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed soy bean oil or fish oil based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, E; Winterthun, S; Du, Z-Y; Krøvel, A V

    2011-01-01

    Head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon fed either a diet based on fish oil (FO) or soy bean oil (VO) were used in order to evaluate if different lipid sources could contribute to cellular activation of the salmon innate immune system. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB202190, was used to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signalling in the head kidney leukocytes. The results show that LPS up regulate IL-1β, TNF-α, Cox2 expression in leukocytes isolated from fish fed either diet. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, reduced the LPS induced expression of these genes in both dietary groups. In LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from VO fed fish, SB202190 showed a clear dose dependent inhibitory effect on IL-1β, TNF-α and Cox2 expression. This effect was also observed for Cox2 in leukocytes isolated from FO fed fish. Furthermore, there was a stronger mean induction of Cox2 in LPS stimulated leucocytes isolated from the VO-group compared to LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from the FO-group. In both dietary groups, LPS stimulation of salmon head kidney leukocytes increased the induction of CD83, a dendrite cell marker, while the inhibitor reduced CD83 expression in the VO fed fish only. The inhibitor also clearly reduced hsp27 expression in VO fed fish. Indicating a p38 MAPK feedback loop, LPS significantly inhibited the expression of p38MAPK itself in both diets, while SB202190 increased p38MAPK expression especially in the VO diet group. hsp70 expression was not affected by any treatment or feed composition. There were also differences in p38MAPK protein phosphorylation comparing treatment groups but no obvious difference comparing the two dietary groups. The results indicate that dietary fatty acids have the ability to modify signalling through p38 MAPK which may have consequences for the fish's ability to handle infections and stress. Signalling through p38MAPK is ligand dependent and affects gene and protein expression differently

  14. Diet, abundance and distribution as indices of turbot ( Psetta maxima L.) release habitat suitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Støttrup, Josianne

    2008-01-01

    , natural abundance, and depth distribution within the habitats. A marked difference was found among habitats in the timing of the diet change from the suboptimal exoskeleton carrying prey items such as crustaceans to fish. The habitat where the wild turbot had the lowest occurrence of fish in their diet...

  15. Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutin Jean A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we screened a protein kinase inhibitor library in human osteoclasts. Methods Human osteoclasts were generated from CD14+ monocytes. The effect of different kinase inhibitors on lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts was investigated using acridine orange for different incubation times (45 minutes, 4 and 24 hours. The inhibitors were tested in an acid influx assay using microsomes isolated from human osteoclasts. Bone resorption by human osteoclasts on bone slices was measured by calcium release. Cell viability was measured using AlamarBlue. Results Of the 51 compounds investigated only few inhibitors were positive in both acidification and resorption assays. Rottlerin, GF109203X, Hypericin and Ro31-8220 inhibited acid influx in microsomes and bone resorption, while Sphingosine and Palmitoyl-DL-carnitine-Cl showed low levels of inhibition. Rottlerin inhibited lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts potently. Conclusions In conclusion, a group of inhibitors all indicated to inhibit PKC reduced acidification in human osteoclasts, and thereby bone resorption, indicating that acid secretion by osteoclasts may be specifically regulated by PKC in osteoclasts.

  16. The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, R Jay; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-03-01

    One of the best-studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet. This consists of fish, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate alcohol consumption. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the burden, or even prevent the development, of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, colorectal cancer, diabetes, obesity, asthma, erectile dysfunction, and cognitive decline. This diet is also known to improve surrogates of cardiovascular disease, such as waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, and markers of inflammation, as well as primary cardiovascular disease outcomes such as death and events in both observational and randomized controlled trial data. These enhancements easily rival those seen with more established tools used to fight cardiovascular disease such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and exercise. However, it is unclear if the Mediterranean diet offers cardiovascular disease benefit from its individual constituents or in aggregate. Furthermore, the potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet or its components is not yet validated by concrete cardiovascular disease endpoints in randomized trials or observational studies. This review will focus on the effects of the whole and parts of the Mediterranean diet with regard to both population-based and experimental data highlighting cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality and cardiovascular disease surrogates when hard outcomes are not available. Our synthesis will highlight the potential for the Mediterranean diet to act as a key player in cardiovascular disease prevention, and attempt to identify certain aspects of the diet that are particularly beneficial for cardioprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin impacts the gut microbiota and prevents disruption of intestinal homeostasis induced by a Western diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Marta; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Pötgens, Sarah A; Beaumont, Martin; Salazar, Nuria; Cani, Patrice D; Bindels, Laure B; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2018-05-25

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are agents designed to increase the half-life of incretins. Although they are administered orally, little is known about their effects on the gut microbiota and functions, despite the fact that some bacteria present in the gut microbiota exhibit DPP-4-like activity. Our objective was to study the impact of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin on gut functions and the intestinal ecosystem in a murine model of obesity induced by a Western diet (WD). Twenty seven male C57BL/6J mice were randomised to receive a control diet, a WD (45% kJ from fat and 17% kJ from sucrose) or a WD + vildagliptin (0.6 mg/ml in drinking water) for 8 weeks. Vildagliptin significantly reduced DPP-4 activity in the caecal content and faeces. Vildagliptin impacted on the composition of the gut microbiota and its metabolic activity. It mainly decreased Oscillibacter spp. (a direct effect independent of DPP-4 activity was shown on cultured O. valericigenes), increased Lactobacillus spp. and propionate, and reduced the ligands of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Vildagliptin protected against the reductions in crypt depth and ileal expression of antimicrobial peptides induced by the WD. In the liver, the expression of immune cell populations (Cd3g and Cd11c [also known as Itgax]) and cytokines was decreased in the WD + vildagliptin-fed mice compared with the WD-fed group. Ex vivo exposure of precision-cut liver slices to vildagliptin showed that this response was not related to a direct effect of the drug on the liver tissue. Our study is the first to consider the DPP-4-like activity of the gut microbiota as a target of DPP-4 inhibition. We propose that vildagliptin exerts beneficial effects at the intestinal level in association with modulation of gut microbiota, with consequences for hepatic immunity. If relevant in humans, this could open new therapeutic uses of DPP-4 inhibition to tackle gut dysfunctions in different pathophysiological contexts. The

  18. A Trypsin Inhibitor from Tamarind Reduces Food Intake and Improves Inflammatory Status in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome Regardless of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana M. C. Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Trypsin inhibitors are studied in a variety of models for their anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory bioactive properties. Our group has previously demonstrated the satietogenic effect of tamarind seed trypsin inhibitors (TTI in eutrophic mouse models and anti-inflammatory effects of other trypsin inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated TTI effect upon satiety, biochemical and inflammatory parameters in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Three groups of n = 5 male Wistar rats with obesity-based MetS received for 10 days one of the following: (1 Cafeteria diet; (2 Cafeteria diet + TTI (25 mg/kg; and (3 Standard diet. TTI reduced food intake in animals with MetS. Nevertheless, weight gain was not different between studied groups. Dyslipidemia parameters were not different with the use of TTI, only the group receiving standard diet showed lower very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglycerides (TG (Kruskal–Wallis, p < 0.05. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 production did not differ between groups. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α was lower in animals receiving TTI. Our results corroborate the satietogenic effect of TTI in a MetS model. Furthermore, we showed that TTI added to a cafeteria diet may decrease inflammation regardless of weight loss. This puts TTI as a candidate for studies to test its effectiveness as an adjuvant in MetS treatment.

  19. A priori-defined diet quality indices, biomarkers and risk for type 2 diabetes in five ethnic groups: the Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Simone; Boushey, Carol J; Franke, Adrian A; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Monroe, Kristine R; Haiman, Christopher A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2017-08-01

    Dietary indices have been related to risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) predominantly in white populations. The present study evaluated this association in the ethnically diverse Multiethnic Cohort and examined four diet quality indices in relation to T2D risk, homoeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and biomarkers of dyslipidaemia, inflammation and adipokines. The T2D analysis included 166 550 white, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American and Latino participants (9200 incident T2D cases). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a quantitative FFQ and T2D status was based on three self-reports and confirmed by administrative data. Biomarkers were assessed about 10 years later in a biomarker subcohort (n 10 060). Sex- and ethnicity-specific hazard ratios were calculated for the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the alternative HEI-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). Multivariable-adjusted means of biomarkers were compared across dietary index tertiles in the biomarker subcohort. The AHEI-2010, aMED (in men only) and DASH scores were related to a 10-20 % lower T2D risk, with the strongest associations in whites and the direction of the relationships mostly consistent across ethnic groups. Higher scores on the four indices were related to lower HOMA-IR, TAG and C-reactive protein concentrations, not related to leptin, and the DASH score was directly associated with adiponectin. The AHEI-2010 and DASH were directly related to HDL-cholesterol in women. Potential underlying biological mechanisms linking diet quality and T2D risk are an improved lipid profile and reduced systemic inflammation and, with regards to DASH alone, an improved adiponectin profile.

  20. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  1. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sudeep

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG. However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control, 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations.

  2. Consumption of oral hospital diets and percent adequacy of minerals in oncology patients as an indicative for the use of oral supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Júlia S M; Moreira, Daniele C F; Louvera Silva, Karine A; Morgano, Marcelo A; Quintaes, Késia D

    2014-08-01

    Deficiencies in the consumption of foods and nutrients favor malnutrition in patients. Considering the recommendations for the ingestion of minerals, the content, consumption and percent adequacy of the minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, K, P, Na, Zn and Se) were evaluated amongst oncology patients who received oral diets isolated or associated with an oral food complement (OFC), evaluating the need and composition of an oral supplement. The mineral composition as determined by ICP-OES, and the food consumption of the patients served regular, bland and soft diets, were evaluated on six non-consecutive weekdays. Patients with increased nutritional needs received OFC. The consumptions were calculated by deducting the weight of the leftovers from the value served. A total of 163 patients took part of which 59.5% were men, the mean age was 57 ± 15 years old, and 126 (77.3%), 27 (16.6%) and 10 (6.1%) were served the regular, bland and soft diets, respectively, with (23.0%), 8 (30.7%) and 4 (40.0%) receiving the OFC. Patient consumption was lower when the regular (74.2 vs 79.7%) and soft (68.9 vs 74.2%) diets were combined with OFC. For all diets, less was consumed at the lunch (61.2%-65.7%) and dinner (39.9%-62.8%) meals. Patients that received the OFC showed reduced meal consumption and higher Ca ingestion. The mineral contents of the diets were inadequate, with 66.8% of the patients ingesting Na above the UL and K below the nutritional recommendation (100%). The diet consumption, isolated or associated with OFC was insufficient, and hence the exclusion of OFC and the inclusion of a mineral supplement (without P and Na) was indicated to adequate ingestion to the nutritional recommendations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Influence of two cultivars of persimmon on atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets: Investigation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Jesion, Iwona; Namiesnik, Jacek; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Park, Yong-Seo; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Giordani, Edgardo; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2011-01-01

    To assess the influence of two persimmon cultivars on some atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol (Chol)-containing diets. Persimmon cultivars "Fuyu" and "Jiro" as supplementation to rats' diets were investigated in vitro to compare the contents of their bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant potentials. In the in vivo investigation, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six diet groups, each with six rats: control, control/Fuyu, control/Jiro, Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro. During a period of 47 d (42 d of feeding and 5-d adaptation before the experiment) of the trial, rats in the control group were fed a basal diet and two additional control groups (control/Fuyu and control/Jiro) a basal diet plus 5% of lyophilized Fuyu and Jiro, respectively. The Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro rat groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 1% Chol (Chol group) and 1% Chol plus 5% lyophilized Fuyu (Chol/Fuyu group) and plus 5% lyophilized Jiro (Chol/Jiro group), respectively. After completion of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized using Narcotan (halothane) and sacrificed and the atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta were assessed. The obtained results of the investigation of all six groups were compared. Testing of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol in the liver, electrophoretic patterns of liver tissue, and three-dimensional fluorescence of serum protein fractions was performed. The polyphenols and tannins were significantly higher in the Fuyu cultivar (Pacid) (ABTS) assay (Pcholesterol 19.4% and 9.5%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 25.6% and 13.1%, respectively, P<0.05) and hindered the decrease in plasma antioxidant activity versus the Chol group by 40.0% and 16.8% and by 39.6% and 11.3% for the ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays, respectively. The atherosclerotic

  4. Dieting behaviours, obesity and predictors of dieting among female college students at Palestinian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayyari, W D; Henry, L J; Jones, C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore dieting practices of female Palestinian college students. Participants ( = 410) were selected by cluster-sampling from 4 Palestinian universities. A regression model investigated dieting using: body mass index (BMI); body satisfaction; self-esteem; dress style; exercise; sociocultural factors; residence; strength of faith; perceived impact of weight on social interaction; and number of previous times dieting. Significant predictors of dieting were low body satisfaction, number of previous dieting times, perceived media pressure, regular exercising, BMI, and perceived impact of weight on social interaction, The model accounted for 45% of the variance in dieting. Body satisfaction was not significantly correlated with self-esteem or strength of faith, which indicates that "internalization of thinness" may be becoming evident among populations in certain developing countries, as in "Western" countries.

  5. Improving diet sustainability through evolution of food choices: review of epidemiological studies on the environmental impact of diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perignon, Marlène; Vieux, Florent; Soler, Louis-Georges; Masset, Gabriel; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization defines sustainable diets as nutritionally adequate, safe, healthy, culturally acceptable, economically affordable diets that have little environmental impact. This review summarizes the studies assessing, at the individual level, both the environmental impact and the nutritional quality or healthiness of self-selected diets. Reductions in meat consumption and energy intake were identified as primary factors for reducing diet-related greenhouse gas emissions. The choice of foods to replace meat, however, was crucial, with some isocaloric substitutions possibly increasing total diet greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, nutritional adequacy was rarely or only partially assessed, thereby compromising the assessment of diet sustainability. Furthermore, high nutritional quality was not necessarily associated with affordability or lower environmental impact. Hence, when identifying sustainable diets, each dimension needs to be assessed by relevant indicators. Finally, some nonvegetarian self-selected diets consumed by a substantial fraction of the population showed good compatibility with the nutritional, environmental, affordability, and acceptability dimensions. Altogether, the reviewed studies revealed the scarcity of standardized nationally representative data for food prices and environmental indicators and suggest that diet sustainability might be increased without drastic dietary changes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  6. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventi...

  7. Potential physiological role of plant glycosidase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellincampi, D.; Carmadella, L.; Delcour, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes including glycosidases, transglycosidases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases are responsible for the enzymatic processing of carbohydrates in plants. A number of carbohydrate-active enzymes are produced by microbial pathogens...... and insects responsible of severe crop losses. Plants have evolved proteinaceous inhibitors to modulate the activity of several of these enzymes. The continuing discovery of new inhibitors indicates that this research area is still unexplored and may lead to new exciting developments. To date, the role...... of the inhibitors is not completely understood. Here we review recent results obtained on the best characterised inhibitors, pointing to their possible biological role in vivo. Results recently obtained with plant transformation technology indicate that this class of inhibitors has potential biotechnological...

  8. Carcass characteristics, physicochemical changes and oxidative stress indicators of meat from sheep fed diets with coffee pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salinas-Rios

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how feeding sheep coffee pulp affects carcass characteristics and what changes occur in physicochemical, antioxidant capacity and oxidation of the meat during refrigerated storage. The experiment was carried out in 15 Blackbelly lambs weighing an average 22.86±0.76kg. The animals were assigned to three treatments: T0=control diet, T1=diet with 8% coffee pulp, and T2=diet with 16% coffee pulp. After fattening for 56 days, the sheep were slaughtered and the carcasses assessed. The inclusion of 16% coffee pulp in the diet increased carcass dressing from 48.19 to 50.83% and decreased the amount of fat in rumen and intestines from 3.43 to 2.53% (P<0.05. The inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet did not alter the amount of crude protein or fat in meat or its oxidation and antioxidant capacity during refrigerated storage. However, the inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet decreased fat in the rumen and intestines, and thus increased the amount of usable meat.

  9. Cereal based diets modulate some markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mano Mark

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of cereals with high antioxidant capacity for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity is unknown. This study investigated the impact of wheat bran, barley or a control diet (α-cellulose on the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats. Methods Seven wk old, lean and obese male Zucker rats (n = 8/group were fed diets that contained wheat bran, barley or α-cellulose (control. After 3 months on these diets, systolic blood pressure was measured and plasma was analysed for glucose, insulin, lipids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and adipokine concentration (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1. Adipokine secretion rates from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were also determined. Results Obese rats had higher body weight, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin and IL-1β in comparison to lean rats, and these measures were not reduced by consumption of wheat bran or barley based diets. Serum ORAC tended to be higher in obese rats fed wheat bran and barley in comparison to control (p = 0.06. Obese rats had higher plasma malondialdehyde (p Conclusions A 3-month dietary intervention was sufficient for Zucker obese rats to develop oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Cereal-based diets with moderate and high antioxidant capacity elicited modest improvements in indices of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  10. Combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin with orlistat or sibutramine further improves the body-weight reduction and glucose homeostasis of obese rats fed a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers SP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Steven P Vickers,1 Sharon C Cheetham,1 Katie R Headland,1 Keith Dickinson,1 Rolf Grempler,2 Eric Mayoux,2 Michael Mark,2 Thomas Klein2 1RenaSci, BioCity Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Biberach an der Riss, Germany Abstract: The present study assessed the potential of the sodium glucose-linked transporter (SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin to decrease body weight when administered alone or in combination with the clinically effective weight-loss agents orlistat and sibutramine in obese rats fed a cafeteria diet. Female Wistar rats were exposed to a cafeteria diet to induce obesity. Empagliflozin was dosed once daily (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg for 28 days. Combination studies were subsequently performed using a submaximal empagliflozin dose (10 mg/kg with either sibutramine or orlistat. Body weight, food, and water intake were recorded daily. The effect of drug treatment on glucose tolerance, relevant plasma parameters, and carcass composition was determined. Empagliflozin dose-dependently reduced body weight, plasma leptin, and body fat though increased urinary glucose excretion. The combination of empagliflozin and orlistat significantly reduced body weight compared to animals treated with either drug alone, and significantly improved glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and leptin compared to vehicle-treated controls. The effect of sibutramine to improve glycemic control in an oral glucose-tolerance test was also significantly increased, with empagliflozin and combination treatment leading to a reduction in carcass fat greater than that observed with either drug alone. These data demonstrate that empagliflozin reduces body weight in cafeteria-fed obese rats. In combination studies, empagliflozin further improved the body-weight or body-fat loss of animals in comparison to orlistat or sibutramine alone. Such studies may indicate improved strategies for the treatment of obese patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Keywords

  11. Isotopic nitrogen in fecal fiber as an indicator of winter diet in caribou and muskoxen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Barboza, Perry S.; Addison, Jennifer; Shively, Rachel; Oliver, Lola

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: The ratios of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N values) in excreta have been used to examine aspects of trophic and nutritional ecology across taxa. Nitrogen fractions in feces of herbivores include endogenous (e.g., sloughed intestinal cells, unresorbed digestive secretions, and microbial debris) and dietary sources. For animals such as large herbivores, that have diets and feces with high concentrations of indigestible fiber, endogenous 15N may constrain the use of fecal δ15N values to estimate dietary δ15N values and reconstruct diets. METHODS: We compared two techniques (detergent and detergent-free) to isolate fractions of plant fibers in the forages of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus); estimated the discrimination factors between the δ15N values of fecal fiber residues and of the diets of captive animals; and used the more effective isotopic tracer of dietary δ15N values to examine the relationships between the δ15N values of fecal residues and diet composition in several populations of wild caribou and muskoxen throughout North America in winter. RESULTS: The detergent-based approach contaminated the fractions of plant fibers in forages and feces with 14N, whereas the detergent-free method was a good proxy to estimate δ15N values of plant fibers (r2= 0.92) and provided a better estimate of the fecal-fiber to diet discrimination factor for both species (caribou = 3.6‰; muskoxen = 2.8‰). In wild populations, the δ15N values of fecal fibers reflected diet composition in muskoxen (adjusted R2= 0.43) but not caribou (adjusted R2= 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Contamination from detergent residues prohibited the use of detergent extraction in isolating forage 15N from endogenous 15N in the feces of herbivores. Although δ15N values in fecal fibers can be used to track dietary δ15N values in wild herbivores, discrimination between fecal extracts and diet may vary with the contribution of endogenous nitrogen (N), and

  12. Adipocyte glucose transport regulation by eicosanoid precursors and inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Glucose uptake and free fatty acid release by adipocytes are increased by catecholamines. The mechanism of the stimulatory action of catecholamines on glucose uptake may be via eicosanoid production from release fatty acids. Rats were fed iso-nutrient diets with high or low safflower oil. After one month, 5 rats per diet group were fed diets with aspirin or without aspirin for 2 days. Isolated adipocytes from epididymal fat pads were incubated at 37 0 C, gassed with 95% O 2 -5% CO 2 in KRB buffer with 3% bovine serum albumin and with or without eicosanoid modifiers; a stimulator (10 -5 M norepinephrine, N), or inhibitors (167 μl of antiserum to prostaglandin E (AntiE) per 1600 μl or 23mM Asp), or combinations of these. At 2-, 5-, and 10-min incubation, samples of incubation mixtures were taken to measure 2-deoxy glucose transport using 3 H-2-deoxy glucose, 14 C-inulin, and liquid scintillation counter

  13. Cholinesterase inhibitor (Altenuene) from an endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata: optimization, purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, J; Kaur, A; Kaur, R; Yadav, A K; Sharma, V; Chadha, B S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to screen endophytic fungi isolated from Vinca rosea for their potential to produce acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Endophytic fungi isolated from V. rosea (Catharanthus roseus), were screened for AChE inhibitor production using Ellman's method. Maximum inhibition against AChE (78%) was observed in an isolate VS-10, identified to be Alternaria alternata on morphological and molecular basis. The isolate also inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (73%). Significant increase (1·3 fold) was achieved after optimization of process parameters using one variable at time approach. The inhibitor was purified using chromatographic techniques. The structure elucidation of the inhibitor was carried out using spectroscopic techniques and was identified to be 'altenuene'. The purified inhibitor possessed antioxidant potential as revealed by dot blot assay. The insecticidal potential of purified inhibitor was evaluated by feeding Spodoptora litura on diet amended with inhibitor. It evinced significant larval mortality. Endophytic A. alternata can serve as a source of dual cholinesterase inhibitor 'altenuene' with significant antioxidant and insecticidal activity. This is the first report on acetylcholinestearse inhibitory activity of altenuene. Alternaria alternata has the potential to produce a dual ChE inhibitor with antioxidant activity useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and in agriculture as biocontrol agent. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: new among antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, L H

    2014-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by decreased insulin secretion and sensitivity. The available oral anti-diabetic drugs act on many different molecular sites. The most used of oral anti-diabetic agents is metformin that activates glucose transport vesicles to the cell surface. Others are: the sulphonylureas; agents acting on the incretin system; GLP-1 agonists; dipetidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors; meglinitide analogues; and the thiazolidinediones. Despite these many drugs acting by different mechanisms, glycaemic control often remains elusive. None of these drugs have a primary renal mechanism of action on the kidneys, where almost all glucose excreted is normally reabsorbed. That is where the inhibitors of glucose reuptake (sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, SGLT2) have a unique site of action. Promotion of urinary loss of glucose by SGLT2 inhibitors embodies a new principle of control in type 2 diabetes that has several advantages with some urogenital side-effects, both of which are evaluated in this review. Specific approvals include use as monotherapy, when diet and exercise alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control in patients for whom the use of metformin is considered inappropriate due to intolerance or contraindications, or as add-on therapy with other anti-hyperglycaemic medicinal products including insulin, when these together with diet and exercise, do not provide adequate glycemic control. The basic mechanisms are improved β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. When compared with sulphonylureas or other oral antidiabetic agents, SGLT2 inhibitors provide greater HbA1c reduction. Urogenital side-effects related to the enhanced glycosuria can be troublesome, yet seldom lead to discontinuation. On this background, studies are analysed that compare SGLT2 inhibitors with other oral antidiabetic agents. Their unique mode of action, unloading the excess glycaemic load, contrasts with other oral agents that all act to counter the effects of diabetic

  15. SGLT2 Inhibitors: Benefit/Risk Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2016-10-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion. They have been evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet/exercise, metformin, dual oral therapy or insulin. Three agents are available in Europe and the USA (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin) and others are commercialized in Japan or in clinical development. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glycated hemoglobin, with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia. They exert favorable effects beyond glucose control with consistent body weight, blood pressure, and serum uric acid reductions. Empagliflozin showed remarkable reductions in cardiovascular/all-cause mortality and in hospitalization for heart failure in patients with previous cardiovascular disease. Positive renal outcomes were also shown with empagliflozin. Mostly reported adverse events are genital mycotic infections, while urinary tract infections and events linked to volume depletion are rather rare. Concern about a risk of ketoacidosis and bone fractures has been recently raised, which deserves caution and further evaluation.

  16. Inhibition of 5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton in high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuifen Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Arachidonic Acid/5-lipoxygenase (AA/5-LOX pathway connects lipid metabolism and proinflammatory cytokine, which are both related to the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of AA/5-LOX pathway in progression of NAFLD, and the effect of zileuton, an inhibitor of 5-LOX, in this model. Materials and Methods: Animal model for progression of NAFLD was established via feeding high saturated fat diet (HFD. Liver function, HE staining, NAFLD activity score (NAS were used to evaluate NAFLD progression. We detected the lipid metabolism substrates: free fatty acids (FFA and AA, products: cysteinyl-leukotrienes (CysLTs, and changes in gene and protein level of key enzyme in AA/5-LOX pathway including PLA2 and 5-LOX. Furthermore, we determined whether NAFLD progression pathway was delayed or reversed when zileuton (1-[1-(1-benzothiophen-2-ylethyl]-1-hydroxyurea was administrated. Results: Rat model for progression of NAFLD was well established as analyzed by liver transaminase activities, hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining and NAS. The concentrations of substrates and products in AA/5-LOX pathway were increased with the progression of NAFLD. mRNA and protein expression of PLA2 and 5-LOX were all enhanced. Moreover, administration of zileuton inhibited AA/5-LOX pathway and reversed the increased transamine activities and NAS. Conclusion: AA/5-LOX pathway promotes the progression of NAFLD, which can be reversed by zileuton.

  17. Effect of supplementation of lysine and methionine on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer (Cervus Nippon fed protein deficient diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of lysine (Lys and methionine (Met on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer fed crude protein (CP deficient diet. Sixteen 5-month-old growing male sika deer were randomly assigned to 4 groups receiving diets (n=4: i CP-adequate (16.63% diet; ii CP-deficient (13.77% diet with 3 g/kg Lys; iii CP-deficient with 3 g/kg Lys and 1 g/kg Met; iv CP-deficient diet with 3 g/kg Lys and 2 g/kg Met. The digestibility of dry matter P<0.01, organic matter (P<0.01, CP (P<0.01, serum albumin (P<0.01, and total protein (P<0.01 concentrations of groups receiving CP-adequate or Met supplementation were improved. The average daily gain (P=0.10, gain to feed ratio (P=0.07, the digestibility of acid (P=0.07 and neutral detergent fibre (P=0.09, and the serum globulin (P=0.08 concentrations had a tendency to increase as the Met or CP level increased. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen (P<0.01 and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01 were decreased for CP-deficient, but no response to Met-added diets; aspartate aminotransferase (P=0.04 depressed for both CP-deficient and Met-added diets. Therefore, amino acids added to CP-deficient diets show high efficiency: they remain among the simplest ways for growth performance, while cutting down environmental waste and economic consumption.

  18. Supplementation with a new trypsin inhibitor from peanut is associated with reduced fasting glucose, weight control, and increased plasma CCK secretion in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serquiz, Alexandre C; Machado, Richele J A; Serquiz, Raphael P; Lima, Vanessa C O; de Carvalho, Fabiana Maria C; Carneiro, Marcella A A; Maciel, Bruna L L; Uchôa, Adriana F; Santos, Elizeu A; Morais, Ana H A

    2016-12-01

    Ingestion of peanuts may have a beneficial effect on weight control, possibly due to the satietogenic action of trypsin inhibitors. The aim of this study was to isolate a new trypsin inhibitor in a typical Brazilian peanut sweet (paçoca) and evaluate its effect in biochemical parameters, weight gain and food intake in male Wistar rats. The trypsin inhibitor in peanut paçoca (AHTI) was isolated. Experimental diets were prepared with AIN-93G supplemented with AHTI. Animals had their weight and food intake monitored. Animals were anesthetized, euthanized, and their bloods collected by cardiac puncture for dosage of cholecystokinin (CCK) and other biochemical parameters. Supplementation with AHTI significantly decreased fasting glucose, body weight gain, and food intake. These effects may be attributed to increased satiety, once supplemented animals showed no evidence of impaired nutritional status and also because AHTI increased CCK production. Thus, our results indicate that AHTI, besides reducing fasting glucose, can reduce weight gain via food intake reduction.

  19. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Inflammatory Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Sureda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess inflammatory markers among adults and adolescents in relation to the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A random sample (219 males and 379 females of the Balearic Islands population (12–65 years was anthropometrically measured and provided a blood sample to determine biomarkers of inflammation. Dietary habits were assessed and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern calculated. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age in both sexes. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescent males was 51.3% and 45.7% in adults, whereas in females 53.1% and 44.3%, respectively. In males, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher levels of adiponectin and lower levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in adults, but not in young subjects. In females, higher adherence was associated with lower levels of leptin in the young group, PAI-1 in adults and hs-CRP in both groups. With increasing age in both sexes, metabolic syndrome increases, but the adherence to the Mediterranean diet decreases. Low adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP is directly associated with a worse profile of plasmatic inflammation markers.

  20. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)

  1. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A K.S.; Hasan, S S

    1986-12-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures.

  2. Fad diets, miracle diets, diet cult… but no results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fad diets, miracle diets (in sum, diet cult are diets that make promises of weight loss or other health advantages (e.g. longer life without backing by solid science, and usually they are characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices. These diets are often supported by celebrities and some health “professionals”, and they result attractive among people who want to lose weight quickly. By means of pseudoscientific arguments, designers of fad, miracle or magic diets usually describe them as healthy diets with unusual properties but always with undoubted benefits. After revising the history of these diets and exploring the scientific evidence, it must be noted that there is not a diet better than eating less, moving more and eating lots of fruits and vegetables. In addition, it is necessary to be aware of our general daily habits, remembering that eating is important but it is not everything. Getting active is also very relevant to improve (or recover our health. Summarizing, eating healthy and taking care of yourself are a duty but not a miracle.

  3. The ketogenic diet and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Young; Rho, Jong M

    2008-03-01

    The ketogenic diet has long been used to treat medically refractory epilepsy. The mechanisms underlying its clinical effects, however, have remained a mystery. The evidence to date suggests that a fundamental shift from glycolysis to intermediary metabolism induced by the ketogenic diet is necessary and sufficient for clinical efficacy. This notion is supported by a growing number of studies indicating that glucose restriction, ketone bodies and polyunsaturated fatty acids may all play mechanistic roles, possibly by enhancing mitochondrial respiration and ATP production, and decreasing reactive oxygen species production. Recent reports indicate that ketone bodies can reduce oxidative stress and that fatty acid-induced mitochondrial uncoupling may also yield similar protective effects. Ketone bodies may attenuate spontaneous firing of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in central neurons, and pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis has been shown to retard epileptogenesis in a rat kindling model. While the mechanisms underlying the broad clinical efficacy of the ketogenic diet remain unclear, there is growing evidence that the ketogenic diet alters the fundamental biochemistry of neurons in a manner that not only inhibits neuronal hyperexcitability but also induces a protective effect. Thus, the ketogenic diet may ultimately be useful in the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders.

  4. Discovery of an Orally Bioavailable Benzimidazole Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) Inhibitor That Suppresses Body Weight Gain in Diet-Induced Obese Dogs and Postprandial Triglycerides in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsumasa; Chatelain, Ricardo; Clairmont, Kevin B; Commerford, Renee; Coppola, Gary M; Daniels, Thomas; Forster, Cornelia J; Gilmore, Thomas A; Gong, Yongjin; Jain, Monish; Kanter, Aaron; Kwak, Youngshin; Li, Jingzhou; Meyers, Charles D; Neubert, Alan D; Szklennik, Paul; Tedesco, Vivienne; Thompson, James; Truong, David; Yang, Qing; Hubbard, Brian K; Serrano-Wu, Michael H

    2017-06-08

    Modification of a gut restricted class of benzimidazole DGAT1 inhibitor 1 led to 9 with good oral bioavailability. The key structural changes to 1 include bioisosteric replacement of the amide with oxadiazole and α,α-dimethylation of the carboxylic acid, improving DGAT1 potency and gut permeability. Since DGAT1 is expressed in the small intestine, both 1 and 9 can suppress postprandial triglycerides during acute oral lipid challenges in rats and dogs. Interestingly, only 9 was found to be effective in suppressing body weight gain relative to control in a diet-induced obese dog model, suggesting the importance of systemic inhibition of DGAT1 for body weight control. 9 has advanced to clinical investigation and successfully suppressed postprandial triglycerides during an acute meal challenge in humans.

  5. Association of the Baltic Sea and Mediterranean diets with indices of sarcopenia in elderly women, OSPTRE-FPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, Masoud; Sirola, Joonas; Mursu, Jaakko; Rikkonen, Toni; Kröger, Heikki; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2017-03-16

    To examine whether higher adherence to Baltic Sea diet (BSD) and Mediterranean diet (MED) have beneficial association with sarcopenia indices in elderly women. In total 554 women, aged 65-72 years belonging to OSTPRE-FPS study answered a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and 3-day food record at baseline in 2002. Food consumptions and nutrient intakes were calculated. Nine components were selected to calculate BSD score. MED score was calculated using eight components. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical function measures included walking speed 10 m, chair rises, one leg stance, knee extension, handgrip strength and squat at baseline and at year 3. Sarcopenia and short physical performance battery (SPPB) score were defined based on the European working group on sarcopenia criteria. Lower body muscle quality (LBMQ) was calculated as walking speed 10 m/leg muscle mass. Women in the higher quartiles of BSD and MED scores lost less relative skeletal muscle index and total body lean mass (LM) over 3-year follow-up (P trend  ≤ 0.034). At the baseline, women in the higher BSD score quartiles had greater LM, faster walking speed 10 m, greater LBMQ, higher SPPB score (P trend  ≤ 0.034), and higher proportion of squat test completion. Similarly, women in the higher quartiles of MED sore had significantly faster walking speed 10 m, greater LBMQ (P trend  ≤ 0.041) and higher proportion of squat test completion. Better diet quality as measured by higher adherence to BSD and MED might reduce the risk of sarcopenia in elderly women.

  6. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  7. Feeding behavior in lambs fed diets containing crambe cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Adriane Syperreck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing 30% sorghum silage and 70% crambe cake (30:70 diet, and 70% sorghum silage and 30% crambe cake (70:30 diet under voluntary and controlled consumption. The experimental design used was a 4 × 4 Latin square, with four animals, four periods, and four treatments; feeding behavior was determined by observation. The results indicated that animals fed the 30:70 diet showed higher DM and NDF (g day-1 than those fed the 70:30 diet. Animals fed the 70:30 diet showed longer feeding times (h kg-1 DM, mastication (min kg-1 DM and min kg-1 NDF, rumination (min day-1 and min kg-1 DM, and the largest number of mericics chewing per bolus; however, a higher feed efficiency (g DM h-1 was observed in the 30:70 diet group. Furthermore, animals feeding voluntarily had higher DM intake and chewed for longer. Therefore, the combined results indicated that crambe cake could be used in the diet of sheep without affecting feeding behavior.

  8. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R Showalter

    Full Text Available Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose, or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  9. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Megan R; Nonnecke, Eric B; Linderholm, A L; Cajka, Tomas; Sa, Michael R; Lönnerdal, Bo; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Fiehn, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose), or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose) for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  10. Effect of diet on triolein absorption in weanling rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, C.A.; Brannon, P.M.; Wells, M.A.; Morrill, M.; Koldovsky, O.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the effect of altered dietary fat intake on the rate of fat absorption in the intact animal, we fed male weanling rats either a high fat-low carbohydrate (HF-LC) (calories: 67% fat, 10% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or low fat-high carbohydrate (LF-HC) (calories: 10% fat, 67% carbohydrate, 20% protein) diet for 8 days. Absorption of [ 14 C]triolein was estimated by determining (1) 14 CO 2 expiration in breath, (2) intestinal triglyceride output using Triton WR-1339, an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, and (3) quantitating the disappearance of labeled triolein from the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in the activity of pancreatic lipase and amylase confirmed the adaptation to altered fat and carbohydrate intake. Animals fed the HF-LC diet exhibited approximately twofold greater triolein disappearance, oxidation, and intestinal triglyceride output compared with animals fed LF-HC. There was also a highly significant linear relationship between 14 CO 2 excretion and intestinal triglyceride output in both diet groups. These data show that high dietary fat content markedly enhances in vivo fat absorption in the weanling rat

  11. The Ketogenic Diet Improves Recently Worsened Focal Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Nathalie; Pinton, Florence; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Dulac, Olivier; Chiron, Catherine; Nabbout, Rima

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We observed a dramatic response to the ketogenic diet in several patients with highly refractory epilepsy whose seizure frequency had recently worsened. This study aimed to identify whether this characteristic was a useful indication for the ketogenic diet. Method: From the 70 patients who received the ketogenic diet during a 3-year period at…

  12. Sodium appetite elicited by low-sodium diet is dependent on p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activation in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, L R N; Marangon, P B; Elias, L L K; Reis, L C; Antunes-Rodrigues, J; Mecawi, A S

    2017-09-01

    Sodium appetite is regulated by several signalling molecules, among which angiotensin II (Ang II) serves as a key driver of robust salt intake by binding to Ang II type 1 receptors (AT1R) in several regions in the brain. The activation of these receptors recruits the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which has previously been linked to Ang II-induced increases in sodium appetite. Thus, we addressed the involvement of MAPK signalling in the induction of sodium appetite after 4 days of low-sodium diet consumption. An increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the laminae terminalis and mediobasal hypothalamus was observed after low-sodium diet consumption. This response was reduced by i.c.v. microinjection of an AT1R antagonist into the laminae terminalis but not the hypothalamus. This result indicates that low-sodium diet consumption activates the MAPK pathway via Ang II/AT1R signalling on the laminae terminalis. On the other hand, activation of the MAPK pathway in the mediobasal hypothalamus after low-sodium diet consumption appears to involve another extracellular mediator. We also evaluated whether a low-sodium diet could increase the sensitivity for Ang II in the brain and activate the MAPK pathway. However, i.c.v. injection of Ang II increased ERK phosphorylation on the laminae terminalis and mediobasal hypothalamus; this increase achieved a response magnitude similar to those observed in both the normal and low-sodium diet groups. These data indicate that low-sodium diet consumption for 4 days is insufficient to change the ERK phosphorylation response to Ang II in the brain. To investigate whether the MAPK pathway is involved in sodium appetite after low-sodium diet consumption, we performed i.c.v. microinjections of a MAPK pathway inhibitor (PD98059). PD98059 inhibited both saline and water intake after low-sodium diet consumption. Thus, the MAPK pathway is involved in promoting the sodium appetite after low

  13. The novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor tesofensine induces sustained weight loss and improves glycemic control in the diet-induced obese rat: comparison to sibutramine and rimonabant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Tang-Christensen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Tesofensine, a novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor, produces a significant weight loss in humans. The present study aimed at characterizing the weight-reducing effects of tesofensine in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Sibutramine and rimonabant were used as reference comparators....... Compared to baseline, long-term treatment with tesofensine (28 days, 1.0 or 2.5mg/kg, p.o.) resulted in a significant, dose-dependent and sustained weight loss of 5.7 and 9.9%, respectively. Sibutramine (7.5mg/kg, p.o.) treatment caused a sustained weight loss of 7.6%, whereas the employed dose...... of rimonabant (10mg/kg, p.o.) only produced a transient weight reduction. While all compounds exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on food intake which gradually wore off, the hypophagic effect of tesofensine was longer lasting than sibutramine and rimonabant. In contrast to tesofensine, the body weight...

  14. Apolipoprotein C3 deficiency results in diet-induced obesity and aggravated insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, Ilse; Teusink, Bas; Rensen, Patrick C.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to study whether the absence of apolipoprotein (apo) C3, a strong inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), accelerates the development of obesity and consequently insulin resistance. Apoc3(-/-) mice and wild-type littermates were fed a high-fat (46 energy %) diet for 20 weeks. After 20

  15. Adherence to a healthy diet in relation to cardiovascular incidence and risk markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Elly; Markey, Oonagh; Geleijnse, Marianne; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Givens, D.I.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Epidemiological findings indicate that higher adherence to a healthy diet may lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The present study aimed to investigate whether adherence to a healthy diet, assessed by the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)

  16. The effect of renal diet in association with enalapril or benazepril on proteinuria in dogs with proteinuric chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatelli, A; Roura, X; D'Ippolito, P; Berlanda, M; Zini, E

    2016-01-01

    Treating proteinuria in dogs reduces the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD); renal diets and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors are cornerstones of treatment. Whether different ACE-inhibitors have distinct kidney protective effects is unknown; it is therefore hypothesized that renal diets and enalapril or benazepril have different beneficial effects in proteinuric CKD dogs. Forty-four dogs with proteinuric CKD (IRIS stages 1-4) were enrolled in the study and were fed renal diet for 30 days. Thereafter, they were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Dogs in group A (n=22) received enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, q12h) and in group B (n=22) benazepril (0.5 mg/kg, q24h); in both groups, dogs were fed the same renal diet. After randomization, dogs were monitored for 120 days. Body weight and body condition score (BCS), serum concentrations of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin and total proteins, and urine protein-to-creatinine (UPC) ratio were compared at different time-points. After 30 days of renal diet, creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio decreased significantly (p<0.0001). Compared to randomization, body weight, BCS, albumin, total proteins, creatinine and BUN did not vary during follow-up in the 44 dogs and differences between group A and B were not observed. However, the UPC ratio of group A at day 60, 90 and 150 was significantly lower than in group B and compared to randomization (p<0.05). In group B it did not vary overtime. It is concluded that the renal diet is beneficial to decrease creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio in proteinuric CKD dogs. Enalapril further ameliorates proteinuria if administered along with renal diet.

  17. Application of the Nutrition Functional Diversity indicator to assess food system contributions to dietary diversity and sustainable diets of Malawian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Brian G; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Fanzo, Jessica; Mundorf, Adrienne R; Rose, Donald

    2015-09-01

    Dietary diversity is associated with nutrient adequacy and positive health outcomes but indicators to measure diversity have focused primarily on consumption, rather than sustainable provisioning of food. The Nutritional Functional Diversity score was developed by ecologists to describe the contribution of biodiversity to sustainable diets. We have employed this tool to estimate the relative contribution of home production and market purchases in providing nutritional diversity to agricultural households in Malawi and examine how food system provisioning varies by time, space and socio-economic conditions. A secondary analysis of nationally representative household consumption data to test the applicability of the Nutritional Functional Diversity score. The data were collected between 2010 and 2011 across the country of Malawi. Households (n 11 814) from predominantly rural areas of Malawi. Nutritional Functional Diversity varied demographically, geographically and temporally. Nationally, purchased foods contributed more to household nutritional diversity than home produced foods (mean score=17·5 and 7·8, respectively). Households further from roads and population centres had lower overall diversity (PFunctional Diversity score is an effective indicator for identifying populations with low nutritional diversity and the relative roles that markets, agricultural extension and home production play in achieving nutritional diversity. This information may be used by policy makers to plan agricultural and market-based interventions that support sustainable diets and local food systems.

  18. Reversal of diabetic nephropathy by a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M Poplawski

    Full Text Available Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita and Type 2 (db/db diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to assess gene expression and histology. Diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by albumin/creatinine ratios as well as expression of stress-induced genes, was completely reversed by 2 months maintenance on a ketogenic diet. However, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partly reversed. These studies demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined.

  19. Reversal of Diabetic Nephropathy by a Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Michal M.; Mastaitis, Jason W.; Isoda, Fumiko; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Zheng, Feng; Mobbs, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB) reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita) and Type 2 (db/db) diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria) was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to assess gene expression and histology. Diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by albumin/creatinine ratios as well as expression of stress-induced genes, was completely reversed by 2 months maintenance on a ketogenic diet. However, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partly reversed. These studies demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined. PMID:21533091

  20. Diet quality index for healthy food choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Caivano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present a Diet Quality Index proper for dietary intake studies of Brazilian adults. METHODS: A diet quality index to analyze the incorporation of healthy food choices was associated with a digital food guide. This index includes moderation components, destined to indicate foods that may represent a risk when in excess, and adequacy components that include sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds in order to help individuals meet their nutritional requirements. The diet quality index-digital food guide performance was measured by determining its psychometric properties, namely content and construct validity, as well as internal consistency. RESULTS: The moderation and adequacy components correlated weakly with dietary energy (-0.16 to 0.09. The strongest correlation (0.52 occurred between the component 'sugars and sweets' and the total score. The Cronbach's coefficient alpha for reliability was 0.36. CONCLUSION: Given that diet quality is a complex and multidimensional construct, the Diet Quality Index-Digital Food Guide, whose validity is comparable to those of other indices, is a useful resource for Brazilian dietary studies. However, new studies can provide additional information to improve its reliability.

  1. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor attenuates obesity-induced myocardial fibrosis by inhibiting transforming growth factor-βl and Smad2/3 pathways in high-fat diet-induced obesity rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seul-Ki; Choo, Eun-Ho; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Chang, Kiyuk; Seung, Ki-Bae

    2017-11-01

    Obesity-induced myocardial fibrosis may lead to diastolic dysfunction and ultimately heart failure. Activation of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-βl and its downstream Smad2/3 pathways may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced myocardial fibrosis, and the antidiabetic dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4i) might affect these pathways. We investigated whether DPP4i reduces myocardial fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β1 and Smad2/3 pathways in the myocardium of a diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model. Eight-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were fed either a normal fat diet (chow) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and then the HFD-fed SHRs were randomized to either the DPP4i (MK-0626) or control (distilled water) groups for 12weeks. At 20weeks old, all the rats underwent hemodynamic and metabolic studies and Doppler echocardiography. Compared with the normal fat diet (chow)-fed SHRs, the HFD-fed SHRs developed a more intense degree of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia and showed a constellation of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, and exacerbated myocardial fibrosis, as well as activation of the TGF-β1 and Smad2/3 pathways. DPP4i significantly improved the metabolic and hemodynamic parameters. The echocardiogram showed that DPP4i improved the LV diastolic dysfunction (early to late ventricular filling velocity [E/A] ratio, 1.49±0.21 vs. 1.77±0.09, p<0.05). Furthermore, DPP4i significantly reduced myocardial fibrosis and collagen production by the myocardium and suppressed TGF-β1 and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in the heart. In addition, DPP4i decreased TGF-β1-induced collagen production and TGF-β1-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 in rat cardiac fibroblasts. In conclusion, DPP4 inhibition attenuated myocardial fibrosis and improved LV diastolic dysfunction in a DIO rat model by modulating the TGF-β1 and Smad2/3 pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diet Segregation between Cohabiting Builder and Inquiline Termite Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Faria Florencio

    Full Text Available How do termite inquilines manage to cohabit termitaria along with the termite builder species? With this in mind, we analysed one of the several strategies that inquilines could use to circumvent conflicts with their hosts, namely, the use of distinct diets. We inspected overlapping patterns for the diets of several cohabiting Neotropical termite species, as inferred from carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for termite individuals. Cohabitant communities from distinct termitaria presented overlapping diet spaces, indicating that they exploited similar diets at the regional scale. When such communities were split into their components, full diet segregation could be observed between builders and inquilines, at regional (environment-wide and local (termitarium scales. Additionally, diet segregation among inquilines themselves was also observed in the vast majority of inspected termitaria. Inquiline species distribution among termitaria was not random. Environmental-wide diet similarity, coupled with local diet segregation and deterministic inquiline distribution, could denounce interactions for feeding resources. However, inquilines and builders not sharing the same termitarium, and thus not subject to potential conflicts, still exhibited distinct diets. Moreover, the areas of the builder's diet space and that of its inquilines did not correlate negatively. Accordingly, the diet areas of builders which hosted inquilines were in average as large as the areas of builders hosting no inquilines. Such results indicate the possibility that dietary partitioning by these cohabiting termites was not majorly driven by current interactive constraints. Rather, it seems to be a result of traits previously fixed in the evolutionary past of cohabitants.

  3. Proposal of indicators to evaluate complementary feeding based on World Health Organization indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldan, Paula Chuproski; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Medici; de Mello, Débora Falleiros

    2016-09-01

    This study compares complementary feeding World Health Organization (WHO) indicators with those built in accordance with Brazilian recommendations (Ten Steps to Healthy Feeding). A cross-sectional study was carried out during the National Immunization Campaign against Poliomyelitis in Guarapuava-Paraná, Brazil, in 2012. Feeding data from 1,355 children aged 6-23 months were obtained through the 24 h diet recall. Based on five indicators, the proportion of adequacy was evaluated: introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods; minimum dietary diversity; meal frequency; acceptable diet; and consumption of iron-rich foods. Complementary feeding showed adequacy higher than 85% in most WHO indicators, while review by the Ten Steps assessment method showed a less favorable circumstance and a high intake of unhealthy foods. WHO indicators may not reflect the complementary feeding conditions of children in countries with low malnutrition rates and an increased prevalence of overweight/obesity. The use of indicators according to the Ten Steps can be useful to identify problems and redirect actions aimed at promoting complementary feeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. High levels of X-linked Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) are indicative of radio chemotherapy resistance in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, L.; Kehoe, J.; Fay, J.; Bacon, O.; Lindner, A.U.; Kay, E.W.; Deasy, J.; McNamara, D.A.; Prehn, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The mainstay of treatment in rectal cancer is neoadjuvant radio chemotherapy prior to surgery, in an attempt to downstage the tumour, allowing for more complete removal during surgery. In 40 % of cases however, this neoadjuvant radio chemotherapy fails to achieve tumour regression, partly due insufficient apoptosis signaling. X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) is an anti-apoptotic protein that has been reported to contribute to disease progression and chemotherapy resistance. We obtained rectal biopsy normal and matched tumour tissue from 29 rectal cancer patients with varying degrees of tumour regression, and using Western blot, examined anti-apoptotic XIAP and pro-apoptotic Smac protein levels in these tissues, with the aim to examine whether disturbed XIAP/Smac levels may be an indicator of neoadjuvant radio chemotherapy resistance. Expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 was also examined. We found that levels of XIAP increased in accordance with the degree of radio chemotherapy resistance of the tissue. Levels of this protein were also significantly higher in tumour tissue, compared to matched normal tissue in highly resistant tissue. In contrast, Smac protein levels did not increase with radio chemotherapy resistance, and the protein was similarly expressed in normal and tumour tissue, indicating a shift in the balance of these proteins. Post treatment surgical resection tissue was available for 8 patients. When we compared matched tissue pre- and post- radio chemotherapy we found that XIAP levels increased significantly during treatment in both normal and tumour tissue, while Smac levels did not change. cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 levels were not differentially expressed in varying degrees of radio chemotherapy resistance, and neoadjuvant therapy did not alter expression of these proteins. These data indicate that disturbance of the XIAP/Smac balance may be a driver of radio chemotherapy resistance, and hence high levels of XIAP may

  5. The effect of renal diet in association with enalapril or benazepril on proteinuria in dogs with proteinuric chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zatelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Treating proteinuria in dogs reduces the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD; renal diets and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitors are cornerstones of treatment. Whether different ACE-inhibitors have distinct kidney protective effects is unknown; it is therefore hypothesized that renal diets and enalapril or benazepril have different beneficial effects in proteinuric CKD dogs. Forty-four dogs with proteinuric CKD (IRIS stages 1-4 were enrolled in the study and were fed renal diet for 30 days. Thereafter, they were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Dogs in group A (n=22 received enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, q12h and in group B (n=22 benazepril (0.5 mg/kg, q24h; in both groups, dogs were fed the same renal diet. After randomization, dogs were monitored for 120 days. Body weight and body condition score (BCS, serum concentrations of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, albumin and total proteins, and urine protein-to-creatinine (UPC ratio were compared at different time-points. After 30 days of renal diet, creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio decreased significantly (p<0.0001. Compared to randomization, body weight, BCS, albumin, total proteins, creatinine and BUN did not vary during follow-up in the 44 dogs and differences between group A and B were not observed. However, the UPC ratio of group A at day 60, 90 and 150 was significantly lower than in group B and compared to randomization (p<0.05. In group B it did not vary overtime. It is concluded that the renal diet is beneficial to decrease creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio in proteinuric CKD dogs. Enalapril further ameliorates proteinuria if administered along with renal diet.

  6. The effects of oil palm leaf meal-based diets on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... diets on the growth performance and haematological indices of red Sokoto goats. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... indices of Red Sokoto goats placed on oil palm leaf meal (OPLM)-wheat offal based diet.

  7. Effect of trypsin inhibitor activity in soya bean on growth performance, protein digestibility and incidence of sub-clinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyeguru, M W C D; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2011-06-01

    1. The effect of three different levels of dietary trypsin inhibitor activity (achieved by varying the amount of non-toasted full fat soya bean in replacement for toasted full fat soya bean) on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring sub-clinical necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens was compared. A fourth dietary treatment compared the effect of a diet that used potato protein concentrate as the major protein source. The determined trypsin inhibitor activity increased with the increasing content of non-toasted soya bean: 1·90, 6·21, 8·46 and 3·72 mg/g for the three soya bean diets (0, 100 and 200 g of non-toasted soya bean/kg) and the potato protein diet respectively. 2. Although increasing amounts of the non-toasted full-fat soya bean increased the feed intakes of the birds, there was a marked reduction in protein digestibility, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. 3. There was a linear increase in sub-clinical NE lesions in the duodenum, jejunum, mid small intestine and ileum with increasing non-toasted soya bean. Caecal Clostridium perfringens counts increased with the increasing dietary content of non-toasted soya bean. Serum α-toxin antibodies were higher in the birds fed the 200 g non-toasted soya bean/kg diet compared with the other diets. 4. The results demonstrated that variation in the amount of non-toasted dietary soya bean not only affects growth performance of broilers but also affects the incidence of sub-clinical necrotic enteritis in the flock. Ensuring the lowest possible trypsin-inhibitor activity in soya bean samples is a valuable tool to improve the health and welfare of birds and in reducing the financial losses from this disease.

  8. Liver Fat Scores Moderately Reflect Interventional Changes in Liver Fat Content by a Low-Fat Diet but Not by a Low-Carb Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Stefan; Bäther, Sabrina; Dambeck, Ulrike; Kemper, Margrit; Gerbracht, Christiana; Honsek, Caroline; Sachno, Anna; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2018-01-31

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder all over the world, mainly being associated with a sedentary lifestyle, adiposity, and nutrient imbalance. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD accommodates similar developments for type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related comorbidities and complications. Therefore, early detection of NAFLD is an utmost necessity. Potentially helpful tools for the prediction of NAFLD are liver fat indices. The fatty liver index (FLI) and the NAFLD-liver fat score (NAFLD-LFS) have been recently introduced for this aim. However, both indices have been shown to correlate with liver fat status, but there is neither sufficient data on the longitudinal representation of liver fat change, nor proof of a diet-independent correlation between actual liver fat change and change of index values. While few data sets on low-fat diets have been published recently, low-carb diets have not been yet assessed in this context. We aim to provide such data from a highly effective short-term intervention to reduce liver fat, comparing a low-fat and a low-carb diet in subjects with prediabetes. Anthropometric measurements, magnetic resonance (MR)-based intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content, and several serum markers for liver damage have been collected in 140 subjects, completing the diet phase in this trial. Area-under-the-responder-operator-curves (AUROC) calculations as well as cross-sectional and longitudinal Spearman correlations were used. Both FLI and NAFLD-LFS predict liver fat with moderate accuracy at baseline (AUROC 0.775-0.786). These results are supported by correlation analyses. Changes in liver fat, achieved by the dietary intervention, correlate moderately with changes in FLI and NAFLD-LFS in the low-fat diet, but not in the low-carb diet. A correlation analysis between change of actual IHL content and change of single elements of the liver fat indices revealed diet-specific moderate to strong correlations between ΔIHL and

  9. Renin-angiotensin system blockers protect pancreatic islets against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete Dalla Corte Frantz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations between obesity, hypertension and diabetes are well established, and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS may provide a link among them. The effect of RAS inhibition on type 2 diabetes is still unclear; however, RAS seems to play an important role in the regulation of the pancreas and glucose intolerance of mice fed high-fat (HF diet. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice fed a HF diet (8 weeks were treated with aliskiren (50 mg/kg/day, enalapril (30 mg/kg/day or losartan (10 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks, and the protective effects were extensively compared among groups by morphometry, stereological tools, immunostaining, Western blotting and hormonal analysis. RESULTS: All RAS inhibitors significantly attenuated the increased blood pressure in mice fed a HF diet. Treatment with enalapril, but not aliskiren or losartan, significantly attenuated body mass (BM gain, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, improved the alpha and beta cell mass and prevented the reduction of plasma adiponectin. Furthermore, enalapril treatment improved the protein expression of the pancreatic islet Pdx1, GLUT2, ACE2 and Mas receptors. Losartan treatment showed the greatest AT2R expression. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that ACE inhibition with enalapril attenuated several of the deleterious effects of the HF diet. In summary, enalapril appears to be responsible for the normalization of islet morphology and function, of alpha and beta cell mass and of Pdx1 and GLUT2 expression. These protective effects of enalapril were attributed, primarily, to the reduction in body mass gain and food intake and the enhancement of the ACE2/Ang (1-7 /Mas receptor axis and adiponectin levels.

  10. Novel orally bioavailable EZH1/2 dual inhibitors with greater antitumor efficacy than an EZH2 selective inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Daisuke; Kanno, Osamu; Watanabe, Jun; Kinoshita, Junzo; Hirasawa, Makoto; Nosaka, Emi; Shiroishi, Machiko; Takizawa, Takeshi; Yasumatsu, Isao; Horiuchi, Takao; Nakao, Akira; Suzuki, Keisuke; Yamasaki, Tomonori; Nakajima, Katsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Miho; Yamazaki, Takanori; Yadav, Ajay Singh; Adachi, Nobuaki

    2017-10-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) methylates histone H3 lysine 27 and represses gene expression to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) or its close homolog EZH1 functions as a catalytic subunit of PRC2, so there are two PRC2 complexes containing either EZH2 or EZH1. Tumorigenic functions of EZH2 and its synthetic lethality with some subunits of SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes have been observed. However, little is known about the function of EZH1 in tumorigenesis. Herein, we developed novel, orally bioavailable EZH1/2 dual inhibitors that strongly and selectively inhibited methyltransferase activity of both EZH2 and EZH1. EZH1/2 dual inhibitors suppressed trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 in cells more than EZH2 selective inhibitors. They also showed greater antitumor efficacy than EZH2 selective inhibitor in vitro and in vivo against diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells harboring gain-of-function mutation in EZH2. A hematological cancer panel assay indicated that EZH1/2 dual inhibitor has efficacy against some lymphomas, multiple myeloma, and leukemia with fusion genes such as MLL-AF9, MLL-AF4, and AML1-ETO. A solid cancer panel assay demonstrated that some cancer cell lines are sensitive to EZH1/2 dual inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. No clear correlation was detected between sensitivity to EZH1/2 dual inhibitor and SWI/SNF mutations, with a few exceptions. Severe toxicity was not seen in rats treated with EZH1/2 dual inhibitor for 14 days at drug levels higher than those used in the antitumor study. Our results indicate the possibility of EZH1/2 dual inhibitors for clinical applications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, ... stomach or intestinal surgery. A bland diet includes foods ...

  12. Renal function in heart transplant patients after switch to combined mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor and calcineurin inhibitor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmschrott M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Helmschrott,1 Rasmus Rivinius,1 Thomas Bruckner,2 Hugo A Katus,1 Andreas O Doesch1 1Department of Cardiology, Angiology, Pneumology, 2Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: A calcineurin inhibitor (CNI-based immunosuppression combined with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORs seems to be attractive in patients after heart transplantation (HTX in special clinical situations, for example, in patients with adverse drug effects of prior immunosuppression. Previous studies in patients after HTX detected advantageous effects regarding renal function of a tacrolimus (TAC-based vs cyclosporine-A (CSA-based immunosuppression (in combination with mycophenolate mofetil. However, data regarding renal function after HTX in mTOR/CNI patients remain limited. Aim: Primary end point of the present study was to analyze renal function in HTX patients 1 year after switch to an mTOR/CNI-based immunosuppression. Methods: Data of 80 HTX patients after change to mTOR/CNI-based immunosuppression were retrospectively analyzed. Renal function was assessed by measured serum creatinine and by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR calculated from Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results: Twenty-nine patients received mTOR/CSA-based treatment and 51 patients received mTOR/TAC-based therapy. At time of switch and at 1-year follow-up, serum creatinine and eGFR did not differ significantly between both study groups (all P=not statistically significant. Analysis of variances with repeated measurements detected a similar change of renal function in both study groups. Conclusion: The present study detected no significant differences between both mTOR/CNI study groups, indicating a steady state of renal function in HTX patients after switch of immunosuppressive regimen. Keywords: heart transplantation, cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, risk factors

  13. High fat diet triggers cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of granulosa cells during the follicular development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhenghong; Liao, Xinghui; Wang, Zhengchao, E-mail: zcwang@fjnu.edu.cn

    2015-10-23

    The regulatory mechanism of granulosa cells (GCs) proliferation during the follicular development is complicated and multifactorial, which is essential for the oocyte growth and normal ovarian functions. To investigate the role of high fat diet (HFD) on the proliferation of GCs, 4-week old female mice were fed with HFD or normal control diet (NC) for 15 weeks or 20 weeks and then detected the expression level of some regulatory molecules of cell cycle and apoptosis. The abnormal ovarian morphology was observed at 20 weeks. Further mechanistic studies indicated that HFD induced-obesity caused elevated apoptotic levels in GCs of the ovaries in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, cell cycle progress was also impacted after HFD fed. The cell cycle inhibitors, p27{sup Kip1} and p21{sup Cip1}, were significantly induced in the ovaries from the mice in HFD group when compared with that in the ovaries from the mice in NC group. Subsequently, the expression levels of Cyclin D1, D3 and CDK4 were also significantly influenced in the ovaries from the mice fed with HFD in a time-dependent manner. The present results suggested that HFD induced-obesity may trigger cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of GCs, causing the abnormal follicular development and ovarian function failure. - Highlights: • HFD induced-obesity leads to abnormal ovarian morphology. • HFD induced-obesity triggers excessive apoptosis in the ovary. • HFD induced-obesity up-regulates cell cycle inhibitors p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} in the ovary. • HFD induced-obesity causes cell cycle arrest in the ovary.

  14. Paleo Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucká, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Topic: Paleo Diet Objectives: The aim of bachelor thesis is to study available literature about Paleo Diet and evaluated it. Then determine whether there is awareness of Paleo Diet in Czech republic. In addition, find out whether there is any experience in dieting according to Paleo Diet and whether Paleo Diet coul be applied in our environment. Methods: As a source of information served a survey. The research group consists of respondents who should have any experience in dieting according t...

  15. The Ketogenic Diet: A Practical Guide for Pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luat, Aimee F; Coyle, Leigh; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-12-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for drug-resistant epilepsies in children. In addition, it is the first-line treatment for some metabolic disorders, such as glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome. This article discusses the proposed mechanisms of a ketogenic diet's antiseizure action, its clinical indications, and its contraindications. The steps involved in ketogenic diet initiation, monitoring, and management of its side effects are also discussed. This review provides general pediatricians with the necessary skills to provide comprehensive care of children using the ketogenic diet and counsel their families and caregivers. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(12):e446-e450.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Janus Associated Kinases Inhibitors in the Pharmacological Thera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Santos1

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Janus associated kinases inhibitors are a new strategy for the treatment of different clinical conditions like immunologic, inflammatory and oncology disorders. The aim of this study was to perform a review of all Janus associated kinases inhibitors available in national and international pharmaceutical market, their therapeutic indications and adverse effects, and the potential indications for investigation of those already available in the pharmaceutical market. It was also performed a review of the main new Janus associated kinases inhibitors that are still in clinical research. A literature review was conducted by consulting the summary of product characteristics of Janus associated kinases inhibitors available in the pharmaceutical market and a research in the bibliographic database PubMed using the terms «JAK inhibitors», «Janus associated kinases inhibitors» and «Janus kinases inhibitors». Ninety-five publications were included in the present review, published from January 2014 to January 2015. Drug databases of the European Medicines Agency and United States Food and Drug Administration were also consulted to search for Janus associated kinases inhibitors authorized in clinical practice. Currently, ruxolitinib and tofacitinib are available in the pharmaceutical market and oclatinib is approved as a veterinary medicinal product. Both drugs approved for human use have major adverse effects at hematological and immunological levels, which enhance the importance of the pharmacist’s role in the monitoring of patients involved in these treatments. However, several molecules are in pre-clinical and clinical studies trying to prove its potential in the treatment of several immunologic, inflammatory and oncology disorders. Thus, it is still necessary to deepen the knowledge in this area in order to overcome the risks of therapy with these agents. These risks weighed against the benefits of its clinical use have compromised the progress of

  17. High-Fat, High-Sugar Diet-Induced Subendothelial Matrix Stiffening is Mitigated by Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Julie C; Azar, Julian; Seta, Francesca; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of a high-fat, high-sugar diet and sedentary lifestyle are correlated with bulk arterial stiffening. While measurements of bulk arterial stiffening are used to assess cardiovascular health clinically, they cannot account for changes to the tissue occurring on the cellular scale. The compliance of the subendothelial matrix in the intima mediates vascular permeability, an initiating step in atherosclerosis. High-fat, high-sugar diet consumption and a sedentary lifestyle both cause micro-scale subendothelial matrix stiffening, but the impact of these factors in concert remains unknown. In this study, mice on a high-fat, high-sugar diet were treated with aerobic exercise or returned to a normal diet. We measured bulk arterial stiffness through pulse wave velocity and subendothelial matrix stiffness ex vivo through atomic force microscopy. Our data indicate that while diet reversal mitigates high-fat, high-sugar diet-induced macro- and micro-scale stiffening, exercise only significantly decreases micro-scale stiffness and not macro-scale stiffness, during the time-scale studied. These data underscore the need for both healthy diet and exercise to maintain vascular health. These data also indicate that exercise may serve as a key lifestyle modification to partially reverse the deleterious impacts of high-fat, high-sugar diet consumption, even while macro-scale stiffness indicators do not change.

  18. PSA testing without clinical indication for prostate cancer in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Randi V; Larsen, Signe B; Christensen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background. Social differences in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality might be related to testing for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Although routine PSA screening is not recommended in Denmark, testing without clinical indication increased during the past decade. We evaluated...... associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Material and methods. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort, we identified 1051 men with PC diagnosed in 1993-2008. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics were obtained from medical records......, and socio-demographic information was retrieved from administrative registers. We used general logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Cox...

  19. The Dutch Healthy Diet Index : development, evaluation, and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van L.

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Healthy Diet index – Development, Evaluation, and Application

    Linde van Lee

    Abstract

    Background: Dietary indices evaluate the conformity of an individual’s diet with pre-defined standards. Generally, dietary

  20. Dyslipidemia, Diet and Physical Exercise in Children on Treatment With Antiretroviral Medication in El Salvador: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Michela; Sagrado, Maria José; Escobar, Gustavo; Lazzerini, Marzia; Rivas, Estefanie; Martín-Cañavate, Rocio; Pérez de López, Elsy; Ayala, Sandra; Castaneda, Luis; Aparicio, Pilar; Custodio, Estefanía

    2016-10-01

    Dyslipidemias are common in HIV-infected children, especially if treated with protease inhibitors, but there are few data on how to treat dyslipidemias in this population. We estimated the dyslipidemia prevalence and its association with treatment, diet and physical exercise in children on antiretroviral treatment at the El Salvador reference center for pediatric HIV care (CENID). Information was gathered regarding socio-demographic characteristics, treatment, diet and physical activity of 173 children aged 5-18 years and receiving antiretroviral therapy. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), viral load and CD4 T-lymphocytes were measured. Abnormal concentrations were defined as triglycerides ≥130 mg/dL in 10- to 18-year olds and ≥100 mg/dL in diet and physical exercise. Of the 173 children, 83 (48%) had hypertriglyceridemia and 25 (14.5%) hypercholesterolemia. High LDL-C concentrations were observed in 17 children (9.8%) and low HDL-C in 38 (22%). Treatment with protease inhibitors was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia [prevalence ratio (PR) 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-3.8] and hypercholesterolemia (PR 9.0; 95% CI: 3.6-22.2). Higher adherence to a "high fat/sugar diet" was associated with hypercholesterolemia (PR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3) and high LDL-C (PR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.9). Compared with those exercising exercising ≥7 times were less likely to have low HDL-C (PR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.7). These results suggest that a healthy diet and exercise habits can contribute to controlling some aspects of the lipid profile in this population.

  1. Prey specialization and diet of frogs in Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlm, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies of the diet of frogs indicate that most adult frogs are mainly insectivorous. Overall, frogs are viewed more as generalists than specialists in terms of their diet. However, despite earlier studies, there are still gaps in our knowledge regarding what frogs tend to eat and the degree of specialization. The aim of this study was to investigate the diet choice of frogs in a tropical ecosystem. The present study was conducted in a well-known hotspot for frogs with 66 of the 156 k...

  2. A diet quality index for American preschoolers based on current dietary intake recommendations and an indicator of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Hartman, Terryl; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H

    2006-10-01

    Based on current dietary intake recommendations and a recommendation to limit sedentary activity in preschoolers, an overall diet quality index for preschoolers (RC-DQI) incorporating a component for energy balance to measure adequacy of nutrition for growth, development, and disease prevention was developed. The newly developed index was used in nationally representative samples of 2- to 5-year-olds in the US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96 and 1998 (n=5,437). Index components included added sugar, total fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total and whole grains, fruits, vegetables, excess fruit juice, dairy, iron, and an interaction term of total daily energy intake and sedentary behavior (television time). Points were allocated to reflect deficient or excessive intakes. Means and standard errors were used to describe food intakes and RC-DQI scores. Ability to differentiate diets was ascertained using mean intakes of food groups/nutrients followed by a nonparametric test of trends across ordered groups. Correlation coefficients measured dependence among RC-DQI components, nutrients, and overall energy intakes. Component scores of the highest and lowest quartile of RC-DQI were compared. Mean RC-DQI score was 64 points (range=28 to 93). Increasing RC-DQI scores were associated with improved diet quality. Children in the lowest RC-DQI quartile scored lower in all components. The RC-DQI successfully differentiated diets by level of diet quality. Increasing scores were associated with decreasing consumption of added sugar and juices, and increasing intakes of fiber, essential fatty acids, fruits, and vegetables. The RC-DQI can be used to determine diet quality in groups of preschool-age children.

  3. Diet Quality Scores of Australian Adults Who Have Completed the Healthy Eating Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca L; Rollo, Megan E; Schumacher, Tracy; Collins, Clare E

    2017-08-15

    Higher scores obtained using diet quality and variety indices are indicators of more optimal food and nutrient intakes and lower chronic disease risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the overall diet quality and variety in a sample of Australian adults who completed an online diet quality self-assessment tool, the Healthy Eating Quiz. The Healthy Eating Quiz takes approximately five minutes to complete online and computes user responses into a total diet quality score (out of a maximum of 73 points) and then categorizes them into the following groups: 'needs work' (Healthy eating quiz scores were higher in those aged 45-75 years compared to 16-44 years ( p Healthy Eating Quiz data indicates that individuals receiving feedback on how to improve their score can improve their diet quality, there is a need for further nutrition promotion interventions in Australian adults.

  4. Diet Modulation is an Effective Complementary Agent in Preventing and Treating Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangmin; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Wang, Dezhi; Siegal, Gene P.; Hardy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    A significant percentage of breast cancer victims will suffer from metastases indicating that new approaches to preventing breast cancer metastasis are thus needed. Dietary stearate and chemotherapy have been shown to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We tested the complementary use of dietary stearate with a taxol-based chemotherapy which work through separate mechanisms to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We therefore carried out a prevention study in which diets were initiated prior to human MDA-MB-435 cancer cells being injected into the host and a treatment study in which diets were combined with paclitaxel (PTX). Using an orthotopic athymic nude mouse model and three diets (corn oil control diet/CO, low fat /LF or stearate/ST) the prevention study demonstrated that the ST diet decreased the incidence of lung metastasis by 50% compared to both the LF and CO diets. The ST diet also reduced the number and size of metastatic lung nodules compared to the LF diet. Results of the treatment study indicated that both the CO and ST diets decreased the number of mice with lung metastasis compared to the LF diet. Both CO and ST also decreased the number of lung metastases per mouse compared to the LF diet however only the ST diet cohort was significant. Histomorphometric analysis of the lung tumor tissue indicated that the ST diet plus PTX decreased angiogenesis compared to the LF diet plus PTX. In conclusion these results support combining diet with chemotherapy in both treatment and prevention settings. PMID:24832758

  5. [Benefits of gluten-free diet: myth or reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coattrenec, Yann; Harr, Thomas; Pichard, Claude; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2015-10-14

    Non celiac gluten sensitivity may explain digestive and general symptoms in patients without celiac disease but this recently described entity is controversial. The role of gluten in comparison to other nutriments such as saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) remains debated. If a gluten-free diet is clearly indicated in celiac disease and wheat allergy, it remains debatable in non-celiac gluten sensitivity given weak and contradictory evidence. There is no strong evidence for a strict indication to a gluten-free diet in endocrinological, psychiatric, and rheumatologic diseases, or to improve performance in elite sports.

  6. Nordic monitoring on diet, physical activity and overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagt, Sisse; Andersen, Lene Frost; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    . In 2009, the indicator questions were validated against an objective method (physical activity) or existing survey methods (diet) and the present report mainly describes the validation studies. On basis of the validation studies the working group suggests that the indicators are used in a future......In 2007, a Nordic working group was established with the aim to describe a future Nordic monitoring system on diet, physical activity and overweight. The monitoring system should be simple and at relatively low cost. Therefore it has been decided to conduct the moni-toring as a telephone interview...

  7. Test-based exclusion diets in gastro-esophageal reflux disease patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Michele; Zuliani, Giovanni; Cassol, Francesca; Fusetti, Nadia; Zeni, Elena; Lo Cascio, Natalina; Soavi, Cecilia; Gullini, Sergio

    2014-12-07

    To investigate the clinical response of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms to exclusion diets based on food intolerance tests. A double blind, randomized, controlled pilot trial was performed in 38 GERD patients partially or completely non-responders to proton pump inhibitors (PPI) treatment. Fasting blood samples from each patients were obtained; leukocytotoxic test was performed by incubating the blood with a panel of 60 food items to be tested. The reaction of leukocytes (rounding, vacuolization, lack of movement, flattening, fragmentation or disintegration of cell wall) was then evaluated by optical microscopy and rated as follows: level 0 = negative, level 1 = slightly positive, level 2 = moderately positive, and level 3 = highly positive. A "true" diet excluding food items inducing moderate-severe reactions, and a "control" diet including them was developed for each patient. Then, twenty patients received the "true" diet and 18 the "control" diet; after one month (T1) symptoms severity was scored by the GERD impact scale (GIS). Hence, patients in the "control" group were switched to the "true" diet, and symptom severity was re-assessed after three months (T2). At baseline (T0) the mean GIS global score was 6.68 (range: 5-12) with no difference between "true" and control group (6.6 ± 1.19 vs 6.7 ± 1.7). All patients reacted moderately/severely to at least 1 food (range: 5-19), with a significantly greater number of food substances inducing reaction in controls compared with the "true" diet group (11.6 vs 7.0, P < 0.001). Food items more frequently involved were milk, lettuce, brewer's yeast, pork, coffee, rice, sole asparagus, and tuna, followed by eggs, tomato, grain, shrimps, and chemical yeast. At T1 both groups displayed a reduction of GIS score ("true" group 3.3 ± 1.7, -50%, P = 0.001; control group 4.9 ± 2.8, -26.9%, P = 0.02), although the GIS score was significantly lower in "true" vs "control" group (P = 0.04). At T2, after the diet

  8. Dietary species richness as a measure of food biodiversity and nutritional quality of diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raneri, Jessica E.; Smith, Katherine Walker; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Damme, Patrick; Verzelen, Kaat; Penafiel, Daniela; Vanhove, Wouter; Kennedy, Gina; Hunter, Danny; Odhiambo, Francis Oduor; Ntandou-Bouzitou, Gervais; De Baets, Bernard; Ratnasekera, Disna; Ky, Hoang The; Remans, Roseline; Termote, Céline

    2018-01-01

    Biodiversity is key for human and environmental health. Available dietary and ecological indicators are not designed to assess the intricate relationship between food biodiversity and diet quality. We applied biodiversity indicators to dietary intake data from and assessed associations with diet quality of women and young children. Data from 24-hour diet recalls (55% in the wet season) of n = 6,226 participants (34% women) in rural areas from seven low- and middle-income countries were analyzed. Mean adequacies of vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, calcium, iron, and zinc and diet diversity score (DDS) were used to assess diet quality. Associations of biodiversity indicators with nutrient adequacy were quantified using multilevel models, receiver operating characteristic curves, and test sensitivity and specificity. A total of 234 different species were consumed, of which functional diversity, species richness (SR) showed stronger associations and better diagnostic properties with micronutrient adequacy. For every additional species consumed, dietary nutrient adequacy increased by 0.03 (P food biodiversity in diets. PMID:29255049

  9. Anti-diabetic effects of DA-11004, a synthetic IDPc inhibitor in high fat high sucrose diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang Yell; Jung, Mi Young; Lee, In Ki; Son, Miwon; Kim, Dong Sung; Lim, Joong In; Kim, Soon Hoe; Yoo, Moohi; Huh, Tae Lin; Sohn, Young Taek; Kim, Won Bae

    2004-01-01

    DA-11004 is a synthetic, potent NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) inhibitor where IC50 for IDPc is 1.49 microM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DA-11004 on the high fat high sucrose (HF)-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice. After completing a 8-week period of experimentation, the mice were sacrificed 1 hr after the last DA-11004 treatment and their blood, liver, and adipose tissues (epididymal and retroperitoneal fat) were collected. There was a significant difference in the pattern of increasing body weight between the HF control and the DA-11004 group. In the DA-11004 (100 mg/kg) treated group the increase in body weight significantly declined and a content of epididymal fat and retroperitoneal fat was also significantly decreased as opposed to the HF control. DA-11004 (100 mg/ kg) inhibited the IDPc activity, and thus, NADPH levels in plasma and the levels of free fatty acid (FFA) or glucose in plasma were less than the levels of the HF control group. In conclusion, DA-11004 inhibited the fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissues via IDPc inhibition, and it decreased the plasma glucose levels and FFA in HF diet-induced obesity of C57BL/6J mice.

  10. RNA-Sequencing of Drosophila melanogaster Head Tissue on High-Sugar and High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Hemphill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein, or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline. We subjected flies to variants of the high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, or normal (control diet, followed by a total RNA extraction from fly heads of each diet group for the purpose of Poly-A selected RNA-Sequencing. Our objective was to identify the effects of obesogenic diets on transcriptome patterns, how they differed between obesogenic diets, and identify genes that may relate to pathogenesis accompanying an obesity-like state. Gene ontology analysis indicated an overrepresentation of affected genes associated with immunity, metabolism, and hemocyanin in the high-fat diet group, and CHK, cell cycle activity, and DNA binding and transcription in the high-sugar diet group. Our results also indicate differences in the effects of the high-fat diet and high-sugar diet on expression profiles in head tissue of flies, despite the reportedly similar phenotypic impacts of the diets. The impacted genes, and how they may relate to pathogenesis in the Drosophila obesity-like state, warrant further experimental investigation.

  11. Food nitrogen footprint reductions related to a balanced Japanese diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oita, Azusa; Nagano, Ichiro; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-01

    Dietary choices largely affect human-induced reactive nitrogen accumulation in the environment and resultant environmental problems. A nitrogen footprint (NF) is an indicator of how an individual's consumption patterns impact nitrogen pollution. Here, we examined the impact of changes in the Japanese diet from 1961 to 2011 and the effect of alternative diets (the recommended protein diet, a pescetarian diet, a low-NF food diet, and a balanced Japanese diet) on the food NF. The annual per capita Japanese food NF has increased by 55% as a result of dietary changes since 1961. The 1975 Japanese diet, a balanced omnivorous diet that reportedly delays senescence, with a protein content similar to the current level, reduced the current food NF (15.2 kg N) to 12.6 kg N, which is comparable to the level in the recommended protein diet (12.3 kg N). These findings will help consumers make dietary choices to reduce their impacts on nitrogen pollution.

  12. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic and N-aspartic acids, and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender- and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...

  13. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors in clinical urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ückert, Stefan; Kuczyk, Markus A; Oelke, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    To date, benign diseases of the male and female lower urinary and genital tract, such as erectile dysfunction, bladder overactivity, lower urinary tract symptomatology secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia and symptoms of female sexual dysfunction (including arousal and orgasmic disorders), can be therapeutically approached by influencing the function of the smooth musculature of the respective tissues. The use of isoenzyme-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors is considered a great opportunity to treat various diseases of the human urogenital tract. PDE inhibitors, in particular the PDE5 (cyclic GMP PDE) inhibitors avanafil, lodenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil, udenafil and vardenafil, are regarded as efficacious, having a fast onset of drug action and an improved effect-to-adverse event ratio, combining a high response rate with the advantage of an on-demand intake. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent as well as potential future indications, namely, erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease, overactive bladder, urinary stone disease, lower urinary tract symptomatology secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia and premature ejaculation, for the use of PDE inhibitors in clinical urology.

  14. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes.

  15. Bone Accumulations of Spotted Hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta, Erxleben, 1777 as Indicators of Diet and Human Conflict; Mashatu, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F. Kuhn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a region where free ranging domestic species mix with wildlife, it is imperative to determine what, if any, predation may have occurred on domestic stock. As human settlements continuously encroach upon wild habitats, determining the types of predator-human conflicts that exist can be crucial to conserve numerous predator species. The partial diet of spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta of the Mashatu Game Reserve, Botswana, was established via analyses of faunal remains associated with four dens to determine predation/scavenging on wild or domestic species. Domestic species composed less than 3% of identified faunal remains. We acknowledge that this methodology is biased against small mammals, but, when combined with sociological studies, this methodology will aid in determining alleged predation on domestic stock by spotted hyaenas. Results indicated that the spotted hyaenas in question feed primarily on wild species.

  16. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Li-Byarlay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus . We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster . Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant–insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology.

  17. Flavonoids Are Inhibitors of Human Organic Anion Transporter 1 (OAT1)–Mediated Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua; Wang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) has been reported to be involved in the nephrotoxicity of many anionic xenobiotics. As current clinically used OAT1 inhibitors are often associated with safety issues, identifying potent OAT1 inhibitors with little toxicity is of great value in reducing OAT1-mediated drug nephrotoxicity. Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic compounds with exceptional safety records. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of 18 naturally occurring flavonoids, and some of their glycosides, on the uptake of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) in both OAT1-expressing and OAT1-negative LLC-PK1 cells. Most flavonoid aglycones produced substantial decreases in PAH uptake in OAT1-expressing cells. Among the flavonoids screened, fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin exhibited the strongest effect and produced complete inhibition of OAT1-mediated PAH uptake at a concentration of 50 μM. Further concentration-dependent studies revealed that both morin and luteolin are potent OAT1 inhibitors, with IC50 values of flavonoid aglycones, all flavonoid glycosides had negligible or small effects on OAT1. In addition, the role of OAT1 in the uptake of fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin was investigated and fisetin was found to be a substrate of OAT1. Taken together, our results indicate that flavonoids are a novel class of OAT1 modulators. Considering the high consumption of flavonoids in the diet and in herbal products, OAT1-mediated flavonoid-drug interactions may be clinically relevant. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the nephroprotective role of flavonoids in relation to drug-induced nephrotoxicity mediated by the OAT1 pathway. PMID:25002746

  18. The Effects Of Fresh And Thermoxidized Palm Oil Diets On Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil diets on some haematalogical indices in the rat were investigated in albino rats (Wistar strain). The animals were divided into three groups namely, the first group fed on thermoxidized palm oil (TPO) diet, a second group fed on fresh palm oil (FPO) diet and a third fed on normal ...

  19. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST

  20. Ketogenic Diet in Refractory Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerins Weijenberg MD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy has a considerable impact on daily life and is usually adopted for at least 3 months. Our aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of an all-liquid ketogenic diet in an outpatient setting is feasible, and if an earlier assessment of its efficacy can be achieved. Methods: The authors conducted a prospective, observational study in a consecutive group of children with refractory epilepsy aged 2 to 14 years indicated for ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diet was started as an all-liquid formulation of the classical ketogenic diet, KetoCal 4:1 LQ, taken orally or by tube. After 6 weeks, the liquid diet was converted into solid meals. The primary outcome parameter was time-to-response (>50% seizure reduction. Secondary outcome parameters were time to achieve stable ketosis, the number of children showing a positive response, and the retention rate at 26 weeks. Results: Sixteen children were included. Four of them responded well with respect to seizure frequency, the median time-to-response was 14 days (range 7-28 days. The mean time to achieve stable ketosis was 7 days. The retention rate at 26 weeks was 50%. Of the 8 children who started this protocol orally fed, 6 completed it without requiring a nasogastric tube. Conclusions: Introduction of ketogenic diet with a liquid formulation can be accomplished in orally fed children without major complications. It allowed for fast and stable ketosis.

  1. Ketogenic Diet in Refractory Childhood Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, Amerins; van Rijn, Margreet; de Koning, Tom J.; Brouwer, Oebele F.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy has a considerable impact on daily life and is usually adopted for at least 3 months. Our aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of an all-liquid ketogenic diet in an outpatient setting is feasible, and if an earlier assessment of its efficacy can be achieved. Methods: The authors conducted a prospective, observational study in a consecutive group of children with refractory epilepsy aged 2 to 14 years indicated for ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diet was started as an all-liquid formulation of the classical ketogenic diet, KetoCal 4:1 LQ, taken orally or by tube. After 6 weeks, the liquid diet was converted into solid meals. The primary outcome parameter was time-to-response (>50% seizure reduction). Secondary outcome parameters were time to achieve stable ketosis, the number of children showing a positive response, and the retention rate at 26 weeks. Results: Sixteen children were included. Four of them responded well with respect to seizure frequency, the median time-to-response was 14 days (range 7-28 days). The mean time to achieve stable ketosis was 7 days. The retention rate at 26 weeks was 50%. Of the 8 children who started this protocol orally fed, 6 completed it without requiring a nasogastric tube. Conclusions: Introduction of ketogenic diet with a liquid formulation can be accomplished in orally fed children without major complications. It allowed for fast and stable ketosis. PMID:29872664

  2. Psychological correlates of habitual diet in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    There are 3 motivations for studying the psychological correlates of habitual diet. First, diet is a major but modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality, and dietary interventions could be improved by knowing the psychological characteristics of consumers of healthy/unhealthy diets. Second, animal studies indicate that diet can impair cognition, stress responsiveness, and affective processing, but it is unclear whether this also happens in humans. Third, certain psychological traits are associated with obesity, but it is not known whether these precede and thus contribute to weight gain. Although many psychological correlates of diet have been identified, the literature is highly dispersed, and there has been no previous comprehensive narrative review. Organized here by psychological domain, studies linking diet with individual differences in perception, cognition, impulsivity, personality, affective processing, mental health, and attitudes, beliefs and values-in healthy adults-are reviewed. Although there is a growing literature on the psychological correlates of fruit/vegetable intake-the core of a healthy diet-consumers of unhealthy diets have characteristics that probably make them less responsive to education-based interventions. Diet may be a causal contributor to depression, and diet is consistently linked to impulsivity and certain personality traits. There are inconsistent and less explored links to perceptual, affective and cognitive processes, with several emerging parallels to the animal literature. Impulsivity and personality traits common to obese individuals also occur in lean consumers of unhealthy diets, suggesting these may contribute to weight gain. Diet-psychology correlates remain understudied even though this could significantly benefit human health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency in Western diet-fed mice protects against adipocyte hypertrophy and diet-induced liver steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Sydor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alterations in sphingolipid and ceramide metabolism have been associated with various diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM converts the membrane lipid sphingomyelin to ceramide, thereby affecting membrane composition and domain formation. We investigated the ways in which the Asm knockout (Smpd1−/− genotype affects diet-induced NAFLD. Methods: Smpd1−/− mice and wild type controls were fed either a standard or Western diet (WD for 6 weeks. Liver and adipose tissue morphology and mRNA expression were assessed. Quantitative proteome analysis of liver tissue was performed. Expression of selected genes was quantified in adipose and liver tissue of obese NAFLD patients. Results: Although Smpd1−/− mice exhibited basal steatosis with normal chow, no aggravation of NAFLD-type injury was observed with a Western diet. This protective effect was associated with the absence of adipocyte hypertrophy and the increased expression of genes associated with brown adipocyte differentiation. In white adipose tissue from obese patients with NAFLD, no expression of these genes was detectable. To further elucidate which pathways in liver tissue may be affected by Smpd1−/−, we performed an unbiased proteome analysis. Protein expression in WD-fed Smpd1−/− mice indicated a reduction in Rictor (mTORC2 activity; this reduction was confirmed by diminished Akt phosphorylation and altered mRNA expression of Rictor target genes. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the protective effect of Asm deficiency on diet-induced steatosis is conferred by alterations in adipocyte morphology and lipid metabolism and by reductions in Rictor activation. Keywords: Ceramide, NAFLD, Rictor, Western diet

  4. Epilepsy characteristics and psychosocial factors associated with ketogenic diet success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Nancy A; Carbone, Loretta A; Shellhaas, Renée A

    2013-10-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective therapy for childhood epilepsy, but its important impacts on families could affect successful treatment. We assessed medical and psychosocial factors associated with successful ketogenic diet treatment. A total of 23 families of patients treated with ketogenic diet completed questionnaires (30% response), including inquiries about challenges to successful dietary treatments and validated family functioning scales. Of these, 14 were considered successful (diet discontinued once the child was seizure-free or continued as clinically indicated). Family-identified challenges were food preparation time (n = 11) and that the diet was too restrictive (n = 9). Neither Medicaid insurance nor family functioning scale scores were significantly associated with successful treatment. Lower seizure frequency prior to ketogenic diet initiation (P = .02) and postdiet seizure improvement (P = .01) were associated with increased odds of success. Effective ketogenic diet treatment is dictated both by psychosocial and epilepsy-related influences. A focus on understanding the psychosocial issues may help to improve families' experiences and success with the ketogenic diet.

  5. RENAL SAFETY OF PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Dyadyk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton pump inhibitors are a widely used in clinical practice, and are taken by millions of patients around the world for a long time. While proton pump inhibitors are well-tolerated class of drugs, the number of publications has been raised about adverse renal effects, specially their association with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. It is one of the leading causes of acute renal injury and have catastrophic long-term consequences called chronic kidney disease. In this review, we consider epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria (including biopsy and morphological pattern, clinical manifestations and treatment of proton pump inhibitors-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. A subclinical course without classical manifestations of a cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction (fever, skin rash, eosinophilia, arthralgia is characteristic of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, electrolyte disorders, pathological changes in urine tests are not highly specific indicators, but allow to suspect the development of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. The “gold” standard of diagnosis is the intravital morphological examination of the kidney tissue. Timely diagnosis and immediate discontinuation of the potentially causative drug is the mainstay of therapy and the first necessary step in the early management of suspected or biopsy-proven drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. The usage of proton pump inhibitors should be performed only on strict indications with optimal duration of treatment and careful monitoring of kidney function. Multiple comorbidities (older age, heart failure, diabetes, cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, hypovolemia increase potential nephrotoxicity. Awareness of this iatrogenic complication will improve diagnosis of proton pump inhibitors-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis by multidisciplinary specialists and increase the possibility

  6. Factors associated with diet quality of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Império de FREITAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Evaluate the factors associated with diet quality of older adults from the city of São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 295 older adults receiving care in health care units in São Caetano do Sul. Diet quality was assessed using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index. The associations between the diet quality mean score and the socio-demographic, economic, and anthropometric characteristics and lifestyle and health conditions were verified using multiple linear regression. Results Lower diet quality mean score were associated with the variables: marital status (widowed or separated (β=-2.02; p=0.047, retired (β=-4.24; p=0.034, and smoking (β=-8.06; p=0.001; whereas higher diet quality mean score were associated with higher education level (9 years or more (β=3.49; p=0.013. Conclusion Individuals with higher education level had better diet quality, and those who were widowed or separated, retired, and smokers had worse diet quality indicating that socio-demographic, economic, and lifestyle are factors that can influence food choice of older adults.

  7. Vegetarian versus Meat-Based Diets for Companion Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Knight

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Companion animal owners are increasingly concerned about the links between degenerative health conditions, farm animal welfare problems, environmental degradation, fertilizers and herbicides, climate change, and causative factors; such as animal farming and the consumption of animal products. Accordingly, many owners are increasingly interested in vegetarian diets for themselves and their companion animals. However, are vegetarian canine and feline diets nutritious and safe? Four studies assessing the nutritional soundness of these diets were reviewed, and manufacturer responses to the most recent studies are provided. Additional reviewed studies examined the nutritional soundness of commercial meat-based diets and the health status of cats and dogs maintained on vegetarian and meat-based diets. Problems with all of these dietary choices have been documented, including nutritional inadequacies and health problems. However, a significant and growing body of population studies and case reports have indicated that cats and dogs maintained on vegetarian diets may be healthy—including those exercising at the highest levels—and, indeed, may experience a range of health benefits. Such diets must be nutritionally complete and reasonably balanced, however, and owners should regularly monitor urinary acidity and should correct urinary alkalinisation through appropriate dietary additives, if necessary.

  8. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Result...

  9. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartinen, K; Lammi, K; Hypen, M; Nenonen, M; Hanninen, O; Rauma, A L

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a strict, low-salt, uncooked vegan diet rich in lactobacteria on symptoms in 18 fibromyalgia patients during and after a 3-month intervention period in an open, non-randomized controlled study was evaluated. As control 15 patients continued their omnivorous diet. The groups did not differ significantly from each other in the beginning of the study in any other parameters except in pain and urine sodium. The results revealed significant improvements in Visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) (p=0.005), joint stiffness (p=0.001), quality of sleep (p=0.0001), Health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) (p=0.031), General health questionnaire (GHQ) (p=0.021), and a rheumatologist's own questionnaire (p=0.038). The majority of patients were overweight to some extent at the beginning of the study and shifting to a vegan food caused a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.0001). Total serum cholesterol showed a statistically significant lowering (p=0.003). Urine sodium dropped to 1/3 of the beginning values (p=0.0001) indicating good diet compliance. It can be concluded that vegan diet had beneficial effects on fibromyalgia symptoms at least in the short run.

  10. Citrate, malate and alkali content in commonly consumed diet sodas: implications for nephrolithiasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Stoller, Marshall L

    2010-06-01

    Citrate is a known inhibitor of calcium stone formation. Dietary citrate and alkali intake may have an effect on citraturia. Increasing alkali intake also increases urine pH, which can help prevent uric acid stones. We determined citrate, malate and total alkali concentrations in commonly consumed diet sodas to help direct dietary recommendations in patients with hypocitraturic calcium or uric acid nephrolithiasis. Citrate and malate were measured in a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis and in 15 diet sodas. Anions were measured by ion chromatography. The pH of each beverage was measured to allow calculation of the unprotonated anion concentration using the known pK of citric and malic acid. Total alkali equivalents were calculated for each beverage. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Several sodas contained an amount of citrate equal to or greater than that of alkali and total alkali as a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis (6.30 mEq/l citrate as alkali and 6.30 as total alkali). These sodas were Diet Sunkist Orange, Diet 7Up, Sprite Zero, Diet Canada Dry Ginger Ale, Sierra Mist Free, Diet Orange Crush, Fresca and Diet Mountain Dew. Colas, including Caffeine Free Diet Coke, Coke Zero, Caffeine Free Diet Pepsi and Diet Coke with Lime, had the lowest total alkali (less than 1.0 mEq/l). There was no significant correlation between beverage pH and total alkali content. Several commonly consumed diet sodas contain moderate amounts of citrate as alkali and total alkali. This information is helpful for dietary recommendations in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis, specifically those with hypocitraturia. It may also be useful in patients with low urine pH and uric acid stones. Beverage malate content is also important since malate ingestion increases the total alkali delivered, which in turn augments citraturia and increases urine pH. Copyright

  11. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2002-01-01

    and hunters who fear predation on livestock and reindeer as well as a general reduction in wild game abundance, especially roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Prey spectrum and predation of lynx was studied based on stomach analyses of lynx throughout Sweden and on data from a field study in south-central Sweden...... (reindeer and roe deer) comprised the greatest part of the diet, while a regional division indicated that while lynxes from northern regions had a narrower diet niche, they were in better condition than lynxes from south of the reindeer husbandry districts. Lynx gender and status also influenced diet...

  12. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources.

  13. Bile components and lecithin supplemented to plant based diets do not diminish diet related intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael H; Bjӧrkhem, Ingemar; Måsøval, Kjell; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2016-09-07

    The present study was undertaken to gain knowledge on the role of bile components and lecithin on development of aberrations in digestive functions which seemingly have increased in Atlantic salmon in parallel with the increased use of plant ingredients in fish feed. Post smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 77 days one of three basal diets: a high fish meal diet (HFM), a low fishmeal diet (LFM), or a diet with high protein soybean meal (HPS). Five additional diets were made from the LFM diet by supplementing with: purified taurocholate (1.8 %), bovine bile salt (1.8 %), taurine (0.4 %), lecithin (1.5 %), or a mix of supplements (suppl mix) containing taurocholate (1.8 %), cholesterol (1.5 %) and lecithin (0.4 %). Two additional diets were made from the HPS diet by supplementing with: bovine bile salt (1.8 %) or the suppl mix. Body and intestinal weights were recorded, and blood, bile, intestinal tissues and digesta were sampled for evaluation of growth, nutrient metabolism and intestinal structure and function. In comparison with fish fed the HFM diet fish fed the LFM and HPS diets grew less and showed reduced plasma bile salt and cholesterol levels. Histological examination of the distal intestine showed signs of enteritis in both LFM and HPS diet groups, though more pronounced in the HPS diet group. The HPS diet reduced digesta dry matter and capacity of leucine amino peptidase in the distal intestine. None of the dietary supplements improved endpoints regarding fish performance, gut function or inflammation in the distal intestine. Some endpoints rather indicated negative effects. Dietary supplementation with bile components or lecithin in general did not improve endpoints regarding performance or gut health in Atlantic salmon, in clear contrast to what has been previously reported for rainbow trout. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify if lower levels of bile salts and cholesterol may give different and beneficial effects, or if other supplements

  14. Dietary supplementation of grape skin extract improves glycemia and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice fed a Western high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-04-13

    Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.

  15. Chelation: A Fundamental Mechanism of Action of AGE Inhibitors, AGE Breakers, and Other Inhibitors of Diabetes Complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Rhoji; Murray, David B.; Metz, Thomas O.; Baynes, John

    2012-03-01

    Advanced glycation or glycoxidation end-products (AGE) increase in tissue proteins with age, and their rate of accumulation is increased in diabetes, nephropathy and inflammatory diseases. AGE inhibitors include a range of compounds that are proposed to act by trapping carbonyl and dicarbonyl intermediates in AGE formation. However, some among the newer generation of AGE inhibitors lack reactive functional groups that would trap reaction intermediates, indicating an alternative mechanism of action. We propose that AGE inhibitors function primarily as chelators, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions. The AGE-inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers is also consistent with their chelating activity. Finally, compounds described as AGE breakers, or their hydrolysis products, also have strong chelating activity, suggesting that these compounds also act through their chelating activity. We conclude that chelation is the common, and perhaps the primary, mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors and breakers, and that chronic, mild chelation therapy should prove useful in treatment of diabetes and age-related diseases characterized by oxidative stress, inflammation and increased chemical modification of tissue proteins by advanced glycoxidation and lipoxidation end-products.

  16. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  17. The big five and self-esteem among overweight dieting and non-dieting women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Gidi

    2006-11-01

    Overweight is one of the most frequent phenomena, which poses serious health risks, emotional disturbances and esthetic and social problems in the Western world. This study investigated personality differences between women with normal weight, dieting overweight women and non-dieting overweight women. Thirty women with normal weight (NW), 30 overweight women who participated in diet groups (OWD), and 30 overweight women who did not participate in such groups (OWND) filled in a demographic questionnaire, Costa and McCrae's [Costa, P. T. Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO PI-R: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.] NEO-FFI, and Rosenberg's [Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.] Self-Esteem questionnaire. The results indicate that the OWND are significantly more neurotic and less open, conscientious, agreeable, and extravert than the other two groups. Self-esteem of the OWND is also lower than both OWD and NW. Contrary to hypothesis, OWD and NW do not significantly differ from each other with respect to both the Big Five and self-esteem.

  18. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and academic performance in youth: the UP&DOWN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Izquierdo-Gomez, Rocio; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Marcos, Ascensión; Veiga, Oscar L

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and academic performance in children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 1371 youth aged 12.04 ± 2.50 years (685 girls) in Spain during 2011-2012. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using the KIDMED index (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents), which includes 16 questions on specific dietary patterns. Levels of adherence were classified into three groups: poor adherence (0-3), average adherence (4-7), and good adherence (8-12). Academic performance was assessed through school records using four indicators: math, language, an average of math and language, and grade point average score. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was related to academic performance (β ranging from 0.107 to 0.148; all P Mediterranean diet had significantly higher scores in all of the academic indicators compared with the poor group (ranging from +0.429 to 0.464; all P ≤ 0.001); as well as the group of average adherence to the Mediterranean diet had significantly higher scores in all of the academic indicators compared with the poor group (ranging from +0.292 to 0.344; all P ≤ 0.06). There were no differences between the groups of good and average adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet may have a beneficial influence on academic performance in youth. Importantly, the benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on academic performance may be stronger as youth adhered to the optimal Mediterranean diet levels.

  19. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  20. Unripe Fruit's Extract of Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller as a Potent Alpha-amylase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Koutb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alpha-amylase inhibitors has recently gained in popularity with the success and growth of carbohydrate restricted diets. In this study, two different stages from the unripe fruits of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller have been tested for their potentiality in alpha-amylase inhibition as a key enzyme in carbohydrates assimilation. Our results revealed that addition of different concentrations from extracts (0, 2, 4, 6, 8mg of dry mass of each stage of unripe fruits resulted in drastically decrease in the enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase by the percent of (0%, 42.6%, 21%, 26.3%, and 16.9% for the stage 1. Extracts from the stage 2 were more effective in enzymatic inhibition (0%, 26.9%, 3.8%, 0.2%, and 0.4%. The GC/MS analysis revealed that quince extract contains (sorbitol, quinic acid, p-vinylphenol and cyclopropane carboxylic acid. To explore which components are involved in the inhibition process, two pure components of the quince extract (sorbitol and quinic acid were used in inhibition assay. Neither sorbitol nor quinic acid shows any significant inhibition; therefore, these two components could be excluded from the inhibition process. Our current study suggested that p-vinylphenol and cyclopropane carboxylic acid might act as a-amylase inhibitors in vitro separately or synergistically. The possible explanation for the presence of cyclopropane carboxylic acid (CPCA in this critical phase of the unripe fruit will be discussed. This study suggests that the unripe fruits of quince can be used as a natural starch blocker containing alpha-amylase inhibitors which would be of interest for people requiring carbohydrate restricted diets.

  1. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (Pginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (Pginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (Pginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  2. The association between adherence to the New Nordic Diet and diet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Birgit Bjørnarå

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have reported a positive association between scoring on healthy Nordic diet scales and the intake of healthy foods and nutrients, and also with higher intake of meat, sweets, cakes, and energy in general. These studies have used the same food frequency questionnaire (FFQ responses for constructing the diet score as for calculating intakes of foods and nutrients. Thus, it is not clear whether the coexistence of healthy and less healthy dietary aspects among adherers to Nordic diets would occur even though separate methods were applied for exploring these relations. Objective: To assess the association between adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND, derived from an FFQ, and diet quality, determined from two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Design: In total, 65 parents of toddlers in Southern Norway answered the NND FFQ and two 24-h dietary recall interviews. NND adherence was determined from the FFQ and categorized into low, medium, and high adherence. The two 24-h recalls provided data for the intake of specific foods and nutrients, selected on the basis of the Norwegian food-based guidelines as an indicator of a healthy diet. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for assessing differences in food and nutrient intake across NND groups. Results: High NND adherence derived from FFQ was associated with a high intake of fruits (p=0.004 and fiber (p=0.02, and a low intake of meat (p=0.004 and margarines (p=0.05, derived from recalls. A larger proportion of high NND adherers (68% complied with the national dietary recommendation targeting meat intake compared with low NND adherers (29% (p=0.04. Conclusion: The present study showed that higher NND adherence measured with FFQ was associated with a higher intake of selected healthy foods and nutrients, measured with recalls. However, a higher intake of meat, sweets, and energy, as earlier reported, was not observed.

  3. Iatrogenic lipodystrophy in HIV patients - the need for very-low-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    2003-01-01

    In HIV patients, chronic treatment with protease inhibitors often precipitates a peripheral lipodystrophy associated with insulin resistance syndrome and premature coronary disease. In vitro studies demonstrate that these drugs can compromise the ability of adipocytes to store triglycerides; in vivo, peripheral subcutaneous adipocytes appear to be most affected, such that body fat often redistributes to visceral or truncal adipose stores. Dysfunction of peripheral subcutaneous adipocytes - ordinarily quite efficient for storing fat - can be expected to give rise to an excessive flux of free fatty acids (FFAs) following fatty meals; chronic overexposure of tissues to FFAs is a likely explanation for the insulin resistance syndrome associated with lipodystrophy. These considerations suggest that a very-low-fat diet - less than 15% fat calories - may ameliorate the cardiovascular risk associated with lipodystrophy; such diets are known to have a favorable effect on the insulin sensitivity of healthy subjects. Very-low-fat whole-food vegan diets are particularly recommendable in this context, as they may help to shrink visceral fat depots while markedly reducing LDL cholesterol. Appropriate adjunctive measures may include aerobic exercise training - beneficial both for insulin sensitivity and weight control - as well as administration of statins or policosanol, and of fibrates or fish oil, to decrease LDL and triglycerides, respectively. Despite perceptions to the contrary, very-low-fat diets can meet with good compliance in well-motivated subjects given appropriate instruction.

  4. Bioavailability of ethanol is reduced in several commonly used liquid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, N C; de Fiebre, C M; Booker, T K; Nelson, S; Collins, A C

    1994-01-01

    Liquid diets are often used as a vehicle for chronically treating laboratory animals with ethanol. However, a recent report suggested that one or more components of these diets may bind ethanol which could result in a decrease in the bioavailability of ethanol. Consequently, we compared the blood ethanol concentration vs. time curves obtained following the intragastric (i.g.) administration of ethanol dissolved in water or in one of three liquid diets (Bioserv AIN-76, Sustacal, or Carnation Slender) using the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mouse lines. The initial rates of absorption were generally the same for the water-ethanol and diet-ethanol groups, but the diets generally produced lower peak levels and the areas under the ethanol concentration-time curves were less for all of the liquid diets than for the control, ethanol-water solution. In vitro dialysis experiments indicated that the Bioserv diet binds ethanol in a saturable manner. Therefore, it may be that the slower release of ethanol, which should occur as a result of binding, serves to increase the role of first pass metabolism in regulating ethanol concentrations following oral administration. Because the effects of the diets were seen even after pyrazole treatment, it may be that the lower blood ethanol levels arise because metabolism by gastric ADH, rather than hepatic ADH, is responsible for a major portion of ethanol metabolism as ethanol is slowly released by the diets. If so, the observation that the diet/water differences were uniformly greater in the LS mice may indicate that LS-SS differences in gastric ADH exist.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Med Diet 4.0: the Mediterranean diet with four sustainable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, S; Berry, E M; Serra-Majem, L; La Vecchia, C; Capone, R; Medina, F X; Aranceta-Bartrina, J; Belahsen, R; Burlingame, B; Calabrese, G; Corella, D; Donini, L M; Lairon, D; Meybeck, A; Pekcan, A G; Piscopo, S; Yngve, A; Trichopoulou, A

    2017-05-01

    To characterize the multiple dimensions and benefits of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet, in order to revitalize this intangible food heritage at the country level; and to develop a multidimensional framework - the Med Diet 4.0 - in which four sustainability benefits of the Mediterranean diet are presented in parallel: major health and nutrition benefits, low environmental impacts and richness in biodiversity, high sociocultural food values, and positive local economic returns. A narrative review was applied at the country level to highlight the multiple sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet into a single multidimensional framework: the Med Diet 4.0. Setting/subjects We included studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals that contained data on the characterization of sustainable diets and of the Mediterranean diet. The methodological framework approach was finalized through a series of meetings, workshops and conferences where the framework was presented, discussed and ultimately refined. The Med Diet 4.0 provides a conceptual multidimensional framework to characterize the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet model, by applying principles of sustainability to the Mediterranean diet. By providing a broader understanding of the many sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet, the Med Diet 4.0 can contribute to the revitalization of the Mediterranean diet by improving its current perception not only as a healthy diet but also a sustainable lifestyle model, with country-specific and culturally appropriate variations. It also takes into account the identity and diversity of food cultures and systems, expressed within the notion of the Mediterranean diet, across the Mediterranean region and in other parts of the world. Further multidisciplinary studies are needed for the assessment of the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet to include these new dimensions.

  6. Vegetarian Diets in the Prevention and Management of Diabetes and Its Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    IN BRIEF Epidemiological studies have found a lower prevalence of type 2 diabetes among vegetarians compared to nonvegetarians. This reduced risk is likely a function of improved weight status, higher intake of dietary fiber, and the absence of animal protein and heme iron in the diet. Interventional studies have shown that vegetarian diets, especially a vegan diet, are effective tools in glycemic control and that these diets control plasma glucose to a greater level than do control diets, including diets traditionally recommended for patients with diabetes (e.g., diets based on carbohydrate counting). Vegetarian diets are associated with improvement in secondary outcomes such as weight reduction, serum lipid profile, and blood pressure. Studies indicate that vegetarian diets can be universally used in type 2 diabetes prevention and as tools to improve blood glucose management. PMID:28588373

  7. Needles in faeces: an index of quality of wild ungulate winter diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2011), s. 63-69 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/03/P134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : ruminant diet * diet quality * diet indicator * spectroscopy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/60/1/10_2011.pdf

  8. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  9. In vitro cellular adaptations of indicators of longevity in response to treatment with serum collected from humans on calorie restricted diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne S Allard

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR produces several health benefits and increases lifespan in many species. Studies suggest that alternate-day fasting (ADF and exercise can also provide these benefits. Whether CR results in lifespan extension in humans is not known and a direct investigation is not feasible. However, phenotypes observed in CR animals when compared to ad libitum fed (AL animals, including increased stress resistance and changes in protein expression, can be simulated in cells cultured with media supplemented with blood serum from CR and AL animals. Two pilot studies were undertaken to examine the effects of ADF and CR on indicators of health and longevity in humans. In this study, we used sera collected from those studies to culture human hepatoma cells and assessed the effects on growth, stress resistance and gene expression. Cells cultured in serum collected at the end of the dieting period were compared to cells cultured in serum collected at baseline (before the dieting period. Cells cultured in serum from ADF participants, showed a 20% increase in Sirt1 protein which correlated with reduced triglyceride levels. ADF serum also induced a 9% decrease in proliferation and a 25% increase in heat resistance. Cells cultured in serum from CR participants induced an increase in Sirt1 protein levels by 17% and a 30% increase in PGC-1alpha mRNA levels. This first in vitro study utilizing human serum to examine effects on markers of health and longevity in cultured cells resulted in increased stress resistance and an up-regulation of genes proposed to be indicators of increased longevity. The use of this in vitro technique may be helpful for predicting the potential of CR, ADF and other dietary manipulations to affect markers of longevity in humans.

  10. Specific multi-nutrient enriched diet enhances hippocampal cholinergic transmission in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansev, Mehmet; van Wijk, Nick; Turkyilmaz, Mesut; Orhan, Fulya; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2015-01-01

    Fortasyn Connect (FC) is a specific nutrient combination designed to target synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease by providing neuronal membrane precursors and other supportive nutrients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FC on hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission in association with its effects on synaptic membrane formation in aged rats. Eighteen-month-old male Wistar rats were randomized to receive a control diet for 4 weeks or an FC-enriched diet for 4 or 6 weeks. At the end of the dietary treatments, acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated by in vivo microdialysis in the right hippocampi. On completion of microdialysis studies, the rats were sacrificed, and the left hippocampi were obtained to determine the levels of choline, ACh, membrane phospholipids, synaptic proteins, and choline acetyltransferase. Our results revealed that supplementation with FC diet for 4 or 6 weeks, significantly enhanced basal and stimulated hippocampal ACh release and ACh tissue levels, along with levels of phospholipids. Feeding rats the FC diet for 6 weeks significantly increased the levels of choline acetyltransferase, the presynaptic marker Synapsin-1, and the postsynaptic marker PSD-95, but decreased levels of Nogo-A, a neurite outgrowth inhibitor. These data show that the FC diet enhances hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission in aged rats and suggest that this effect is mediated by enhanced synaptic membrane formation. These data provide further insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms by which FC may support memory processes in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. SGLT2-inhibitor and DPP-4 inhibitor improve brain function via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, inflammation, and apoptosis in HFD-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Tanajak, Pongpan; Kerdphoo, Sasiwan; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-10-15

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and neuroprotection in obese-insulin resistance. Recent studies demonstrated the neuroprotection of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin) in diabetes. However, the comparative effects of both drugs and a combination of two drugs on metabolic dysfunction and brain dysfunction impaired by the obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and received either a normal-diet (ND, n=8) or a high-fat diet (HFD, n=32) for 16weeks. At week 13, the HFD-fed rats were divided into four subgroups (n=8/subgroup) to receive either a vehicle, vildagliptin (3mg/kg/day) dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or combined drugs for four weeks. ND rats were given a vehicle for four weeks. Metabolic parameters and brain function were investigated. The results demonstrated that HFD rats developed obese-insulin resistance and cognitive decline. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy on improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and reduced weight gain than vildagliptin. Single therapy resulted in equally improved brain mitochondrial function, insulin signaling, apoptosis and prevented cognitive decline. However, only dapagliflozin improved hippocampal synaptic plasticity. A combination of the drugs had greater efficacy in improving brain insulin sensitivity and reducing brain oxidative stress than the single drug therapy. These findings suggested that dapagliflozin and vildagliptin equally prevented cognitive decline in the obese-insulin resistance, possibly through some similar mechanisms. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy than vildagliptin for preserving synaptic plasticity, thus combined drugs could be the best therapeutic approach for neuroprotection in the obese-insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  13. POTENTIAL PLACE OF SGLT2 INHIBITORS IN TREATMENT PARADIGMS FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Yehuda

    2015-09-01

    Following the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 2013, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have generated much interest among physicians treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, the role in treatment with this drug class is considered in the context of T2DM treatment paradigms. The clinical trials for the SGLT2 inhibitors are examined with a focus on canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin. Evidence from clinical trials in patients with T2DM supports the use of SGLT2 inhibitors either as monotherapy or in addition to other glucose-lowering treatments as adjuncts to diet and exercise, and we have gained significant clinical experience in a relatively short time. The drugs appear to be useful in a variety of T2DM populations, contingent primarily on renal function. Most obviously, SGLT2 inhibitors appear to be well suited for patients with potential for hypoglycemia or weight gain. In clinical trials, patients treated with SGLT2 inhibitors have experienced moderate weight loss and a low risk of hypoglycemic events except when used in combination with an insulin secretagogue. In addition, SGLT2 inhibitors have been shown to reduce blood pressure, so they may be beneficial in patients with T2DM complicated by hypertension. SGLT2 inhibitors were incorporated into the 2015 American Diabetes Association (ADA)/European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) position statement on the management of hyperglycemia and received an even more prominent position in the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)/American College of Endocrinology (ACE) comprehensive diabetes management guidelines and algorithm.

  14. Effect of supplementation of cassava peel meal based diet with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility and economic indices of broiler finishers fed soaked and sun-dried cassava peel meal (CPM) based diet. CPM was included in the diets replacing maize at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% ...

  15. Butyrate, neuroepigenetics and the gut microbiome: Can a high fiber diet improve brain health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Megan W; Alim, Ishraq; Bultman, Scott J; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2016-06-20

    As interest in the gut microbiome has grown in recent years, attention has turned to the impact of our diet on our brain. The benefits of a high fiber diet in the colon have been well documented in epidemiological studies, but its potential impact on the brain has largely been understudied. Here, we will review evidence that butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacterial fermentation of fiber in the colon, can improve brain health. Butyrate has been extensively studied as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor but also functions as a ligand for a subset of G protein-coupled receptors and as an energy metabolite. These diverse modes of action make it well suited for solving the wide array of imbalances frequently encountered in neurological disorders. In this review, we will integrate evidence from the disparate fields of gastroenterology and neuroscience to hypothesize that the metabolism of a high fiber diet in the gut can alter gene expression in the brain to prevent neurodegeneration and promote regeneration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor delays tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol and withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Pise, Ashish; Sharma, Jay N; Shukla, Praveen

    2015-06-01

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of endogenous gut-derived hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). DPP-IV is known for its role in energy homeostasis and pharmacological blockade of this enzyme is a recently approved clinical strategy for the management of type II diabetes. Accumulating evidences suggest that enzyme DPP-IV can affect spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) functions. However, little is known about the role of this enzyme in ethanol-mediated neurobehavioral complications. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of DPP-IV inhibitor, sitagliptin on the development of tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol and anxiety associated with ethanol withdrawal in rats. A dose-response study revealed that sitaglitpin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) per se exhibit anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test in rats. Tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.; 8 % w/v) was observed from 7(th) day of ethanol-diet (6 % v/v) consumption. In contrast, tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol was delayed in rats that were treated daily with sitagliptin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) as tolerance was observed from 13(th)day since commencement of ethanol-diet consumption. Discontinuation of rats from ethanol-diet after 15-days of ethanol consumption resulted in withdrawal anxiety between 8 h and 12 h post-abstinence. However, rats on 15-day ethanol-diet with concomitant sitagliptin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment exhibited delay in appearance (24 h post-withdrawal) of withdrawal anxiety. In summary, DPP-IV inhibitors may prove as an attractive research strategy against ethanol tolerance and dependence.

  17. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  18. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  19. Treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves fasting islet-cell function in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, David A; Denney, Amanda M; Hermiller, Linda M; Prigeon, Ronald L; Martin, Julie M; Tharp, William G; Saylan, Monica Liqueros; He, Yanling; Dunning, Beth E; Foley, James E; Pratley, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are proposed to lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by prolonging the activity of the circulating incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Consistent with this mechanism of action, DPP-4 inhibitors improve glucose tolerance after meals by increasing insulin and reducing glucagon levels in the plasma. However, DPP-4 inhibitors also reduce fasting blood glucose, an unexpected effect because circulating levels of active GIP and GLP-1 are low in the postabsorptive state. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of DPP-4 inhibition on fasting islet function. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The study was performed in General Clinical Research Centers at two University Hospitals. Forty-one subjects with T2DM were treated with metformin or diet, having good glycemic control with glycosylated hemoglobin values of 6.2-7.5%. Subjects were treated with vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or placebo for 3 months, followed by a 2-wk washout. Major Outcome Measure: We measured insulin secretion in response to iv glucose and arginine before and after treatment and after drug washout. There were small and comparable reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin in both groups over 3 months. Vildagliptin increased fasting GLP-1 levels in subjects taking metformin, but not those managed with diet, and raised active GIP levels slightly. DPP-4 inhibitor treatment improved the acute insulin and C-peptide responses to glucose (50 and 100% respectively; P fasting conditions. This suggests that DPP-4 inhibition has metabolic benefits in addition to enhancing meal-induced GLP-1 and GIP activity.

  20. Optimizing Human Diet Problem Based on Price and Taste Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein EGHBALI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low price and good taste of foods are regarded as two major factors for optimal human nutrition. Due to price fluctuations and taste diversity, these two factors cannot be certainly and determinately evaluated. This problem must be viewed from another perspective because of the uncertainty about the amount of nutrients per unit of foods and also diversity of people’s daily needs to receive them.This paper discusses human diet problem in fuzzy environment. The approach deals with multi-objective fuzzy linear programming problem using a fuzzy programming technique for its solution. By prescribing a diet merely based on crisp data, some ofthe realities are neglected. For the same reason, we dealt with human diet problem through fuzzy approach. Results indicated uncertainty about factors of nutrition diet -including taste and price, amount of nutrients and their intake- would affect diet quality, making the proposed diet more realistic.

  1. Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency in Western diet-fed mice protects against adipocyte hypertrophy and diet-induced liver steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, Svenja; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Megger, Dominik A; Schlattjan, Martin; Jafoui, Sami; Wingerter, Lena; Carpinteiro, Alexander; Baba, Hideo A; Bechmann, Lars P; Sitek, Barbara; Gerken, Guido; Gulbins, Erich; Canbay, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Alterations in sphingolipid and ceramide metabolism have been associated with various diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) converts the membrane lipid sphingomyelin to ceramide, thereby affecting membrane composition and domain formation. We investigated the ways in which the Asm knockout (Smpd1 -/- ) genotype affects diet-induced NAFLD. Smpd1 -/- mice and wild type controls were fed either a standard or Western diet (WD) for 6 weeks. Liver and adipose tissue morphology and mRNA expression were assessed. Quantitative proteome analysis of liver tissue was performed. Expression of selected genes was quantified in adipose and liver tissue of obese NAFLD patients. Although Smpd1 -/- mice exhibited basal steatosis with normal chow, no aggravation of NAFLD-type injury was observed with a Western diet. This protective effect was associated with the absence of adipocyte hypertrophy and the increased expression of genes associated with brown adipocyte differentiation. In white adipose tissue from obese patients with NAFLD, no expression of these genes was detectable. To further elucidate which pathways in liver tissue may be affected by Smpd1 -/- , we performed an unbiased proteome analysis. Protein expression in WD-fed Smpd1 -/- mice indicated a reduction in Rictor (mTORC2) activity; this reduction was confirmed by diminished Akt phosphorylation and altered mRNA expression of Rictor target genes. These findings indicate that the protective effect of Asm deficiency on diet-induced steatosis is conferred by alterations in adipocyte morphology and lipid metabolism and by reductions in Rictor activation.

  2. Biochemical attributes of Hens Fed Irradiated Aflatoxin B1 Contamination Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.E.H.; Abdul Azeem, A.M.; Abdalla, E.A.; Ahmed, N.A.H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of feeding diet artificially contaminated with aflatoxin B 1(AFB1) at level 0.2 mg kg"-"1 AFB1, and gamma (γ) irradiated (10, 20, and 30 kGy) on reducing the deleterious effects of laying hens Golden Montaza (GM) biochemical attributes. These include liver weight, AFB1 liver residue content, AST, ALT, ALP, creatinine, total proteins, albumin and globulin, as well as, the levels of T3, T4, TSH, FSH, LH, progesterone hormone and hepatic histology. At 38 week of age, groups of laying hens were fed on a normal non-contaminated diet (G1), aflatoxin-contaminated diet (G2), and irradiated contaminated diets (G3, G4 and G5) for 3 weeks, as a duration period. When the hens reached 42 weeks of age, they were fed on normal diet for 3 weeks, as a recovery period. Results showed that AST, ALT, ALP, and creatinine significantly increased in AFs treated groups in comparison with those received AFs-containing diet and irradiated up to 30 kGy. Layers fed contaminated diet of AFB1 suffered from a lower level of total proteins, albumin and globulin. Meanwhile, the results showed that the level of serum T4 was lower, but conversely the levels of FSH were higher for those fed on diets contaminated with AFB1 compared to those fed irradiated contaminated diets with AFB1, no significant change occurred in serum blood T3, TSH, LH and progesterone in all tested groups. Treated contaminated diets with γ-irradiation at 30 kGy reduced the incidence and severity of hepatic histology. The 30 kGy radiation dose was more effective, in this respect, in all biochemical indices. For recovery period diets non-contaminated with AFB1, the results showed improvements in all biochemical indices and recovered the hepatic structure with increasing the recovery period especially for those fed on irradiated diets through the experimental duration. In conclusion, feeding of diets contaminated with AFB1 altered the blood profiles, and damaged the liver

  3. Does diet mediate associations of volume and bouts of sedentary time with cardiometabolic health indicators in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Elly A; Carson, Valerie; McNaughton, Sarah A; Dunstan, David W; Healy, Genevieve N; Salmon, Jo

    2017-03-01

    Examine the mediating role of diet in the relationship between volume and duration of sedentary time with cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Adolescents (12-19 years) participating in the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were examined. Cardiometabolic health indicators were body mass index z-scores (zBMI) (n = 1,797) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 812). An ActiGraph hip-worn accelerometer was used to derive total sedentary time and usual sedentary bout duration. Dietary intake was assessed using two 24-hour dietary recalls. Mediation analyses were conducted to examine five dietary mediators [total energy intake, discretionary foods, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fruits and vegetables, and dietary quality] of the relationship between total sedentary time and usual sedentary bout duration with zBMI and MetS. Total sedentary time was inversely associated with zBMI (β = -1.33; 95% CI -2.53 to -0.13) but attenuated after adjusting for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. No significant associations were observed between usual sedentary bout duration with zBMI or either sedentary measure with MetS. None of the five dietary variables mediated any of the relationships examined. Further studies are needed to explore associations of specific time periods (e.g., after school) and bout durations with both cardiometabolic health indicators and dietary behaviors. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  4. Magnolia Extract (BL153 Ameliorates Kidney Damage in a High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence demonstrated that obesity is a risk factor for renal structural and functional changes, leading to the end-stage renal disease which imposes a heavy economic burden on the community. However, no effective therapeutic method for obesity-associated kidney disease is available. In the present study, we explored the therapeutic potential of a magnolia extract (BL153 for treating obesity-associated kidney damage in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced mouse model. The results showed that inflammation markers (tumor necrosis factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and oxidative stress markers (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were all significantly increased in the kidney of HFD-fed mice compared to mice fed with a low fat diet (LFD. Additionally, proteinuria and renal structure changes in HFD-fed mice were much more severe than that in LFD-fed mice. However, all these alterations were attenuated by BL153 treatment, accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and hexokinase II (HK II expression in the kidney. The present study indicates that BL153 administration may be a novel approach for renoprotection in obese individuals by antiinflammation and anti-oxidative stress most likely via upregulation of PGC-1α and HK II signal in the kidney.

  5. ELISA analysis of soybean trypsin inhibitors in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, D L; Bates, A H; Friedman, M

    1991-01-01

    Soybean proteins are widely used in human foods in a variety of forms, including infant formulas, flour, protein concentrates, protein isolates, soy sauces, textured soy fibers, and tofu. The presence of inhibitors of digestive enzymes in soy proteins impairs the nutritional quality and possibly the safety of soybeans and other legumes. Processing, based on the use of heat or fractionation of protein isolates, does not completely inactivate or remove these inhibitors, so that residual amounts of inhibitors are consumed by animals and humans. New monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays can measure low levels of the soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and the Bowman-Birk trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BBI) and the Bowman-Birk foods. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the inhibitor content of soy concentrates, isolates, and flours, both heated and unheated; a commercial soy infant formula; KTI and BBI with rearranged disulfide bonds; browning products derived from heat-treatment of KTI with glucose and starch; and KTI exposed to high pH. The results indicate that even low inhibitor isolates contain significant amounts of specific inhibitors. Thus, infants on soy formula consume about 10 mg of KTI plus BBI per day. The immunoassays complement the established enzymatic assays of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and have advantages in (a) measuring low levels of inhibitors in processed foods; and (b) differentiating between the Kunitz and Bowman-Birk inhibitors. The significance of our findings for food safety are discussed.

  6. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  7. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney SD

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15-25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  8. Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated whole diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravindakshan, M.; Chaubey, R.C.; Chauhan, P.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1978-01-01

    Multigeneration feeding studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of an irradiated whole diet in Wistar rats. The parent and the four successive generations were fed on a nutritionally adequate test diet exposed to either 0.2 or 2.5Mrad gamma radiation and the effects, if any, on various parameters of animal health were assessed. In addition to an unirradiated test control, a historical control group fed on stock laboratory rations was also employed for comparison. The test diet consisted of various components including some of the basic ingredients of human diet in India. Exposure of the test diet to 0.2 or 2.5Mrad did not affect the food efficiency ratio and there were no significant differences in the growth rates of animals fed on unirradiated or irradiated diets. Reproductive performance of the rats fed on irradiated or unirradiated diets belonging to the parent, first, second or third generations were also comparable. Mortality rates and reproductive function in relation to age were also not altered due to feeding of irradiated whole diets. The haematological profile and the serum enzymes of the animals of all the generations fed irradiated diets were within normal limits. Though some differences were observed in the relative weights of some organs, these effects were limited to a particular generation, did not show any definite pattern and could not be related to the ingestion of irradiated diets. First-generation rats examined at 100-104 weeks for gross pathological manifestations including tumour incidence also did not indicate any significant differences among groups. (author)

  9. Diet composition determines course of hyperphagia in developing Zucker obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, J R; Maggio, C A

    1990-12-01

    Previous observations from this laboratory indicate that, during growth, the hyperphagia of the male genetically obese Zucker rat reaches a peak or "breakpoint" and then declines. To examine the effect of dietary macronutrient content on the course of hyperphagia, groups of male lean and obese rats were maintained from 5-28 weeks of age on powdered chow, or isocaloric diets (3.6 kcal/g) containing 72% of calories as corn oil, dextrose, or soy isolate protein (n = 5 lean and obese rats/diet). On chow, hyperphagia was maintained at a level of 7-8 g above lean control intake until a "breakpoint" was reached at 17 weeks, and obese intake declined to lean control level. On the fat diet, hyperphagia was increased to 10 g/day when a breakpoint was reached at 8 weeks. On the dextrose and protein diets, hyperphagia at a level of 3-4 g/day reached breakpoints at weeks 18 and 16, respectively. On all diets, the intakes of obese rats were precisely equal to the intakes of lean control rats by weeks 19-20. These data show that the magnitude and duration of hyperphagia in the developing obese rat are influenced by diet composition. Previously, we have proposed that the obese rat's hyperphagia arises from rapid adipocyte filling. Since high-fat diets facilitate adipocyte enlargement, the early "breakpoint" of hyperphagia seen with the high-fat diet may indicate that this feeding stimulation decreases as the fat cells of the obese rat approach maximal size.

  10. Effect of Nine Diets on Xenobiotic Transporters in Livers of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Cui, Julia Yue; Lu, Hong; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2017-01-01

    1. Lifestyle diseases are often caused by inappropriate nutrition habits and attempted to be treated by polypharmacotherapy. Therefore, it is important to determine whether differences in diet affect the disposition of drugs. Xenobiotic transporters in the liver are essential in drug disposition. 2. In the current study, mice were fed one of 9 diets for 3 weeks. The mRNAs of 23 known xenobiotic transporters in livers of mice were quantified by microarray analysis, and validated by branched DNA assay. The mRNAs of 15 transporters were altered by at least one diet. Diet-restriction (10) and the atherogenic diet (10) altered the expression of the most number of transporters, followed by western diet (8), high-fat diet (4), lab chow (2), high-fructose diet (2) and EFA-deficient diet (2), whereas the low n-3 FA diet had no effect on these transporters. Seven of the 11 xenobiotic transporters in the Slc family, three of 4 in the Abcb family, two of 4 in the Abcc family and all 3 in the Abcg family were changed significantly. 3. This first comprehensive study indicates that xenobiotic transporters are altered by diet, and suggests there are likely diet-drug interactions due to changes in the expression of drug transporters. PMID:25566878

  11. Predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches among adults living in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Leske

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of research comparing why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted. A greater understanding of reasons underlying dieting and non-dieting attempts will help to identify target beliefs for interventions to support and motivate adults to attempt whatever approach they are willing and/or able to pursue. We investigated the predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches in Australian adults using predictors that were identified in a previous qualitative study. Methods We conducted a prospective study, with two waves of data collection occurring 4 weeks apart. At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire assessing constructs drawn from the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, and self-efficacy, past behaviour, non-planning, attributions for dieting failure, weight control beliefs, and dieting and non-dieting intentions. We used path modelling to analyse responses. Results At baseline, 719 adults (52.2% male aged between 18 and 76 completed the questionnaire. Four weeks later, 64% of participants (n = 461 reported on their dieting and non-dieting behaviour in the past month. Past behaviour, attitude, subjective norm, and self-identity significantly predicted dieting intentions. Dieting intentions and past behaviour significantly predicted dieting behaviour, while non-planning and self-efficacy did not. The model explained 74.8% of the variance in intention and 52.9% of the variance in behaviour. While most findings were similar for the non-dieting model, subjective norms and self-identity did not predict intention, while self-efficacy and self-identity both predicted non-dieting behaviour directly. The non-dieting model explained 58.2% of the variance in intention and 37.5% of the variance in behaviour. Conclusions The findings from this study provide support for the application of TPB and identity theory constructs in the context of both dieting and non-dieting behaviour

  12. Diet and the Role of Altered Carbohydrate Absorption in the Treatment of Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas MS Wolever

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract has no clear role in the pathophysiology of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, but it may be an appropriate site for therapeutic intervention, specifically changes in diet, meal frequency and medications. Studies suggest that for patients with NIDDM, a calorie-restricted, high carbohydrate diet low in fat and rich in fibre may improve glycemic control, mitigate the risk of atherosclerosis and retard such diabetic complications as nephropathy and retinopathy. Increased meal frequency slows the rate of carbohydrate absorption, flattens blood insulin responses and reduces serum cholesterol. New therapeutic interventions, such as soluble fibre, low glycemic index foods or alpha glucosidase inhibitors, can further slow carbohydrate absorption and thus reduce secondary risks from hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia.

  13. Ketogenic diet alters dopaminergic activity in the mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, William H; Adams, Ryan E; Wyss, Livia S

    2014-06-13

    The present study was conducted to determine if the ketogenic diet altered basal levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice. The catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norephinephrine (NE) and the indolamine serotonin (5HT) were quantified postmortem in six different brain regions of adult mice fed a ketogenic diet for 3 weeks. The dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also measured. Tissue punches were collected bilaterally from the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, anterior caudate-putamen, posterior caudate-putamen and the midbrain. Dopaminergic activity, as measured by the dopamine metabolites to dopamine content ratio - ([DOPAC]+[HVA])/[DA] - was significantly increased in the motor and somatosensory cortex regions of mice fed the ketogenic diet when compared to those same areas in brains of mice fed a normal diet. These results indicate that the ketogenic diet alters the activity of the meso-cortical dopaminergic system, which may contribute to the diet's therapeutic effect in reducing epileptic seizure activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor on aggressive behavior in adult rat submitted to the neonatal malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Jairza Maria Barreto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the malnutrition during suckling on the aggressiveness was investigated in adult rats treated or not with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI. The animals were divided into two groups according to the diet used: nourished group-- the rats received the control diet with 23% protein during the life; and malnourished group-- the rats had its mothers submitted to diet with 7.8% protein during suckling. At 120 days of age, each group was sub-divided according to the treatment: acute -- consisting a single i.p. injection of saline solution or 20-mg/Kg citalopram; chronic -- consisting the single injections (1 per day during 14 days of saline or 20 mg/Kg citalopram. The acute or chronic treatment with SSRI reduces aggressive response in nourished rats, but not in malnourished ones. Thus, the malnutrition during the critical period of brain development seems to induce durable alterations in the function of the serotoninergic neurotransmission

  15. Milk diets influence doxorubicin-induced intestinal toxicity in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, R. L.; Pontoppidan, P. E.; Rathe, M.

    2016-01-01

    IL-8 levels compared with DOX-Form (all P diet. Thus a single dose of DOX induces intestinal toxicity in preweaned pigs...... and may lead to a systemic inflammatory response. The toxicity is affected by type of enteral nutrition with more pronounced GI toxicity when formula is fed compared with bovine colostrum. The results indicate that bovine colostrum may be a beneficial supplementary diet for children subjected...

  16. Toxicity to cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis of a trypsin inhibitor from chickpea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de P G Gomes, Angélica; Dias, Simoni C; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Furtado, José R; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Franco, Octávio L

    2005-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural commodity, which is attacked by several pests such as the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. Adult A. grandis feed on fruits and leaf petioles, reducing drastically the crop production. The predominance of boll weevil digestive serine proteinases has motivated inhibitor screenings in order to discover new ones with the capability to reduce the digestion process. The present study describes a novel proteinase inhibitor from chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) and its effects against A. grandis. This inhibitor, named CaTI, was purified by using affinity Red-Sepharose Cl-6B chromatography, followed by reversed-phase HPLC (Vydac C18-TP). SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses, showed a unique monomeric protein with a mass of 12,877 Da. Purified CaTI showed significant inhibitory activity against larval cotton boll weevil serine proteinases (78%) and against bovine pancreatic trypsin (73%), when analyzed by fluorimetric assays. Although the molecular mass of CaTI corresponded to alpha-amylase/trypsin bifunctional inhibitors masses, no inhibitory activity against insect and mammalian alpha-amylases was observed. In order to observe CaTI in vivo effects, an inhibitor rich fraction was added to an artificial diet at different concentrations. At 1.5% (w/w), CaTI caused severe development delay, several deformities and a mortality rate of approximately 45%. These results suggested that CaTI could be useful in the production of transgenic cotton plants with enhanced resistance toward cotton boll weevil.

  17. Effects of soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor on the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Octávio L; Dias, Simoni C; Magalhães, Claudio P; Monteiro, Ana C S; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2004-01-01

    The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is an economically important pest of cotton in tropical and subtropical areas of several countries in the Americas, causing severe losses due to their damage in cotton floral buds. Enzymatic assays using gut extracts from larval and adult boll weevil have demonstrated the presence of digestive serine proteinase-like activities. Furthermore, in vitro assays showed that soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) was able to inhibit these enzymes. Previously, in vivo effects of black-eyed pea trypsin chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) have been demonstrated towards the boll weevil pest. Here, when neonate larvae were reared on an artificial diet containing SKTI at three different concentrations, a reduction of larval weight of up to 64% was observed for highest SKTI concentration 500 microM. The presence of SKTI caused an increase in mortality and severe deformities of larvae, pupae and adult insects. This work therefore represents the first observation of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor active in vivo and in vitro against A. grandis. Bioassays suggested that SKTI could be used as a tool in engineering crop plants, which might exhibit increased resistance against cotton boll weevil.

  18. Motivation for diet and exercise management among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, Bjørg; Bru, Edvin; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate diet and exercise management and how indicators of intrinsic motivation such as ability expectations and values are associated with diet and exercise management among adults with type 2 diabetes. Motivational problems are probably one of the main reasons for poor diabetes management. However, the mechanisms involved in the motivation for adequate self-management are still unclear. A cross-sectional design including a postal questionnaire that investigated diet and exercise management as well as intrinsic motivational factors such as ability expectations and values related to these behaviours was used to collect the data. A sample comprising 425 adults with type 2 diabetes aged between 30 and 70 completed the questionnaire. Reported diet management was more in accordance with recommendations than reported exercise management. Yet results indicated equally high ability expectations and positive values for exercise and diet management. Moreover, results demonstrated that ability expectations and values explained more variance in exercise (21.6%) than in diet management (7.6%). The modest association between intrinsic motivational factors and diet management may imply that there are important extrinsic factors that play a significant role in determining dietary behaviour. The combination of lower exercise activity than recommended and high ability expectations and values for such activity may reflect that subjective exercise norms are formed individually in accordance with what most people recognise as the appropriate level of physical activity. Finally, results may indicate that there is potential for improving exercise management by stimulating intrinsic motivation as well as by more clearly communicating recommendations for such management. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Diet of Theropithecus from 4 to 1 Ma in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E; Chritz, Kendra L; Jablonski, Nina G; Leakey, Meave G; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2013-06-25

    Theropithecus was a common large-bodied primate that co-occurred with hominins in many Plio-Pleistocene deposits in East and South Africa. Stable isotope analyses of tooth enamel from T. brumpti (4.0-2.5 Ma) and T. oswaldi (2.0-1.0 Ma) in Kenya show that the earliest Theropithecus at 4 Ma had a diet dominated by C4 resources. Progressively, this genus increased the proportion of C4-derived resources in its diet and by 1.0 Ma, had a diet that was nearly 100% C4-derived. It is likely that this diet was comprised of grasses or sedges; stable isotopes cannot, by themselves, give an indication of the relative importance of leaves, seeds, or underground storage organs to the diet of this primate. Theropithecus throughout the 4- to 1-Ma time range has a diet that is more C4-based than contemporaneous hominins of the genera Australopithecus, Kenyanthropus, and Homo; however, Theropithecus and Paranthropus have similar proportions of C4-based resources in their respective diets.

  20. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney Stephen D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15–25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  1. Study on Biochemical Indices of Liver Function Tests of Albino Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bilirubin, ALT (in rats fed with palm and groundnut oil-based diet), AST (in rats fed with coconut ... These results therefore, indicate a compromise in liver of rats administered 10% oil - based diet. ..... medicinal plants II: Effects of Aplotaxis lappa.

  2. Diets that differ in their FODMAP content alter the colonic luminal microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmos, Emma P; Christophersen, Claus T; Bird, Anthony R; Shepherd, Susan J; Gibson, Peter R; Muir, Jane G

    2015-01-01

    A low FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) diet reduces symptoms of IBS, but reduction of potential prebiotic and fermentative effects might adversely affect the colonic microenvironment. The effects of a low FODMAP diet with a typical Australian diet on biomarkers of colonic health were compared in a single-blinded, randomised, cross-over trial. Twenty-seven IBS and six healthy subjects were randomly allocated one of two 21-day provided diets, differing only in FODMAP content (mean (95% CI) low 3.05 (1.86 to 4.25) g/day vs Australian 23.7 (16.9 to 30.6) g/day), and then crossed over to the other diet with ≥21-day washout period. Faeces passed over a 5-day run-in on their habitual diet and from day 17 to day 21 of the interventional diets were pooled, and pH, short-chain fatty acid concentrations and bacterial abundance and diversity were assessed. Faecal indices were similar in IBS and healthy subjects during habitual diets. The low FODMAP diet was associated with higher faecal pH (7.37 (7.23 to 7.51) vs. 7.16 (7.02 to 7.30); p=0.001), similar short-chain fatty acid concentrations, greater microbial diversity and reduced total bacterial abundance (9.63 (9.53 to 9.73) vs. 9.83 (9.72 to 9.93) log10 copies/g; pdiet. To indicate direction of change, in comparison with the habitual diet the low FODMAP diet reduced total bacterial abundance and the typical Australian diet increased relative abundance for butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster XIVa (median ratio 6.62; pDiets differing in FODMAP content have marked effects on gut microbiota composition. The implications of long-term reduction of intake of FODMAPs require elucidation. ACTRN12612001185853. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Cancer Risk and Diet in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country with one of the most diverse populations and diets in the world. Cancer rates in India are lower than those seen in Western countries, but are rising with increasing migration of rural population to the cities, increase in life expectancy and changes in lifestyles. In India, rates for oral and oesophageal cancers are some of the highest in the world. In contrast, the rates for colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers are one of the lowest. Studies of Indian immigrants in Western societies indicate that rates of cancer and other chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes, increase dramatically after a generation in the adopted country. Change of diet is among the factors that may be responsible for the changing disease rates. Diet in India encompasses diversity unknown to most other countries, with many dietary patterns emanating from cultural and religious teachings that have existed for thousands of years. Very little is known, however, about the role of the Indian diet in causation of cancer or its role, if any, in prevention of cancer, although more attention is being focused on certain aspects of the Indian diet, such as vegetarianism, spices, and food additives. Of particular interest for cancer prevention is the role of turmeric (curcumin, an ingredient in common Indian curry spice. Researchers also have investigated cumin, chilies, kalakhar, Amrita Bindu, and various plant seeds for their apparent cancer preventive properties. Few prospective studies, however, have been conducted to investigate the role of Indian diet and its various components in prevention of cancer. From a public health perspective, there is an increasing need to develop cancer prevention programs responsive to the unique diets and cultural practices of the people of India.

  4. Bioavailability of lead in rats fed human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.; Kello, D.

    1979-01-01

    The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203 Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods

  5. High fat-diet and saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibits IGF-1 function in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, S A; Loeser, R F; Chubinskaya, S; Willey, J S; Yammani, R R

    2017-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes matrix synthesis and cell survival in cartilage. Chondrocytes from aged and osteoarthritic cartilage have a reduced response to IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) present in a high-fat diet on IGF-1 function in cartilage and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. C57BL/6 male mice were maintained on either a high-fat (60% kcal from fat) or a low-fat (10% kcal from fat) diet for 4 months. Mice were then sacrificed; femoral head cartilage caps were collected and treated with IGF-1 to measure proteoglycan (PG) synthesis. Cultured human chondrocytes were treated with 500 μM FFA palmitate or oleate, followed by stimulation with (100 ng/ml) IGF-1 overnight to measure CHOP (a protein marker for ER stress) and PG synthesis. Human chondrocytes were pre-treated with palmitate or 1 mM 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) or 1 μM C-Jun N terminal Kinase (JNK) inhibitor, and IGF-1 function (PG synthesis and signaling) was measured. Cartilage explants from mice on the high fat-diet showed reduced IGF-1 mediated PG synthesis compared to a low-fat group. Treatment of human chondrocytes with palmitate induced expression of CHOP, activated JNK and inhibited IGF-1 function. PBA, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress rescued IGF-1 function and a JNK inhibitor rescued IGF-1 signaling. Palmitate-induced ER stress inhibited IGF-1 function in chondrocytes/cartilage via activating the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase JNK. This is the first study to demonstrate that ER stress is metabolic factor that regulates IGF-1 function in chondrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The New Nordic Diet as a prototype for regional sustainable diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted; Hertwig, Jostein; Kahl, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    A main challenge in sustainable food systems is to link sustainable production to sustainable diets and consumption patterns. The new Nordic diet (NND) builds on and shares the Mediterranean diet (MD) thinking, but utilizes the ingredients and flavours of a northern climate. In both diets...... both wild and domesticated sources. Both diets have been associated with health benefits. The NND is a prototype regional diet taking health, food culture, palatability and the environment into account. Thus, the principles and guidelines could be applied in any region of the world. There are currently...

  7. Gluten-free diet and the possibility of enriching the diet coeliacs

    OpenAIRE

    BLAŽKOVÁ, Klára

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the gluten-free diet and its possible enrichment. It is divided into two parts. The first part includes chapters such as history of gluten-free diet, basics of a gluten free diet, the first step in the introduction of a gluten-free diet, gluten-free food labeling legislation and the use of alcohol on a gluten-free diet. The practical part is focused on enriching the diet celiac patients. I focused on the preparation of bakery products for celiac, I have designed and pra...

  8. Amiloride Improves Endothelial Function and Reduces Vascular Stiffness in Female Mice Fed a Western Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Martinez-Lemus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obese premenopausal women lose their sex related cardiovascular disease protection and develop greater arterial stiffening than age matched men. In female mice, we have shown that consumption of a Western diet (WD, high in fat and refined sugars, is associated with endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffening, which occur via activation of mineralocorticoid receptors and associated increases in epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC activity on endothelial cells (EnNaC. Herein our aim was to determine the effect that reducing EnNaC activity with a very-low-dose of amiloride would have on decreasing endothelial and arterial stiffness in young female mice consuming a WD. To this end, we fed female mice either a WD or control diet and treated them with or without a very-low-dose of the ENaC-inhibitor amiloride (1 mg/kg/day in the drinking water for 20 weeks beginning at 4 weeks of age. Mice consuming a WD were heavier and had greater percent body fat, proteinuria, and aortic stiffness as assessed by pulse-wave velocity than those fed control diet. Treatment with amiloride did not affect body weight, body composition, blood pressure, urinary sodium excretion, or insulin sensitivity, but significantly reduced the development of endothelial and aortic stiffness, aortic fibrosis, aortic oxidative stress, and mesenteric resistance artery EnNaC abundance and proteinuria in WD-fed mice. Amiloride also improved endothelial-dependent vasodilatory responses in the resistance arteries of WD-fed mice. These results indicate that a very-low-dose of amiloride, not affecting blood pressure, is sufficient to improve endothelial function and reduce aortic stiffness in female mice fed a WD, and suggest that EnNaC-inhibition may be sufficient to ameliorate the pathological vascular stiffening effects of WD-induced obesity in females.

  9. Multi-indication Pharmacotherapeutic Multicriteria Decision Analytic Model for the Comparative Formulary Inclusion of Proton Pump Inhibitors in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badriyeh, Daoud; Alabbadi, Ibrahim; Fahey, Michael; Al-Khal, Abdullatif; Zaidan, Manal

    2016-05-01

    The formulary inclusion of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the government hospital health services in Qatar is not comparative or restricted. Requests to include a PPI in the formulary are typically accepted if evidence of efficacy and tolerability is presented. There are no literature reports of a PPI scoring model that is based on comparatively weighted multiple indications and no reports of PPI selection in Qatar or the Middle East. This study aims to compare first-line use of the PPIs that exist in Qatar. The economic effect of the study recommendations was also quantified. A comparative, evidence-based multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) model was constructed to follow the multiple indications and pharmacotherapeutic criteria of PPIs. Literature and an expert panel informed the selection criteria of PPIs. Input from the relevant local clinician population steered the relative weighting of selection criteria. Comparatively scored PPIs, exceeding a defined score threshold, were recommended for selection. Weighted model scores were successfully developed, with 95% CI and 5% margin of error. The model comprised 7 main criteria and 38 subcriteria. Main criteria are indication, dosage frequency, treatment duration, best published evidence, available formulations, drug interactions, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Most weight was achieved for the indications selection criteria. Esomeprazole and rabeprazole were suggested as formulary options, followed by lansoprazole for nonformulary use. The estimated effect of the study recommendations was up to a 15.3% reduction in the annual PPI expenditure. Robustness of study conclusions against variabilities in study inputs was confirmed via sensitivity analyses. The implementation of a locally developed PPI-specific comparative MCDA scoring model, which is multiweighted indication and criteria based, into the Qatari formulary selection practices is a successful evidence-based cost-cutting exercise

  10. Applying conversation analysis to foster accurate reporting in the diet history interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, L C; Brenninger, V; Barnard, J

    2000-07-01

    Inaccuracy in reporting dietary intakes is a major problem in managing diet-related disease. There is no single best method of dietary assessment, but the diet history lends itself well to the clinical setting. In many diet histories data are collected orally, so analysis of interviews can provide insights into reporting behaviors. Conversation analysis is a qualitative method that describes the systematic organization of talk between people. Patterns are identified and checked for consistency within and among individual interviews. The aim of this study was to describe consistent ways of reporting diet histories and to identify conversational features of problematic reporting. Diet history interviews from 62 overweight and insulin-resistant adult volunteers (50 women, 12 men) attending an outpatient clinic and 14 healthy volunteers (7 men, 7 women) participating in an energy balance study were audiotaped and transcribed. Conversation analysis identified a remarkably consistent pattern of reporting diet histories and 3 conversational features that indicated problematic reporting: "it depends," denoting variability (least of all at breakfast); "probably," suggesting guesswork (related to portion sizes); and elaborated talk on certain foods, distinguishing sensitive topics (e.g., alcohol, chocolate, butter/margarine, take-out foods) from safe topics. These findings indicate that there are ways in which dietetics practitioners may conduct the diet history interview to foster more accurate reporting.

  11. Protein-Losing Enteropathy as a Complication of the Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Won Kee; Park, Soyoung; Kim, Heung Dong

    2017-07-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for the patients with intractable epilepsy, however, the diet therapy can sometimes be discontinued by complications. Protein-losing enteropathy is a rarely reported serious complication of the ketogenic diet. We present a 16-month-old Down syndrome baby with protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet as a treatment for West syndrome. He suffered from diarrhea, general edema and hypoalbuminemia which were not controlled by conservative care for over 1 month. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and stool alpha-1 antitrypsin indicated protein-losing enteropathy. Related symptoms were relieved after cessation of the ketogenic diet. Unexplained hypoalbuminemia combined with edema and diarrhea during ketogenic suggests the possibility of protein-losing enteropathy, and proper evaluation is recommended in order to expeditiously detect it and to act accordingly. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  12. Dominant lethal mutations in male mice fed γ-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, P.S.; Aravindakshan, M.; Aiyer, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of Swiss male mice were fed a stock ration of an unirradiated or irradiated (2.5 Mrad) test diet for 8 wk. After the feeding period, the males were mated with groups of untreated female mice for 4 consecutive weeks. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. Numbers of dead implantations, including deciduomas and dead embryos, showed no significant differences among the different groups, thus producing no evidence of any induced post-implantation lethality in mice fed on irradiated diet. Similarly, there was no indication of preimplantation lethality, since implantation rates remained comparable among different groups. Consumption of irradiated diet did not affect the fertility of mice. Total pre- and post-implantation loss, as indicated by the numbers of live implantations remained comparable among all the groups of mice. (author)

  13. Increased plasma ghrelin suppresses insulin release in wethers fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Sato, K; Kato, S; Yonezawa, T; Kobayashi, Y; Ohtani, Y; Ohwada, S; Aso, H; Yamaguchi, T; Roh, S G; Katoh, K

    2014-06-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide that promotes an increase of food intake and stimulates GH secretion. Ghrelin secretion is regulated by nutritional status and nutrients. Although a high-protein (HP) diet increases plasma ghrelin secretion in mammals, the mechanisms and the roles of the elevated ghrelin concentrations due to a HP diet have not been fully established. To clarify the roles of elevated acylated ghrelin upon intake of a HP diet, we investigated the regulation of ghrelin concentrations in plasma and tissues in wethers fed with either the HP diet or the control (CNT) diet for 14 days, and examined the action of the elevated plasma ghrelin by using a ghrelin-receptor antagonist. The HP diet gradually increased the plasma acylated-ghrelin concentrations, but the CNT diet did not. Although the GH concentrations did not vary significantly across the groups, an injection of ghrelin-receptor antagonist enhanced insulin levels in circulation in the HP diet group. In the fundus region of the stomach, the ghrelin levels did not differ between the HP and CNT diet groups, whereas ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in the group fed with HP diet than those of the CNT diet group were. These results indicate that the HP diet elevated the plasma ghrelin levels by increasing its synthesis; this elevation strongly suppresses the appearance of insulin in the circulation of wethers, but it is not involved in GH secretion. Overall, our findings indicate a role of endogenous ghrelin action in secretion of insulin, which acts as a regulator after the consumption of a HP diet. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  15. Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JM, and the Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study Investigators. Validation of Nijmegen-Bethesda assay modifications to allow inhibitor ... webinars on blood disorders Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  16. Diet quantity influence phenotypic dimorphism during honey bee (Apis mellifera) caste determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen and worker honey bees are genetically analogous, but morphologically and physiologically different. Nutritional differences in larval diets regulate caste determination. Our recent work indicates diet quantity has a strong influence on caste in honeybees, and that queen induction can occur in ...

  17. Comparative effects of corn-based diet and phase-fed cassava-based diet on growth rate, carcass characteristics and lipid profile of meat-type ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowalak Saree

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a corn- or cassava- based diet on the production of meat-type ducks. Methods Four hundred day-old ducks were used in this experiment. They were divided into five groups with each group replicated eight times. The ducks fed the corn-based diets served as the control group. The four other groups comprised different treatments, with each one given the cassava-based diet based on phase-feeding. Three treatments were fed the cassava-based diet from 16, 28, and 35 d; respectively up to 42 d of age and the other group was fed the cassava-based diet from 1 to 42 d of age. Results The results indicated that ducks on either the corn- or cassava-based diets were similar in growth during 1 to 9 d of age. However, toward 35 to 42 d, the cassava-diet produced a higher weight gain (p<0.05. The cassava-based diet was better than the corn-based diet at increasing the outer and inner breast weights at 28, 35, or 42 d (p<0.05. In contrast, the corn-based diet was better at increasing abdominal fat (p<0.05. The two diets did not differ in their effects on the serum triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and liver cholesterol. The corn-based diet, however, caused a highly significantly greater level of liver triglyceride (p<0.01. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that both the cassava- and corn- based diets are similar in their effect on meat-type ducks during the starter stage but toward the finisher stage, the cassava-based diet has a better influence on weight gain and carcass characteristics.

  18. Comparative effects of corn-based diet and phase-fed cassava-based diet on growth rate, carcass characteristics and lipid profile of meat-type ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saree, Saowalak; Bunchasak, Chaiyapoom; Rakangtong, Choawit; Sakdee, Jessada; Krutthai, Nuttawut; Poeikhampha, Theerawit

    2017-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a corn- or cassava- based diet on the production of meat-type ducks. Four hundred day-old ducks were used in this experiment. They were divided into five groups with each group replicated eight times. The ducks fed the corn-based diets served as the control group. The four other groups comprised different treatments, with each one given the cassava-based diet based on phase-feeding. Three treatments were fed the cassava-based diet from 16, 28, and 35 d; respectively up to 42 d of age and the other group was fed the cassava-based diet from 1 to 42 d of age. The results indicated that ducks on either the corn- or cassava-based diets were similar in growth during 1 to 9 d of age. However, toward 35 to 42 d, the cassava-diet produced a higher weight gain (p<0.05). The cassava-based diet was better than the corn-based diet at increasing the outer and inner breast weights at 28, 35, or 42 d (p<0.05). In contrast, the corn-based diet was better at increasing abdominal fat (p<0.05). The two diets did not differ in their effects on the serum triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and liver cholesterol. The corn-based diet, however, caused a highly significantly greater level of liver triglyceride (p<0.01). The results of this study suggest that both the cassava- and corn- based diets are similar in their effect on meat-type ducks during the starter stage but toward the finisher stage, the cassava-based diet has a better influence on weight gain and carcass characteristics.

  19. Diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Arizona as indicated by fecal analysis and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen, 1891)) by visual analysis of bat feces and stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of bat feces, wing, hair, and insect prey. We collected 33 fecal samples from spotted bats and trapped 3755 insect...

  20. Yogurt, diet quality and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, S; Fernandez, M A; Marette, A; Tremblay, A

    2017-05-01

    Yogurt consumption has been associated with healthy dietary patterns and lifestyles, better diet quality and healthier metabolic profiles. Studies have shown that frequent yogurt consumers do not only have higher nutrient intakes, but also an improved diet quality, which includes higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and dairy compared with low or non-consumers indicating better compliance with dietary guidelines. Recent epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that yogurt contributes to better metabolic health because of its effects on the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and glycemic control. Furthermore, yogurt consumers have been shown to be more physically active (⩾ 2 h/week), smoke less, have higher education and knowledge of nutrition compared with non-consumers. Thus, yogurt consumption may be considered a signature of a healthy diet through its nutritional content, impact on metabolic health including the control of energy balance, body weight and glycemia and its relationships with healthier behaviors and lifestyle factors.

  1. Modified Mediterranean diet and survival after myocardial infarction : the EPIC-Elderly study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trichopoulou, A.; Bamia, C.; Norat, T.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Halkjaer, J.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Vercambre, M. -N.; Boutron-Ruault, M. -C.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, C.; Benetou, V.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Orfanos, P.; Boffetta, P.; Masala, G.; Pala, V.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H.; Van der Schouw, Y. T.; Gonzalez, C.; Sanchez, M. J.; Schmidt, E.B.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Moreno, C.; Larranaga, N.; Van Guelpen, B.; Jansson, J. -H.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K. -T.; Spencer, E. A.; Key, T.; Riboli, E.; Trichopoulos, D.

    2007-01-01

    Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of coronary heart disease, and two randomised trials indicated that it improves prognosis of coronary patients. These trials, however, relied on a total of 100 deaths and evaluated designer diets in the clinical context. We have evaluated the

  2. Canine osteosarcoma cells exhibit resistance to aurora kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, C M; Pozniak, J; Scott, M C; Ito, D; Gorden, B H; Graef, A J; Modiano, J F

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Aurora kinase inhibitors AZD1152 and VX680 on canine osteosarcoma cells. Cytotoxicity was seen in all four cell lines; however, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations were significantly higher than in human leukaemia and canine lymphoma cells. AZD1152 reduced Aurora kinase B phosphorylation, indicating resistance was not because of failure of target recognition. Efflux mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters is one known mechanism of resistance against these drugs and verapamil enhanced AZD1152-induced apoptosis; however, these transporters were only expressed by a small percentage of cells in each line and the effects of verapamil were modest, suggesting other mechanisms contribute to resistance. Our results indicate that canine osteosarcoma cells are resistant to Aurora kinase inhibitors and suggest that these compounds are unlikely to be useful as single agents for this disease. Further investigation of these resistance mechanisms and the potential utility of Aurora kinase inhibitors in multi-agent protocols is warranted. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Fad diets and obesity--Part IV: Low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Mark A

    2005-02-01

    The first three parts of this series of articles covered the basics of some of the more popular low-carbohydrate diets, and the theories behind them. In the fourth and final part of this series, some of the more popular low-fat and low-calorie diets, such as the Ornish diet and Weight Watchers, are covered briefly. Recently, several clinical trials of longer duration that compared low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets have been published. These studies demonstrate that some of the low-carbohydrate diets result in reduced weight in the short-term, but their ability to reduce weight long-term any better than low-fat or other diets has been questioned. Most popular or fad diets have some positive messages contained within them and some preliminary positive short-term results, but overall the compliance rates with any fad diet are very poor over the long-term. The decision to go on any diet should be made with a health professional who can monitor the patient closely.

  4. LDL cholesterol counteracts the antitumour effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors against renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Sei; Makhov, Peter; Astsaturov, Igor; Golovine, Konstantin; Tulin, Alexei; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G; Kolenko, Vladimir M

    2017-04-25

    Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) significantly improves survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, about one-quarter of the RCC patients are primarily refractory to treatment with TKIs. We examined viability of RCC and endothelial cells treated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and/or TKIs. Next, we validated the potential role of PI3K/AKT signalling in LDL-mediated TKI resistance. Finally, we examined the effect of a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet on the response of RCC xenograft tumours to sunitinib. The addition of LDL cholesterol increases activation of PI3K/AKT signalling and compromises the antitumour efficacy of TKIs against RCC and endothelial cells. Furthermore, RCC xenograft tumours resist TKIs in mice fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. The ability of renal tumours to maintain their cholesterol homoeostasis may be a critical component of TKI resistance in RCC patients.

  5. Mediterranean diet: from a healthy diet to a sustainable dietary pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eDernini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the Mediterranean Diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences – life styles changes, food globalization, economic and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today’s challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet's potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need.

  6. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences - life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today's challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet's potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need.

  7. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  8. Fructose-Rich Diet Affects Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Repair in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Federica; Senese, Rosalba; Lasala, Pasquale; Ziello, Angela; Mazzoli, Arianna; Crescenzo, Raffaella; Liverini, Giovanna; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando; Iossa, Susanna

    2017-03-24

    Evidence indicates that many forms of fructose-induced metabolic disturbance are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative damage; however, it is not clear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and/or its lack of repair are events involved in metabolic disease resulting from a fructose-rich diet. In the present study, we evaluated the degree of oxidative damage to liver mtDNA and its repair, in addition to the state of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet. We used male rats feeding on a high-fructose or control diet for eight weeks. Our results showed an increase in mtDNA damage in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet and this damage, as evaluated by the expression of DNA polymerase γ, was not repaired; in addition, the mtDNA copy number was found to be significantly reduced. A reduction in the mtDNA copy number is indicative of impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, as is the finding of a reduction in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, a fructose-rich diet leads to mitochondrial and mtDNA damage, which consequently may have a role in liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases.

  9. Economic performance of dairy cows fed diets with different levels of oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julinessa Silva Oliveira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of using different levels of oregano in diets for lactating cows fed sugar cane. We used 12 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares. The four treatments consisted of different levels of oregano: oregano free-control diet (0% and diets added with 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% oregano. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production of 15 kg day-1. For economic analysis, we employed two economic indicators, net present value and internal rate of return. The total cost per animal and per liter of milk produced has increased with the inclusion of oregano. The inclusion of oregano was not effective for both productivity and profitability, with prices equal to R$ 0.87, 0.97, 1.09, 1.22, and R$ 0.78, 1.03, 1.28, and 1.52 of milk and concentrate, respectively for each level of inclusion. The internal rate of return was more advantageous when not adding oregano in the diet, indicating the viability of using oregano up to 0.8% inclusion to the diet of dairy cows under the conditions of this experiment. The net present value demonstrated that this investment is interesting for all discount rates used in the diet without the addition of oregano, pointing out that, in this treatment, the activity was feasible for any opportunity cost.

  10. Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    -induced metabolomic alterations promote the visible sebofollicular inflammasomopathy acne vulgaris. Nutrition therapy of acne has to increase FoxO1 and to attenuate mTORC1/SREBP-1c signaling. Patients should balance total calorie uptake and restrict refined carbohydrates, milk, dairy protein supplements, saturated fats, and trans-fats. A paleolithic-like diet enriched in vegetables and fish is recommended. Plant-derived mTORC1 inhibitors and ω-3-PUFAs are promising dietary supplements supporting nutrition therapy of acne vulgaris. PMID:26203267

  11. Diet quality and adherence to a healthy diet in Japanese male workers with untreated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanauchi, Masao; Kanauchi, Kimiko

    2015-07-10

    As Japanese societies rapidly undergo westernisation, the prevalence of hypertension is increasing. We investigated the association between dietary quality and the prevalence of untreated hypertension in Japanese male workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 433 male workers who completed a brief food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the WHO-based Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), the American Heart Association 2006 Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and Mediterranean-style diet was assessed using four adherence indexes (HDI score, AI-84 score, DASH score and MED score). Hypertension classes were classified into three categories: non-hypertension, untreated hypertension and treated hypertension (ie, taking antihypertensive medication). The prevalence of untreated hypertension and treated hypertension was 22.4% and 8.5%, respectively. Patients with untreated hypertension had significantly lower HDI and AI-84 scores compared with non-hypertension. DASH and MED scores across the three hypertension classes were comparable. After adjusting for age, energy intake, smoking habit, alcohol drinking, physical activity and salt intake, a low adherence to HDI and a lowest quartile of AI-84 score were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of untreated hypertension, with an OR of 3.33 (95% CI 1.39 to 7.94, p=0.007) and 2.23 (1.09 to 4.53, p=0.027), respectively. A lower dietary quality was associated with increased prevalence of untreated hypertension in Japanese male workers. Our findings support a potential beneficial impact of nutritional assessment using diet qualities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. [Acute and persistent antiproteinuric effect of a low-protein diet in chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, B R; Cucciniello, E; Martino, R; Frallicciardi, A; Tortoriello, R; Struzziero, G

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-proteinuric effect of a very-low-protein diet supplemented with essential amino acids and keto analogs in patients with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease and proteinuria already treated with both ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers. The study was a prospective randomized controlled cross-over trial comparing a very-low-protein diet (VLpD) and a low-protein diet (LpD). We enrolled 32 consecutive patients between June 2000 and June 2005. They were randomized to receive a VpLD (group A) or an LpD (group B) for 6 months; thereafter, patients of both groups were switched to the other diet (group A to LpD; group B to VpLD) for a further 6 months. Finally, all patients were randomized again within each group to receive either LpD or VLpD and were followed for another year. The VLpD group showed a significant reduction of urinary protein excretion during the diet period, with a nadir at the fourth month of treatment; the amount of urinary protein reduction was about 58%. Serum advanced glycation end products (AGE) significantly decreased in 10 patients (5 of group A, 5 of group B; -18% and -19%, respectively) during VLpD. Univariate analysis showed that proteinuria correlated indirectly with VpLD and directly with AGE. This study demonstrates that in patients with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease and severe proteinuria, a VLpD reduces both proteinuria and serum AGE, even in the presence of complete inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system.

  13. Ketogenic diets, mitochondria, and neurological diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gano, Lindsey B.; Patel, Manisha; Rho, Jong M.

    2014-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a broad-spectrum therapy for medically intractable epilepsy and is receiving growing attention as a potential treatment for neurological disorders arising in part from bioenergetic dysregulation. The high-fat/low-carbohydrate “classic KD”, as well as dietary variations such as the medium-chain triglyceride diet, the modified Atkins diet, the low-glycemic index treatment, and caloric restriction, enhance cellular metabolic and mitochondrial function. Hence, the broad neuroprotective properties of such therapies may stem from improved cellular metabolism. Data from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that these diets restrict glycolysis and increase fatty acid oxidation, actions which result in ketosis, replenishment of the TCA cycle (i.e., anaplerosis), restoration of neurotransmitter and ion channel function, and enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Further, there is mounting evidence that the KD and its variants can impact key signaling pathways that evolved to sense the energetic state of the cell, and that help maintain cellular homeostasis. These pathways, which include PPARs, AMP-activated kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and the sirtuins, have all been recently implicated in the neuroprotective effects of the KD. Further research in this area may lead to future therapeutic strategies aimed at mimicking the pleiotropic neuroprotective effects of the KD. PMID:24847102

  14. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    diets compared to feed A was detectable in the intestinal contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the digestive system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dustbathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The onset of lay was delayed......, but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key...... at 19 weeks. From 19-30 weeks all groups were fed the same commercial pre-layer and layer diets. Similar growth rates were obtained on different quantities of food (eg. 75, 100, 110 and 92 g feed/bird/d in week 16 for A, B, C and D, respectively). The higher amounts of food offered on the high fibre...

  15. Diet-induced changes in Ucp1 expression in bovine adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Yamada, Tomoya; Hashimoto, Osamu; Umemoto, Takenao; Sato, Ryo; Ohwatari, Shiori; Kanamori, Yohei; Terachi, Tomohiro; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2013-04-01

    Brown adipocytes, which regulate non-shivering thermogenesis, have been believed to exist in a limited number of mammalian species, and only under limited physiological conditions. Recent discoveries indicate that adult humans possess a significant number of functional brown adipocytes. This study explores the regulatory emergence of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) depots of fattening cattle. RT-PCR analyses indicated significant expression of Ucp1, a brown adipocyte-specific gene, in the WAT of 31-month-old Japanese Black steers. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Ucp1-positive small adipocytes were dispersed in the subcutaneous WAT. Next, we examined expression level of Ucp1 and other brown adipocyte-selective genes such as Pgc1α, Cidea, Dio2, Cox1, Cox7a1 and Cox8b in WAT of 30-month-old steers fed either diet with low protein/energy content (roughage diet) or that with high protein/energy content (concentrate diet) for 20months. Ucp1 expression in the subcutaneous WAT was significantly higher in the concentrate diet group than in the roughage diet group. Furthermore, the higher Ucp1 expression levels were limited to the subcutaneous WAT, and no differences between groups were detected in the mesenteric, perirenal, intermuscular or intramuscular WAT. Expression of Dio2, Cox1 and Cox8b was higher in the subcutaneous WAT but not in the mesenteric WAT of the concentrate diet group. Furthermore, expression of Prdm16, a positive regulator of differentiation toward brown adipocyte-lineage cells, and expression of leptin, a molecule that enhances activity of brown adipocytes, were significantly higher in the subcutaneous WAT of the concentrate diet group. This study demonstrates the presence of brown adipocytes in WAT depots of fattening cattle, and suggests the diet-related modulation of expression of genes predominantly expressed in brown adipocytes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efektivitas kurkumin sebagai antioksidan dan inhibitor melanin pada kultur sel B16F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Sugiharto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Melanin inhibitors have become increasingly important ingredients in medication and cosmetics for the prevention ofhyperpigmentation. In the last few years, a huge number of natural herbal extracts have been tested as inhibitors of melanin synthesisand some of these effects are related to the antioxidant properties. The objectives of this study were to determine of curcumin propertiesas antioxidant activity and melanin inhibitors. In this study, our data indicated that antioxidant assay with DPPH showed IC50 was16,05 μg/ml. In the absence of α-MSH (α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, melanin content assay in cell B16-F1 indicated thatthe highest activity of curcumin to reduce melanin content of 45,67% at 25 μg/ml. Meanwhile, in the presence of α-MSH at the sameconcentration indicated that the highest activity was 53,87%. Based on the data, curcumin has potential properties as antioxidantactivity and melanin inhibitor.

  17. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  18. Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnik BC

    2015-07-01

    proliferation. Oleate stimulates P. acnes adhesion, keratinocyte proliferation, and comedogenesis via interleukin-1α release. Thus, diet-induced metabolomic alterations promote the visible sebofollicular inflammasomopathy acne vulgaris. Nutrition therapy of acne has to increase FoxO1 and to attenuate mTORC1/SREBP-1c signaling. Patients should balance total calorie uptake and restrict refined carbohydrates, milk, dairy protein supplements, saturated fats, and trans-fats. A paleolithic-like diet enriched in vegetables and fish is recommended. Plant-derived mTORC1 inhibitors and ω-3-PUFAs are promising dietary supplements supporting nutrition therapy of acne vulgaris. Keywords: acne, comedogenesis, diet, inflammasome, metabolomics, quorum sensing

  19. The (noneffects of lethal population control on the diet of Australian dingoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Allen

    Full Text Available Top-predators contribute to ecosystem resilience, yet individuals or populations are often subject to lethal control to protect livestock, managed game or humans from predation. Such management actions sometimes attract concern that lethal control might affect top-predator function in ways ultimately detrimental to biodiversity conservation. The primary function of a predator is predation, which is often investigated by assessing their diet. We therefore use data on prey remains found in 4,298 Australian dingo scats systematically collected from three arid sites over a four year period to experimentally assess the effects of repeated broad-scale poison-baiting programs on dingo diet. Indices of dingo dietary diversity and similarity were either identical or near-identical in baited and adjacent unbaited treatment areas in each case, demonstrating no control-induced change to dingo diets. Associated studies on dingoes' movement behaviour and interactions with sympatric mesopredators were similarly unaffected by poison-baiting. These results indicate that mid-sized top-predators with flexible and generalist diets (such as dingoes may be resilient to ongoing and moderate levels of population control without substantial alteration of their diets and other related aspects of their ecological function.

  20. Protein-losing enteropathy as a rare complication of the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kengo; Watanabe, Mio; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Shiihara, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    The ketogenic diet is a valuable therapy for patients with intractable epilepsy, but it can result in a variety of complications that sometimes limits its usefulness. Hypoproteinemia is one of the common adverse effects of this diet, although the underling mechanism is largely unknown except for the diet's reduced protein intake. Only one case of protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet has been reported. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl experienced fever for 5 days then suddenly developed convulsive seizures that subsequently evolved to severe refractory status epilepticus. After multiple antiepileptic drugs failed to improve the patient's condition, we introduced the ketogenic diet. Although her seizures diminished, her course was complicated by hypoproteinemia. An abdominal dynamic scintigraphy and colonoscopy findings indicated protein-losing enteropathy with nonspecific mucosal inflammation. Her nutritional status deteriorated; thus, we discontinued the ketogenic diet. Her nutritional status gradually improved, whereas her seizures increased. Hypoproteinemia during the ketogenic diet is common, but the underlying etiologies are not well understood. Abdominal dynamic scintigraphy could be valuable for clarifying the etiology of hypoproteinemia during the ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epithelial tissue hyperplasia induced by the RAF inhibitor PF-04880594 is attenuated by a clinically well-tolerated dose of the MEK inhibitor PD-0325901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torti, Vince R; Wojciechowicz, Donald; Hu, Wenyue; John-Baptiste, Annette; Evering, Winston; Troche, Gabriel; Marroquin, Lisa D; Smeal, Tod; Yamazaki, Shinji; Palmer, Cynthia L; Burns-Naas, Leigh Ann; Bagrodia, Shubha

    2012-10-01

    Clinical trials of selective RAF inhibitors in patients with melanoma tumors harboring activated BRAFV600E have produced very promising results, and a RAF inhibitor has been approved for treatment of advanced melanoma. However, about a third of patients developed resectable skin tumors during the course of trials. This is likely related to observations that RAF inhibitors activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, stimulate proliferation, and induce epithelial hyperplasia in preclinical models. Because these findings raise safety concerns about RAF inhibitor development, we further investigated the underlying mechanisms. We showed that the RAF inhibitor PF-04880594 induces ERK phosphorylation and RAF dimerization in those epithelial tissues that undergo hyperplasia. Hyperplasia and ERK hyperphosphorylation are prevented by treatment with the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD-0325901 at exposures that extrapolate to clinically well-tolerated doses. To facilitate mechanistic and toxicologic studies, we developed a three-dimensional cell culture model of epithelial layering that recapitulated the RAF inhibitor-induced hyperplasia and reversal by MEK inhibitor in vitro. We also showed that PF-04880594 stimulates production of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 in HL-60 cells, suggesting a possible mechanism for the skin flushing observed in dogs. The complete inhibition of hyperplasia by MEK inhibitor in epithelial tissues does not seem to reduce RAF inhibitor efficacy and, in fact, allows doubling of the PF-04880594 dose without toxicity usually associated with such doses. These findings indicated that combination treatment with MEK inhibitors might greatly increase the safety and therapeutic index of RAF inhibitors for the treatment of melanoma and other cancers. ©2012 AACR.

  2. Dieting attempts modify the association between quality of diet and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sares-Jäske, Laura; Knekt, Paul; Lundqvist, Annamari; Heliövaara, Markku; Männistö, Satu

    2017-09-01

    Evidence on the nature of the relationship between obesity and the quality of diet remains controversial. Likewise, the possible effect of dieting attempts on this association is poorly understood. This study investigates the possible modifying effect of dieting attempts on the association between the quality of diet and obesity. The authors hypothesize that among dieters the association may be biased. The study was based on a Finnish cohort, including 5910 men and women aged 30 to 99 years, with information on diet and body mass index (BMI). Using data from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), an Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) applicable to the Finnish regimen was formed. Obesity was defined as a BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 . Information on dieting attempts was collected using a questionnaire. The statistical analyses were based on linear and logistic regression. We found a positive association between the quality of the diet and obesity, the relative odds of obesity between the highest and lowest quintiles of AHEI being 1.48 (95% CI, 1.20-1.82) after adjustment for confounding factors. However, in the interaction analysis of dieting attempts and AHEI, no association was observed in non-dieters (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.69-1.24) but among dieters a slightly elevated risk was found (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.98-1.98). We found no association between a high quality diet and obesity among non-dieters, but a tendency for a positive association in dieters. Dieting thus seems to modify the association between diet and obesity, which should be further studied using a longitudinal design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Shweta [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada); Vandenberg, Albert [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Smits, Judit, E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.ca [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  4. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, Shweta; Vandenberg, Albert; Smits, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  5. Strain differences among rats in response to Remington iodine-deficient diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, K.; Taurog, A.; Krulich, L.

    1981-01-01

    Male rats of five different strains (Simonsen albino, Wistar, Long-Evans, Holtzman Sprague-Dawley, and Charles River Sprague-Dawley) were tested for their response to the U.S. Biochemical Corp. Remington low iodine diet containing 15-18 microgram I/kg. Measurements made after the diet had been fed for 28-30 days indicated that Simonsen albino and Wistar strains consistently showed the greatest response, based on degree of thyroid enlargement, depletion of thyroidal iodine, reduction in serum T4, and elevation of serum TSH. Long-Evans and Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats responded relatively poorly to the low iodine diet. One experiment included female rats, and the limited data suggested that within a given strain there was no significant sex difference. With more prolonged feeding (84 days), the difference between a rapidly responding strain (Simonsen albino) and a more slowly responding strain (Holtzman Sprague-Dawley) was not so marked. Our results indicate that given sufficient time and a diet sufficiently low in iodine, even a more slowly responding strain will ultimately develop signs of extreme iodine deficiency. However, it is inconvenient and expensive to maintain rats on a Remington low iodine diet for 3 months, and studies on the effect of severe iodine deficiency are much more rapidly performed using a rapidly responding strain such as the Simonsen albino. Our observation that rats of different strains differ markedly in their responses to an iodine-deficient diet suggests that hereditary factors play an important role in this response

  6. A potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B improves insulin and leptin signaling in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Navasona; Konidaris, Konstantis F; Gasser, Gilles; Tonks, Nicholas K

    2018-02-02

    The protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a negative regulator of insulin and leptin signaling and a highly validated therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity. Conventional approaches to drug development have produced potent and specific PTP1B inhibitors, but these inhibitors lack oral bioavailability, which limits their potential for drug development. Here, we report that DPM-1001, an analog of the specific PTP1B inhibitor trodusquemine (MSI-1436), is a potent, specific, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of PTP1B. DPM-1001 also chelates copper, which enhanced its potency as a PTP1B inhibitor. DPM-1001 displayed anti-diabetic properties that were associated with enhanced signaling through insulin and leptin receptors in animal models of diet-induced obesity. Therefore, DPM-1001 represents a proof of concept for a new approach to therapeutic intervention in diabetes and obesity. Although the PTPs have been considered undruggable, the findings of this study suggest that allosteric PTP inhibitors may help reinvigorate drug development efforts that focus on this important family of signal-transducing enzymes. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Diet induced thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp KR

    2004-01-01

    Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Resu...

  8. Leptin Mediate High Fat Diet Sensitization of Angiotensin II-elicited Hypertension by Upregulating the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhongming; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G.; Thunhorst, Robert L.; Felder, Robert B.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased circulating levels of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, which can increase sympathetic nerve activity and raise blood pressure. A previous study revealed that rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) have an enhanced hypertensive response to subsequent angiotensin (Ang) II administration that is mediated at least in part by increased activity of brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). The present study tested whether leptin mediates this HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension by interacting with brain RAS and PICs mechanisms. Rats fed a HFD for 3 weeks had significant increases in white adipose tissue mass, plasma leptin levels and mRNA expression of leptin and its receptors in the lamina terminalis (LT) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Central infusion of a leptin receptor antagonist during HFD feeding abolished HFD sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension. Furthermore, central infusion of leptin mimicked the sensitizing action of HFD. Concomitant central infusions of the AT1-R antagonist irbesartan, the TNF-α synthesis inhibitor pentoxifylline, or the inhibitor of microglial activation minocycline prevented the sensitization produced by central infusion of leptin. RT-PCR analysis indicated that either HFD or leptin administration upregulated mRNA expression of several components of the RAS and PICs in the LT and PVN. The leptin antagonist and the inhibitors of AT1-R, TNF-α synthesis and microglial activation all reversed the expression of these genes. The results suggest that HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension is mediated by leptin through upregulation of central RAS and PICs. PMID:27021010

  9. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    JAIME ROZOWSKI; ÓSCAR CASTILLO

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes t...

  10. Understanding sustainable diets: a descriptive analysis of the determinants and processes that influence diets and their impact on health, food security, and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jessica L; Fanzo, Jessica C; Cogill, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    The confluence of population, economic development, and environmental pressures resulting from increased globalization and industrialization reveal an increasingly resource-constrained world in which predictions point to the need to do more with less and in a "better" way. The concept of sustainable diets presents an opportunity to successfully advance commitments to sustainable development and the elimination of poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and poor health outcomes. This study examines the determinants of sustainable diets, offers a descriptive analysis of these areas, and presents a causal model and framework from which to build. The major determinants of sustainable diets fall into 5 categories: 1) agriculture, 2) health, 3) sociocultural, 4) environmental, and 5) socioeconomic. When factors or processes are changed in 1 determinant category, such changes affect other determinant categories and, in turn, the level of "sustainability" of a diet. The complex web of determinants of sustainable diets makes it challenging for policymakers to understand the benefits and considerations for promoting, processing, and consuming such diets. To advance this work, better measurements and indicators must be developed to assess the impact of the various determinants on the sustainability of a diet and the tradeoffs associated with any recommendations aimed at increasing the sustainability of our food system. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Supplementation of broiler diets with high levels of microbial protease and phytase enables partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdaw, M M; Perez-Maldonado, R A; Iji, P A

    2018-02-22

    A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial, involving three levels of protease (0, 15,000 or 30,000 PROT/kg) and three levels of phytase (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg), was used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial soybean meal (SBM) with raw, full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 75 g/kg of diet for broilers. A control diet was used for comparison. Each treatment was replicated six times, with nine birds per replicate. The concentration of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the test diets was approximately 10,193.4 TIU/kg. Regardless of enzyme supplementation, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) of birds in the control group were superior to those on the test diets. Birds that received the protease-free test diets had reduced FI and BWG, but when supplemented with protease, were similar to the control diet in BWG, FI (except 0-35 days) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). When the test diet was supplemented with elevated levels (extradose) of protease and phytase, the BWG was improved during 0-10 days (p = .05) and 0-24 days (p replace SBM in broiler diets, provided the diets are supplemented with elevated levels of protease and phytase. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Mouse models: the ketogenic diet and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Karin

    2008-11-01

    Literature on the anticonvulsant effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) in mouse seizure models is summarized. Recent data show that a KD balanced in vitamin, mineral, and antioxidant content is anticonvulsant in mice, confirming that the KD's effect in mice can be attributed to the composition of the diet and not other dietary factors. Given that the anticonvulsant mechanism of the KD is still unknown, the anticonvulsant profile of the diet in different seizure models may help to decipher this mechanism. The implications of the findings that the KD is anticonvulsant in electrical seizure models are indicated. Further, the potential involvement of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the KD's anticonvulsant mechanism is discussed.

  13. Monetary Diet Cost, Diet Quality, and Parental Socioeconomic Status in Spanish Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Schröder

    Full Text Available Using a food-based analysis, healthy dietary patterns in adults are more expensive than less healthy ones; studies are needed in youth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine relationships between monetary daily diet cost, diet quality, and parental socioeconomic status.Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 3534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2 to 24 years. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-hour recall. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured by the KIDMED questionnaire. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. Monetary daily diet cost was expressed as euros per day (€/d and euros per day standardized to a 1000kcal diet (€/1000kcal/d.Mean monetary daily diet cost was 3.16±1.57€/d (1.56±0.72€/1000kcal/d. Socioeconomic status was positively associated with monetary daily diet cost and diet quality measured by the KIDMED index (€/d and €/1000kcal/d, p<0.019. High Mediterranean diet adherence (KIDMED score 8-12 was 0.71 €/d (0.28€/1000kcal/d more expensive than low compliance (KIDMED score 0-3. Analysis for nonlinear association between the KIDMED index and monetary daily diet cost per1000kcal showed no further cost increases beyond a KIDMED score of 8 (linear p<0.001; nonlinear p = 0.010.Higher monetary daily diet cost is associated with healthy eating in Spanish youth. Higher socioeconomic status is a determinant for higher monetary daily diet cost and quality.

  14. The development and validation of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Platow, Michael J; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don G

    2013-03-01

    This article presents information on the psychometric properties of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS), a new scale of dieting that predicts future behavioral efforts to lose weight. We begin by reviewing recent research indicating theoretical and empirical problems with traditional approaches to measuring dieting. The DIS addresses several of these problems by (a) focusing on naturalistic dieting behavior and (b) being future-oriented. Four validation studies are presented with a total of 741 participants. We demonstrate that the DIS has predictive utility for dieting behaviors and is positively correlated with other measures related to eating, weight, and shape. Furthermore, the DIS demonstrates discriminant validity by not being related to constructs such as self-esteem and social desirability. The DIS also has high internal consistency, with a 1-factor solution replicated with confirmatory factor analysis. The potential uses of the scale in both research and clinical settings are considered. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. New Nordic Diet versus Average Danish Diet: A Randomized Controlled Trial Revealed Healthy Long-Term Effects of the New Nordic Diet by GC-MS Blood Plasma Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco; Acar, Evrim; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Dragsted, Lars O; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-06-03

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD) in blood plasma and reveals associations between metabolic changes and health beneficial effects of the NND including weight loss. A total of 145 individuals completed the intervention and blood samples were taken along with clinical examinations before the intervention started (week 0) and after 12 and 26 weeks. The plasma metabolome was measured using GC-MS, and the final metabolite table contained 144 variables. Significant and novel metabolic effects of the diet, resulting weight loss, gender, and intervention study season were revealed using PLS-DA and ASCA. Several metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects, higher levels of vaccenic acid and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic, and N-aspartic acids and 1,5-anhydro-d-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and whole grain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state.

  16. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  17. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  18. Impact of Maternal Diet on Offspring Bone Fracture Risk During Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Elise Bondo

    , including maternal diet and vitamin D status. However, few studies have investigated whether these factors during pregnancy impact offspring bone health in short as well as in the long term. The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate epidemiologically whether maternal vitamin D status...... and dietary patterns in two prospective pregnancy cohorts, were associated with offspring risk of bone fractures in childhood. Overall, our studies provided limited support to the hypothesis that fetal bone health is programmed by the maternal vitamin D status and overall diet during pregnancy. However......, there were some indications of an increased risk for fractures when the mother consumed a Western diet and had high consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks. Further, our results indicated that mid-pregnancy use of dietary supplements with high doses of vitamin D increased the risk for offspring...

  19. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  20. Relationship of dieting and restrained eating to self-reported caloric intake in female college freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Katterman, Shawn N; Lowe, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    Evidence indicates that restrained eaters do not eat less than unrestrained eaters in the natural environment. However, no study has examined caloric intake in those who are currently dieting to lose, or avoid gaining, weight. The current study examined caloric intake using 24-hour food recalls among individuals dieting to lose weight, dieting to avoid weight gain, restrained nondieters, and unrestrained nondieters. Participants were 246 female college students participating in a weight gain prevention trial. The predicted significant difference in caloric intake across the four groups was found for beverage but not for food intake. Results reinforce past literature indicating that dieting/restraint status does not reflect hypo-caloric intake in naturalistic settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mediterranean Diet: Choose This Heart-Healthy Diet Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating The heart-healthy Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating plan based on typical ... Mediterranean-style cooking. Here's how to adopt the Mediterranean diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're looking ...

  2. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Matthias J; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Mauracher, Brigitte; Abplanalp, William; Müller, Hans-Helge; Pieper, Korbinian; Ramisch, Juliane; Tschöp, Matthias H; Beuschlein, Felix; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Slawik, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein): control (64.3/16.7/19), LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5), LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1), and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7). Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience) and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint), explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by increased adaptive thermogenesis in BAT.

  3. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Betz

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein: control (64.3/16.7/19, LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5, LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1, and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7. RESULTS: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint, explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. CONCLUSION: All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by

  4. Fine-scale spatio-temporal variation in tiger Panthera tigris diet: Effect of study duration and extent on estimates of tiger diet in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfer, Paul M.; Streby, Henry M.; Gurung, B.; Simcharoen, A.; McDougal, C.C.; Smith, J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to conserve declining tiger Panthera tigris populations and distributions have experienced limited success. The poaching of tiger prey is a key threat to tiger persistence; a clear understanding of tiger diet is a prerequisite to conserve dwindling populations. We used unpublished data on tiger diet in combination with two previously published studies to examine fine-scale spatio-temporal changes in tiger diet relative to prey abundance in Chitwan National Park, Nepal, and aggregated data from the three studies to examine the effect that study duration and the size of the study area have on estimates of tiger diet. Our results correspond with those of previous studies: in all three studies, tiger diet was dominated by members of Cervidae; small to medium-sized prey was important in one study. Tiger diet was unrelated to prey abundance, and the aggregation of studies indicates that increasing study duration and study area size both result in increased dietary diversity in terms of prey categories consumed, and increasing study duration changed which prey species contributed most to tiger diet. Based on our results, we suggest that managers focus their efforts on minimizing the poaching of all tiger prey, and that future studies of tiger diet be of long duration and large spatial extent to improve our understanding of spatio-temporal variation in estimates of tiger diet. ?? 2011 Wildlife Biology, NKV.

  5. Advancing beyond the "heart-healthy diet" for peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Emily V; Conte, Michael S; Grenon, S Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a burdensome cardiovascular condition that results from chronic inflammatory insults to the arterial vasculature. Key risk factors include age, gender, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, smoking, lack of physical fitness, and poor diet, the latter three being modifiable in the development and progression of PAD. A growing body of evidence indicates that imbalanced nutrient intake may contribute to the development and progression of PAD. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about nutritional patterns among patients with PAD and to ascertain whether certain health-promoting foods and nutrients could benefit patients with this condition. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to examine primary source evidence for or against the nutrients that are commonly associated with PAD and their potential utility as therapies. We summarized nine categories of nutrients, as well as four diets endorsed by the American Heart Association that may be prescribed to patients with or at risk for PAD. The nutrients reviewed included omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), folate and B-series vitamins, and antioxidants. The diet plans described include the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, Mediterranean diet, low-fat diet, low carbohydrate diet, Dr Dean Ornish's Spectrum Diet and Dr Andrew Weil's Anti-Inflammatory Diet. PAD is a chronic inflammatory condition that is associated with longstanding poor nutrition habits. We advocate for an intensified use of diet in PAD therapy, and we specifically recommend following eating patterns that are rich in nutrients with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. DASH Diet: Reducing Hypertension through Diet and Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include soy beans, collard greens and calcium-fortified beverages such as almond milk. Limit Saturated Fat A DASH diet is low in saturated fats, sodium and total fat. Studies have shown that a diet low in saturated ...

  7. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  8. Is the diet important for psoriasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a systemic disease, associated with the occurrence of metabolic disorders (obesity, diabetes, hyperuricemia, lipid disorders and rapid development of atherosclerosis; therefore diet can be an important adjuvant therapy. A low-calorie diet is an important complement treatment of patients with psoriasis, particularly those with concomitant obesity. There are a lot of studies indicating that obesity is a risk factor for psoriasis and vice versa. Visceral adipose tissue produces numerous proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, Il-8, Il-17, Il-18, the same ones that participate in development of psoriatic lesions. Important factors in the diet are the essential polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. They have an anti-inflammatory effect because they inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines (I-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1. In addition, supplementation of omega-3 and natural antioxidants in the diet may help to reduce "oxidative stress" and systemic inflammation. The use of a gluten-free diet is controversial, but in patients with positive anti gliadin antibodies it seems justified. An essential element of the procedure is to avoid alcohol and all its forms and stimulants that have pro-inflammatory effects. We should advise our patients to avoid grapefruit juice during treatment with cyclosporine and limit the supply of simple sugars, animal fats and alcohol during treatment with retinoids. Dietary recommendations for patients with psoriasis are an important part of a holistic approach to patients who expect comprehensive care, not just the prescription.

  9. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring

  10. Development of a dry artificial diet for Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Priscila; Parra, Jose R.P.; Panizzi, Antonio R.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial diets prepared with wheat germ, soybean protein, dextrosol, potato starch, sucrose, cellulose, soybean or sunflower oil, and vitamin solution for rearing Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) were tested under controlled temperature (25 ± 1 deg C), RH (60 ± 10%), and photophase (14h). Three diets were tested and compared with the natural diet privet [soybean and peanut seeds and privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. fruit (Oleaceae)]. All three artificial diets allowed full development. The diet containing sunflower oil was the most suitable for N. viridula while E. heros developed better on a diet composed of soybean oil. Data indicated that the artificial diets were inferior to the natural diet. The artificial diets were more adequate for E. heros. (author)

  11. Development of a dry artificial diet for Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Priscila; Parra, Jose R.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Magro, Sandra R. [Faculdade Integrada de Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil); Panizzi, Antonio R. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2006-09-15

    Artificial diets prepared with wheat germ, soybean protein, dextrosol, potato starch, sucrose, cellulose, soybean or sunflower oil, and vitamin solution for rearing Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) were tested under controlled temperature (25 {+-} 1 deg C), RH (60 {+-} 10%), and photophase (14h). Three diets were tested and compared with the natural diet privet [soybean and peanut seeds and privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. fruit (Oleaceae)]. All three artificial diets allowed full development. The diet containing sunflower oil was the most suitable for N. viridula while E. heros developed better on a diet composed of soybean oil. Data indicated that the artificial diets were inferior to the natural diet. The artificial diets were more adequate for E. heros. (author)

  12. Diet and nutrient balance of red panda in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Saroj; Coogan, Sean C. P.; Aryal, Achyut; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-10-01

    We identified the winter plant species consumed by red panda in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve of eastern Nepal and compared this to the early-summer diet which was determined previously by Panthi et al. (2012). In addition, we estimated the proximate nutritional content of the leaves identified in red panda diet for both seasons, and we used nutritional geometry to explore macronutrient balance of leaves from the two different sampling periods. We identified six different plants in winter scats, which were the same as found in the previously determined early-summer diet. Arundinaria spp. bamboos were the main species found (82.1 % relative frequency), followed by Acer spp. (6.3 %), Betula utilis (4.6 %), Quercus semicarpifolia (3.7 %), Berberis spp. (1.3 %), and lichens (1.0 %), leaving 2.0 % unidentified. Geometric analysis suggested that the macronutrient balance of seasonal diets were similar in nutrient balance to the most frequently consumed Arundinaria spp. Differences in macronutrient balance may indicate seasonal nutrient preferences, such as increased carbohydrate intake in winter for thermogenesis, and increased protein and lipid intake in early summer to support reproduction and lactation; however, these differences may also indicate differences in resource availability. Habitat conserved for red panda in the region should include sufficient Arundinaria spp. as well as lesser consumed plants which may serve as complimentary foods.

  13. Indomethacin treatment prevents high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance but not glucose intolerance in C57BL/6J Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjære, Even; Aune, Ulrike Liisberg; Røen, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Chronic low grade inflammation is closely linked to obesity-associated insulin resistance. To examine how administration of the anti-inflammatory compound indomethacin, a general cyclooxygenase inhibitor, affected obesity development and insulin sensitivity, we fed obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice...... a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet or a regular diet supplemented or not with indomethacin (±INDO) for 7 weeks. Development of obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance was monitored, and the effect of indomethacin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was measured in vivo...... and in vitro using MIN6 β-cells. We found that supplementation with indomethacin prevented HF/HS-induced obesity and diet-induced changes in systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, HF/HS+INDO-fed mice remained insulin-sensitive. However, mice fed HF/HS+INDO exhibited pronounced glucose intolerance. Hepatic glucose...

  14. A thermostable serralysin inhibitor from marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pengjuan; Li, Shangyong; Wang, Kun; Wang, Fang; Xing, Mengxin; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2018-03-01

    Serralysin inhibitors have been proposed as potent drugs against many diseases and may help to prevent further development of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. In this study, a novel serralysin inhibitor gene, lupI, was cloned from the marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The deduced serralysin inhibitor, LupI, shows <40% amino acid identity to other reported serralysin inhibitors. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of LupI with other serralysin inhibitors indicated that LupI was a novel type of serralysin inhibitor. The inhibitory constant for LupI towards its target metalloprotease was 0.64 μmol/L. LupI was thermostable at high temperature, in which 35.6%-90.7% of its inhibitory activity was recovered after treatment at 100°C for 1-60 min followed by incubation at 0°C. This novel inhibitor may represent a candidate drug for the treatment of serralysin-related infections.

  15. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  16. SGLT2 Inhibitors as a Therapeutic Option for Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiji Kawanami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD worldwide. Glycemic and blood pressure (BP control are important but not sufficient to attenuate the incidence and progression of DN. Sodium–glucose cotransporter (SGLT 2 inhibitors are a new class of glucose-lowering agent suggested to exert renoprotective effects in glucose lowering-dependent and independent fashions. Experimental studies have shown that SGLT2 inhibitors attenuate DN in animal models of both type 1 diabetes (T1D and type 2 diabetes (T2D, indicating a potential renoprotective effect beyond glucose reduction. Renoprotection by SGLT2 inhibitors has been demonstrated in T2D patients with a high cardiovascular risk in randomized controlled trials (RCTs. These favorable effects of SGLT2 inhibitors are explained by several potential mechanisms, including the attenuation of glomerular hyperfiltration, inflammation and oxidative stress. In this review article, we discuss the renoprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors by integrating experimental findings with the available clinical data.

  17. SGLT2 Inhibitors as a Therapeutic Option for Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanami, Daiji; Matoba, Keiichiro; Takeda, Yusuke; Nagai, Yosuke; Akamine, Tomoyo; Yokota, Tamotsu; Sango, Kazunori; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2017-05-18

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Glycemic and blood pressure (BP) control are important but not sufficient to attenuate the incidence and progression of DN. Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors are a new class of glucose-lowering agent suggested to exert renoprotective effects in glucose lowering-dependent and independent fashions. Experimental studies have shown that SGLT2 inhibitors attenuate DN in animal models of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), indicating a potential renoprotective effect beyond glucose reduction. Renoprotection by SGLT2 inhibitors has been demonstrated in T2D patients with a high cardiovascular risk in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). These favorable effects of SGLT2 inhibitors are explained by several potential mechanisms, including the attenuation of glomerular hyperfiltration, inflammation and oxidative stress. In this review article, we discuss the renoprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors by integrating experimental findings with the available clinical data.

  18. High-fructose diet is as detrimental as high-fat diet in the induction of insulin resistance and diabetes mediated by hepatic/pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, M; Raji, L; Prabhu, D; Sathishkumar, C; Prabu, P; Mohan, V; Balasubramanyam, M

    2016-12-01

    In the context of high human consumption of fructose diets, there is an imperative need to understand how dietary fructose intake influence cellular and molecular mechanisms and thereby affect β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. While evidence exists for a relationship between high-fat-induced insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, there is lack of studies in relation to high-fructose diet. Therefore, we attempted to study the effect of different diets viz., high-fat diet (HFD), high-fructose diet (HFS), and a combination (HFS + HFD) diet on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats compared to control animals fed with normal pellet diet. Investigations include oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, histopathology by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining, mRNA expression by real-time PCR, protein expression by Western blot, and caspase-3 activity by colorimetry. Rats subjected to high-fat/fructose diets became glucose intolerant, insulin-resistant, and dyslipidemic. Compared to control animals, rats subjected to different combination of fat/fructose diets showed increased mRNA and protein expression of a battery of ER stress markers both in pancreas and liver. Transcription factors of β-cell function (INSIG1, SREBP1c and PDX1) as well as hepatic gluconeogenesis (FOXO1 and PEPCK) were adversely affected in diet-induced insulin-resistant rats. The convergence of chronic ER stress towards apoptosis in pancreas/liver was also indicated by increased levels of CHOP mRNA & increased activity of both JNK and Caspase-3 in rats subjected to high-fat/fructose diets. Our study exposes the experimental support in that high-fructose diet is equally detrimental in causing metabolic disorders.

  19. Patients' need for more counseling on diet, exercise, and smoking cessation: results from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela C; Frede, Stacey M

    2006-01-01

    To determine the percentage of physicians who reported counseling patients on diet/nutrition, exercise, weight reduction, or smoking cessation during their office visits when responding to the 2002 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). We sought to establish whether patients are receiving adequate counseling from physicians on the basis of this nationwide survey. Retrospective database analysis. United States. Data included 184,668,007 physician visits for patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or obesity; 140,362,102 physician visits for patients in which insulin/oral antidiabetics, antihyperlipidemia drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, or weight loss drugs were prescribed; and 82,317,640 physician visits for patients who smoked or used tobacco. Not applicable. Frequency of responses for counseling/education/therapy about diet/nutrition, exercise, weight reduction, and tobacco use/exposure. For patients with type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or hypertension, or patients receiving a drug in one of the drug classes that may indicate the presence of these diseases, patients did not receive any type of diet or exercise counseling during more than one half of all visits. Visits by patients who were diagnosed as obese were most likely to receive any type of counseling (80.2%). Of visits for patients who used tobacco, 78.6% did not include any counseling about smoking cessation. Patients are insufficiently counseled and educated about the need for lifestyle changes that can affect their risks for common chronic diseases. As accessible and ideally positioned health care providers, pharmacists could potentially affect the rising epidemic of obesity and other lifestyle-related diseases by filling this void.

  20. Diet may influence the oral microbiome composition in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Christina J; Malik, Richard; Browne, Gina V; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2016-06-09

    Periodontal disease is highly prevalent amongst domestic cats, causing pain, gingival bleeding, reduced food intake, loss of teeth and possibly impacts on overall systemic health. Diet has been suggested to play a role in the development of periodontal disease in cats. There is a complete lack of information about how diet (composition and texture) affects the feline oral microbiome, the composition of which may influence oral health and the development of periodontal disease. We undertook a pilot study to assess if lifelong feeding of dry extruded kibble or wet (canned and/or fresh meat combinations) diets to cats (n = 10) with variable oral health affected the microbiome. Oral microbiome composition was assessed by amplifying the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene from supragingival dental plaque DNA extracts. These amplicons were sequenced using Illumina technology. This deep sequencing revealed the feline oral microbiome to be diverse, containing 411 bacterial species from 14 phyla. We found that diet had a significant influence on the overall diversity and abundance of specific bacteria in the oral environment. Cats fed a dry diet exclusively had higher bacterial diversity in their oral microbiome than wet-food diet cats (p microbiome between cats on the two diets assessed, the relationship between these differences and gingival health was unclear. Our preliminary results indicate that further analysis of the influence of dietary constituents and texture on the feline oral microbiome is required to reveal the relationship between diet, the oral microbiome and gingival health in cats.

  1. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  2. Understanding Sustainable Diets: A Descriptive Analysis of the Determinants and Processes That Influence Diets and Their Impact on Health, Food Security, and Environmental Sustainability123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jessica L.; Fanzo, Jessica C.; Cogill, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The confluence of population, economic development, and environmental pressures resulting from increased globalization and industrialization reveal an increasingly resource-constrained world in which predictions point to the need to do more with less and in a “better” way. The concept of sustainable diets presents an opportunity to successfully advance commitments to sustainable development and the elimination of poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and poor health outcomes. This study examines the determinants of sustainable diets, offers a descriptive analysis of these areas, and presents a causal model and framework from which to build. The major determinants of sustainable diets fall into 5 categories: 1) agriculture, 2) health, 3) sociocultural, 4) environmental, and 5) socioeconomic. When factors or processes are changed in 1 determinant category, such changes affect other determinant categories and, in turn, the level of “sustainability” of a diet. The complex web of determinants of sustainable diets makes it challenging for policymakers to understand the benefits and considerations for promoting, processing, and consuming such diets. To advance this work, better measurements and indicators must be developed to assess the impact of the various determinants on the sustainability of a diet and the tradeoffs associated with any recommendations aimed at increasing the sustainability of our food system. PMID:25022991

  3. [Euglycemic ketoacidosis : a complication of SGLT2 inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Aki; Lolachi, Sanaz; Pernet, Alain

    2017-05-31

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors constitute a new category of oral antidiabetics recently indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their mechanism of action (inhibition of renal reabsorption of glucose) and the fact that they do not induce hypoglycemia (as monotherapy) make their clinical use interesting. Various adverse events have however been reported regarding these drugs with the euglycemic ketoacidosis being the most serious. In this article we aim to review the possible mechanism of this side effect and recommendations for use of SGLT2 inhibitors by means of a case report.

  4. Diet choice patterns in rodents depend on novelty of the diet, exercise, species, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiffany; Xu, Wei-Jie; York, Haley; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2017-07-01

    Prolonged consumption of a palatable, high fat (HF) diet paired with a lack of physical activity can exacerbate the development of obesity. Exercise can facilitate the maintenance of a healthy body weight, possibly though mediating changes in diet preference. Using a two-diet choice and wheel running (WR) paradigm, our laboratory previously demonstrated that WR induces HF diet avoidance with different persistency in male and female rats when HF diet and WR are introduced simultaneously. The aims of this study were to examine whether this behavior is species dependent and to what extent the novelty of the diet affects WR induced HF diet avoidance. Experiment 1 utilized male C57BL6 mice in a two-diet choice and WR paradigm. Results show that all mice preferred HF to chow diet regardless of exercise and the order in which exercise and HF diet were presented. Experiment 2A (diet novelty) utilized Sprague-Dawley rats that were first habituated to a 45% HF diet prior to the simultaneous introduction of WR and a novel high-carbohydrate, low-fat (DK) diet. All rats avoided the novel high-carbohydrate diet and neither male nor female wheel running rats exhibited reduction in HF diet intake or HF diet avoidance. After all rats were returned to a sedentary condition, female rats consumed significantly more of the DK diet than the male rats. In Experiment 2B (diet familiarity), rats remained sedentary and were re-habituated to the DK diet until intake stabilized. Subsequently, a 60% HF diet was introduced for all rats and for running rats, access to the running wheels were provided simultaneously. Consistent with our previous findings, HF diet intake and preference was significantly reduced in all wheel running rats. These data suggest that exercise induced HF diet avoidance is affected by species and the novelty of the diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Hygienic assessment of indicators of the nutritional status of Monchegorsk school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, A V; Mikhaĭlov, I G

    1997-01-01

    Diets, energy expenditures, physical and mental performance, anthropometric indices, ascorbic acid excretion, and morbidity rates were studied in 7-9-year-old schoolchildren of Monchegorsk, Murmansk Region. The alimentary features found served as the basis for developing sanitary recommendations to optimize diets and to promote children's health.

  6. Urinary trypsin inhibitor - an experimental and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berling, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    The urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) is an acid stable proteinase inhibitor present in blood and urine. It was purified from urine using affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Two forms of UTI were present in urine, A and B. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of UTI in urine and plasma was performed. The normal level of UTI in plasma and serum was about 2 mg/l. The normal excretion in urine was about 8 mg per 24 hours. The plasma and urine levels of UTI were studied in patients with acute pancreatitis and in patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Uremic patients had a marked increase of UTI in plasma compatible with decreased glomerular filtration. In samples from healthy persons as well as from patients only inhibitor A was found. Inhibitor B has recently been renamed bikunin because of its two Kunitz-type inhibiting domains. Inhibitor A might be called tetrakunin. Radioactively labeled UTI (inhibitor A) was injected intravenously in three male volunteers. The plasma half-life of 125 I UTI was 2 hours. Free biologically active inhibitor was found in the urine during the first four hours after injection. The organ distribution of intravenously injected 125 I UTI was studied in rats. Fifteen minutes after injection the major part of the radioactivity was found in the kidneys, suggesting that the kidneys are the primary site of UTI metabolism. Using immunohistochemical techniques UTI was found in the proximal tubules of the normal human kidney further indicating the tubular reabsorption and methabolisms of UTI

  7. The lysyl oxidase inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile reduces body weight gain and improves the metabolic profile in diet-induced obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Miana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM remodelling of the adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. The lysyl oxidase (LOX family of amine oxidases, including LOX and LOX-like (LOXL isoenzymes, controls ECM maturation, and upregulation of LOX activity is essential in fibrosis; however, its involvement in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is unclear. In this study, we observed that LOX is the main isoenzyme expressed in human adipose tissue and that its expression is strongly upregulated in samples from obese individuals that had been referred to bariatric surgery. LOX expression was also induced in the adipose tissue from male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Interestingly, treatment with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN, a specific and irreversible inhibitor of LOX activity, attenuated the increase in body weight and fat mass that was observed in obese animals and shifted adipocyte size toward smaller adipocytes. BAPN also ameliorated the increase in collagen content that was observed in adipose tissue from obese animals and improved several metabolic parameters – it ameliorated glucose and insulin levels, decreased homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index and reduced plasma triglyceride levels. Furthermore, in white adipose tissue from obese animals, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, as well as the increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 levels, triggered by the HFD. Likewise, in the TNFα-induced insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and GLUT4 and the increase in SOCS3 levels, and consequently normalised insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Therefore, our data provide evidence that LOX plays a pathologically relevant role in the metabolic dysfunction induced by obesity and emphasise the interest of novel pharmacological interventions that target adipose tissue fibrosis and LOX

  8. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in popular diet plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calton Jayson B

    2010-06-01

    identified as consistently low or nonexistent in all four diet plans. These six micronutrients were removed from the sufficiency requirement and additional analysis of the four diets was conducted. It was determined that an average calorie content of (3,475 ± 543.81 would be required to reach 100% sufficiency in the remaining 21 micronutrients. Conclusion These findings are significant and indicate that an individual following a popular diet plan as suggested, with food alone, has a high likelihood of becoming micronutrient deficient; a state shown to be scientifically linked to an increased risk for many dangerous and debilitating health conditions and diseases.

  9. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are ide...

  10. The Choice of Diet Affects the Oral Health of the Domestic Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study, the gingivitis and the calculus indices of the teeth of N = 41 cats were used to model oral health as a dependent variable using a Poisson regression. The independent variables used were “quadrant”, “teeth type”, “age”, and “diet”. Teeth type (p < 0.001 and diet (p < 0.001 were found to be significant, however, age was not (p > 0.05. Interactions were all significant: age x teeth (p < 0.01, age × diet (p < 0.01, teeth × diet (p < 0.001, and teeth × age × diet (p < 0.001. The probability of poor oral health is lower in the incisors of young or adult cats, fed a dry diet in comparison to the cheek teeth of older cats fed a wet diet. Diet has a higher contribution to poor oral health than age. It is argued that cats’ oral health may be promoted with an early age hygiene of the cheek teeth and with provision of abrasive dry food.

  11. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences – life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today’s challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet’s potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need. PMID:26284249

  12. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Davis, Kyle F.; Emery, Kyle A.; Leach, Allison M.; Galloway, James N.; Pace, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result, this study

  13. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Davis, Kyle F. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Emery, Kyle A. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); University of California, Santa Barbara. Marine Science Institute, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Leach, Allison M. [University of New Hampshire, 107 Nesmith Hall, 131 Main Street, Durham, NH, 03824 (United States); Galloway, James N.; Pace, Michael L. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result

  14. Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNiro, M.J.; Epstein, S.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals was investigated by analyzing animals grown in the laboratory on diets of constant nitrogen isotopic composition. The isotopic composition of the nitrogen in an animal reflects the nitrogen isotopic composition of its diet. The delta 15 N values of the whole bodies of animals are usually more positive than those of their diets. Different individuals of a species raised on the same diet can have significantly different delta 15 N values. The variability of the relationship between the delta 15 N values of animals and their diets is greater for different species raised on the same diet than for the same species raised on different diets. Different tissues of mice are also enriched in 15 N relative to the diet, with the difference between the delta 15 N values of a tissue and the diet depending on both the kind of tissue and the diet involved. The delta 15 N values of collagen and chitin, biochemical components that are often preserved in fossil animal remains, are also related to the delta 15 N value of the diet. The dependence of the delta 15 N values of whole animals and their tissues and biochemical components on the delta 15 N value of diet indicates that the isotopic composition of animal nitrogen can be used to obtain information about an animal's diet if its potential food sources had different delta 15 N values. The isotopic method of dietary analysis was used to reconstruct changes in the diet of the human population that occupied the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico over a 7000 yr span. Variations in the delta 13 C and delta 15 N values of bone collagen suggest that C 4 and/or CAM plants (presumably mostly corn) and legumes (presumably mostly beans) were introduced into the diet much earlier than suggested by conventional archaeological analysis. (author)

  15. Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeNiro, M J; Epstein, S [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). Div. of Geological Sciences

    1981-03-01

    The influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals was investigated by analyzing animals grown in the laboratory on diets of constant nitrogen isotopic composition. The isotopic composition of the nitrogen in an animal reflects the nitrogen isotopic composition of its diet. The delta/sup 15/N values of the whole bodies of animals are usually more positive than those of their diets. Different individuals of a species raised on the same diet can have significantly different delta/sup 15/N values. The variability of the relationship between the delta/sup 15/N values of animals and their diets is greater for different species raised on the same diet than for the same species raised on different diets. Different tissues of mice are also enriched in /sup 15/N relative to the diet, with the difference between the delta/sup 15/N values of a tissue and the diet depending on both the kind of tissue and the diet involved. The delta/sup 15/N values of collagen and chitin, biochemical components that are often preserved in fossil animal remains, are also related to the delta/sup 15/N value of the diet. The dependence of the delta/sup 15/N values of whole animals and their tissues and biochemical components on the delta/sup 15/N value of diet indicates that the isotopic composition of animal nitrogen can be used to obtain information about an animal's diet if its potential food sources had different delta/sup 15/N values. The isotopic method of dietary analysis was used to reconstruct changes in the diet of the human population that occupied the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico over a 7000 yr span. Variations in the delta/sup 13/C and delta/sup 15/N values of bone collagen suggest that C/sub 4/ and/or CAM plants (presumably mostly corn) and legumes (presumably mostly beans) were introduced into the diet much earlier than suggested by conventional archaeological analysis.

  16. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  17. Diets: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Mediterranean diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Diets updates by ... foods Diet-busting foods Mediterranean diet Related Health Topics Child Nutrition DASH Eating Plan Diabetic Diet Nutrition ...

  18. Bioinsecticidal activity of a novel Kunitz trypsin inhibitor from Catanduva (Piptadenia moniliformis) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ana C B; Massena, Fábio S; Migliolo, Ludovico; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Monteiro, Norberto K V; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Macedo, Francisco P; Uchoa, Adriana F; Grossi de Sá, Maria F; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Murad, Andre M; Franco, Octavio L; Santos, Elizeu A

    2013-09-01

    The present study aims to provide new in vitro and in vivo biochemical information about a novel Kunitz trypsin inhibitor purified from Piptadenia moniliformis seeds. The purification process was performed using TCA precipitation, Trypsin-Sepharose and reversed-phase C18 HPLC chromatography. The inhibitor, named PmTKI, showed an apparent molecular mass of around 19 kDa, visualized by SDS-PAGE, which was confirmed by mass spectrometry MALDI-ToF demonstrating a monoisotopic mass of 19.296 Da. The inhibitor was in vitro active against trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were performed aiming to understand the inhibition mode of PmTKI, which competitively inhibits the target enzyme, presenting Ki values of 1.5 × 10(-8) and 3.0 × 10(-1) M against trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. Also, the inhibitory activity was assayed at different pH ranges, temperatures and reduction environments (DTT). The inhibitor was stable in all conditions maintaining an 80% residual activity. N-terminal sequence was obtained by Edman degradation and the primary sequence presented identity with members of Kunitz-type inhibitors from the same subfamily. Finally after biochemical characterization the inhibitory effect was evaluated in vitro on insect digestive enzymes from different orders, PmTKI demonstrated remarkable activity against enzymes from Anthonomus grandis (90%), Plodia interpuncptella (60%), and Ceratitis capitata (70%). Furthermore, in vivo bioinsecticidal assays of C. capitata larvae were also performed and the concentration of PmTKI (w/w) in an artificial diet required to LD50 and ED50 larvae were 0.37 and 0.3% respectively. In summary, data reported here shown the biotechnological potential of PmTKI for insect pest control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Calcium balance in young adults on a vegan and lactovegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg-Mueller, Kathrin; Raschka, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    For people in Western countries, the vegan diet has the advantage of low energy intake, but the calcium status of this strictly plant-based diet is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the calcium balance of individuals on a vegan diet in comparison with a lactovegetarian diet in a short-term investigation. Seven women and one man, ranging in age from 19 to 24 years, received during the first 10 days a vegan diet based on plant foods and calcium-rich mineral water and a lactovegetarian diet during the following 10 days. Portion size was adapted to the subjects' individual energy requirements. Calcium status was assessed by means of calcium intake in food and calcium output in feces and urine as measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, deoxypyridinoline was measured in urine as a marker of bone resorption. The results show a significantly smaller daily calcium intake with an average of 843 +/- 140 mg in the vegan versus 1322 +/- 303 mg in the lactovegetarian diet. Apparent calcium absorption rates were calculated as 26% +/- 15% in the vegan and 24% +/- 8% in the lactovegetarian group (NS). The calcium balance was positive both in the vegan diet (119 +/- 113 mg/day) and in the lactovegetarian diet (211 +/- 136 mg/day) (NS). Deoxypyridinoline excretion showed no significant difference between the two diets (105 +/- 31 and 98 +/- 23 nmol/day). The present results indicate that calcium balance and a marker of bone turnover are not affected significantly when calcium is provided either solely by plant foods or by a diet including dairy products, despite the significantly different calcium intake levels in the diets. We conclude that a well-selected vegan diet maintains calcium status, at least for a short-term period.

  20. Are SGLT2 inhibitors reasonable antihypertensive drugs and renoprotective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovshin, J A; Gilbert, R E

    2015-06-01

    By eliminating glucose in the urine, the sodium-glucose-linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors act as osmotic diuretics to lower blood pressure in addition to reducing plasma glucose and assisting with weight loss. While not approved as antihypertensive agents, the ability of this new class of antihyperglycemic agents to lower blood pressure is not insubstantial, and while not used primarily for this indication, they may assist diabetic individuals in attaining currently recommended blood pressure targets. In addition to lowering systemic pressure, preclinical and exploratory human studies suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors may also lower intraglomerular pressure, potentially reducing the rate of GFR decline in patients with diabetic nephropathy. However, given the lack of clinically meaningful endpoint data, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, primarily, as either antihypertensive or renoprotective agents would, at present, be premature. Fortunately, further insight will be garnered from large, randomized controlled trials that will assess the effects of various SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular and renal outcomes.

  1. Mediterranean Diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: Relationships between Mediterranean Diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of hydrogenase synthesis by DNA gyrase inhibitors in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, P.D.; Maier, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Derepression of an uptake hydrogenase in Bradyrhizobium japonicum is dependent on a microaerophilic environment. Addition of DNA gyrase inhibitors during derepression of hydrogenase specifically prevented expression of the hydrogenase enzyme. Antibodies to individual hydrogenase subunits failed to detect the protein after derepression in the presence of inhibitors, although there was no general inhibition of protein synthesis. The general pattern of proteins synthesized from 14 C-labeled amino acids during derepression was no significantly different whether proteins were labeled in the presence or in the absence of gyrase inhibitors. In contrast, if transcription or translation was inhibited by addition of inhibitors of those functions, virtually no proteins were labeled during derepression. This indicated that most of the 14 C-labeled proteins were synthesized de novo during derepression, synthesis of most proteins was unaffected by gyrase inhibitors, and the dependence of hydrogenase synthesis on gyrase activity was a specific one

  3. Monetary Diet Cost, Diet Quality, and Parental Socioeconomic Status in Spanish Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background Using a food-based analysis, healthy dietary patterns in adults are more expensive than less healthy ones; studies are needed in youth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine relationships between monetary daily diet cost, diet quality, and parental socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 3534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2 to 24 years. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-hour recall. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured by the KIDMED questionnaire. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. Monetary daily diet cost was expressed as euros per day (€/d) and euros per day standardized to a 1000kcal diet (€/1000kcal/d). Results Mean monetary daily diet cost was 3.16±1.57€/d (1.56±0.72€/1000kcal/d). Socioeconomic status was positively associated with monetary daily diet cost and diet quality measured by the KIDMED index (€/d and €/1000kcal/d, pdiet adherence (KIDMED score 8–12) was 0.71 €/d (0.28€/1000kcal/d) more expensive than low compliance (KIDMED score 0–3). Analysis for nonlinear association between the KIDMED index and monetary daily diet cost per1000kcal showed no further cost increases beyond a KIDMED score of 8 (linear pdiet cost is associated with healthy eating in Spanish youth. Higher socioeconomic status is a determinant for higher monetary daily diet cost and quality. PMID:27622518

  4. PTP1B Deficiency Enables the Ability of a High-Fat Diet to Drive the Invasive Character of PTEN-Deficient Prostate Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, David P; Uetani, Noriko; Vinette, Valérie; Lessard, Laurent; Aubry, Isabelle; Migon, Eva; Sirois, Jacinthe; Haigh, Jody J; Bégin, Louis R; Trotman, Lloyd C; Paquet, Marilène; Tremblay, Michel L

    2016-06-01

    Diet affects the risk and progression of prostate cancer, but the interplay between diet and genetic alterations in this disease is not understood. Here we present genetic evidence in the mouse showing that prostate cancer progression driven by loss of the tumor suppressor Pten is mainly unresponsive to a high-fat diet (HFD), but that coordinate loss of the protein tyrosine phosphatase Ptpn1 (encoding PTP1B) enables a highly invasive disease. Prostate cancer in Pten(-/-)Ptpn1(-/-) mice was characterized by increased cell proliferation and Akt activation, interpreted to reflect a heightened sensitivity to IGF-1 stimulation upon HFD feeding. Prostate-specific overexpression of PTP1B was not sufficient to initiate prostate cancer, arguing that it acted as a diet-dependent modifier of prostate cancer development in Pten(-/-) mice. Our findings offer a preclinical rationale to investigate the anticancer effects of PTP1B inhibitors currently being studied clinically for diabetes treatment as a new modality for management of prostate cancer. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3130-5. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. A high-fat diet activates oncogenic Kras and COX2 to induce development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Bincy; Roland, Christina L; Daniluk, Jaroslaw; Liu, Yan; Chatterjee, Deyali; Gomez, Sobeyda B; Ji, Baoan; Huang, Haojie; Wang, Huamin; Fleming, Jason B; Logsdon, Craig D; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but it is not clear how obesity contributes to pancreatic carcinogenesis. The oncogenic form of KRAS is expressed during early stages of PDAC development and is detected in almost all of these tumors. However, there is evidence that mutant KRAS requires an additional stimulus to activate its full oncogenic activity and that this stimulus involves the inflammatory response. We investigated whether the inflammation induced by a high-fat diet, and the accompanying up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), increases Kras activity during pancreatic carcinogenesis in mice. We studied mice with acinar cell-specific expression of KrasG12D (LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice) alone or crossed with COX2 conditional knockout mice (COXKO/LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT). We also studied LSL-Kras/PDX1-Cre mice. All mice were fed isocaloric diets with different amounts of fat, and a COX2 inhibitor was administered to some LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice. Pancreata were collected from mice and analyzed for Kras activity, levels of phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase, inflammation, fibrosis, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), and PDACs. Pancreatic tissues from LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice fed high-fat diets (HFDs) had increased Kras activity, fibrotic stroma, and numbers of PanINs and PDACs than LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice fed control diets; the mice fed the HFDs also had shorter survival times than mice fed control diets. Administration of a COX2 inhibitor to LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice prevented these effects of HFDs. We also observed a significant reduction in survival times of mice fed HFDs. COXKO/LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice fed HFDs had no evidence for increased numbers of PanIN lesions, inflammation, or fibrosis, as opposed to the increases observed in LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice fed HFDs. In mice, an HFD can activate oncogenic Kras via COX2, leading to pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis and development of PanINs and PDAC. This

  6. Hypoxia modifies the feeding preferences of Drosophila. Consequences for diet dependent hypoxic survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frelin Christian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attention has been given to the relationships between diet, longevity, aging and resistance to various forms of stress. Flies do not simply ingest calories. They sense different concentrations of carbohydrate and protein macronutrients and they modify their feeding behavior in response to changes in dietary conditions. Chronic hypoxia is a major consequence of cardiovascular diseases. Dietary proteins have recently been shown to decrease the survival of chronically hypoxic Drosophila. Whether flies modify their feeding behavior in response to hypoxia is not currently known. This study uses the recently developed capillary feeding assay to analyze the feeding behavior of normoxic and chronically hypoxic Drosophila melanogaster. Results The intakes rates of sucrose and yeast by normoxic or chronically hypoxic flies (5% O2 were analyzed under self selecting and "no choice" conditions. Chronically hypoxic flies fed on pure yeast diets or mixed diets under self selection conditions stopped feeding on yeast. Flies fed on mixed diets under "no choice" conditions reduced their food intakes. Hypoxia did not modify the adaptation of flies to diluted diets or to imbalanced diets. Mortality was assessed in parallel experiments. Dietary yeast had two distinct effects on hypoxic flies (i a repellent action which eventually led to starvation and which was best observed in the absence of dietary sucrose and (ii a toxic action which led to premature death. Finally we determined that hypoxic survivals were correlated to the intakes of sucrose, which suggested that dietary yeast killed flies by reducing their intake of sucrose. The feeding preferences of adult Drosophila were insensitive to NO scavengers, NO donor molecules and inhibitors of phosphodiesterases which are active on Drosophila larvae. Conclusion Chronically hypoxic flies modify their feeding behavior. They avoid dietary yeast which appears to be toxic. Hypoxic survival is

  7. A ketogenic diet in rodents elicits improved mitochondrial adaptations in response to resistance exercise training compared to an isocaloric Western diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden W Hyatt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, n=16 or a Western diet (WD (20 g/day, 4.5 kcal/g, 15.2% protein, 42.7% CHO, 42.0% fat, n=16 for 6 weeks. During these six weeks animals were either sedentary (SED, n=8 per diet group or voluntarily exercised using resistance-loaded running wheels (EXE, n=8 per diet group. Gastrocnemius was excised and used for mitochondrial isolation and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: In the presence of a complex II substrate, the respiratory control ratio (RCR of isolated gastrocnemius mitochondria was higher (p<0.05 in animals fed the KD compared to animals fed the WD. Complex I and IV enzyme activity was higher (p<0.05 in EXE animals regardless of diet. SOD2 protein levels and GLUT4 and PGC1α mRNA expression were higher (p<0.05 in EXE animals regardless of diet. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling of complex II substrates is more efficient in chronically resistance trained rodents fed a KD. These findings may provide merit for further investigation, perhaps on humans.

  8. Estimates of diet selection in cattle grazing cornstalk residues by measurement of chemical composition and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy of diet samples collected by ruminal evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel, Emily A; Smart, Alexander J; St-Pierre, Benoit; Selman, Susan L; Bailey, Eric A; Beck, Erin E; Walker, Julie A; Wright, Cody L; Held, Jeffrey E; Brake, Derek W

    2018-05-04

    differ (P = 0.99), and estimates of cornstalk intake tended to be greater (P = 0.09) in strip-grazed compared to continuously grazed cows. These data indicate that diet composition can be predicted by chemical components or NIRS by ruminal collection of diet samples among cattle grazing corn residues.

  9. Brown adipose tissue (BAT specific vaspin expression is increased after obesogenic diets and cold exposure and linked to acute changes in DNA-methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Weiner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies have demonstrated anti-diabetic and anti-obesogenic properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin and so evoked its potential use for treatment of obesity-related diseases. The aim of the study was to unravel physiological regulators of vaspin expression and secretion with a particular focus on its role in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology. Methods: We analyzed the effects of obesogenic diets and cold exposure on vaspin expression in liver and white and brown adipose tissue (AT and plasma levels. Vaspin expression was analyzed in isolated white and brown adipocytes during adipogenesis and in response to adrenergic stimuli. DNA-methylation within the vaspin promoter was analyzed to investigate acute epigenetic changes after cold-exposure in BAT. Results: Our results demonstrate a strong induction of vaspin mRNA and protein expression specifically in BAT of both cold-exposed and high-fat (HF or high-sugar (HS fed mice. While obesogenic diets also upregulated hepatic vaspin mRNA levels, cold exposure tended to increase vaspin gene expression of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT depots. Concomitantly, vaspin plasma levels were decreased upon obesogenic or thermogenic triggers. Vaspin expression was increased during adipogenesis but unaffected by sympathetic activation in brown adipocytes. Analysis of vaspin promoter methylation in AT revealed lowest methylation levels in BAT, which were acutely reduced after cold exposure. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate a novel BAT-specific regulation of vaspin gene expression upon physiological stimuli in vivo with acute epigenetic changes that may contribute to cold-induced expression in BAT. We conclude that these findings indicate functional relevance and potentially beneficial effects of vaspin in BAT function. Keywords: Brown adipose tissue, Browning, Cold exposure, DNA methylation, High-fat diet, High-sucrose diet, SerpinA12, Thermogenesis

  10. Nutritional intake and overall diet quality of female soccer players before the competition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel dos SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the dietary intake and overall diet quality of female soccer players before the competitive games. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study included 21 women aged 20.8±4.5 years from a professional soccer team. Their nutritional status and dietary adequacy during the training period, before competition season, were assessed. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-hour recalls, one food frequency questionnaire, and the Healthy Eating Index, an overall diet quality index based on food group intake. Results: The athletes have shown proper nutritional status, but a diet deficient in energy due largely to low carbohydrate intake. On the other hand, the intakes of protein, fatty acids, and sodium were above the recommended intakes, even for athletes. Diet quality assessment by the Healthy Eating Index - 2010 resulted in a mean score of 54.6 points of a maximum of 100, indicating a need of improving the overall diet quality. Conclusion: The study found that the dietary patterns of female football players were both quantitatively and qualitatively inappropriate. A nutritional intervention is indicated to improve diet quality, with the inclusion of various foods, such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and better protein quality, along with a reduction in saturated fats, sodium, and added sugar.

  11. Reverse zymography alone does not confirm presence of a protease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sangita; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2013-03-01

    Reverse zymography is applied for identification and semi-quantification of protease inhibitors that are of protein in nature. However, a protein that shows band in reverse zymography against a protease used for digestion of the gel need not be an inhibitor; it might be resistant to degradation by the protease. We demonstrate that in reverse zymography, avidin, streptavidin and the leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus behave like inhibitors of proteases like papain, ficin, bromelain extracts from pineapple leaf, stem and fruit and trypsin. Still, they do not act as inhibitors of those proteases when enzyme assays were done in solution. In reverse zymography, the extract of pineapple crown leaf shows two major inhibitor bands against its own proteases. Identification of these proteins from sequences derived from MALDI TOF MS analysis indicated that they are fruit and stem bromelains. Avidin, streptavidin and bromelains are 'kinetically stable proteins' that are usually resistant to proteolysis. Thus, it is recommended that identification of an inhibitor of a protease by reverse zymography should be supported by independent assay methods for confirmation.

  12. Effects of EGFR Inhibitor on Helicobacter pylori Induced Gastric Epithelial Pathology in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Robinson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori transactivates the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR and predisposes to gastric cancer development in humans and animal models. To examine the importance of EGFR signalling to gastric pathology, this study investigated whether treatment of Mongolian gerbils with a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, EKB-569, altered gastric pathology in chronic H. pylori infection. Gerbils were infected with H. pylori and six weeks later received either EKB-569-supplemented, or control diet, for 32 weeks prior to sacrifice. EKB-569-treated H. pylori-infected gerbils had no difference in H. pylori colonisation or inflammation scores compared to infected animals on control diet, but showed significantly less corpus atrophy, mucous metaplasia and submucosal glandular herniations along with markedly reduced antral and corpus epithelial proliferation to apoptosis ratios. EKB-569-treated infected gerbils had significantly decreased abundance of Cox-2, Adam17 and Egfr gastric transcripts relative to infected animals on control diet. EGFR inhibition by EKB-569 therefore reduced the severity of pre-neoplastic gastric pathology in chronically H. pylori-infected gerbils. EKB-569 increased gastric epithelial apoptosis in H. pylori-infected gerbils which counteracted some of the consequences of increased gastric epithelial cell proliferation. Similar chemopreventative strategies may be useful in humans who are at high risk of developing H.pylori-induced gastric adenocarcinoma.

  13. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  14. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet

  15. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p model, only FPQ diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her

  16. Inhibitor development and mortality in non-severe hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, C L; Loomans, J I; van Velzen, A S; Peters, M; Mauser-Bunschoten, E P; Schwaab, R; Mazzucconi, M G; Tagliaferri, A; Siegmund, B; Reitter-Pfoertner, S E; van der Bom, J G; Fijnvandraat, K

    2015-07-01

    The life expectancy of non-severe hemophilia A (HA) patients equals the life expectancy of the non-hemophilic population. However, data on the effect of inhibitor development on mortality and on hemophilia-related causes of death are scarce. The development of neutralizing factor VIII antibodies in non-severe HA patients may dramatically change their clinical outcome due to severe bleeding complications. We assessed the association between the occurrence of inhibitors and mortality in patients with non-severe HA. In this retrospective cohort study, clinical data and vital status were collected for 2709 non-severe HA patients (107 with inhibitors) who were treated between 1980 and 2011 in 34 European and Australian centers. Mortality rates for patients with and without inhibitors were compared. During 64,200 patient-years of follow-up, 148 patients died (mortality rate, 2.30 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.96-2.70) at a median age of 64 years (interquartile range [IQR], 49-76). In 62 patients (42%) the cause of death was hemophilia related. Sixteen inhibitor patients died at a median age of 71 years (IQR, 60-81). In ten patients the inhibitor was present at time of death; seven of them died of severe bleeding complications. The all-cause mortality rate in inhibitor patients was > 5 times increased compared with that for those without inhibitors (age-adjusted mortality rate ratio, 5.6). Inhibitor development in non-severe hemophilia is associated with increased mortality. High rates of hemophilia-related mortality in this study indicate that non-severe hemophilia is not mild at all and stress the importance of close follow-up for these patients. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  17. Ketogenic Diets: New Advances for Metabolism-Based Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H.; Hartman, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite myriad anticonvulsants available and in various stages of development, there are thousands of children and adults with epilepsy worldwide still refractory to treatment and not candidates for epilepsy surgery. Many of these patients will now turn to dietary therapies such as the ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment. Recent Findings In the past several years, neurologists are finding new indications to use these dietary treatments, perhaps even as first-line therapy, including infantile spasms, myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome), Dravet syndrome, and status epilepticus (including FIRES syndrome). Adults are also one of the most rapidly growing populations being treated nowadays; a group of patients previously not typically offered these treatments. In 2009, two controlled trials of the ketogenic diet were published as well as an International Expert Consensus Statement on dietary treatment of epilepsy. Ketogenic diets are also now being increasingly studied for neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer disease and cancer. Insights from basic science research have helped elucidate the mechanisms by which metabolism-based therapy may be helpful, both in terms of an anticonvulsant and possibly neuroprotective effect. Summary Dietary therapy for epilepsy continues to grow in popularity worldwide, with expanding use for adults and conditions other than epilepsy. PMID:22322415

  18. A nude mouse model of obesity to study the mechanisms of resistance to aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schech, Amanda; Yu, Stephen; Goloubeva, Olga; McLenithan, John; Sabnis, Gauri

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer progression. Breast cancer patients who are overweight or obese or have excess abdominal fat have an increased risk of local or distant recurrence and cancer-related death. Hormone depletion therapies can also cause weight gain, exacerbating the risk for these patients. To understand the effect of obesity on hormone-dependent human breast cancer tumors, we fed ovariectomized athymic nude mice a diet containing 45% kcal fat and 17% kcal sucrose (high fat sucrose diet (HFSD)), 10% kcal fat (low fat diet (LFD)), or a standard chow diet (chow). The mice fed the HFSD developed metabolic abnormalities consistent with the development of obesity such as weight gain, high fasting blood glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance. These mice also developed hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. The obese mice also had a higher tumor growth rate compared to the lean mice. Furthermore, the obese mice showed a significantly reduced responsiveness to letrozole. To understand the role of obesity in this reduced responsiveness, we examined the effect of insulin on the growth of MCF-7Ca cells in response to estrogen or letrozole. The presence of insulin rendered MCF-7Ca cells less responsive to estrogen and letrozole. Exogenous insulin treatment of MCF-7Ca cells also resulted in increased p-Akt as well as ligand-independent phosphorylation of ERα. These findings suggest that diet-induced obesity may result in reduced responsiveness of tumors to letrozole due to the development of hyperinsulinemia. We conclude that obesity influences the response and resistance of breast cancer tumors to aromatase inhibitor treatment. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. JTT-553, a novel Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 inhibitor, improves glucose metabolism in diet-induced obesity and genetic T2DM mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimoto, Daisuke; Okuma, Chihiro; Ishii, Yukihito; Kobayashi, Akio; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakutani, Makoto; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Ogawa, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) arises primarily due to lifestyle factors and genetics. A number of lifestyle factors are known to be important in the development of T2DM, including obesity. JTT-553, a novel Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 inhibitor, reduced body weight depending on dietary fat in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats in our previous study. Here, the effect of JTT-553 on glucose metabolism was evaluated using body weight reduction in T2DM mice. JTT-553 was repeatedly administered to DIO and KK-A(y) mice. JTT-553 reduced body weight gain and fat weight in both mouse models. In DIO mice, JTT-553 decreased insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), total cholesterol (TC), and liver triglyceride (TG) plasma concentrations in non-fasting conditions. JTT-553 also improved insulin-dependent glucose uptake in adipose tissues and glucose intolerance in DIO mice. In KK-A(y) mice, JTT-553 decreased glucose, NEFA, TC and liver TG plasma concentrations in non-fasting conditions. JTT-553 also decreased glucose, insulin, and TC plasma concentrations in fasting conditions. In addition, JTT-553 decreased TNF-α mRNA levels and increased GLUT4 mRNA levels in adipose tissues in KK-A(y) mice. These results suggest that JTT-553 improves insulin resistance in adipose tissues and systemic glucose metabolism through reductions in body weight. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, B. P.; Calle, L. M.; Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Johnsey, M. N.; Montgomery, E. L.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Surma, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center's Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods. Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The release of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was studied. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed. The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, incorporated directly and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  1. Gender Differences in the Appetite Response to a Satiating Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bédard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P=0.04, P=0.048, and P=0.03. Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P=0.0007 but not in women (P=0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04. These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management.

  2. Gender Differences in the Appetite Response to a Satiating Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Alexandra; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Drapeau, Vicky; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday) of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P = 0.04, P = 0.048, and P = 0.03). Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P = 0.0007) but not in women (P = 0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04). These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management. PMID:26442158

  3. The study of iodine in Chinese total diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Chai, Chifang; Qian, Qinfang; Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Yongbao; Wang, Ke

    1997-01-01

    In this work, China was divided into four area groups according to their geographical positions and dietary habits. All foods were divided into 12 types and the iodine contents in various diets were determined using epithermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The intakes for China were evaluated. The results indicate that the intakes of iodine in northern areas are slightly higher and in south areas lower than the lowest recommended intake, and the average intake in China is 166 μg/person per day, which is within the recommended range. In addition, one province was chosen from each area groups. The dietary intakes of iodine were investigated in different ages and sex using total mixed diet method. Our results indicate that the average iodine intake of four provinces was lower than the recommended value, which suggests that it is necessary to supplement iodine in foods in China

  4. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    , but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key......Diets based on different fibre sources were given to broiler breeders from day 12 to 19 weeks of age to increase feed quantity. Diet A (commercial control diet: 21% dietary fibre (DF); 10.7MJ/kg), B (42% DF; 7.25MJ/kg), C (38% DF; 7.25MJ/kg) and D (30% DF; 8.00MJ/kg) were fed each to 8 groups of 28...... chickens. The food allowance was adjusted twice weekly to obtain commercial growth curves. Weights of intestinal segments and their contents were measured seven times during 24 hours at 4, 9 and 14 weeks. Behavioural observations were carried out at 18 weeks. Group size was reduced to 10 hens per group...

  5. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  6. A human fatty acid synthase inhibitor binds β-ketoacyl reductase in the keto-substrate site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Mary Ann; Rendina, Alan R; Williams, Shawn P; Moore, Michael L; Wang, Liping; Krueger, Julie A; Plant, Ramona N; Totoritis, Rachel D; Zhang, Guofeng; Briand, Jacques; Burkhart, William A; Brown, Kristin K; Parrish, Cynthia A

    2014-09-01

    Human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) is a complex, multifunctional enzyme that is solely responsible for the de novo synthesis of long chain fatty acids. hFAS is highly expressed in a number of cancers, with low expression observed in most normal tissues. Although normal tissues tend to obtain fatty acids from the diet, tumor tissues rely on de novo fatty acid synthesis, making hFAS an attractive metabolic target for the treatment of cancer. We describe here the identification of GSK2194069, a potent and specific inhibitor of the β-ketoacyl reductase (KR) activity of hFAS; the characterization of its enzymatic and cellular mechanism of action; and its inhibition of human tumor cell growth. We also present the design of a new protein construct suitable for crystallography, which resulted in what is to our knowledge the first co-crystal structure of the human KR domain and includes a bound inhibitor.

  7. Feed intake and urinary excretion of nitrogen and purine derivatives in pregnant suckler cows fed alternative roughage-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jardstedt, M.; Hessle, A.; Nørgaard, P.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared intake of alternative roughage-based diets and of common late-cut grass silage and related intake to urinary nitrogen (N), urea-N and purine derivative (PD) excretion, where PD is an indicator of rumen microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis. Total urine was collected from 36...... Hereford cows, blocked into three groups based on expected calving date. Cows within calving groups were randomly assigned to one of four roughage diets: common mixed grass silage (MGS), festulolium silage plus urea (FLS), reed canarygrass silage (RCS) and barley straw plus urea and rapeseed meal (BRM...... diets stimulated rumen MCP production to a greater extent than the BRM diet, as indicated by the higher urinary output of PD in cows fed the grass silage-based diets (P

  8. BET Bromodomain Inhibition Synergizes with PARP Inhibitor in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Karakashev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available PARP inhibition is known to be an effective clinical strategy in BRCA mutant cancers, but PARP inhibition has not been applied to BRCA-proficient tumors. Here, we show the synergy of BET bromodomain inhibition with PARP inhibition in BRCA-proficient ovarian cancers due to mitotic catastrophe. Treatment of BRCA-proficient ovarian cancer cells with the BET inhibitor JQ1 downregulated the G2-M cell-cycle checkpoint regulator WEE1 and the DNA-damage response factor TOPBP1. Combining PARP inhibitor Olaparib with the BET inhibitor, we observed a synergistic increase in DNA damage and checkpoint defects, which allowed cells to enter mitosis despite the accumulation of DNA damage, ultimately causing mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, JQ1 and Olaparib showed synergistic suppression of growth of BRCA-proficient cancer in vivo in a xenograft ovarian cancer mouse model. Our findings indicate that a combination of BET inhibitor and PARP inhibitor represents a potential therapeutic strategy for BRCA-proficient cancers.

  9. Does adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a protective effect against active and passive smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, C I; Flouris, A D; Tsatsakis, A; Kafatos, A G; Saris, W H M

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the existing evidence about whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet may have a role as an effect modifier of active and passive smoking on human health. Review. An overview of emerging evidence and published studies that cover the interaction between the Mediterranean diet and smoking. Both epidemiological and laboratory studies have shown that the Mediterranean diet has a protective effect against biochemical and molecular processes that lead to cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory illness. Based on the high daily intake of vitamins and antioxidants, the Mediterranean diet is comprised of a number of compounds that could alter certain outcomes related to smoking. Studies have indicated that certain diseases attributable to smoking, such as lung cancer, asthma and cardiovascular disease, are inversely associated with certain antioxidants and lipids. The literature indicates that the existence of a partial interaction between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the health effects of smoking is possible. Further research is needed to lead to a conclusive statement on this hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2016-03-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more than a low-fat diet, but differential adherence may play a role in these effects. Data were used from 148 adults who participated in a 12-month clinical trial examining the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (fat diet (fat, fat) on weight and CVD risk factors. We compared attendance at counseling sessions, deviation from nutrient goals, urinary ketone presence, and composite scores representing the overall adherence based on the distribution of these individual indicators between two interventions. Composite scores were similar between the two groups. A one-interquartile-range increase in composite score representing better adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3 % greater weight loss, 1.1 greater reduction in percent fat mass, and 1.3 greater increase in proportion of lean mass. Indicators of adherence to a low-fat diet was not associated with changes in weight, fat mass or lean mass. Despite comparable adherence between groups, a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with greater reductions in body weight and improvement in body composition, while a low-fat diet was not associated with weight loss.

  11. The hypolipidaemic effect of gum tragacanth in diet induced hyperlipidaemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, S; Kamil, R; Siddiqui, P Q

    1999-07-01

    Previous research indicated that fiber in the diet of men lowers plasma lipid and LDL cholesterol concentration. To further study the lipid lowering effect of fibre, we conducted an animal study using rats with diet induced hyperlipidaemia. Rats were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental diets. Two of the diets contained cholesterol and choice acid to induce hyperlipidaemia, the fiber source in the hyperlipidaemic diet was gum tragacanth (5%). The rats consumed one of the three diets ad libitum for 4 weeks before they were killed. Plasma LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the hyperlipidaemic group than in the non hyperlipidaemic control group. A marked improvement in the plasma LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol concentration was observed in the rats that were fed hyperlipidaemic diet containing grum tragacanth. No significant difference in the plasma triglyceride concentration was detected in the three groups. Plasma HDL concentration was significantly higher in the non-hyperlipidaemic group than in the hyperlipidaemic group than. Addition of gum tragacanth to the hyperlipidaemic diet significantly improved the plasma HDL concentration in the hyperlipidaemic rats. These results suggest that fiber from gum tragacanth lowers plasma cholesterol and LDL in hyperlipidaemia. Gum tragacanth could be useful adjunct to the dietary management of hyperlipidaemia.

  12. Opuntia ficus-indica Extract as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in 1 M HCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Flores-De los Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal as green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution has been investigated by using weight loss tests, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis were performed. The inhibitor concentrations used ranged from 0 to 300 ppm at 25, 40, and 60°C. Results indicated the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract concentration and decreases with the temperature, and the inhibitor acted as a cathodic-type inhibitor which is physically absorbed onto the steel surface. In fact, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating monolayer adsorption. The presence of heteroatoms such as C, N, and O and OH groups were responsible for the corrosion inhibition.

  13. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  14. Diet quality of US adolescents during the transition to adulthood: changes and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Leah M; Nansel, Tonja R; Haynie, Denise L; Liu, Danping; Li, Kaigang; Pratt, Charlotte A; Iannotti, Ronald J; Dempster, Katherine W; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-06-01

    Background: Influences on diet quality during the transition from adolescence to adulthood are understudied. Objective: This study examined association of 3 diet-quality indicators-Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI), Whole Plant Foods Density (WPF), and Empty Calories (EC; the percentage of calories from discretionary solid fat, added sugar and alcohol)-with lifestyle behaviors, baseline weight status, and sociodemographic characteristics in US emerging adults. Design: Data come from the first 4 waves (annual assessments) of the NEXT Plus Study, a population-based cohort of 10th graders enrolled in 2010 ( n = 566). At each assessment, participants completed 3 nonconsecutive 24-h diet recalls, wore accelerometers for 7 d, and self-reported meal practices and sedentary behaviors. Self-reported sociodemographic characteristics were ascertained at baseline. Generalized estimating equations examined associations of time-varying diet quality with baseline weight status and sociodemographic characteristics and time-varying lifestyle behaviors. Results: Diet quality improved modestly from baseline (mean ± SE: HEI, 44.07 ± 0.53; WPF, 1.24 ± 0.04; and EC, 35.66 ± 0.55) to wave 4 for WPF (1.44 ± 0.05, P fast food and meals during television viewing, and shorter durations of television viewing, gaming, and online social networking. Diet-quality indicators were not consistently associated with time-varying physical inactivity, baseline weight status, or sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions: Diet quality of emerging adults in the US remained suboptimal, but some aspects improved marginally over the 4-y study period. Meal contexts and sedentary behaviors may represent important intervention targets. There is substantial room for improvement in diet quality in all sociodemographic subgroups. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01031160. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet: a healthy cardiovascular diet for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    Background Ketogenic diets are an effective healthy way of losing weight since they promote a non-atherogenic lipid profile, lower blood pressure and decrease resistance to insulin with an improvement in blood levels of glucose and insulin. On the other hand, Mediterranean diet is well known to be one of the healthiest diets, being the basic ingredients of such diet the olive oil, red wine and vegetables. In Spain the fish is an important component of such diet. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary effects of a protein ketogenic diet rich in olive oil, salad, fish and red wine. Methods A prospective study was carried out in 31 obese subjects (22 male and 19 female) with the inclusion criteria whose body mass index and age was 36.46 ± 2.22 and 38.48 ± 2.27, respectively. This Ketogenic diet was called "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet" (SKMD) due to the incorporation of virgin olive oil as the principal source of fat (≥30 ml/day), moderate red wine intake (200–400 ml/day), green vegetables and salads as the main source of carbohydrates and fish as the main source of proteins. It was an unlimited calorie diet. Statistical differences between the parameters studied before and after the administration of the "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet" (week 0 and 12) were analyzed by paired Student's t test. Results There was an extremely significant (p weight (108.62 kg→ 94.48 kg), body mass index (36.46 kg/m2→31.76 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (125.71 mmHg→109.05 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (84.52 mmHg→ 75.24 mmHg), total cholesterol (208.24 mg/dl→186.62 mg/dl), triacylglicerols (218.67 mg/dl→113.90 mg/dl) and glucose (109.81 mg/dl→ 93.33 mg/dl). There was a significant (p = 0.0167) reduction in LDLc (114.52 mg/dl→105.95 mg/dl) and an extremely significant increase in HDLc (50.10 mg/dl→54.57 mg/dl). The most affected parameter was the triacylglicerols (47.91% of reduction). Conclusion The SKMD is safe, an effective

  16. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Surender K; McFarlane, Samy I

    2005-07-14

    A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (<30 g/day) cannot be recommended for a diabetic population at this time without further study. On the other hand, the dire objections continually raised in the literature appear to have very little scientific

  17. Popular edible seaweed, Gelidium amansii prevents against diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Seo-Young; Lima, Inês S; Ko, Seok-Chun; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Young-Bum; Jeung, Hee-Do; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-04-01

    The popular edible seaweed, Gelidium amansii is broadly used as food worldwide. To determine whether G. amansii extract (GAE) has protective effects on obesity, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) treated with GAE (1 and 3 %) were studied. After 12 weeks of GAE treatment, body weight was greatly decreased in mice fed a high-fat diet. This effect could be due to decreased adipogenesis, as evidenced by the fact that GAE suppressed adipogenic gene expression in adipocytes. In addition, blood glucose and serum insulin levels were reduced by GAE treatment in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting improvement in glucose metabolism. GAE supplementation also led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These data are further confirmed by H&E staining. Our findings indicate that Gelidium amansii prevents against the development of diet-induced obesity, and further implicate that GAE supplementation could be the therapeutical option for treatment of metabolic disorder such as obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility of using of a simplified question in assessing diet quality of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to analyze the applicability of a simplified question in assessing diet quality of adolescents in a cross-sectional school-based study carried out in a sample of high school students. Diet quality self-perception was obtained when the participant was inquired about own diet considering "excellent", "good", "fair" or "poor" responses. We evaluated meals habits and food intake through food frequency questionnaire. The revised version of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R) was estimated and we identified three dietary patterns using factor analysis. "Good" self-perceived diet quality was reported by 56% of adolescents and was associated with regular consumption of fruits and vegetables, meal profile and high healthy eating index scores. However, consumption of foods harmful to health was not perceived as characteristic that affects diet quality. The evaluated question showed sensitivity of 28% to detect good quality diets and specificity of 79% to identify low nutritional value diets. The use of a simplified question to assess dietary habits of adolescents is limited, since the consumption of high-fat, high-sugar and high-sodium food was not recognized as an indicator of low quality diet.

  19. Low Tyramine Headache Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 25 Oct Low-Tyramine Diet for Migraine Posted at 17:16h ... and Diamond Headache Clinic Headache Diet Tags: headache , low tyramine diet , MAOI , tyramine No Comments Post A ...

  20. Adelie penguin population diet monitoring by analysis of food DNA in scats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N Jarman

    Full Text Available The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches.

  1. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  2. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup.

  3. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Raquel Oliveira Medrado; Correia, Eliznara Fernades; Pereira, Keyla Carvalho; Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; da Silva, Daniele Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets.

  4. Diverticulitis Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of items allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no ... two or three days of starting the diet and antibiotics. If you haven't started feeling ...

  5. The effects of a high protein diet on indices of health and body composition--a crossover trial in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Jose; Ellerbroek, Anya; Silver, Tobin; Vargas, Leonel; Peacock, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Eight weeks of a high protein diet (>3 g/kg/day) coupled with a periodized heavy resistance training program has been shown to positively affect body composition with no deleterious effects on health. Using a randomized, crossover design, resistance-trained male subjects underwent a 16-week intervention (i.e., two 8-week periods) in which they consumed either their normal (i.e., habitual) or a higher protein diet (>3 g/kg/day). Thus, the purpose of this study was to ascertain if significantly increasing protein intake would affect clinical markers of health (i.e., lipids, kidney function, etc.) as well as performance and body composition in young males with extensive resistance training experience. Twelve healthy resistance-trained men volunteered for this study (mean ± SD: age 25.9 ± 3.7 years; height 178.0 ± 8.5 cm; years of resistance training experience 7.6 ± 3.6) with 11 subjects completing most of the assessments. In a randomized crossover trial, subjects were tested at baseline and after two 8-week treatment periods (i.e., habitual [normal] diet and high protein diet) for body composition, measures of health (i.e., blood lipids, comprehensive metabolic panel) and performance. Each subject maintained a food diary for the 16-week treatment period (i.e., 8 weeks on their normal or habitual diet and 8 weeks on a high protein diet). Each subject provided a food diary of two weekdays and one weekend day per week. In addition, subjects kept a diary of their training regimen that was used to calculate total work performed. During the normal and high protein phase of the treatment period, subjects consumed 2.6 ± 0.8 and 3.3 ± 0.8 g/kg/day of dietary protein, respectively. The mean protein intake over the 4-month period was 2.9 ± 0.9 g/kg/day. The high protein group consumed significantly more calories and protein (p protein group. There were no differences in dietary intake between the groups for any other measure

  6. Do different degrees of human activity affect the diet of Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, V E N; Patrício, J; Dolbeth, M; Pessanha, A; Palma, A R T; Dantas, E W; Vendel, A L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether different degrees of human activity affect the diet of the Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in two tropical estuaries. Fish were collected along the salinity gradient of two Brazilian estuaries, the heavily impacted Paraiba Estuary and the less impacted Mamanguape Estuary, in the dry and wet seasons. The findings confirm that A. brasiliensis has generalist feeding habits and is able to change its diet under different environmental conditions. The results indicate clear spatial (i.e. along the estuarine gradient) changes in diet composition in both estuaries, but diet was also influenced by the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. During the wet season in the nutrient enriched Paraiba Estuary, when human activity was higher, the diet of A. brasiliensis was poorer and dominated by few dietary items, reflecting the potential impoverishment of prey items in this heavily disturbed system. The specimens collected in the most affected estuary also had a greater frequency of micro-plastics and parasites in their stomachs, reflecting the greater degree of human disturbance in the estuary. The present findings suggest that the diet of A. brasiliensis could be a useful indicator of changes in the ecological quality of these and other tropical estuaries of the western Atlantic Ocean. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Discovery of natural mouse serum derived HIV-1 entry inhibitor(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, M; Chen, Y; Xi, J; Ru, S; Ji, M; Zhang, D; Fang, Q; Tang, B

    Among rationally designed human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) inhibitors, diverse natural factors have showed as potent anti-HIV activity in human blood. We have discovered that the boiled supernatant of healthy mouse serum could suppress HIV-1 entry, and exhibited reduced inhibitory activity after trypsin digestion. Further analysis demonstrated that only the fraction containing 10-25 K proteins could inhibit HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These results suggest that the 10-25 K protein(s) is novel natural HIV-1 entry inhibitor(s). Our findings provide important information about novel natural HIV entry inhibitors in mouse serum.

  8. High-protein diet selectively reduces fat mass and improves glucose tolerance in Western-type diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Hu, Eugenia; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Pisegna, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing health problem. Because drug treatments are limited, diets remain popular. High-protein diets (HPD) reduce body weight (BW), although the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated physiological mechanisms altered by switching diet induced obesity (DIO) rats from Western-type diet (WTD) to HPD. Male rats were fed standard (SD) or WTD (45% calories from fat). After developing DIO (50% of rats), they were switched to SD (15% calories from protein) or HPD (52% calories from protein) for up to 4 weeks. Food intake (FI), BW, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and intestinal hormone plasma levels were monitored. Rats fed WTD showed an increased FI and had a 25% greater BW gain after 9 wk compared with SD (P Diet-induced obese rats switched from WTD to HPD reduced daily FI by 30% on day 1, which lasted to day 9 (−9%) and decreased BW during the 2-wk period compared with SD/SD (P < 0.05). During these 2 wk, WTD/HPD rats lost 72% more fat mass than WTD/SD (P < 0.05), whereas lean mass was unaltered. WTD/HPD rats had lower blood glucose than WTD/SD at 30 min postglucose gavage (P < 0.05). The increase of pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY during the 2-h dark-phase feeding was higher in WTD/HPD compared with WTD/SD (P < 0.05). These data indicate that HPD reduces BW in WTD rats, which may be related to decreased FI and the selective reduction of fat mass accompanied by improved glucose tolerance, suggesting relevant benefits of HPD in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23883680

  9. Diet and eating after esophagectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esophagectomy - diet; Post-esophagectomy diet ... weight. You will also be on a special diet when you first get home. ... will teach you how to prepare the liquid diet for the feeding tube and how much to ...

  10. Dissociation of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) from branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) by BDK inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Taro; Matsuo, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ayako; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2005-02-01

    Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) phosphorylates and inactivates the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid catabolism. BDK has been believed to be bound to the BCKDC. However, recent our studies demonstrated that protein-protein interaction between BDK and BCKDC is one of the factors to regulate BDK activity. Furthermore, only the bound form of BDK appears to have its activity. In the present study, we examined effects of BDK inhibitors on the amount of BDK bound to the BCKDC using rat liver extracts. The bound form of BDK in the extracts of liver from low protein diet-fed rats was measured by an immunoprecipitation pull down assay with or without BDK inhibitors. Among the BDK inhibitors. alpha-ketoisocaproate, alpha-chloroisocaproate, and a-ketoisovalerate released the BDK from the complex. Furthermore, the releasing effect of these inhibitors on the BDK appeared to depend on their inhibition constants. On the other hand, clofibric acid and thiamine pyrophosphate had no effect on the protein-protein interaction between two enzymes. These results suggest that the dissociation of the BDK from the BCKDC is one of the mechanisms responsible for the action of some inhibitors to BDK.

  11. Changes in the concentrations of biochemical indicators of diet and nutritional status of pregnant women across pregnancy trimesters in Trujillo, Peru, 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D Kevin; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Cassidy, Brandon E; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Needham, Larry L; Rathbun, Stephen L; Vena, John E; Naeher, Luke P

    2013-06-11

    In developing countries, deficiencies in essential micronutrients are common, particularly in pregnant women. Although, biochemical indicators of diet and nutrition are useful to assess nutritional status, few studies have examined such indicators throughout pregnancy in women in developing countries. The primary objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of 78 Peruvian women throughout pregnancy for 16 different nutritional indicators including fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids, iron-status indicators, and selenium. Venous blood samples from which serum was prepared were collected during trimesters one (n = 78), two (n = 65), three (n = 62), and at term via the umbilical cord (n = 52). Questionnaires were completed to determine the demographic characteristics of subjects. Linear mixed effects models were used to study the associations between each maternal indicator and the demographic characteristics. None of the women were vitamin A and E deficient at any stage of pregnancy and only 1/62 women (1.6%) was selenium deficient during the third trimester. However, 6.4%, 44% and 64% of women had ferritin levels indicative of iron deficiency during the first, second and third trimester, respectively. Statistically significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) throughout pregnancy were noted for 15/16 nutritional indicators for this Peruvian cohort, with little-to-no association with demographic characteristics. Three carotenoids (beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and trans-lycopene) were significantly associated with education status, while trans-lycopene was associated with age and beta-cryptoxanthin with SES (p pregnancy in these Peruvian women was expected. It was surprising though not to find deficiencies in other nutrients. The results highlight the importance of continual monitoring of women throughout pregnancy for iron deficiency which could be caused by increasing fetal needs and/or inadequate iron intake as pregnancy progresses.

  12. Aerobic capacity of rats recovered from fetal malnutrition with a fructose-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; Ribeiro, Carla; Rostom de Mello, Maria Alice

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the aerobic capacity, through the maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS) protocol, of rats subjected to fetal protein malnutrition and recovered with a fructose-rich diet. Pregnant adult Wistar rats that were fed a balanced (17% protein) diet or a low-protein (6% protein) diet were used. After birth, the offspring were distributed into groups according to diet until 60 days of age: balanced (B), balanced diet during the whole experimental period; balanced-fructose (BF), balanced diet until birth and fructose-rich diet (60% fructose) until 60 days; low protein-balanced (LB), low-protein diet until birth and balanced diet until 60 days; and low protein-fructose (LF), low protein diet until birth and fructose-rich diet until 60 days. It was verified that the fructose-rich diet reduced body growth, mainly in the BF group. There was no difference among the groups in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 7.5+/-0.5%; BF, 7.4+/-0.6%; LB, 7.7+/-0.4%; and LF, 7.7+/-0.6% relative to body weight). However, the BF group presented higher blood lactate concentrations (4.8+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1)) at 25 min in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 3.2+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); LB, 3.4+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); and LF, 3.2+/-1.0 mmol.L(-1)). Taken together, these results indicate that the ability of young rats to perform exercise was not altered by intrauterine malnutrition or a fructose-rich diet, although the high fructose intake after the balanced diet in utero increased blood lactate during swimming exercises in rats.

  13. Cytokinesis defect in BY-2 cells caused by ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozgunova, Elena; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Kurihara, Daisuke

    2016-10-02

    Cytokinesis is last but not least in cell division as it completes the formation of the two cells. The main role in cell plate orientation and expansion have been assigned to microtubules and kinesin proteins. However, recently we reported severe cytokinesis defect in BY-2 cells not accompanied by changes in microtubules dynamics. Here we also confirmed that distribution of kinesin NACK1 is not the cause of cytokinesis defect. We further explored inhibition of the cell plate expansion by ATP-competitive inhibitors. Two different inhibitors, 5-Iodotubercidin and ML-7 resulted in a very similar phenotype, which indicates that they target same protein cascade. Interestingly, in our previous study we showed that 5-Iodotubercidin treatment affects concentration of actin filaments on the cell plate, while ML-7 is inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase. Although not directly, it indicates importance of actomyosin complex in plant cytokinesis.

  14. ATPase inhibitor based luciferase assay for prolonged and enhanced ATP pool measurement as an efficient fish freshness indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Priyanka, B S; Thakur, M S

    2014-07-01

    The nucleotide degradation pathway in somatic cells leads to the accumulation of products such as hypoxanthine and inosine, which are commonly used as fish and meat freshness indicators. Assays based on these molecules cannot differentiate the postmortem time over a short period of time (5-10 h). Further, quantification of these degradation products is cumbersome, costly and time-consuming. For the proposed assay, optimal concentrations of 30 and 2 mM, respectively, for the ATPase inhibitors sodium orthovanadate and EDTA were found. Further, it was observed that a firefly luciferase based assay could enhance the sensitivity levels up to 165-fold at 30 °C. In addition, it was observed that the sensitivity for ATP assay was enhanced up to 60-fold even after 12 h. The limit of detection for the ATP assay was 1 pM, unlike other conventional methods, which are sensitive only up to micromolar levels. Moreover, as little as 0.044 g fish fillet was required for the assay, and no time-consuming sample preparation was necessary. Luminescence of prolonged duration was observed in harvested fish kept at -20 °C in comparison with fish kept at 4 and 30 °C, which reflects the shelf life of fish preserved at lower temperatures.

  15. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from rat diets containing wheat bran or cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Oace, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 (B-6) in the total diet was studied in male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats fed fiber-free (FF) diets with 0.2 or 6.9 mg pyridoxine/kg diet (0-, 2- or 6.9-PYR), 20% wheat bran (WB) diets with 3.9- or 5.5-PYR or 7% cellulose (C) diets with 0- or 2-PYR for 28 d. Body weight gain (mean +/- SEM) with 0-PYR was 70 +/- 9.0 and 81.2 +/- 4.2 g for FF and C, respectively. All other groups gained 170-180 g. Urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), a major B-6 metabolite, for FF groups was 1.31 +/- 0.22, 2.26 +/- 0.28 and 6.39 +/- 1.73 micrograms/24 h, at 0-, 2- and 6.9-PYR, respectively. Rats fed WB diets excreted 4.99 +/- 0.58 and 9.81 +/- 0.76 micrograms/24 h (3.9- and 5.5-PYR, respectively) and those fed C diets excreted 1.46 +/- 0.34 and 2.69 +/- 0.72 micrograms/24 h (0- and 2-PYR). There was increasing turnover and shorter biological half-life of [ 14 C]pyridoxine (1 mu Ci injected on d 1) with increasing dietary B-6. Growth, 4-PA and 14 C turnover data indicated that WB contributed to B-6 intake of these rats. Cellulose acted as a simple dietary diluent and had no effect on indices of B-6 status. These data suggest that dietary fiber, as cellulose or the indigestible component of wheat bran, does not adversely affect the bioavailability of vitamin B-6

  16. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth / For Teens / Are Detox Diets ... seguras las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that ...

  17. Metabolic Effects of Ketogenic Diets

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The results of 24 metabolic profiles performed on 55 epileptic children receiving the classical ketogenic diet, the MCT diet, a modified MCT diet, and normal diets are reported from the University Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England.

  18. Rho-associated kinase inhibitors: a novel glaucoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Toshihiro; Tanihara, Hidenobu

    2013-11-01

    slow progressing visual field loss in glaucoma patients, making ROCK inhibitors an even more desirable anti-glaucoma agent. All evidence indicates that aqueous humor outflow is affected by cytoskeleton physiology and this information may provide valuable insight into understanding glaucoma pathology and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tissue Specific Expression Of Sprouty1 In Mice Protects Against High Fat Diet Induced Fat Accumulation, Bone Loss, And Metabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J.; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    We recently characterized Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signaling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss, and associated lipid abnormalities and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high caloric diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter (aP2)-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1 null mice, high fat diet increased body fat by 40%, impaired glucose regulation, and led to liver steatosis. However, over-expression of Spry1 led to 35% lower body fat, reduced bone loss, and normal metabolic function compared to single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70%) and leptin (54%) compared to controls on a high fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45%. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss. PMID:22142492

  20. Diet qualities: healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet quality in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E; Ramsden, Megan; Kaye, Gail

    2016-06-01

    Diet quality indexes combine the healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet within a single construct, but few studies have evaluated their association. Emerging evidence suggests that predictors differ for the more and less healthy components of children's diets. Our objectives were to determine whether preschool-aged children's frequency of eating healthy foods was inversely related to their intake of unhealthy foods and to determine whether this differed by household income, maternal education, or child race-ethnicity. We analyzed data from a representative sample of 8900 US children (mean age: 52.5 mo) who were born in 2001 and participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Primary caregivers reported the frequency with which children consumed fruit, vegetables, milk, juice, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, sweets, and salty snacks in the past week. Response options ranged from none to ≥4 times/d. We created healthy (fruit, vegetables, milk) and unhealthy (SSBs, fast food, sweets, salty snacks) diet scores. Healthy diet behaviors were defined as ≥2 daily servings of fruit, vegetables, and milk. The prevalence of consuming fruit, vegetables, and milk ≥2 times/d (i.e., having 3 healthy diet behaviors) was 18.5%, and a similar proportion (17.6%) of children had none of these healthy behaviors. Contrary to our hypotheses, children with more healthy diet behaviors did not have lower unhealthy diet scores. The intake of healthy foods was not inversely associated with unhealthy foods overall or within any subgroup. Overall, the Spearman rank correlation between healthy and unhealthy diet scores was positive (r = 0.09). From the lowest to the highest strata of household income, these correlations were 0.12, 0.14, 0.14, 0.05, and 0.00, respectively. No evidence was found in US preschool-aged children of an inverse association between eating healthy and unhealthy foods. The implications of combining healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet

  1. Effect of diet on insulin binding and glucose transport in rat sarcolemmal vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimditch, G.K.; Barnard, R.J.; Sternlicht, E.; Whitson, R.H.; Kaplan, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFS) and a low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet (LFC) on glucose tolerance, insulin binding, and glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle. During the intravenous glucose tolerance test, peak glucose values at 5 min were significantly higher in the HFS group; 0-, 20-, and 60-min values were similar. Insulin values were significantly higher in the HFS group at all time points (except 60 min), indicating whole-body insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle was responsible, in part, for this insulin resistance, because specific D-glucose transport in isolated sarcolemmal (SL) vesicles under basal conditions was similar between LFC and HFS rats, despite the higher plasma insulin levels. Scatchard analyses of insulin binding curves to sarcolemmal vesicles revealed that the K/sub a/ of the high-affinity binding sites was significantly reduced by the HFS diet; no other binding changes were noted. Specific D-glucose transport in SL vesicles after maximum insulin stimulation (1 U/kg) was significantly depressed in the HFS group, indicating that HFS feeding also caused a postbinding defect. These results indicate that the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle associated with a HFS diet is due to both a decrease in the K/sub a/ of the high-affinity insulin receptors and a postbinding defect

  2. Sodium phthalamates as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Eugenio A.; Olivares, Octavio; Likhanova, Natalya V.; Dominguez-Aguilar, Marco A.; Nava, Noel; Guzman-Lucero, Diego; Corrales, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → N-Alkyl-sodium phthalamates as corrosion inhibitors for industry in acidic medium. → Compounds behaved as mixed type inhibitors and followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. → Efficiencies were proportional to aliphatic chain length and inhibitor concentration. → Iron complexes and chelates with phthalamates contributed to carbon steel protection. - Abstract: Three compounds of N-alkyl-sodium phthalamates were synthesized and tested as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 0.5 M aqueous hydrochloric acid. Tests showed that inhibitor efficiencies were related to aliphatic chain length and dependent on concentration. N-1-n-tetradecyl-sodium phthalamate displayed moderate efficiency against uniform corrosion, 42-86% at 25 deg. C and 25-60% at 40 o C. Tests indicated that compounds behave as mixed type inhibitors where molecular adsorption on steel followed Langmuir isotherm, whereas thermodynamic suggested that a physisorption process occurred. XPS analysis confirmed film formation on surface, where Fe +2 complexes and Fe +2 chelates with phthalamates prevented steel from further corrosion.

  3. Annual variation in Internet keyword searches: Linking dieting interest to obesity and negative health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Patrick M; Markey, Charlotte N

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the annual variation in Internet searches regarding dieting. Time-series analysis was first used to examine the annual trends of Google keyword searches during the past 7 years for topics related to dieting within the United States. The results indicated that keyword searches for dieting fit a consistent 12-month linear model, peaking in January (following New Year's Eve) and then linearly decreasing until surging again the following January. Additional state-level analyses revealed that the size of the December-January dieting-related keyword surge was predictive of both obesity and mortality rates due to diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

  4. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Santi, Lorena Gimenez; Antunes, Marina Masetto; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Carbonera, Fabiana; Masi, Laureane Nunes; Curi, Rui; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2016-10-29

    Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA) composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets), and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), ∆-6 desaturase (D6D), elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ( n -6/ n -3) ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA) composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  5. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Gimenez da Silva-Santi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD and high-fat diet (HFD modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets, and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1, ∆-6 desaturase (D6D, elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1 was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid (n-6/n-3 ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  6. Small-molecule inhibitors of sodium iodide sym-porter function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecat-Guillet, N.; Merer, G.; Lopez, R.; Rousseau, B.; Ambroise, Y.; Pourcher, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Na + /l - sym-porter (NIS) mediates iodide uptake into thyroid follicular cells. Although NIS has been cloned and thoroughly studied at the molecular level, the biochemical processes involved in post-translational regulation of NIS are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize inhibitors of NIS function. These small organic molecules represent a starting point in the identification of pharmacological tools for the characterization of NIS trafficking and activation mechanisms. screening of a collection of 17020 drug-like compounds revealed new chemical inhibitors with potencies down to 40 nM. Fluorescence measurement of membrane potential indicates that these inhibitors do not act by disrupting the sodium gradient. They allow immediate and total iodide discharge from preloaded cells in accord with a specific modification of NIS activity, probably through distinct mechanisms. (authors)

  7. Small-molecule inhibitors of sodium iodide sym-porter function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecat-Guillet, N.; Merer, G.; Lopez, R.; Rousseau, B.; Ambroise, Y. [CEA, DSV, Dept Bioorgan Chem et Isotop Labelling, Inst Biol et Biotechnol iBiTecS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Pourcher, T. [Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Dept Biochem et Nucl Toxicol, F-06107 Nice (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Na{sup +}/l{sup -} sym-porter (NIS) mediates iodide uptake into thyroid follicular cells. Although NIS has been cloned and thoroughly studied at the molecular level, the biochemical processes involved in post-translational regulation of NIS are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize inhibitors of NIS function. These small organic molecules represent a starting point in the identification of pharmacological tools for the characterization of NIS trafficking and activation mechanisms. screening of a collection of 17020 drug-like compounds revealed new chemical inhibitors with potencies down to 40 nM. Fluorescence measurement of membrane potential indicates that these inhibitors do not act by disrupting the sodium gradient. They allow immediate and total iodide discharge from preloaded cells in accord with a specific modification of NIS activity, probably through distinct mechanisms. (authors)

  8. Purification, partial characterization, and immunological relationships of multiple low molecular weight protease inhibitors of soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, D L.R.; Lin, K T.D.; Yang, W K; Foard, D E

    1977-01-01

    Five protease inhibitors, I-V, in the molecular weight range 7000-8000 were purified from Tracy soybeans by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and G-75, and column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. In common with previously described trypsin inhibitors from legumes, I-V have a high content of half-cystine and lack tryptophan. By contrast with other legume inhibitors, inhibitor II contains 3 methionine residues. Isoelectric points range from 6.2 to 4.2 in order from inhibitor I to V. Molar ratios (inhibitor/enzyme) for 50% trypsin inhibition are I = 4.76, II = 1.32, III = 3.22, IV = 2.17, V = 0.97. Only V inhibits chymotrypsin significantly (molar ratio = 1.33 for 50% inhibition). The sequence of the first 16 N-terminal amino acid residues of inhibitor V is identical to that of the Bowman-Birk inhibitor; all other observations also indicate that inhibitor V and Bowman-Birk are identical. The first 20 N-terminal amino acid residues of inhibitor II show high homology to those of Bowman-Birk inhibitor, differing by 1 deletion and 5 substitutions. Immunological tests show that inhibitors I through IV are fully cross-reactive with each other but are distinct from inhibitor V.

  9. Characterization of attenuated food motivation in high-fat diet-induced obesity: Critical roles for time on diet and reinforcer familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Andrea L; Wee, Colin J M; Hazeltine, Grace E; Carter, Rebecca A

    2015-03-15

    Prior work using animal models to study the effects of obesogenic diets on food motivation have generated inconsistent results, with some reporting increases and others reporting decreases in responding on food-reinforced tasks. Here, we identified two specific variables that may account for these discrepant outcomes - the length of time on the obesigenic diet and the familiarity of the food reinforcer - and examined the independent roles of these factors. Time on diet was found to be inversely related to food motivation, as rats consuming a 40% high-fat diet (HFD) for only 3weeks did not differ from chow-fed rats when responding for a sucrose reinforcer on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, but responding was suppressed after 6weeks of ad lib HFD consumption. Explicitly manipulating experience with the sucrose reinforcer by pre-exposing half the rats prior to 10weeks of HFD consumption attenuated the motivational deficit seen in the absence of this familiarity, resulting in obese rats performing at the same level as lean rats. Finally, after 8weeks on a HFD, rats did not express a conditioned place preference for sucrose, indicating a decrement in reward value independent of motivation. These findings are consistent with prior literature showing an increase in food motivation for rats with a shorter time consuming the obesigenic diet, and for those with more prior experience with the reinforcer. This account also helps reconcile these findings with increased food motivation in obese humans due to extensive experience with palatable food and suggests that researchers engaging in non-human animal studies of obesity would better model the conditions under which human obesity develops by using a varied, cafeteria-style diet to increase the breadth of food experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of fried meat-induced colorectal DNA damage and altered systemic genotoxicity in humans by crucifera, chlorophyllin, and yogurt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Shaughnessy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary exposures implicated as reducing or causing risk for colorectal cancer may reduce or cause DNA damage in colon tissue; however, no one has assessed this hypothesis directly in humans. Thus, we enrolled 16 healthy volunteers in a 4-week controlled feeding study where 8 subjects were randomly assigned to dietary regimens containing meat cooked at either low (100°C or high temperature (250°C, each for 2 weeks in a crossover design. The other 8 subjects were randomly assigned to dietary regimens containing the high-temperature meat diet alone or in combination with 3 putative mutagen inhibitors: cruciferous vegetables, yogurt, and chlorophyllin tablets, also in a crossover design. Subjects were nonsmokers, at least 18 years old, and not currently taking prescription drugs or antibiotics. We used the Salmonella assay to analyze the meat, urine, and feces for mutagenicity, and the comet assay to analyze rectal biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes for DNA damage. Low-temperature meat had undetectable levels of heterocyclic amines (HCAs and was not mutagenic, whereas high-temperature meat had high HCA levels and was highly mutagenic. The high-temperature meat diet increased the mutagenicity of hydrolyzed urine and feces compared to the low-temperature meat diet. The mutagenicity of hydrolyzed urine was increased nearly twofold by the inhibitor diet, indicating that the inhibitors enhanced conjugation. Inhibitors decreased significantly the mutagenicity of un-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed feces. The diets did not alter the levels of DNA damage in non-target white blood cells, but the inhibitor diet decreased nearly twofold the DNA damage in target colorectal cells. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that dietary factors can reduce DNA damage in the target tissue of fried-meat associated carcinogenesis.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00340743.

  11. [Mechanisms and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Teruo

    2015-03-01

    SGLT2 is a low affinity, high capacity glucose co-transporter, almost exclusively expressed in the kidney cortex. Inhibition of SGLT2 has been shown to increase the daily 50g or more urinary glucose excretion, as compared to placebo, leading to a reduction in blood glucose levels and indicated only for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In Japan 6 species of SGLT2 inhibitors have already been sold and reported to results in a decrease of FPG by 14.4 to 45.8 (mg/dL), in a reduction of HbA1c by 0.35 to 1.24% and in loss of body weight by 1.29 to 2.50(kg). There is less effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor in diabetic subjects with renal impairment and the reduction in HbA1c and FPG will be approximately half of the average in those with 30 ≤ eGFR ≤ 59. The position of SGLT2 inhibitors would be considered as the drug administered in combination or add-on therapy when the young obese type 2 diabetics without renal impairment has not yet reached to the glycemic target with other drugs although in AACE consensus statement of 2013, it has been shelved for inexperienced use with respect to the positioning of the SGLT2 inhibitors.

  12. The protein type within a hypocaloric diet affects obesity-related inflammation: the RESMENA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; de la Iglesia, Rocio; Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two energy-restricted, differing with regard to protein content, on the inflammation state of obese individuals with features of metabolic syndrome. Ninety-six participants completed an 8-wk randomized intervention trial that compared the RESMENA diet (-30% energy, with 30% energy from protein) with a control diet (-30% energy, with 15% energy from protein) that was based on American Heart Association criteria. The mean body weight losses were 7.09 ± 0.82 kg and 6.73 ± 0.71 kg, respectively, with no differences seen between the groups. The endpoint inflammation score-which was based on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels-was significantly lower (P = 0.012) in the low-protein group (6.81 ± 2.32 versus 7.94 ± 1.94). The linear regression analyses revealed that total protein intake was positively associated with inflammation (P = 0.007) as well as with animal protein (P = 0.025) and meat protein (P = 0.015), but neither vegetable- nor fish-derived proteins were found to influence inflammatory status. Our results suggest that the type of protein consumed (more than the total protein consumed) within an energy-restricted diet influences the inflammation status associated with obesity-related comorbidities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Liver protein expression in young pigs in response to a high-fat diet and diet restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the liver response in young pigs to a high-fat diet (containing 25% animal fat) and diet restriction (equivalent to 60% of maintenance) using differential proteome analysis. The objective was to investigate whether young pigs can be used to model the liver response in adolescents...... to a high-fat diet and diet restriction-induced BW loss. The high-fat diet increased (P high-fat diet had normal glucose tolerance and liver lipid content despite a general increase (P ...-density lipoprotein decreased (P high-fat diet in young pigs is similar to that of humans in terms of increased fatty acid oxidation whereas the liver response to diet restriction is similar to humans...

  14. [Nutritional assessment of gluten-free diet. Is gluten-free diet deficient in some nutrient?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Quero, J C; Espín Jaime, B; Rodríguez Martínez, A; Argüelles Martín, F; García Jiménez, R; Rubio Murillo, M; Pizarro Martín, A

    2015-07-01

    The gluten-free diet has traditionally been accepted as a healthy diet, but there are articles advocating that it may have some nutritional deficiencies. The current study assesses whether there was any change in the contributions of calories, essential elements, proportion of fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and fiber in children who were diagnosed with celiac diseases, comparing the diet with gluten prior one year after diagnosis with the diet without gluten to the year of diagnosis. The level of clinical or analytical impact that nutritional deficits could have was also assessed. A prospective,descriptive, observational study in which information was collected from a dietary survey, anthropometric and analytical data at pre-diagnosis of celiac disease and following a gluten diet and one year after celiac disease diagnosis, under gluten-free diet. A total of 37 patients meet the study criteria. A decrease in the intake of saturated fatty acids was found, with an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids and an increase in the intake of phosphorus in the diet without gluten. A deficient intake of vitamin D was found in both diets. Clinically, at year of gluten-free diet there was an improvement in weight and size. Analytically, there was an improvement in hemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone in plasma. The gluten-free diet has minimal deficiencies, similar to those present in the diet with gluten, with an improvement in the lipid profile by increasing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids to the detriment of saturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Diet quality in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der Laura A.; Nguyen, Anh N.; Schoufour, Josje D.; Geelen, Anouk; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Franco, Oscar H.; Voortman, Trudy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to evaluate diet quality of 8-year-old children in the Netherlands, to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of child diet quality, and to examine tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood. Methods: For 4733 children participating in a population-based

  16. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being physically active with cognitive functioning. Cross-sectional study. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. We analyzed data from 2,165 community dwelling adults who were aged 55-85 years, 56% of whom were female. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), an MMSE score of >26 indicates good cognitive functioning. Physical activity was assessed by the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and was considered sufficient if the person engaged in moderately intense physical activity ≥ 20 min/day. A healthy diet score was based on the intake of fruit, vegetables and fish. Each of the food groups was assigned a score that ranged from 1 (well below the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet) to 4 (well above the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet), and the scores were aggregated to determine a healthy diet (healthy ≥ 9 points). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the (synergistic) association among physical activity, a healthy diet and cognitive functioning. All analyses were adjusted for potential chronic diseases and lifestyle confounders. Of all of the participants, 25% were diagnosed with a cognitive impairment (MMSE ≤26), 80% were physically active and 41% had a healthy diet. Sixty three percent of the participants both adhered to a healthy diet and were physically active. Sufficient daily physical activity (OR=2.545 phealthy diet (OR=1.766 p=.002) were associated with good cognitive functioning. After adjusting for confounding factors, sufficient physical activity was not significantly related to cognitive functioning (p=.163); however adherence to a healthy diet remained

  17. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  18. Urolithiasis on the ketogenic diet with concurrent topiramate or zonisamide therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Elahna; Conant, Kerry D.; Dunne, Irie E.; Pfeifer, Heidi H.; Lyczkowski, David A.; Linshaw, Michael A.; Thiele, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Children with refractory epilepsy who are co-treated with the ketogenic diet (KD) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CA-I) anti-epileptic medications including topiramate (TPM) and zonisamide (ZNS) are at risk for urolithiasis. Retrospective chart review of all children treated with ketogenic therapy at our institution was performed in order to estimate the minimal risk of developing signs or symptoms of stone disease. Children (N = 93) were classified into groups according to KD +/− CA-I co-therapy. Fourteen patients had occult hematuria or worse, including 6 with radiologically confirmed stones. Three of 6 calculi developed in the KD + ZNS group of 17 patients who were co-treated for a cumulative total of 97 months (3.1 stones per 100 patient months). One confirmed stone was in the KD + TPM group of 22 children who were co-treated for a cumulative total of 263 months (0.4 stones per 100 patient months). All six patients had at least three of five biochemical risk factors including metabolic acidosis, concentrated urine, acid urine, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia. Standard of care interventions to minimize hypercalciuria, crystalluria and stone formation used routinely by pediatric nephrologists should also be prescribed by neurologists treating patients with combination anti-epileptic therapy. Non-fasting KD initiation, fluid liberalization, potassium citrate prophylaxis as well as regular laboratory surveillance are indicated in this high risk population. PMID:20466520

  19. Effect of diet on the feces quality in javan langur (Trachypithecus auratus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Joeke; Clauss, Marcus; Olsthoorn, Moniek; Noordermeer, Wendy; Huisman, Tjalling R; Verheyen, Celine; van der Kuilen, Jan; Jürgen, W Streich; Beynen, Anton C

    2006-09-01

    A high intake of easily fermentable carbohydrates and a low intake of fiber material are generally regarded as major factors affecting the health of captive langurs. The effect on fecal consistency of excluding fruits and vegetables from the diet was evaluated in Javan langurs (Trachypithecus auratus auratus). Cross-over trials were carried out at Rotterdam Zoo and at the Apenheul Zoo, The Netherlands. During the first and third dietary period, the langurs were fed their usual diet, which contained fruits, vegetables, langur pellets, and browse. During the second period, the vegetables and fruits were excluded from the diet and the diet essentially consisted of pellets and browse. Feces consistency was scored using a fecal score chart developed for langurs. During the second feeding period the feces consistency improved significantly in animals at both zoos. Across all trials, a firmer feces consistency was correlated with an increase in dietary cell wall (measured as neutral detergent fiber) and a decrease in dietary water. It is suggested that the combined decrease in the intake of soluble sugars, the increase of fiber intake, and a lower amount of dietary water in the diet resulted in more solid stools. The results indicate that a dietary neutral detergent fiber content of approximately 46% in dry matter will result in a feces consistency indicative of undisturbed gut function.

  20. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, James W

    2016-01-01

    SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP) lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin) on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose control. PMID:27822054

  1. Scaffold-hopping from xanthines to tricyclic guanines: A case study of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pissarnitski, Dmitri A.; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Cole, David; Wu, Wen-Lian; Domalski, Martin; Clader, John W.; Scapin, Giovanna; Voigt, Johannes; Soriano, Aileen; Kelly, Theresa; Powles, Mary Ann; Yao, Zuliang; Burnett, Duane A. (Merck)

    2016-11-01

    Molecular modeling of unbound tricyclic guanine scaffolds indicated that they can serve as effective bioisosteric replacements of xanthines. This notion was further confirmed by a combination of X-ray crystallography and SAR studies, indicating that tricyclic guanine DPP4 inhibitors mimic the binding mode of xanthine inhibitors, exemplified by linagliptin. Realization of the bioisosteric relationship between these scaffolds potentially will lead to a wider application of cyclic guanines as xanthine replacements in drug discovery programs for a variety of biological targets. Newly designed DPP4 inhibitors achieved sub-nanomolar potency range and demonstrated oral activity in vivo in mouse glucose tolerance test.

  2. Genetic basis of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Antonio Rogério Bezerra; Farias, Juliano Ricardo; Bernardi, Daniel; Horikoshi, Renato Jun; Omoto, Celso

    2016-04-01

    An understanding of the genetic basis of insect resistance to insecticides is important for the establishment of insect resistance management (IRM) strategies. In this study we evaluated the inheritance pattern of resistance to the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron in Spodoptera frugiperda. The LC50 values (95% CI) were 0.23 µg lufenuron mL(-1) water (ppm) (0.18-0.28) for the susceptible strain (SUS) and 210.6 µg mL(-1) (175.90-258.10) for the lufenuron-resistant strain (LUF-R), based on diet-overlay bioassay. The resistance ratio was ≈ 915-fold. The LC50 values for reciprocal crosses were 4.89 µg mL(-1) (3.79-5.97) for female LUF-R and male SUS and 5.74 µg mL(-1) (4.70-6.91) for female SUS and male LUF-R, indicating that the inheritance of S. frugiperda resistance to lufenuron is an autosomal, incompletely recessive trait. Backcrosses of the progeny of reciprocal crosses with the parental LUF-R showed a polygenic effect. The estimated minimum number of independent segregations was in the 11.02 range, indicating that resistance to lufenuron is associated with multiple genes in S. frugiperda. Based on genetic crosses, the inheritance pattern of lufenuron resistance in S. frugiperda was autosomal, incompletely recessive and polygenic. Implications of this finding to IRM are discussed in this paper. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Oliveira Medrado Pinto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p < 0.05. Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets.

  4. Associations of diet and breed with recurrence of calcium oxalate cystic calculi in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heidi S; Swecker, William S; Becvarova, Iveta; Weeth, Lisa P; Werre, Stephen R

    2015-05-15

    To evaluate the long-term risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) cystic calculi in dogs of various breeds fed 1 of 2 therapeutic diets. Retrospective cohort study. Animals-135 dogs with a history of CaOx cystic calculi. Medical records for 4 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs that had had CaOx cystic calculi removed. Owners were contacted and medical records evaluated to obtain information on postoperative diet, recurrence of signs of lower urinary tract disease, and recurrence of cystic calculi. Dogs were grouped on the basis of breed (high-risk breeds, low-risk breeds, and Miniature Schnauzers) and diet fed after removal of cystic calculi (diet A, diet B, and any other diet [diet C], with diets A and B being therapeutic diets formulated to prevent recurrence of CaOx calculi). Breed group was a significant predictor of calculi recurrence (as determined by abdominal radiography or ultrasonography), with Miniature Schnauzers having 3 times the risk of recurrence as did dogs of other breeds. Dogs in diet group A had a lower prevalence of recurrence than did dogs in diet group C, but this difference was not significant in multivariable analysis. Results indicated that Miniature Schnauzers had a higher risk of CaOx cystic calculi recurrence than did dogs of other breeds. In addition, findings suggested that diet may play a role in decreasing recurrence, but future prospective studies are needed to validate these observations.

  5. Differential Effects of High-Protein Diets Derived from Soy and Casein on Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity in Wild-type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Snelson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies report that a diet high in protein influences cognitive performance, but the results are inconsistent. Studies demonstrated that protein from different food sources has differential effects on cognition. It is increasingly recognized that the integrity of cerebrovascular blood–brain barrier (BBB is pivotal for central nervous system function. However, to date, no studies have reported the effects of high-protein diets on BBB integrity. Therefore, in this study, the effects of diets enriched in casein or soy protein on BBB permeability were investigated. Immunomicroscopy analyses of cerebral parenchymal immunoglobulin G extravasation indicated significant BBB disruption in the cortex of young adult mice maintained on high-casein diet for 12 weeks, while no signs of BBB dysfunction were observed in mice fed with control or high-soy protein diet. Moreover, cortical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was significantly greater in mice fed the high-casein diet compared to control mice, indicating heightened astrocyte activation, whereas mice maintained on a soy-enriched diet showed no increase of GFAP abundance. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine were markedly greater in mice maintained on a high-casein diet in comparison to control mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that a diet enriched in casein but not soy protein may induce astrocyte activation through exaggerated BBB permeability by increased plasma homocysteine. The outcomes indicate the differential effects of protein sources on BBB and neuroinflammation, which may provide an important implication for dietary guidelines for protein supplementation.

  6. Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase 10A protects mice from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Andrea R; Rodriguez, Carlos G; Toolan, Dawn M; Price, Olga; Henry, Melanie; Forrest, Gail; Szeto, Daphne; Keohane, Carol Ann; Pan, Yie; Smith, Karen M; Raheem, Izzat T; Cox, Christopher D; Hwa, Joyce; Renger, John J; Smith, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of schizophrenia. Here we report a novel role of PDE10A in the regulation of caloric intake and energy homeostasis. PDE10A-deficient mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and associated metabolic disturbances. Inhibition of weight gain is due to hypophagia after mice are fed a highly palatable diet rich in fats and sugar but not a standard diet. PDE10A deficiency produces a decrease in caloric intake without affecting meal frequency, daytime versus nighttime feeding behavior, or locomotor activity. We tested THPP-6, a small molecule PDE10A inhibitor, in DIO mice. THPP-6 treatment resulted in decreased food intake, body weight loss, and reduced adiposity at doses that produced antipsychotic efficacy in behavioral models. We show that PDE10A inhibition increased whole-body energy expenditure in DIO mice fed a Western-style diet, achieving weight loss and reducing adiposity beyond the extent seen with food restriction alone. Therefore, chronic THPP-6 treatment conferred improved insulin sensitivity and reversed hyperinsulinemia. These data demonstrate that PDE10A inhibition represents a novel antipsychotic target that may have additional metabolic benefits over current medications for schizophrenia by suppressing food intake, alleviating weight gain, and reducing the risk for the development of diabetes.

  7. Combined Use of α‐Difluoromethylornithine and an Inhibitor of S‐Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase in Mice Bearing P388 Leukemia or Lewis Lung Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaike, Shiro; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Terao, Kiyoshi; Iio, Kokoro

    1988-01-01

    The antitumor and antimetastatic effects of α‐difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, combined with an inhibitor of S‐adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, either methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) or ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (EGBG), were studied in mice bearing P388 leukemia or Lewis lung carcinoma. Although EGBG is a more specific inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis than the widely used MGBG, the antitumor effect of the DFMO‐EGBG combination on P388 leukemia‐bearing mice was less than that of the DFMO‐MGBG combination. The prolongation of survival time by the DFMOC1000 mg/kg)‐MGBG(25 mg/kg) combination was 2.65‐fold, while that of the DFMO(1000 mg/kg)‐EGBG(50 mg/kg) combination was 1.34‐fold. When mice were fed a polyamine‐deficient diet, stronger antitumor effects were exerted; the prolongation of survival time by the DFMO‐MGBG and the DFMO‐EGBG combinations was 2.89‐fold and 2.03‐fold, respectively. The antitumor effect of combined use of the two polyamine antimetabolites with mice on normal and polyamine‐deficient diets correlated with a decrease of polyamine charge contents in the tumor cells. The above in vivo results were confirmed clearly in the KB cell culture system. The antimetastatic activity of DFMO on Lewis lung carcinoma‐bearing mice was strengthened by the addition of MGBG or EGBG. The antimetastatic activity of the DFMO‐MGBG or DFMO‐EGBG combination did not parallel the polyamine charge contents in the primary tumor and blood. PMID:3133338

  8. Inter-relationships among diet, obesity and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, T L; Hargrave, S L; Swithers, S E; Sample, C H; Fu, X; Kinzig, K P; Zheng, W

    2013-12-03

    Intake of a Western diet (WD), which is high in saturated fat and sugar, is associated with deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes as well as with markers of hippocampal pathology. In the present study, rats were trained to asymptote on hippocampal-dependent serial feature negative (FN) and hippocampal-independent simple discrimination problems. Performance was then assessed following 7 days on ad libitum chow and after 10, 24, 40, 60, and 90 days of maintenance on WD, on ketogenic (KETO) diet, which is high in saturated fat and low in sugar and other carbohydrates, or continued maintenance on chow (CHOW). Confirming and extending previous findings, diet-induced obese (DIO) rats fed WD showed impaired FN performance, increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and increased fasting blood glucose levels compared to CHOW controls and to diet-resistant (DR) rats that did not become obese when maintained on WD. For rats fed the KETO diet, FN performance and BBB integrity were more closely associated with level of circulating ketone bodies than with obesity phenotype (DR or DIO), with higher levels of ketones appearing to provide a protective effect. The evidence also indicated that FN deficits preceded and predicted increased body weight and adiposity. This research (a) further substantiates previous findings of WD-induced deficits in hippocampal-dependent FN discriminations, (b) suggests that ketones may be protective against diet-induced cognitive impairment, and (c) provides evidence that diet-induced cognitive impairment precedes weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diet as a Trigger or Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James D; Abreu, Maria T

    2017-02-01

    The most common question asked by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is, "Doctor, what should I eat?" Findings from epidemiology studies have indicated that diets high in animal fat and low in fruits and vegetables are the most common pattern associated with an increased risk of IBD. Low levels of vitamin D also appear to be a risk factor for IBD. In murine models, diets high in fat, especially saturated animal fats, also increase inflammation, whereas supplementation with omega 3 long-chain fatty acids protect against intestinal inflammation. Unfortunately, omega 3 supplements have not been shown to decrease the risk of relapse in patients with Crohn's disease. Dietary intervention studies have shown that enteral therapy, with defined formula diets, helps children with Crohn's disease and reduces inflammation and dysbiosis. Although fiber supplements have not been shown definitively to benefit patients with IBD, soluble fiber is the best way to generate short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which has anti-inflammatory effects. Addition of vitamin D and curcumin has been shown to increase the efficacy of IBD therapy. There is compelling evidence from animal models that emulsifiers in processed foods increase risk for IBD. We discuss current knowledge about popular diets, including the specific carbohydrate diet and diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols. We present findings from clinical and basic science studies to help gastroenterologists navigate diet as it relates to the management of IBD. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of food diets on insect development and its sensitivity to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.U.; Azhar, A.; Shahid, M.

    2004-01-01

    Taking red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), as a study case, studies on the effect of different food diets on insect development and losses and its sensitivity to gamma radiation, were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The results revealed that all the three major parameters (development, losses and sensitivity) varied significantly (P< 0.05) with respect to fed diet. Developmental period was highest (43.5 days) in wheat starch and lowest (22 days) in wheat flour + 5% yeast (Standard diet). A significantly highest progeny (948) was produced in barley and lowest (105.3) in wheat starch. Maximum adult weight (37.35 mg/20 adults) was recorded in sorghum and minimum (33.4) in starch. Percent weight loss was highest (21.25) in barley and lowest (8.0) in starch. Barley flour was found as the most preferred diet. Radiosensitivity in relation to diet indicated that adults reared on wheat starch were most sensitive. Comparing the dose response, insect mortality was dose, diet and post irradiation duration dependent. However, 2.5kGy proved quite lethal. No significant effect of radiation was observed on moisture and protein contents of the diets, except reducing sugars. (author)

  11. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  12. Diet-boosting foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity - diet-boosting foods; Overweight - diet-boosting foods ... Low-fat and nonfat milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese are healthy sources of calcium, vitamin D , and potassium. Unlike sweetened drinks with extra calories, milk ...

  13. RESTING PLASMA AgRP LEVELS RESPONSE TO EXERCISE-CONJUGATED DIET AND ONLY DIET IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE SEDENTARY FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Delphan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agouti-related peptide (AgRP is an orexigenic neuropeptide produced mainly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC of the hypothalamus, which leads to positive energy balance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the resting plasma AgRP levels’ response to exercise-conjugated diet and only diet in overweight and obese sedentary female college students. Thirty subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. Experimental group 1 experienced 12 days of researchers’ proposed diet (D, experimental group 2 experienced 12 days of researchers’ proposed diet (every day with 12-day running training (the intensity was 60 to 70�0heart rate maximum for 50 minutes every other day (AED and the control group remained sedentary with a normal diet in this period. Blood samples were collected 24 hours before and after the enforced protocol. Body fat percentage (BF�20of subjects was measured using the 3-point method. Plasma AgRP levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. The data were analysed by Leven, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. At the end of the protocols, the resting plasma AgRP in the D group increased significantly (p0.05. Body weight and BMI were significantly reduced for both experimental groups (P<0.001. Body fat percentage in the AED group was decreased (p<0.001 and no change was observed in the D group. The present results indicate that the AED is better than the D protocol because it leads to stability of AgRP, which may prevent lipogenesis and ultimately reduce body fat percentage.

  14. Environmental Impacts of Plant-Based Diets: How Does Organic Food Consumption Contribute to Environmental Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Camille; Seconda, Louise; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Langevin, Brigitte; Pointereau, Philippe; Lairon, Denis; Baudry, Julia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Studies investigating diet-related environmental impacts have rarely considered the production method of the foods consumed. The objective of the present study, based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort, was to investigate the relationship between a provegetarian score and diet-related environmental impacts. We also evaluated potential effect modifications on the association between a provegetarian score and the environmental impacts of organic food consumption. Food intake and organic food consumption ratios were obtained from 34,442 French adults using a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on organic food consumption for each group. To characterize the overall structure of the diets, a provegetarian score was used to identify preferences for plant-based products as opposed to animal-based products. Moreover, three environmental indicators were used to assess diet-related environmental impacts: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, cumulative energy demand (CED), and land occupation. Environmental impacts were assessed using production life cycle assessment (LCA) at the farm level. Associations between provegetarian score quintiles, the level of organic food consumption, and environmental indicators were analyzed using ANCOVAs adjusted for energy, sex, and age. Participants with diets rich in plant-based foods (fifth quintile) were more likely to be older urban dwellers, to hold a higher degree in education, and to be characterized by an overall healthier lifestyle and diet. A higher provegetarian score was associated with lower environmental impacts (GHG emissions Q5vsQ1  = 838/1,664 kg CO 2eq /year, -49.6%, P  impacts but only among participants with diets rich in plant-based products. Future field studies should endeavor to integrate all the components of a sustainable diet, i.e., both diet composition and production methods.

  15. The influence of bacteria-dominated diets on Daphnia magna somatic growth, reproduction, and lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J; Brett, Michael T; Pulkkinen, Katja; Kainz, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    We explored how dietary bacteria affect the life history traits and biochemical composition of Daphnia magna, using three bacteria taxa with very different lipid composition. Our objectives were to (1) examine whether and how bacteria-dominated diets affect Daphnia survival, growth, and fecundity, (2) see whether bacteria-specific fatty acid (FA) biomarkers accrued in Daphnia lipids, and (3) explore the quantitative relationship between bacteria availability in Daphnia diets and the amounts of bacterial FA in their lipids. Daphnia were fed monospecific and mixed diets of heterotrophic (Micrococcus luteus) or methanotrophic bacteria (Methylomonas methanica and Methylosinus trichosporium) and two phytoplankton species (Cryptomonas ozolinii and Scenedesmus obliquus). Daphnia neonates fed pure bacteria diets died after 6-12 days and produced no viable offspring, whereas those fed pure phytoplankton diets had high survival, growth, and reproduction success. Daphnia fed a mixed diet with 80% M. luteus and 20% of either phytoplankton had high somatic growth, but low reproduction. Conversely, Daphnia fed mixed diets including 80% of either methane-oxidizing bacteria and 20% Cryptomonas had high reproduction rates, but low somatic growth. All Daphnia fed mixed bacteria and phytoplankton diets had strong evidence of both bacteria- and phytoplankton-specific FA biomarkers in their lipids. FA mixing model calculations indicated that Daphnia that received 80% of their carbon from bacteria assimilated 46 ± 25% of their FA from this source. A bacteria-phytoplankton gradient experiment showed a strong positive correlation between the proportions of the bacterial FA in the Daphnia and their diet, indicating that bacterial utilization can be traced in this keystone consumer using FA biomarkers. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant catalase rescues against high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Shou, Xi-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Ren, Gu-Qun; Wang, Jian-Bang; Wang, Xi-Hui; Ai, Wen-Ting; Maris, Jackie R; Hueckstaedt, Lindsay K; Ma, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-02-01

    Autophagy, a conservative degradation process for long-lived and damaged proteins, participates in a variety of biological processes including obesity. However, the precise mechanism of action behind obesity-induced changes in autophagy still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of the antioxidant catalase in high fat diet-induced changes in cardiac geometry and function as well as the underlying mechanism of action involved with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of catalase were fed low or high fat diet for 20 weeks prior to assessment of myocardial geometry and function. High fat diet intake triggered obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, the effects of which were unaffected by catalase transgene. Myocardial geometry and function were compromised with fat diet intake as manifested by cardiac hypertrophy, enlarged left ventricular end systolic and diastolic diameters, fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte contractile capacity and intracellular Ca²⁺ mishandling, the effects of which were ameliorated by catalase. High fat diet intake promoted reactive oxygen species production and suppressed autophagy in the heart, the effects of which were attenuated by catalase. High fat diet intake dampened phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B kinase β(IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) while promoting phosphorylation of mTOR, the effects of which were ablated by catalase. In vitro study revealed that palmitic acid compromised cardiomyocyte autophagy and contractile function in a manner reminiscent of fat diet intake, the effect of which was significantly alleviated by inhibition of IKKβ, activation of AMPK and induction of autophagy. Taken together, our data revealed that the antioxidant catalase counteracts against high fat diet-induced cardiac geometric and functional anomalies possibly via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent restoration of myocardial

  17. Relationship between food waste, diet quality, and environmental sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Meredith T.; Neher, Deborah A.; Roy, Eric D.; Tichenor, Nicole E.; Jahns, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Improving diet quality while simultaneously reducing environmental impact is a critical focus globally. Metrics linking diet quality and sustainability have typically focused on a limited suite of indicators, and have not included food waste. To address this important research gap, we examine the relationship between food waste, diet quality, nutrient waste, and multiple measures of sustainability: use of cropland, irrigation water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Data on food intake, food waste, and application rates of agricultural amendments were collected from diverse US government sources. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2015. A biophysical simulation model was used to estimate the amount of cropland associated with wasted food. This analysis finds that US consumers wasted 422g of food per person daily, with 30 million acres of cropland used to produce this food every year. This accounts for 30% of daily calories available for consumption, one-quarter of daily food (by weight) available for consumption, and 7% of annual cropland acreage. Higher quality diets were associated with greater amounts of food waste and greater amounts of wasted irrigation water and pesticides, but less cropland waste. This is largely due to fruits and vegetables, which are health-promoting and require small amounts of cropland, but require substantial amounts of agricultural inputs. These results suggest that simultaneous efforts to improve diet quality and reduce food waste are necessary. Increasing consumers’ knowledge about how to prepare and store fruits and vegetables will be one of the practical solutions to reducing food waste. PMID:29668732

  18. Supplementation of protease, alone and in combination with fructooligosaccharide to low protein diet for finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Jian; Cheong, Jin Young; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, In Ho

    2017-12-01

    Effects of adding protease with or without fructooligosaccharide (FOS) to low protein diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal noxious gas emission were evaluated in 160 finishing pigs (57.70 ± 1.16 kg) in a 9-week study. Pigs were randomly divided into four dietary treatments, PC: positive control diet (15.97% crude protein (CP)); NC: negative control diet (12.94% CP); PRO: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease; PROFOS: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease and 0.1% FOS. During weeks 4-9 and weeks 0-9, gain : feed ratio was impaired (P diet compared with those fed PC, PRO and PROFOS diets. Pigs fed PC, PRO and PROFOS diets had higher (P diet. Pigs fed PROFOS diet had reduced (P diets. These data indicate that reducing dietary CP concentrations impaired growth performance, decreased ATTD of CP and reduced ammonia emissions. Supplementation of protease in low CP diet improved growth performance and increased ATTD of CP. Dietary supplementation with protease and FOS in low CP diet improved growth performance, increased ATTD of CP and decreased fecal ammonia emission. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Home food environment in relation to children's diet quality and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Sarah C; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parents' perceptions of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3-day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/savory snacks, high-calorie beverages, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Individual linear regression models were run in which child BMI z score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β=.68, Ppermissive feeding style (-1.04, Ppermissive feeding style (0.14, Pparent's use of food restriction (0.21, Ppermissive feeding style (0.16, Pparenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Baltic Sea Diet Score: a tool for assessing healthy eating in Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Noora; Kaartinen, Niina E; Schwab, Ursula; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Männistö, Satu

    2014-08-01

    The health-related effects of the Nordic diet remain mostly unidentified. We created a Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) for epidemiological research to indicate adherence to a healthy Nordic diet. We examined associations between the score and nutrient intakes that are considered important in promoting public health. We also examined the performance of the BSDS under two different cut-off strategies. The cross-sectional study included two phases of the National FINRISK 2007 Study. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated using in-house software. Nine components were selected for the score. Each component was scored according to both sex-specific consumption quartiles (BSDS-Q) and medians (BSDS-M), and summed to give the final score values. A large representative sample of the Finnish population. Men (n 2217) and women (n 2493) aged 25 to 74 years. In the age- and energy-adjusted model, adherence to the diet was associated with a higher intake of carbohydrates (E%), and lower intakes of SFA (E%) and alcohol (E%, where E% is percentage of total energy intake; P diet (P healthy Nordic diet to assess diet-health relationships in public health surveys in Nordic countries.

  1. The lysyl oxidase inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile reduces body weight gain and improves the metabolic profile in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miana, María; Galán, María; Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Varona, Saray; Jurado-López, Raquel; Bausa-Miranda, Belén; Antequera, Alfonso; Luaces, María; Martínez-González, José; Rodríguez, Cristina; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling of the adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of amine oxidases, including LOX and LOX-like (LOXL) isoenzymes, controls ECM maturation, and upregulation of LOX activity is essential in fibrosis; however, its involvement in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is unclear. In this study, we observed that LOX is the main isoenzyme expressed in human adipose tissue and that its expression is strongly upregulated in samples from obese individuals that had been referred to bariatric surgery. LOX expression was also induced in the adipose tissue from male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Interestingly, treatment with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of LOX activity, attenuated the increase in body weight and fat mass that was observed in obese animals and shifted adipocyte size toward smaller adipocytes. BAPN also ameliorated the increase in collagen content that was observed in adipose tissue from obese animals and improved several metabolic parameters - it ameliorated glucose and insulin levels, decreased homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and reduced plasma triglyceride levels. Furthermore, in white adipose tissue from obese animals, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), as well as the increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) levels, triggered by the HFD. Likewise, in the TNFα-induced insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and GLUT4 and the increase in SOCS3 levels, and consequently normalised insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Therefore, our data provide evidence that LOX plays a pathologically relevant role in the metabolic dysfunction induced by obesity and emphasise the interest of novel pharmacological interventions that target adipose tissue fibrosis and LOX activity for

  2. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention☆, ☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A.; Voils, Corrine I.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Mayer, Stephanie B.; Smith, Valerie A.; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J.; Yancy, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the ‘choice’ arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences. Research is

  3. Feasibility and indicative results from a 12-month low-energy liquid diet treatment and maintenance programme for severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Michael; Brosnahan, Naomi; McLoone, Philip; McCombie, Louise; Higgs, Anna Bell; Ross, Hazel; Mackenzie, Mhairi; Grieve, Eleanor; Finer, Nick; Reckless, John; Haslam, David; Sloan, Billy; Morrison, David

    2013-02-01

    There is no established primary care solution for the rapidly increasing numbers of severely obese people with body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m(2). This programme aimed to generate weight losses of ≥15 kg at 12 months, within routine primary care. Feasibility study in primary care. Patients with a BMI ≥40 kg/m(2) commenced a micronutrient-replete 810-833 kcal/day low-energy liquid diet (LELD), delivered in primary care, for a planned 12 weeks or 20 kg weight loss (whichever was the sooner), with structured food reintroduction and then weight-loss maintenance, with optional orlistat to 12 months. Of 91 patients (74 females) entering the programme (baseline: weight 131 kg, BMI 48 kg/m(2), age 46 years), 58/91(64%) completed the LELD stage, with a mean duration of 14.4 weeks (standard deviation [SD] = 6.0 weeks), and a mean weight loss of 16.9 kg (SD = 6.0 kg). Four patients commenced weight-loss maintenance omitting the food-reintroduction stage. Of the remaining 54, 37(68%) started and completed food reintroduction over a mean duration of 9.3 weeks (SD = 5.7 weeks), with a further mean weight loss of 2.1 kg (SD = 3.7 kg), before starting a long-term low-fat-diet weight-loss maintenance plan. A total of 44/91 (48%) received orlistat at some stage. At 12 months, weight was recorded for 68/91 (75%) patients, with a mean loss of 12.4 kg (SD = 11.4 kg). Of these, 30 (33% of all 91 patients starting the programme) had a documented maintained weight loss of ≥15 kg at 12 months, six (7%) had a 10-15 kg loss, and 11 (12%) had a 5-10 kg loss. The indicative cost of providing this entire programme for wider implementation would be £861 per patient entered, or £2611 per documented 15 kg loss achieved. A care package within routine primary care for severe obesity, including LELD, food reintroduction, and weight-loss maintenance, was well accepted and achieved a 12-month-maintained weight loss of ≥15 kg for one-third of all patients entering the programme.

  4. Gastric Bypass Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the guidance of your doctor. A new healthy diet Three to four months after weight-loss surgery, ... as your stomach continues to heal. Throughout the diet To ensure that you get enough vitamins and ...

  5. Eliminating anti-nutritional plant food proteins: the case of seed protease inhibitors in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Alfonso; Arques, Maria C; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Chinoy, Catherine; Olias, Raquel; Rayner, Tracey; Isaac, Peter G; Lawson, David M; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Domoney, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Several classes of seed proteins limit the utilisation of plant proteins in human and farm animal diets, while plant foods have much to offer to the sustainable intensification of food/feed production and to human health. Reduction or removal of these proteins could greatly enhance seed protein quality and various strategies have been used to try to achieve this with limited success. We investigated whether seed protease inhibitor mutations could be exploited to enhance seed quality, availing of induced mutant and natural Pisum germplasm collections to identify mutants, whilst acquiring an understanding of the impact of mutations on activity. A mutant (TILLING) resource developed in Pisum sativum L. (pea) and a large germplasm collection representing Pisum diversity were investigated as sources of mutations that reduce or abolish the activity of the major protease inhibitor (Bowman-Birk) class of seed protein. Of three missense mutations, predicted to affect activity of the mature trypsin / chymotrypsin inhibitor TI1 protein, a C77Y substitution in the mature mutant inhibitor abolished inhibitor activity, consistent with an absolute requirement for the disulphide bond C77-C92 for function in the native inhibitor. Two further classes of mutation (S85F, E109K) resulted in less dramatic changes to isoform or overall inhibitory activity. The alternative strategy to reduce anti-nutrients, by targeted screening of Pisum germplasm, successfully identified a single accession (Pisum elatius) as a double null mutant for the two closely linked genes encoding the TI1 and TI2 seed protease inhibitors. The P. elatius mutant has extremely low seed protease inhibitory activity and introgression of the mutation into cultivated germplasm has been achieved. The study provides new insights into structure-function relationships for protease inhibitors which impact on pea seed quality. The induced and natural germplasm variants identified provide immediate potential for either halving

  6. Loss of second and sixth conserved cysteine residues from trypsin inhibitor-like cysteine-rich domain-type protease inhibitors in Bombyx mori may induce activity against microbial proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Zhu, Rui; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have indicated that most trypsin inhibitor-like cysteine-rich domain (TIL)-type protease inhibitors, which contain a single TIL domain with ten conserved cysteines, inhibit cathepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, or elastase. Our recent findings suggest that Cys 2nd and Cys 6th were lost from the TIL domain of the fungal-resistance factors in Bombyx mori, BmSPI38 and BmSPI39, which inhibit microbial proteases and the germination of Beauveria bassiana conidia. To reveal the significance of these two missing cysteines in relation to the structure and function of TIL-type protease inhibitors in B. mori, cysteines were introduced at these two positions (D36 and L56 in BmSPI38, D38 and L58 in BmSPI39) by site-directed mutagenesis. The homology structure model of TIL domain of the wild-type and mutated form of BmSPI39 showed that two cysteine mutations may cause incorrect disulfide bond formation of B. mori TIL-type protease inhibitors. The results of Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that both the wild-type and mutated form of BmSPI39 harbored predominantly random coil structures, and had slightly different secondary structure compositions. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis showed that cysteine mutations affected the multimerization states and electrophoretic mobility of BmSPI38 and BmSPI39. Activity staining and protease inhibition assays showed that the introduction of cysteine mutations dramaticly reduced the activity of inhibitors against microbial proteases, such as subtilisin A from Bacillus licheniformis, protease K from Engyodontium album, protease from Aspergillus melleus. We also systematically analyzed the key residue sites, which may greatly influence the specificity and potency of TIL-type protease inhibitors. We found that the two missing cysteines in B. mori TIL-type protease inhibitors might be crucial for their inhibitory activities against microbial proteases. The genetic engineering of TIL-type protease inhibitors may be

  7. [The effects of renin-angiotensin system blockade on the liver steatosis in rats on long-term high-fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Hua; Yuan, Li; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Qi, Cui-Juan

    2008-03-01

    To observe the relationship between liver steatosis in rats with long-term high-caloric and high-fat diet and the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1). Then angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) drugs were given to investigate whether rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade can mitigate the liver steatosis and to probe its mechanisms. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into normal control group (NC group, n = 10), high-calorie and high-fat fed group (HF group, n = 10), ARB treated group (AR group, n = 10) and ACEI treated group (AE group, n = 10). Rats were fed with high-calorie and high-fat diet and given RAS inhibitor drugs (valsartan 40 mg/kg to the AR group and perindopril 4 mg/kg to the AE group) for eight weeks. Serum TG, free fatty acids (FFAs) lever and the fat content in liver were then measured with biochemical tests; insulin resistance was evaluated with euglycemic hyperinsulinemia clamp technique, the expression of UCP-2 and TGFbeta1 in liver tissue were examined with immunohistochemical staining and AGT mRNA, UCP-2 mRNA and TGFbeta1 mRNA were tested with RT-PCR. With the administration of RAS inhibitor drugs, following changes were observed. The levels of TG and FFAs and the fat content in liver decreased (P liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis were mitigated. The levels of UCP-2 decreased by 36.5% (P liver injury of long term high-fat fed rats and have a protective effect on liver. The mechanism may be associated with the effects of improved insulin resistance, the interaction within RAS and the down-regulation of UCP-2 and TGFbeta1 in liver tissue.

  8. Developmental defects in zebrafish for classification of EGF pathway inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvot, Benoist; Curé, Yoann; Djiotsa, Joachim; Voncken, Audrey; Muller, Marc, E-mail: m.muller@ulg.ac.be

    2014-01-15

    One of the major challenges when testing drug candidates targeted at a specific pathway in whole animals is the discrimination between specific effects and unwanted, off-target effects. Here we used the zebrafish to define several developmental defects caused by impairment of Egf signaling, a major pathway of interest in tumor biology. We inactivated Egf signaling by genetically blocking Egf expression or using specific inhibitors of the Egf receptor function. We show that the combined occurrence of defects in cartilage formation, disturbance of blood flow in the trunk and a decrease of myelin basic protein expression represent good indicators for impairment of Egf signaling. Finally, we present a classification of known tyrosine kinase inhibitors according to their specificity for the Egf pathway. In conclusion, we show that developmental indicators can help to discriminate between specific effects on the target pathway from off-target effects in molecularly targeted drug screening experiments in whole animal systems. - Highlights: • We analyze the functions of Egf signaling on zebrafish development. • Genetic blocking of Egf expression causes cartilage, myelin and circulatory defects. • Chemical inhibition of Egf receptor function causes similar defects. • Developmental defects can reveal the specificity of Egf pathway inhibitors.

  9. Developmental defects in zebrafish for classification of EGF pathway inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruvot, Benoist; Curé, Yoann; Djiotsa, Joachim; Voncken, Audrey; Muller, Marc

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges when testing drug candidates targeted at a specific pathway in whole animals is the discrimination between specific effects and unwanted, off-target effects. Here we used the zebrafish to define several developmental defects caused by impairment of Egf signaling, a major pathway of interest in tumor biology. We inactivated Egf signaling by genetically blocking Egf expression or using specific inhibitors of the Egf receptor function. We show that the combined occurrence of defects in cartilage formation, disturbance of blood flow in the trunk and a decrease of myelin basic protein expression represent good indicators for impairment of Egf signaling. Finally, we present a classification of known tyrosine kinase inhibitors according to their specificity for the Egf pathway. In conclusion, we show that developmental indicators can help to discriminate between specific effects on the target pathway from off-target effects in molecularly targeted drug screening experiments in whole animal systems. - Highlights: • We analyze the functions of Egf signaling on zebrafish development. • Genetic blocking of Egf expression causes cartilage, myelin and circulatory defects. • Chemical inhibition of Egf receptor function causes similar defects. • Developmental defects can reveal the specificity of Egf pathway inhibitors

  10. A new receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, icotinib, for patients with lung adenocarcinoma cancer without indication for chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Guan; Wang, Shengye; Zhang, Yunli; Bao, Wenlong; Deng, Dehou; Mao, Weiming; Fang, Meiyu

    2014-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important therapeutic target in lung cancer. Gefitinib and erlotinib, two reversible EGFR receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs), have been approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic non small-cell lung cancer. Icotinib, which is a selective EGFR-TKI, provides a similar efficacy to gefitinib. The present study aimed to investigate the survival and safety of icotinib in patients with lung adenocarcinoma with a poor performance status (PS). A total of 42 cases of lung adenocarcinoma, including 35 females and 7 males, were enrolled. Icotinib was used as the first-line of treatment due to poor PS of the patient or a more advanced age. Icotinib (125 mg) was orally administered three times per day. The overall response rate and disease control rates were 33.3 and 85.7%, respectively. The median survival time was 13.0 months (95% CI, 5.6-20.4), The median progression-free survival time was 7.0 months, and the 1-year survival rate was 71.4%. A total of 79% of patients had an improved PS following icotinib treatment. Grade 1 to 2 rashes and diarrhea were the most frequent side effects. One patient succumbed during the study due to interstitial pneumonia. In conclusion, this is the first study indicating that patients with lung adenocarcinoma and poor PS may benefit from first-line icotinib therapy, but should be cautious of the occurrence of interstitial lung disease.

  11. Physical activity and healthy diet: determinants and implicit relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Aida Isabel

    2014-06-01

    People who decide to lose weight by dieting often do so without participating in any associated physical activity. Although some people who participate in sports are unconcerned about their diet, it is generally believed that people who exercise tend to eat a healthy diet and those who do not exercise eat a less healthy diet. There is no clear relationship between the decisions regarding participation in physical activity and eating a healthy diet when choices are taken freely and not influenced by policy factors promoting healthy behaviour. However, these decisions may reveal some common explanatory factors and an implicit link. As such the aim of this study was to identify the common explanatory factors and investigate the existence of an implicit relationship. Econometric estimate - bivariate probit estimation. Using data from the Portuguese National Health Survey, a bivariate probit was undertaken for decisions regarding participation in physical activity and eating a healthy diet. The correlation between the residuals gives information on the implicit relationship between the healthy choices. Common explanatory factors were found between the decisions to eat healthy snacks and participate in physical activity, such as being married. However, holding voluntary private health insurance, smoking, getting older, living alone and unemployment were found to dissuade people from making healthy choices. Positive correlation was found between the residuals of the probit estimations, indicating that other unmeasurable variables have a similar influence on both decisions, such as peer pressure, cultural values, fashion, advertising and risk aversion. Further research is needed to improve understanding of decision making related to participation in physical activity and eating a healthy diet. This will facilitate the design of policies that will make a greater contribution to healthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier

  12. Habitual diet and diet quality in Irritable Bowel Syndrome : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigchelaar, E. F.; Mujagic, Z.; Zhernakova, A.; Hesselink, M. A. M.; Meijboom, S.; Perenboom, C. W. M.; Masclee, A. A. M.; Wijmenga, C.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Jonkers, D. M. A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diet is considered to be a key factor in symptom generation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and patients tend to exclude food products from their diet in pursue of symptom relief, which may impair diet quality. Methods: We evaluated habitual dietary intake in IBS patients with regard

  13. Design of Electrical System for Inhibitor Injection Pump’s Motor PAQ 01/02/03 RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufiq, M.; Teguh Sulistyo; Kiswanto; Santosa Pujiarta

    2008-01-01

    In order to control the water quality related to the growth of scale, corrosion and micro-organism in the PA01 BR01 and PA02 BR 02 piping system of secondary cooling system of RSG-GAS, electrical systems for motor of inhibitor injection pump PAQ 01/02/03, including motor control system circuit for inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP01, motor control system circuit for NaOCl injection pump PAQ01 AP01, motor control system circuit for inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP02 and control system circuit for stir pump RW02 have been designed. Motor control system circuit for pump PAQ02 AP01 which attached at the inhibitor tank will operate when conductivity control CQ01 indicates blow down condition and pump motor PAQ02 AP02 is not operate when level control CL02 indicates minimum level. This design is expected that, NaOCl injection pump PAQ01 AP 01 will operate continuously and inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP02 will operate automatically. (author)

  14. Combining the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 with histone deacetylase inhibitors enhances antitumor activity in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, Channing J; Wissing, Michel D; Mendonca, Janet; Sharma, Anup; Kim, Eugene; Kim, Hea-Soo; Kortenhorst, Madeleine S Q; Gerber, Stephanie; Rosen, Marc; Shaikh, Faraz; Zahurak, Marianna L; Rudek, Michelle A; Hammers, Hans; Rudin, Charles M; Carducci, Michael A; Kachhap, Sushant K

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. While most studies have focused on the reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, a number of genes/pathways are downregulated by HDACIs. This provides opportunities for combination therapy: agents that further disable these pathways through inhibition of residual gene function are speculated to enhance cell death in combination with HDACIs. A previous study from our group indicated that mitotic checkpoint kinases such as PLK1 and Aurora A are downregulated by HDACIs. We used in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of prostate cancer (PCA) to test whether combination of HDACIs with the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 can synergistically or additively kill PCA cells. AMG 900 and HDACIs synergistically decreased cell proliferation activity and clonogenic survival in DU-145, LNCaP, and PC3 PCA cell lines compared to single-agent treatment. Cellular senescence, polyploidy, and apoptosis was significantly increased in all cell lines after combination treatment. In vivo xenograft studies indicated decreased tumor growth and decreased aurora B kinase activity in mice treated with low-dose AMG 900 and vorinostat compared to either agent alone. Pharmacodynamics was assessed by scoring for phosphorylated histone H3 through immunofluorescence. Our results indicate that combination treatment with low doses of AMG 900 and HDACIs could be a promising therapy for future clinical trials against PCA

  15. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, Alžběta; Chippendale, Thomas W E; Smith, David

    2011-01-01

    Previous measurements of acetone concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy individuals and the small amount of comparable data for individuals suffering from diabetes are briefly reviewed as a prelude to the presentation of new data on the sporadic and wide variations of breath acetone that occur in ostensibly healthy individuals. Data are also presented which show that following a ketogenic diet taken by eight healthy individuals their breath acetone concentrations increased up to five times over the subsequent 6 h. Similarly, the breath acetone increased six and nine times when a low carbohydrate diet was taken by two volunteers and remained high for the several days for which the diet was continued. These new data, together with the previous data, clearly indicate that diet and natural intra-individual biological and diurnal variability result in wide variations in breath acetone concentration. This places an uncertainty in the use of breath acetone alone to monitor blood glucose and glycaemic control, except and unless the individual acts as their own control and is cognizant of the need for dietary control. (note)

  16. Does the MIND diet decrease depression risk? A comparison with Mediterranean diet in the SUN cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresán, Ujué; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Lahortiga, Francisca; de la Rosa, Pedro-Antonio; Martínez-Gonzalez, Miguel-Angel

    2018-03-07

    To prospectively evaluate the association of the Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) diet and the Mediterranean diet (and their components), and depression risk. We followed-up (median 10.4 years) 15,980 adults initially free of depression at baseline or in the first 2 years of follow-up. Food consumption was measured at baseline through a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and was used to compute adherence to the MIND and the Mediterranean diets. Relationships between these two diets and incident depression were assessed through Cox regression models. We identified 666 cases of incident depression. Comparing the highest versus the lowest quartiles of adherence, we found no association of the MIND diet and incident depression. This relation was statistically significant for the Mediterranean diet {hazard ratio (HR) 0.75, [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61, 0.94]; p Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced depression risk, but we found no evidence of such an association for the MIND diet.

  17. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  18. Adding guarana powder to medfly diets: an alternative for improving the Sterile Insect Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Câmara de Aquino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ceratitis capitata (medfly is a globally important horticultural pest that can be controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT, but the success of SIT depends on the sexual performance of mass-reared males when released into the field. We added “guarana” (Paullinia cupana powder (derived from an Amazonian fruit that is considered to be a stimulant with aphrodisiac effects, capable of improving human physical stamina to the diets of adult male medflies to determine whether it increased their sexual performance. The basic diet of a protein extract + sucrose (1:3 was enriched with guarana powder (3 % on a volume basis. Experiments examining sexual competitiveness were performed using lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. lab-reared males fed on the basic diet (and lab-reared females fed on the basic diet, as well as lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. wild males fed on the basic diet (and wild females fed on the basic diet. The results of both experiments indicated that males maintained on diets enriched with guarana powder showed higher copulation successes than males fed only with the basic diet. Guarana powder therefore contributed to the greater mating success of lab-reared males (probably because of its stimulant properties, and may represent a new and viable option for increasing SIT effectiveness.

  19. Diet and liver apoptosis in rats: a particular metabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Emilia Lopes; Xavier, Analucia Rampazzo; Azeredo, Vilma Blondet

    2017-03-30

    Various studies have indicated an association between modifi cation in dietary macronutrient composition and liver apoptosis. To explain how changes in metabolic pathways associated with a high-protein, high-fat, and low-carbohydrate diet causes liver apoptosis. Two groups of rats were compared. An experimental diet group (n = 8) using a high-protein (59.46%), high-fat (31.77%), and low-carbohydrate (8.77%) diet versus a control one (n = 9) with American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93-M diet. Animals were sacrificed after eight weeks, the adipose tissue weighed, the liver removed for flow cytometry analysis, and blood collected to measure glucose, insulin, glucagon, IL-6, TNF, triglycerides, malondialdehyde, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Statistical analysis was carried out using the unpaired and parametric Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coeffi ents. Significance was set at p triglycerides lower levels compared with the control group. The results show a positive and significant correlation between the percentage of nonviable hepatocytes and malondialdehyde levels (p = 0.0217) and a statistically significant negative correlation with triglycerides levels (p = 0.006). Results suggest that plasmatic malondialdehyde and triglyceride levels are probably good predictors of liver damage associated with an experimental low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  20. Growth performance of native goats fed diets containing different levels of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Maria Gomes Barreto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Castrated male goats (n = 40 of the Moxotó (n = 20 and Canindé (n = 20 breeds with an average weight of 15.3 kg were studied to determine intake, nutrient digestibility and weight gain for two diets with different energy levels. The experiment utilized a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (two breeds and two diets, in which goats were randomly allocated. A diet of low energy density and a forage:concentrate ratio of 70:30 was utilized along with a diet of high energy density and a forage:concentrate ratio of 35:64. To determine the nutrient intake and digestibility, at the end of the experiment, goats were kept in metabolism cages for a period of 15 days. Weighing of the goats was conducted weekly over a period of 90 days. The goats that were fed a diet of high energy density displayed significantly increased consumption of metabolic fractions, with the exception of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, when compared with those fed a diet of low energy density. The lack of difference in dry matter and neutral detergent fiber intake indicated that goats have a high digestive capacity for the diet containing a greater quantity of Maniçoba hay. Weight gain was significantly greater for those on the diet of greater energy density. Among the breeds, Canindé goats recorded the highest average consumption and weight gain. Coefficients of digestibility were significantly greater for the more energy dense diet, with no difference between breeds. Regardless of diet, the Canindé breed shows greater weight gain than the Moxotó breed.

  1. Effects of Diet Restriction and Diet Complexity on Life History Strategies in Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta stansburiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Heather M; Durso, Andrew M; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Durham, Susan L; Mueller, Sarah D; French, Susannah S

    2016-11-01

    Organisms must balance energy invested into self-maintenance, reproduction, and somatic growth over their lifetime. In this study, the effects of diet restriction and diet complexity on side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) were analyzed. Thirty male lizards, housed in the laboratory, were fed either an ad libitum or a restricted diet for 18 days (phase 1). Individuals from both treatments were then assigned to a diet of the same quantity of food that was either simple (only crickets) or complex (crickets, cockroaches, waxworms, and mealworms) for 35 days (phase 2). We evaluated (1) how diet restriction affected life history strategies and (2) how diet complexity affected recovery from diet restriction as measured at the end of phase 2 by body mass, snout-vent length, calculated body condition score, wound healing, tail regrowth, bacterial killing ability, oxidative stress, and plasma testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Lizards without diet restriction allocated more energy to self-maintenance (i.e., maintaining higher body condition scores, healing wounds more quickly) than lizards with diet restriction. Lizards with diet restriction had higher plasma testosterone concentrations and larger increases in snout-vent lengths than those fed ad libitum, which may reflect allocations toward reproduction and somatic growth. A complex diet resulted in better body condition and faster tail regrowth than a simple diet, suggesting that a complex diet enhanced recovery from diet restriction, although long-term life history choices remained unaltered. Finally, lizards on a complex diet consumed substantially less food while maintaining higher body condition, suggesting that key nutrients may be lacking from a simple diet. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed JW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available James W Reed Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose

  3. Assessing cortical and subcortical changes in a western diet mouse model using spectral/Fourier domain OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernucci, Marcel T.; Norman, Jennifer E.; Merkle, Conrad W.; Aung, Hnin H.; Rutkowsky, Jennifer; Rutledge, John C.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2017-02-01

    The Western diet, causative in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, has recently been associated with the development of diffuse white matter disease (WMD) and other subcortical changes. Yet, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms by which a high-fat diet can cause WMD. Mechanistic studies of deep brain regions in mice have been challenging due to a lack of non-invasive, high-resolution, and deep imaging technologies. Here we used Optical Coherence Tomography to study mouse cortical/subcortical structures noninvasively and in vivo. To better understand the role of Western Diet in the development of WMD, intensity and Doppler flow OCT images, obtained using a 1300 nm spectral / Fourier domain OCT system, were used to observe the structural and functional alterations in the cortex and corpus callosum of Western Diet and control diet mouse models. Specifically, we applied segmentation to the OCT images to identify the boundaries of the cortex/corpus callosum, and further quantify the layer thicknesses across animals between the two diet groups. Furthermore, microvasculature alterations such as changes in spatiotemporal flow profiles within diving arterioles, arteriole diameter, and collateral tortuosity were analyzed. In the current study, while the arteriole vessel diameters between the two diet groups was comparable, we show that collateral tortuosity was significantly higher in the Western diet group, compared to control diet group, possibly indicating remodeling of brain vasculature due to dietary changes. Moreover, there is evidence showing that the corpus callosum is thinner in Western diet mice, indicative of tissue atrophy.

  4. The effect of chemical anti-inhibitors on fibrinolytic enzymes and inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, J; Kluft, C

    1997-01-01

    proteases. We studied the influence of chemical anti-inhibitors (chloramine T, flufenamate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and methylamine) on fibrinolytic serine proteases and fibrinolytic enzyme inhibitors using the physiological substrate fibrin as plasmin substrate. Low concentrations of chloramine T (0.01 mmol......%) and plasminogen activators (apparent recovery > 200%). Sodium lauryl sulfate eliminates the major fibrinolytic enzyme inhibitors, but increases the activity of plasmin (apparent recovery > 200%) and plasminogen activator, urokinase type (apparent recovery 130%). Methylamine affects only plasmin inhibition. We...

  5. Intestinal microbiota: a potential diet-responsive prevention target in ApcMin mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Volker; Colbert, Lisa H; Perkins, Susan N; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hursting, Stephen D

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that two dietary regimens, calorie restriction (CR) and a high olive oil-containing diet supplemented with a freeze-dried fruit and vegetable extract (OFV), reduced the development of intestinal adenomas in Apc(Min) mice by 57% and 33%, respectively, compared to control mice fed a defined diet ad libitum. The OFV diet was designed to have a strong effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota through its high content of fiber, which represents a major source of fermentable substrate for the gut bacteria. We hypothesized that some of the observed effects of diet on intestinal carcinogenesis might be mediated by diet-related changes in the bacterial species that thrive in the gut. Therefore, we determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) how the dietary interventions affected the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and we characterized specific microbiota changes that were associated with diet and reduced intestinal carcinogenesis. The OFV diet changed the overall composition of the intestinal microbiota, smaller changes were observed for the CR diet. Furthermore, we detected a 16S rDNA fragment associated with mice that did not develop polyps. Sequence analysis suggested that hitherto unidentified bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae (order Clostridiales) were its source. Thus, these bacteria may be an indicator of intestinal conditions associated with reduced intestinal carcinogenesis in Apc(Min) mice. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Egg quality of quails fed low methionine diet supplemented with betaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Dewanti, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of betaine supplementation to low methionine diet on egg quality of quails. A total of 340 laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was divided into 4 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 17 quails each. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design. The four dietary treatments were the low methionine diet (0.3% methionine) without betaine supplementation and the low methionine diet supplemented with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21% betaine. The experimental diets were applied for 8 weeks and the egg quality traits were measured at the age of 16 and 20 weeks. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when the treatment indicated significant effect, it was continued to orthogonal polynomial test to determine the optimum level of betaine. Increasing dietary levels of betaine increased the fat content of the egg with the linear regression of y = 11.0949 + 4.1914x (R2 = 0.18). However, supplementation of betaine did not affect protein content, yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentage. It can be concluded that betaine supplementation up to 0.21% to low methionine diet only had little effect in improving the quality traits of quail eggs.

  7. Changes in the concentrations of biochemical indicators of diet and nutritional status of pregnant women across pregnancy trimesters in Trujillo, Peru, 2004–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In developing countries, deficiencies in essential micronutrients are common, particularly in pregnant women. Although, biochemical indicators of diet and nutrition are useful to assess nutritional status, few studies have examined such indicators throughout pregnancy in women in developing countries. Methods The primary objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of 78 Peruvian women throughout pregnancy for 16 different nutritional indicators including fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids, iron-status indicators, and selenium. Venous blood samples from which serum was prepared were collected during trimesters one (n = 78), two (n = 65), three (n = 62), and at term via the umbilical cord (n = 52). Questionnaires were completed to determine the demographic characteristics of subjects. Linear mixed effects models were used to study the associations between each maternal indicator and the demographic characteristics. Results None of the women were vitamin A and E deficient at any stage of pregnancy and only 1/62 women (1.6%) was selenium deficient during the third trimester. However, 6.4%, 44% and 64% of women had ferritin levels indicative of iron deficiency during the first, second and third trimester, respectively. Statistically significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) throughout pregnancy were noted for 15/16 nutritional indicators for this Peruvian cohort, with little-to-no association with demographic characteristics. Three carotenoids (beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and trans-lycopene) were significantly associated with education status, while trans-lycopene was associated with age and beta-cryptoxanthin with SES (p Peruvian women was expected. It was surprising though not to find deficiencies in other nutrients. The results highlight the importance of continual monitoring of women throughout pregnancy for iron deficiency which could be caused by increasing fetal needs and/or inadequate iron intake as pregnancy

  8. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Molecular adaptation of ruminal epithelia to highly fermentable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, G B; Steele, M A; Aschenbach, J R; McBride, B W

    2011-04-01

    Feeding highly fermentable diets to ruminants is one strategy to increase energy intake. The increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and reduced ruminal pH associated with highly fermentable diets imposes a challenge to the metabolism and the regulation of intracellular pH homeostasis of ruminal epithelia. The ruminal epithelia respond to these challenges in a coordinated manner. Whereas the enlargement of absorptive surface area is well documented, emerging evidence at the mRNA and transporter and enzyme activity levels indicate that changes in epithelial cell function may be the initial response. It is not surprising that gene expression analysis has identified pathways involved in fatty acid metabolism, ion transport, and intracellular homeostasis to be the pathways dominantly affected during adaptation and after adaptation to a highly fermentable diet. These findings are important because the intraepithelial metabolism of SCFA, particularly butyrate, helps to maintain the concentration gradient between the cytosol and lumen, thereby facilitating absorption. Butyrate metabolism also controls the intracellular availability of butyrate, which is widely regarded as a signaling molecule. Current data indicate that for butyrate metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase are potential regulatory points with transient up- and downregulation during diet adaptation. In addition to nutrient transport and utilization, genes involved in the maintenance of cellular tight junction integrity and induction of inflammation have been identified as differentially expressed genes during adaptation to highly fermentable diets. This may have important implications on ruminal epithelial barrier function and the inflammatory response often associated with subacute ruminal acidosis. The objective of this review is to summarize ruminal epithelial adaptation to highly fermentable diets focusing on the changes at the enzyme and

  9. Receptivity of winter flounder larvae to artificial diet from the yolk-sac stage to metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Ian; Ben Khemis, I.; Litvak, Matthew Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    In the period from 4 days post-hatching to metamorphosis, winter flounder that were naïve to artificial feed were exposed to an artificial diet and allowed to forage for 8 min. The presence or absence of artificial diet in the gut was used as an indicator of acceptance. The relationship between...

  10. Organic food for sustainable and healthy diets - lessons from the nordic diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, Susanne; Damsgaard, C. T.; Larsen, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    foods from the wild countryside and 3) more foods from sea and lakes. In many ways, the New NND is very similar to a Mediterranean diet but relies on rapeseed (canola) oil instead of olive oil and ramson instead of garlic. The diets differ in their types of produce due to regional differences in climate......://foodoflife.ku.dk/opus/english/nyheder/publikationer/) in which the NND was compared to the Average Danish Diet (ADD). The use of mostly local products and reduction of the meat intake were of both socioeconomic and environmental advantage. Including organic produce increased environmental impact of the NND.Conclusion: In line with the Mediterranean diet......Introduction: The New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in 2004 by chefs and food professionals from the five Nordic countries. The goal for the NND was that it should be based on traditional regional food products but healthier than the traditional eating habits. The NND builds on four key...

  11. Temporal microbiota changes of high-protein diet intake in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Luo, Zhen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-10-01

    Alterations of specific microbes serve as important indicators that link gut health with specific diet intake. Although a six-week high-protein diet (45% protein) upregulates the pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress in colon of rats, the dynamic alteration of gut microbiota remains unclear. To dissect temporal changes of microbiota, dynamic analyses of fecal microbiota were conducted using a rat model. Adult rats were fed a normal-protein diet or an HPD for 6 weeks, and feces collected at different weeks were used for microbiota and metabolite analysis. The structural alteration of fecal microbiota was observed after 4 weeks, especially for the decreased appearance of bands related to Akkermansia species. HPD increased numbers of Escherichia coli while decreased Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, Ruminococcus bromii, and Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale (P protein diet. HPD also decreased the copies of genes encoding butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase and Prevotella-associated methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase α-subunit (P high-protein diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of Changes in Diet Quality with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Mattei, Josiemer; Fung, Teresa T; Li, Yanping; Pan, An; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B

    2017-07-13

    Few studies have evaluated the relationship between changes in diet quality over time and the risk of death. We used Cox proportional-hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios for total and cause-specific mortality among 47,994 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 25,745 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1998 through 2010. Changes in diet quality over the preceding 12 years (1986-1998) were assessed with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 score, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score. The pooled hazard ratios for all-cause mortality among participants who had the greatest improvement in diet quality (13 to 33% improvement), as compared with those who had a relatively stable diet quality (0 to 3% improvement), in the 12-year period were the following: 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 0.97) according to changes in the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 0.84 (95 CI%, 0.78 to 0.91) according to changes in the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95) according to changes in the DASH score. A 20-percentile increase in diet scores (indicating an improved quality of diet) was significantly associated with a reduction in total mortality of 8 to 17% with the use of the three diet indexes and a 7 to 15% reduction in the risk of death from cardiovascular disease with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Mediterranean Diet. Among participants who maintained a high-quality diet over a 12-year period, the risk of death from any cause was significantly lower - by 14% (95% CI, 8 to 19) when assessed with the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 11% (95% CI, 5 to 18) when assessed with the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 9% (95% CI, 2 to 15) when assessed with the DASH score - than the risk among participants with consistently low diet scores over time. Improved diet quality over 12 years was

  13. Growth Performance, Haematological Indices and Cost Benefits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lenovo pc

    Effect of replacing dietary maize with cassava peel meal (CPM) supplemented with Allzyme® SSF (SSF) on the growth performance, haematological indices and cost benefits of growing pigs was investigated. Chemical composition of CPM and diets used were determined using standard procedures. Twenty-four growing ...

  14. Combined effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and vATPase inhibitors in NSCLC cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyeon-Ok [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung-Eun [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soon [Department of Microbiological Engineering, Kon-Kuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143–701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Bora [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Hong, Young Jun [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul, E-mail: parkic@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Kyung, E-mail: jklee@kirams.re.kr [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Despite excellent initial clinical responses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), many patients eventually develop resistance. According to a recent report, vacuolar H + ATPase (vATPase) is overexpressed and is associated with chemotherapy drug resistance in NSCLC. We investigated the combined effects of EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors and their underlying mechanisms in the regulation of NSCLC cell death. We found that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib, or lapatinib) and vATPase inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A) enhanced synergistic cell death compared to treatments with each drug alone. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A led to the induction of Bnip3 expression in an Hif-1α dependent manner. Knock-down of Hif-1α or Bnip3 by siRNA further enhanced cell death induced by bafilomycin A1, suggesting that Hif-1α/Bnip3 induction promoted resistance to cell death induced by the vATPase inhibitors. EGFR TKIs suppressed Hif-1α and Bnip3 expression induced by the vATPase inhibitors, suggesting that they enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to these inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. Taken together, we conclude that EGFR TKIs enhance the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to vATPase inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. We suggest that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC. - Highlights: • Co-treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors induces synergistic cell death • EGFR TKIs enhance cell sensitivity to vATPase inhibitors via Hif-1α downregulation • Co-treatment of these inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC.

  15. ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasi, Marianna; Wang, Ming; Chavan, Tanmay S; Gaponenko, Vadim; Hay, Nissim; Gartel, Andrei L

    2013-09-01

    NAC (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) is commonly used to identify and test ROS (reactive oxygen species) inducers, and to inhibit ROS. In the present study, we identified inhibition of proteasome inhibitors as a novel activity of NAC. Both NAC and catalase, another known scavenger of ROS, similarly inhibited ROS levels and apoptosis associated with H₂O₂. However, only NAC, and not catalase or another ROS scavenger Trolox, was able to prevent effects linked to proteasome inhibition, such as protein stabilization, apoptosis and accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates. These observations suggest that NAC has a dual activity as an inhibitor of ROS and proteasome inhibitors. Recently, NAC was used as a ROS inhibitor to functionally characterize a novel anticancer compound, piperlongumine, leading to its description as a ROS inducer. In contrast, our own experiments showed that this compound depicts features of proteasome inhibitors including suppression of FOXM1 (Forkhead box protein M1), stabilization of cellular proteins, induction of ROS-independent apoptosis and enhanced accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates. In addition, NAC, but not catalase or Trolox, interfered with the activity of piperlongumine, further supporting that piperlongumine is a proteasome inhibitor. Most importantly, we showed that NAC, but not other ROS scavengers, directly binds to proteasome inhibitors. To our knowledge, NAC is the first known compound that directly interacts with and antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that, as a result of the dual nature of NAC, data interpretation might not be straightforward when NAC is utilized as an antioxidant to demonstrate ROS involvement in drug-induced apoptosis.

  16. The effect of a diet supplemented with sea-buckthorn pomace on the colour and viscosity of the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dvořák

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea-buckthorn pomace is a very valuable product which contains not only important nutrients but also high-quality oils. The question addressed in the present study was to what extent the diet containing the sea-buckthorn pomace would affect the viscosity and colour of egg yolk measured in the CIELAB system. The feeding mixture for laying hens was supplemented with 20; 50 and 100 g∙kg-1 of sea-buckthorn pomace. As a result, colour indices of the egg yolk such as L*, a* and b* changed significantly (α = 0.01. The greatest relative enhancement was observed for indicator a* for the red colour. Visually, this corresponds to the more intense orange colour of the egg yolk. The addition of sea-buckthorn pomace to the diet for laying hens resulted in a larger increase in indicator ∆E* (CIE total colour difference compared to the control group. Colour indicator hab is the only indicator whose value oscillated around that determined for the control group. The addition of sea-buckthorn pomace to the diet resulted in an increase in colour indices a*, b* and C*ab. Indicator ∆E* also increased significantly with an increasing amount of sea-buckthorn pomace in a diet. Egg yolks were darker, had more intense red and yellow colours, and showed lower viscosity which are all features preferred by the consumer.

  17. Synergistic apoptosis induction in leukemic cells by the phosphatase inhibitor salubrinal and proteasome inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes C A Drexler

    Full Text Available Cells adapt to endoplasmic reticulum (ER-stress by arresting global protein synthesis while simultaneously activating specific transcription factors and their downstream targets. These processes are mediated in part by the phosphorylation-dependent inactivation of the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha. Following restoration of homeostasis protein synthesis is resumed when the serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1 dephosphorylates and reactivates eIF2alpha. Proteasome inhibitors, used to treat multiple myeloma patients evoke ER-stress and apoptosis by blocking the ER-associated degradation of misfolded proteins (ERAD, however, the role of eIF2alpha phosphorylation in leukemic cells under conditions of proteasome inhibitor-mediated ER stress is currently unclear.Bcr-Abl-positive and negative leukemic cell lines were used to investigate the functional implications of PP1-related phosphatase activities on eIF2alpha phosphorylation in proteasome inhibitor-mediated ER stress and apoptosis. Rather unexpectedly, salubrinal, a recently identified PP1 inhibitor capable to protect against ER stress in various model systems, strongly synergized with proteasome inhibitors to augment apoptotic death of different leukemic cell lines. Salubrinal treatment did not affect the phosphorlyation status of eIF2alpha. Furthermore, the proapoptotic effect of salubrinal occurred independently from the chemical nature of the proteasome inhibitor, was recapitulated by a second unrelated phosphatase inhibitor and was unaffected by overexpression of a dominant negative eIF2alpha S51A variant that can not be phosphorylated. Salubrinal further aggravated ER-stress and proteotoxicity inflicted by the proteasome inhibitors on the leukemic cells since characteristic ER stress responses, such as ATF4 and CHOP synthesis, XBP1 splicing, activation of MAP kinases and eventually apoptosis were efficiently abrogated by the translational inhibitor cycloheximide.Although PP1

  18. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  19. Diet and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meat, skinned poultry and fish nonfat dairy products sugar-free drinks like diet soda. Controlling your weight will lower your chance ... with your doctor and dietitian to keep your diet and blood sugar in good control. Where can I get more ...

  20. Tissue-specific expression of Sprouty1 in mice protects against high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation, bone loss and metabolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-09-28

    We recently characterised Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signalling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat, while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone mass and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss and associated lipid abnormalities, and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high-energy diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1-null mice, a high-fat diet increased body fat by 40 %, impaired glucose regulation and led to liver steatosis. However, overexpression of Spry1 led to 35 % (P < 0·05) lower body fat, reduced bone loss and normal metabolic function compared with single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70 %) and leptin (54 %; P < 0·005) compared with controls on a high-fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45 %. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss.

  1. DETERMINATION OF QUALITY PROPERTIES OF DIET ACIDOPHILUS BIFIDUS YOGHURT AND DIET YOGHURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Diet yoghurt and diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt were produced from cow milk and fat ratio was decreased below 1 %. In production of diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt, freeze dried DVS culture which contains normal yoghurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus ve Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and therapeutic lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria was used. In production of diet yoghurt, normal yoghurt bacteria were used. Chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of these products were determined and compared. Generally, except the consistency sensed in mouth, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties were approximately same. Finally, these products were healthier than other yoghurt products, because of the amount of low fat and containing therapeutic bacteria.

  2. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  3. Beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Purrello, Agata; Vitaglione, Paola; Calabrese, Giorgio; Drago, Filippo; Galvano, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of medical disorders, such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and abdominal obesity that, when occurring together, increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The role of food and nutrients in the aetiology of chronic diseases has become clearer over the last 15 years. In this review we collected evidence on the beneficial impact of the Mediterranean diet on MetS by analyzing epidemiological reports documenting its prevalence in subjects who have adopted this dietary pattern. We also explored the role of the individual components of the diet on the specific aspects characterizing the MetS (i.e. metabolic indices, body weight and blood pressure). There is ample evidence showing that subjects adherent to the Mediterranean diet have lower prevalence and incidence rates of MetS than non-adherent. Moreover, it has been widely documented that specific components of this dietary pattern play a role in the prevention of several morbid conditions related to the MetS.

  4. Studies on terrein as a new class of proteasome inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demasi, M.; Felicio, A.L.; Lima, C.; Pacheco, A.O.; Leite, H.G.; Andrade, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    The proteasome is an intracellular multicatalytic protease involved in the cell cycle regulation, signaling response, antigen presentation and apoptosis. Since proteasome inhibitors promote cell death by apoptosis, they have been proposed as new anti-tumoral drugs. Terrein, a secondary metabolite secreted by the fungus Aspergillus terreus, was firstly described in 1935. In the present work we report that terrein isolated through the screening for inhibitors of the 20S proteasome showed inhibitory effect upon both chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like activities of the multicatalytic core particle, the 20S proteasome. Despite of the high inhibitory concentration determined in vitro, that verified by incubating cells (fibroblasts and a pulmonary tumor cell line) in the presence of terrein was 4-fold lower indicating the proteasome as a selective intracellular target. Moreover, terrein promoted apoptotic cell death on both fibroblasts and pulmonary tumor cell line tested. Although terrein concentrations (mM range) necessary to elicit apoptosis in the cellular models herein tried were high when compared to those (muM and nM range) of other inhibitors recently described, its chemical structure is not correlated to any other inhibitor reported thus far. Therefore, the present results point out for the possibility of exploring terrein as a new molecular fragment for the development of synthetic proteasome inhibitors. (author)

  5. Endothelial mineralocorticoid receptor activation mediates endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Nicola; Lohmann, Christine; Winnik, Stephan; van Tits, Lambertus J; Miranda, Melroy X