CODATA recommended values of the fundamental constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N.
2000-01-01
A review is given of the latest Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) adjustment of the values of the fundamental constants. The new set of constants, referred to as the 1998 values, replaces the values recommended for international use by CODATA in 1986. The values of the constants, and particularly the Rydberg constant, are of relevance to the calculation of precise atomic spectra. The standard uncertainty (estimated standard deviation) of the new recommended value of the Rydberg constant, which is based on precision frequency metrology and a detailed analysis of the theory, is approximately 1/160 times the uncertainty of the 1986 value. The new set of recommended values as well as a searchable bibliographic database that gives citations to the relevant literature is available on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants and physics.nist.gov/constantsbib, respectively
Shapley Value for Constant-sum Games
Khmelnitskaya, A.B.
2002-01-01
It is proved that Young's axiomatization for the Shapley value by marginalism, efficiency, and symmetry is still valid for the Shapley value defined on the class of nonnegative constant-sum games and on the entire class of constant-sum games as well. To support an interest to study the class of
Solar constant values for estimating solar radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Huashan; Lian, Yongwang; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin; Zhao, Liang
2011-01-01
There are many solar constant values given and adopted by researchers, leading to confusion in estimating solar radiation. In this study, some solar constant values collected from literature for estimating solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation are tested in China using the measured data between 1971 and 2000. According to the ranking method based on the t-statistic, a strategy to select the best solar constant value for estimating the monthly average daily global solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation is proposed. -- Research highlights: → The effect of the solar constant on estimating solar radiation is investigated. → The investigation covers a diverse range of climate and geography in China. → A strategy to select the best solar constant for estimating radiation is proposed.
CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2002
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N.
2005-01-01
This paper gives the 2002 self-consistent set of values of the basic constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) for international use. Further, it describes in detail the adjustment of the values of the subset of constants on which the complete 2002 set of recommended values is based. Two noteworthy additions in the 2002 adjustment are recommended values for the bound-state rms charge radii of the proton and deuteron and tests of the exactness of the Josephson and quantum-Hall-effect relations K J =2e/h and R K =h/e 2 , where K J and R K are the Josephson and von Klitzing constants, respectively, e is the elementary charge, and h is the Planck constant. The 2002 set replaces the previously recommended 1998 CODATA set. The 2002 adjustment takes into account the data considered in the 1998 adjustment as well as the data that became available between 31 December 1998, the closing date of that adjustment, and 31 December 2002, the closing date of the new adjustment. The differences between the 2002 and 1998 recommended values compared to the uncertainties of the latter are generally not unreasonable. The new CODATA set of recommended values may also be found on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants
The fundamental physical constants: initial data and recommended values by CODATA 2002
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karshenbojm, S.G.
2008-01-01
The CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants are the most accurate and the most reliable constant values, applied over all branches of physics. Various questions related to the recommendations are considered
Value of the Cosmological Constant in Emergent Quantum Gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hogan, Craig [Fermilab
2018-03-30
It is suggested that the exact value of the cosmological constant could be derived from first principles, based on entanglement of the Standard Model field vacuum with emergent holographic quantum geometry. For the observed value of the cosmological constant, geometrical information is shown to agree closely with the spatial information density of the QCD vacuum, estimated in a free-field approximation. The comparison is motivated by a model of exotic rotational fluctuations in the inertial frame that can be precisely tested in laboratory experiments. Cosmic acceleration in this model is always positive, but fluctuates with characteristic coherence length $\\approx 100$km and bandwidth $\\approx 3000$ Hz.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teixeira, Pedro Barbosa
2003-01-01
This work aims to present a methodology for the calculation of the alpha constant taking into account the actual conditions in Brazil. This constant is used for the minimization of the worker doses meaning the optimization of radiation protection. The alpha constant represents a monetary value to establish the health detriment associated to the stochastic effects for unit of collective dose, and is directly related to the value of the human life. Along the years, several methods have been developed to obtain the most appropriate value for the alpha constant. These methods will be objects of analysis of this work. This work presents two methods for determination of the alpha constant: 'human capital' that is based on GDP of the country and 'willingness-to-pay' that is established for the value that the population would be willing to pay for the safety of the nuclear and radioactive facilities. A new methodology for the calculation of the alpha constant has been proposed in this study, that is the combination of two method previously mentioned, and recommends a new value of US$ 16,000.00 per man-sievert. Currently the value established by CNEN is US$ 10,000.00 per men sievert. This work also presents, in full details, the main mathematical tools for the elaboration of the optimization of the radiation protection: cost-benefit analysis, extended cost-benefit analysis and multi attribute utility analysis. An applied example, for an uranium mine radiation protection optimization was used to compare those two values of the alpha constant. (author)
Determining the Optimal Values of Exponential Smoothing Constants--Does Solver Really Work?
Ravinder, Handanhal V.
2013-01-01
A key issue in exponential smoothing is the choice of the values of the smoothing constants used. One approach that is becoming increasingly popular in introductory management science and operations management textbooks is the use of Solver, an Excel-based non-linear optimizer, to identify values of the smoothing constants that minimize a measure…
Corrections to the apparent value of the cosmological constant due to local inhomogeneities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romano, Antonio Enea; Chen, Pisin
2011-01-01
Supernovae observations strongly support the presence of a cosmological constant, but its value, which we will call apparent, is normally determined assuming that the Universe can be accurately described by a homogeneous model. Even in the presence of a cosmological constant we cannot exclude nevertheless the presence of a small local inhomogeneity which could affect the apparent value of the cosmological constant. Neglecting the presence of the inhomogeneity can in fact introduce a systematic misinterpretation of cosmological data, leading to the distinction between an apparent and true value of the cosmological constant. We establish the theoretical framework to calculate the corrections to the apparent value of the cosmological constant by modeling the local inhomogeneity with a ΛLTB solution. Our assumption to be at the center of a spherically symmetric inhomogeneous matter distribution correspond to effectively calculate the monopole contribution of the large scale inhomogeneities surrounding us, which we expect to be the dominant one, because of other observations supporting a high level of isotropy of the Universe around us. By performing a local Taylor expansion we analyze the number of independent degrees of freedom which determine the local shape of the inhomogeneity, and consider the issue of central smoothness, showing how the same correction can correspond to different inhomogeneity profiles. Contrary to previous attempts to fit data using large void models our approach is quite general. The correction to the apparent value of the cosmological constant is in fact present for local inhomogeneities of any size, and should always be taken appropriately into account both theoretically and observationally
String-coupling constant and dilaton vacuum expectation value in string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoneya, Tamiaki
1987-01-01
In the first quantized approaches to strings, it is well known that the string-coupling constant is determined by the vacuum expectation value of the dilaton field. This property, however, has never been demonstrated within the framework of string field theory. An explicit reparametrization of the string field associated with the shifts of the dilaton vacuum expectation value and the string-coupling constant is constructed exhibiting the above property in the light-cone field theory of the closed bosonic string. (orig.)
Remarks on the low value obtained for the Hubble constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaakkola, Toivo
1975-01-01
Some remarks are made on the basis of the data given by Sandage and Tamman, suggesting that these authors have over-estimated the distances to the most luminous galaxies and obtained a value too low for the Hubble constant [fr
Superalgebras with Grassmann algebra-valued structure constants from superfields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azcarraga, J.A. de; Lukierski, J.
1987-05-01
We introduce generalized Lie algebras and superalgebras with generators and structure constants taking values in a Grassmann algebra. Such algebraic structures describe the equal time algebras in the superfield formalism. As an example we consider the equal time commutators and anticommutators among bilinears made out of the D=1 quantum superfields describing the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. (author). 10 refs
On the value of the fine structure constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bosi, L.
1997-01-01
The fine structure constant can be approximately expressed as α = (20 var-phi 4 ) -1 where var-phi is the golden ratio (1 + √5)/2: the discrepancy between the present and the true value of α -1 is lower than 3.4· 10 -4 . This simple occurrence would be not fortuitous, thus suggesting a hidden physical meaning. A tentative and qualitative explanation is proposed which is based only on symmetry considerations involving both the Von Klitzing resistance and the vacuum impedance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Rune W.; Ditlevsen, Susanne
2013-01-01
When recording the membrane potential, V, of a neuron it is desirable to be able to extract the synaptic input. Critically, the synaptic input is stochastic and non-reproducible so one is therefore often restricted to single trial data. Here, we introduce means of estimating the inhibition and ex...... close to soma (recording site). Though our data is in current-clamp, the method also works in V-clamp recordings, with some minor adaptations. All custom made procedures are provided in Matlab....... and excitation and their confidence limits from single sweep trials. The estimates are based on the mean membrane potential, (V) , and the membrane time constant,τ. The time constant provides the total conductance (G = capacitance/τ) and is extracted from the autocorrelation of V. The synaptic conductances can....... The method gives best results if the synaptic input is large compared to other conductances, the intrinsic conductances have little or no time dependence or are comparably small, the ligand gated kinetics is faster than the membrane time constant, and the majority of synaptic contacts are electrotonically...
Constant physics and characteristics of fundamental constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarrach, R.
1998-01-01
We present some evidence which supports a surprising physical interpretation of the fundamental constants. First, we relate two of them through the renormalization group. This leaves as many fundamental constants as base units. Second, we introduce and a dimensional system of units without fundamental constants. Third, and most important, we find, while interpreting the units of the a dimensional system, that is all cases accessible to experimentation the fundamental constants indicate either discretization at small values or boundedness at large values of the corresponding physical quantity. (Author) 12 refs
Cosmological Hubble constant and nuclear Hubble constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horbuniev, Amelia; Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru
2005-01-01
The evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang and the evolution of the dense and highly excited nuclear matter formed by relativistic nuclear collisions are investigated and compared. Values of the Hubble constants for cosmological and nuclear processes are obtained. For nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies the nuclear Hubble constant is obtained in the frame of different models involving the hydrodynamic flow of the nuclear matter. Significant difference in the values of the two Hubble constant - cosmological and nuclear - is observed
Evaluation of nuclides with closely spaced values of depletion constants in transmutation chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vukadin, Z.S.
1977-01-01
New method of calculating nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is developed in this thesis. Method is based on originally derived recurrence formulas for expansion series of depletion functions and on originally obtained, nonsingular, Bateman coefficients. Explicit expression for the nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is obtained. This expression can be used as it stands for arbitrary values of nuclides depletion constants. By computing hypothetical transmutation chains and neptunium series, method is compared with the Bateman analytical solution, with the approximate solutions and with the matrix exponential method. It comes out that the method presented in this thesis is suitable for calculating very long depletion chains even in the case of some closely spaced and/or equal values of nuclide depletion constants. Though, presented method is of great practical applicability in a number of nuclear physics problems that are dealing with the nuclide transmutations: starting from the studies of the stellar evolution up to the design of nuclear reactors (author) [sr
Karshenboim, S. G.
2018-03-01
The metric system appeared as the system of units designed for macroscopic (laboratory scale) measurements. The progress in accurate determination of the values of quantum constants (such as the Planck constant) in SI units shows that the capabilities in high-precision measurement of microscopic and macroscopic quantities in terms of the same units have increased substantially recently. At the same time, relative microscopic measurements (for example, the comparison of atomic transition frequencies or atomic masses) are often much more accurate than relative measurements of macroscopic quantities. This is the basis for the strategy to define units in microscopic phenomena and then use them on the laboratory scale, which plays a crucial role in practical methodological applications determined by everyday life and technologies. The international CODATA task group on fundamental constants regularly performs an overall analysis of the precision world data (the so-called Adjustment of the Fundamental Constants) and publishes their recommended values. The most recent evaluation was based on the data published by the end of 2014; here, we review the corresponding data and results. The accuracy in determination of the Boltzmann constant has increased, the consistency of the data on determination of the Planck constant has improved; it is these two dimensional constants that will be used in near future as the basis for the new definition of the kelvin and kilogram, respectively. The contradictions in determination of the Rydberg constant and the proton charge radius remain. The accuracy of determination of the fine structure constant and relative atomic weight of the electron has improved. Overall, we give a detailed review of the state of the art in precision determination of the values of fundamental constants. The mathematical procedure of the Adjustment, the new data and results are considered in detail. The limitations due to macroscopic properties of material
Omerbashich, Mensur
2015-01-01
World oldest authority for scientific constants and the keeper of the original metre standard, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Paris, France has accomplished a historic confirmation of the Omerbashich's (first-ever) scientific prediction of value of the Newtonian gravitational constant G.
Kaitaniemi, Pekka
2008-04-09
Allometric equations are widely used in many branches of biological science. The potential information content of the normalization constant b in allometric equations of the form Y = bX(a) has, however, remained largely neglected. To demonstrate the potential for utilizing this information, I generated a large number of artificial datasets that resembled those that are frequently encountered in biological studies, i.e., relatively small samples including measurement error or uncontrolled variation. The value of X was allowed to vary randomly within the limits describing different data ranges, and a was set to a fixed theoretical value. The constant b was set to a range of values describing the effect of a continuous environmental variable. In addition, a normally distributed random error was added to the values of both X and Y. Two different approaches were then used to model the data. The traditional approach estimated both a and b using a regression model, whereas an alternative approach set the exponent a at its theoretical value and only estimated the value of b. Both approaches produced virtually the same model fit with less than 0.3% difference in the coefficient of determination. Only the alternative approach was able to precisely reproduce the effect of the environmental variable, which was largely lost among noise variation when using the traditional approach. The results show how the value of b can be used as a source of valuable biological information if an appropriate regression model is selected.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne E. Ferrey
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The motivational incentive of reward-related stimuli can become so salient that it drives behavior at the cost of other needs. Here we show that response inhibition applied during a Go/No-go task not only impacts hedonic evaluations but also reduces the behavioral incentive of motivationally-relevant stimuli. We first examined the impact of response inhibition on the hedonic value of sex stimuli associated with strong behavioral-approach responses (Experiment 1. Sexually-appealing and non-appealing images were both rated as less attractive when previously encountered as No-go (inhibited than as Go (non-inhibited items. We then discovered that inhibition reduces the motivational incentive of sexual appealing stimuli (Experiment 2. Prior Go/No-go status affected the number of key-presses by heterosexual males to view erotic-female (sexually-appealing but not erotic-male or scrambled-control (non-appealing images. These findings may provide an important foundation for developing inhibition-based interventions to reduce the hedonic value and motivational incentive of stimuli associated with disorders of self-control.
Ferrey, Anne E.; Frischen, Alexandra; Fenske, Mark J.
2012-01-01
The motivational incentive of reward-related stimuli can become so salient that it drives behavior at the cost of other needs. Here we show that response inhibition applied during a Go/No-go task not only impacts hedonic evaluations but also reduces the behavioral incentive of motivationally relevant stimuli. We first examined the impact of response inhibition on the hedonic value of sex stimuli associated with strong behavioral-approach responses (Experiment 1). Sexually appealing and non-appealing images were both rated as less attractive when previously encountered as No-go (inhibited) than as Go (non-inhibited) items. We then discovered that inhibition reduces the motivational incentive of sexual appealing stimuli (Experiment 2). Prior Go/No-go status affected the number of key-presses by heterosexual males to view erotic-female (sexually appealing) but not erotic-male or scrambled-control (non-appealing) images. These findings may provide a foundation for developing inhibition-based interventions to reduce the hedonic value and motivational incentive of stimuli associated with disorders of self-control. PMID:23272002
Zafra-Roldán, A.; Corona-Avendaño, S.; Montes-Sánchez, R.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Romero-Romo, M.; Ramírez-Silva, M. T.
2018-02-01
Using UV-Vis spectrophotometry a stability study of melatonin at different pH values was done in aqueous media, finding that at acidic pH melatonin is unstable when interacting with the environment, however it becomes stable protecting it from light and oxygen. From the UV-Vis spectra and SQUAD software, melatonin pKa values, in a completely protected aqueous medium, were estimated as 5.777 ± 0.011 and 10.201 ± 0.024. Using the same techniques, the melatonin and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex formation constants were assessed at pH 3, 7 and 11.5, giving the values of log β = (3.07 ± 0.06), (2.94 ± 0.01) and (3.07 ± 0.06) M- 1, respectively. From the global acidity formation constants and the complexes' formation constants, the molar fractions were determined for each species of MT and MT - βCD, to build the molar fraction-[βCD]-pH 3D diagram and the molar fraction-pH 2D diagrams, where it was possible to observe the predominance of the MT species with and without βCD. A voltammetric study at pH 3, allowed obtaining a value of log β = (3.15 ± 0.01) M- 1, which corroborates that obtained through UV-Vis spectrophotometry, supporting strongly the rationale behind using simple, straightforward techniques.
Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force
Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.
2013-04-01
Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.
FORMATION CONSTANTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
KEY WORDS: Metal complexes, Schiff base ligand, Formation constant, DFT calculation ... best values for the formation constants of the proposed equilibrium model by .... to its positive charge distribution and the ligand deformation geometry.
Amami, P; Mascia, M M; Franzini, A; Saba, F; Albanese, A
2017-08-01
The study aimed to evaluate safety and efficacy of shifting stimulation settings from constant-voltage (CV) to constant-current (CC) programming in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and chronic subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). Twenty PD patients with chronic STN DBS set in CV programming were shifted to CC and followed for 3 months; the other stimulation settings and the medication regimen remained unchanged. Side effects, motor, non-motor, executive functions, and impedance were assessed at baseline and during follow-up. No adverse events were observed at time of shifting or during CC stimulation. Motor and non-motor measures remained unchanged at follow-up despite impedance decreased. Compared to baseline, inhibition processes improved at follow-up. The shifting strategy was well tolerated and the clinical outcome was maintained with no need to adjust stimulation settings or medications notwithstanding a decrease of impedance. Improvement of inhibition processes is a finding which needed further investigation.
An Einstein-Cartan Fine Structure Constant Definition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stone R. A. Jr.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The fine structure constant definition given in Stone R.A. Jr. Progress in Physics, 2010, v.1, 11-13 is compared to an Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant definition. It is shown that the Einstein-Cartan definition produces the correct pure theory value, just not the measure value. To produce the measured value, the pure theory Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant requires only the new variables and spin coupling of the fine structure constant definition in [1].
Interacting universes and the cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alonso-Serrano, A.; Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Robles-Pérez, S.
2013-01-01
In this Letter it is studied the effects that an interaction scheme among universes can have in the values of their cosmological constants. In the case of two interacting universes, the value of the cosmological constant of one of the universes becomes very close to zero at the expense of an increasing value of the cosmological constant of the partner universe. In the more general case of a chain of N interacting universes with periodic boundary conditions, the spectrum of the Hamiltonian splits into a large number of levels, each of them associated with a particular value of the cosmological constant, that can be occupied by single universes revealing a collective behavior that plainly shows that the multiverse is much more than the mere sum of its parts
Interacting universes and the cosmological constant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alonso-Serrano, A. [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Bastos, C. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bertolami, O. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Robles-Pérez, S., E-mail: salvarp@imaff.cfmac.csic.es [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Física Teórica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)
2013-02-12
In this Letter it is studied the effects that an interaction scheme among universes can have in the values of their cosmological constants. In the case of two interacting universes, the value of the cosmological constant of one of the universes becomes very close to zero at the expense of an increasing value of the cosmological constant of the partner universe. In the more general case of a chain of N interacting universes with periodic boundary conditions, the spectrum of the Hamiltonian splits into a large number of levels, each of them associated with a particular value of the cosmological constant, that can be occupied by single universes revealing a collective behavior that plainly shows that the multiverse is much more than the mere sum of its parts.
Determination of Henry’s Law Constants Using Internal Standards with Benchmark Values
It is shown that Henry’s law constants can be experimentally determined by comparing headspace content of compounds with known constants to interpolate the constants of other compounds. Studies were conducted over a range of water temperatures to identify temperature dependence....
Constant Leverage And Constant Cost Of Capital: A Common Knowledge Half-Truth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ignacio Vélez–Pareja
2008-04-01
In this document we show that for finite cash flows, Ke and hence WACC depend on the discount rate that is used to value the tax shield, TS and as expected, Ke and WACC are not constant with Kd as the discount rate for the tax shield, even if the leverage is constant. We illustrate this situation with a simple example. We analyze five methods: DCF using APV, FCF and traditional and general formulation for WACC, present value of CFE plus debt and Capital Cash Flow, CCF.
The exact value of Jung constants in a class of Orlicz function spaces
Yan, Y. Q.
2005-01-01
Let $\\Phi$ be an $N$-function. Then the Jung constants of the Orlicz function spaces $L^\\Phi[0,1]$ generated by $\\Phi$, equipped with the Luxemburg and Orlicz norms, have the following exact values: \\item{(i)} if $F_\\Phi(t)=t\\varphi(t)/\\Phi(t)$ is decreasing and $1 < C_\\Phi < 2$, then $$ JC(L^{(\\Phi)}[0,1])=JC(L^\\Phi[0,1])=2^{1/C_\\Phi-1}; $$ \\item{(ii)} if $F_\\Phi(t)$ is increasing and $C_\\Phi > 2$, then $$ JC(L^{(\\Phi)}[0,1])=JC(L^\\Phi[0,1])=2^{-1/C_\\Phi}, $$ where $$C_\\Phi=\\lim_{t\\to...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study is to describe a perfect fluid matter distribution that leads to a constant curvature region, thanks to the effect of a nonminimal coupling. This distribution exhibits a density profile within the range found in the interstellar medium and an adequate matching of the metric components at its boundary. By identifying this constant curvature with the value of the cosmological constant and superimposing the spherical distributions arising from different matter sources throughout the universe, one is able to mimic a large-scale homogeneous cosmological constant solution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maxwell, D.M.; Brecht, K.M.
1992-02-01
A comparison of the bimolecular rate constants (ki) for inhibition of electric eel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by the oxono (i.e., P=O) and thiono (i.e., P=S) analogues of parathion, methylparathion, leptophos, fonofos, sarin, and soman revealed that the oxono/thiono ratios of ki values varied from 14 for soman to 1240 for parathion. Analysis of the relative importance of the dissociation equilibrium constant and the phosphorylation rate constant in producing this variation in ki values indicated that the oxono analogues had phosphorylation rate constant values that varied in a narrow range from 8- to 14-fold greater than their thiono counterparts, while the oxono/thiono ratios for dissociation constants varied widely from 1 for soman to 82 for fonofos. The lower affinities of thiono analogues for AChE probably resulted from differences in the hydrophobic binding of oxono and thiono analogues to the active site of AChE, inasmuch as the hydrophobicities (i.e., octanol/water partition coefficients) of thiono organophosphorus compounds were much greater than the hydrophobicities of their oxono analogues. Quantitative structure-activity analysis indicated that the hydrophobic effects of oxono and thiono moieties correlated with log ki for AChE inhibition to a greater extent (r2 = 0.79) than their electronic effects (r2 equal to or less than 0.48). These observations suggest that the differences in hydrophobicity of oxono and thiono analogues of organophosphorus compounds may be as important as their electronic differences in determining their effectiveness as AChE inhibitors. Acetylcholinesterase, soman (GD), structure-activity analysis inhibition, oxono analogues, thiono analogues.
Sun, Lijun; Chen, Weiqi; Meng, Yonghong; Yang, Xingbin; Yuan, Li; Guo, Yurong; Warren, Frederick J; Gidley, Michael J
2016-10-01
Young apple polyphenols (YAP) and nine types of phenolic compounds were investigated regarding the inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) in vitro. Tannic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in YAP showed relatively high inhibition with the IC50 values of 0.30, 1.96 and 3.69mg/mL, respectively. A detailed kinetics of inhibition study revealed that YAP and tannic acid were competitive inhibitors of PPA, whereas chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were mixed inhibitors, exhibiting both competitive and uncompetitive characteristics. The fluorescence of PPA could be significantly quenched by YAP and the three polyphenols, and their quenching constants were determined. The results showed that for the polyphenols investigated, the order of the apparent static quenching constants (KFQ) was in agreement with that of the reciprocal competitive inhibition constants (1/Kic) (tannic acid>chlorogenic acid>caffeic acid>epicatechin); both of the parameters were contrary to the order of the IC50 values. Thus, combining detailed kinetics and fluorescence quenching studies can be applied to characterise the interactions between polyphenols in young apples and α-amylase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
RNA structure and scalar coupling constants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tinoco, I. Jr.; Cai, Z.; Hines, J.V.; Landry, S.M.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Shen, L.X.; Varani, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1994-12-01
Signs and magnitudes of scalar coupling constants-spin-spin splittings-comprise a very large amount of data that can be used to establish the conformations of RNA molecules. Proton-proton and proton-phosphorus splittings have been used the most, but the availability of {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled molecules allow many more coupling constants to be used for determining conformation. We will systematically consider the torsion angles that characterize a nucleotide unit and the coupling constants that depend on the values of these torsion angles. Karplus-type equations have been established relating many three-bond coupling constants to torsion angles. However, one- and two-bond coupling constants can also depend on conformation. Serianni and coworkers measured carbon-proton coupling constants in ribonucleosides and have calculated their values as a function of conformation. The signs of two-bond coupling can be very useful because it is easier to measure a sign than an accurate magnitude.
The Dielectric Constant of Lubrication Oils
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Carey, A
1998-01-01
The values of the dielectric constant of simple molecules is discussed first, along with the relationship between the dielectric constant and other physical properties such as boiling point, melting...
Wübbeler, Gerd; Bodnar, Olha; Elster, Clemens
2018-02-01
Weighted least-squares estimation is commonly applied in metrology to fit models to measurements that are accompanied with quoted uncertainties. The weights are chosen in dependence on the quoted uncertainties. However, when data and model are inconsistent in view of the quoted uncertainties, this procedure does not yield adequate results. When it can be assumed that all uncertainties ought to be rescaled by a common factor, weighted least-squares estimation may still be used, provided that a simple correction of the uncertainty obtained for the estimated model is applied. We show that these uncertainties and credible intervals are robust, as they do not rely on the assumption of a Gaussian distribution of the data. Hence, common software for weighted least-squares estimation may still safely be employed in such a case, followed by a simple modification of the uncertainties obtained by that software. We also provide means of checking the assumptions of such an approach. The Bayesian regression procedure is applied to analyze the CODATA values for the Planck constant published over the past decades in terms of three different models: a constant model, a straight line model and a spline model. Our results indicate that the CODATA values may not have yet stabilized.
Silva, S. L. Da; Comar, M., Jr.; Oliveira, K. M. T.; Chaar, J. S.; Bezerra, E. R. M.; Calgarotto, A. K.; Baldasso, P. A.; Veber, C. L.; Villar, J. A. F. P.; Oliveira, A. R. M.; Marangoni, S.
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are enzymes that trigger the degradation cascade of the arachidonic acid, leading to the formation of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. The selective inhibition of PLA2s is crucial in the search for a more efficient anti-inflammatory drug with fewer side effects than the drugs currently used. Hence, we studied the influences caused by two pyrazolonic inhibitors: dipyrone (DIP) and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) on the kinetic behavior of PLA2 from Crotalus adamanteus venom. Molecular modeling results, by DFT and MM approaches, showed that DIP is strongly associated to the active site of PLA2 through three hydrogen bonds, whereas PMP is associated to the enzyme just through hydrophobic interactions. In addition, only PMP presents an intramolecular hydrogen bond that make difficult the formation of more efficient interactions with PLA2. These results help in the understanding of the experimental observations. Experimentally, the results showed that PLA2 from C. adamanteus present a typical Michaelian behavior. In addition, the calculated kinetic parameters showed that, in the presence of DIP or PMP, the maximum enzymatic velocity (VMAX) value was kept constant, whereas the Michaelis constant (KM) values increased and the inhibition constant (KI) decreased, indicating competitive inhibition. These results show that the phenyl-pyrazolonic structures might help in the development and design of new drugs able to selectively inhibit PLA2.
Use of equilibrium constant expression for initial screening of potential antithyroid agents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fatima, I.; Nanawar, M.A.; Tasneem, A.
2011-01-01
Synthetic antithyroid agents act through inhibition of enzyme or by making stable charge transfer (CT) complex with iodine. Iodine acts as s-acceptor and the synthetic compound as n-donor. Study of CT complexation of various drugs with iodine using UV/visible spectroscopy has revealed a positive correlation between the formation constant (Kc) and in vivo an activity. Some alkyl derivatives of 9H-purine-6-thiol were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as well as in vivo for potential antithyroid effects. The compounds exhibited 1:1 charge transfer complexation with iodine and have quite high values of formation constants. The blood assays of rats treated with these compounds and histological study of the thyroid tissues indicated the hyperactivity of gland. These compounds are expected to have lesser side effects as the sulfa group, a cause of toxicity in many medicines, is blocked. Phenyl derivative proved to be the most potent antithyroid agent comparable with methimazole. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacimovic, R.; Trkov, A.; Smodis, B.
1995-01-01
Neutron activation analysis requires a knowledge of the values for the Westcott g factors, the resonance integral I 0 and 2200 ms -1 cross section σ 0 for the (n, γ) reaction, Q 0 defined as the ratio I 0 /σ 0 and the effective resonance energy E-bar r . The required constants can be calculated from the JEF 2.2 evaluated nuclear data files. A sensitivity study was carried out to investigate the influence of the spectral parameter α on E-bar r . The sensitivity of I 0 to temperature due to Doppler broadening was also investigated. The results obtained were compared to those reported in the literature. Further, the calculated parameters were then applied to the analysis of a number of standard samples. (author)
A 2.4% DETERMINATION OF THE LOCAL VALUE OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riess, Adam G.; Scolnic, Dan; Jones, David O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Macri, Lucas M.; Hoffmann, Samantha L.; Yuan, Wenlong; Brown, Peter J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Casertano, Stefano [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Tucker, Brad E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Reid, Mark J.; Challis, Peter [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Chornock, Ryan [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Foley, Ryan J., E-mail: ariess@stsci.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
2016-07-20
We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to reduce the uncertainty in the local value of the Hubble constant from 3.3% to 2.4%. The bulk of this improvement comes from new near-infrared (NIR) observations of Cepheid variables in 11 host galaxies of recent type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), more than doubling the sample of reliable SNe Ia having a Cepheid-calibrated distance to a total of 19; these in turn leverage the magnitude-redshift relation based on ∼300 SNe Ia at z < 0.15. All 19 hosts as well as the megamaser system NGC 4258 have been observed with WFC3 in the optical and NIR, thus nullifying cross-instrument zeropoint errors in the relative distance estimates from Cepheids. Other noteworthy improvements include a 33% reduction in the systematic uncertainty in the maser distance to NGC 4258, a larger sample of Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a more robust distance to the LMC based on late-type detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs), HST observations of Cepheids in M31, and new HST -based trigonometric parallaxes for Milky Way (MW) Cepheids. We consider four geometric distance calibrations of Cepheids: (i) megamasers in NGC 4258, (ii) 8 DEBs in the LMC, (iii) 15 MW Cepheids with parallaxes measured with HST /FGS, HST /WFC3 spatial scanning and/or Hipparcos , and (iv) 2 DEBs in M31. The Hubble constant from each is 72.25 ± 2.51, 72.04 ± 2.67, 76.18 ± 2.37, and 74.50 ± 3.27 km s{sup 1} Mpc{sup 1}, respectively. Our best estimate of H {sub 0} = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s{sup 1} Mpc{sup 1} combines the anchors NGC 4258, MW, and LMC, yielding a 2.4% determination (all quoted uncertainties include fully propagated statistical and systematic components). This value is 3.4 σ higher than 66.93 ± 0.62 km s{sup 1} Mpc{sup 1} predicted by ΛCDM with 3 neutrino flavors having a mass of 0.06 eV and the new Planck data, but the discrepancy reduces to 2.1 σ relative to the prediction of 69.3 ± 0.7 km s{sup 1} Mpc{sup 1} based on the
Universal relation between spectroscopic constants
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
(3) The author has used eq. (6) of his paper to calculate De. This relation leads to a large deviation from the correct value depending upon the extent to which experimental values are known. Guided by this fact, in our work, we used experimentally observed De values to derive the relation between spectroscopic constants.
Behaviour of coupling constants at high temperature in supersymmetric theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swee Ping Chia.
1986-04-01
An analysis is presented of the temperature dependence of the coupling constants using the improved one-loop approximation in the Wess-Zumino model and the supersymmetric O(N) model. It is found that all the coupling constants, both bosonic (Φ 4 type) and Yukawa, approach constant nonzero values as T→∞. The asymptotic values of the bosonic couplings are slightly smaller than the corresponding zero-temperature values, and those of the Yukawa couplings are the same as the zero-temperature values. (author)
A natural cosmological constant from chameleons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nastase, Horatiu; Weltman, Amanda
2015-01-01
We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT)-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero) and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now)
A natural cosmological constant from chameleons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Horatiu Nastase
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now.
A natural cosmological constant from chameleons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nastase, Horatiu, E-mail: nastase@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, Sao Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil); Weltman, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.weltman@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)
2015-07-30
We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT)-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero) and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now)
Charge dependence of the pion-nucleon coupling constant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Babenko
2015-07-01
Full Text Available On the basis of the Yukawa potential we study the pion-nucleon coupling constants for the neutral and charged pions assuming that nuclear forces at low energies are mainly determined by the exchange of virtual pions. We obtain the charged pseudovector pion-nucleon coupling constant f2π± = 0.0804(7 by making the use of experimental low-energy scattering parameters for the singlet pp- and np-scattering, and also by use of the neutral pseudovector pion-nucleon coupling constant f2π0 = 0.0749(7. Corresponding value of the charged pseudoscalar pion-nucleon coupling constant g2π0 / 4π = 14.55(13 is also determined. This calculated value of the charged pseudoscalar pion-nucleon coupling constant is in fully agreement with the experimental constant g2π0 / 4π = 14.52(26 obtained by the Uppsala Neutron Research Group. Our results show considerable charge splitting of the pion-nucleon coupling constant.
Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca
2013-01-01
A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…
About fertility: a constant value or changing values for the replacement threshold?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luigi Di Comite
2007-10-01
Full Text Available When we deal about fertility future evolution, it is generally believed – above all among people who do not deal with this topic – that in order to achieve an intrinsic rate of population natural increase equal to zero, able to ensure the constancy of its total amount over a long period (“zero population growth”, it is sufficient to reach a TFR equal, more or less, to 2.10 that must be kept steady in time having, as counterpart, fundamentally growing population for higher values and fundamentally decreasing population for values below the above mentioned level of reference (R=2.10. However, even nowadays, where the death rate is very high, in order to achieve an intrinsic rate of population natural increase equal to zero, it is necessary to start from total fertility rates, which are fundamentally as higher than 2.10 as higher is, at different ages, the mortality for women under 50. Under this consideration, we have pointed out the problem of singling out the so called replacement threshold of the TFR, assuming that it is not correct to interpret it as a fixed value, more or less equal to 2.10. In these pages we have briefly drawn – rather than demonstrated – the reader attention to the fact that for a TFR equal to 2.50 we have, considering the changes in mortality rates, values of net fertility rate which deeply vary, going from a value of 0.770 (for a life expectancy at birth equal to 20.0 years to a value of 2.426 (for a life expectancy at birth equal to 80 years as in the analysed case, and reaching a value which is very near to 2.100 for a life expectancy at birth equal to 62.5 years.
Determination of the π3He3H coupling constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nichitiu, F.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.
1977-01-01
Despersion relations for the real part of the antisymmetric amplitude of the π +-3 He scattering have been used in order to determine the π 3 He 3 H coupling constant. The coupling constant value determined by this method is larger than the elementary pion-nucleon coupling constant, but is in good agreement with the value obtained by another method. The obtained value is f 2 sub(π 3 He 3 H) = 0.12+-0.01. Shown is the importance of using the Coulomb corrections for dispersion relation calculations because the value of π 3 He 3 H coupling constant obtained with corrected total cross sections is larger by about 0.014 than the one obtained without these corrections. The best energy ranges for future π 3 He experiments are commented
Lee, M T; Ahmed, T; Friedman, M E
1989-01-01
Purified bovine liver beta-glucuronidase (beta-D-glucuronide glucuronohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.32) and wheat germ acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoesterphosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) were inhibited with freshly dissolved and 24 h aquated tetrahaloaurate (III) compounds. Rate and equilibrium inhibition constants were measured. From this data two acid phosphatases species were observed. Equilibrium inhibition constants ranged from 1 to 12.5 microM for the various gold compounds toward both enzymes. The first order rate constants ranged between 0.005 and 0.04 min.-1 for most reactions with the exception of the fast reacting acid phosphatase which had values as high as 2.6 and 2.8 min.-1. It is observed that the beta-glucuronidase is rapidly inhibited during the equilibrium phase before the more slower reaction covalent bond formation takes place. The acid phosphatases form the covalent bonds more rapidly, especially the faster reacting species suggesting a unique difference in the active site geometry to that of the more slowly reacting species. The tightly bonded gold (III)-enzyme complex is probably the reason for its toxicity and non-anti-inflammatory use as a drug.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilensky, V.O.; Demchenko, V.I.
2009-01-01
Influence of constant electric field on structure, specific thermal capacity, thermomechanical properties and electrical conduction nanocomposites on a basis epoxy resin and fillers Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 is investigated. The received results show, that application of constant electric field gives the chance to influence level of perfection of crystal structure filler (Fe 2 O 3 ) in structure to a composite, thus the size of crystals decreases from 18.0 nm (for initial samples of composites) to 7.7 nm (for the composites generated under the influence of CEF). Nanocomposites generated in CEF characterization the higher values of a electrical conduction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. B. Obot
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of nizoral (NZR on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium alloy AA 1060 in 2 M HCl solution was investigated using the mylius thermometric technique. Results of the study revealed that nizoral acts as corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in the acidic medium. In general, at constant acid concentration, the inhibition efficiency increases with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The addition of KI to the inhibitor enhanced the inhibition efficiency to a considerable extent. The adsorption of nizoral onto the aluminium surface was found to obey the Fruendlich adsorption isotherm. The value of the free energy for the adsorption process shows that the process is spontaneous.
Equilibrium-constant expressions for aqueous plutonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silver, G.L.
2010-01-01
Equilibrium-constant expressions for Pu disproportionation reactions traditionally contain three or four terms representing the concentrations or fractions of the oxidation states. The expressions can be rewritten so that one of the oxidation states is replaced by a term containing the oxidation number of the plutonium. Experimental estimations of the numerical values of the constants can then be checked in several ways. (author)
Hydrolysis and formation constants at 250C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillips, S.L.
1982-05-01
A database consisting of hydrolysis and formation constants for about 20 metals associated with the disposal of nuclear waste is given. Complexing ligands for the various ionic species of these metals include OH, F, Cl, SO 4 , PO 4 and CO 3 . Table 1 consists of tabulated calculated and experimental values of log K/sub xy/, mainly at 25 0 C and various ionic strengths together with references to the origin of the data. Table 2 consists of a column of recommended stability constants at 25 0 C and zero ionic strength tabulated in the column headed log K/sub xy/(0); other columns contain coefficients for an extended Debye-Huckel equation to permit calculations of stability constants up to 3 ionic strength, and up to 0.7 ionic strength using the Davies equation. Selected stability constants calculated with these coefficients for various ionic strengths agree to an average of +- 2% when compared with published experimental and calculated values
Kolachevsky, N.; Beyer, A.; Maisenbacher, L.; Matveev, A.; Pohl, R.; Khabarova, K.; Grinin, A.; Lamour, T.; Yost, D. C.; Haensch, T. W.; Udem, Th.
2018-02-01
The core of the "proton radius puzzle" is the discrepancy of four standard deviations between the proton root mean square charge radii (rp) determined from regular hydrogen (H), and the muonic hydrogen atom (μp). We have measured the 2S-4P transition frequency in H, utilizing a cryogenic beam of H and directly demonstrate that quantum interference of neighboring atomic resonances can lead to line shifts much larger than the proton radius discrepancy. Using an asymmetric fit function we obtain rp = 0.8335(95) fm and the Rydberg constant R∞ = 10 973 731.568 076 (96) m-1. The new value for rp is 3.3 combined standard deviations smaller than the latest CODATA value, but in good agreement with the value from μp.
Coupling constants deduced for the resonances in kaon photo-production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheoun, M. K.; Kim, K. S.; Choi, T. K.
2004-01-01
We deduced the coupling constants of nucleon and hyperon resonances, which participate in kaon productions as intermediate states that are formed by electro-magnetic probes and that finally decay into hadronic final states. We used an isobaric model based on an effective Lagrangian approach to describe the processes, in which relevant coupling constants regarding related resonances are effectively determined by fitting available experimental data. Our scheme to deduce the coupling constants was as follows: First, we calculated the lower and the upper limits on the coupling constants by using the experimental decay data available until now and/or theoretical predictions, such as those from quark models and SU(3) symmetry. Second, we exploited those limits as physical constraints on our fitting scheme for the kaon photo-production data. Finally, the deduced values and regions of the coupling constants, which satisfy not only the reaction data but also the decay data, are presented as figures with respect to the strong and the electro-magnetic coupling constants, and their multiplicative values. Our results for the coupling constants give physical values that are more restricted than those allowed by the experimental data nowadays.
Tachyon constant-roll inflation
Mohammadi, A.; Saaidi, Kh.; Golanbari, T.
2018-04-01
The constant-roll inflation is studied where the inflaton is taken as a tachyon field. Based on this approach, the second slow-roll parameter is taken as a constant which leads to a differential equation for the Hubble parameter. Finding an exact solution for the Hubble parameter is difficult and leads us to a numerical solution for the Hubble parameter. On the other hand, since in this formalism the slow-roll parameter η is constant and could not be assumed to be necessarily small, the perturbation parameters should be reconsidered again which, in turn, results in new terms appearing in the amplitude of scalar perturbations and the scalar spectral index. Utilizing the numerical solution for the Hubble parameter, we estimate the perturbation parameter at the horizon exit time and compare it with observational data. The results show that, for specific values of the constant parameter η , we could have an almost scale-invariant amplitude of scalar perturbations. Finally, the attractor behavior for the solution of the model is presented, and we determine that the feature could be properly satisfied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borgundvaag, B.; George, S.R.
1985-01-01
The diterpinoid forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase activity (measured by conversion of [ 3 H]-ATP to [ 3 H]-cAMP) in anterior pituitary from male and female rats. Inhibition of stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by potent dopaminergic agonists was demonstrable only in female anterior pituitary. The inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity displayed a typically dopaminergic rank order of agonist potencies and could be completely reversed by a specific dopamine receptor antagonist. The IC 50 values of dopamine agonist inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity correlated with equal molarity with the dissociation constant of the high-affinity dopamine agonist-detected receptor binding site and with the IC 50 values for inhibition of prolactin secretion. These findings support the hypothesis that it is the high-affinity form of the D 2 dopamine receptor in anterior pituitary which is responsible for mediating the dopaminergic function of attenuating adenylate cyclase activity. 12 references, 4 figures, 1 table
Stability constant of the trisglycinto metal complexes | Na'aliya ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The stability constants of iron, manganese, cobalt, and nickel complexes of glycine have been determined in aqueous solution by potentiometric titration with standard sodium hydroxide solution. The values of the stepwise stability constants were obtained by ORIGIN '50' program. The overall stability constants of the ...
Baumhardt, Jordan M; Dorsey, Benjamin M; McLauchlan, Craig C; Jones, Marjorie A
2015-08-01
Using wheat germ acid phosphatase and sodium orthovanadate as a competitive inhibitor, a novel method for analyzing reversible inhibition was carried out. Our alternative approach involves plotting the initial velocity at which product is formed as a function of the ratio of substrate concentration to inhibitor concentration at a constant enzyme concentration and constant assay conditions. The concept of initial concentrations driving equilibrium leads to the chosen axes. Three apparent constants can be derived from this plot: K max , K min , and K inflect . K max and K min represent the substrate to inhibitor concentration ratio for complete inhibition and minimal inhibition, respectively. K inflect represents the substrate to inhibitor concentration ratio at which the enzyme-substrate complex is equal to the inhibitory complex. These constants can be interpolated from the graph or calculated using the first and second derivative of the plot. We conclude that a steeper slope and a shift of the line to the right (increased x-axis values) would indicate a better inhibitor. Since initial velocity is not a linear function of the substrate/inhibitor ratio, this means that inhibition changes more quickly with the change in the [S]/ [I] ratio. When preincubating the enzyme with substrate before the addition of inhibitor, preincubating the enzyme with inhibitor before the addition of substrate or with concurrent addition of both substrate and inhibitor, modest changes in the slopes and y-intercepts were obtained. This plot appears useful for known competitive and non-competitive inhibitors and may have general applicability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neal Jackson
2015-09-01
Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H_0 values of around 72–74 km s^–1 Mpc^–1, with typical errors of 2–3 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67–68 km s^–1 Mpc^–1 and typical errors of 1–2 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Kinra, Aseem; Das, Ajay
This study contributes to literature on value creation in buyer-supplier relationships as well as literature on IT service provision. It makes a first attempt at building a comprehensive model of the factors that enable and inhibit value creation within buyersupplier relationships. A distinction...
Spin-rotation and NMR shielding constants in HCl
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaszuński, Michał, E-mail: michal.jaszunski@icho.edu.pl [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa, Kasprzaka 44 (Poland); Repisky, Michal; Demissie, Taye B.; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Garbacz, Piotr; Jackowski, Karol; Makulski, Włodzimierz [Laboratory of NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)
2013-12-21
The spin-rotation and nuclear magnetic shielding constants are analysed for both nuclei in the HCl molecule. Nonrelativistic ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T) level of approximation show that it is essential to include relativistic effects to obtain spin-rotation constants consistent with accurate experimental data. Our best estimates for the spin-rotation constants of {sup 1}H{sup 35}Cl are C{sub Cl} = −53.914 kHz and C{sub H} = 42.672 kHz (for the lowest rovibrational level). For the chlorine shielding constant, the ab initio value computed including the relativistic corrections, σ(Cl) = 976.202 ppm, provides a new absolute shielding scale; for hydrogen we find σ(H) = 31.403 ppm (both at 300 K). Combining the theoretical results with our new gas-phase NMR experimental data allows us to improve the accuracy of the magnetic dipole moments of both chlorine isotopes. For the hydrogen shielding constant, including relativistic effects yields better agreement between experimental and computed values.
Spin-rotation and NMR shielding constants in HCl
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaszuński, Michał; Repisky, Michal; Demissie, Taye B.; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Garbacz, Piotr; Jackowski, Karol; Makulski, Włodzimierz
2013-01-01
The spin-rotation and nuclear magnetic shielding constants are analysed for both nuclei in the HCl molecule. Nonrelativistic ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T) level of approximation show that it is essential to include relativistic effects to obtain spin-rotation constants consistent with accurate experimental data. Our best estimates for the spin-rotation constants of 1 H 35 Cl are C Cl = −53.914 kHz and C H = 42.672 kHz (for the lowest rovibrational level). For the chlorine shielding constant, the ab initio value computed including the relativistic corrections, σ(Cl) = 976.202 ppm, provides a new absolute shielding scale; for hydrogen we find σ(H) = 31.403 ppm (both at 300 K). Combining the theoretical results with our new gas-phase NMR experimental data allows us to improve the accuracy of the magnetic dipole moments of both chlorine isotopes. For the hydrogen shielding constant, including relativistic effects yields better agreement between experimental and computed values
Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Philippe Uzan
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.
Larson-Miller Constant of Heat-Resistant Steel
Tamura, Manabu; Abe, Fujio; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu
2013-06-01
Long-term rupture data for 79 types of heat-resistant steels including carbon steel, low-alloy steel, high-alloy steel, austenitic stainless steel, and superalloy were analyzed, and a constant for the Larson-Miller (LM) parameter was obtained in the current study for each material. The calculated LM constant, C, is approximately 20 for heat-resistant steels and alloys except for high-alloy martensitic steels with high creep resistance, for which C ≈ 30 . The apparent activation energy was also calculated, and the LM constant was found to be proportional to the apparent activation energy with a high correlation coefficient, which suggests that the LM constant is a material constant possessing intrinsic physical meaning. The contribution of the entropy change to the LM constant is not small, especially for several martensitic steels with large values of C. Deformation of such martensitic steels should accompany a large entropy change of 10 times the gas constant at least, besides the entropy change due to self-diffusion.
Calculation of the Green functions by the coupling constant dispersion relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogomalny, E.B.
1977-01-01
The discontinuities of the Green functions on the cut in the complex plane of the coupling constant are calculated by the steepest descent method. The saddle points are given by the solutions of the classical field equations at those values of the coupling constant for which the classical theory has no ground state. The Green functions at the physical values of the coupling constant are determined by dispersion relations. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Indhar, H.A.B.
2000-01-01
Quinoline and its derivative are chemically and biologically important heterocylic compounds. Its ionization constant (pK/sub a/ values have been previously determined only at 18 or 20 deg. C. We have enhanced this work at different temperatures from 20-50 deg. C at the interval of 5 deg. C. The dissociation constants (pk/sub a/s), and Gibb's free energies of quinoline and 3-aminoquinoline have been determined by UV-Spectrophotometer (lambda 2) equipped with a temperature control of - + 0.1 deg. C at temperatures ranging from 20-50 deg. C in water. The experimental data have been used for the determination of thermodynamic ionization constants (pk /sub a //sup t/) sub t/, concentration ionization constants (pK/sub a//sup M/) and Gibbs's free energy values of pK/sub a/sup M/. The ionization constant values decrease with increase of temperature. The significance of relative magnitudes of the values is discussed and some useful generalization are obtained. The curves are parabolic. A computer program in GW-BASIC calculates the values of dissociation constants. From the pK/sub a/ values, Gibb's free energies are compared and discussed. (author)
Cosmological constant in the quantum multiverse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsen, Grant; Nomura, Yasunori; Roberts, Hannes L. L.
2011-01-01
Recently, a new framework for describing the multiverse has been proposed which is based on the principles of quantum mechanics. The framework allows for well-defined predictions, both regarding global properties of the universe and outcomes of particular experiments, according to a single probability formula. This provides complete unification of the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics. In this paper, we elucidate how cosmological parameters can be calculated in this framework, and study the probability distribution for the value of the cosmological constant. We consider both positive and negative values, and find that the observed value is consistent with the calculated distribution at an order of magnitude level. In particular, in contrast to the case of earlier measure proposals, our framework prefers a positive cosmological constant over a negative one. These results depend only moderately on how we model galaxy formation and life evolution therein.
Production in constant evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lozano, T.
2009-01-01
The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant now has 25 years of operation behind it: a quarter century adding value and demonstrating the reasons why it is one of the most important energy producing facilities in the Spanish power market. Particularly noteworthy is the enterprising spirit of the plant, which has strived to continuously improve with the large number of modernization projects that it has undertaken over the past 25 years. The plant has constantly evolved thanks to the amount of investments made to improve safety and reliability and the perseverance to stay technologically up to date. Efficiency, training and teamwork have been key to the success of the plant over these 25 years of constant change and progress. (Author)
Singh, Parminder; Jindal, Bhavya; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal
2012-07-10
A perturbation of FtsZ assembly dynamics has been shown to inhibit bacterial cytokinesis. In this study, the antibacterial activity of 151 rhodanine compounds was assayed using Bacillus subtilis cells. Of 151 compounds, eight strongly inhibited bacterial proliferation at 2 μM. Subsequently, we used the elongation of B. subtilis cells as a secondary screen to identify potential FtsZ-targeted antibacterial agents. We found that three compounds significantly increased bacterial cell length. One of the three compounds, namely, CCR-11 [(E)-2-thioxo-5-({[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]furan-2-yl}methylene)thiazolidin-4-one], inhibited the assembly and GTPase activity of FtsZ in vitro. CCR-11 bound to FtsZ with a dissociation constant of 1.5 ± 0.3 μM. A docking analysis indicated that CCR-11 may bind to FtsZ in a cavity adjacent to the T7 loop and that short halogen-oxygen, H-bonding, and hydrophobic interactions might be important for the binding of CCR-11 with FtsZ. CCR-11 inhibited the proliferation of B. subtilis cells with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.2 ± 0.2 μM and a minimal inhibitory concentration of 3 μM. It also potently inhibited proliferation of Mycobacterium smegmatis cells. Further, CCR-11 perturbed Z-ring formation in B. subtilis cells; however, it neither visibly affected nucleoid segregation nor altered the membrane integrity of the cells. CCR-11 inhibited HeLa cell proliferation with an IC(50) value of 18.1 ± 0.2 μM (∼15 × IC(50) of B. subtilis cell proliferation). The results suggested that CCR-11 inhibits bacterial cytokinesis by inhibiting FtsZ assembly, and it can be used as a lead molecule to develop FtsZ-targeted antibacterial agents.
Usach, Iris; Ferrer, José-Maria; Peris, José-Esteban
2018-04-17
Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) widely used as a component of High Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) since it is inexpensive, readily absorbed after oral administration and non-teratogenic. In the present work, the mechanism of a previously described pharmacokinetic interaction between NVP and the antidepressant drug nortriptyline (NT) was studied using rat hepatic microsomes. The obtained results showed a competitive inhibition of the NVP metabolism by NT. The three main NVP metabolites (2-OH-NVP, 3-OH-NVP and 12-OH-NVP) where competitively inhibited with similar inhibitory constant values (K i = 4.01, 3.97 and 4.40 μM, respectively). Time-dependent inhibition of the NVP metabolism was also detected, with a 2.5-fold reduction in the IC 50 values of NT for 2-, 3-, and 12-OH-NVP formation when NT was preincubated with the microsomal suspension in the presence of an NADPH-generating system. A concentration-dependent inhibition of the formation of NVP metabolites by the main NT metabolite (10-OH-NT) was also observed, however, the inhibitory potency of 10-OH-NT was much lower than that of the parent drug. The apparent hepatic intrinsic clearance of NVP determined in these in vitro experiments was used to predict the in vivo clearance of NVP using the "well-stirred" and the "parallel-tube" models, resulting in values close to those previously observed in vivo clearance. Finally, a good prediction of the increase in the plasma concentrations of NVP when co-administered with NT was obtained employing the inhibitory constant of NT determined in vitro and the estimated plasma concentration of NT entering the liver. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
A new method to characterize the kinetics of cholinesterases inhibited by carbamates.
Xiao, Qiaoling; Zhou, Huimin; Wei, Hong; Du, Huaqiao; Tan, Wen; Zhan, Yiyi; Pistolozzi, Marco
2017-09-10
The inhibition of cholinesterases (ChEs) by carbamates includes a carbamylation (inhibition) step, in which the drug transfers its carbamate moiety to the active site of the enzyme and a decarbamylation (activity recovery) step, in which the carbamyl group is hydrolyzed from the enzyme. The carbamylation and decarbamylation kinetics decide the extent and the duration of the inhibition, thus the full characterization of candidate carbamate inhibitors requires the measurement of the kinetic constants describing both steps. Carbamylation and decarbamylation rate constants are traditionally measured by two separate set of experiments, thus making the full characterization of candidate inhibitors time-consuming. In this communication we show that by the analysis of the area under the inhibition-time curve of cholinesterases inhibited by carbamates it is possible to calculate the decarbamylation rate constant from the same data traditionally used to characterize only the carbamylation kinetics, therefore it is possible to obtain a full characterization of the inhibition with a single set of experiments. The characterization of the inhibition kinetics of human and dog plasma butyrylcholinesterase and of human acetylcholinesterase by bambuterol and bambuterol monocarbamate enantiomers was used to demonstrate the validity of the approach. The results showed that the proposed method provides reliable estimations of carbamylation and decarbamylation rate constants thus representing a simple and useful approach to reduce the time required for the characterization of carbamate inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Towards Grothendieck constants and LHV models in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hua, Bobo; Li, Ming; Zhang, Tinggui; Zhou, Chunqin; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming
2015-01-01
We adopt a continuous model to estimate the Grothendieck constants. An analytical formula to compute the lower bounds of Grothendieck constants has been explicitly derived for arbitrary orders, which improves previous bounds. Moreover, our lower bound of the Grothendieck constant of order three gives a refined bound of the threshold value for the nonlocality of the two-qubit Werner states. (paper)
Effective cosmological constant within the expanding axion universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pierpoint, M.P., E-mail: M.Pierpoint@lboro.ac.uk; Kusmartsev, F.V., E-mail: F.Kusmartsev@lboro.ac.uk
2014-09-12
We show that the value of an effective cosmological constant, Λ{sub eff}, is influenced by the dimensionality of the space. Results were obtained in the framework of the axion model describing expansion of the inhomogeneous universe. Λ{sub eff} determines the tension of the space (i.e. elasticity), and is relaxed when extra dimensions are accessible. We demonstrate that the effective value of the cosmological constant may be tuned to be consistent with experimental observation. Inhomogeneities considered are representative of temperature fluctuations observed within the cosmic microwave background radiation.
Mechanism of inhibition of rat brain adenosine triphosphatase by mercuric chloride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chetty, C.S.; Rajanna, B.; Rajanna, S.
1989-01-01
Mercuric Chloride (Hg), a neurotoxic compound inhibited ATPase system of rat brain microsomes. Membrane bound enzymes, Na + -K + ATPase (IC 50 = 2.35 x 10 -7M ) and K-paranitrophenyl phosphatase (K-PNPPase) (IC 50 = 2.7 x 10 -7M ) and 3 H-Ouabain binding (IC 50 = 3.3 x 10 -7M ) were inhibited by Hg at micromolar concentrations in a dose dependent manner. Hydrolysis of ATP was linear with time with or without Hg in the reaction mixtures. Altered pH or temperature versus enzyme activity showed higher inhibition by Hg at basic pH (8.0-9.0) and at lower temperatures (17-32 degree C). Activation energy (ΔE) values were increased at 27-37 degree C in the presence of Hg. Kinetic studies of cationic-substrate activation of Na + -K + ATPase and K-PNPPase in the presence of Hg showed significant changes in kinetic constant (K m and V max ). Inhibition of Na + -K + ATPase was partially restored by repeated washings of microsomes. Preincubation with sulfhydryl agents protected Na + -K + ATPase from Hg inhibition. Cumulative inhibition studies with Hg and ouabain indicated possible interaction between the two inhibitors of Na + -K + ATPase by interacting at Na + and K + sites
Simple liquid models with corrected dielectric constants
Fennell, Christopher J.; Li, Libo; Dill, Ken A.
2012-01-01
Molecular simulations often use explicit-solvent models. Sometimes explicit-solvent models can give inaccurate values for basic liquid properties, such as the density, heat capacity, and permittivity, as well as inaccurate values for molecular transfer free energies. Such errors have motivated the development of more complex solvents, such as polarizable models. We describe an alternative here. We give new fixed-charge models of solvents for molecular simulations – water, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and dichloromethane. Normally, such solvent models are parameterized to agree with experimental values of the neat liquid density and enthalpy of vaporization. Here, in addition to those properties, our parameters are chosen to give the correct dielectric constant. We find that these new parameterizations also happen to give better values for other properties, such as the self-diffusion coefficient. We believe that parameterizing fixed-charge solvent models to fit experimental dielectric constants may provide better and more efficient ways to treat solvents in computer simulations. PMID:22397577
Scale solutions and coupling constant in electrodynamics of vector particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbuzov, B.A.; Boos, E.E.; Kurennoy, S.S.
1980-01-01
A new approach in nonrenormalizable gauge theories is studied, the electrodynamics of vector particles being taken as an example. One and two-loop approximations in Schwinger-Dyson set of equations are considered with account for conditions imposed by gauge invariance. It is shown, that solutions with scale asymptotics can occur in this case but only for a particular value of coupling constant. This value in solutions obtained is close to the value of the fine structure constant α=1/137
Constant-roll (quasi-)linear inflation
Karam, A.; Marzola, L.; Pappas, T.; Racioppi, A.; Tamvakis, K.
2018-05-01
In constant-roll inflation, the scalar field that drives the accelerated expansion of the Universe is rolling down its potential at a constant rate. Within this framework, we highlight the relations between the Hubble slow-roll parameters and the potential ones, studying in detail the case of a single-field Coleman-Weinberg model characterised by a non-minimal coupling of the inflaton to gravity. With respect to the exact constant-roll predictions, we find that assuming an approximate slow-roll behaviour yields a difference of Δ r = 0.001 in the tensor-to-scalar ratio prediction. Such a discrepancy is in principle testable by future satellite missions. As for the scalar spectral index ns, we find that the existing 2-σ bound constrains the value of the non-minimal coupling to ξphi ~ 0.29–0.31 in the model under consideration.
Barnes, Luke A.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop
2018-04-01
Models of the very early universe, including inflationary models, are argued to produce varying universe domains with different values of fundamental constants and cosmic parameters. Using the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation code from the EAGLE collaboration, we investigate the effect of the cosmological constant on the formation of galaxies and stars. We simulate universes with values of the cosmological constant ranging from Λ = 0 to Λ0 × 300, where Λ0 is the value of the cosmological constant in our Universe. Because the global star formation rate in our Universe peaks at t = 3.5 Gyr, before the onset of accelerating expansion, increases in Λ of even an order of magnitude have only a small effect on the star formation history and efficiency of the universe. We use our simulations to predict the observed value of the cosmological constant, given a measure of the multiverse. Whether the cosmological constant is successfully predicted depends crucially on the measure. The impact of the cosmological constant on the formation of structure in the universe does not seem to be a sharp enough function of Λ to explain its observed value alone.
Cosmological constant--the weight of the vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, T.
2003-01-01
Recent cosmological observations suggest the existence of a positive cosmological constant Λ with the magnitude Λ(Gℎ/c 3 )∼10 -123 . This review discusses several aspects of the cosmological constant both from the cosmological (Sections 1-6) and field theoretical (Sections 7-11) perspectives. After a brief introduction to the key issues related to cosmological constant and a historical overview, a summary of the kinematics and dynamics of the standard Friedmann model of the universe is provided. The observational evidence for cosmological constant, especially from the supernova results, and the constraints from the age of the universe, structure formation, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) anisotropies and a few others are described in detail, followed by a discussion of the theoretical models (quintessence, tachyonic scalar field, ...) from different perspectives. The latter part of the review (Sections 7-11) concentrates on more conceptual and fundamental aspects of the cosmological constant like some alternative interpretations of the cosmological constant, relaxation mechanisms to reduce the cosmological constant to the currently observed value, the geometrical structure of the de Sitter spacetime, thermodynamics of the de Sitter universe and the role of string theory in the cosmological constant problem
Study on electromagnetic constants of rotational bands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdurazakov, A.A.; Adib, Yu.Sh.; Karakhodzhaev, A.K.
1991-01-01
Values of electromagnetic constant S and rotation bands of odd nuclei with Z=64-70 within the mass number change interval A=153-173 are determined. Values of γ-transition mixing parameter with M1+E2 multipolarity are presented. ρ parameter dependence on mass number A is discussed
Yongquan, Han
2016-10-01
The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan
Mercury Inhibits Soil Enzyme Activity in a Lower Concentration than the Guideline Value.
Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi
2016-01-01
Three soil types - neutral, alkaline and acidic were experimentally contaminated with nine different concentrations of inorganic mercury (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg) to derive effective concentrations of mercury that exert toxicity on soil quality. Bioavailability of mercury in terms of water solubility was lower in acidic soil with higher organic carbon. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nitrification rate were chosen as indicators to assess soil quality. Inorganic mercury significantly inhibited (p mercury contents (EC10) were found to be less than the available safe limits for inorganic mercury which demonstrated inadequacy of existing guideline values.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purohit, D.N.; Goswami, A.K.; Chauhan, R.S.; Ressalan, S.
1999-01-01
A spectrophotometric method for determination of stability constants making use of Job's curves has been developed. Using this method stability constants of Zn(II), Cd(II), Mo(VI) and V(V) complexes of hydroxytriazenes have been determined. For the sake of comparison, values of the stability constants were also determined using Harvey and Manning's method. The values of the stability constants developed by two methods compare well. This new method has been named as Purohit's method. (author)
Inflation with a constant rate of roll
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2015-01-01
We consider an inflationary scenario where the rate of inflaton roll defined by ·· φ/H φ-dot remains constant. The rate of roll is small for slow-roll inflation, while a generic rate of roll leads to the interesting case of 'constant-roll' inflation. We find a general exact solution for the inflaton potential required for such inflaton behaviour. In this model, due to non-slow evolution of background, the would-be decaying mode of linear scalar (curvature) perturbations may not be neglected. It can even grow for some values of the model parameter, while the other mode always remains constant. However, this always occurs for unstable solutions which are not attractors for the given potential. The most interesting particular cases of constant-roll inflation remaining viable with the most recent observational data are quadratic hilltop inflation (with cutoff) and natural inflation (with an additional negative cosmological constant). In these cases even-order slow-roll parameters approach non-negligible constants while the odd ones are asymptotically vanishing in the quasi-de Sitter regime
Calibration of the k- ɛ model constants for use in CFD applications
Glover, Nina; Guillias, Serge; Malki-Epshtein, Liora
2011-11-01
The k- ɛ turbulence model is a popular choice in CFD modelling due to its robust nature and the fact that it has been well validated. However it has been noted in previous research that the k- ɛ model has problems predicting flow separation as well as unconfined and transient flows. The model contains five empirical model constants whose values were found through data fitting for a wide range of flows (Launder 1972) but ad-hoc adjustments are often made to these values depending on the situation being modeled. Here we use the example of flow within a regular street canyon to perform a Bayesian calibration of the model constants against wind tunnel data. This allows us to assess the sensitivity of the CFD model to changes in these constants, find the most suitable values for the constants as well as quantifying the uncertainty related to the constants and the CFD model as a whole.
8. International conference on atomic masses and fundamental constants (AMCO-8)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armbruster, P.; Barber, R.C.; Cohen, E.R.
1990-01-01
The current recommended values of the fundamental physical constants are base on an adjustment carried out in 1986. Physics, however, has not stood still. New measurements have been reported for the Rydberg constant and the gas constant. Improved calculations and measurements of the electron magnetic moment anomaly, a e have provided an improved value for the fine structure constant α = μ 0 ce 2 /2h. The decision to establish uniform international representation of the volts and ohms in terms of the Josephson effect and the quantized Hall resistance, respectively, stimulated new measurements of 2e/h and e/h 2 . These new data have significantly changed the error-space of the adjustment of the physical constants. In the 1986 adjustments, the one-standard deviation uncertainty in α was 0.045 ppm; the university of Washington measurements of a e and the final results of Kinoshita's 20-year program of numerical evaluation of the eight order QED diagrams yield a new value with an uncertainty of 0.0069 ppm. Combined with the Rydberg constant and the proton-electron mass ratio this means that N Λ h = M p α 2 c/(2(m p /m e )R ∞ ) is defined with an uncertainty of 0.025 ppm
Massa, Enrico; Nicolaus, Arnold
2011-04-01
the mass-energy-frequency equivalence. Another effort is to monitor the stability of the Pt-Ir prototype: the technologies described in the present issue can be refined and finalized to calculate the mass variation of 1 kg 28Si spheres by monitoring the surface evolution without weighing them on a balance. The last activity is the determination of the mass of a 28Si sphere by electrical measurements using a watt balance and without any reference to the Pt-Ir prototype. In this framework, it will be necessary to demonstrate the mutual consistency and the stability of both the electrical and crystal mise en pratique of a kilogram definition based on a conventional value of the Planck constant. A related issue is to develop suitable procedures and protocols to disseminate the unit of mass from the new realizations. Since the molar Planck constant is well known via the measurement of the Rydberg constant, the accurate measurement of NA also provides an accurate and independent determination of the Planck constant, h. A comparison of the values of the Planck constant obtained via the watt-balance experiment and the NA determination tests quantum mechanics. In fact, the watt-balance value of h depends on solid state physics through the theories of Josephson and quantum Hall effects, whereas the value of h derived from NA depends on atomic physics through the energy level differences in hydrogen and deuterium, whose associated transition frequencies yield information on the Rydberg constant. Grateful thanks are addressed to H-J Pohl for his outstanding project management in Russia, to A K Kaliteevski and his colleagues of the Central Design Bureau of Machine Building and the Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances for their dedication and the punctual delivery of the enriched material, to H Riemann and his staff of the Institut für Kristallzüchtung for the crystal growth, to our directors for their advice and financial support, and to our colleagues for their
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crow, J. Allen; Bittles, Victoria; Herring, Katye L.; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K.
2012-01-01
Oxons are the bioactivated metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides formed via cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-catalyzed desulfuration of the parent compound. Oxons react covalently with the active site serine residue of serine hydrolases, thereby inactivating the enzyme. A number of serine hydrolases other than acetylcholinesterase, the canonical target of oxons, have been reported to react with and be inhibited by oxons. These off-target serine hydrolases include carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), CES2, and monoacylglycerol lipase. Carboxylesterases (CES, EC 3.1.1.1) metabolize a number of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds containing ester, amide, and thioester bonds and are important in the metabolism of many pharmaceuticals. Monoglyceride lipase (MGL, EC 3.1.1.23) hydrolyzes monoglycerides including the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The physiological consequences and toxicity related to the inhibition of off-target serine hydrolases by oxons due to chronic, low level environmental exposures are poorly understood. Here, we determined the potency of inhibition (IC 50 values; 15 min preincubation, enzyme and inhibitor) of recombinant CES1, CES2, and MGL by chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon. The order of potency for these three oxons with CES1, CES2, and MGL was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon, although the difference in potency for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1 and CES2 did not reach statistical significance. We also determined the bimolecular rate constants (k inact /K I ) for the covalent reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon with CES1 and CES2. Consistent with the results for the IC 50 values, the order of reactivity for each of the three oxons with CES1 and CES2 was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon. The bimolecular rate constant for the reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon with MGL was also determined and was less than the values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1 and CES2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crow, J. Allen; Bittles, Victoria; Herring, Katye L.; Borazjani, Abdolsamad [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Potter, Philip M. [Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Ross, Matthew K., E-mail: mross@cvm.msstate.edu [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)
2012-01-01
Oxons are the bioactivated metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides formed via cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-catalyzed desulfuration of the parent compound. Oxons react covalently with the active site serine residue of serine hydrolases, thereby inactivating the enzyme. A number of serine hydrolases other than acetylcholinesterase, the canonical target of oxons, have been reported to react with and be inhibited by oxons. These off-target serine hydrolases include carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), CES2, and monoacylglycerol lipase. Carboxylesterases (CES, EC 3.1.1.1) metabolize a number of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds containing ester, amide, and thioester bonds and are important in the metabolism of many pharmaceuticals. Monoglyceride lipase (MGL, EC 3.1.1.23) hydrolyzes monoglycerides including the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The physiological consequences and toxicity related to the inhibition of off-target serine hydrolases by oxons due to chronic, low level environmental exposures are poorly understood. Here, we determined the potency of inhibition (IC{sub 50} values; 15 min preincubation, enzyme and inhibitor) of recombinant CES1, CES2, and MGL by chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon. The order of potency for these three oxons with CES1, CES2, and MGL was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon, although the difference in potency for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1 and CES2 did not reach statistical significance. We also determined the bimolecular rate constants (k{sub inact}/K{sub I}) for the covalent reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon with CES1 and CES2. Consistent with the results for the IC{sub 50} values, the order of reactivity for each of the three oxons with CES1 and CES2 was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon. The bimolecular rate constant for the reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon with MGL was also determined and was less than the values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahamad, Ishtiaque; Prasad, Rajendra; Quraishi, M.A.
2010-01-01
Inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution by Pheniramine drug was studied using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The values of activation energy (E a ) and different thermodynamic parameters such as adsorption equilibrium constant (K ads ), free energy of adsorption (ΔG ads o ), adsorption enthalpy (ΔH ads o ) and adsorption entropy (ΔS ads o ) were calculated and discussed. The adsorption process of studied drug on mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that Pheniramine is mixed-type inhibitor. Further, theoretical calculations were carried out and relations between computed parameters and experimental inhibition efficiency were discussed.
Cosmological constant is a conserved charge
Chernyavsky, Dmitry; Hajian, Kamal
2018-06-01
Cosmological constant can always be considered as the on-shell value of a top form in gravitational theories. The top form is the field strength of a gauge field, and the theory enjoys a gauge symmetry. We show that cosmological constant is the charge of the global part of the gauge symmetry, and is conserved irrespective of the dynamics of the metric and other fields. In addition, we introduce its conjugate chemical potential, and prove the generalized first law of thermodynamics which includes variation of cosmological constant as a conserved charge. We discuss how our new term in the first law is related to the volume–pressure term. In parallel with the seminal Wald entropy, this analysis suggests that pressure can also be considered as a conserved charge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCruden, D.C.; Connell, J.M.C.; Alexander, W.D.; Hilditch, T.E.
1985-01-01
Thyroidal binding of iodide was studied by kinetic analysis of [ 123 ]iodide uptake and its discharge by perchlorate in 80 hyperthyroid subjects receiving antithyroid drug therapy. Five dosage regimens ranging from 5 mg carbimazole twice daily to 15 mg methimazole twice daily were studied. Binding inhibition was estimated at 5-7 h after drug as an index of the mean effect of the 12 hourly regimen. In all cases, except one in the lowest dose group, binding was found to be markedly reduced with mean binding rates ranging from 0.002 to 0.020 min -1 (normal > 0.15 min -1 ). The net clearance of iodide in the lowest dose group was reduced to a mean value near the upper limit of the euthyroid range, whereas in the highest dose group it lay at the lower limit of the euthyroid range. These results were reflected in the serum thyroid hormone response. There was a reducing incidence of inadequate control of hyperthyroidism and an increasing incidence of hypothyroidism with increasing thiourylene dose. The exit rate constant of free iodide for the various doses showed values from 0.048 to 0.055 min -1 . Correpsonding mean values for the discharge rate constant after perchlorate were 0.087 to 0.105 min -1 . This suggests that perchlorate increases the rate of iodide release from the thyroid gland. Studies at a later interval after drug (12-14 h) showed no change in discharge rate constant. This leads to the conclusion that perchlorate may further inhibit iodide binding in subjects receiving antithyroid drug therapy. (author)
A nuclear data approach for the Hubble constant measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pritychenko Boris
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An extraordinary number of Hubble constant measurements challenges physicists with selection of the best numerical value. The standard U.S. Nuclear Data Program (USNDP codes and procedures have been applied to resolve this issue. The nuclear data approach has produced the most probable or recommended Hubble constant value of 67.2(69 (km/sec/Mpc. This recommended value is based on the last 20 years of experimental research and includes contributions from different types of measurements. The present result implies (14.55 ± 1.51 × 109 years as a rough estimate for the age of the Universe. The complete list of recommended results is given and possible implications are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goepfert, M.; Mack, G.
1981-07-01
We study the 3-dimensional pure U(1) lattice gauge theory with Villain action which is related to the 3-dimensional Z-ferro-magnet by an exact duality transformation (and also to a Coulomb system). We show that its string tension α is nonzero for all values of the coupling constant g 2 , and obeys and bound α >= const x msub(D)β -1 for small ag 2 , with β = 4π 2 /g 2 and m 2 sub(D) = (2β/a 3 )esup(-βupsiloncb(0)/2) (a = lattice spacing). A continuum limit a → 0, msub(D) fixed, exists and represents a scalar free field theory of mass msub(D). The string tension αmsub(D) -2 in physical units tends to infinite in this limit. Characteristic differences in the behavior of the model for large and small coupling constant ag 2 are found. Renormalization group aspects are discussed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwob, C
2006-12-15
This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author concerning highly accurate atomic spectroscopy applied for the determination of fundamental constants. A pure optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D 2-photon transitions in atomic hydrogen and deuterium has been performed. The experimental setting-up is described as well as the data analysis. Optimized values for the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts have been deduced (R = 109737.31568516 (84) cm{sup -1}). An experiment devoted to the determination of the fine structure constant with an aimed relative uncertainty of 10{sup -9} began in 1999. This experiment is based on the fact that Bloch oscillations in a frequency chirped optical lattice are a powerful tool to transfer coherently many photon momenta to the atoms. We have used this method to measure accurately the ratio h/m(Rb). The measured value of the fine structure constant is {alpha}{sub -1} = 137.03599884 (91) with a relative uncertainty of 6.7*10{sup -9}. The future and perspectives of this experiment are presented. This document presented before an academic board will allow his author to manage research work and particularly to tutor thesis students. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ujdak, R.J.; Jones, R.L.; Dorfman, L.M.
1976-01-01
Absolute rate constants have been determined by the pulse radiolysis technique for several electrophilic reactions of the benzyl, the benzhydryl, and the trityl cation in 1,2-dichloroethane solution. The rate constants for the reactions of these carbonium ions with chloride ion, with bromide ion, and with iodide ion are all very nearly the same, namely 6 x 10 10 M -1 s -1 at 24 0 C. The values very likely represent the diffusion controlled limit for the ion combination reactions. The rate constants for the reactions with triethylamine, tri-n-propylamine, and tri-n-butylamine range from 2.0 x 10 9 to 7 x 10 6 M -1 s -1 at 24 0 C. With increasing phenyl substitution, the decreasing trend in the magnitude of the rate constant is consistent with the combined electronic and steric effects. With increasing size of the amine, the decrease in the value of the rate constant seems to indicate that the steric effect predominates. The values of the rate constants for reactions of benzyl and benzhydryl cation with methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol indicate the following. The rate constant is higher for reaction with the alcohol dimer in solution than with alcohol monomer. The rate constants for reaction with alcohol monomer have values of 1 x 10 8 M -1 s -1 or lower
A Memorandum Report: Physical Constants of MCE
2016-08-01
the density and surface tension. In effect, this constant is a corrected molar volume = P = MS / = S / where P = Parachor M = molar volume ...3 3. Vapor Pressure of MCE Calculated from the Experimental Data by Method of Least Squares...values were obtained by averaging the determinations for each sample separately, and then averaging those values. **No average was calculated due to
Procedures for determining MATMOD-4V material constants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lowe, T.C.
1993-11-01
The MATMOD-4V constitutive relations were developed from the original MATMOD model to extend the range of nonelastic deformation behaviors represented to include transient phenomena such as strain softening. Improvements in MATMOD-4V increased the number of independent material constants and the difficulty in determining their values. Though the constitutive relations are conceptually simple, their form and procedures for obtaining their constants can be complex. This paper reviews in detail the experiments, numerical procedures, and assumptions that have been used to determine a complete set of MATMOD-4V constants for high purity aluminum.
Direct determinations of the πNN coupling constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ericson, T.E.O.; ); Loiseau, B.
1998-01-01
A novel extrapolation method has been used to deduce directly the charged πNN coupling constant from backward np differential scattering cross sections. The extracted value, g c 2 = 14.52(026)is higher than the indirectly deduced values obtained in nucleon-nucleon energy-dependent partial-wave analyses. Our preliminary direct value from a reanalysis of the GMO sum-rule points to an intermediate value of g c 2 about 13.97(30). (author)
Vippagunta, S R; Dorn, A; Matile, H; Bhattacharjee, A K; Karle, J M; Ellis, W Y; Ridley, R G; Vennerstrom, J L
1999-11-04
Considerable data now support the hypothesis that chloroquine (CQ)-hematin binding in the parasite food vacuole leads to inhibition of hematin polymerization and parasite death by hematin poisoning. To better understand the structural specificity of CQ-hematin binding, 13 CQ analogues were chosen and their hematin binding affinity, inhibition of hematin polymerization, and inhibition of parasite growth were measured. As determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), the stoichiometry data and exothermic binding enthalpies indicated that, like CQ, these analogues bind to two or more hematin mu-oxo dimers in a cofacial pi-pi sandwich-type complex. Association constants (K(a)'s) ranged from 0.46 to 2.9 x 10(5) M(-1) compared to 4.0 x 10(5) M(-1) for CQ. Remarkably, we were not able to measure any significant interaction between hematin mu-oxo dimer and 11, the 6-chloro analogue of CQ. This result indicates that the 7-chloro substituent in CQ is a critical structural determinant in its binding affinity to hematin mu-oxo dimer. Molecular modeling experiments reinforce the view that the enthalpically favorable pi-pi interaction observed in the CQ-hematin mu-oxo dimer complex derives from a favorable alignment of the out-of-plane pi-electron density in CQ and hematin mu-oxo dimer at the points of intermolecular contact. For 4-aminoquinolines related to CQ, our data suggest that electron-withdrawing functional groups at the 7-position of the quinoline ring are required for activity against both hematin polymerization and parasite growth and that chlorine substitution at position 7 is optimal. Our results also confirm that the CQ diaminoalkyl side chain, especially the aliphatic tertiary nitrogen atom, is an important structural determinant in CQ drug resistance. For CQ analogues 1-13, the lack of correlation between K(a) and hematin polymerization IC(50) values suggests that other properties of the CQ-hematin mu-oxo dimer complex, rather than its association
Constant resolution of time-dependent Hartree--Fock phase ambiguity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichtner, P.C.; Griffin, J.J.; Schultheis, H.; Schultheis, R.; Volkov, A.B.
1978-01-01
The customary time-dependent Hartree--Fock problem is shown to be ambiguous up to an arbitrary function of time additive to H/sub HF/, and, consequently, up to an arbitrary time-dependent phase for the solution, PHI(t). The ''constant'' (H)'' phase is proposed as the best resolution of this ambiguity. It leads to the following attractive features: (a) the time-dependent Hartree--Fock (TDHF) Hamiltonian, H/sub HF/, becomes a quantity whose expectation value is equal to the average energy and, hence, constant in time; (b) eigenstates described exactly by determinants, have time-dependent Hartree--Fock solutions identical with the exact time-dependent solutions; (c) among all possible TDHF solutions this choice minimizes the norm of the quantity (H--i dirac constant delta/delta t) operating on the ket PHI, and guarantees optimal time evolution over an infinitesimal period; (d) this choice corresponds both to the stationary value of the absolute difference between (H) and (i dirac constant delta/delta t) and simultaneously to its absolute minimal value with respect to choice of the time-dependent phase. The source of the ambiguity is discussed. It lies in the time-dependent generalization of the freedom to transform unitarily among the single-particle states of a determinant at the (physically irrelevant for stationary states) cost of altering only a factor of unit magnitude
Strong coupling constant extraction from high-multiplicity Z +jets observables
Johnson, Mark; Maître, Daniel
2018-03-01
We present a strong coupling constant extraction at next-to-leading order QCD accuracy using ATLAS Z +2 ,3,4 jets data. This is the first extraction using processes with a dependency on high powers of the coupling constant. We obtain values of the strong coupling constant at the Z mass compatible with the world average and with uncertainties commensurate with other next-to-leading order extractions at hadron colliders. Our most conservative result for the strong coupling constant is αS(MZ)=0.117 8-0.0043+0.0051 .
Sierra, Miguel A; Gómez-Gallego, Mar; Alcázar, Roberto; Lucena, Juan J; Yunta, Felipe; García-Marco, Sonia
2004-11-07
The effect of the length and the structure of the tether on the chelating ability of EDDHA-like chelates have not been established. In this work, PDDHA (propylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid), BDDHA (butylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid) and XDDHA (p-xylylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid) have been obtained and their chemical behaviour has been studied and compared with that of EDDHA following our methodology. The purity of the chelating agents, and their protonation, Ca(II), Mg(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II) stability constants and pM values have been determined. The stability constants and pM values indicate that EDDHA forms the most stable chelates followed by PDDHA. However, the differences among the pFe values are small when a nutrient solution is used, and in these conditions the XDDHA/Fe(III) chelate is the most stable. The results obtained in this work indicate that all the chelating agents studied can be used as iron chlorosis correctors and they can be applied to soil/plant systems.
Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer universal constants generalized
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazaimeh, A.H.
1992-01-01
Weak- and moderate-coupling BCS superconductivity theory is shown to admit a more general T c formula, wherein T c approaches zero somewhat faster than with the familiar BCS T c -formula. This theory leads to a departure from the universal behavior of the gap-to-T c ratio and is consistent with some recent empirical values for exotic superconductors. This ratio is smaller than the universal BCS value of 3.53 in a way which is consistent with weak electron-boson coupling. Similarly, other universal constants related to specific heat and critical magnetic field are modified. In this dissertation, The author investigates the latter constants for weak-coupling and moderate-coupling and carry out detailed comparisons with experimental data for the cuprates and with the corresponding predictions of strong-coupling theory. This effort is to elucidate the nature of these superconductors with regards to coupling strength within an electron-boson mechanism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahamad, Ishtiaque [Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Prasad, Rajendra [Department of Chemistry, SGB Amravati University, Amravati 444 602 (India); Quraishi, M.A., E-mail: maquraishi@rediffmail.co [Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)
2010-09-15
Inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution by Pheniramine drug was studied using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The values of activation energy (E{sub a}) and different thermodynamic parameters such as adsorption equilibrium constant (K{sub ads}), free energy of adsorption ({Delta}G{sub ads}{sup o}), adsorption enthalpy ({Delta}H{sub ads}{sup o}) and adsorption entropy ({Delta}S{sub ads}{sup o}) were calculated and discussed. The adsorption process of studied drug on mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that Pheniramine is mixed-type inhibitor. Further, theoretical calculations were carried out and relations between computed parameters and experimental inhibition efficiency were discussed.
Impact of Constant Rate Factor on Objective Video Quality Assessment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juraj Bienik
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of constant rate factor value on the objective video quality assessment using PSNR and SSIM metrics. Compression efficiency of H.264 and H.265 codecs defined by different Constant rate factor (CRF values was tested. The assessment was done for eight types of video sequences depending on content for High Definition (HD, Full HD (FHD and Ultra HD (UHD resolution. Finally, performance of both mentioned codecs with emphasis on compression ratio and efficiency of coding was compared.
Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II subassembly types
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.
1986-01-01
Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel
Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II subassembly types
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.
1987-01-01
Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel. (author)
Gain control through divisive inhibition prevents abrupt transition to chaos in a neural mass model.
Papasavvas, Christoforos A; Wang, Yujiang; Trevelyan, Andrew J; Kaiser, Marcus
2015-09-01
Experimental results suggest that there are two distinct mechanisms of inhibition in cortical neuronal networks: subtractive and divisive inhibition. They modulate the input-output function of their target neurons either by increasing the input that is needed to reach maximum output or by reducing the gain and the value of maximum output itself, respectively. However, the role of these mechanisms on the dynamics of the network is poorly understood. We introduce a novel population model and numerically investigate the influence of divisive inhibition on network dynamics. Specifically, we focus on the transitions from a state of regular oscillations to a state of chaotic dynamics via period-doubling bifurcations. The model with divisive inhibition exhibits a universal transition rate to chaos (Feigenbaum behavior). In contrast, in an equivalent model without divisive inhibition, transition rates to chaos are not bounded by the universal constant (non-Feigenbaum behavior). This non-Feigenbaum behavior, when only subtractive inhibition is present, is linked to the interaction of bifurcation curves in the parameter space. Indeed, searching the parameter space showed that such interactions are impossible when divisive inhibition is included. Therefore, divisive inhibition prevents non-Feigenbaum behavior and, consequently, any abrupt transition to chaos. The results suggest that the divisive inhibition in neuronal networks could play a crucial role in keeping the states of order and chaos well separated and in preventing the onset of pathological neural dynamics.
Linearized stability analysis of thin-shell wormholes with a cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lobo, Francisco S N; Crawford, Paulo
2004-01-01
Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes in the presence of a cosmological constant are constructed applying the cut-and-paste technique implemented by Visser. Using the Darmois-Israel formalism the surface stresses, which are concentrated at the wormhole throat, are determined. This construction allows us to apply a dynamical analysis to the throat, considering linearized radial perturbations around static solutions. For a large positive cosmological constant, i.e., for the Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution, the region of stability is significantly increased, relatively to the null cosmological constant case, analysed by Poisson and Visser. With a negative cosmological constant, i.e., the Schwarzschild-anti de Sitter solution, the region of stability is decreased. In particular, considering static solutions with a generic cosmological constant, the weak and dominant energy conditions are violated, while for a 0 ≤ 3M the null and strong energy conditions are satisfied. The surface pressure of the static solution is strictly positive for the Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-anti de Sitter spacetimes, but takes negative values, assuming a surface tension in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution, for high values of the cosmological constant and the wormhole throat radius
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueger, E; Nistler, W; Weirauch, W [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)
1997-04-01
Using a special high-precision apparatus at ILL the quotient h/m{sub n} (h Planck constant, m{sub n} neutron mass) has been measured. The value measured for h/m{sub n} leads to {alpha}{sup -1} = 137.03601082(524) (relative uncertainty: 3.9{center_dot}10{sup -8}) It was the first time that this fundamental constant has been determined by means of neutrons. The experiment, which had been running since 1981 in a preliminary version and since 1987 in the final version, which was finished in December 1996, is described. (author).
Effects of quantum entropy on bag constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, D.E.; Tawfik, A.
2012-01-01
The effects of quantum entropy on the bag constant are studied at low temperatures and for small chemical potentials. The inclusion of the quantum entropy of the quarks in the equation of state provides the hadronic bag with an additional heat which causes a decrease in the effective latent heat inside the bag. We have considered two types of baryonic bags, Δ and Ω - . In both cases we have found that the bag constant without the quantum entropy almost does not change with temperature and quark chemical potential. The contribution from the quantum entropy to the equation of state clearly decreases the value of the bag constant. Furthermore, we construct states densities for quarks using the 'Thomas Fermi model' and take into consideration a thermal potential for the interaction. (author)
Simulation of the inhibition of water α-radiolysis via H2 addition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lertnaisat, Phantira; Katsumura, Yosuke; Mukai, Satoru; Umehara, Ryuji; Shimizu, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masashi
2014-01-01
The continuous formation of H 2 , O 2 , and H 2 O 2 observed in water during α-radiolysis may be suppressed by the addition of H 2 above the threshold hydrogen concentration (THC). Using the FACSIMILE simulation code, water radiolysis was reproduced in order to determine the THC and clarify the mechanism at room temperature. Using the reaction set and rate constants reported by Ershov and Gordeev together with the primary yields for water decomposition products generated using 12 MeV α-particles, the THC was found to be 165 μM. Further simulation results clearly showed that the value of THC is strongly dependent on the reaction set and rate constants. In addition, a possible mechanism involving a chain reaction governed by the two reactions OH + H 2 → H + H 2 O and H + H 2 O 2 → OH + H 2 O was proposed. Furthermore, the same inhibition effect was found when a high-temperature simulation (300degC) was performed, but the concentration range and THC were much smaller than the values obtained at room temperature. The importance of the reverse reaction OH + H 2 → H + H 2 O was also investigated. (author)
On determining dose rate constants spectroscopically
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, M.; Rogers, D. W. O.
2013-01-01
Purpose: To investigate several aspects of the Chen and Nath spectroscopic method of determining the dose rate constants of 125 I and 103 Pd seeds [Z. Chen and R. Nath, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 6089–6104 (2010)] including the accuracy of using a line or dual-point source approximation as done in their method, and the accuracy of ignoring the effects of the scattered photons in the spectra. Additionally, the authors investigate the accuracy of the literature's many different spectra for bare, i.e., unencapsulated 125 I and 103 Pd sources. Methods: Spectra generated by 14 125 I and 6 103 Pd seeds were calculated in vacuo at 10 cm from the source in a 2.7 × 2.7 × 0.05 cm 3 voxel using the EGSnrc BrachyDose Monte Carlo code. Calculated spectra used the initial photon spectra recommended by AAPM's TG-43U1 and NCRP (National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements) Report 58 for the 125 I seeds, or TG-43U1 and NNDC(2000) (National Nuclear Data Center, 2000) for 103 Pd seeds. The emitted spectra were treated as coming from a line or dual-point source in a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the dose rate constant. The TG-43U1 definition of the dose rate constant was used. These calculations were performed using the full spectrum including scattered photons or using only the main peaks in the spectrum as done experimentally. Statistical uncertainties on the air kerma/history and the dose rate/history were ⩽0.2%. The dose rate constants were also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of the full seed model. Results: The ratio of the intensity of the 31 keV line relative to that of the main peak in 125 I spectra is, on average, 6.8% higher when calculated with the NCRP Report 58 initial spectrum vs that calculated with TG-43U1 initial spectrum. The 103 Pd spectra exhibit an average 6.2% decrease in the 22.9 keV line relative to the main peak when calculated with the TG-43U1 rather than the NNDC(2000) initial spectrum. The measured values from three different
Elastic constants of diamond from molecular dynamics simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Guangtu; Van Workum, Kevin; Schall, J David; Harrison, Judith A
2006-01-01
The elastic constants of diamond between 100 and 1100 K have been calculated for the first time using molecular dynamics and the second-generation, reactive empirical bond-order potential (REBO). This version of the REBO potential was used because it was redesigned to be able to model the elastic properties of diamond and graphite at 0 K while maintaining its original capabilities. The independent elastic constants of diamond, C 11 , C 12 , and C 44 , and the bulk modulus were all calculated as a function of temperature, and the results from the three different methods are in excellent agreement. By extrapolating the elastic constant data to 0 K, it is clear that the values obtained here agree with the previously calculated 0 K elastic constants. Because the second-generation REBO potential was fit to obtain better solid-state force constants for diamond and graphite, the agreement with the 0 K elastic constants is not surprising. In addition, the functional form of the second-generation REBO potential is able to qualitatively model the functional dependence of the elastic constants and bulk modulus of diamond at non-zero temperatures. In contrast, reactive potentials based on other functional forms do not reproduce the correct temperature dependence of the elastic constants. The second-generation REBO potential also correctly predicts that diamond has a negative Cauchy pressure in the temperature range examined
Gravitational domain walls and the dynamics of the gravitational constant G
Bunster, Claudio; Gomberoff, Andrés
2017-07-01
From the point of view of elementary particle physics, the gravitational constant G is extraordinarily small. This has led to asking whether it could have decayed to its present value from an initial one commensurate with microscopical units. A mechanism that leads to such a decay is proposed herein. It is based on assuming that G may take different values within regions of the universe separated by a novel kind of domain wall, a "G -wall." The idea is implemented by introducing a gauge potential Aμ ν ρ, and its conjugate D , which determines the value of G as an integration constant rather than a fundamental constant. The value of G jumps when one goes through a G -wall. The procedure extends one previously developed for the cosmological constant, but the generalization is far from straightforward: (i) The intrinsic geometry of a G -wall is not the same as seen from its two sides because the second law of black hole thermodynamics mandates that the jump in G must cause a discontinuity in the scale of length. (ii) The size of the decay step in G is controlled by a function G (D ) which may be chosen so as to diminish the value of G towards the asymptote G =0 . It is shown that: (i) The dynamics of the gravitational field with G treated as a dynamical variable, coupled to G -walls and matter, follows from an action principle, which is given. (ii) A particle that impinges on a G -wall may be refracted or reflected. (iii) The various forces between two particles change when a G -wall is inserted in between them. (iv) G -walls may be nucleated trough tunneling and thermal effects, whose semiclassical probabilities are evaluated. (v) If the action principle is constructed properly, the entropy of a black hole increases when the value of the gravitational constant is changed through the absorption of a G-wall by the hole.
Fundamental constants and tests of theory in Rydberg states of hydrogenlike ions.
Jentschura, Ulrich D; Mohr, Peter J; Tan, Joseph N; Wundt, Benedikt J
2008-04-25
A comparison of precision frequency measurements to quantum electrodynamics (QED) predictions for Rydberg states of hydrogenlike ions can yield information on values of fundamental constants and test theory. With the results of a calculation of a key QED contribution reported here, the uncertainty in the theory of the energy levels is reduced to a level where such a comparison can yield an improved value of the Rydberg constant.
Fundamental Constants and Tests of Theory in Rydberg States of Hydrogenlike Ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jentschura, Ulrich D.; Mohr, Peter J.; Tan, Joseph N.; Wundt, Benedikt J.
2008-01-01
A comparison of precision frequency measurements to quantum electrodynamics (QED) predictions for Rydberg states of hydrogenlike ions can yield information on values of fundamental constants and test theory. With the results of a calculation of a key QED contribution reported here, the uncertainty in the theory of the energy levels is reduced to a level where such a comparison can yield an improved value of the Rydberg constant
Benjamin, Elfrida R; Pruthi, Farhana; Olanrewaju, Shakira; Ilyin, Victor I; Crumley, Gregg; Kutlina, Elena; Valenzano, Kenneth J; Woodward, Richard M
2006-02-01
Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaChs) are relevant targets for pain, epilepsy, and a variety of neurological and cardiac disorders. Traditionally, it has been difficult to develop structure-activity relationships for NaCh inhibitors due to rapid channel kinetics and state-dependent compound interactions. Membrane potential (Vm) dyes in conjunction with a high-throughput fluorescence imaging plate reader (FLIPR) offer a satisfactory 1st-tier solution. Thus, the authors have developed a FLIPR Vm assay of rat Nav1.2 NaCh. Channels were opened by addition of veratridine, and Vm dye responses were measured. The IC50 values from various structural classes of compounds were compared to the resting state binding constant (Kr)and inactivated state binding constant (Ki)obtained using patch-clamp electrophysiology (EP). The FLIPR values correlated with Ki but not Kr. FLIPRIC50 values fell within 0.1-to 1.5-fold of EP Ki values, indicating that the assay generally reports use-dependent inhibition rather than resting state block. The Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC, Sigma) was screened. Confirmed hits arose from diverse classes such as dopamine receptor antagonists, serotonin transport inhibitors, and kinase inhibitors. These data suggest that NaCh inhibition is inherent in a diverse set of biologically active molecules and may warrant counterscreening NaChs to avoid unwanted secondary pharmacology.
Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure
Cruz, Silvia L; Orta-Salazar, Gerardo; Gauthereau, Marcia Y; Millan-Perez Peña, Lourdes; Salinas-Stefanón, Eduardo M
2003-01-01
Toluene is an industrial solvent widely used as a drug of abuse, which can produce sudden sniffing death due to cardiac arrhythmias. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that toluene inhibits cardiac sodium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes transfected with Nav1.5 cDNA and in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. In oocytes, toluene inhibited sodium currents (INa+) in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 274 μM (confidence limits: 141–407μM). The inhibition was complete, voltage-independent, and slowly reversible. Toluene had no effect on: (i) the shape of the I–V curves; (ii) the reversal potential of Na+; and (iii) the steady-state inactivation. The slow recovery time constant from inactivation of INa+ decreased with toluene exposure, while the fast recovery time constant remained unchanged. Block of INa+ by toluene was use- and frequency-dependent. In rat cardiac myocytes, 300 μM toluene inhibited the sodium current (INa+) by 62%; this inhibition was voltage independent. These results suggest that toluene binds to cardiac Na+ channels in the open state and unbinds either when channels move between inactivated states or from an inactivated to a closed state. The use- and frequency-dependent block of INa+ by toluene might be responsible, at least in part, for its arrhythmogenic effect. PMID:14534149
Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant
Bao, Ning; Bousso, Raphael; Jordan, Stephen; Lackey, Brad
2017-11-01
Denef and Douglas have observed that in certain landscape models the problem of finding small values of the cosmological constant is a large instance of a problem that is hard for the complexity class NP (Nondeterministic Polynomial-time). The number of elementary operations (quantum gates) needed to solve this problem by brute force search exceeds the estimated computational capacity of the observable Universe. Here we describe a way out of this puzzling circumstance: despite being NP-hard, the problem of finding a small cosmological constant can be attacked by more sophisticated algorithms whose performance vastly exceeds brute force search. In fact, in some parameter regimes the average-case complexity is polynomial. We demonstrate this by explicitly finding a cosmological constant of order 10-120 in a randomly generated 1 09-dimensional Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Kachru landscape.
Semi-empirical proton binding constants for natural organic matter
Matynia, Anthony; Lenoir, Thomas; Causse, Benjamin; Spadini, Lorenzo; Jacquet, Thierry; Manceau, Alain
2010-03-01
Average proton binding constants ( KH,i) for structure models of humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids were estimated semi-empirically by breaking down the macromolecules into reactive structural units (RSUs), and calculating KH,i values of the RSUs using linear free energy relationships (LFER) of Hammett. Predicted log KH,COOH and log KH,Ph-OH are 3.73 ± 0.13 and 9.83 ± 0.23 for HA, and 3.80 ± 0.20 and 9.87 ± 0.31 for FA. The predicted constants for phenolic-type sites (Ph-OH) are generally higher than those derived from potentiometric titrations, but the difference may not be significant in view of the considerable uncertainty of the acidity constants determined from acid-base measurements at high pH. The predicted constants for carboxylic-type sites agree well with titration data analyzed with Model VI (4.10 ± 0.16 for HA, 3.20 ± 0.13 for FA; Tipping, 1998), the Impermeable Sphere model (3.50-4.50 for HA; Avena et al., 1999), and the Stockholm Humic Model (4.10 ± 0.20 for HA, 3.50 ± 0.40 for FA; Gustafsson, 2001), but differ by about one log unit from those obtained by Milne et al. (2001) with the NICA-Donnan model (3.09 ± 0.51 for HA, 2.65 ± 0.43 for FA), and used to derive recommended generic values. To clarify this ambiguity, 10 high-quality titration data from Milne et al. (2001) were re-analyzed with the new predicted equilibrium constants. The data are described equally well with the previous and new sets of values ( R2 ⩾ 0.98), not necessarily because the NICA-Donnan model is overparametrized, but because titration lacks the sensitivity needed to quantify the full binding properties of humic substances. Correlations between NICA-Donnan parameters are discussed, but general progress is impeded by the unknown number of independent parameters that can be varied during regression of a model fit to titration data. The high consistency between predicted and experimental KH,COOH values, excluding those of Milne et al. (2001), gives faith in the proposed
Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation
Cveticanin, L.
2011-02-01
In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics
Elastic constants of a Laves phase compound: C15 NbCr2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ormeci, A.; Chu, F.; Wills, J.M.; Chen, S.P.; Albers, R.C.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E.
1997-01-01
The single-crystal elastic constants of C15 NbCr 2 have been computed by using a first-principles, self-consistent, full-potential total energy method. From these single-crystal elastic constants the isotropic elastic moduli are calculated using the Voigt and Reuss averages. The calculated values are in fair agreement with the experimental values. The implications of the results are discussed with regards to Poisson's ratio and the direction dependence of Young's modulus
Arachidonic acid-mediated inhibition of a potassium current in the giant neurons of Aplysia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, R.O.
1990-01-01
Biochemical and electrophysiological approaches were used to investigate the role of arachidonic acid (AA) in the modulation of an inwardly rectifying potassium current (I R ) in the giant neurons of the marine snail, Aplysia californica. Using [ 3 H]AA as tracer, the intracellular free AA pool in Aplysia ganglia was found to be in a state of constant and rapid turnover through deacylation and reacylation of phospholipid, primarily phosphatidyl-inositol. This constant turnover was accompanied by a constant release of free AA and eicosanoids into the extracellular medium. The effects of three pharmacological agents were characterized with regard to AA metabolism in Aplysia ganglia. 4-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, stimulated liberation of AA from phospholipid, and 4-bromophenacylbromide (BPB), an inhibitor of phospholipate A 2 , inhibited this liberation. Indomethacin at 250 μM was found to inhibit uptake of AA, likely through inhibition of acyl-CoA synthetase. These agents were also found to modulate I R in ways which were consistent with their biological effects: TPA inhibited I R , and both BPB and indomethacin stimulated I R . Modulation of I R by these substances was found not to involve cAMP metabolism. Acute application of exogenous AA did not affect I R ; however, I R in giant neurons was found to be inhibited after dialysis with AA or other unsaturated fatty acids. Also, after perfusion with BSA overnight, a treatment which strips the giant neurons of AA in lipid storage, I R was found to have increased over 2-fold. This perfusion-induced increase was inhibited by the presence of AA or by pretreatment of the giant neurons with BPB. These results suggest AA, provided through constant turnover from phospholipid, mediates constitutive inhibition of I R
Benz, Samuel; White, D. Rod; Qu, JiFeng; Rogalla, Horst; Tew, Weston
2010-01-01
Currently, the CODATA value of the Boltzmann constant is dominated by a single gas-based thermometry measurement with a relative standard uncertainty of 1.8×10−6 [P.J. Mohr, B.N. Taylor, D.B. Newell, CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2006, Rev. Mod. Phys. 80 (2008)
Generating k-independent variables in constant time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiani, Tobias Lybecker; Pagh, Rasmus
2014-01-01
The generation of pseudorandom elements over finite fields is fundamental to the time, space and randomness complexity of randomized algorithms and data structures. We consider the problem of generating k-independent random values over a finite field F in a word RAM model equipped with constant...
Gain control through divisive inhibition prevents abrupt transition to chaos in a neural mass model
Papasavvas, Christoforos A.; Wang, Yujiang; Trevelyan, Andrew J.; Kaiser, Marcus
2016-01-01
Experimental results suggest that there are two distinct mechanisms of inhibition in cortical neuronal networks: subtractive and divisive inhibition. They modulate the input-output function of their target neurons either by increasing the input that is needed to reach maximum output or by reducing the gain and the value of maximum output itself, respectively. However, the role of these mechanisms on the dynamics of the network is poorly understood. We introduce a novel population model and numerically investigate the influence of divisive inhibition on network dynamics. Specifically, we focus on the transitions from a state of regular oscillations to a state of chaotic dynamics via period-doubling bifurcations. The model with divisive inhibition exhibits a universal transition rate to chaos (Feigenbaum behavior). In contrast, in an equivalent model without divisive inhibition, transition rates to chaos are not bounded by the universal constant (non-Feigenbaum behavior). This non-Feigenbaum behavior, when only subtractive inhibition is present, is linked to the interaction of bifurcation curves in the parameter space. Indeed, searching the parameter space showed that such interactions are impossible when divisive inhibition is included. Therefore, divisive inhibition prevents non-Feigenbaum behavior and, consequently, any abrupt transition to chaos. The results suggest that the divisive inhibition in neuronal networks could play a crucial role in keeping the states of order and chaos well separated and in preventing the onset of pathological neural dynamics. PMID:26465514
A Short-Current Control Method for Constant Frequency Current-Fed Wireless Power Transfer Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanling Li
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Frequency drift is a serious problem in Current-Fed Wireless Power Transfer (WPT systems. When the operating frequency is drifting from the inherent Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS frequency of resonant network, large short currents will appear and damage the switches. In this paper, an inductance-dampening method is proposed to inhibit short currents and achieve constant-frequency operation. By adding a small auxiliary series inductance in the primary resonant network, short currents are greatly attenuated to a safe level. The operation principle and steady-state analysis of the system are provided. An overlapping time self-regulating circuit is designed to guarantee ZVS running. The range of auxiliary inductances is discussed and its critical value is calculated exactly. The design methodology is described and a design example is presented. Finally, a prototype is built and the experimental results verify the proposed method.
Ro-vibrational averaging of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant for the methyl radical
Adam, Ahmad Y.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Jensen, Per
2015-12-01
We present the first variational calculation of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant of the carbon-13 atom in the CH3 radical for temperatures T = 0, 96, and 300 K. It is based on a newly calculated high level ab initio potential energy surface and hyperfine coupling constant surface of CH3 in the ground electronic state. The ro-vibrational energy levels, expectation values for the coupling constant, and its temperature dependence were calculated variationally by using the methods implemented in the computer program TROVE. Vibrational energies and vibrational and temperature effects for coupling constant are found to be in very good agreement with the available experimental data. We found, in agreement with previous studies, that the vibrational effects constitute about 44% of the constant's equilibrium value, originating mainly from the large amplitude out-of-plane bending motion and that the temperature effects play a minor role.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hongliang; Hong, Da Hye; Kim, Han Sol; Kim, Hye Won [Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Won-Kyo [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Marine-Integrated Biomedical Technology (BK21 Plus), Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Sung Hun [Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kangwon National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min [Department of Immunology, Lab of Dendritic Cell Differentiation and Regulation, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Il-Whan, E-mail: cihima@inje.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun, E-mail: parkws@kangwon.ac.kr [Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-06-15
We investigated the effects of the calmodulin inhibitor CGS 9343B on voltage-dependent K{sup +} (Kv) channels using whole-cell patch clamp technique in freshly isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells. CGS 9343B inhibited Kv currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) value of 0.81 μM. The decay rate of Kv channel inactivation was accelerated by CGS 9343B. The rate constants of association and dissociation for CGS 9343B were 2.77 ± 0.04 μM{sup −1} s{sup −1} and 2.55 ± 1.50 s{sup −1}, respectively. CGS 9343B did not affect the steady-state activation curve, but shifted the inactivation curve toward to a more negative potential. Train pulses (1 or 2 Hz) application progressively increased the CGS 9343B-induced Kv channel inhibition. In addition, the inactivation recovery time constant was increased in the presence of CGS 9343B, suggesting that CGS 9343B-induced inhibition of Kv channel was use-dependent. Another calmodulin inhibitor, W-13, did not affect Kv currents, and did not change the inhibitory effect of CGS 9343B on Kv current. Our results demonstrated that CGS 9343B inhibited Kv currents in a state-, time-, and use-dependent manner, independent of calmodulin inhibition. - Highlights: • We investigated the effects of CGS 9394B on Kv channels. • CGS 9394B inhibited Kv current in a state-, time-, and use-dependent manner. • Caution is required when using CGS 9394B in vascular function studies.
gsub(ωrhoπ) coupling constant from QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eletsky, V.L.; Ioffe, B.L.; Kogan, Ya.I.
1982-01-01
QCD sum rules for the vertex function of two vector and one axial vector currents are used to calculate the gsub(ωrhoπ) coupling constant (where gsub(ωrhoπ) is a transition coupling constant for ω → rhoπ process). The obtained value, gsub(ωrhoπ) approximately 17 GeV -1 is in a good agreement with experimental data
Observational constraints on f(T) gravity from varying fundamental constants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunes, Rafael C.; Bonilla, Alexander [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Pan, Supriya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Mohanpur, West Bengal (India); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [Pontificia Universidad de Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); National Technical University of Athens, Physics Division, Athens (Greece); Baylor University, CASPER, Physics Department, Waco, TX (United States)
2017-04-15
We use observations related to the variation of fundamental constants, in order to impose constraints on the viable and most used f(T) gravity models. In particular, for the fine-structure constant we use direct measurements obtained by different spectrographic methods, while for the effective Newton constant we use a model-dependent reconstruction, using direct observational Hubble parameter data, in order to investigate its temporal evolution. We consider two f(T) models and we quantify their deviation from Λ CDM cosmology through a sole parameter. Our analysis reveals that this parameter can be slightly different from its Λ CDM value, however, the best-fit value is very close to the Λ CDM one. Hence, f(T) gravity is consistent with observations, nevertheless, as every modified gravity, it may exhibit only small deviations from Λ CDM cosmology, a feature that must be taken into account in any f(T) model-building. (orig.)
Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.
1985-01-01
Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of catonic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrogen hydrolysis rate constant.
Atomic spectroscopy and highly accurate measurement: determination of fundamental constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwob, C.
2006-12-01
This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author concerning highly accurate atomic spectroscopy applied for the determination of fundamental constants. A pure optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D 2-photon transitions in atomic hydrogen and deuterium has been performed. The experimental setting-up is described as well as the data analysis. Optimized values for the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts have been deduced (R = 109737.31568516 (84) cm -1 ). An experiment devoted to the determination of the fine structure constant with an aimed relative uncertainty of 10 -9 began in 1999. This experiment is based on the fact that Bloch oscillations in a frequency chirped optical lattice are a powerful tool to transfer coherently many photon momenta to the atoms. We have used this method to measure accurately the ratio h/m(Rb). The measured value of the fine structure constant is α -1 = 137.03599884 (91) with a relative uncertainty of 6.7*10 -9 . The future and perspectives of this experiment are presented. This document presented before an academic board will allow his author to manage research work and particularly to tutor thesis students. (A.C.)
Determination of the stability constants of uranium-tetracycline complexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarenzi, L.R.; Saiki, M.
1983-01-01
Stability constants of complexes formed with tetracycline (TC) and uranium have been determined by solvent extraction technique. The site on the tetracycline molecule at which uranyl ion may be bound has been studied by means of potentiometric titration and spectrophotometric techniques. The complex species with 1:1 and 1:2 for UO 2 : TC ratio have been identified by conductometric titration. Solvent extraction studies have also shown that the complexes are mononuclear of the type UO 2 (TC) sub (n) (n=1,2) and that no hidroxocomplexes or negatively charged complexes have been formed. Stability constant values have been calculated by numerical weighted least square method and by graphical methods of two parameters, of the average number of ligands and of the limiting value. (Author) [pt
Potential constants and centrifugal distortion constants of octahedral hexafluoride molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manivannan, G [Government Thirumagal Mill' s Coll., Gudiyattam, Tamil Nadu (India)
1981-04-01
The kinetic constants method outlined by Thirugnanasambandham (1964) based on Wilson's (1955) group theory has been adapted in evaluating the potential constants for SF/sub 6/, SeF/sub 6/, WF/sub 6/, IrF/sub 6/, UF/sub 6/, NpF/sub 6/, and PuF/sub 6/ using the experimentally observed vibrational frequency data. These constants are used to calculate the centrifugal distortion constants for the first time.
Global Kinetic Constants for Thermal Oxidative Degradation of a Cellulosic Paper
Kashiwagi, Takashi; Nambu, Hidesaburo
1992-01-01
Values of global kinetic constants for pyrolysis, thermal oxidative degradation, and char oxidation of a cellulosic paper were determined by a derivative thermal gravimetric study. The study was conducted at heating rates of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, and 5 C/min in ambient atmospheres of nitrogen, 0.28, 1.08, 5.2 percent oxygen concentrations, and air. Sample weight loss rate, concentrations of CO, CO2, and H2O in the degradation products, and oxygen consumption were continuously measured during the experiment. Values of activation energy, preexponential factor, orders of reaction, and yields of CO, CO2, H2O, total hydrocarbons, and char for each degradation reaction were derived from the results. Heat of reaction for each reaction was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. A comparison of the calculated CO, CO2, H2O, total hydrocarbons, sample weight loss rate, and oxygen consumption was made with the measured results using the derived kinetic constants, and the accuracy of the values of kinetic constants was discussed.
THE MECHANISM AND DIAGNOSTIC-VALUE OF ANGIOTENSIN-I CONVERTING ENZYME-INHIBITION RENOGRAPHY
DEZEEUW, D; JONKER, GJ; HOVINGA, TKK; BEEKHUIS, H; PIERS, DA; HUISMAN, RM; DEJONG, PE
1991-01-01
The effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on the sensitivity of radionuclide renography in the diagnosis of a unilateral renal artery stenosis was tested both in a conscious dog model and in the human situation. ACE inhibition (10 mg enalaprilic acid, intravenously) markedly
Hong, S Peter; Lusiak, Bozena D; Burback, Brian L; Johnson, Jerry D
2013-01-01
1,1'-Methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium] (MMB4) dimethanesulfonate (DMS) is a bisquaternary pyridinium aldoxime that reactivates acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agent. Drug metabolism and plasma protein binding for MMB4 DMS were examined using various techniques and a wide range of species. When (14)C-MMB4 DMS was incubated in liver microsomes, 4-pyridine aldoxime (4-PA) and an additional metabolite were detected in all species tested. Identity of the additional metabolite was postulated to be isonicotinic acid (INA) based on liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry analysis, which was confirmed by comparison with authentic INA. Formation of INA was dependent on species, with the highest level found in monkey liver microsomes. The MMB4 DMS exhibited reversible inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner toward cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes showing the highest inhibition for CYP2D6. Human recombinant CYPs were used to evaluate inhibitory curves more adequately and determine detailed kinetic constants for reversible inhibition and potential time-dependent inhibition (TDI). The MMB4 DMS exhibited reversible inhibition toward human-recombinant CYP2D6 with an inhibition constant (K i) value of 66.6 µmol/L. Based on the k inact/K I values, MMB4 DMS was found to exhibit the most potent TDI toward CYP2D6. The MMB4 DMS at 5 different concentrations was incubated in plasma for 5 hours using an equilibrium dialysis device. For all species tested, there were no concentration-dependent changes in plasma protein binding, ranging from 10% to 17%. These results suggest that MMB4 was not extensively bound to plasma protein, and there were no overt species-related differences in the extent of MMB4 bound to plasma protein.
DETERMINATION OF MIXED STABILITY CONSTANTS OF LEAD(II ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
a
stability constant values) at ionic strength 0.1 M and a temperature of 35 0C. ... biochemical aspects of sulphur containing amino acids have been reviewed by Jocelyn ... Electro-osmosis refers to the movement of liquid as a result of an applied ...
Equilibrium method for estimating the first hydrolysis constant of tetravalent plutonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silver, G.L.
2010-01-01
A new method for estimating the numerical value of the first hydrolysis constant of tetravalent plutonium is illustrated by examples. It uses the pH and the equilibrium fractions of two of the Pu oxidation states. They are substituted into one or more of a choice of formulas that render explicit estimates of the hydrolysis constant. (author)
Halsøy, Kathrine; Kondratiev, Timofey; Tveita, Torkjel; Bjertnaes, Lars J
2016-01-01
Victims of severe accidental hypothermia are prone to fluid extravasation but rarely develop lung edema. We hypothesize that combined hypothermia-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a concomitant fall in cardiac output protect the lungs against edema development. Our aim was to explore in hypothermic-isolated blood-perfused rat lungs whether perfusion at constant pressure influences fluid filtration differently from perfusion at constant flow. Isolated blood-perfused rat lungs were hanging freely in a weight transducer for measuring weight changes (ΔW). Fluid filtration coefficient (Kfc), was determined by transiently elevating left atrial pressure (Pla) by 5.8 mmHg two times each during normothermia (37°C) and during hypothermia (15°C). The lung preparations were randomized to two groups. One group was perfused with constant flow (Constant flow group) and the other group with constant pulmonary artery pressure (Constant PPA group). Microvascular pressure (Pmv) was determined before and during elevation of Pla (ΔPmv) by means of the double occlusion technique. Kfc was calculated with the formula Kfc = ΔW/ΔPmv/min. All Kfc values were normalized to predicted lung weight (P LW ), which was based on body weight (BW) according to the formula: P LW = 0.0053 BW - 0.48 and presented as Kfc PLW in mg/min/mmHg/g. At cessation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid/perfusate protein concentration (B/P) ratio was determined photometrically. Data were analyzed with parametric or non-parametric tests as appropriate. p Kfc PLW and B/P ratio increased significantly by more than 10-fold during hypothermia concerted by visible signs of edema in the trachea. Hemoglobin and hematocrit increased within the Constant flow group and between the groups at cessation of the experiments. In hypothermic rat lungs perfused at constant flow, fluid filtration coefficient per gram P LW and B/P ratio increased more than 10-fold concerted by increased
Photodissociation constant of NO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nootebos, M.A.; Bange, P.
1992-01-01
The velocity of the dissociation of NO 2 into ozone and NO mainly depends on the ultraviolet sunlight quantity, and with that the cloudiness. A correct value for this reaction constant is important for the accurate modelling of O 3 - and NO 2 -concentrations in plumes of electric power plants, in particular in the case of determination of the amount of photochemical summer smog. An advanced signal processing method (deconvolution, correlation) was applied on the measurements. The measurements were carried out from aeroplanes
Decay Constants of B and D Mesons from Non-pertubatively Improved Lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
K.C. Bowler; L. Del Debbio; J.M. Flynn; G.N, Lacagnina; V.I. Lesk; C.M. Maynard; D.G. Richards
2000-07-01
The decay constants of B and D mesons are computed in quenched lattice QCD at two different values of the coupling. The action and operators are ? (a) improved with non-perturbative coefficients where available. The results and systematic errors are discussed in detail. Results for vector decay constants, flavour symmetry breaking ratios of decay constants, the pseudoscalar-vector mass splitting and D meson masses are also presented.
Elastic constants of a Laves phase compound: C15 NbCr{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ormeci, A. [Koc Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chu, F.; Wills, J.M.; Chen, S.P.; Albers, R.C.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1997-04-01
The single-crystal elastic constants of C15 NbCr{sub 2} have been computed by using a first-principles, self-consistent, full-potential total energy method. From these single-crystal elastic constants the isotropic elastic moduli are calculated using the Voigt and Reuss averages. The calculated values are in fair agreement with the experimental values. The implications of the results are discussed with regards to Poisson`s ratio and the direction dependence of Young`s modulus.
Decay constants of subcritical system by diffusion theory for two groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moura Neto, C. de.
1977-01-01
The effects of a neutronic pulse applied to a subcritical multiplicative medium are analysed on the basis of the diffusion theory for one and two groups. The decay constants of the system for various values of geometric buckling were determined from the experimental data. A natural uranium-light water lattice was pulsed employing a Texas Nuclear 9905 neutron generator. The least square method was employed in the data reduction procedures to determine the decay constants. The separation of the decay constants associated with thermal and epithermal fluxes is attempted through two groups formulation. (author)
Decay constants of a subcritical system by two-group diffusion theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moura Neto, C. de.
1979-08-01
The effects of a neutronic pulse applied to a subcritical multiplicative medium are analyzed on the basis of the diffusion theory for one and two groups. The decay constants of the system were determined from the experimental data, for various values geometric buckling. A natural uranium light-water configuration was pulsed employing a Texas Nuclear 9905 neutron generator. The least square method was employed in the data reduction procedures to determine the decay constants. The separation of the decay constants associated with thermal and epithermal fluxes are verified through two groups formulation. (Author) [pt
Implications of the Cosmological Constant for Spherically Symmetric Mass Distributions
Zubairi, Omair; Weber, Fridolin
2013-04-01
In recent years, scientists have made the discovery that the expansion rate of the Universe is increasing rather than decreasing. This acceleration leads to an additional term in Albert Einstein's field equations which describe general relativity and is known as the cosmological constant. This work explores the aftermath of a non-vanishing cosmological constant for relativistic spherically symmetric mass distributions, which are susceptible to change against Einstein's field equations. We introduce a stellar structure equation known as the Tolman-Oppenhiemer-Volkoff (TOV) equation modified for a cosmological constant, which is derived from Einstein's modified field equations. We solve this modified TOV equation for these spherically symmetric mass distributions and obtain stellar properties such as mass and radius and investigate changes that may occur depending on the value of the cosmological constant.
Constraints on Alternate Universes: Stars and habitable planets with different fundamental constants
Adams, Fred C.
2015-01-01
This paper develops constraints on the values of the fundamental constants that allow universes to be habitable. We focus on the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and the gravitational structure constant $\\alpha_G$, and find the region in the $\\alpha$-$\\alpha_G$ plane that supports working stars and habitable planets. This work is motivated, in part, by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes. The following constraints are enforce...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amrani, D
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the use of two different methods, the optical and the computer-aided diffraction-grating spectrometer, to measure the wavelength of visible lines of Balmer series from the hydrogen atomic spectrum and estimate the value of Rydberg's constant. Analysis and interpretation of data showed that both methods, despite their difference in terms of the type of equipment used, displayed good performance in terms of precision of measurements of wavelengths of spectral lines. A comparison was carried out between the experimental value of Rydberg's constant obtained with both methods and the accepted value. The results of Rydberg's constant obtained with both the optical and computer-aided spectrometers were 1.099 28 × 10 −7 m −1 and 1.095 13 × 10 −7 m −1 with an error difference of 0.17% and 0.20% compared to the accepted value 1.097 373 × 10 −7 m −1 , respectively. (paper)
Profiles of equilibrium constants for self-association of aromatic molecules.
Beshnova, Daria A; Lantushenko, Anastasia O; Davies, David B; Evstigneev, Maxim P
2009-04-28
Analysis of the noncovalent, noncooperative self-association of identical aromatic molecules assumes that the equilibrium self-association constants are either independent of the number of molecules (the EK-model) or change progressively with increasing aggregation (the AK-model). The dependence of the self-association constant on the number of molecules in the aggregate (i.e., the profile of the equilibrium constant) was empirically derived in the AK-model but, in order to provide some physical understanding of the profile, it is proposed that the sources for attenuation of the equilibrium constant are the loss of translational and rotational degrees of freedom, the ordering of molecules in the aggregates and the electrostatic contribution (for charged units). Expressions are derived for the profiles of the equilibrium constants for both neutral and charged molecules. Although the EK-model has been widely used in the analysis of experimental data, it is shown in this work that the derived equilibrium constant, K(EK), depends on the concentration range used and hence, on the experimental method employed. The relationship has also been demonstrated between the equilibrium constant K(EK) and the real dimerization constant, K(D), which shows that the value of K(EK) is always lower than K(D).
Ro-vibrational averaging of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant for the methyl radical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adam, Ahmad Y.; Jensen, Per, E-mail: jensen@uni-wuppertal.de [Fakultät Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften, Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Sergei N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2015-12-28
We present the first variational calculation of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant of the carbon-13 atom in the CH{sub 3} radical for temperatures T = 0, 96, and 300 K. It is based on a newly calculated high level ab initio potential energy surface and hyperfine coupling constant surface of CH{sub 3} in the ground electronic state. The ro-vibrational energy levels, expectation values for the coupling constant, and its temperature dependence were calculated variationally by using the methods implemented in the computer program TROVE. Vibrational energies and vibrational and temperature effects for coupling constant are found to be in very good agreement with the available experimental data. We found, in agreement with previous studies, that the vibrational effects constitute about 44% of the constant’s equilibrium value, originating mainly from the large amplitude out-of-plane bending motion and that the temperature effects play a minor role.
Ro-vibrational averaging of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant for the methyl radical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, Ahmad Y.; Jensen, Per; Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Sergei N.
2015-01-01
We present the first variational calculation of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant of the carbon-13 atom in the CH 3 radical for temperatures T = 0, 96, and 300 K. It is based on a newly calculated high level ab initio potential energy surface and hyperfine coupling constant surface of CH 3 in the ground electronic state. The ro-vibrational energy levels, expectation values for the coupling constant, and its temperature dependence were calculated variationally by using the methods implemented in the computer program TROVE. Vibrational energies and vibrational and temperature effects for coupling constant are found to be in very good agreement with the available experimental data. We found, in agreement with previous studies, that the vibrational effects constitute about 44% of the constant’s equilibrium value, originating mainly from the large amplitude out-of-plane bending motion and that the temperature effects play a minor role
Are fundamental constants really constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norman, E.B.
1986-01-01
Reasons for suspecting that fundamental constants might change with time are reviewed. Possible consequences of such variations are examined. The present status of experimental tests of these ideas is discussed
Macro testing for group constant library TPLIB-95
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao Dong; Zeng Daogui; Liu Jingbo; Wang Yingming; Li Huiyun
1996-04-01
A macro test of the group constant library TPLIB-95 was introduced. The TPLIB-95 is an updated group constant library created by China Nuclear Data Center for LWR fuel assembly calculation program package TPFAP based on the JENDL-3.1 evaluation nuclear data library. The calculations and analyses were carried out by using five thermal reactor benchmark issues, a set of PWR zero-power critical experiments, the first cycle reactor core of 300 MW Qinshan NPP as well as the first cycle reactor core of 900 MW Daya Bay NPP. The calculation results for the thermal reactor benchmark issues showed that the maximum deviation between the calculated and measured values for spectrum indexes is large, like 6.7% for ρ 28 of BAPL-2. However, the maximum deviation for k eff is only 0.29% for TRX-2. The calculation results for zero-power critical experiments showed that the calculated value of k eff obtained by using TPLIB-95 is closer to the measured value compared with the one obtained by using the original library TPLIB. The agreement between the calculated and measured values for critical boron concentration in the first cycle reactor cores in Qinshan NPP and Daya Bay NPP is quite good. The maximum deviation for the critical boron concentration is only 15 x 10 -6 /L. (8 figs., 5 tabs.)
Reaction rate constants of HO2 + O3 in the temperature range 233-400 K
Wang, Xiuyan; Suto, Masako; Lee, L. C.
1988-01-01
The reaction rate constants of HO2 + O3 were measured in the temperature range 233-400 K using a discharge flow system with photofragment emission detection. In the range 233-253 K, the constants are approximately a constant value, and then increase with increasing temperature. This result suggests that the reaction may have two different channels. An expression representing the reaction rate constants is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molenaar, P.; Malta, E.
1986-01-01
In electrically driven guinea pig left atria, positive inotropic responses to (-)-isoprenaline and the selective beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist RO363 were obtained in the absence and in the presence of the functional antagonists adenosine, carbachol, gallopamil, nifedipine, and Ro 03-7894. Each of the functional antagonists reduced the maximum response to both agonists and produced nonparallel rightward shifts in the cumulative concentration effect curves. For both agonists, dissociation constants (KA) were calculated using the equation described by Furchgott (1966) for irreversible antagonism. For RO363, which is a partial agonist with high agonist activity, the equations outlined for functional interaction by Mackay (1981) were also employed to calculate KA values. The KA values obtained by each method were compared with the dissociation constants (KD) for the two agonists determined from their ability to displace the radioligand (-)-[ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol from beta 1-adrenoceptors in guinea pig left atrial membrane preparations. The estimates of KA varied substantially from KD values. The KD values were taken as more accurate estimates of the true values for the dissociation constants because a high degree of correlation exists between pKD and pD2 values for a number of other beta-adrenoceptor agonists that behave as partial agonists and between pKD and pKB values for a number of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Thus, it appears that there are serious limitations in the current theory for using functional antagonism as a means of obtaining agonist dissociation constants
Scaling relation for leptonic constants of higher excitations in heavy quarkonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, V.V.
1994-01-01
Using a specific scheme of the QCD sum rules, one derives the relation for leptonic constants of nS-wave heavy quarkonia, so f 2 n1 /f 2 n2 =n 2 /n 1 , that does not depend on the quarkonium content, and it is in a good agreement with the experimental values of constants for the ψ- and γ-families. 9 refs
Relaxing a large cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, Florian; Sola, Joan; Stefancic, Hrvoje
2009-01-01
The cosmological constant (CC) problem is the biggest enigma of theoretical physics ever. In recent times, it has been rephrased as the dark energy (DE) problem in order to encompass a wider spectrum of possibilities. It is, in any case, a polyhedric puzzle with many faces, including the cosmic coincidence problem, i.e. why the density of matter ρ m is presently so close to the CC density ρ Λ . However, the oldest, toughest and most intriguing face of this polyhedron is the big CC problem, namely why the measured value of ρ Λ at present is so small as compared to any typical density scale existing in high energy physics, especially taking into account the many phase transitions that our Universe has undergone since the early times, including inflation. In this Letter, we propose to extend the field equations of General Relativity by including a class of invariant terms that automatically relax the value of the CC irrespective of the initial size of the vacuum energy in the early epochs. We show that, at late times, the Universe enters an eternal de Sitter stage mimicking a tiny positive cosmological constant. Thus, these models could be able to solve the big CC problem without fine-tuning and have also a bearing on the cosmic coincidence problem. Remarkably, they mimic the ΛCDM model to a large extent, but they still leave some characteristic imprints that should be testable in the next generation of experiments.
Directional effects in transitional resonance spectra and group constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, R.N.; Oh, K.O.; Rhodes, J.D.
1989-01-01
Analytical exploratory investigations indicate that transition effects such as streaming cause a considerable spatial variation in the neutron spectra across resonances; streaming leads to opposite effects in the forward and backward directions. The neglect of this coupled spatial/angular variations of the transitory resonance spectra is an approximation that is common to all current group constant generation methodologies. This paper presents a description of the spatial/angular coupling of the neutron flux across isolated resonances. It appears to be necessary to differentiate between forward-and backward-directed neutron flux components or even to consider components in narrower angular cones. The effects are illustrated for an isolated actinide resonance in a simplified fast reactor blanket problem. The resonance spectra of the directional flux components φ + and φ - , and even more so the 90-deg cone components, are shown to deviate significantly from the infinite medium approximation, and the differences increase with penetration. The charges in φ + lead to a decreasing scattering group constant that enhances neutron transmission; the changes in φ - lead to an increasing group constant inhibiting backward scattering. Therefore, the changes in the forward-and backward-directed spectra both lead to increased neutron transmission. Conversely, the flux (φ = φ + +φ - ) is shown to agree closely with the infinite medium approximation both in the analytical formulas and in the numerical solution. The directional effect cancel in the summation. The forward-and backward-directed flux components are used as weighting spectra to illustrate the group constant changes for a single resonance
The thermal coupling constant and the gap equation in the λ φ 4D model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ananos, G.N.J.; Malbouisson, A.P.C.; Svaiter, N.F.
1998-05-01
By the concurrent use of two different resummation methods, the composite operator formalism and the Dyson-Schwinger equation, we re-examine the behaviour at finite temperature of the O(N)-symmetric λψ 4 model in a generic D-dimensional Euclidean space. In the cases D = 3 and D = 4, an analysis of the thermal behaviour of the renormalized squared mass and coupling constant are done for all temperatures. It results that the thermal renormalized squared mass is positive and increases monotonically with the temperature. The behavior of the thermal coupling constant is quite different in odd or even dimensional space. In D = 3, the thermal coupling constant decreases up to a minimum value different from zero and ten grows up monotonically as the temperature increases. In the case D = 4, it is found that the thermal renormalized coupling constant tends in the high temperature limit to a constant asymptotic value. Also for general D-dimensional Euclidean space, we are able to obtain a formula for the critical temperature of the second order phase transition. This formula agrees with previous known values at D = 3 and D 4. (author)
Muhammad, Munira Taj; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Arshia; Khan, Ajmal; Arshad, Fiza; Fatima, Bibi; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Syed, Naima; Moin, Syed Tarique
2017-12-01
A library of 4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine diones (1-35) were synthesized and evaluated for their urease inhibitory activity. Structure-activity relationships, and mechanism of inhibition were also studied. All compounds were found to be active with IC 50 values between 22.6±1.14-117.4±0.73µM, in comparison to standard, thiourea (IC 50 =21.2±1.3µM). Kinetics studies on the most active compounds 2-7, 16, 17, 28, and 33 were performed to investigate their modes of inhibition, and dissociation constants K i . Compounds 2, 3, 7, 16, 28, and 33 were found to be mixed-type of inhibitors with K i values in the range of 7.91±0.024-13.03±0.013µM, whereas, compounds 4-6, and 17 were found to be non-competitive inhibitors with K i values in the range of 9.28±0.019-13.05±0.023µM. In silico study was also performed, and a good correlation was observed between experimental and docking studies. This study is continuation of our previously reported urease inhibitory activity of pyrimidine diones, representing potential leads for further research as possible treatment of diseases caused by ureolytic bacteria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
André Brisolari
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Inhibition-based biosensors were developed by immobilizing tyrosinase (Tyr, polyphenol oxidase from the crude extract of avocado fruit on electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy films. The biosensors were prepared during the electropolymerization of pyrrole in a solution containing a fixed volume of the crude extract of avocado. The dependence of the biosensor responses on the volume used from the crude extract, values of pH and temperature was studied, and a substrate, catechol, at different concentrations, was amperometrically detected by these biosensors. Benzoic acid, a competitive inhibitor of Try, was added to the catechol solutions at specific concentrations aimed at obtaining the inhibition constant, K’m, which ranged from 1.7 to 4.6 mmol∙L−1 for 0.0 and 60 µmol∙L−1 of benzoic acid, respectively. Studies on the inhibition caused by benzoic acid by using PPy/Try films, and catechol as a substrate, allowed us propose how to develop, under optimized conditions, simple and low-cost biosensors based on the use of avocado fruit.
Gladstone-Dale constant for CF4. [experimental design
Burner, A. W., Jr.; Goad, W. K.
1980-01-01
The Gladstone-Dale constant, which relates the refractive index to density, was measured for CF4 by counting fringes of a two-beam interferometer, one beam of which passes through a cell containing the test gas. The experimental approach and sources of systematic and imprecision errors are discussed. The constant for CF4 was measured at several wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum. A value of 0.122 cu cm/g with an uncertainty of plus or minus 0.001 cu cm/g was determined for use in the visible region. A procedure for noting the departure of the gas density from the ideal-gas law is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.
1986-09-01
Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Levay, B.; Mogensen, O. E.
1977-01-01
a correlation between the inhibition coefficient and the chemical rate constant of electrons with scavenger molecules. We found that the dependence of the inhibition coefficient on the work function (VOo)f electrons in different liquids shows a very unusual behavior, similar to that recently found...... for the chemical rate constants of quasifree electrons with the same scavenger molecules. The inhibition coefficient as a function of Vo had a maximum for C2HsBr, while it increased monotonously with decreasing V, for CC14. The inhibition coefficient for C2H5Br in a 1:l molar tetramethylsilane......-n-tetradecane mixture was found to be greater than in both of the pure components. The clear correlation found between electron scavenging rate constants and positronium inhibition constitutes the severest test to date of the spur reaction model of positronium formation. The importance of the positron annihilation...
Identifying and eliminating the problem with Einstein's cosmological constant
Myers, Zachary
2005-12-01
The cosmological constant, L, was first introduced into Einstein's field equations in the early 20 th century. It was introduced as a quantity of outward-pushing energy in space that would counteract the contracting force of gravity thereby keeping the universe in a balanced and static state. Einstein willingly removed it once the universe was observed to be dynamic rather than static. However, as the decades have gone by, L has maintained its supporters and has continually been reintroduced to solve problems in cosmology. Presently, there is good reason to believe that L or something like it is indeed present in our universe. In the 1960s, in an effort to provide a physical basis for L, particle physicists turned to quantum vacuum energy and have since estimated a value for L to be ~ 10 110 erg/cm 3 , which happens to be significantly greater than its observationally constrained value of ~ 10 10 erg/cm 3 . This discrepancy of 120 orders of magnitude has come to be known as the cosmological constant problem. Any effort to resolve the inconsistency must also account for the various observations we attribute to L, such as cosmic inflation and cosmic acceleration. To date, there are two basic approaches to resolving the cosmological constant problem that we may call the Identity approach and the Eliminativist approach. The Identity approach entails that vacuum energy is responsible for all the relevant observations and the problem is to be solved by some cancellation mechanism within the internal components of the vacuum. The Eliminativist approach explicitly rejects the reality and cosmological efficacy of vacuum energy, seeks alternative explanations for the observations and eliminates the cosmological constant problem by eliminating the cosmological constant. The benefit of having a crisis between these two views at this particular stage in cosmology's history is that they can be tested against each other in an experimental situation. Whatever the outcome of the
Calcium carbonate solubility: a reappraisal of scale formation and inhibition.
Gal, J Y; Bollinger, J C; Tolosa, H; Gache, N
1996-09-01
Considerable disparity exists in the published thermodynamic data for selected species in the Ca(2+) /CO(2)/H(2)O system near 25 degrees C and 1 atm pressure. Some authors doubt the significance of CaCO(3)(0)aq) complexes although there is experimental evidence of their occurrence. Evaluation of all the published experimental and estimated data for aqueous calcium carbonate species confirms that the consistent set of constants given by Plummer and Busenberg in 1982 is the best available, and suggests a formation constant log beta = 3.22 for CaCO(3)(0)(aq). This value was confirmed by additional experimental data and calculations using a specially developed computer program. The solubility s and solubility product K(s) are critically evaluated for each solid polymorph (amorphous CaCO(3), ikaite, vaterite, aragonite and calcite) using a hydrated ion pair model and we give coherent explanations for the calcium carbonate precipitation/dissolution process and the existence of supersaturated waters. The practical cases of scale formation and its inhibition by phosphonate-type compounds are discussed and explained with the same model, taking into account the CaCO(3)(0)(aq) species.
Emergent gravity in spaces of constant curvature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Orlando; Haddad, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Miami,1320 Campo Sano Ave, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States)
2017-03-07
In physical theories where the energy (action) is localized near a submanifold of a constant curvature space, there is a universal expression for the energy (or the action). We derive a multipole expansion for the energy that has a finite number of terms, and depends on intrinsic geometric invariants of the submanifold and extrinsic invariants of the embedding of the submanifold. This is the second of a pair of articles in which we try to develop a theory of emergent gravity arising from the embedding of a submanifold into an ambient space equipped with a quantum field theory. Our theoretical method requires a generalization of a formula due to by Hermann Weyl. While the first paper discussed the framework in Euclidean (Minkowski) space, here we discuss how this framework generalizes to spaces of constant sectional curvature. We focus primarily on anti de Sitter space. We then discuss how such a theory can give rise to a cosmological constant and Planck mass that are within reasonable bounds of the experimental values.
The smallnes of the cosmological constant and the principle of naturalness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, J.J.; Wang, M.J.
1984-01-01
Within the framework of inflationary cosmology, they are given temperature-dependent values of the cosmological constant lambda, the value lambda(2.7 K) of which is compatible with the present observational upper limit. It is found that the smallness of lambda is theoretically as well as phenomenologically natural
Algal growth inhibition test results of 425 organic chemical substances
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kusk, Kresten Ole; Christensen, Anne Munch; Nyholm, Niels
2018-01-01
The toxicity towards the algal species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata of 425 organic chemical substances was tested in a growth inhibition test. Precautions were taken to prevent loss of the compounds from the water phase and the test system (closed test system, low biomass, shorter test duration......, silanized glass) and to keep pH constant by applying a higher alkalinity. Chemical phase distribution was modelled taking ionization, volatilisation, and adsorption to glass and biomass into consideration. If the modelled water concentration was below 90% of the nominal concentration the calculated EC...... values were corrected accordingly. The model helped to identify substances, where the calculated water concentration was too uncertain. Substances covering a wide range of physical-chemical properties and different modes of action were tested. Median effect concentrations (EC50) lower than 1000 mg/L were...
Big bang nucleosynthesis with a varying fine structure constant and nonstandard expansion rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Kawasaki, Masahiro
2004-01-01
We calculate the primordial abundances of light elements produced during big bang nucleosynthesis when the fine structure constant and/or the cosmic expansion rate take nonstandard values. We compare them with the recent values of observed D, 4 He, and 7 Li abundances, which show a slight inconsistency among themselves in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis scenario. This inconsistency is not solved by considering either a varying fine structure constant or a nonstandard expansion rate separately but solutions are found by their simultaneous existence
Computerized data base of the fundamental constants of nature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henry, E.A.; Hampel, V.E.
1975-01-01
Fifty-seven fundamental constants of nature were computerized from the up-to-date evaluations of E. R. Cohen and B. N. Taylor. The constants are annotated with regard to symbol, value, uncertainty, and scaling factor. This computerization is part of the scientific data base project of the Information Research Group at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The MASTER CONTROL data base management system is used. The computerized fundamental constants can be requested from the ERDA Computer Program Exchange and Information Center of the Argonne National Laboratory or from the National Technical Information Service of the U. S. Department of Commerce. This is the first of a series of releases on preparation of computerized scientific and technological data banks. The next release is a data bank of conversion factors for different units of measurements. 3 figures
Pseudoscalar decay constants from Nf=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farchioni, Federico; Petschlies, Marcus; Urbach, Carsten
2010-12-01
We present first results for the pseudoscalar decay constants f K , f D and f D S from lattice QCD with N f = 2 + 1 + 1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The lattice simulations have been performed by the European Twisted Mass collaboration (ETMC) using maximally twisted mass quarks. For the pseudoscalar decay constants we follow a mixed action approach by using so called Osterwalder-Seiler fermions in the valence sector for strange and charm quarks. The data for two values of the lattice spacing and several values of the up/down quark mass is analysed using chiral perturbation theory. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miaoran Ning
2012-04-01
Full Text Available TM208 and TM209, dithiocarbamate derivatives with potential anti-cancer effects, were evaluated in reversible and time-dependent cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A inhibition assays in rat liver microsomes using testosterone as probe substrate. Both compounds were found to be weak reversible inhibitors and moderate mechanism-based inhibitors of rat CYP3A. For reversible inhibition on rat CYP3A, the Ki values of competitive inhibition model were 12.10±1.75 and 13.94±1.31 μM, respectively. For time-dependent inhibition, the inactivation constants (Kl were 31.93±12.64 and 32.91±15.58 μM, respectively, and the maximum inactivation rates (kinact were 0.03497±0.0069 and 0.07259±0.0172 min−1 respectively. These findings would provide useful in vitro information for future in vivo DDI studies on TM208 or TM209.
Determination of intrinsic equilibrium constants at an alumina/electrolyte interface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SLOBODAN K. MILONJIC
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Intrinsic ionization and complexation constants at an alumina/electrolyte interface were studied by the site binding model, while the sorption of alkali cations from aqueous solutions was interpreted by the triple-layer model. The surface properties of alumina were investigated by the potentiometric acid-base titration method. The point of zero charge (pHpzc of alumina obtained by this method was found to be 7.2. The obtained mean values of the intrinsic protonation and ionization constants of the surface hydroxyl groups and the intrinsic surface complexation constant, in different electrolytes, are pKinta1 = 4.4, pKinta2 = 9.6 and pKintM+ = 9.5, respectively.
Shadow cast by rotating braneworld black holes with a cosmological constant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Sendra, Carlos M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2018-02-15
In this article, we study the shadow produced by rotating black holes having a tidal charge in a Randall-Sundrum braneworld model, with a cosmological constant. We obtain the apparent shape and the corresponding observables for different values of the tidal charge and the rotation parameter, and we analyze the influence of the presence of the cosmological constant. We also discuss the observational prospects for this optical effect. (orig.)
How we can Transform the Constant Alpha Value into a Variable Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acosta P, C.F.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.
2006-01-01
For the cost-benefit analysis used in the quantitative decision aiding techniques the alpha value is the aim of the question, because it is the alpha value that, directly or indirectly determines the analytical solution Y, consequently, the workers doses distribution involved with ionizing radiation source. Currently, each country adopts a single alpha value that can be linked to the annual gross product (GNP) per capita. Otherwise, the risks due to the ionizing radiation practices Y the ultimate objective, that is, to decrease the doses to admissible levels, are the same in any place of the world. In this case, it seems reasonable to think that the alpha value would be the same in every country. With this view, this paper has the objective to present, as suggestion, how it is possible to make a variable of the alpha value. To achieve this goal using a rigorous mathematical model, the protection options were linked by a curve selected among several curves that best fit in place of the straight line as the ICRP does. The curve selection was applied to the small uranium mine example provide by ICRP in publication number 55. Introducing a variable alpha value as function of the highest individual dose, their values will not depend on the GNP per capita anymore, but on the maximum individual dose distribution Y the length of time necessary to comprise, if possible, the aim of 1/10 of the annual dose limits for workers foreseen in the successive optimizations, that is, to range the individual dose zone considered acceptable. (Author)
How we can Transform the Constant Alpha Value into a Variable Function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acosta P, C.F.; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: cani@osite.com.br
2006-07-01
For the cost-benefit analysis used in the quantitative decision aiding techniques the alpha value is the aim of the question, because it is the alpha value that, directly or indirectly determines the analytical solution Y, consequently, the workers doses distribution involved with ionizing radiation source. Currently, each country adopts a single alpha value that can be linked to the annual gross product (GNP) per capita. Otherwise, the risks due to the ionizing radiation practices Y the ultimate objective, that is, to decrease the doses to admissible levels, are the same in any place of the world. In this case, it seems reasonable to think that the alpha value would be the same in every country. With this view, this paper has the objective to present, as suggestion, how it is possible to make a variable of the alpha value. To achieve this goal using a rigorous mathematical model, the protection options were linked by a curve selected among several curves that best fit in place of the straight line as the ICRP does. The curve selection was applied to the small uranium mine example provide by ICRP in publication number 55. Introducing a variable alpha value as function of the highest individual dose, their values will not depend on the GNP per capita anymore, but on the maximum individual dose distribution Y the length of time necessary to comprise, if possible, the aim of 1/10 of the annual dose limits for workers foreseen in the successive optimizations, that is, to range the individual dose zone considered acceptable. (Author)
A comment on technical naturalness and the cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itzhaki, Nissan
2006-01-01
We propose a model of dynamical relaxation of the cosmological constant. Technical naturalness of the model and the present value of the vacuum energy density imply an upper bound on the supersymmetry breaking scale and the reheating temperature at the TeV scale
A consistent set of thermodynamic constants for americium (III) species with hydroxyl and carbonate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerrisk, J.F.; Silva, R.J.
1986-01-01
A consistent set of thermodynamic constants for aqueous species, and compounds of Am(III) with hydroxyl and carbonate ligands has been developed. The procedure used to develop these constants involved establishing a value for one formation constant at a time in a sequential order, starting with the hydrolysis products and hydroxide solids, and then proceeding to carbonate species. The EQ3NR chemical-equilibrium model was used to test the constants developed. These constants are consistent with most of the experimental data that form their basis; however, considerable uncertainty still exists in some aspects of the Am(III) data
Electromagnetic corrections to pseudoscalar decay constants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glaessle, Benjamin Simon
2017-03-06
First principles Lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) calculations enable the determination of low energy hadronic amplitudes. Precision LQCD calculations with relative errors smaller than approximately 1% require the inclusion of electromagnetic effects. We demonstrate that including (quenched) quantum electrodynamics effects in the LQCD calculation effects the values obtained for pseudoscalar decay constants in the per mille range. The importance of systematic effects, including finite volume effects and the charge dependence of renormalization and improvement coefficients, is highlighted.
On the Dielectric Constant for Acetanilide: Experimental Measurements and Effect on Energy Transport
Careri, G.; Compatangelo, E.; Christiansen, P. L.; Halding, J.; Skovgaard, O.
1987-01-01
Experimental measurements of the dielectric constant for crystalline acetanilide powder for temperatures ranging from - 140°C to 20°C and for different hydration levels are presented. A Davydov-soliton computer model predicts dramatic changes in the energy transport and storage for typically increased values of the dielectric constant.
A calculation of the surface recombination rate constant for hydrogen isotopes on metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baskes, M.J.
1980-01-01
The surface recombination rate constant for hydrogen isotopes on a metal has been calculated using a simple model whose parameters may be determined by direct experimental measurements. Using the experimental values for hydrogen diffusivity, solubility, and sticking coefficient at zero surface coverage a reasonable prediction of the surface recombination constant may be made. The calculated recombination constant is in excellent agreement with experiment for bcc iron. A heuristic argument is developed which, along with the rate constant calculation, shows that surface recombination is important in those metals in which hydrogen has an exothermic heat of solution. (orig.)
Analysis of constant-head well tests in nonporous fractured rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doe, T.; Remer, J.
1981-01-01
If one compares the results of steady analyses and transient flowrate analyses, the error in assuming steady flow is less than an order of magnitude for reasonable values of storativity, and this error can be minimized through proper choice of radius of influence. Although the steady flow assumptions do not result in large errors in the calculation of permeability, careful design of constant-head well tests can yield not only storativity, but also qualitative information on the areal extent of permeable zones or fractures tested. Constant-head well tests have several major advantages over other well test techniques in low permeability rock. Unlike pump tests, wellbore storage effects are virtually nonexistant. Provided low-flow measurement apparatus is available, constant-level tests are far more rapid than slug tests and, unlike pulse tests, compliance of equipment is not a factor, since the system is maintained at constant pressure throughout the test
Inflation with a smooth constant-roll to constant-roll era transition
Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.
2017-07-01
In this paper, we study canonical scalar field models, with a varying second slow-roll parameter, that allow transitions between constant-roll eras. In the models with two constant-roll eras, it is possible to avoid fine-tunings in the initial conditions of the scalar field. We mainly focus on the stability of the resulting solutions, and we also investigate if these solutions are attractors of the cosmological system. We shall calculate the resulting scalar potential and, by using a numerical approach, we examine the stability and attractor properties of the solutions. As we show, the first constant-roll era is dynamically unstable towards linear perturbations, and the cosmological system is driven by the attractor solution to the final constant-roll era. As we demonstrate, it is possible to have a nearly scale-invariant power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations in some cases; however, this is strongly model dependent and depends on the rate of the final constant-roll era. Finally, we present, in brief, the essential features of a model that allows oscillations between constant-roll eras.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verma, Sangeeta; Limaye, S.N.; Saxena, M.C.
1993-01-01
Formation constants (log Ksub(MAL)sup(MA), log Ksub(ML)sup(M) and log Ksub(ML)sup(ML) of mixed ligand lanthanide(III) complexes of the type [Ln(III).A.ATP[ 2 , where LN(III)=La 3+ , Ce 3+ , Pr 3+ , Nd 3+ , Sm 3+ , Eu 3+ , Gd 3+ , Tb 3+ or Dy 3+ ' A=NTA(nitrilotriacetate) or HEDTA (2-hydroxyethylethylenediamine triacetate) and ATP=adenosine 5'-triphosphate (L), and of the binary [Ln(III).ATP[ and [Ln(III).(ATP) 2 [ complexes have been determined by potentiometric pH titrations using the Irving-Rossotti approach at three temperatures 20, 30 and 40 degC and at a fixed ionic strength, I=0.2 mol dm -3 (NAclO 4 ). The solution stabilities (log Ksub(MAL)sup(MA) values) are influenced by the electrostatic effect involved in ternary complexation and increase with temperature. The enthalpy factor (ΔH) has been found to be small but unfavourable and the entropy factor (ΔS) large and favourable. The log Ksub(MAL)sup(MA) values lie in the order NTA>HEDTA with respect to A and La 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ >Gd 3+ 3+ 3+ with respect to lanthanides. Tetrad effect is present in the formation constant values; its magnitude has been found to lie in the sequence f 7 >f 3 -f 4 ≅ f 10 -f 11 for the Ln(III) ions. Systematics in the formation constant values has been further studied by evaluating changes in the inter-electronic repulsion Racah parameters, extra stabilisation of specific 4f 9 -configurations and nephelauxetic ratio using experimental values of the formation constants. (author). 24 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs
Proceedings of the workshop: the solar constant and the Earth's atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zirin, H.; Moore, R.L.; Walter, J.
1976-01-01
The solar constant has long been a fundamental quantity in astrophysics, but as with many fundamental quantities, interest in its exact value or its variation has not been great over the last decade. This was particularly due to the fact that most models of stars indicated that their luminosity should be quite constant, varying only over nuclear burning times of hundreds of millions of years. Thus, after the pioneering work of Abbott, it has been more a subject of interest for atmospheric scientists who needed to know the exact inputs to the Earth's atmosphere. In recent years however, the celebrated problem of the missing solar neutrinos has brought into question the theories of stellar structure, and the solar constant is again being thought about. Standard solar models predict a lower solar constant in the past, 75% of the present, 4x10 9 years ago and a virtually constant value over short time scales (10 7 years). However, the lack of observed neutrinos predicted by this model suggests that the interior of the Sun is not really understood, which means that solar constant variations cannot be ruled out on the basis of the theory of stellar interiors. Measurement of the planets, the old Smithsonian measurements, and other data suggest that the Sun cannot have varied more than a few percent over the past hundred years, but some of the measurements even suggest small variation of the order of a percent. On the other hand, in the important near ultraviolet region, there is evidence for some variation in the 2700-3100 A region and up to 50% variation below 1600 A, dependent on solar activity. (Auth.)
Predicting the cosmological constant with the scale-factor cutoff measure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Simone, Andrea; Guth, Alan H.; Salem, Michael P.; Vilenkin, Alexander
2008-01-01
It is well known that anthropic selection from a landscape with a flat prior distribution of cosmological constant Λ gives a reasonable fit to observation. However, a realistic model of the multiverse has a physical volume that diverges with time, and the predicted distribution of Λ depends on how the spacetime volume is regulated. A very promising method of regulation uses a scale-factor cutoff, which avoids a number of serious problems that arise in other approaches. In particular, the scale-factor cutoff avoids the 'youngness problem' (high probability of living in a much younger universe) and the 'Q and G catastrophes' (high probability for the primordial density contrast Q and gravitational constant G to have extremely large or small values). We apply the scale-factor cutoff measure to the probability distribution of Λ, considering both positive and negative values. The results are in good agreement with observation. In particular, the scale-factor cutoff strongly suppresses the probability for values of Λ that are more than about 10 times the observed value. We also discuss qualitatively the prediction for the density parameter Ω, indicating that with this measure there is a possibility of detectable negative curvature.
A first-principles approach to finite temperature elastic constants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y; Wang, J J; Zhang, H; Manga, V R; Shang, S L; Chen, L-Q; Liu, Z-K [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2010-06-09
A first-principles approach to calculating the elastic stiffness coefficients at finite temperatures was proposed. It is based on the assumption that the temperature dependence of elastic stiffness coefficients mainly results from volume change as a function of temperature; it combines the first-principles calculations of elastic constants at 0 K and the first-principles phonon theory of thermal expansion. Its applications to elastic constants of Al, Cu, Ni, Mo, Ta, NiAl, and Ni{sub 3}Al from 0 K up to their respective melting points show excellent agreement between the predicted values and existing experimental measurements.
A first-principles approach to finite temperature elastic constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y; Wang, J J; Zhang, H; Manga, V R; Shang, S L; Chen, L-Q; Liu, Z-K
2010-01-01
A first-principles approach to calculating the elastic stiffness coefficients at finite temperatures was proposed. It is based on the assumption that the temperature dependence of elastic stiffness coefficients mainly results from volume change as a function of temperature; it combines the first-principles calculations of elastic constants at 0 K and the first-principles phonon theory of thermal expansion. Its applications to elastic constants of Al, Cu, Ni, Mo, Ta, NiAl, and Ni 3 Al from 0 K up to their respective melting points show excellent agreement between the predicted values and existing experimental measurements.
On the Roche constants for main-sequence binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannuzzi, M.A.
1979-01-01
The ratios C 1 /C 2 of the constants defining the equipotential surfaces which describe the external forms of the components of a close binary system have been calculated on the basis of evolutionary models. Theoretical systems have been considered allowing for a wide range of input parameters (masses and separation) and taking into account the evolutionary effects on the radii of the stars during their Main-Sequence lifetime. The systems have not undergone any transfer of matter and are representative of detached binaries with Main-sequence components. The ratios of the constants are confined in limited intervals and, for the highest values of the mass-ratios, they are clustered around the unit. (Auth.)
Improvement to the D0 luminosity monitor constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bantley, J.
1996-03-01
The D0 experiment has previously calculated its luminosity using the visible cross section (luminosity monitor constant) for its Level 0 trigger, σ L0 = 48.2 mb, based on the world average pp inelastic cross sections at √s = 1.8 TeV. The error on luminosity had been set at 12%. Recent studies using the MBR and DTUJET Monte Carlo event generators and unbiased D0 data samples have resulted in a more precise determination of the D0 luminosity monitor constant. The result, σ L0 = 46.7 ± 2.5 mb, lowers the central value by 3.1% and reduces the error to 5.4%. 12 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs
Rate constant for reaction of hydroxyl radicals with bicarbonate ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buxton, G.V.; Elliot, A.J.
1986-01-01
The rate constant for reaction of hydroxyl radicals with the bicarbonate ion has been determined to be 8.5 x 10 6 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . This value was calculated from: the measured rate of formation of the CO 3 - radical in pulsed electron irradiation of bicarbonate solutions over the pH range 7.0 to 9.4; the pK for the equilibrium HCO 3 - = CO 3 2- + H + ; and the rate constant for hydroxyl radicals reacting with the carbonate ion. (author)
Low noise constant current source for bias dependent noise measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talukdar, D.; Bose, Suvendu; Bardhan, K. K.; Chakraborty, R. K.
2011-01-01
A low noise constant current source used for measuring the 1/f noise in disordered systems in ohmic as well as nonohmic regime is described. The source can supply low noise constant current starting from as low as 1 μA to a few tens of milliampere with a high voltage compliance limit of around 20 V. The constant current source has several stages, which can work in a standalone manner or together to supply the desired value of load current. The noise contributed by the current source is very low in the entire current range. The fabrication of a low noise voltage preamplifier modified for bias dependent noise measurements and based on the existing design available in the MAT04 data sheet is also described.
Cosmological dynamics with non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hrycyna, Orest; Szydłowski, Marek
2015-01-01
Dynamical systems methods are used to investigate global behaviour of the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model in gravitational theory with a non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function. We show that the system can be reduced to an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system and additionally is equipped with an invariant manifold corresponding to an accelerated expansion of the universe. Using this invariant manifold we find an exact solution of the reduced dynamics. We investigate all solutions for all admissible initial conditions using theory of dynamical systems to obtain a classification of all evolutional paths. The right-hand sides of the dynamical system depend crucially on the value of the non-minimal coupling constant therefore we study bifurcation values of this parameter under which the structure of the phase space changes qualitatively. We found a special bifurcation value of the non-minimal coupling constant which is distinguished by dynamics of the model and may suggest some additional symmetry in matter sector of the theory
Cosmological dynamics with non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hrycyna, Orest [Theoretical Physics Division, National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Poland); Szydłowski, Marek, E-mail: orest.hrycyna@ncbj.gov.pl, E-mail: marek.szydlowski@uj.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland)
2015-11-01
Dynamical systems methods are used to investigate global behaviour of the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model in gravitational theory with a non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function. We show that the system can be reduced to an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system and additionally is equipped with an invariant manifold corresponding to an accelerated expansion of the universe. Using this invariant manifold we find an exact solution of the reduced dynamics. We investigate all solutions for all admissible initial conditions using theory of dynamical systems to obtain a classification of all evolutional paths. The right-hand sides of the dynamical system depend crucially on the value of the non-minimal coupling constant therefore we study bifurcation values of this parameter under which the structure of the phase space changes qualitatively. We found a special bifurcation value of the non-minimal coupling constant which is distinguished by dynamics of the model and may suggest some additional symmetry in matter sector of the theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, M.D.; Nag, B.R.
1981-01-01
A method has been developed for determining the auto-correlation functions of the fluctuations in the transverse and the parallel components of hot carrier-velocity in a semiconductor by Monte Carlo simulation. The functions for electrons in InSb are determined by this method for applied electric fields of 50 V/cm, 75 V/cm, and 100 V/cm. With increasing value of the time interval the transverse auto-correlation function fall nearly exponentially to zero, but the parallel function falls sharply to a negative peak, then rises to positive values and finally becomes zero. The interval beyond which the auto-correlation function is zero and the correlation time are also evaluated. The correlation time is found to be approximately 1.6 times the relaxation time calculated from the chord mobility. The effect of the flight sampling time on the value of variance of the displacement, is investigated in terms of the low frequency diffusion constants, determined from the variation of the correlation functions. It is found that the diffusion constants become independent of the sampling time if it is of the order of one hundred times the relaxation time. The frequency-dependent diffusion constants are calculated from the correlation functions. The transverse diffusion constant falls monotonically with frequency for all the field strengths studied. The parallel diffusion constant has similar variation for the lower fields (50 V/cm and 75 V/cm) but it has a peak at about 44 GHz for the field of 100 V/cm. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nez, F
2005-06-15
This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)
Nonlinear quantum gravity on the constant mean curvature foliation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Charles H-T
2005-01-01
A new approach to quantum gravity is presented based on a nonlinear quantization scheme for canonical field theories with an implicitly defined Hamiltonian. The constant mean curvature foliation is employed to eliminate the momentum constraints in canonical general relativity. It is, however, argued that the Hamiltonian constraint may be advantageously retained in the reduced classical system to be quantized. This permits the Hamiltonian constraint equation to be consistently turned into an expectation value equation on quantization that describes the scale factor on each spatial hypersurface characterized by a constant mean exterior curvature. This expectation value equation augments the dynamical quantum evolution of the unconstrained conformal three-geometry with a transverse traceless momentum tensor density. The resulting quantum theory is inherently nonlinear. Nonetheless, it is unitary and free from a nonlocal and implicit description of the Hamiltonian operator. Finally, by imposing additional homogeneity symmetries, a broad class of Bianchi cosmological models are analysed as nonlinear quantum minisuperspaces in the context of the proposed theory
Determination of the pion-nucleon coupling constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samaranayake, V.K.
1977-06-01
Forward dispersion relations are used to determine the pion-nucleon coupling constant and S-wave scattering lengths using a least squares fit with additional parameters introduced to take account of the uncertainties in the calculation of dispersion integrals. The values obtained are: f 2 = (78.0+- 2.1).10 -3 , a 1 -a 3 = (272.4+- 12.3).10 -3 , a 1 +2a 3 = (15.1+-10.4).10 -3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhawan, V.; Moeller, J.R.; Strother, S.C.; Evans, A.C.; Rottenberg, D.A.
1989-01-01
Several publications have discussed the estimation and physiologic significance of regional [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) rate constants and metabolic rates. Most of these studies analyzed dynamic data collected over 45-60 min; three rate constants (k1-k3) and blood volume (Vb) were estimated and the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRGlu) was subsequently derived using the measured blood glucose value and a regionally invariant value of the lumped constant (LC). The dephosphorylation rate constant (k4) was either neglected, or a fixed value was used in the estimation procedure to obtain the remaining parameters. To compare the rate constants obtained by different authors using different values of k4 is impossible without knowledge of the effect of selecting different fixed values of k4 (including zero) on the estimated rate constants and rCMRGlu. Based on our analysis of FDG/PET data from nine normal volunteer subjects, we conclude that inclusion of a fixed value for k4, in spite of a scaling effect on the absolute values of model parameters, has no effect on the coefficient of variation (CV) of within- and between-subject parameter estimates and glucose metabolic rates
Rovibrational Interaction and Vibrational Constants of the Symmetric Top Molecule 14NF3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamid Najib
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Several accurate experimental values of the and rotation-vibration interaction parameters and , , and vibrational constants have been extracted from the most recent high-resolution Fourier transform infrared, millimeter wave, and centimeter wave investigations in the spectra of the oblate symmetric top molecule 14NF3. The band-centres used are those of the four fundamental, the overtones, the combination, and hot bands identified in the region between 400 cm−1 and 2000 cm−1. Comparison of our constants with the ones measured previously, by infrared spectroscopy at low resolution, reveals orders of magnitude higher accuracy of the new values. The agreement between our values and those determined by ab initio calculations employing the TZ2Pf basis is excellent.
Representations of U(2∞ and the Value of the Fine Structure Constant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William H. Klink
2005-12-01
Full Text Available A relativistic quantum mechanics is formulated in which all of the interactions are in the four-momentum operator and Lorentz transformations are kinematic. Interactions are introduced through vertices, which are bilinear in fermion and antifermion creation and annihilation operators, and linear in boson creation and annihilation operators. The fermion-antifermion operators generate a unitary Lie algebra, whose representations are fixed by a first order Casimir operator (corresponding to baryon number or charge. Eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the four-momentum operator are analyzed and exact solutions in the strong coupling limit are sketched. A simple model shows how the fine structure constant might be determined for the QED vertex.
Hille, Katharina T; Hetz, Stefan K; Rosendahl, Julia; Braun, Hannah-Sophie; Pieper, Robert; Stumpff, Friederike
2016-01-01
Despite the clinical importance of ruminal acidosis, ruminal buffering continues to be poorly understood. In particular, the constants for the dissociation of H2CO3 and the solubility of CO2 (Henry's constant) have never been stringently determined for ruminal fluid. The pH was measured in parallel directly in the rumen and the reticulum in vivo, and in samples obtained via aspiration from 10 fistulated cows on hay- or concentrate-based diets. The equilibrium constants of the bicarbonate system were measured at 38°C both using the Astrup technique and a newly developed method with titration at 2 levels of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2; 4.75 and 94.98 kPa), yielding mean values of 0.234 ± 0.005 mmol ∙ L(-1) ∙ kPa(-1) and 6.11 ± 0.02 for Henry's constant and the dissociation constant, respectively (n/n = 31/10). Both reticular pH and the pH of samples measured after removal were more alkalic than those measured in vivo in the rumen (by ΔpH = 0.87 ± 0.04 and 0.26 ± 0.04). The amount of acid or base required to shift the pH of ruminal samples to 6.4 or 5.8 (base excess) differed between the 2 feeding groups. Experimental results are compared with the mathematical predictions of an open 2-buffer Henderson-Hasselbalch equilibrium model. Because pCO2 has pronounced effects on ruminal pH and can decrease rapidly in samples removed from the rumen, introduction of a generally accepted protocol for determining the acid-base status of ruminal fluid with standard levels of pCO2 and measurement of base excess in addition to pH should be considered. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Determination of calibration constants for perturbing objects of cavity resonators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franco, M.A.R.; Serrao, V.A.; Fuhrmann, C.
1989-05-01
Using the Slater theorem, the calibrating constants for objects utilized in the tecnique of perturbing measurements of cavities electric and magnetic fields have been determined. Such perturbing objects are utilized in the measurements of the shunt impedance and electric field relative intensity ocurring in linac accelerating structures. To determine the calibrating constants of the perturbing objects, a cylindrical cavity of well know field pattern has been utilized. The cavity was excited in two differente modes of oscillation and the experimental results are in good aggrement with the theoretical values. (author) [pt
Stability constants of some Y(III)-complexes from potentiometric data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pande, S P; Munshi, K N [Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry
1975-06-01
Potentiometric studies have been carried out on the metal complexes of yttrium(III) with 5-sulphosalicylic acid 3,5-dinitro salicylic acid sodium 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene-6-sulfonate, and nitroso-R-salt. The Calvin-Bjerrum pH-titration technique, as used by Iriving and Rossotti, has been applied to determine the stepwise protonation constants of the ligands and the formation constants of the complexes. The log K values have been computed by alternative methods, at three different temperatures at an ionic strength of 0.2M(NaClO/sub 4/).(author).
Driscoll, Rachel L; de Launay, Keelia Quinn; Fenske, Mark J
2018-02-01
Response inhibition negatively impacts subsequent hedonic evaluations of motivationally relevant stimuli and reduces the behavioral incentive to seek and obtain such items. Here we expand the investigation of the motivational consequences of inhibition by presenting sexually appealing and nonappealing images in a go/no-go task and a subsequent image-viewing task. Each initially obscured image in the viewing task could either be made more visible or less visible by repeatedly pressing different keys. Fewer key presses were made to obtain better views of preferred-sex images when such images had previously been inhibited as no-go items than when previously encountered as noninhibited go items. This finding replicates prior results and is consistent with the possibility that motor-response suppression has lingering effects that include global reductions in all behavioral expression. However, for nonpreferred images, prior inhibition resulted in more key presses to obscure their visibility than when such images had not been inhibited. This novel finding suggests that the motivational consequences of response inhibition are not due to a global brake on action but are instead linked to negative changes in stimulus value that induce corresponding increases in avoidance and decreases in approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
González, Laura; Oria, Roger; Botaya, Luis; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Otero, Jorge
2015-01-01
Quartz tuning forks have become popular in nanotechnology applications, especially as sensors for scanning probe microscopy. The sensor’s spring constant and the oscillation amplitude are required parameters to evaluate the tip-sample forces; however, there is certain controversy within the research community as to how to arrive at a value for the static spring constant of the device when working in shear mode. Here, we present two different methods based on finite element simulations, to determine the value of the spring constant of the sensors: the amplitude and Cleveland methods. The results obtained using these methods are compared to those using the geometrical method, and show that the latter overestimates the spring constant of the device. (paper)
The (φ4)3+1 theory with infinitesimal bare coupling constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yotsuyanagi, I.
1987-01-01
We study the (φ 4 ) 3+1 theory by means of a variational method improved with a BCS-type vacuum state. We examine the theory with both negative and positive infinitesimal bare coupling constants, where the theory has been suggested to exist nontrivially and stably in the infinite ultraviolet cutoff limit. When the cutoff is sent to infinity, we find the instability of the vacuum energy at the end point value of the variational parameter in the case of the negative bare coupling constant. For the positive bare coupling constant, we can renormalize the vacuum energy without using the extremal condition with respect to the variational mass parameter. We do not find an instability for the whole range of parameters including the end point. We still have a possibility that the theory with this bare coupling constant is nontrivial and stable. (orig.)
Optimal Constant DC Link Voltage Operation of aWave Energy Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mats Leijon
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This article proposes a simple and reliable damping strategy for wave powerfarm operation of small-scale point-absorber converters. The strategy is based on passiverectification onto a constant DC-link, making it very suitable for grid integration of the farm.A complete model of the system has been developed in Matlab Simulink, and uses real sitedata as input. The optimal constant DC-voltage is evaluated as a function of the significantwave height and energy period of the waves. The total energy output of the WEC is derivedfor one year of experimental site data. The energy output is compared for two cases, onewhere the optimal DC-voltage is determined and held constant at half-hour basis throughoutthe year, and one where a selected value of the DC-voltage is kept constant throughout theyear regardless of sea state.
Determination of the rate constant for neuronal and extra-neuronal monoamine oxidase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cassis, L.; Ludwig, J.; Trendelenburg, U.
1986-01-01
In the rat vas deferens, neuronal deamination of 3 H-(-) noradrenaline ( 3 H-NA) to 3 H-dihydroxyphenethylglycol ( 3 HDOPEG) cannot be inhibited by pretreatment with a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor. However, in the extraneuronal compartment of the rat heart, inhibition of MAO abolishes the formation of 3 HDOPEG. To clarify this discrepancy, the authors determined the rate constant for MAO (/sup k/mao/) neuronally (rat vas deferens) and extraneuronally (rat heart). For neuronal /sup k/mao, vasa deferentia were incubated with 3 HNA for 300 minutes, and the cumulative formation of 3 HDOPEG measured. The delay in time before 3 HDOPEG achieves steady state (/sup tau/system), is inversely proportional to /sup k/mao. Because /sup tau/system is very short for neuronal MAO, an appreciable delay was only achieved after partial inhibition of MAO with various parglyline concentrations. To relate to the uninhibited enzyme, the percentage inhibition by pargyline was then determined in homogenate preparations. For extraneuronal MAO, a similar procedure was performed in perfused rat hearts. Results show a significantly greater /sup k/mao of neuronal origin, (/sup k/mao = .57min - 1) which when related to the fractional size of the neuronal compartment suggests a very high activity of neuronal MAO
Determination of the stability constants for the complexes of rare-earth elements and tetracycline
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saiki, M.; Lima, F.W.
1977-01-01
Stability constants for the lanthanide elements complexes with tetracycline were determined by the methods of average number of ligands, the two parameters and by weighted least squares. The technique of solvent extraction was applied to obtain the values of the parameters required for the determination of the constants [pt
Inhibition of Catalase by Tea Catechins in Free and Cellular State: A Biophysical Approach
Pal, Sandip; Dey, Subrata Kumar; Saha, Chabita
2014-01-01
Tea flavonoids bind to variety of enzymes and inhibit their activities. In the present study, binding and inhibition of catalase activity by catechins with respect to their structure-affinity relationship has been elucidated. Fluorimetrically determined binding constants for (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with catalase were observed to be 2.27×106 M−1 and 1.66×106 M−1, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters evidence exothermic and spontaneous interaction between catechins and catalase. Major forces of interaction are suggested to be through hydrogen bonding along with electrostatic contributions and conformational changes. Distinct loss of α-helical structure of catalase by interaction with EGCG was captured in circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Gallated catechins demonstrated higher binding constants and inhibition efficacy than non-gallated catechins. EGCG exhibited maximum inhibition of pure catalase. It also inhibited cellular catalase in K562 cancer cells with significant increase in cellular ROS and suppression of cell viability (IC50 54.5 µM). These results decipher the molecular mechanism by which tea catechins interact with catalase and highlight the potential of gallated catechin like EGCG as an anticancer drug. EGCG may have other non-specific targets in the cell, but its anticancer property is mainly defined by ROS accumulation due to catalase inhibition. PMID:25025898
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaudhuri, N.K.; Sawant, R.M.
1997-09-01
Stability constants of the fluoride complexes of the actinides in different oxidation states measured by potentiometric method using fluoride ion selective electrode have been presented. Procedure and precautions required to overcome certain difficulties particular to actinide ions have been discussed. Literature data from various sources have been compiled. In order to have a reasonable comparison the stability constant (β 1 ) values obtained in diverse ionic strength media are converted to thermodynamic stability constant, β 1 0 , using Davies equation (a modification of Debye-Huckel equation). A correlation of the β 1 0 values with the fundamental properties of the actinide ions using various models available in the literature has been attempted. A semiempirical relation recently developed by Brown, Sylva and Ellis (BSE equation) appears to be most suitable. Using the values of ionic radii and best available values of the stability constants of a large number of metal ions from recent compilations a comparative study of the various models or relations available in the literature has been tried. For metal ions in general, the best correlation is obtained with the BSE equation. In an attempt to accommodate the unusual trend in the stability constants of the tetravalent actinides a modification in a parameter of the BSE equation has been proposed. Good agreement between the theoretically calculated and experimentally determined values for actinides in different oxidation states is then obtained in most of the cases. (author)
Lifetime of titanium filament at constant current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, T.S.; Lanni, C.
1981-01-01
Titanium Sublimation Pump (TSP) represents the most efficient and the least expensive method to produce Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) in storage rings. In ISABELLE, a proton storage accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, for example, TSP provides a pumping speed for hydrogen of > 2 x 10 6 l/s. Due to the finite life of titanium filaments, new filaments have to be switched in before the end of filament burn out, to ensure smooth operation of the accelerator. Therefore, several operational modes that can be used to activate the TSP were studied. The constant current mode is a convenient way of maintaining constant evaporating rate by increasing the power input while the filament diameter decreases as titanium evaporates. The filaments used in this experiment were standard Varian 916-0024 filaments made of Ti 85%, Mo 15% alloy. During their lifetime at a constant current of 48 amperes, the evaporation rate rose to a maximum at about 10% of their life and then flattened out to a constant value, 0.25 g/hr. The maximum evaporation rate occurs coincidently with the recrystallization of 74% Ti 26% Mo 2 from microstructure crystalline at higher titanium concentration to macrostructure crystalline at lower titanium concentration. As the macrocrystal grows, the slip plane develops at the grain boundary resulting in high resistance at the slip plane which will eventually cause the filament burn out due to local heating
The Boltzmann constant from a snifter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyukodi, B; Sárközi, Zs; Néda, Z; Tunyagi, A; Györke, E
2012-01-01
Evaporation of a small glass of ethylic alcohol is studied both experimentally and through an elementary thermal physics approach. For a cylindrical beaker and no air flow in the room, a simple quadratic relation is found between the evaporation time and the mass of evaporated liquid. This problem and the obtained results offer excellent possibilities for simple student experiments and for testing basic principles of thermal physics. As an example, we use the obtained results for estimating the value of the Boltzmann constant from evaporation experiments. (paper)
Ratios of Vector and Pseudoscalar B Meson Decay Constants in the Light-Cone Quark Model
Dhiman, Nisha; Dahiya, Harleen
2018-05-01
We study the decay constants of pseudoscalar and vector B meson in the framework of light-cone quark model. We apply the variational method to the relativistic Hamiltonian with the Gaussian-type trial wave function to obtain the values of β (scale parameter). Then with the help of known values of constituent quark masses, we obtain the numerical results for the decay constants f_P and f_V, respectively. We compare our numerical results with the existing experimental data.
Farley, Peter C; Christeller, John T; Sullivan, Michelle E; Sullivan, Patrick A; Laing, William A
2002-01-01
Aspartic peptidase inhibitors, which are themselves proteins, are strong inhibitors (small inhibition constants) of some aspartic peptidases but not others. However, there have been no studies of the kinetics of the interaction between a proteinaceous aspartic peptidase inhibitor and aspartic peptidases. This paper describes an analysis of rate constants for the interaction between recombinant squash aspartic peptidase inhibitor (rSQAPI) and a panel of aspartic peptidases that have a range of inhibition constants for SQAPI. Purified rSQAPI completely inhibits pepsin at a 1:1 molar ratio of pepsin to rSQAPI monomer (inhibition constant 1 nM). The interaction of pepsin with immobilized rSQAPI, at pH values between 3.0 and 6.0, was monitored using surface plasmon resonance. Binding of pepsin to rSQAPI was slow (association rate constants ca 10(4)M (-1)s(-1)), but rSQAPI was an effective pepsin inhibitor because dissociation of the rSQAPI-pepsin complex was much slower (dissociation rate constants ca 10(-4)s(-1)), especially at low pH values. Similar results were obtained with a His-tagged rSQAPI. Strong inhibition (inhibition constant 3 nM) of one isoform (rSap4) of the family of Candida albicans-secreted aspartic peptidases was, as with pepsin, characterized by slow binding of rSap4 and slower dissociation of the rSap4-inhibitor complex. In contrast, weaker inhibition of the Glomerella cingulata-secreted aspartic peptidase (inhibition constant 7 nM) and the C. albicans rSap1 and Sap2 isoenzymes (inhibition constants 25 and 400 nM, respectively) was, in each case, characterized by a larger dissociation rate constant. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
AC loss time constant measurements on Nb3Al and NbTi multifilamentary superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Painter, T.A.
1988-03-01
The AC loss time constant is a previously univestigated property of Nb 3 Al, a superconductor which, with recent technological developments, shows some advantages over the more commonly used superconductors, NbTi and Nb 3 Sn. Four Nb 3 Al samples with varying twist pitches and one NbTi sample are inductively measured for their AC loss time constants. The measured time constants are compared to the theoretical time constant limits imposed by the limits of the transverse resistivity found by Carr [5] and to the theoretical time constants found using the Bean Model as well as to each other. The measured time constants of the Nb 3 Al samples fall approximately halfway between the theoretical time constant limits, and the measured time constants of the NbTi sample is close to the theoretical lower time constant limit. The Bean Model adequately accounts for the variance of the permeability of the Nb 3 Al superconductor in a background magnetic field. Finally, the measured time constant values of the Nb 3 Al samples vary approximately according to the square of their twist pitch. (author)
Lu, Shih-Yuan; Yen, Yi-Ming
2002-02-01
A first-passage scheme is devised to determine the overall rate constant of suspensions under the non-diffusion-limited condition. The original first-passage scheme developed for diffusion-limited processes is modified to account for the finite incorporation rate at the inclusion surface by using a concept of the nonzero survival probability of the diffusing entity at entity-inclusion encounters. This nonzero survival probability is obtained from solving a relevant boundary value problem. The new first-passage scheme is validated by an excellent agreement between overall rate constant results from the present development and from an accurate boundary collocation calculation for the three common spherical arrays [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 4985 (1998)], namely simple cubic, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic arrays, for a wide range of P and f. Here, P is a dimensionless quantity characterizing the relative rate of diffusion versus surface incorporation, and f is the volume fraction of the inclusion. The scheme is further applied to random spherical suspensions and to investigate the effect of inclusion coagulation on overall rate constants. It is found that randomness in inclusion arrangement tends to lower the overall rate constant for f up to the near close-packing value of the regular arrays because of the inclusion screening effect. This screening effect turns stronger for regular arrays when f is near and above the close-packing value of the regular arrays, and consequently the overall rate constant of the random array exceeds that of the regular array. Inclusion coagulation too induces the inclusion screening effect, and leads to lower overall rate constants.
Liu, Lina; Chen, Yuanfang; Yang, Li
2014-12-15
We report the study of several inhibitors on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme using sequential online capillary electrophoresis (CE) assay. Using metal ions (Na(+) and Mg(2+)) as example inhibitors, we show that evolution of the ALT inhibition reaction can be achieved by automatically and simultaneously monitoring the substrate consumption and product formation as a function of reaction time. The inhibition mechanism and kinetic constants of ALT inhibition with succinic acid and two traditional Chinese medicines were derived from the sequential online CE assay. Our study could provide valuable information about the inhibition reactions of ALT enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The e3value ontology for value networks : Current state and future directions
Weigand, Hans
2016-01-01
Meeting changing customer demands and business opportunities in a connected world makes it necessary for organizations to constantly innovate by means of value-creating collaborations. The goal of value modeling is to support the exploration of new business models from an economic point of view. The
Ion exchange equilibrium constants
Marcus, Y
2013-01-01
Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and
Determination of the Avogadro constant by the XRCD method using a 28Si-enriched sphere
Kuramoto, Naoki; Mizushima, Shigeki; Zhang, Lulu; Fujita, Kazuaki; Azuma, Yasushi; Kurokawa, Akira; Okubo, Sho; Inaba, Hajime; Fujii, Kenichi
2017-10-01
To determine the Avogadro constant N A by the x-ray crystal density method, the density of a 28Si-enriched crystal was determined by absolute measurements of the mass and volume of a 1 kg sphere manufactured from the crystal. The mass and volume were determined by an optical interferometer and a vacuum mass comparator, respectively. The sphere surface was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry to derive the mass and volume of the Si core of the sphere excluding the surface layers. From the mass and volume, the density of the Si core was determined with a relative standard uncertainty of 2.3 × 10-8. By combining the Si core density with the lattice constant and the molar mass of the sphere reported by the International Avogadro Coordination (IAC) project in 2015, a new value of 6.022 140 84(15) × 1023 mol-1 was obtained for N A with a relative standard uncertainty of 2.4 × 10-8. To make the N A value determined in this work usable for a future adjustment of the fundamental constants by the CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants, the correlation of the new N A value with the N A values determined in our previous works was examined. The correlation coefficients with the values of N A determined by IAC in 2011 and 2015 were estimated to be 0.07 and 0.28, respectively. The correlation of the new N A value with the N A value determined by IAC in 2017 using a different 28Si-enriched crystal was also examined, and the correlation coefficient was estimated to be 0.21.
Inhibiting effects of imidazole on copper corrosion in 1 M HNO3 solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Woo-Jin
2003-01-01
The present work deals with the inhibiting effects of imidazole on the pure copper (Cu) corrosion in 1 M HNO 3 solution analysing potentiodynamic polarisation curves, potentiostatic anodic current transient, AC impedance spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). By adding imidazole to HNO 3 solution, the polarisation curves showed decrease in the corrosion current and the cathodic current, suggesting that imidazole acts as an effective cathodic inhibitor to Cu corrosion. From the measured anodic current transients, it is inferred that the protective Cu-imidazole complex film is simultaneously formed with the Cu oxide in the presence of imidazole during the early stage of the anodic polarisation. Analysis of the AC impedance spectra revealed that the values of the charge transfer resistance R ct obtained in imidazole-containing HNO 3 solution were greater than that value in imidazole-free one and at the same time steadily increased with immersion time to the constant value. Contrarily, the capacitance value was abruptly lowered from the double layer capacitance C dl to the complex film capacitance C cf in the progress of immersion time. Furthermore, the Warburg coefficient σ value for the ion diffusion through the complex film was observed to increase with immersion time. This means that the Cu(N-OH) complex film becomes thicker during immersion in the HNO 3 solution with imidazole through the inward growth of the N-rich outer layer to the O-rich inner layer, as well validated by XPS. Based upon the experimental results, it is suggested that the Cu corrosion in 1 M HNO 3 solution is efficiently inhibited with the addition of imidazole by retarding both the charge transfer on cathodic sites of the Cu surface in the early stage of immersion time and the subsequent ion diffusion through the steadily growing complex film
Phototransformation rate constants of PAHs associated with soot particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Daekyun; Young, Thomas M.; Anastasio, Cort
2013-01-01
Photodegradation is a key process governing the residence time and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particles, both in the atmosphere and after deposition. We have measured photodegradation rate constants of PAHs in bulk deposits of soot particles illuminated with simulated sunlight. The photodegradation rate constants at the surface (k p 0 ), the effective diffusion coefficients (D eff ), and the light penetration depths (z 0.5 ) for PAHs on soot layers of variable thickness were determined by fitting experimental data with a model of coupled photolysis and diffusion. The overall disappearance rates of irradiated low molecular weight PAHs (with 2–3 rings) on soot particles were influenced by fast photodegradation and fast diffusion kinetics, while those of high molecular weight PAHs (with 4 or more rings) were apparently controlled by either the combination of slow photodegradation and slow diffusion kinetics or by very slow diffusion kinetics alone. The value of z 0.5 is more sensitive to the soot layer thickness than the k p 0 value. As the thickness of the soot layer increases, the z 0.5 values increase, but the k p 0 values are almost constant. The effective diffusion coefficients calculated from dark experiments are generally higher than those from the model fitting method for illumination experiments. Due to the correlation between k p 0 and z 0.5 in thinner layers, D eff should be estimated by an independent method for better accuracy. Despite some limitations of the model used in this study, the fitted parameters were useful for describing empirical results of photodegradation of soot-associated PAHs. - Highlights: ► PAHs on soot were evaluated by a model of coupled photolysis and diffusion. ► Photodegradation rate at the surface, diffusion coefficient, and light penetration path were determined. ► Low MW PAHs were influenced by fast photodegradation and fast diffusion. ► High MW PAHs were controlled either by slow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, S.M.; Hsu, M.C.; Chow, M.C.
1979-01-01
A new modeling technique is introduced for on-line sensor time constant identification, both for the resistance temperature detector (RTD) and for the pressure sensor using power plant operational data. The sensor's time constant is estimated from a real characteristic root of the fitted autoregressive moving average model. The RTD's time constant values were identified to be 8.4 s, with a standard deviation of 1.2 s. The pressure sensor time constant was identified to be 28.6 ms, with a standard deviation of 3.5 ms
Some Dynamical Effects of the Cosmological Constant
Axenides, M.; Floratos, E. G.; Perivolaropoulos, L.
Newton's law gets modified in the presence of a cosmological constant by a small repulsive term (antigravity) that is proportional to the distance. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data (Λ~=10-52 m-2), we investigate the significance of this term on various astrophysical scales. We find that on galactic scales or smaller (less than a few tens of kpc), the dynamical effects of the vacuum energy are negligible by several orders of magnitude. On scales of 1 Mpc or larger however we find that the vacuum energy can significantly affect the dynamics. For example we show that the velocity data in the local group of galaxies correspond to galactic masses increased by 35% in the presence of vacuum energy. The effect is even more important on larger low density systems like clusters of galaxies or superclusters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goodman, A L [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)
1992-08-01
Statistical orientation fluctuations are calculated with two alternative assumptions: the rotational frequency remains constant as the shape orientation fluctuates; and, the average angular momentum remains constant as the shape orientation fluctuates. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs.
Solar Constant (SOLCON) Experiment: Ground Support Equipment (GSE) software development
Gibson, M. Alan; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert
1991-01-01
The Solar Constant (SOLCON) Experiment, the objective of which is to determine the solar constant value and its variability, is scheduled for launch as part of the Space Shuttle/Atmospheric Laboratory for Application and Science (ATLAS) spacelab mission. The Ground Support Equipment (GSE) software was developed to monitor and analyze the SOLCON telemetry data during flight and to test the instrument on the ground. The design and development of the GSE software are discussed. The SOLCON instrument was tested during Davos International Solar Intercomparison, 1989 and the SOLCON data collected during the tests are analyzed to study the behavior of the instrument.
Stabilization of third-order bilinear systems using constant controls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. E. Golubev
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the zero equilibrium stabilization for dynamical systems that have control input singularities. A dynamical system with scalar control input is called nonregular if the coefficient of input becomes null on a subset of the phase space that contains the origin. One of the classes of nonregular dynamical systems is represented by bilinear systems. In case of second-order bilinear systems the necessary and sufficient conditions for the zero equilibrium stabilizability are known in the literature. However, in general case the stabilization problem in the presence of control input singularities has not been solved yet.In this note we solve the problem of the zero equilibrium stabilization for the third-order bilinear dynamical systems given in a canonical form. The solution is found in the class of constant controls. The necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the zero equilibrium stabilizability of the bilinear systems in question.The dependence of the zero equilibrium stabilizability on system parameter values is analyzed. The general criteria of stabilizability by means of constant controls are given for the bilinear systems in question. In case when all the system parameters have nonzero values the necessary and sufficient stabilizability conditions are proved. The case when some of the parameters are equal to zero is also considered.Further research can be focused on extending the obtained results to a higher-order case of bilinear and affine dynamical systems. The solution of the considered stabilization problem should also be found not only within constant controls but also in a class of state feedbacks, particularly, in the case when stabilizing constant control does not exist.One of the potential application areas for the obtained theoretical results is automatic control of technical plants like unmanned aerial vehicles and mobile robots.
Teichmueller motion of (2+1)-dimensional gravity with the cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujiwara, Yoshihisa; Soda, Jiro.
1989-08-01
The (2+1)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a cosmological constant is studied in the ADM canonical formalism. Adopting the York's time slice, we completely solve the initial-value problem and the time evolution equations with an initial spacelike 2-surface being a closed Riemann surface of genus zero and one. The result in a torus case is that the Teichmueller parameters for the torus follow a geodesic in the Teichmueller space but its motion asymptotically stops due to the presence of the cosmological constant. (author)
inhibitive action and synergistic performance of 2-amino
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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The corrosion inhibition action of copper alloy in 1 M HCl solution in the presence of 2- ... application of copper alloy is enormous due to their properties such as good corrosion resistance, mechanical work ability and better thermal conductivity. ... CR = (1) where K the constant is given as 87.6. Element. Al. Sn. Mn. Mg. S. P.
Precise strength of the $\\pi$NN coupling constant
Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Rahm, J; Blomgren, J; Olsson, N; Thomas, A W
1998-01-01
We report here a preliminary value for the piNN coupling constant deduced from the GMO sumrule for forward piN scattering. As in our previous determination from np backward differential scattering cross sections we give a critical discussion of the analysis with careful attention not only to the statistical, but also to the systematic uncertainties. Our preliminary evaluation gives $g^2_c$(GMO) = 13.99(24).
Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst
2011-11-15
Treatment of poisoning by highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (OP) with atropine and an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator (oxime) is of limited effectiveness in case of different nerve agents and pesticides. One challenge is the reactivation of OP-inhibited brain AChE which shows inadequate success with charged pyridinium oximes. Recent studies with high doses of the tertiary oxime isonitrosoacetone (MINA) indicated a beneficial effect on central and peripheral AChE and on survival in nerve agent poisoned guinea pigs. Now, an in vitro study was performed to determine the reactivation kinetics of MINA with tabun-, sarin-, cyclosarin-, VX- and paraoxon-inhibited human AChE. MINA showed an exceptionally low affinity to inhibited AChE but, with the exception of tabun-inhibited AChE, a moderate to high reactivity. In comparison to the pyridinium oximes obidoxime, 2-PAM and HI-6 the affinity and reactivity of MINA was in most cases lower and in relation to the most effective reactivators, the second order reactivation constant of MINA was 500 to 3400-fold lower. Hence, high in vivo MINA concentrations would be necessary to achieve at least partial reactivation. This assumption corresponds to in vivo data showing a dose-dependent effect on reactivation and survival in animals. In view, of the toxic potential of MINA in animals human studies would be necessary to determine the tolerability and pharmacokinetics of MINA in order to enable a proper assessment of the value of this oxime as an antidote in OP poisoning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elliot, A.J.; Bartels, D.M.
2009-08-01
An understanding of the aqueous radiolysis-induced chemistry in nuclear reactors is an important key to the understanding of materials integrity issues in reactor systems. Significant materials and chemistry issues have emerged in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and CANDU reactors that have required a detailed understanding of the radiation chemistry of the coolant. For each reactor type, specific computer radiolysis models have been developed to gain insight into radiolysis processes and to make chemistry control adjustments to address the particular issues. The objective of this report is to compile and review the radiolysis data now available and, where possible, correct the reported g-values and rate constants to provide a recommendation for the best values to use in high temperature modelling of light water radiolysis up to 350 o C. With a few exceptions, the review has been limited to those reactions that occur in slightly acid and slightly alkaline solutions, e.g., it does not address reactions involving the oxide radical anion, O - , or ionized forms of hydrogen peroxide, HO 2 - , beyond their acid-base equilibria reactions. However, a few reactions have been included where the rate constant for a reaction involving O - is significantly larger than the corresponding hydroxyl radical reaction rate constant and thus can influence the chemistry below the pK A of the hydroxyl radical. (author)
Determination of the gravitational constant with a beam balance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlamminger, St.; Holzschuh, E.; Kuendig, W.
2002-01-01
The Newtonian gravitational constant G was determined by means of a novel beam-balance experiment with an accuracy comparable to that of the most precise torsion-balance experiments. The gravitational force of two stainless steel tanks filled with 13 521 kg mercury on 1.1 kg test masses was measured using a commercial mass comparator. A careful analysis of the data and the experimental error yields G=6.674 07(22)x10 -11 m 3 kg -1 s -2 . This value is in excellent agreement with most values previously obtained with different methods
Cosmic Explosions, Life in the Universe, and the Cosmological Constant
Piran, Tsvi; Jimenez, Raul; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Simpson, Fergus; Verde, Licia
2016-02-01
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are copious sources of gamma rays whose interaction with a planetary atmosphere can pose a threat to complex life. Using recent determinations of their rate and probability of causing massive extinction, we explore what types of universes are most likely to harbor advanced forms of life. We use cosmological N -body simulations to determine at what time and for what value of the cosmological constant (Λ ) the chances of life being unaffected by cosmic explosions are maximized. Life survival to GRBs favors Lambda-dominated universes. Within a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, the likelihood of life survival to GRBs is governed by the value of Λ and the age of the Universe. We find that we seem to live in a favorable point in this parameter space that minimizes the exposure to cosmic explosions, yet maximizes the number of main sequence (hydrogen-burning) stars around which advanced life forms can exist.
Cosmic Explosions, Life in the Universe, and the Cosmological Constant.
Piran, Tsvi; Jimenez, Raul; Cuesta, Antonio J; Simpson, Fergus; Verde, Licia
2016-02-26
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are copious sources of gamma rays whose interaction with a planetary atmosphere can pose a threat to complex life. Using recent determinations of their rate and probability of causing massive extinction, we explore what types of universes are most likely to harbor advanced forms of life. We use cosmological N-body simulations to determine at what time and for what value of the cosmological constant (Λ) the chances of life being unaffected by cosmic explosions are maximized. Life survival to GRBs favors Lambda-dominated universes. Within a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, the likelihood of life survival to GRBs is governed by the value of Λ and the age of the Universe. We find that we seem to live in a favorable point in this parameter space that minimizes the exposure to cosmic explosions, yet maximizes the number of main sequence (hydrogen-burning) stars around which advanced life forms can exist.
van Rhijn, Bas W G; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Ooms, Bert C M; Kirkels, Wim J; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Boevé, Egbert R; Jöbsis, Adriaan C; van der Kwast, Theo H
2010-06-01
A new grading system for bladder cancer (BCa) was adopted in 2004 to reduce observer variability and provide better prognostic information. We compared the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 and 2004 systems for observer variability and prognosis. Slides of 173 primary non-muscle-invasive BCa were reviewed two times by four pathologists. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed using κ statistics. We determined the mean grade (eg, G1/low malignant potential is 1 grade point, G2/low grade is 2 grade points) of the pathologists per grading cycle. Kaplan-Meier analyses were applied for prediction of recurrence and progression. For WHO 2004 and 1973 grading, the agreement between the pathologists was 39-74% (κ: 0.14-0.58) and 39-64% (κ: 0.15-0.41), respectively. The intraobserver agreement varied from 71% to 88% (κ: 0.55-0.81). The mean grade of a pathologist was constant (difference below 0.1 grade point) irrespective of the grading system. Conversely, mean-grade differences among the pathologists were high, up to 0.7 grade point. The mean grades for the WHO 2004 system were 0.3-0.5 grade point higher than those of WHO 1973. Mean grade distinguished low and high graders among the pathologists and was strongly linked with risk of progression in each grade category. The variation in mean grade among individual pathologists exceeded the grade shift caused by WHO 2004 grading. Knowledge of the pathologist's mean grade allows a better assessment of the prognostic value of grading. Mean grade has the potential to become a tool for quality assurance in pathology. Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kinetics and Mechanism Study of Competitive Inhibition of Jack-Bean Urease by Baicalin
Tan, Lirong; Su, Jiyan; Wu, Dianwei; Yu, Xiaodan; Su, Zuqing; Wu, Xiaoli; Kong, Songzhi; Lai, Xiaoping; Lin, Ji; Su, Ziren
2013-01-01
Baicalin (BA) is the principal component of Radix Scutellariae responsible for its pharmacological activity. In this study, kinetics and mechanism of inhibition by BA against jack-bean urease were investigated for its therapeutic potential. It was revealed that the IC50 of BA against jack-bean urease was 2.74 ± 0.51 mM, which was proved to be a competitive and concentration-dependent inhibition with slow-binding progress curves. The rapid formation of initial BA-urease complex with an inhibition constant of K i = 3.89 × 10−3 mM was followed by a slow isomerization into the final complex with an overall inhibition constant of K i* = 1.47 × 10−4 mM. High effectiveness of thiol protectors against BA inhibition indicated that the strategic role of the active-site sulfhydryl group of the urease was involved in the blocking process. Moreover, the inhibition of BA was proved to be reversible due to the fact that urease could be reactivated by dithiothreitol but not reactant dilution. Molecular docking assay suggested that BA made contacts with the important activating sulfhydryl group Cys-592 residues and restricted the mobility of the active-site flap. Taken together, it could be deduced that BA was a competitive inhibitor targeting thiol groups of urease in a slow-binding manner both reversibly and concentration-dependently, serving as a promising urease inhibitor for treatments on urease-related diseases. PMID:24198731
Calculation of hyperfine structure constants of small molecules using
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The Z-vector method in the relativistic coupled-cluster framework is employed to calculate the parallel and perpendicular components of the magnetic hyperfine structure constant of a few small alkaline earth hydrides (BeH, MgH, and CaH) and fluorides (MgF and CaF). We have compared our Z-vector results with the values ...
Charlot, G
1958-01-01
Selected Constants: Oxydo-Reduction Potentials contains Tables of the most probable value of the normal oxidation-reduction potential, or of the formal or apparent potential, of a given oxidation-reduction system. This book is prepared under the sponsorship of the Commission on Electrochemical Data of the Section of Analytical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. It is included in a general program of the Section of Analytical Chemistry. Entry items are classified in alphabetical order. This book will be of value to specialized and non-specialized chemists, teach
Water dimers in the atmosphere III: equilibrium constant from a flexible potential.
Scribano, Yohann; Goldman, Nir; Saykally, R J; Leforestier, Claude
2006-04-27
We present new results for the water dimer equilibrium constant K(p)(T) in the range 190-390 K, using a flexible potential energy surface fitted to spectroscopical data. The increased numerical complexity due to explicit consideration of the monomer vibrations is handled via an adiabatic (6 + 6)d decoupling between intra- and intermolecular modes. The convergence of the canonical partition function of the dimer is ensured by computing all energy levels up to dissociation for total angular momentum values J = 0-5 and using an extrapolation scheme to higher values. The newly calculated values for K(p)(T) are in very good agreement with available experimental data at room temperature. At higher temperatures, an analysis of the convergence of the partition function reveals that quasi-bound states are likely to contribute to the equilibrium constant. Additional thermodynamical quantities (deltaG, deltaH, deltaS, and C(p)) have also been determined and fit to quadratic expressions a + bT + cT2.
Anisotropic constant-roll inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Kobe University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan)
2018-01-15
We study constant-roll inflation in the presence of a gauge field coupled to an inflaton. By imposing the constant anisotropy condition, we find new exact anisotropic constant-roll inflationary solutions which include anisotropic power-law inflation as a special case. We also numerically show that the new anisotropic solutions are attractors in the phase space. (orig.)
The Rydberg constant and proton size from atomic hydrogen
Beyer, Axel; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Matveev, Arthur; Pohl, Randolf; Khabarova, Ksenia; Grinin, Alexey; Lamour, Tobias; Yost, Dylan C.; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Kolachevsky, Nikolai; Udem, Thomas
2017-10-01
At the core of the “proton radius puzzle” is a four-standard deviation discrepancy between the proton root-mean-square charge radii (rp) determined from the regular hydrogen (H) and the muonic hydrogen (µp) atoms. Using a cryogenic beam of H atoms, we measured the 2S-4P transition frequency in H, yielding the values of the Rydberg constant R∞ = 10973731.568076(96) per meterand rp = 0.8335(95) femtometer. Our rp value is 3.3 combined standard deviations smaller than the previous H world data, but in good agreement with the µp value. We motivate an asymmetric fit function, which eliminates line shifts from quantum interference of neighboring atomic resonances.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lalande, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1961-07-01
A method for determining the nuclear constants {sigma}{sub a} and {lambda}{sub t} of a moderator is described. The disappearance of a burst of neutrons introduced into a finite medium is studied as a function of time. This decrease in the thermal neutron density is the product of two exponentials; one representing the absorption, the other the leakage. By varying one or other of these factors, the constants of the factor left unvaried can be determined, and from this the nuclear constant values are deduced. (author) [French] On decrit une methode permettant de determiner les constantes nucleaires {sigma}{sub a} et {lambda}{sub t} d'un moderateur. On etudie la decroissance dans le temps d'une bouffee de neutrons introduite dans un milieu fini. Cette decroissance de la densite en neutrons thermiques est le produit de deux exponentielles; l'une represente l'absorption, l'autre les fuites. Par variation de l'un ou l'autre de ces facteurs, on determine les constantes du facteur laisse invariant dont on deduit les valeurs des constantes nucleaires. (auteur)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pawlowski, F; Jorgensen, P; Olsen, Jeppe
2002-01-01
A detailed study is carried out of the accuracy of molecular equilibrium geometries obtained from least-squares fits involving experimental rotational constants B(0) and sums of ab initio vibration-rotation interaction constants alpha(r)(B). The vibration-rotation interaction constants have been...... calculated for 18 single-configuration dominated molecules containing hydrogen and first-row atoms at various standard levels of ab initio theory. Comparisons with the experimental data and tests for the internal consistency of the calculations show that the equilibrium structures generated using Hartree......-Fock vibration-rotation interaction constants have an accuracy similar to that obtained by a direct minimization of the CCSD(T) energy. The most accurate vibration-rotation interaction constants are those calculated at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ level. The equilibrium bond distances determined from these interaction...
Precise strength of the πNN coupling constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ericson, T.E.O.; Loiseau, B.; Rahm, J.; Blomgren, J.; Olsson, N.; Thomas, A. W.
1999-01-01
We report here a preliminary value for the πNN coupling constant deduced from the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rule for forward πN scattering. As in our previous determination from np backward differential scattering cross sections we give a critical discussion of the analysis with careful attention not only to the statistical, but also to the systematic uncertainties. Our preliminary evaluation gives g 2 c =13.99(24)
Understanding fine structure constants and three generations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, D.L.; Nielsen, H.B.
1988-02-01
We put forward a model inspired by random dynamics that relates the smallness of the gauge coupling constants to the number of generations being 'large'. The new element in the present version of our model is the appearance of a free parameter χ that is a measure of the (presumably relatively minor) importance of a term in the plaquette action proportional to the trace in the (1/6, 2, 3) representation of the Standard Model. Calling N gen the number of generations, the sets of allowed (N gen , χN gen )-pairs obtained by imposing the three measured coupling constant values of the Standard Model form three lines. In addition to finding that these lines cross at a single point (as needed for a consistent fit), the intersection occurs with surprising accuracy at the integer N gen = 3 (thereby predicting exactly three generations). It is also encouraging that the parameter χ turns out to be small and positive as expected. (orig.)
Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant
2006-08-01
A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion
Stabilized power constant alimentation; Alimentation regulee a puissance constante
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roussel, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-06-01
The study and realization of a stabilized power alimentation variable from 5 to 100 watts are described. In order to realize a constant power drift of Lithium compensated diodes, we have searched a 1 per cent precision of regulation and a response time minus than 1 sec. Recent components like Hall multiplicator and integrated amplifiers give this possibility and it is easy to use permutable circuits. (author) [French] On decrit l'etude et la realisation d'une alimentation a puissance constante reglable dans une gamme de 5 a 100 watts. Prevue pour le drift a puissance constante des diodes compensees au lithium, l'etude a ete menee en vue d'obtenir une precision de regulation de 1 pour cent et un temps de reponse inferieur a la seconde. Des systemes recents tels que multiplicateurs a effet Hall et circuits integres ont permis d'atteindre ce but tout en facilitant l'emploi de modules interchangeables. (auteur)
Stabilized power constant alimentation; Alimentation regulee a puissance constante
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roussel, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-06-01
The study and realization of a stabilized power alimentation variable from 5 to 100 watts are described. In order to realize a constant power drift of Lithium compensated diodes, we have searched a 1 per cent precision of regulation and a response time minus than 1 sec. Recent components like Hall multiplicator and integrated amplifiers give this possibility and it is easy to use permutable circuits. (author) [French] On decrit l'etude et la realisation d'une alimentation a puissance constante reglable dans une gamme de 5 a 100 watts. Prevue pour le drift a puissance constante des diodes compensees au lithium, l'etude a ete menee en vue d'obtenir une precision de regulation de 1 pour cent et un temps de reponse inferieur a la seconde. Des systemes recents tels que multiplicateurs a effet Hall et circuits integres ont permis d'atteindre ce but tout en facilitant l'emploi de modules interchangeables. (auteur)
From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nez, F.
2005-06-01
This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)
Constant-pH molecular dynamics using stochastic titration
Baptista, António M.; Teixeira, Vitor H.; Soares, Cláudio M.
2002-09-01
A new method is proposed for performing constant-pH molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, that is, MD simulations where pH is one of the external thermodynamic parameters, like the temperature or the pressure. The protonation state of each titrable site in the solute is allowed to change during a molecular mechanics (MM) MD simulation, the new states being obtained from a combination of continuum electrostatics (CE) calculations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of protonation equilibrium. The coupling between the MM/MD and CE/MC algorithms is done in a way that ensures a proper Markov chain, sampling from the intended semigrand canonical distribution. This stochastic titration method is applied to succinic acid, aimed at illustrating the method and examining the choice of its adjustable parameters. The complete titration of succinic acid, using constant-pH MD simulations at different pH values, gives a clear picture of the coupling between the trans/gauche isomerization and the protonation process, making it possible to reconcile some apparently contradictory results of previous studies. The present constant-pH MD method is shown to require a moderate increase of computational cost when compared to the usual MD method.
CUSTOMER VALUE NETWORK ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF CUSTOMER LIFE-TIME VALUE COMPUTATION
Monireh Hosseini; Amir Albadvi
2010-01-01
The constant changes in the world have exposed companies to a situation of tough competition. This situation, especially in e-commerce, complicates the decision-making process about target customers and the recommendation of products to them. On the one hand, understanding and measuring the customer lifetime value (CLV) is a critical factor for long-term success. On the other hand, the value network is a new concept that considers both tangible and intangible complex dynamic value exchanges b...
Estimation of thermodynamic acidity constants of some penicillinase-resistant penicillins.
Demiralay, Ebru Çubuk; Üstün, Zehra; Daldal, Y Doğan
2014-03-01
In this work, thermodynamic acidity constants (pssKa) of methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, cloxacilin, dicloxacillin were determined with reverse phase liquid chromatographic method (RPLC) by taking into account the effect of the activity coefficients in hydro-organic water-acetonitrile binary mixtures. From these values, thermodynamic aqueous acidity constants of these drugs were calculated by different approaches. The linear relationships established between retention factors of the species and the polarity parameter of the mobile phase (ET(N)) was proved to predict accurately retention in LC as a function of the acetonitrile content (38%, 40% and 42%, v/v). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martínez, Alberto; Rajapakse, Chandima S K; Jalloh, Dalanda; Dautriche, Cula; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A
2009-08-01
We have measured water/n-octanol partition coefficients, pK(a) values, heme binding constants, and heme aggregation inhibition activity of a series of ruthenium-pi-arene-chloroquine (CQ) complexes recently reported to be active against CQ-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Measurements of heme aggregation inhibition activity of the metal complexes near water/n-octanol interfaces qualitatively predict their superior antiplasmodial action against resistant parasites, in relation to CQ; we conclude that this modified method may be a better predictor of antimalarial potency than standard tests in aqueous acidic buffer. Some interesting tendencies emerge from our data, indicating that the antiplasmodial activity is related to a balance of effects associated with the lipophilicity, basicity, and structural details of the compounds studied.
Martínez, Alberto; Rajapakse, Chandima S. K.; Jalloh, Dalanda; Dautriche, Cula
2012-01-01
We have measured water/n-octanol partition coefficients, pKa values, heme binding constants, and heme aggregation inhibition activity of a series of ruthenium–πarene–chloroquine (CQ) complexes recently reported to be active against CQ-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Measurements of heme aggregation inhibition activity of the metal complexes near water/n-octanol interfaces qualitatively predict their superior antiplasmodial action against resistant parasites, in relation to CQ; we conclude that this modified method may be a better predictor of antimalarial potency than standard tests in aqueous acidic buffer. Some interesting tendencies emerge from our data, indicating that the antiplasmodial activity is related to a balance of effects associated with the lipophilicity, basicity, and structural details of the compounds studied. PMID:19343380
CONSTANT LEVERAGE AND CONSTANT COST OF CAPITAL: A COMMON KNOWLEDGE HALF-TRUTH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
IGNACIO VÉLEZ-PAREJA
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Un enfoque típico para valorar flujos de caja finitos es suponer que el endeudamiento es constante (generalmente como un endeudamiento objetivo o deseado y que por tanto, el costo del patrimonio, Ke y el costo promedio ponderado de capital CPPC, también son constantes. Para los flujos de caja perpetuos, y con el costo de la deuda, Kd como la tasa de descuento para el ahorro en impuestos o escudo fiscal, Ke y el CPPC aplicado al flujo de caja libre FCL son constantes si el endeudamiento es constante. Sin embargo esto no es verdad para los flujos de caja finitos. En este documento mostramos que para flujos de caja finitos, Ke y por lo tanto el CPPC dependen de la tasa de descuento que se utiliza para valorar el ahorro en impuestos, AI y según lo esperado, Ke y el CPPC no son constantes con Kd como la tasa de descuento para el ahorro en impuestos, aunque el endeudamiento sea constante. Ilustramos esta situación con un ejemplo simple. Analizamos cinco métodos: el flujo de caja descontado, FCD, usando APV, el FCD y la formulación tradicional y general del CPPC, el valor presente del flujo de caja del accionista, FCA más deuda y el flujo de caja de capital, FCC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez R, E.
2008-01-01
The stability constants of La 3+ , Pr 3+ , Eu 3+ , Er 3+ and Lu 3+ chloride complexes were determined in perchloric acid media using a liquid-liquid extraction method. The dinonyl napthalene sulfonic acid in n-heptane was used as extractant. The lanthanide (Ln) concentrations were measured by a radiochemical (Eu and Lu) and a spectrophotometric (La, Pr, and Er) methods. In the last method, xylenol orange was used for the determinations at ph 6. The stability constants of lanthanum, praseodymium, erbium and lutetium chloride complexes were determined in 2, 3 and 4 M ionic strength and europium in 1, 2 and 3 M, at 303 K. The fitting of experimental data to the equations for the calculation of the stability constants, was carry out considering both one chemical species (LnCl 2+ ) or two chemical species (LnCl 2+ and LnCl 2 + ). The Specific Ion Interaction Theory was applied to the values of log β I Ln , Cl and the first stability constants at zero ionic strength were calculated by extrapolation. The same theory could not be applied to the log β I Ln , 2Cl , due to its low abundance and the values determined for the stability constants were similar. The distribution diagrams of the chemical species were obtained using the program MEDUSA and considering log β I Ln , CI , log β I Ln , 2CI values obtained in this work and the hydrolysis constants taken from the literature. The lanthanide chloride complexes are present in solution at specific conditions of ionic strength, concentration and in the absence of hydrolysis. The log β I Ln , Cl data were related to the charge density and the corresponding equations were obtained. These equations could be used to determine the stability constants along the lanthanide series. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thanapackiam, P. [Department of Chemistry, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, 641 014 (India); Rameshkumar, Subramaniam [Department of Chemistry, Sri Vasavi College, Erode, Tamilnadu, 638 316 (India); Subramanian, S.S. [Department of Chemistry, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, 641 004 (India); Mallaiya, Kumaravel, E-mail: mkvteam.research@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, 641 004 (India)
2016-05-01
The inhibition efficiency of ciprofloxacin on the corrosion of copper was studied in 1.0MHNO{sub 3} and 0.5MH{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The corrosion inhibition action of ciprofloxacin was observed to be of mixed type in both the acid media, but with more of a cathodic nature. The experimental data were found to fit well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters such as adsorption equilibrium constant(K{sub ads}), free energy of adsorption(ΔG{sub ads}), activation energy(E{sub a}) and potential of zero charge(PZC) showed that the adsorption of ciprofloxacin onto copper surface involves both physisorption and chemisorption. - Highlights: • The inhibitor efficiency increases with increase in ciprofloxacin concentration. • Polarization measurements show that ciprofloxacin acts as a mixed type inhibitor. • The adsorption of the inhibitor on copper surface follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • The negative values of ΔG{sub ads} indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and exothermic.
X-ray radiation and development inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Junheon; Jung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Kim, Jeongmin; Park, Chung Gyoo
2015-01-01
Effect of X-ray radiation on the development inhibition was evaluated for all stages of the life cycle of Helicoverpa armigera to determine a radiation dose for potential quarantine treatment against the insect. ED 99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation, and adult emergence from irradiated eggs were 413, 210, and 154 Gy, respectively. ED 99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence from irradiated larvae were 221 and 167 Gy, respectively. Pupa was the most tolerant to X-ray radiation. ED 99 value for inhibition of adult emergence from irradiated pupae was as high as 2310 Gy, whereas that for inhibition of F 1 egg hatching was only 66 Gy. ED 99 value for inhibition of hatching of F 1 eggs which were laid by irradiated adults was estimated to 194 Gy. X-ray irradiation against H. armigera is recommended as an alternative method to methyl bromide fumigation for phytosanitary treatments during quarantine. X-ray radiation dose of 200 Gy is proposed as a potential quarantine treatment dose for H. armigera eggs and larvae. - Highlights: • X-ray irradiation induced abnormal development of Helicoverpa armigera. • ED 99 value for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence of irradiated egg was estimated at 210 and 154 Gy, respectively. • ED 99 value for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence of irradiated larva was estimated at 221 and 167 Gy, respectively
Acidity constants from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sulpizi, Marialore; Sprik, Michiel
2010-01-01
In this contribution we review our recently developed method for the calculation of acidity constants from density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The method is based on a half reaction scheme in which protons are formally transferred from solution to the gas phase. The corresponding deprotonation free energies are computed from the vertical energy gaps for insertion or removal of protons. Combined to full proton transfer reactions, the deprotonation energies can be used to estimate relative acidity constants and also the Broensted pK a when the deprotonation free energy of a hydronium ion is used as a reference. We verified the method by investigating a series of organic and inorganic acids and bases spanning a wide range of pK a values (20 units). The thermochemical corrections for the biasing potentials assisting and directing the insertion are discussed in some detail.
Computer modeling of inhibition of α-radiolysis of water by H2 addition (NPC 2012 conference)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lertnaisat, Phantira; Katsumura, Yosuke; Mukai, Satoru; Umehara, Ryuji; Shimizu, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masaru
2012-09-01
It is known that α-radiolysis of water produces H 2 gas continuously. The addition of H 2 to water inhibits the water decomposition; H 2 evolution. In order to suppress the water decomposition, 25 cc H 2 STP/kg-H 2 O is added to the coolant water in PWR. However, the exact inhibition mechanism is still not made clear yet. In this project, the chemical kinetic simulation program, so called FASCIMILE, was used to reproduce the suppression of α-radiolysis of water by H 2 addition. By using three important factors; the decomposition (G-value), the reaction set and rate constants, and the dose rate, it is found that without hydrogen addition, the simulation shows the almost linear increase of molecular products; H 2 , H 2 O 2 , and O 2 . Nevertheless, as the additional hydrogen is added to the system, this behaviour of linear increase is shifted to longer time period. And up to certain concentration, the linear increase behaviour is completely suppressed and the molecular products reach the steady state condition at early time period and much lower concentration. The minimum concentration of H 2 which could completely suppress the decomposition of water is called Critical Hydrogen Concentration (CHC) and it is dose rate dependent value. The CHC is found to be dependent on the reaction set and rate constants. The simulation results show that the CHC at room temperature and dose rate of 1 kGy/s of the simulation done by using reaction set and rate constants obtained from Ershov et al. and AECL report 2009 are 165μM and 146μM, respectively. From the change of the behaviour of molecular products after reaching the CHC, the possible mechanism is proposed. First, the OH radical are formed via the reaction of H + H 2 O 2 → OH + H 2 O and e - aq + H 2 O 2 → OH+OH - . Then OH, which normally will react with H 2 O 2 to produced HO 2 , will react with the additional H 2 , which produce H to continue the chain reaction. The relation of chain reaction to the suppression of
Kudo, Toshiyuki; Hisaka, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Ito, Kiyomi
2013-02-01
The plasma concentration of repaglinide is reported to increase greatly when given after repeated oral administration of itraconazole and gemfibrozil. The present study analyzed this interaction based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating inhibition of the hepatic uptake transporter and metabolic enzymes involved in repaglinide disposition. Firstly, the plasma concentration profiles of inhibitors (itraconazole, gemfibrozil, and gemfibrozil glucuronide) were reproduced by a PBPK model to obtain their pharmacokinetic parameters. The plasma concentration profiles of repaglinide were then analyzed by a PBPK model, together with those of the inhibitors, assuming a competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 by itraconazole, mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8 by gemfibrozil glucuronide, and inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 by gemfibrozil and its glucuronide. The plasma concentration profiles of repaglinide were well reproduced by the PBPK model based on the above assumptions, and the optimized values for the inhibition constants (0.0676 nM for itraconazole against CYP3A4; 14.2 μM for gemfibrozil against OATP1B1; and 5.48 μM for gemfibrozil glucuronide against OATP1B1) and the fraction of repaglinide metabolized by CYP2C8 (0.801) were consistent with the reported values. The validity of the obtained parameters was further confirmed by sensitivity analyses and by reproducing the repaglinide concentration increase produced by concomitant gemfibrozil administration at various timings/doses. The present findings suggested that the reported concentration increase of repaglinide, suggestive of synergistic effects of the coadministered inhibitors, can be quantitatively explained by the simultaneous inhibition of the multiple clearance pathways of repaglinide.
TCP, quantum gravity, the cosmological constant and all that .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banks, T.
1985-01-01
We study cosmology from the point of view of quantum gravity. Some light is thrown on the nature of time, and it is suggested that the cosmological arrow of time is generated by a spontaneous breakdown of TCP. Conventional cosmological models in which quantum fields interact with a time-dependent gravitational field are shown to describe an approximation to the quantum gravitational wave function which is valid in the long-wavelength limit. Two problems with initial conditions are resolved in models in which a negative bare cosmological constant is cancelled by the classical excitation of a Bose field eta with a very flat potential. These models can also give a natural explanation for the observed value of the cosmological constant. (orig.)
The Role of Drug Metabolites in the Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes.
Mikov, Momir; Đanić, Maja; Pavlović, Nebojša; Stanimirov, Bojan; Goločorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Stankov, Karmen; Al-Salami, Hani
2017-12-01
Following the drug administration, patients are exposed not only to the parent drug itself, but also to the metabolites generated by drug-metabolizing enzymes. The role of drug metabolites in cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition and subsequent drug-drug interactions (DDIs) have recently become a topic of considerable interest and scientific debate. The list of metabolites that were found to significantly contribute to clinically relevant DDIs is constantly being expanded and reported in the literature. New strategies have been developed for better understanding how different metabolites of a drug candidate contribute to its pharmacokinetic properties and pharmacological as well as its toxicological effects. However, the testing of the role of metabolites in CYP inhibition is still not routinely performed during the process of drug development, although the evaluation of time-dependent CYP inhibition during the clinical candidate selection process may provide information on possible effects of metabolites in CYP inhibition. Due to large number of compounds to be tested in the early stages of drug discovery, the experimental approaches for assessment of CYP-mediated metabolic profiles are particularly resource demanding. Consequently, a large number of in silico or computational tools have been developed as useful complement to experimental approaches. In summary, circulating metabolites may be recognized as significant CYP inhibitors. Current data may suggest the need for an optimized effort to characterize the inhibitory potential of parent drugs metabolites on CYP, as well as the necessity to develop the advanced in vitro models that would allow a better quantitative predictive value of in vivo studies.
Pseudoscalar decay constants from N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farchioni, Federico [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl; Nube, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Petschlies, Marcus [Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Urbach, Carsten [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics
2010-12-15
We present first results for the pseudoscalar decay constants f{sub K}, f{sub D} and f{sub D{sub S}} from lattice QCD with N{sub f} = 2 + 1 + 1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The lattice simulations have been performed by the European Twisted Mass collaboration (ETMC) using maximally twisted mass quarks. For the pseudoscalar decay constants we follow a mixed action approach by using so called Osterwalder-Seiler fermions in the valence sector for strange and charm quarks. The data for two values of the lattice spacing and several values of the up/down quark mass is analysed using chiral perturbation theory. (orig.)
Learning Read-constant Polynomials of Constant Degree modulo Composites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chattopadhyay, Arkadev; Gavaldá, Richard; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt
2011-01-01
Boolean functions that have constant degree polynomial representation over a fixed finite ring form a natural and strict subclass of the complexity class \\textACC0ACC0. They are also precisely the functions computable efficiently by programs over fixed and finite nilpotent groups. This class...... is not known to be learnable in any reasonable learning model. In this paper, we provide a deterministic polynomial time algorithm for learning Boolean functions represented by polynomials of constant degree over arbitrary finite rings from membership queries, with the additional constraint that each variable...
'Syncing' Up with the Quinn-Rand-Strogatz Constant: Hurwitz-ZetaFunctions in Non-Linear physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durgin, Natalie J.; Garcia, Sofia M.; Flournoy, Tamara; Bailey,David H.
2007-12-01
This work extends the analytical and computationalinvestigation of the Quinn-Rand-Strogatz (QRS) constants from non-linearphysics. The QRS constants (c1, c2, ..., cN) are found in a Winfreeoscillator mean-field system used to examine the transition of coupledoscillators as they lose synchronization. The constants are part of anasymptotic expansion of a function related to the oscillatorsynchronization. Previous work used high-precision software packages toevaluate c1 to 42 decimal-digits, which made it possible to recognize andprove that c1 was the root of a certain Hurwitz-zeta function. Thisallowed a value of c2 to beconjectured in terms of c1. Therefore thereis interest in determining the exact values of these constants to highprecision in the hope that general relationships can be establishedbetween the constants and the zeta functions. Here, we compute the valuesof the higher order constants (c3, c4) to more than 42-digit precision byextending an algorithm developed by D.H. Bailey, J.M. Borwein and R.E.Crandall. Several methods for speeding up the computation are exploredand an alternate proof that c1 is the root of a Hurwitz-zeta function isattempted.
Single-crystal elastic constants of a plutonium-gallium alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moment, R.L.
1976-01-01
The single-crystal elastic constants of a plutonium-1 wt % gallium alloy were determined at room temperature by measuring ultrasonic sound-wave velocities. The three independent elastic constants of this face-centered cubic delta-phase alloy were determined from the longitudinal and the two shear-wave velocities, all along a direction. Their values are C 11 =3.628, C 12 =2.673 and C 44 =3.359 in units of 10 10 N/m 2 ; the respective errors are estimated to be 1%, 1%, and 0.3 %. The Zener anisotropy ratio is 7.03, almost twice that known for any other fcc metal, and falls among the ratios for the body centered cubic alkali metals, which are noted for their high elastic anisotropy. Polycrystalline elastic constants calculated from the single-crystal data are Young's modulus E=4.064, the shear modulus G=1.596 and the bulk modulus (reciprocal compressibility) B=2.991, all in units of 10 10 N/m 2 , and Poisson's ratio γ=0.27. These values of E and G are both lower than those obtained by Taylor, Linford and Dean from measurements on polycrystalline specimens. Within a single crystal, the longitudinal sound velocity varies with direction by a factor of 1.4 and the transverse velocity by a factor of 2.6. The maximum Young's modulus (along ) was 5.4 times larger than the minimum (along ). The Debye temperature was calculated to be 105.7 K at 293 K and estimated to be 114 K at 0.K. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikary, A.; Bothe, E.; Von Sonntag, C.; Adhikary, A.
1997-01-01
The minor-groove-binding dye Hoechst 33258 has been found to protect pBR322 DNA in aqueous solution against radiation-induced single-strand breaks (ssb). This protective effect has been assumed to be largely due to the scavenging of the strand-break-generating OH radicals by Hoechst. From D 37 values for ssb at different Hoechst concentrations the value of the OH radical scavenging constant of DNA-bound Hoechst has been estimated at k Ho/DNA = 2.7 * 10 11 dm 3 mol -1 . This unexpectedly high value has led us to study the reactions of OH radicals with Hoechst in the absence and in the presence of double-stranded calf thymus DNA (ds DNA) by pulse radiolysis, and the formation of radiation-induced ssb by low angle laser light scattering. The D 37 /D 37 0 values at different Hoechst concentrations agree with the values obtained by Martin and al. and demonstrate the protection. However, this protection cannot be explained on the basis of OH radical scavenging alone using the above rate constants. There must, in addition, be some quenching of DNA radicals. Hoechst radicals are formed in the later ms time range, i.e a long time after the disappearance of the OH radicals. This delayed Hoechst radical formation has been assigned to a a reaction of DNA radicals with Hoechst, thereby inhibiting strand breakage. In confirmation, pulse radiolysis of aqueous solution of nucleotides in the presence of Hoechst yields a similar delayed Hoechst radical formation. The data indicate that in DNA the cross-section of this quenching has a diameter of 3 to 4 base pairs per Hoechst molecule. (N.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hafiz, A; Indhar, B.; Khanzada, A.W.K.
2000-01-01
The ionization constant pKa and Gibbs's free energy DG of 6-methylquinoline are determined in aqueous solution at different temperatures and in three mixed organic-water solvent systems at 25 deg. C. It is observed that dissociation constant of 6-methylquinoline in aqueous system decreases with the increase of temperature. The curve is a parabolic. It is noted that pKa values of this compound are higher than those of quinoline and 8-methylquinoline. In case of mixed organic-water solvent systems, the influence of these solvents on the ionization equilibria of NH/sub 2/ group has been observed. The pK M/A and pK T/A values versus percent composition decrease gradually with increase in percent of organic solvents The curve of the pK/sub a/ versus percent composition is a distorted parabola. The data have been obtained potentiometrically by titrating 6-methylquinoline solutions with HCl. The values of dissociation constant were obtained from these data by a computer program written in GW-BASIC. From pKa values Gibbs's free energies DG for the respective pKa values have also been calculated. (author)
Karakas, Filiz; Imamoglu, Ipek
2017-04-01
This study aims to estimate anaerobic debromination rate constants (k m ) of PBDE pathways using previously reported laboratory soil data. k m values of pathways are estimated by modifying a previously developed model as Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model. Debromination activities published in the literature in terms of bromine substitutions as well as specific microorganisms and their combinations are used for identification of pathways. The range of estimated k m values is between 0.0003 and 0.0241 d -1 . The median and maximum of k m values are found to be comparable to the few available biologically confirmed rate constants published in the literature. The estimated k m values can be used as input to numerical fate and transport models for a better and more detailed investigation of the fate of individual PBDEs in contaminated sediments. Various remediation scenarios such as monitored natural attenuation or bioremediation with bioaugmentation can be handled in a more quantitative manner with the help of k m estimated in this study.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez R, E [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2008-07-01
The stability constants of La{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Lu{sup 3+} chloride complexes were determined in perchloric acid media using a liquid-liquid extraction method. The dinonyl napthalene sulfonic acid in n-heptane was used as extractant. The lanthanide (Ln) concentrations were measured by a radiochemical (Eu and Lu) and a spectrophotometric (La, Pr, and Er) methods. In the last method, xylenol orange was used for the determinations at ph 6. The stability constants of lanthanum, praseodymium, erbium and lutetium chloride complexes were determined in 2, 3 and 4 M ionic strength and europium in 1, 2 and 3 M, at 303 K. The fitting of experimental data to the equations for the calculation of the stability constants, was carry out considering both one chemical species (LnCl{sup 2+}) or two chemical species (LnCl{sup 2+} and LnCl{sub 2}{sup +}). The Specific Ion Interaction Theory was applied to the values of log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub Cl} and the first stability constants at zero ionic strength were calculated by extrapolation. The same theory could not be applied to the log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub 2Cl}, due to its low abundance and the values determined for the stability constants were similar. The distribution diagrams of the chemical species were obtained using the program MEDUSA and considering log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub CI}, log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub 2CI} values obtained in this work and the hydrolysis constants taken from the literature. The lanthanide chloride complexes are present in solution at specific conditions of ionic strength, concentration and in the absence of hydrolysis. The log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub Cl} data were related to the charge density and the corresponding equations were obtained. These equations could be used to determine the stability constants along the lanthanide series. (Author)
Constant leverage and constant cost of capital : A common knowledge half-truth
Vélez Pareja, Ignacio; Ibragimov, Rauf; Tham , Joseph
2008-01-01
Un enfoque típico para valorar flujos de caja finitos es suponer que el endeudamiento es constante (generalmente como un endeudamiento objetivo o deseado) y que por tanto, el costo del patrimonio, Ke y el costo promedio ponderado de capital CPPC, también son constantes. Para los flujos de caja perpetuos, y con el costo de la deuda, Kd como la tasa de descuento para el ahorro en impuestos o escudo fiscal, Ke y el CPPC aplicado al flujo de caja libre FCL son constantes si el endeudamiento es co...
Preliminary Planck constant measurements via UME oscillating magnet Kibble balance
Ahmedov, H.; Babayiğit Aşkın, N.; Korutlu, B.; Orhan, R.
2018-06-01
The UME Kibble balance project was initiated in the second half of 2014. During this period we have studied the theoretical aspects of Kibble balances, in which an oscillating magnet generates AC Faraday’s voltage in a stationary coil, and constructed a trial version to implement this idea. The remarkable feature of this approach is that it can establish the link between the Planck constant and a macroscopic mass by one single experiment in the most natural way. Weak dependences on variations of environmental and experimental conditions, small size, and other useful features offered by this novel approach reduce the complexity of the experimental set-up. This paper describes the principles of the oscillating magnet Kibble balance and gives details of the preliminary Planck constant measurements. The value of the Planck constant determined with our apparatus is \\boldsymbol{h}/{{\\boldsymbol{h}}\\boldsymbol 90}={1}{.000} {004}~ , with a relative standard uncertainty of 6 ppm.
Earth’s gravity and the cosmological constant: a worked example
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, J A M
2016-01-01
The cosmological constant regained the attention of the scientific community following the recent discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Consequently, interest in the subject increased amongst the public such that it now often appears in the classroom and popular science publications. The purpose of this article is to use basic concepts of Newtonian mechanics, like dynamics, kinetic energy and potential energy diagrams, in a scenario where the cosmological constant’s action, considered as being an inertial force driven by the accelerated expansion of the Universe, could counteract Earth’s gravity. The effect that the cosmological constant might have near the Earth’s surface is discussed showing how everyday life would change. This is done in such a way that makes it accessible to students in their first year of college. Finally, the modern interpretation of the cosmological constant, associated with the existence of dark energy, is briefly discussed along with upper limit estimations for its value based on the anthropic principle. (paper)
Urano, C.; Yamazawa, K.; Kaneko, N.-H.
2017-12-01
We report on our measurement of the Boltzmann constant by Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) using an integrated quantum voltage noise source (IQVNS) that is fully implemented with superconducting integrated circuit technology. The IQVNS generates calculable pseudo white noise voltages to calibrate the JNT system. The thermal noise of a sensing resistor placed at the temperature of the triple point of water was measured precisely by the IQVNS-based JNT. We accumulated data of more than 429 200 s in total (over 6 d) and used the Akaike information criterion to estimate the fitting frequency range for the quadratic model to calculate the Boltzmann constant. Upon detailed evaluation of the uncertainty components, the experimentally obtained Boltzmann constant was k=1.380 6436× {{10}-23} J K-1 with a relative combined uncertainty of 10.22× {{10}-6} . The value of k is relatively -3.56× {{10}-6} lower than the CODATA 2014 value (Mohr et al 2016 Rev. Mod. Phys. 88 035009).
The Compton Radius, the de Broglie Radius, the Planck Constant, and the Bohr Orbits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daywitt W. C.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The Bohr orbits of the hydrogen atom and the Planck constant can be derived classically from the Maxwell equations and the assumption that there is a variation in the electron's velocity about its average value. The resonant nature of the circulating electron and its induced magnetic and Faraday fields prevents a radiative collapse of the electron into the nuclear proton. The derived Planck constant is $h=2pi e^2/alpha c$, where $e$, $alpha$, and $c$ are the electronic charge, the fine structure constant, and the speed of light. The fact that the Planck vacuum (PV theory derives the same Planck constant independently of the above implies that the two derivations are related. The following highlights that connection.
The Compton Radius, the de Broglie Radius, the Planck Constant, and the Bohr Orbits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daywitt W. C.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The Bohr orbits of the hydrogen atom and the Planck constant can be derived classically from the Maxwell equations and the assumption that there is a variation in the electron’s velocity about its average value [1]. The resonant nature of the circulating electron and its induced magnetic and Faraday fields prevents a radiative collapse of the electron into the nuclear proton. The derived Planck constant is h = 2 e 2 = c , where e , , and c are the electronic charge, the fine structure constant, and the speed of light. The fact that the Planck vacuum (PV theory [2] derives the same Planck constant independently of the above implies that the two derivations are related. The following highlights that connection.
I. B. Obot; N. O. Obi-Egbedi
2010-01-01
The effect of nizoral (NZR) on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium alloy AA 1060 in 2 M HCl solution was investigated using the mylius thermometric technique. Results of the study revealed that nizoral acts as corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in the acidic medium. In general, at constant acid concentration, the inhibition efficiency increases with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The addition of KI to the inhibitor enhanced the inhibition efficiency to a considerable extent. The ad...
The Newton constant and gravitational waves in some vector field adjusting mechanisms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santillán, Osvaldo P. [IMAS (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Scornavacche, Marina, E-mail: firenzecita@hotmail.com, E-mail: marina.scorna@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)
2017-10-01
At the present, there exist some Lorentz breaking scenarios which explain the smallness of the cosmological constant at the present era [1]–[2]. An important aspect to analyze is the propagation of gravitational waves and the screening or enhancement of the Newton constant G {sub N} in these models. The problem is that the Lorentz symmetry breaking terms may induce an unacceptable value of the Newton constant G {sub N} or introduce longitudinal modes in the gravitational wave propagation. Furthermore this breaking may spoil the standard dispersion relation ω= ck . In [3] the authors have presented a model suggesting that the behavior of the gravitational constant is correct for asymptotic times. In the present work, an explicit checking is made and we finally agree with these claims. Furthermore, it is suggested that the gravitational waves are also well behaved for large times. In the process, some new models with the same behavior are obtained, thus enlarging the list of possible adjustment mechanisms.
O(4) texture with a cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Inyong
2002-01-01
We investigate O(4) textures in a background with a positive cosmological constant. We find static solutions which comove with the expanding background. There exists a solution in which the scalar field is regular at the horizon. This solution has a noninteger winding number smaller than 1. There also exist solutions in which scalar-field derivatives are singular at the horizon. Such solutions can complete one winding within the horizon. If the winding number is larger than some critical value, static solutions including the regular one are unstable under perturbations
Leptonic decay constants of heavy quarkonia in effective QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, V.V.
1992-01-01
The QCD sum rule scheme, which allows one effectively to take into account the heavy quarkonium peculiarities such as nonrelativistic motion and large mass values of the quarks is considered. The phenomenological scaling law is derived for the leptonic constants with the use of the heavy quarkonium mass spectra. The law describes the data on the values of f φ , f ψ and fγ rather good and predicts f B C . 12 refs.; 2 tabs
Kantar, Cihan; Mavi, Vildan; Baltaş, Nimet; İslamoğlu, Fatih; Şaşmaz, Selami
2016-10-01
Azo-containing schiff bases are well known and there are many studies about their various properties in literature. However, phthalocyanines bearing azo-containing schiff bases, their spectral, analytical and biological properties are unknown. Therefore, new zinc (II) phthalocyanines bearing azo-containing schiff base were synthesized and investigated to determine pKa values, absorption, emission, enzyme inhibition and photochemical properties. Emission spectra were reported and large Stokes shift values were determined for all compounds, indicating that all molecules exhibit excited state intramolecular proton transfer. These phthalocyanines were the first examples of phthalocyanine showing excited state intramolecular proton transfer. Singlet oxygen quantum yields of zinc (II) phthalocyanines were determined. pKa values and indicator properties of all compounds were investigated by potentiometry. All compounds were assayed for inhibitory activity against bovine milk xanthine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase enzyme in vitro. Compound 2 showed the high inhibitory effect against xanthine oxidase (IC50 = 0.24 ± 0.01 μM). However, phthalocyanine compounds did not show enzyme inhibitor behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Araujo, Vanilse da Silva
1997-12-31
In this work we study the effects of chiral symmetry in the pion-nucleon coupling constant in the context of the linear {sigma}- model. First, we introduce the linear {sigma}-model and we discuss the phenomenological hypothesis of CVC and PCAC. Next, we calculate the coupling constant g+{pi}{sub NN}(q{sup 2}) and the nucleon pionic mean square radius considering the contribution of all the diagrams up to one-loop in the framework of the linear {sigma}-model for different values of the mass of the sigma meson and we compare them with the phenomenological form factors. Finally we make an extension of the linear {sigma}-model that consists of taking into account the mass differences of ions and nucleons into the Lagrangian of the model, to study the change dependence of g{sub {pi}nn} (q{sup 2}) and of the mean square radius. (author) 21 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.
TASI Lectures on the cosmological constant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael
2007-08-30
The energy density of the vacuum, Lambda, is at least 60 orders of magnitude smaller than several known contributions to it. Approaches to this problem are tightly constrained by data ranging from elementary observations to precision experiments. Absent overwhelming evidence to the contrary, dark energy can only be interpreted as vacuum energy, so the venerable assumption that Lambda=0 conflicts with observation. The possibility remains that Lambda is fundamentally variable, though constant over large spacetime regions. This can explain the observed value, but only in a theory satisfying a number of restrictive kinematic and dynamical conditions. String theory offers a concrete realization through its landscape of metastable vacua.
Association constants of telluronium salts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovach, N.A.; Rivkin, B.B.; Sadekov, T.D.; Shvajka, O.P.
1996-01-01
Association constants in acetonitrile of triphenyl telluronium salts, which are dilute electrolytes, are determined through the conductometry method. Satisfactory correlation dependence of constants of interion association and threshold molar electroconductivity on the Litvinenko-Popov constants for depositing groups is identified. 6 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canfora, Fabrizio; Willison, Steven; Giacomini, Alex; Troncoso, Ricardo
2009-01-01
It is shown that Einstein gravity in four dimensions with small cosmological constant and small extra dimensions can be obtained by spontaneous compactification of Lovelock gravity in vacuum. Assuming that the extra dimensions are compact spaces of constant curvature, general relativity is recovered within a certain class of Lovelock theories possessing necessarily cubic or higher order terms in curvature. This bounds the higher dimension to at least 7. Remarkably, the effective gauge coupling and Newton constant in four dimensions are not proportional to the gravitational constant in higher dimensions, but are shifted with respect to their standard values. This effect opens up new scenarios where a maximally symmetric solution in higher dimensions could decay into the compactified spacetime either by tunneling or through a gravitational analog of ghost condensation. Indeed, this is what occurs requiring both the extra dimensions and the four-dimensional cosmological constant to be small.
H0, q0 and the local velocity field. [Hubble and deceleration constants in Big Bang expansion
Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A.
1982-01-01
An attempt is made to find a systematic deviation from linearity for distances that are under the control of the Virgo cluster, and to determine the value of the mean random motion about the systematic flow, in order to improve the measurement of the Hubble and the deceleration constants. The velocity-distance relation for large and intermediate distances is studied, and type I supernovae are calibrated relatively as distance indicators and absolutely to obtain a new value for the Hubble constant. Methods of determining the deceleration constant are assessed, including determination from direct measurement, mean luminosity density, virgocentric motion, and the time scale test. The very local velocity field is investigated, and a solution is preferred with a random peculiar radial velocity of very nearby field galaxies of 90-100 km/s, and a Virgocentric motion of the local group of 220 km/s, leading to an underlying expansion rate of 55, in satisfactory agreement with the global value.
Proposal to measure the D meson decay constant F/sub D/
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deshpande, N.G.; Iskandar, D.
1978-08-01
Because the branching ratios of the purely leptonic modes of D meson are small compared to the semileptonic decays, it is suggested that the decay D ..-->.. K + l + ..nu.. might be used to deduce the value of F/sub D/, the weak decay constant of D meson. 17 references.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yashima, N.; Wada, A.; Izumi, F.
1986-01-01
Adrenal medulla cells are cholinoceptive cells. Stimulation of the acetylcholine receptor causes the influx of Ca to the cells, and Ca acts as the coupler of the stimulus-secretion coupling. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of halothane on the receptor-mediated influx of 45 Ca using cultured bovine adrenal medulla cells. Halothane at clinical concentrations (0.5-2%) inhibited the influx of 45 Ca caused by carbachol, with simultaneous inhibition of catecholamine secretion. The influx of 45 Ca and the secretion of catecholamines caused by K depolarization were inhibited by a large concentration of Mg, which competes with Ca at Ca channels, but not inhibited by halothane. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not overcome by increase in the carbachol concentration. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was examined in comparison with that caused by a large concentration of Mg by the application of Scatchard analysis as the function of the external Ca concentration. Halothane decreased the maximal influx of 45 Ca without altering the apparent kinetic constant of Ca to Ca channels. On the contrary, a large concentration of Mg increased the apparent kinetic constant without altering the maximal influx of 45 Ca. Based on these findings, the authors suggest that inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not due to the direct competitive inhibition of Ca channels, nor to the competitive antagonism of agonist-receptor interaction. As a possibility, halothane seems to inhibit the receptor-mediated activation of Ca channels through the interference of coupling between the receptor and Ca channels
Renormalisation constants of quark bilinears in lattice QCD with four dynamical Wilson quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blossier, Benoit [CNRS et Paris-Sud 11 Univ., Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Brinet, Mariane [CNRS/IN2P3/UJF, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie; Carrasco, Nuria [Valencia Univ., Burjassot (ES). Dept. de Fisica Teorica and IFC] (and others)
2011-12-15
We present preliminary results of the non-perturbative computation of the RI-MOM renormalization constants in a mass-independent scheme for the action with Iwasaki glue and four dynamical Wilson quarks employed by ETMC. Our project requires dedicated gauge ensembles with four degenerate sea quark flavours at three lattice spacings and at several values of the standard and twisted quark mass parameters. The RI-MOM renormalization constants are obtained from appropriate O(a) improved estimators extrapolated to the chiral limit. (orig.)
A dynamic-based measurement of a spring constant with a smartphone light sensor
Pili, Unofre
2018-05-01
An accessible smartphone-based experimental set-up for measuring a spring constant is presented. Using the smartphone ambient light sensor as the motion timer that allows for the measurement of the period of oscillations of a vertical spring-mass oscillator we found the spring constant to be 27.3 +/- 0.2 N m-1. This measurement is in a satisfactory agreement with another experimental value, 26.7 +/- 0.1 N m-1, obtained via the traditional static method.
Renormalisation constants of quark bilinears in lattice QCD with four dynamical Wilson quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blossier, Benoit; Brinet, Mariane; Carrasco, Nuria
2011-12-01
We present preliminary results of the non-perturbative computation of the RI-MOM renormalization constants in a mass-independent scheme for the action with Iwasaki glue and four dynamical Wilson quarks employed by ETMC. Our project requires dedicated gauge ensembles with four degenerate sea quark flavours at three lattice spacings and at several values of the standard and twisted quark mass parameters. The RI-MOM renormalization constants are obtained from appropriate O(a) improved estimators extrapolated to the chiral limit. (orig.)
New constraints on time-dependent variations of fundamental constants using Planck data
Hart, Luke; Chluba, Jens
2018-02-01
Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) today allow us to answer detailed questions about the properties of our Universe, targeting both standard and non-standard physics. In this paper, we study the effects of varying fundamental constants (i.e. the fine-structure constant, αEM, and electron rest mass, me) around last scattering using the recombination codes COSMOREC and RECFAST++. We approach the problem in a pedagogical manner, illustrating the importance of various effects on the free electron fraction, Thomson visibility function and CMB power spectra, highlighting various degeneracies. We demonstrate that the simpler RECFAST++ treatment (based on a three-level atom approach) can be used to accurately represent the full computation of COSMOREC. We also include explicit time-dependent variations using a phenomenological power-law description. We reproduce previous Planck 2013 results in our analysis. Assuming constant variations relative to the standard values, we find the improved constraints αEM/αEM, 0 = 0.9993 ± 0.0025 (CMB only) and me/me, 0 = 1.0039 ± 0.0074 (including BAO) using Planck 2015 data. For a redshift-dependent variation, αEM(z) = αEM(z0) [(1 + z)/1100]p with αEM(z0) ≡ αEM, 0 at z0 = 1100, we obtain p = 0.0008 ± 0.0025. Allowing simultaneous variations of αEM(z0) and p yields αEM(z0)/αEM, 0 = 0.9998 ± 0.0036 and p = 0.0006 ± 0.0036. We also discuss combined limits on αEM and me. Our analysis shows that existing data are not only sensitive to the value of the fundamental constants around recombination but also its first time derivative. This suggests that a wider class of varying fundamental constant models can be probed using the CMB.
Kinetics and mechanism of jack bean urease inhibition by Hg2+
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Du Nana
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Jack bean urease (EC 3.5.1.5 is a metalloenzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. The heavy metal ions are common inhibitors to control the rate of the enzymatic urea hydrolysis, which take the Hg2+ as the representative. Hg2+ affects the enzyme activity causing loss of the biological function of the enzyme, which threatens the survival of many microorganism and plants. However, inhibitory kinetics of urease by the low concentration Hg2+ has not been explored fully. In this study, the inhibitory effect of the low concentration Hg2+ on jack bean urease was investigated in order to elucidate the mechanism of Hg2+ inhibition. Results According to the kinetic parameters for the enzyme obtained from Lineweaver–Burk plot, it is shown that the Km is equal to 4.6±0.3 mM and Vm is equal to 29.8±1.7 μmol NH3/min mg. The results show that the inhibition of jack bean urease by Hg2+ at low concentration is a reversible reaction. Equilibrium constants have been determined for Hg2+ binding with the enzyme or the enzyme-substrate complexes (Ki =0.012 μM. The results show that the Hg2+ is a noncompetitive inhibitor. In addition, the kinetics of enzyme inhibition by the low concentration Hg2+ has been studied using the kinetic method of the substrate reaction. The results suggest that the enzyme first reversibly and quickly binds Hg2+ and then undergoes a slow reversible course to inactivation. Furthermore, the rate constant of the forward reactions (k+0 is much larger than the rate constant of the reverse reactions (k-0. By combining with the fact that the enzyme activity is almost completely lost at high concentration, the enzyme is completely inactivated when the Hg2+ concentration is high enough. Conclusions These results suggest that Hg2+ has great impacts on the urease activity and the established inhibition kinetics model is suitable.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Öztekin, Aykut, E-mail: aoztekin@agri.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Agri Ibrahim Cecen University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 04100-Agri (Turkey); Almaz, Züleyha, E-mail: zturkoglu-2344@hotmail.com [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Mus Alparslan University Faculty of Sciences, Department of Moleculer Biology, 49250-Mus (Turkey); Özdemir, Hasan, E-mail: hozdemir@atauni.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey)
2016-04-18
Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC{sub 50} values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).
Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan
2016-04-01
Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan
2016-01-01
Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC_5_0 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).
Predicting the Cosmological Constant from the Causal Entropic Principle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad
2007-05-01
We compute the expected value of the cosmological constant in our universe from the Causal Entropic Principle. Since observers must obey the laws of thermodynamics and causality, the principle asserts that physical parameters are most likely to be found in the range of values for which the total entropy production within a causally connected region is maximized. Despite the absence of more explicit anthropic criteria, the resulting probability distribution turns out to be in excellent agreement with observation. In particular, we find that dust heated by stars dominates the entropy production, demonstrating the remarkable power of this thermodynamic selection criterion. The alternative approach-weighting by the number of"observers per baryon" -- is less well-defined, requires problematic assumptions about the nature of observers, and yet prefers values larger than present experimental bounds.
Predicting the Cosmological Constant from the CausalEntropic Principle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bousso, Raphael; Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad
2007-02-20
We compute the expected value of the cosmological constant in our universe from the Causal Entropic Principle. Since observers must obey the laws of thermodynamics and causality, it asserts that physical parameters are most likely to be found in the range of values for which the total entropy production within a causally connected region is maximized. Despite the absence of more explicit anthropic criteria, the resulting probability distribution turns out to be in excellent agreement with observation. In particular, we find that dust heated by stars dominates the entropy production, demonstrating the remarkable power of this thermodynamic selection criterion. The alternative approach--weighting by the number of ''observers per baryon''--is less well-defined, requires problematic assumptions about the nature of observers, and yet prefers values larger than present experimental bounds.
Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction
Sridhar, A.
2017-03-28
A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise
Molecular dynamics simulations of solutions at constant chemical potential
Perego, C.; Salvalaglio, M.; Parrinello, M.
2015-04-01
Molecular dynamics studies of chemical processes in solution are of great value in a wide spectrum of applications, which range from nano-technology to pharmaceutical chemistry. However, these calculations are affected by severe finite-size effects, such as the solution being depleted as the chemical process proceeds, which influence the outcome of the simulations. To overcome these limitations, one must allow the system to exchange molecules with a macroscopic reservoir, thus sampling a grand-canonical ensemble. Despite the fact that different remedies have been proposed, this still represents a key challenge in molecular simulations. In the present work, we propose the Constant Chemical Potential Molecular Dynamics (CμMD) method, which introduces an external force that controls the environment of the chemical process of interest. This external force, drawing molecules from a finite reservoir, maintains the chemical potential constant in the region where the process takes place. We have applied the CμMD method to the paradigmatic case of urea crystallization in aqueous solution. As a result, we have been able to study crystal growth dynamics under constant supersaturation conditions and to extract growth rates and free-energy barriers.
Recommended Henry’s Law Constants for Non-Groundwater Pathways Models in GoldSim
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dyer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-06-20
This memorandum documents the source and numerical value of Henry’s law constants for volatile radionuclides of interest used in the non-groundwater (air and radon) pathways models for the 2018 E-Area Performance Assessment.
Proposal to measure the D meson decay constant F/sub D/
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deshpande, N.G.; Iskandar, D.
1978-08-01
Because the branching ratios of the purely leptonic modes of D meson are small compared to the semileptonic decays, it is suggested that the decay D → K + l + ν might be used to deduce the value of F/sub D/, the weak decay constant of D meson. 17 references
Quintessence and the cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doran, M.; Wetterich, C.
2003-01-01
Quintessence -- the energy density of a slowly evolving scalar field -- may constitute a dynamical form of the homogeneous dark energy in the universe. We review the basic idea in the light of the cosmological constant problem. Cosmological observations or a time variation of fundamental 'constants' can distinguish quintessence from a cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Worek, Franz; Wille, Timo; Aurbek, Nadine; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst
2010-01-01
Treatment of poisoning by highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (OP, nerve agents) is a continuous challenge. Standard treatment with atropine and a clinically used oxime, obidoxime or pralidoxime is inadequate against various nerve agents. For ethical reasons testing of oxime efficacy has to be performed in animals. Now, it was tempting to investigate the reactivation kinetics of MMB-4, a candidate oxime to replace pralidoxime, with nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from human and animal origin in order to provide a kinetic basis for the proper assessment of in vivo data. By applying a modified kinetic approach, allowing the use of necessary high MMB-4 concentrations, it was possible to determine the reactivation constants with sarin-, cyclosarin-, VX-, VR- and tabun-inhibited AChE. MMB-4 exhibited a high reactivity and low affinity towards OP-inhibited AChE, except of tabun-inhibited enzyme where MMB-4 had an extremely low reactivity. Species differences between human and animal AChE were low (Cynomolgus) to moderate (swine, guinea pig). Due to the high reactivity of MMB-4 a rapid reactivation of inhibited AChE can be anticipated at adequate oxime concentrations which are substantially higher compared to HI-6. Additional studies are necessary to determine the in vivo toxicity, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of MMB-4 in humans in order to enable a proper assessment of the value of this oxime as an antidote against nerve agent poisoning.
Worek, Franz; Wille, Timo; Aurbek, Nadine; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst
2010-12-15
Treatment of poisoning by highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (OP, nerve agents) is a continuous challenge. Standard treatment with atropine and a clinically used oxime, obidoxime or pralidoxime is inadequate against various nerve agents. For ethical reasons testing of oxime efficacy has to be performed in animals. Now, it was tempting to investigate the reactivation kinetics of MMB-4, a candidate oxime to replace pralidoxime, with nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from human and animal origin in order to provide a kinetic basis for the proper assessment of in vivo data. By applying a modified kinetic approach, allowing the use of necessary high MMB-4 concentrations, it was possible to determine the reactivation constants with sarin-, cyclosarin-, VX-, VR- and tabun-inhibited AChE. MMB-4 exhibited a high reactivity and low affinity towards OP-inhibited AChE, except of tabun-inhibited enzyme where MMB-4 had an extremely low reactivity. Species differences between human and animal AChE were low (Cynomolgus) to moderate (swine, guinea pig). Due to the high reactivity of MMB-4 a rapid reactivation of inhibited AChE can be anticipated at adequate oxime concentrations which are substantially higher compared to HI-6. Additional studies are necessary to determine the in vivo toxicity, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of MMB-4 in humans in order to enable a proper assessment of the value of this oxime as an antidote against nerve agent poisoning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Filament instability under constant loads
Monastra, A. G.; Carusela, M. F.; D’Angelo, M. V.; Bruno, L.
2018-04-01
Buckling of semi-flexible filaments appears in different systems and scales. Some examples are: fibers in geophysical applications, microtubules in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and deformation of polymers freely suspended in a flow. In these examples, instabilities arise when a system’s parameter exceeds a critical value, being the Euler force the most known. However, the complete time evolution and wavelength of buckling processes are not fully understood. In this work we solve analytically the time evolution of a filament under a constant compressive force in the small amplitude approximation. This gives an insight into the variable force scenario in terms of normal modes. The evolution is highly sensitive to the initial configuration and to the magnitude of the compressive load. This model can be a suitable approach to many different real situations.
From artefacts to atoms - A new SI for 2018 to be based on fundamental constants.
Quinn, Terry
At the 26th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) in November 2018, it is planned to adopt a new definition of the International System of Units, SI, based on the fixed numerical values of seven defining constants, broadly the fundamental constants of physics. This will be the culmination of more than two hundred years of metrology, instantiating for the first time the original ideas of the creators of the metric system. The key is the replacement of the present definition of the unit of mass, the kilogram artefact of platinum-iridium, by one based on a fixed numerical value of the Planck constant. This article outlines how this has come about, how it will work, why we need a system of measurement that is uniform, accessible world-wide and stable in the long term, and the international structures that now exist to achieve it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scale of gravity and the cosmological constant within a landscape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graesser, Michael L.; Salem, Michael P.
2007-01-01
It is possible that the scale of gravity, parametrized by the apparent Planck mass, may obtain different values within different universes in an encompassing multiverse. We investigate the range over which the Planck mass may scan while still satisfying anthropic constraints. The window for anthropically allowed values of the Planck mass may have important consequences for landscape predictions. For example, if the likelihood to observe some value of the Planck mass is weighted by the inflationary expansion factors of the universes that contain that value, then it appears extremely unlikely to observe the value of the Planck mass that is measured within our universe. This is another example of the runaway inflation problem discussed in recent literature. We also show that the window for the Planck mass significantly weakens the anthropic constraint on the cosmological constant when both are allowed to vary over a landscape
Sheehy, Philip M; Ramstad, Tore
2005-10-04
The binding constant between alprostadil (PGE1) and alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD) was determined at four temperatures using conductance measurements. Alpha-cyclodextrin is an excipient material in Caverject dual chamber syringe (DCS) that was added to enhance stability. The binding constant was used to calculate the amount of PGE1 free upon reconstitution and injection, since only the free drug is clinically active. The conductivity measurement is based on a decrease in specific conductance as alprostadil is titrated with alpha-CD. The change in conductivity was plotted versus free ligand concentration (alpha-CD) to generate a binding curve. As the value of the binding constant proved to be dependent on substrate concentration, it is really a pseudo binding constant. A value of 742+/-60 M(-1) was obtained for a 0.5 mM solution of alprostadil at 27 degrees C and a value of 550+/-52 M(-1) at 37 degrees C. These results compare favorably to values previously obtained by NMR and capillary electrophoresis. Calculation of the fraction PGE1 free upon reconstitution and injection show it to approach the desired outcome of one. Hence, the amount of drug delivered by Caverject DCS is nominally equivalent to that delivered by Caverject S. Po., a predecessor product that contains no alpha-cyclodextrin.
Higgs inflation and the cosmological constant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2014-02-15
The Higgs not only induces the masses of all SM particles, the Higgs, given its special mass value, is the natural candidate for the inflaton and in fact is ruling the evolution of the early universe, by providing the necessary dark energy which remains the dominant energy density. SM running couplings not only allow us to extrapolate SM physics up to the Planck scale, but equally important they are triggering the Higgs mechanism. This is possible by the fact that the bare mass term in the Higgs potential changes sign at about μ{sub 0}≅1.40 x 10{sup 16} GeV and in the symmetric phase is enhanced by quadratic terms in the Planck mass. Such a huge Higgs mass term is able to play a key role in triggering inflation in the early universe. In this article we extend our previous investigation by working out the details of a Higgs inflation scenario. We show how different terms contributing to the Higgs Lagrangian are affecting inflation. Given the SM and its extrapolation to scales μ>μ{sub 0} we find a calculable cosmological constant V(0) which is weakly scale dependent and actually remains large during inflation. This is different to the Higgs fluctuation field dependent ΔV(φ), which decays exponentially during inflation, and actually would not provide a sufficient amount of inflation. The fluctuation field has a different effective mass which shifts the bare Higgs transition point to a lower value μ'{sub 0} ≅7.7 x 10{sup 14} GeV. The vacuum energy V(0) being proportional to M{sub Pl}{sup 4} has a coefficient which vanishes near the Higgs transition point, such that the bare and the renormalized cosmological constant match at this point. The role of the Higgs in reheating and baryogenesis is emphasized.
Accurate Measurements of the Dielectric Constant of Seawater at L Band
Lang, Roger; Zhou, Yiwen; Utku, Cuneyt; Le Vine, David
2016-01-01
This paper describes measurements of the dielectric constant of seawater at a frequency of 1.413 GHz, the center of the protected band (i.e., passive use only) used in the measurement of sea surface salinity from space. The objective of the measurements is to accurately determine the complex dielectric constant of seawater as a function of salinity and temperature. A resonant cylindrical microwave cavity in transmission mode has been employed to make the measurements. The measurements are made using standard seawater at salinities of 30, 33, 35, and 38 practical salinity units over a range of temperatures from 0 degree C to 35 degree C in 5 degree C intervals. Repeated measurements have been made at each temperature and salinity. Mean values and standard deviations are then computed. The total error budget indicates that the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant have a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.3 over the range of salinities and temperatures considered. The measurements are compared with the dielectric constants obtained from the model functions of Klein and Swift and those of Meissner and Wentz. The biggest differences occur at low and high temperatures.
Glucose consumption and rate constants for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in human gliomas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mukai, Takao
1990-01-01
To investigate the value of direct measurement of the rate constants by performing 18 F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of glucose consumption in human gliomas in vivo, a kinetic method with 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models for FDG uptake was used to analyze data from dynamic scans obtained by positron emission tomography after injection of FDG into 14 patients with glioma. The results were compared with those obtained by the autoradiographic method using 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models. There were no significant differences in the glucose consumption calculated by the four different methods both in the gliomas and in the contralateral intact cortex. It was found that the rate constant k4 could be neglected in calculation of glucose consumption in gliomas as well as in the contralateral intact cortex. The rate constant k3, an index of hexokinase function, was higher in malignant gliomas than in benign gliomas and was close to that in the contralateral cortex. This study indicates that the 3-parameter autoradiographic method, which is the most common one used in clinical practice, is reliable for the calculation of glucose consumption in human gliomas. Furthermore, direct measurement of the regional rate constants for FDG by the kinetic method was found to be useful for evaluation of the biochemical and physiological characteristics of human gliomas in vivo. (author)
The varying cosmological constant: a new approximation to the Friedmann equations and universe model
Öztaş, Ahmet M.; Dil, Emre; Smith, Michael L.
2018-05-01
We investigate the time-dependent nature of the cosmological constant, Λ, of the Einstein Field Equation (EFE). Beginning with the Einstein-Hilbert action as our fundamental principle we develop a modified version of the EFE allowing the value of Λ to vary as a function of time, Λ(t), indirectly, for an expanding universe. We follow the evolving Λ presuming four-dimensional space-time and a flat universe geometry and present derivations of Λ(t) as functions of the Hubble constant, matter density, and volume changes which can be traced back to the radiation epoch. The models are more detailed descriptions of the Λ dependence on cosmological factors than previous, allowing calculations of the important parameters, Ωm and Ωr, to deep lookback times. Since we derive these without the need for extra dimensions or other special conditions our derivations are useful for model evaluation with astronomical data. This should aid resolution of several difficult problems of astronomy such as the best value for the Hubble constant at present and at recombination.
Mirzahosseini, Arash; Somlyay, Máté; Noszál, Béla
2015-08-13
Microscopic redox equilibrium constants, a new species-specific type of physicochemical parameters, were introduced and determined to quantify thiol-disulfide equilibria of biological significance. The thiol-disulfide redox equilibria of glutathione with cysteamine, cysteine, and homocysteine were approached from both sides, and the equilibrium mixtures were analyzed by quantitative NMR methods to characterize the highly composite, co-dependent acid-base and redox equilibria. The directly obtained, pH-dependent, conditional constants were then decomposed by a new evaluation method, resulting in pH-independent, microscopic redox equilibrium constants for the first time. The 80 different, microscopic redox equilibrium constant values show close correlation with the respective thiolate basicities and provide sound means for the development of potent agents against oxidative stress.
Gravitational lensing limits on the cosmological constant in a flat universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, E.L.
1990-01-01
Inflationary cosmological theories predict, and some more general aesthetic criteria suggest, that the large-scale spatial curvature of the universe k should be accurately zero (i.e., flat), a condition which is satisfied when the universe's present mean density and the value of the cosmological constant Lambda have certain pairs of values. Available data on the frequency of multiple image-lensing of high-redshift quasars by galaxies suggest that the cosmological constant cannot make a dominant contribution to producing a flat universe. In particular, if the mean density of the universe is as small as the baryon density inferred from standard cosmic nucleosynthesis calculations or as determined from typical dynamical studies of galaxies and galaxy clusters, then a value of Lambda large enough to produce a k = 0 universe would result in a substantially higher frequency of multiple-image lensing of quasars than has been observed so far. Shortcomings of the available lens data and uncertainties concerning galaxy properties allow some possibility of escaping this conclusion, but systematic searches for a gravitational lenses and continuing investigations of galaxy mass distributions should soon provide decisive information. It is also noted that nonzero-curvature cosmological models can account for the observed frequency of galaxy-quasar lens systems and for a variety of other constraints. 61 refs
Large scale geometry and evolution of a universe with radiation pressure and cosmological constant
Coquereaux, Robert; Coquereaux, Robert; Grossmann, Alex
2000-01-01
In view of new experimental results that strongly suggest a non-zero cosmological constant, it becomes interesting to revisit the Friedmann-Lemaitre model of evolution of a universe with cosmological constant and radiation pressure. In this paper, we discuss the explicit solutions for that model, and perform numerical explorations for reasonable values of cosmological parameters. We also analyse the behaviour of redshifts in such models and the description of ``very large scale geometrical features'' when analysed by distant observers.
Calculation of elastic constants of BCC transition metals: tight-binding recursion method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masuda, K.; Hamada, N.; Terakura, K.
1984-01-01
The elastic constants of BCC transition metals (Fe, Nb, Mo and W) are calculated by using the tight-binding d band and the Born-Mayer repulsive potential. Introducing a small distortion characteristic to C 44 (or C') elastic deformation and calculating the energy change up to second order in the atomic displacement, the shear elastic constants C 44 and C' are determined. The elastic constants C 11 and C 12 are then calculated by using the relations B=1/3(C 11 + 2C 12 ) and C'=1/2(C 11 -C 12 ), where B is the bulk modulus. In general, the agreement between the present results and the experimental values is satisfactory. The characteristic elasticity behaviour, i.e. the strong Nsub(d) (number of d electrons) dependence of the observed anisotropy factor A=C 44 /C', will also be discussed. (author)
Estimation of the Plant Time Constant of Current-Controlled Voltage Source Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.; Malvar, Jano
2014-01-01
Precise knowledge of the plant time constant is essential to perform a thorough analysis of the current control loop in voltage source converters (VSCs). As the loop behavior can be significantly influenced by the VSC working conditions, the effects associated to converter losses should be included...... in the model, through an equivalent series resistance. In a recent work, an algorithm to identify this parameter was developed, considering the inductance value as known and practically constant. Nevertheless, the plant inductance can also present important uncertainties with respect to the inductance...... of the VSC interface filter measured at rated conditions. This paper extends that method so that both parameters of the plant time constant (resistance and inductance) are estimated. Such enhancement is achieved through the evaluation of the closed-loop transient responses of both axes of the synchronous...
Strong Nuclear Gravitational Constant and the Origin of Nuclear Planck Scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seshavatharam U. V. S.
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Whether it may be real or an equivalent, existence of strong nuclear gravitational con- stant G S is assumed. Its value is obtained from Fermi’s weak coupling constant as G S = 6 : 9427284 10 31 m 3 / kg sec 2 and thus “nuclear planck scale” is defined. For strong interaction existence of a new integral charged “confined fermion” of mass 105.383 MeV is assumed. Strong coupling constant is the ratio of nuclear planck energy = 11.97 MeV and assumed 105.383 MeV. 1 s = X s is defined as the strong interaction mass gen- erator. With 105.383 MeV fermion various nuclear unit radii are fitted. Fermi’s weak coupling constant, strong interaction upper limit and Bohr radius are fitted at funda- mental level. Considering Fermi’s weak coupling constant and nuclear planck length a new number X e = 294.8183 is defined for fitting the electron, muon and tau rest masses. Using X s , X e and 105 : 32 = 0 : 769 MeV as the Coulombic energy constant = E c , en- ergy coe cients of the semi-empirical mass formula are estimated as E v = 16 : 32 MeV ; E s = 19 : 37 MeV ; E a = 23 : 86 MeV and E p = 11 : 97 MeV where Coulombic energy term contains [ Z ] 2 : Starting from Z = 2 nuclear binding energy is fitted with two terms along with only one energy constant = 0.769 MeV. Finally nucleon mass and its excited levels are fitted.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Preez, J.G.H. du; Knabl, K.U.; Krueger, L.; Brecht, B.J.A.M. van
1992-01-01
Improved methods for the preparation of imidotetraalkylpyrophosphates are reported. The dissociation constant of the water soluble tetraethyl analogue was determined by potentiometric titration. The values for the partition constant and aggregation constant of the tetradodecyl analogue were determined by two phase EMF potentiometric titration of which the data were processed through a sophisticated general optimization technique. The application of this method also made it possible to obtain a species distribution curve of the organic phase in terms of variation of pH in the aqueous phase. 17 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs
Determination of the pairing-strength constants in the isovector plus isoscalar pairing case
Mokhtari, D.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.
2016-05-01
A method for the determination of the pairing-strength constants, in the neutron-proton (n-p) isovector plus isoscalar pairing case, is proposed in the framework of the BCS theory. It is based on the fitting of these constants to reproduce the experimentally known pairing gap parameters as well as the root-mean-squared (r.m.s) charge radii values. The method is applied to some proton-rich even-even nuclei. The single-particle energies used are those of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean field. It is shown that the obtained value of the ratio GnpT=0/G npT=1 is of the same order as the ones, arbitrary chosen, of some previous works. The effect of the inclusion of the isoscalar n-p pairing in the r.m.s matter radii is then numerically studied for the same nuclei.
X-ray elastic constants in textured Zr-base materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ortiz, M.; Pochettino, A.A.; Lebrun, J.L.; Maeder, G.
1993-01-01
A general method for the calculation of the X-ray elastic constants (XREC) for textured hexagonal close-packed (hcp) materials was developed by using the orientation distribution function (ODF) and the Reuss hypothesis. This method was applied to textured zirconium (Zr) sheets and zircaloy 4 (Zry 4) extruded tubes. For these samples, where the elastic anisotropy is not very strong, an 'isotropic approximation' method is proposed using the ODF data. In that case, the classical XREC 1/2S 2 and S, values are calculated and experimentally verified for (10 bar 14) diffracting planes. Theoretical XREC values are also given for different (hkil) that could be chosen according to the experimental conditions, considering texture effects on diffracting peak intensities
THE EXTREME WEIGHTS IN THE INDEX PORTFOLIO OF CONSTANT-PROPORTION STRATEGIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yury F. Kasimov
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the optimal of constant proportion index portfolio strategies. They are also called passive strategies which are becoming more common in Russia and abroad. They are significantly cheaper to implement than active strategies. In addition, as practice shows, in the long term they are more profitable and less risky. The main problem in these strategies is the choice of the proportions in which the investor allocates his capital between risky and risk-free assets. In constant proportion index portfolio the weight of risk asset remains constant throughout investment period. For this purpose, the investor with a certain frequency restores the desired balance between risky and risk-free assets. Each period at the beginning of which such recovery occurs is called the re-balancing period. In the case of strategies with index portfolios, risky assets are the shares of the index fund, and risk-free assets are the deposits in reliable bank or government bonds. According on the daily value of units of these funds and the annual interest rate for the 11-year period, using a specially developed program optimal weight index funds in the portfolios has been found. Parameters of the analyzed portfolios are: length of the investment period (from one year to 10 years and the frequency of weight rebalancing (month, quarter, year. The sequence of optimal weights and the corresponding optimum yield for consecutive investment periods with a specified frequency of re-balancing were determined for each fund. It was found that in almost all cases, the optimal weights of fund equals the extreme values 0 or 1. Also, the frequencies of these values in the selected sequence is about the same for all funds. This empiric fact can be conventionally called the principle of extremeness or “all or nothing” principle.
Cosmological constants and variations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, John D
2005-01-01
We review properties of theories for the variation of the gravitation and fine structure 'constants'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that is consistent with time-variation in the fine structure 'constant' since a redshift of 3.5. The behaviour of a simple class of varying alpha cosmologies is outlined in the light of all the observational constraints. We also discuss some of the consequences of varying 'constants' for oscillating universes and show by means of exact solutions that they appear to evolve monotonically in time even though the scale factor of the universe oscillates
Michałowski, Tadeusz; Pilarski, Bogusław; Asuero, Agustin G; Dobkowska, Agnieszka
2010-10-15
The paper provides a new formulation and analytical proposals based on the isohydric solutions concept. It is particularly stated that a mixture formed, according to titrimetric mode, from a weak acid (HX, C(0)mol/L) and a strong acid (HB, Cmol/L) solutions, assumes constant pH, independently on the volumes of the solutions mixed, provided that the relation C(0)=C+C(2)·10(pK(1)) is valid, where pK(1)=-log K(1), K(1) the dissociation constant for HX. The generalized formulation, referred to the isohydric solutions thus obtained, was extended also to more complex acid-base systems. Particularly in the (HX, HB) system, the titration occurs at constant ionic strength (I) value, not resulting from presence of a basal electrolyte. This very advantageous conjunction of the properties provides, among others, a new, very sensitive method for verification of pK(1) value. The new method is particularly useful for weak acids HX characterized by low pK(1) values. The method was tested experimentally on four acid-base systems (HX, HB), in aqueous and mixed-solvent media and compared with the literature data. Some useful (linear and hyperbolic) correlations were stated and applied for validation of pK(1) values. Finally, some practical applications of analytical interest of the isohydricity (pH constancy) principle as one formulated in this paper were enumerated, proving the usefulness of such a property which has its remote roots in the Arrhenius concept. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Inflationary dynamics with a smooth slow-roll to constant-roll era transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Odintsov, S.D. [ICREA, Passeig Luis Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Oikonomou, V.K., E-mail: odintsov@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: v.k.oikonomou1979@gmail.com [Laboratory for Theoretical Cosmology, Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics (TUSUR), Lenin Avenue 40, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2017-04-01
In this paper we investigate the implications of having a varying second slow-roll index on the canonical scalar field inflationary dynamics. We shall be interested in cases that the second slow-roll can take small values and correspondingly large values, for limiting cases of the function that quantifies the variation of the second slow-roll index. As we demonstrate, this can naturally introduce a smooth transition between slow-roll and constant-roll eras. We discuss the theoretical implications of the mechanism we introduce and we use various illustrative examples in order to better understand the new features that the varying second slow-roll index introduces. In the examples we will present, the second slow-roll index has exponential dependence on the scalar field, and in one of these cases, the slow-roll era corresponds to a type of α-attractor inflation. Finally, we briefly discuss how the combination of slow-roll and constant-roll may lead to non-Gaussianities in the primordial perturbations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emmelie Björklund
Full Text Available The antifungal compound ketoconazole has, in addition to its ability to interfere with fungal ergosterol synthesis, effects upon other enzymes including human CYP3A4, CYP17, lipoxygenase and thromboxane synthetase. In the present study, we have investigated whether ketoconazole affects the cellular uptake and hydrolysis of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand anandamide (AEA.The effects of ketoconazole upon endocannabinoid uptake were investigated using HepG2, CaCo2, PC-3 and C6 cell lines. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH activity was measured in HepG2 cell lysates and in intact C6 cells. Ketoconazole inhibited the uptake of AEA by HepG2 cells and CaCo2 cells with IC50 values of 17 and 18 µM, respectively. In contrast, it had modest effects upon AEA uptake in PC-3 cells, which have a low expression of FAAH. In cell-free HepG2 lysates, ketoconazole inhibited FAAH activity with an IC50 value (for the inhibitable component of 34 µM.The present study indicates that ketoconazole can inhibit the cellular uptake of AEA at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, primarily due to its effects upon FAAH. Ketoconazole may be useful as a template for the design of dual-action FAAH/CYP17 inhibitors as a novel strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Hadron masses and decay constants with Wilson quarks at β=5.85 and 6.0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1996-01-01
We present results of a high statistics calculation of hadron masses and meson decay constants in the quenched approximation to lattice QCD with Wilson quarks at β= 5.85 and 6.0 on 24 3 x54 lattices. We analyze the data paying attention in particular to the systematic errors due to the choice of fitting range and due to the contamination from excited states. We find that the systematic errors for the hadron masses with quarks lighter than the strange quark amount to 1 to 2 times the statistical errors. When the lattice scale is fixed from the ρ meson mass, the masses of the Ω - baryon and the φ meson at two β close-quote s agree with experiment within about one standard deviation. On the other hand, the central value of the nucleon mass at β=6.0 (5.85) is larger than its experimental value by about 15% (20%) and that of the Δ mass by about 15% (4%): Even when the systematic errors are included, the baryon masses at β=6.0 do not agree with experiment. Vector meson decay constants at two values of β agree well with each other and are consistent with experiment for a wide range of the quark mass, when we use current renormalization constants determined nonperturbatively by numerical simulations. The pion decay constant agrees with experiment albeit with large errors. Results for the masses of excited states of the ρ meson and the nucleon are also presented. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nyawere, P.W.O., E-mail: otienop98@yahoo.ca [Computational Materials Science Group, Department of Physics, University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125-30100 Eldoret (Kenya); Department of Computing, Kabarak University, P.O. - Private Bag - 20157 Kabarak (Kenya); The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Makau, N.W., E-mail: wanimak@yahoo.com [Computational Materials Science Group, Department of Physics, University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125-30100 Eldoret (Kenya); Amolo, G.O., E-mail: georgeamolo862@gmail.com [Computational Materials Science Group, Department of Physics, University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125-30100 Eldoret (Kenya)
2014-02-01
All the elastic constants of cubic, orthorhombic and hexagonal phases of BaF{sub 2} have been calculated using first principles methods. We have employed density-functional theory within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) using a plane-wave pseudopotentials method and a plane-wave basis set. The calculated elastic constant values for a cubic phase compare well with recent theoretical and experimental calculations. The bulk modulus derived from the elastic constant calculations of orthorhombic phase of BaF{sub 2} is 94.5 GPa and those of hexagonal phase is 161 GPa. These values are in good agreement with experimental data available. Stability of these phases of BaF{sub 2} is also estimated in different crystallographic directions.
Prepotent response inhibition predicts treatment outcome in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
van der Oord, S.; Geurts, H.M.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Oosterlaan, J.
2012-01-01
Objective: Inhibition deficits, including deficits in prepotent response inhibition and interference control, are core deficits in ADHD. The predictive value of prepotent response inhibition and interference control was assessed for outcome in a 10-week treatment trial with methylphenidate. Methods:
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
The article discusses the importance of the fine structure constant in quantum mechanics, along with the brief history of how it emerged. Al- though Sommerfelds idea of elliptical orbits has been replaced by wave mechanics, the fine struc- ture constant he introduced has remained as an important parameter in the field of ...
Coherent and Semiclassical States of a Charged Particle in a Constant Electric Field
Adorno, T. C.; Pereira, A. S.
2018-05-01
The method of integrals of motion is used to construct families of generalized coherent states of a nonrelativistic spinless charged particle in a constant electric field. Families of states, differing in the values of their standard deviations at the initial time, are obtained. Depending on the initial values of the standard deviations, and also on the electric field, it turns out to be possible to identify some families with semiclassical states.
A constant-density Gurney approach to the Cylinder test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reaugh, John E.; Souers, P. Clark [Energetic Materials Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)
2004-04-01
The previous analysis of the Cylinder test required the treatment of different wall thicknesses and wall materials separately. To fix this, the Gurney analysis is used, but this results in low values for full-wall standard, ideal explosives relative to CHEETAH analyses. A new constant metal-density model is suggested, which takes account of the thinning metal wall as the cylinder expands. With this model, the inner radius of the metal cylinder moves faster than the measured outer radius. Additional small corrections occur in all cylinders because of energy trapped in the copper walls. Also, the half-wall cylinders have a small correction because the relative volumes of the gas products are smaller at a given outside wall displacement. The Fabry-Perot and streak camera measurements are compared. The Fabry method is shown to equate to the constant density model. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agne Slapsinskaite
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20 = 15. During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.
Hall effects on hydromagnetic flow of an Oldroyd 6-constant fluid between concentric cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rana, M.A.; Siddiqui, A.M.; Qamar, Rashid
2009-01-01
The hydromagnetic flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible Oldroyd 6-constant fluid between two concentric cylinders is investigated. The flow is generated by moving inner cylinder and/or application of the constant pressure gradient. Two non-linear boundary value problems are solved numerically. The effects of material parameters, pressure gradient, magnetic field and Hall parameter on the velocity are studied. The graphical representation of velocity reveals that characteristics for shear thinning/shear thickening behaviour of a fluid is dependent upon the rheological properties
Hall effects on hydromagnetic flow of an Oldroyd 6-constant fluid between concentric cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rana, M.A. [Management Information System, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mafzalrana@yahoo.com; Siddiqui, A.M. [Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, York Campus, York, PA 17403 (United States); Qamar, Rashid [Management Information System, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2009-01-15
The hydromagnetic flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible Oldroyd 6-constant fluid between two concentric cylinders is investigated. The flow is generated by moving inner cylinder and/or application of the constant pressure gradient. Two non-linear boundary value problems are solved numerically. The effects of material parameters, pressure gradient, magnetic field and Hall parameter on the velocity are studied. The graphical representation of velocity reveals that characteristics for shear thinning/shear thickening behaviour of a fluid is dependent upon the rheological properties.
Harmanec, Petr; Prša, Andrej
2011-08-01
The increasing precision of astronomical observations of stars and stellar systems is gradually getting to a level where the use of slightly different values of the solar mass, radius, and luminosity, as well as different values of fundamental physical constants, can lead to measurable systematic differences in the determination of basic physical properties. An equivalent issue with an inconsistent value of the speed of light was resolved by adopting a nominal value that is constant and has no error associated with it. Analogously, we suggest that the systematic error in stellar parameters may be eliminated by (1) replacing the solar radius R⊙ and luminosity L⊙ by the nominal values that are by definition exact and expressed in SI units: and ; (2) computing stellar masses in terms of M⊙ by noting that the measurement error of the product GM⊙ is 5 orders of magnitude smaller than the error in G; (3) computing stellar masses and temperatures in SI units by using the derived values and ; and (4) clearly stating the reference for the values of the fundamental physical constants used. We discuss the need and demonstrate the advantages of such a paradigm shift.
Test the principle of maximum entropy in constant sum 2×2 game: Evidence in experimental economics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Bin; Zhang, Hongen; Wang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jianbo
2012-01-01
By using laboratory experimental data, we test the uncertainty of strategy type in various competing environments with two-person constant sum 2×2 game in the social system. It firstly shows that, in these competing game environments, the outcome of human's decision-making obeys the principle of the maximum entropy. -- Highlights: ► Test the uncertainty in two-person constant sum games with experimental data. ► On game level, the constant sum game fits the principle of maximum entropy. ► On group level, all empirical entropy values are close to theoretical maxima. ► The results can be different for the games that are not constant sum game.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blake, Thomas A.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Kelly-Gorham, Molly Rose K.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bliss, Mary; Myers, Tanya L.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tiwald, Thomas E.
2017-05-05
The optical constants n and k can be used to model infrared spectra, including refraction, absorption, reflectance, and emissivity, but obtaining reliable values for solid materials (pure or otherwise) presents a challenge: In the past, the best results for n and k have been obtained from bulk, homogeneous materials, free of defects. That is, materials where the Fresnel equations are operant since there is no light scattering. Since it is often not possible to obtain a pure macroscopic (crystalline) material, it may be possible to press the material into a (uniform, void-free) disk. We have recently been able to do this with ammonium sulfate powder and then measured the n & k values via two independent methods: 1) Ellipsometry - which measures the changes in amplitude and phase of light reflected from the material of interest as a function of wavelength and angle of incidence, and 2) Single angle specular reflectance with an FT spectrometer using a specular reflectance device within an FT instrument which measures the change in amplitude of light reflected from the material of interest as a function of wavelength and angle of incidence over a wide wavelength range. The quality of the derived n & k values was tested by generating the reflectance spectra of the pellet and comparing to the calculated to measured reflectance spectra of the pure material which has been previously published. The comparison to literature values showed good accuracy and good agreement, indicating promise to measure other materials by such methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mogilevtsev, D.S.; Kilin, S.Ya.
1994-08-01
A specific kind of inhibition of atomic decay (''freezing of decay) and intense monochromatic collective radiation are predicted for a single two-level atom and for a system of atoms interacting with the field bath having the gap in the spectrum of coupling constants. (author). 10 refs, 5 figs
Solvation numbers and hydration constant for thorium(IV) in ethanol-water medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sedaira, H.; Idriss, K.A.; Hashem, E.Y.
1996-01-01
The solvation number and hydration constant of Th 4+ in ethanol-water medium were determined at 25 degrees C using UV-spectral and electrochemical measurements. A solvate formation equilibrium is demonstrated and characterized. Three molecules of ethanol (S) can bond to the metal cation with strengths comparable to that for H 2 O to form ThS 3 (H 2 O) 3 4+ . Formation of thorium monochelate with lawsone (2-hydroxy-1.4-naphthoquinone) eliminates bonding with alcohol molecules. The dissociation constant of the chelating agent s K a and the formation contant of the monochelated metal ion s K f * that are essentially independent of the solution composition are evaluated. Hydration titrations involving thorium-lawsone monochlate are performed and the data obtained from the changes of pH with solvent composition are analyzed. The solution independent constant, s K f * for thorium-lawsone complex formation in mixed aqueous ethanol is given by log x K f * =vpK a + log s K h - log [LH] - vpH + 3 log v where vpK a is the dissociation constant of the chelating agent LH in the solvent system of v volume fraction of water and s K h is the solution-independent hydration constant of thorium (IV) in the solvent system. Log-values for the constants s K h , s K f * and s K z * are found to be 7.8 ±0.02, 11.38±0.04 and -0.753, respectively
Duman, Yonca Avci; Kazan, Dilek; Denizci, Aziz Akin; Erarslan, Altan
2014-01-01
In this study, our investigations showed that the increasing concentrations of all examined mono alcohols caused a decrease in the Vm, kcat and kcat/Km values of Bacillus clausii GMBE 42 serine alkaline protease for casein hydrolysis. However, the Km value of the enzyme remained almost the same, which was an indicator of non-competitive inhibition. Whereas inhibition by methanol was partial non-competitive, inhibition by the rest of the alcohols tested was simple non-competitive. The inhibition constants (KI) were in the range of 1.32-3.10 M, and the order of the inhibitory effect was 1-propanol>2-propanol>methanol>ethanol. The ΔG(≠) and ΔG(≠)E-T values of the enzyme increased at increasing concentrations of all alcohols examined, but the ΔG(≠)ES value of the enzyme remained almost the same. The constant Km and ΔG(≠)ES values in the presence and absence of mono alcohols indicated the existence of different binding sites for mono alcohols and casein on enzyme the molecule. The kcat of the enzyme decreased linearly by increasing log P and decreasing dielectric constant (D) values, but the ΔG(≠) and ΔG(≠)E-T values of the enzyme increased by increasing log P and decreasing D values of the reaction medium containing mono alcohols.
Determination of rate constants for the oxygen reduction reaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Racz, A.; Walter, T.; Stimming, U. [Munich Technical Univ., Garching (Germany). Dept. of Physics
2008-07-01
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells is a complex and fundamental electrochemical reaction. However, greater insight is needed into this multi-electron reaction in order to develop efficient and innovative catalysts. The rotating ring disc electrode (RRDE) is a useful tool for studying reaction intermediates of the ORR and to better understand the reaction pathway. Carbon materials such as carbon nanofilaments-platelets (CNF-PL) have high electrical conductivity and may be considered for fuel cells. In particular Pt and RuSe{sub x}, deposited on CNF-PL materials could act as efficient catalysts in fuel cells. This study used the RRDE to evaluate the oxygen reduction kinetics of these catalysts in oxygen-saturated, diluted sulphuric acid at room temperature. Kinetic data and hydrogen peroxide formation were determined by depositing a thin-film of the catalyst on the Au disc. The values for the constants k1, k2 and k3 were obtained using diagnostic criteria and expressions to calculate the rate constants of the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction for RuSe on new carbon supports. A potential dependency of the constants k1 and k2 for RuSe{sub x}/CNF-PL was observed. The transition of the Tafel slopes for this catalyst was obtained. 4 refs., 1 fig.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foos, J.
1999-01-01
This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foos, J.
2000-01-01
This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foos, J.
1999-01-01
This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)
3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: G - Newton's constant, and a dimensionless constant alpha. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that alpha is the fine structure constant ~1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of alpha. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the "dark-matter" effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.
Huang, Xinchuan; Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Lee, Timothy J.
2013-01-01
The interstellar presence of protonated nitrous oxide has been suspected for some time. Using established high-accuracy quantum chemical techniques, spectroscopic constants and fundamental vibrational frequencies are provided for the lower energy O-protonated isomer of this cation and its deuterated isotopologue. The vibrationally-averaged B0 and C0 rotational constants are within 6 MHz of their experimental values and the D(subJ) quartic distortion constants agree with experiment to within 3%. The known gas phase O-H stretch of NNOH(+) is 3330.91 cm(exp-1), and the vibrational configuration interaction computed result is 3330.9 cm(exp-1). Other spectroscopic constants are also provided, as are the rest of the fundamental vibrational frequencies for NNOH(+) and its deuterated isotopologue. This high-accuracy data should serve to better inform future observational or experimental studies of the rovibrational bands of protonated nitrous oxide in the ISM and the laboratory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawant, R.M.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Sharma, R.S.
2003-01-01
Protonation constants of hydroquinone and stability constants of thorium hydroquinone complexes were determined in 1 M NaClO 4 medium at 25 ± 0.5 degC, by varying concentration of thorium, using pH titration technique. Protonation constants of hydroquinone (β 1H = [HQ]/[H][Q] and β 2H = [H 2 Q]/[H] 2 [Q]) were found to be β 1H = 11.404 ± 0.014 and β 2H = 21.402 ± 0.012. The analysis of titration data of thorium-hydroquinone system appears to indicate the formation of species Th(H 2 Q) 3 (OH) and Th(H 2 O) 4 (OH). Equilibrium constants obtained for these species are -log β 13-I = 48.51 ± 0.67 and -log β 14-1 64.86 ± 1.25 respectively which are not reported in the literature. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foos, J.
1998-01-01
This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)
Stolzberg, Richard J.
1999-05-01
Students are challenged to investigate the hypothesis that an equilibrium constant, Kc, measured as a product and quotient of molar concentrations, is constant at constant temperature. Spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance of a solution of Fe3+(aq) and SCN-(aq) treated with different amounts of KNO3 are made to determine Kc for the formation of FeSCN2+(aq). Students observe a regular decrease in the value of Kc as the concentration of added KNO3 is increased.
Calculation of exchange constants in manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo Xu; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Vittoria, Carmine
2004-01-01
The exchange constants and electronic structure of manganese ferrite (MnFe 2 O 4 ) were calculated using Becke's density functional. The total exchange energy consists of Hartree-Fock (HF) and Becke's density functional terms. We introduced one parameter w as the weight of HF's contribution. We also introduced a parameter α to scale the radial part of the 3d wave functions of Fe 3+ ions. By varying w and α the calculated exchange constants were quantitatively fitted to the experimental values of a spinel ferrite for the first time. Direct (d-d) and indirect (d-p-d) hopping are controlled by the parameters w and α
Connecting Fundamental Constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Mario, D.
2008-01-01
A model for a black hole electron is built from three basic constants only: h, c and G. The result is a description of the electron with its mass and charge. The nature of this black hole seems to fit the properties of the Planck particle and new relationships among basic constants are possible. The time dilation factor in a black hole associated with a variable gravitational field would appear to us as a charge; on the other hand the Planck time is acting as a time gap drastically limiting what we are able to measure and its dimension will appear in some quantities. This is why the Planck time is numerically very close to the gravitational/electric force ratio in an electron: its difference, disregarding a π√(2) factor, is only 0.2%. This is not a coincidence, it is always the same particle and the small difference is between a rotating and a non-rotating particle. The determination of its rotational speed yields accurate numbers for many quantities, including the fine structure constant and the electron magnetic moment
Spectrophotometric determination of the first hydrolysis constant of praseodymium (III)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez M, R.; Lopez G, H.; Rojas H, A.
2010-01-01
The behavior of the trivalent ion praseodymium in 2 M of NaCl at 303 K and in CO 2 free conditions, was studied. Spectrophotometric titrations of the soluble species were used, in order to obtain the value of the first hydrolysis constant of Pr(III). The data obtained were treated with both the program Squad and by a graphic method, respectively. The result obtained using Squad was log*β 1 = -8.94 ± 0.03, while it was log*β 1 = -8.77 ± 0.03, when calculated graphically. These results are similar to the value obtained previously with the potentiometric method. (Author)
Spectrophotometric determination of the first hydrolysis constant of praseodymium (III)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez M, R.; Lopez G, H. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Rojas H, A., E-mail: hilario.lopez@inin.gob.m [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)
2010-07-01
The behavior of the trivalent ion praseodymium in 2 M of NaCl at 303 K and in CO{sub 2} free conditions, was studied. Spectrophotometric titrations of the soluble species were used, in order to obtain the value of the first hydrolysis constant of Pr(III). The data obtained were treated with both the program Squad and by a graphic method, respectively. The result obtained using Squad was log*{beta}{sub 1}= -8.94 {+-} 0.03, while it was log*{beta}{sub 1}= -8.77 {+-} 0.03, when calculated graphically. These results are similar to the value obtained previously with the potentiometric method. (Author)
Can the cosmological constant undergo abrupt changes?
Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Rosabal, A; Cabo, Alejandro; Garcia-Chung, Alejandro; Rosabal, Alejandro
2005-01-01
The existence of a simple spherically symmetric and static solution of the Einstein equations in the presence of a cosmological constant vanishing outside a definite value of the radial distance is investigated. A particular succession of field configurations, which are solutions of the Einstein equations in the presence of the considered cosmological term and auxiliary external sources, is constructed. Then, it is shown that the associated succession of external sources tend to zero in the sense of the generalized functions. The type of weak solution that is found becomes the deSitter homogeneous space-time for the interior region, and the Schwartzschild space in the outside zone.
The effect of interacting dark energy on local measurements of the Hubble constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Odderskov, Io; Baldi, Marco; Amendola, Luca
2016-01-01
In the current state of cosmology, where cosmological parameters are being measured to percent accuracy, it is essential to understand all sources of error to high precision. In this paper we present the results of a study of the local variations in the Hubble constant measured at the distance scale of the Coma Cluster, and test the validity of correcting for the peculiar velocities predicted by gravitational instability theory. The study is based on N-body simulations, and includes models featuring a coupling between dark energy and dark matter, as well as two ΛCDM simulations with different values of σ 8 . It is found that the variance in the local flows is significantly larger in the coupled models, which increases the uncertainty in the local measurements of the Hubble constant in these scenarios. By comparing the results from the different simulations, it is found that most of the effect is caused by the higher value of σ 8 in the coupled cosmologies, though this cannot account for all of the additional variance. Given the discrepancy between different estimates of the Hubble constant in the universe today, cosmological models causing a greater cosmic variance is something that we should be aware of.
The effect of interacting dark energy on local measurements of the Hubble constant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Odderskov, Io [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, Aarhus C (Denmark); Baldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Amendola, Luca, E-mail: isho07@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marco.baldi5@unibo.it, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2016-05-01
In the current state of cosmology, where cosmological parameters are being measured to percent accuracy, it is essential to understand all sources of error to high precision. In this paper we present the results of a study of the local variations in the Hubble constant measured at the distance scale of the Coma Cluster, and test the validity of correcting for the peculiar velocities predicted by gravitational instability theory. The study is based on N-body simulations, and includes models featuring a coupling between dark energy and dark matter, as well as two ΛCDM simulations with different values of σ{sub 8}. It is found that the variance in the local flows is significantly larger in the coupled models, which increases the uncertainty in the local measurements of the Hubble constant in these scenarios. By comparing the results from the different simulations, it is found that most of the effect is caused by the higher value of σ{sub 8} in the coupled cosmologies, though this cannot account for all of the additional variance. Given the discrepancy between different estimates of the Hubble constant in the universe today, cosmological models causing a greater cosmic variance is something that we should be aware of.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Liu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In the oil and gas transportation system over long distance, application of high-strength pipeline steels can efficiently reduce construction and operation cost by increasing operational pressure and reducing the pipe wall thickness. Failure assessment is an important issue in the design, construction, and maintenance of the pipelines. The small circumferential surface cracks with constant depth in the welded pipelines are of practical interest. This work provides an engineering estimation procedure based upon the GE/EPRI method to determine the J-integral for the thin-walled pipelines with small constant-depth circumferential surface cracks subject to tension and bending loads. The values of elastic influence functions for stress intensity factor and plastic influence functions for fully plastic J-integral estimation are derived in tabulated forms through a series of three-dimensional finite element calculations for different crack geometries and material properties. To check confidence of the J-estimation solution in practical application, J-integral values obtained from detailed finite element (FE analyses are compared with those estimated from the new influence functions. Excellent agreement of FE results with the proposed J-estimation solutions for both tension and bending loads indicates that the new solutions can be applied for accurate structural integrity assessment of high-strength pipelines with constant-depth circumferential surface cracks.
Touchless attitude correction for satellite with constant magnetic moment
Ao, Hou-jun; Yang, Le-ping; Zhu, Yan-wei; Zhang, Yuan-wen; Huang, Huan
2017-09-01
Rescue of satellite with attitude fault is of great value. Satellite with improper injection attitude may lose contact with ground as the antenna points to the wrong direction, or encounter energy problems as solar arrays are not facing the sun. Improper uploaded command may set the attitude out of control, exemplified by Japanese Hitomi spacecraft. In engineering practice, traditional physical contact approaches have been applied, yet with a potential risk of collision and a lack of versatility since the mechanical systems are mission-specific. This paper puts forward a touchless attitude correction approach, in which three satellites are considered, one having constant dipole and two having magnetic coils to control attitude of the first. Particular correction configurations are designed and analyzed to maintain the target's orbit during the attitude correction process. A reference coordinate system is introduced to simplify the control process and avoid the singular value problem of Euler angles. Based on the spherical triangle basic relations, the accurate varying geomagnetic field is considered in the attitude dynamic mode. Sliding mode control method is utilized to design the correction law. Finally, numerical simulation is conducted to verify the theoretical derivation. It can be safely concluded that the no-contact attitude correction approach for the satellite with uniaxial constant magnetic moment is feasible and potentially applicable to on-orbit operations.
Basant, Nikita; Gupta, Shikha
2018-03-01
The reactions of molecular ozone (O3), hydroxyl (•OH) and nitrate (NO3) radicals are among the major pathways of removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmospheric environment. The gas-phase kinetic rate constants (kO3, kOH, kNO3) are thus, important in assessing the ultimate fate and exposure risk of atmospheric VOCs. Experimental data for rate constants are not available for many emerging VOCs and the computational methods reported so far address a single target modeling only. In this study, we have developed a multi-target (mt) QSPR model for simultaneous prediction of multiple kinetic rate constants (kO3, kOH, kNO3) of diverse organic chemicals considering an experimental data set of VOCs for which values of all the three rate constants are available. The mt-QSPR model identified and used five descriptors related to the molecular size, degree of saturation and electron density in a molecule, which were mechanistically interpretable. These descriptors successfully predicted three rate constants simultaneously. The model yielded high correlations (R2 = 0.874-0.924) between the experimental and simultaneously predicted endpoint rate constant (kO3, kOH, kNO3) values in test arrays for all the three systems. The model also passed all the stringent statistical validation tests for external predictivity. The proposed multi-target QSPR model can be successfully used for predicting reactivity of new VOCs simultaneously for their exposure risk assessment.
QED Based Calculation of the Fine Structure Constant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lestone, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-10-13
Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. Here, semi-classical approaches are used to obtain a more intuitive feel for what causes electrostatics, and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. These intuitive arguments lead to a possible answer to the question of the nature of charge. Virtual photons, with a reduced wavelength of λ, are assumed to interact with isolated electrons with a cross section of πλ^{2}. This interaction is assumed to generate time-reversed virtual photons that are capable of seeking out and interacting with other electrons. This exchange of virtual photons between particles is assumed to generate and define the strength of electromagnetism. With the inclusion of near-field effects the model presented here gives a fine structure constant of ~1/137 and an anomalous magnetic moment of the electron of ~0.00116. These calculations support the possibility that near-field corrections are the key to understanding the numerical value of the dimensionless fine structure constant.
A low-temperature (4-300K) constant volume gas thermometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combarieu, A. de
1976-01-01
A constant volume gas thermometer was built to calibrate the various secondary thermometers used at low temperature. This gas thermometer is placed in a cryostat where any stable temperature between 4 and 300K may be obtained. The principle is outlined, then the gas thermometer and its auxiliary equipment are briefly described; the corrections to be applied to the results are given and a table shows the values obtained [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchbinder, I.L.; Odintsov, S.D.; Lichtzier, I.M.
1989-01-01
The question of the behaviour of effective coupling constants in one-loop 'finite' grand unification theories in curved spacetime is investigated. It is shown that in strong gravitational fields the effective coupling constant, corresponding to the parameter of non-minimal interaction of scalar and gravitational fields, tends to the conformal value or increases in an exponential fashion. The one-loop effective potential is obtained with accuracy to linear curvature terms. It is shown that, in external supergravity, supersymmetric finite theories admit asymptotic conformal invariance. (Author)
Luo, Chunyuan; Tong, Min; Maxwell, Donald M; Saxena, Ashima
2008-09-25
Non-human primates are valuable animal models that are used for the evaluation of nerve agent toxicity as well as antidotes and results from animal experiments are extrapolated to humans. It has been demonstrated that the efficacy of an oxime primarily depends on its ability to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). If the in vitro oxime reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited animal AChE is similar to that of human AChE, it is likely that the results of an in vivo animal study will reliably extrapolate to humans. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare the aging and reactivation of human and different monkey (Rhesus, Cynomolgus, and African Green) AChEs inhibited by GF, GD, and VR. The oximes examined include the traditional oxime 2-PAM, two H-oximes HI-6 and HLo-7, and the new candidate oxime MMB4. Results indicate that oxime reactivation of all three monkey AChEs was very similar to human AChE. The maximum difference in the second-order reactivation rate constant between human and three monkey AChEs or between AChEs from different monkey species was 5-fold. Aging rate constants of GF-, GD-, and VR-inhibited monkey AChEs were very similar to human AChE except for GF-inhibited monkey AChEs, which aged 2-3 times faster than the human enzyme. The results of this study suggest that all three monkey species are suitable animal models for nerve agent antidote evaluation since monkey AChEs possess similar biochemical/pharmacological properties to human AChE.
Constant load and constant displacement stress corrosion in simulated water reactor environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lloyd, G.J.
1987-02-01
The stress corrosion behaviour of selected water reactor constructional materials, as determined by constant load or constant displacement test techniques, is reviewed. Experimental results obtained using a very wide range of conditions have been collected in a form for easy reference. A discussion is given of some apparent trends in these data. The possible reasons for these trends are considered together with a discussion of how the observed discrepancies may be resolved. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Zhe Jay; Bongiorni, Paul; Nath, Ravinder
2010-01-01
Purpose: Although several dosimetric characterizations using Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) have been reported for the new Advantage Pd-103 source (IsoAid, LLC, Port Richey, FL), no AAPM consensus value has been established for the dosimetric parameters of the source. The aim of this work was to perform an additional dose-rate constant (Λ) determination using a recently established photon spectrometry technique (PST) that is independent of the published TLD and Monte Carlo techniques. Methods: Three Model IAPD-103A Advantage Pd-103 sources were used in this study. The relative photon energy spectrum emitted by each source along the transverse axis was measured using a high-resolution germanium spectrometer designed for low-energy photons. For each source, the dose-rate constant was determined from its emitted energy spectrum. The PST-determined dose-rate constant ( PST Λ) was then compared to those determined by TLD ( TLD Λ) and Monte Carlo ( MC Λ) techniques. A likely consensus Λ value was estimated as the arithmetic mean of the average Λ values determined by each of three different techniques. Results: The average PST Λ value for the three Advantage sources was found to be (0.676±0.026) cGyh -1 U -1 . Intersource variation in PST Λ was less than 0.01%. The PST Λ was within 2% of the reported MC Λ values determined by PTRAN, EGSnrc, and MCNP5 codes. It was 3.4% lower than the reported TLD Λ. A likely consensus Λ value was estimated to be (0.688±0.026) cGyh -1 U -1 , similar to the AAPM consensus values recommended currently for the Theragenics (Buford, GA) Model 200 (0.686±0.033) cGyh -1 U -1 , the NASI (Chatsworth, CA) Model MED3633 (0.688±0.033) cGyh -1 U -1 , and the Best Medical (Springfield, VA) Model 2335 (0.685±0.033) cGyh -1 U -1 103 Pd sources. Conclusions: An independent Λ determination has been performed for the Advantage Pd-103 source. The PST Λ obtained in this work provides additional information
Glucose consumption and rate constants for sup 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose in human gliomas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mukai, Takao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine
1990-06-01
To investigate the value of direct measurement of the rate constants by performing {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of glucose consumption in human gliomas in vivo, a kinetic method with 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models for FDG uptake was used to analyze data from dynamic scans obtained by positron emission tomography after injection of FDG into 14 patients with glioma. The results were compared with those obtained by the autoradiographic method using 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models. There were no significant differences in the glucose consumption calculated by the four different methods both in the gliomas and in the contralateral intact cortex. It was found that the rate constant k4 could be neglected in calculation of glucose consumption in gliomas as well as in the contralateral intact cortex. The rate constant k3, an index of hexokinase function, was higher in malignant gliomas than in benign gliomas and was close to that in the contralateral cortex. This study indicates that the 3-parameter autoradiographic method, which is the most common one used in clinical practice, is reliable for the calculation of glucose consumption in human gliomas. Furthermore, direct measurement of the regional rate constants for FDG by the kinetic method was found to be useful for evaluation of the biochemical and physiological characteristics of human gliomas in vivo. (author).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cerovic, Z G; Kalezic, R; Plesnicar, M
1982-01-01
Sulphur dioxide inhibits noncyclic photophosphorylation in isolated envelope-free chloroplasts. This inhibition was shown to be reversible and competitive with phosphate, with an inhibitor constant of K/sub i/ = 0.8 mM. The same inhibition characteristics were observed when phosphoglycerate (PGA)- or ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP)- dependent oxygen evolution was examined in a reconstituted chloroplast system in the presence of SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/. Using an ATP-regenerating system (phosphocreatine-creatine kinase), it was demonstrated that the inhibition of PGA-dependent oxygen evolution is solely the result of inhibited photophosphorylation. It is concluded that at low SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ concentrations the inhibition of photophosphorylation is responsible for the inhibition of photosynthetic oxygen evolution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maulina, Hervin; Santoso, Iman, E-mail: iman.santoso@ugm.ac.id; Subama, Emmistasega; Nurwantoro, Pekik; Abraha, Kamsul [DepartmenFisika, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara BLS 21 Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Rusydi, Andrivo [Physics Department, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)
2016-04-19
The extraction of the dielectric constant of nanostructured graphene on SiC substrates from spectroscopy ellipsometry measurement using the Gauss-Newton inversion (GNI) method has been done. This study aims to calculate the dielectric constant and refractive index of graphene by extracting the value of ψ and Δ from the spectroscopy ellipsometry measurement using GNI method and comparing them with previous result which was extracted using Drude-Lorentz (DL) model. The results show that GNI method can be used to calculate the dielectric constant and refractive index of nanostructured graphene on SiC substratesmore faster as compared to DL model. Moreover, the imaginary part of the dielectric constant values and coefficient of extinction drastically increases at 4.5 eV similar to that of extracted using known DL fitting. The increase is known due to the process of interband transition and the interaction between the electrons and electron-hole at M-points in the Brillouin zone of graphene.
Nonlinear perturbations of systems of partial differential equations with constant coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carmen J. Vanegas
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, we show the existence of solutions to boundary-value problems, consisting of nonlinear systems of partial differential equations with constant coefficients. For this purpose, we use the right inverse of an associated operator and a fix point argument. As illustrations, we apply this method to Helmholtz equations and to second order systems of elliptic equations.
Possible generalization of the method of evolution in the coupling constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belyaev, V.B.; Solovtsova, O.P.
1980-01-01
Two possible generalizations of the method of evolution in the coupling constant are presented. The consideration is given for a concrete case of the three-body problem: the πd scattering at the zeroth pion energy. It is shown that two approaches provide the value for the πd scattering length which is close to that obtained by solving the Faddeev equations [ru
How Precisely can we Determine the $\\piNN$ Coupling Constant from the Isovector GMO Sum Rule?
Loiseau, B; Thomas, A W
1999-01-01
The isovector GMO sum rule for zero energy forward pion-nucleon scattering iscritically studied to obtain the charged pion-nucleon coupling constant usingthe precise negatively charged pion-proton and pion-deuteron scattering lengthsdeduced recently from pionic atom experiments. This direct determination leadsto a pseudoscalar charged pion-nucleon coupling constant of 14.23 +- 0.09(statistic) +- 0.17 (systematic). We obtain also accurate values for thepion-nucleon scattering lengths.
Baumhardt, Jordan M.; Dorsey, Benjamin M.; McLauchlan, Craig C.; Jones, Marjorie A.
2015-01-01
Using wheat germ acid phosphatase and sodium orthovanadate as a competitive inhibitor, a novel method for analyzing reversible inhibition was carried out. Our alternative approach involves plotting the initial velocity at which product is formed as a function of the ratio of substrate concentration to inhibitor concentration at a constant enzyme concentration and constant assay conditions. The concept of initial concentrations driving equilibrium leads to the chosen axes. Three apparent const...
Construction of Lines of Constant Density and Constant Refractive Index for Ternary Liquid Mixtures.
Tasic, Aleksandar Z.; Djordjevic, Bojan D.
1983-01-01
Demonstrates construction of density constant and refractive index constant lines in triangular coordinate system on basis of systematic experimental determinations of density and refractive index for both homogeneous (single-phase) ternary liquid mixtures (of known composition) and the corresponding binary compositions. Background information,…
Test the principle of maximum entropy in constant sum 2×2 game: Evidence in experimental economics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Bin, E-mail: xubin211@zju.edu.cn [Experimental Social Science Laboratory, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Public Administration College, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhang, Hongen, E-mail: hongen777@163.com [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Wang, Zhijian, E-mail: wangzj@zju.edu.cn [Experimental Social Science Laboratory, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Zhang, Jianbo, E-mail: jbzhang08@zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)
2012-03-19
By using laboratory experimental data, we test the uncertainty of strategy type in various competing environments with two-person constant sum 2×2 game in the social system. It firstly shows that, in these competing game environments, the outcome of human's decision-making obeys the principle of the maximum entropy. -- Highlights: ► Test the uncertainty in two-person constant sum games with experimental data. ► On game level, the constant sum game fits the principle of maximum entropy. ► On group level, all empirical entropy values are close to theoretical maxima. ► The results can be different for the games that are not constant sum game.
Strong-coupling constant at three loops in momentum subtraction scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chetyrkin, K.G.; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Kniehl, B.A.; Steinhauser, M.
2008-12-01
In this paper we compute the three-loop corrections to the β function in a momentum subtraction (MOM) scheme with a massive quark. The calculation is performed in the background field formalism applying asymptotic expansions for small and large momenta. Special emphasis is devoted to the relation between the coupling constant in the MOM and MS schemes as well as their ability to describe the phenomenon of decoupling. It is demonstrated by an explicit comparison that the MS scheme can be consistently used to relate the values of the MOM-scheme strong-coupling constant in the energy regions higher and lower than the massive-quark production threshold. This procedure obviates the necessity to know the full mass dependence of the MOM β function and clearly demonstrates the equivalence of both schemes for the description of physics outside the threshold region. (orig.)
Strong-coupling constant at three loops in momentum subtraction scheme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chetyrkin, K.G. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.), Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik]|[Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.), Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik
2008-12-15
In this paper we compute the three-loop corrections to the {beta} function in a momentum subtraction (MOM) scheme with a massive quark. The calculation is performed in the background field formalism applying asymptotic expansions for small and large momenta. Special emphasis is devoted to the relation between the coupling constant in the MOM and MS schemes as well as their ability to describe the phenomenon of decoupling. It is demonstrated by an explicit comparison that the MS scheme can be consistently used to relate the values of the MOM-scheme strong-coupling constant in the energy regions higher and lower than the massive-quark production threshold. This procedure obviates the necessity to know the full mass dependence of the MOM {beta} function and clearly demonstrates the equivalence of both schemes for the description of physics outside the threshold region. (orig.)
3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: GN — Newton’s constant, and a dimensionless constant α. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that α is the fine structure constant ≈ 1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of α. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the “dark-matter” effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.
An analytic analysis of the pion decay constant in three-flavoured chiral perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ananthanarayan, B.; Ghosh, Shayan [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Bijnens, Johan [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden)
2017-07-15
A representation of the two-loop contribution to the pion decay constant in SU(3) chiral perturbation theory is presented. The result is analytic up to the contribution of the three (different) mass sunset integrals, for which an expansion in their external momentum has been taken. We also give an analytic expression for the two-loop contribution to the pion mass based on a renormalized representation and in terms of the physical eta mass. We find an expansion of F{sub π} and M{sub π}{sup 2} in the strange-quark mass in the isospin limit, and we perform the matching of the chiral SU(2) and SU(3) low-energy constants. A numerical analysis demonstrates the high accuracy of our representation, and the strong dependence of the pion decay constant upon the values of the low-energy constants, especially in the chiral limit. Finally, we present a simplified representation that is particularly suitable for fitting with available lattice data. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erpenbeck, J.J.
1987-01-01
We apply the so-called ''synthetic'' nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics method to the calculation of the self-diffusion constant of a Lennard-Jones fluid at a number density of 0.85/σ 3 and a temperature of 1.08 epsilon-c/k/sub B/ (where epsilon-c and σ are the energy and length parameters of the potential and k/sub B/ is the Boltzmann constant). By comparing with the Green-Kubo calculation for the same state of the system and for the same number of particles, N, we find the latter calculation to yield more precise values of the self-diffusion constant for a given number of molecular-dynamics time steps. Even at small values of the diffusion current, a nontrivial time is needed for the nonequilibrium calculation to reach the steady state. For larger values of the driving force, the steady-state flow appears to become unstable and evidence of a secondary flow pattern is presented. The presence of these instabilities acts as a limit to the range of the driving force for which the steady-state method can be applied. With increasing N the range of stable values of the diffusion current density decreases. For the Green-Kubo calculations, the N dependence of the self-diffusion constant is found to be anomalous for N = 108, with the 1/N dependence only exhibited for at least 500 particles. The nonequilibrium results, while approximately independent of N for 108 and 500 particles, are found to have a similar anomalous N dependence when we extend the calculations to 1372 particles, thereby bringing the Green-Kubo and nonequilibrium results into agreement in the large-system limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fee, J A; McClune, G J; Lees, A C [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Dept. of Biological Chemistry; Zidovetzki, R; Pecht, I [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Immunology
1981-01-01
Examination of the optical and EPR properties of the ferric form of the iron containing superoxide dismutase from E.coli B, at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 10.9, has revealed two reversible structural transitions affecting the Fe/sup 3 +/ ion. The apparent pKsub(a) values of these transitions are 5.1+-0.3 and 9.O+-0.3. The binding of azide has been studied over the pH range 4.5 to 10.7; the affinity of the Fe/sup 3 +/ for N/sub 3//sup -/ is independent of pH from 4.5 to approximately 7.5, after which the dissociation constant decreased by a factor of 10 per unit increase in pH. The apparent pKsub(a) which affects N/sub 3//sup -/ binding to the iron is 8.6+-0.2. The association of N/sub 3//sup -/ with the iron has been examined using the temperature-jump method at pH 7.4 and 9.3. The kinetics of ligand association were shown to conform to the minimal mechanism: P-Fe/sup 3 +/ + N/sub 3//sup -/reversible K/sub 1/N/sub 3//sup -/ - P-Fe/sup 3 +/reversible K/sub 2/P-Fe/sup 3 +/ - N/sub 3//sup -/. K/sub 1/ was found to be essentially unaffected by pH whereas K/sub 2/ was much lower at pH 9.3 than at 7.4. The value of K/sub 1/ at pH 7.4 (100 M/sup -1/) corresponds very closely to that obtained for the inhibition constant of azide, 10mM. A scheme is presented in which N/sub 3//sup -/ inhibits the iron containing dismutase by competing with O/sub 2//sup -/ for an anion binding site near, but not on the Fe/sup 3 +/.
Vibrational Averaging of the Isotropic Hyperfine Coupling Constants for the Methyl Radical
Adam, Ahmad; Jensen, Per; Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Sergei N.
2014-06-01
Electronic contributions to molecular properties are often considered as the major factor and usually reported in the literature without ro-vibrational corrections. However, there are many cases where the nuclear motion contributions are significant and even larger than the electronic contribution. In order to obtain accurate theoretical predictions, nuclear motion effects on molecular properties need to be taken into account. The computed isotropic hyperfine coupling constants for the nonvibrating methyl radical CH_3 are far from the experimental values. For CH_3, we have calculated the vibrational-state-dependence of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant in the electronic ground state. The vibrational wavefunctions used in the averaging procedure were obtained variationally with the TROVE program. Analytical representations for the potential energy surfaces and the hyperfine coupling constant surfaces are obtained in least-squares fitting procedures. Thermal averaging has been carried out for molecules in thermal equilibrium, i.e., with Boltzmann-distributed populations. The calculation methods and the results will be discussed in detail.
Increased Accuracy in the Measurement of the Dielectric Constant of Seawater at 1.413 GHz
Zhou, Y.; Lang R.; Drego, C.; Utku, C.; LeVine, D.
2012-01-01
This paper describes the latest results for the measurements of the dielectric constant at 1.413 GHz by using a resonant cavity technique. The purpose of these measurements is to develop an accurate relationship for the dependence of the dielectric constant of sea water on temperature and salinity which is needed by the Aquarius inversion algorithm to retrieve salinity. Aquarius is the major instrument on the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory, a NASA/CONAE satellite mission launched in June of20ll with the primary mission of measuring global sea surface salinity to an accuracy of 0.2 psu. Aquarius measures salinity with a 1.413 GHz radiometer and uses a scatterometer to compensate for the effects of surface roughness. The core part of the seawater dielectric constant measurement system is a brass microwave cavity that is resonant at 1.413 GHz. The seawater is introduced into the cavity through a capillary glass tube having an inner diameter of 0.1 mm. The change of resonance frequency and the cavity Q value are used to determine the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of seawater introduced into the thin tube. Measurements are automated with the help of software developed at the George Washington University. In this talk, new results from measurements made since September 2010 will be presented for salinities 30, 35 and 38 psu with a temperature range of O C to 350 C in intervals of 5 C. These measurements are more accurate than earlier measurements made in 2008 because of a new method for measuring the calibration constant using methanol. In addition, the variance of repeated seawater measurements has been reduced by letting the system stabilize overnight between temperature changes. The new results are compared to the Kline Swift and Meissner Wentz model functions. The importance of an accurate model function will be illustrated by using these model functions to invert the Aquarius brightness temperature to get the salinity values. The salinity values
Isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon coupling constant and the nucleon-nucleon scattering length
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Babenko
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Charge independence breaking (CIB in the pion-nucleon coupling constant and the nucleon-nucleon scattering length is considered on the basis of the Yukawa meson theory. CIB effect in these quantities is almost entirely explained by the mass difference between the charged and the neutral pions. Therewith charge splitting of the pion-nucleon coupling constant is almost the same as charge splitting of the pion mass. Calculated difference between the proton-proton and the neutron-proton scattering length in this case comprises ∼90% of the experimental value.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. D. Deosarkar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The proton-ligand stability constants of some biologically important new pyrazoles and formation constants of their complexes with Ni(II were determined at 0.1 mol dm-3 ionic strength and at 303.15 K in different dielectric constant of dioxane-water mixture by potentiometric method. The Calvin-Bjerrum's pH-titration technique as used by Irving and Rossotti was used for determination of stability constants. The results enabled to study the electrostatic forces of attraction between metal ion and ligand with changes in dielectric constant of the medium.
Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi
2013-01-01
Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus ( Hibiscus rosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P . solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai’s linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P . solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P . solenopsis . The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P . solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P . solenopsis on its host plants. PMID:24086597
Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi
2013-01-01
Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.
Minakata, Daisuke; Crittenden, John
2011-04-15
The hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) is a strong oxidant that reacts with electron-rich sites on organic compounds and initiates complex radical chain reactions in aqueous phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Computer based kinetic modeling requires a reaction pathway generator and predictions of associated reaction rate constants. Previously, we reported a reaction pathway generator that can enumerate the most important elementary reactions for aliphatic compounds. For the reaction rate constant predictor, we develop linear free energy relationships (LFERs) between aqueous phase literature-reported HO(•) reaction rate constants and theoretically calculated free energies of activation for H-atom abstraction from a C-H bond and HO(•) addition to alkenes. The theoretical method uses ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, Gaussian 1-3, for gas phase reactions and a solvation method, COSMO-RS theory, to estimate the impact of water. Theoretically calculated free energies of activation are found to be within approximately ±3 kcal/mol of experimental values. Considering errors that arise from quantum mechanical calculations and experiments, this should be within the acceptable errors. The established LFERs are used to predict the HO(•) reaction rate constants within a factor of 5 from the experimental values. This approach may be applied to other reaction mechanisms to establish a library of rate constant predictions for kinetic modeling of AOPs.
Effect of constant heat flux at outer cylinder on stability of viscous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, the stability of the Couette flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two concentric rotating cylinders is studied in the presence of a radial temperature gradient, when the outer cylinder is maintained at a constant heat flux. The analytical solution of the eigen-value problem is obtained by using the ...
Chhim, Norinda; Kharbachi, Chams; Neveux, Thibaut; Bouteleux, Céline; Teychené, Sébastien; Biscans, Béatrice
2017-08-01
The cooling circuits used in power plants are subject to mineral crystallization which can cause scaling on the surfaces of equipment and construction materials reducing their heat exchange efficiency. Precipitated calcium carbonate is the predominant mineral scale commonly observed in cooling systems. Supersaturation is the key parameter controlling the nucleation and growth of calcite in these systems. The present work focuses on the precipitation of calcite using the constant composition method at constant supersaturation, through controlled addition of reactants to a semi-batch crystallizer, in order to maintain constant solution pH. The determination of the thermodynamic driving force (supersaturation) was based on the relevant chemical equilibria, total alkalinity and calculation of the activity coefficients. Calcite crystallization rates were derived from the experiments performed at supersaturation levels similar to those found in industrial station cooling circuits. Several types of seeds particles were added into the aqueous solution to mimic natural river water conditions in terms of suspended particulate matters content, typically: calcite, silica or illite particles. The effect of citric and copolycarboxylic additive inhibitors added to the aqueous solution was studied. The calcium carbonate growth rate was reduced by 38.6% in the presence of the citric additive and a reduction of 92.7% was observed when the copolycarboxylic additive was used under identical experimental conditions. These results are explained by the location of the adsorbed inhibitor at the crystal surface and by the degree of chemical bonding to the surface.
On the constant-roll inflation
Yi, Zhu; Gong, Yungui
2018-03-01
The primordial power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations during slow-roll inflation are usually calculated with the method of Bessel function approximation. For constant-roll or ultra slow-roll inflation, the method of Bessel function approximation may be invalid. We compare the numerical results with the analytical results derived from the Bessel function approximation, and we find that they differ significantly on super-horizon scales if the constant slow-roll parameter ηH is not small. More accurate method is needed for calculating the primordial power spectrum for constant-roll inflation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basu, Niladri; Stamler, Christopher J.; Loua, Kovana Marcel; Chan, H.M.
2005-01-01
Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous pollutant that can disrupt neurochemical signaling pathways in mammals. It is well documented that inorganic Hg (HgCl 2 ) and methyl Hg (MeHg) can inhibit the binding of radioligands to the muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor in rat brains. However, little is known concerning this relationship in specific anatomical regions of the brain or in other species, including humans. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory effects of HgCl 2 and MeHg on [ 3 H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([ 3 H]-QNB) binding to the mACh receptor in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex regions from human, rat, mouse, mink, and river otter brain tissues. Saturation binding curves were obtained from each sample to calculate receptor density (B max ) and ligand affinity (K d ). Subsequently, samples were exposed to HgCl 2 or MeHg to derive IC50 values and inhibition constants (K i ). Results demonstrate that HgCl 2 is a more potent inhibitor of mACh receptor binding than MeHg, and the receptors in the cerebellum are more sensitive to Hg-mediated mACh receptor inhibition than those in the cerebral cortex. Species sensitivities, irrespective of Hg type and brain region, can be ranked from most to least sensitive: river otter > rat > mink > mouse > humans. In summary, our data demonstrate that Hg can inhibit the binding [ 3 H]-QNB to the mACh receptor in a range of mammalian species. This comparative study provides data on interspecies differences and a framework for interpreting results from human, murine, and wildlife studies
New constraints on variations of the fine structure constant from CMB anisotropies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menegoni, Eloisa; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Galli, Silvia; Bartlett, James G.; Martins, C. J. A. P.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that recent measurements of cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy made by the ACBAR, QUAD, and BICEP experiments substantially improve the cosmological constraints on possible variations of the fine structure constant in the early universe. This data, combined with the five year observations from the WMAP mission, yield the constraint α/α 0 =0.987±0.012 at 68% C.L. The inclusion of the new Hubble Space Telescope constraints on the Hubble constant further increases the accuracy to α/α 0 =1.001±0.007 at 68% C.L., bringing possible deviations from the current value below the 1% level and improving previous constraints by a factor of ∼3.
The fundamental constants a mystery of physics
Fritzsch, Harald
2009-01-01
The speed of light, the fine structure constant, and Newton's constant of gravity — these are just three among the many physical constants that define our picture of the world. Where do they come from? Are they constant in time and across space? In this book, physicist and author Harald Fritzsch invites the reader to explore the mystery of the fundamental constants of physics in the company of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and a modern-day physicist
Constraints on the gravitational constant from observations of white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blinnikov, S.I.
1978-01-01
Recently some authors have questioned whether Newton's law of gravitation is actually true on scales less than 1 km. The available constraints on the gravitational constant show that its laboratory value G 0 may differ from the value at infinity Gsub(infinity) by approximately 40%. Long (1976) reported experimental evidence for departures from Newton's law. In this note it is shown that the difference between G 0 and Gsub(infinity) modifies the mass-radius relation of degenerate stars. The observations of white dwarfs are consistent with the theory of stellar evolution only if G 0 differs from Gsub(infinity) by not more than approximately 10%. This estimate may be improved by a higher accuracy of observations. (Auth.)
Kohyama, Sumihiro; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Satoru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Hirayama-Shoji, Kayoko; Tsukagoshi, Takuya; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Shimoyama, Isao
2018-04-01
This paper reports on a method to measure a spring constant on site using a micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) force and displacement sensor. The proposed sensor consists of a force-sensing cantilever and a displacement-sensing cantilever. Each cantilever is composed of two beams with a piezoresistor on the sidewall for measuring the in-plane lateral directional force and displacement. The force resolution and displacement resolution of the fabricated sensor were less than 0.8 µN and 0.1 µm, respectively. We measured the spring constants of two types of hydrogel microparticles to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sensor, with values of approximately 4.3 N m-1 and 15.1 N m-1 obtained. The results indicated that the proposed sensor is effective for on-site spring constant measurement.
Relaxing the cosmological constant: a proof of concept
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alberte, Lasma [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Trieste,Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Creminelli, Paolo; Khmelnitsky, Andrei [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Pirtskhalava, David [Institute of Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne,CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Pisa,56200, Pisa (Italy)
2016-12-06
We propose a technically natural scenario whereby an initially large cosmological constant (c.c.) is relaxed down to the observed value due to the dynamics of a scalar evolving on a very shallow potential. The model crucially relies on a sector that violates the null energy condition (NEC) and gets activated only when the Hubble rate becomes sufficiently small — of the order of the present one. As a result of NEC violation, this low-energy universe evolves into inflation, followed by reheating and the standard Big Bang cosmology. The symmetries of the theory force the c.c. to be the same before and after the NEC-violating phase, so that a late-time observer sees an effective c.c. of the correct magnitude. Importantly, our model allows neither for eternal inflation nor for a set of possible values of dark energy, the latter fixed by the parameters of the theory.
Freezing of the QCD coupling constant and the pion form factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilar, A.C.; Mihara, A.; Natale, A.A.
2003-01-01
The possibility that the QCD coupling constant (α s ) has an infrared finite behavior (freezing) has been extensively studied in recent years. We compare phenomenological values of the 'frozen' the QCD running coupling between different classes of solutions obtained through non-perturbative Schwinger-Dyson Equations. With these solutions were computed QCD predictions for the asymptotic pion form factor which, in turn, were compared with experiment. (author)
The rate constant for the CO + H2O2 reaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul
2009-01-01
The rate constant for the reaction CO + H2O2 -> HOCO + OH (R1) at 713 K is determined based on the batch reactor experiments of Baldwin et al. [ R. R. Baldwin, R. W. Walker, S. J. Webster, Combust. Flame 15 (1970) 167] on decomposition of H2O2 sensitized by CO. The value, k(1) (713 K) = 8.1 x 10...
Restrictions on the masses and coupling constants of excited intermediate bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaidalov, A.B.; Nogteva, A.V.
1985-01-01
The properties of the intermediate bosons are discussed in the framework of composite models which include not only the W +- and Z 0 bosons but also their excited states with large masses. The influence of the excited states on the values of the masses of the W +- and Z 0 bosons is investigated. Restrictions on the masses and coupling constants of the excited intermediate bosons are obtained
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Sugimachi, Keizo; Ohno, Shinji; Mori, Masaki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Maehara, Yoshihiko
1989-01-01
Hyperthermia combined with irradiation and chemotherapy was prescribed for patients with resectable (n=88) and unresectable (n=36) carcinoma of the esophagus. The histopathological effectiveness, and the long term results were compared between two groups of patients treated with hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy (HCR therapy) and those treated with chemoradiotherapy (CR therapy). A correlation between the hyperthermia sensitivity test, using the in vitro succinate dehydrogenase inhibition test, and the clinical remedial value was also examined in malignant tissues from 47 patients with esophageal cancer, and treated with HCR therapy. In the resected cases, preoperative HCR therapy resulted in a significantly higher histopathological effectiveness rate (69%) compared with that in cases treated by CR therapy (48%) (P<0.05). The long term results of patients with both resectable and unresectable carcinoma, given HCR therapy were significanly better than those given CR therapy (P<0.05). On the other hand, the clinical remedial value, determined radiographically showed a correlation rate of 77% to the hyperthermia sensitivity test. Thus, the HCR therapy resulted in not only a higher histopathological effectiveness rate but also a significantly longer survival without severe side effects, and this hyperthermia sensitivity test using the succinate dehydrogenase inhibition test facilitates prediction of the outcome of the HCR therapy. (author)
Momida, Hiroyoshi; Oguchi, Tamio
2018-04-01
Longitudinal piezoelectric constant (e 33) values of wurtzite materials, which are listed in a structure database, are calculated and analyzed by using first-principles and statistical learning methods. It is theoretically shown that wurtzite materials with high e 33 generally have small lattice constant ratios (c/a) almost independent of constituent elements, and approximately expressed as e 33 ∝ c/a - (c/a)0 with ideal lattice constant ratio (c/a)0. This relation also holds for highly-piezoelectric ternary materials such as Sc x Al1- x N. We conducted a search for high-piezoelectric wurtzite materials by identifying materials with smaller c/a values. It is proposed that the piezoelectricity of ZnO can be significantly enhanced by substitutions of Zn with Ca.
Pouplana, R.; Pérez, C.; Sánchez, J.; Lozano, J. J.; Puig-Parellada, P.
1999-05-01
PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 are the targets of nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It appears that the high degree of selectivity for inhibition of PGHS-2 shown by certain compounds is the result of two mechanisms (time-dependent and time-independent inhibition), by which they interact with each isoform. The fenamic acids can be divided into competitive inhibitors of substrate binding and competitive inhibitors that cause time-dependent losses of cyclooxygenase activity. The cyclooxygenase activity was measured by oxygen consumption following preincubation of the enzyme and the inhibitor for increasing periods of time. The rate constants associated with binding inhibition kinetics and structure-activity relationships were calculated for a large number of fenamates, diclofenac and indomethacin. The KI* values are similar but the individual rate constants are markedly different: KI is two-fold lower, and k2 is six-fold slower for diclofenac than for indomethacin. All the active time-dependent compounds show MEPs with a negative conical surface, with their vertex on the minimum of the carboxyl group, which extends around the first aromatic ring to the central region. The conical surface keeps an open angle of 61° or larger, and a close contact surface with the residues Ala527, Ileu523, Val349, and Ser530, in the zones surrounding the bridging amino group and the chlorine atoms for meclofenamate and diclofenac, or in the region around the carbonyl group for indomethacin. The KI* and IC50 values indicate that the interactions that promote the slow binding kinetics must be examined in relation to the reaction energies of formation (ΔHr) of an ionic bond between the deprotonated carboxylic acid group of acid NSAIDs with the monocationic guanidinum group of Arg120, the free energies of solvation in aqueous solution, and the molecular volumes measured. Presumably indomethacin, diclofenac and meclofenamate cause the enzyme to undergo a subtle conformational change to a
Ultrasonic Determination of the Elastic Constants of Epoxy-natural Fiber Composites
Valencia, C. A. Meza; Pazos-Ospina, J. F.; Franco, E. E.; Ealo, Joao L.; Collazos-Burbano, D. A.; Garcia, G. F. Casanova
This paper shows the applications ultrasonic through-transmission technique to determine the elastic constants of two polymer-natural fiber composite materials with potential industrial application and economic and environmental advantages. The transversely isotropic coconut-epoxy and fique-epoxy samples were analyzed using an experimental setup which allows the sample to be rotated with respect to transducers faces and measures the time-of-flight at different angles of incidence. Then, the elastic properties of the material were obtained by fitting the experimental data to the Christoffel equation. Results show a good agreement between the measured elastic constants and the values predicted by an analytical model. The velocities as a function of the incidence angle are reported and the effect of the natural fiber on the stiffness of the composite is discussed.
Caffeine Inhibits Acetylcholinesterase, But Not Butyrylcholinesterase
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Dobes
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Caffeine is an alkaloid with a stimulant effect in the body. It can interfere in transmissions based on acetylcholine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and glutamate. Clinical studies indicate that it can be involved in the slowing of Alzheimer disease pathology and some other effects. The effects are not well understood. In the present work, we focused on the question whether caffeine can inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE and/or, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, the two enzymes participating in cholinergic neurotransmission. A standard Ellman test with human AChE and BChE was done for altering concentrations of caffeine. The test was supported by an in silico examination as well. Donepezil and tacrine were used as standards. In compliance with Dixon’s plot, caffeine was proved to be a non-competitive inhibitor of AChE and BChE. However, inhibition of BChE was quite weak, as the inhibition constant, Ki, was 13.9 ± 7.4 mol/L. Inhibition of AChE was more relevant, as Ki was found to be 175 ± 9 µmol/L. The predicted free energy of binding was −6.7 kcal/mol. The proposed binding orientation of caffeine can interact with Trp86, and it can be stabilize by Tyr337 in comparison to the smaller Ala328 in the case of human BChE; thus, it can explain the lower binding affinity of caffeine for BChE with reference to AChE. The biological relevance of the findings is discussed.
McGhie, A. A.; Marquina, C.; O'Grady, K.; Vallejo-Fernandez, G.
2017-11-01
In this work, we have applied theoretical calculations to new experimental measurements of the effect of the anisotropy distribution in magnetite nanoparticles, which in turn controls hysteresis heating for hyperthermia applications. Good agreement between theory and experiment is reported where the theoretical calculation is based upon the detailed measurement of the particle elongation generally observed in the nanoparticles. The elongation has been measured from studies via transmission electron microscopy. We find that particle elongation is responsible for the anisotropy dispersion, which can be obtained by analysis and fitting to a measurement of the temperature decay of remanence. A median value of the anisotropy constant of 1.5 × 105 erg/cc was obtained. A very wide distribution of anisotropy constants is present with a Gaussian standard deviation of 1.5 × 105 erg/cc. From our measurements, deviations in the value of the saturation magnetisation from particle to particle are most likely the main factor giving rise to this large distribution, with 33% arising from the error in the measured elongation. The lower limit to the anisotropy constant of the nanoparticles is determined by the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the material, 1.1 × 105 erg/cc for magnetite, which was studied in this work.
Aspergillus ficuum phytase activity is inhibited by cereal grain components.
Bekalu, Zelalem Eshetu; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik
2017-01-01
In the current study, we report for the first time that grain components of barley, rice, wheat and maize can inhibit the activity of Aspergillus ficuum phytase. The phytase inhibition is dose dependent and varies significantly between cereal species, between cultivars of barley and cultivars of wheat and between Fusarium graminearum infected and non-infected wheat grains. The highest endpoint level of phytase activity inhibition was 90%, observed with grain protein extracts (GPE) from F. graminearum infected wheat. Wheat GPE from grains infected with F. graminearum inhibits phytase activity significantly more than GPE from non-infected grains. For four barley cultivars studied, the IC50 value ranged from 0.978 ± 0.271 to 3.616 ± 0.087 mg×ml-1. For two non-infected wheat cultivars investigated, the IC50 values were varying from 2.478 ± 0.114 to 3.038 ± 0.097 mg×ml-1. The maize and rice cultivars tested gaveIC50 values on 0.983 ± 0.205 and 1.972 ± 0.019 mg×ml-1, respectively. After purifying the inhibitor from barley grains via Superdex G200, an approximately 30-35 kDa protein was identified. No clear trend for the mechanism of inhibition could be identified via Michaelis-Menten kinetics and Lineweaver-Burk plots. However, testing of the purified phytase inhibitor together with the A. ficuum phytase and the specific protease inhibitors pepstatin A, E64, EDTA and PMSF revealed that pepstatin A repealed the phytase inhibition. This indicates that the observed inhibition of A. ficuum phytase by cereal grain extracts is caused by protease activity of the aspartic proteinase type.
Landsgesell, Jonas; Holm, Christian; Smiatek, Jens
2017-03-01
The reaction ensemble and the constant pH method are well-known chemical equilibrium approaches to simulate protonation and deprotonation reactions in classical molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. In this article, we demonstrate the similarity between both methods under certain conditions. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of a weak polyelectrolyte in order to compare the titration curves obtained by both approaches. Our findings reveal a good agreement between the methods when the reaction ensemble is used to sweep the reaction constant. Pronounced differences between the reaction ensemble and the constant pH method can be observed for stronger acids and bases in terms of adaptive pH values. These deviations are due to the presence of explicit protons in the reaction ensemble method which induce a screening of electrostatic interactions between the charged titrable groups of the polyelectrolyte. The outcomes of our simulation hint to a better applicability of the reaction ensemble method for systems in confined geometries and titrable groups in polyelectrolytes with different pKa values.
Degravitation, inflation and the cosmological constant as an afterglow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patil, Subodh P.
2009-01-01
In this report, we adopt the phenomenological approach of taking the degravitation paradigm seriously as a consistent modification of gravity in the IR, and investigate its consequences for various cosmological situations. We motivate degravitation — where Netwon's constant is promoted to a scale dependent filter function — as arising from either a small (resonant) mass for the graviton, or as an effect in semi-classical gravity. After addressing how the Bianchi identities are to be satisfied in such a set up, we turn our attention towards the cosmological consequences of degravitation. By considering the example filter function corresponding to a resonantly massive graviton (with a filter scale larger than the present horizon scale), we show that slow roll inflation, hybrid inflation and old inflation remain quantitatively unchanged. We also find that the degravitation mechanism inherits a memory of past energy densities in the present epoch in such a way that is likely significant for present cosmological evolution. For example, if the universe underwent inflation in the past due to it having tunneled out of some false vacuum, we find that degravitation implies a remnant 'afterglow' cosmological constant, whose scale immediately afterwards is parametrically suppressed by the filter scale (L) in Planck units Λ ∼ l 2 pl /L 2 . We discuss circumstances through which this scenario reasonably yields the presently observed value for Λ ∼ O(10 −120 ). We also find that in a universe still currently trapped in some false vacuum state, resonance graviton models of degravitation only degravitate initially Planck or GUT scale energy densities down to the presently observed value over timescales comparable to the filter scale. We argue that different functional forms for the filter function will yield similar conclusions. In this way, we argue that although the degravitation models we study have the potential to explain why the cosmological constant is not large
Spectrophotometric determination of association constant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2016-01-01
Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charge...
Bending force constant of gamma-ray irradiated NaNO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwun, S.I.; Allavena, M.
1976-01-01
The origin of the new peak appearing near the ν 2 i.r. absorption band of the NO 2 - group in γ-ray irradiated NaNO 2 ferroelectric crystal is explained by using a model which assumes that some of the Na + ions are displaced from their original sites after irradiation, perturbing the vibrational motion of NO 2 - . In this framework, the bending force constant of the perturbed NO 2 - group is calculated using a modified version of the CNDO/2 method, which can take into account the environmental effects on the local crystal site considered. The values of the bending force constant of virginal and irradiated NaNO 2 obtained are 1.19 md/A and 1.27 md/A respectively. The vibrational bending mode of the perturbed NO 2 - groups seems responsible for the additional i.r. absorption band observed experimentally at 835 cm -1 . (author)
Constant strength fuel-fuel cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaseen, V.A.
1980-01-01
A fuel cell is an electrochemical apparatus composed of both a nonconsumable anode and cathode; and electrolyte, fuel oxidant and controls. This invention guarantees the constant transfer of hydrogen atoms and their respective electrons, thus a constant flow of power by submergence of the negative electrode in a constant strength hydrogen furnishing fuel; when said fuel is an aqueous absorbed hydrocarbon, such as and similar to ethanol or methnol. The objective is accomplished by recirculation of the liquid fuel, as depleted in the cell through specific type membranes which pass water molecules and reject the fuel molecules; thus concentrating them for recycle use
Determination of prompt neutron decay constant of the AP-600 reactor core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surbakti, T.
1998-01-01
Determination of prompt neutron decay constant of the AP-600 reactor core has been performed using combination of two codes WIMS/D4 and Batan-2DIFF. The calculation was done at beginning of cycle and all of control rods pulled out. Cell generation from various kinds of core materials was done with 4 neutron energy group in 1-D transport code (WIMS/D4). The cell is considered for 1/4 fuel assembly in cluster model with square pitch arrange and then, the dimension of its unit cell is calculated. The unit cell consist of a fuel and moderator unit. The unit cell dimension as input data of WIMS/D4 code, called it annulus, is obtained from the equivalent unit cell. Macroscopic cross sections as output was used as input on neutron diffusion code Batan-2DIFF for core calculation as appropriate with three enrichment regions of the fuel of AP-600 core, namely 2, 2.5, and 3%. From result of diffusion code ( Batan-2DIFF) is obtained the value of delayed neutron fraction of 6.932E-03 and average prompt neutron life-time of 26.38 μs, so that the value of prompt neutron decay constant is 262.8 s-1. If it is compared the calculation result with the design value, the deviation are, for the design value of delayed neutron fraction is 7.5E-03, about 8% and the design value of average prompt neutron life time is 19.6 μs, about 34% respectively. The deviation because there are still unknown several core components of AP-600, so it didn't include in calculation yet
Measurement of small dispersion values in optical components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peucheret, Christophe; Liu, Fenghai; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud
1999-01-01
It is reported that small dispersion values in optical components can be measured using the RF modulation method originally restricted to large dispersions. Using a constant dispersion offset, arbitrarily small dispersion values can be measured with a resolution as good as 1.2 ps/nm....
Klotz, Elsbeth; Doyle, Robert; Gross, Erin; Mattson, Bruce
2011-01-01
A simple, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly undergraduate laboratory experiment is described in which students use visible spectroscopy to determine a numerical value for an equilibrium constant, K[subscript c]. The experiment correlates well with the lecture topic of equilibrium even though the subject of the study is an acid-base…
Measurements of natural frequency and damping constant of single steam bubble oscillating in water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morioka, Mikio
1983-01-01
The natural frequency fsub(n) and damping constant delta of a bubble in liquid have been determined by observing the resonance of the bubble to forced oscillation. The bubble was retained under a rigid plate horizontal disk, and the oscillation was applied by underwater speaker. The applied frequency f was kept constant while letting the bubble increase its volume and vary its radius R. Bubble resonance was detected by observing wrinkles appearing on the bubble due to surface waves. Resonance curves relating the amplitude of bubble radius variation to the intensity of applied oscillation is derived theoretically. Good agreement was seen between the data obtained from experiment and the theoretically derived resonance curves at test to the validity of the method proposed of determining fsub(n) and delta from bubble resonance. The values of delta and of the resonant bubble radius R 0 of large steam bubbles (8.5mm< R<11.5mm) in water were determined at f=270, 290 and 358 Hz. The results support the assumption that for large bubbles the value of fsub(n) is little influenced by the exchange of mass between liquid and gaseous phases through evaporation and condensation accompanying bubble pressure oscillation. On the other hand, delta is found to be one order of magnitude higher than calculated for steam bubbles without taking into evaporation and condensation the interphase exchange of mass. The effect brought on delta by the interphase mass exchange can be taken into account by adding a new constant deltasub(ph) to the terms constituting the total damping constant. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersen, M.; Nir, S.; Heller, J.M. Jr.; Painter, L.R.
1978-01-01
The optical constants, n and k, of solutions of lecithin, cholesterol, and fucose and of the solvent chloroform were measured for the spectral region 1348 to 6407 A by a reflectance method. Absorption peaks were found in chloroform at about 1393 and 1631 A and were attributed, respectively, to sigma → sigma/sup */ electron transitions at the C--H and C--Cl bonds and an n → sigma/sup */ electron transition at the C--Cl bond. A procedure for the determination of the optical constants of a solute from those of the solution and solvent is developed and applied. The procedure is also applied to calculate the optical constants of a solution from those of the components. From the values of the optical constants, dispersion equation parameters and van der Waals parameters were calculated for the compounds. The static electronic polarizabilities of the substances studies were found to depend little (less than 6%) on the concentration of solution used in the measurement. Values of polarizabilities obtained agreed closely with those obtained by the addition of bond polarizabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lertnaisat, Phantira; Katsumura, Yosuke; Mukai, Satoru; Umehara, Ryuji; Shimizu, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masaru
2012-09-01
It is known that α-radiolysis of water produces H 2 gas continuously. The addition of H 2 to water inhibits the water decomposition; H 2 evolution. In order to suppress the water decomposition, 25 cc H 2 STP/kg-H 2 O is added to the coolant water in PWR. However, the exact inhibition mechanism is still not made clear yet. In this project, the chemical kinetic simulation program, so called FASCIMILE, was used to reproduce the suppression of α-radiolysis of water by H 2 addition. By using three important factors; the decomposition (G-value), the reaction set and rate constants, and the dose rate, it is found that without hydrogen addition, the simulation shows the almost linear increase of molecular products; H 2 , H 2 O 2 , and O 2 . Nevertheless, as the additional hydrogen is added to the system, this behaviour of linear increase is shifted to longer time period. And up to certain concentration, the linear increase behaviour is completely suppressed and the molecular products reach the steady state condition at early time period and much lower concentration. The minimum concentration of H 2 which could completely suppress the decomposition of water is called Critical Hydrogen Concentration (CHC) and it is dose rate dependent value. The CHC is found to be dependent on the reaction set and rate constants. The simulation results show that the CHC at room temperature and dose rate of 1 kGy/s of the simulation done by using reaction set and rate constants obtained from Ershov et al. and AECL report 2009 are 165μM and 146 μM, respectively. From the change of the behaviour of molecular products after reaching the CHC, the possible mechanism is proposed. First, the OH radical are formed via the reaction of H + H 2 O 2 → OH + H 2 O and e - aq + H 2 O 2 → OH+OH - . Then OH, which normally will react with H 2 O 2 to produced HO 2 , will react with the additional H 2 , which produce H to continue the chain reaction. The relation of chain reaction to the suppression of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Zhe Jay; Bongiorni, Paul; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)
2010-02-15
Purpose: Although several dosimetric characterizations using Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) have been reported for the new Advantage Pd-103 source (IsoAid, LLC, Port Richey, FL), no AAPM consensus value has been established for the dosimetric parameters of the source. The aim of this work was to perform an additional dose-rate constant ({Lambda}) determination using a recently established photon spectrometry technique (PST) that is independent of the published TLD and Monte Carlo techniques. Methods: Three Model IAPD-103A Advantage Pd-103 sources were used in this study. The relative photon energy spectrum emitted by each source along the transverse axis was measured using a high-resolution germanium spectrometer designed for low-energy photons. For each source, the dose-rate constant was determined from its emitted energy spectrum. The PST-determined dose-rate constant ({sub PST}{Lambda}) was then compared to those determined by TLD ({sub TLD}{Lambda}) and Monte Carlo ({sub MC}{Lambda}) techniques. A likely consensus {Lambda} value was estimated as the arithmetic mean of the average {Lambda} values determined by each of three different techniques. Results: The average {sub PST}{Lambda} value for the three Advantage sources was found to be (0.676{+-}0.026) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}. Intersource variation in {sub PST}{Lambda} was less than 0.01%. The {sub PST}{Lambda} was within 2% of the reported {sub MC}{Lambda} values determined by PTRAN, EGSnrc, and MCNP5 codes. It was 3.4% lower than the reported {sub TLD}{Lambda}. A likely consensus {Lambda} value was estimated to be (0.688{+-}0.026) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, similar to the AAPM consensus values recommended currently for the Theragenics (Buford, GA) Model 200 (0.686{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, the NASI (Chatsworth, CA) Model MED3633 (0.688{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, and the Best Medical (Springfield, VA) Model 2335 (0.685{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1} {sup 103}Pd
Constant exposure technique in industrial radiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domanus, J.C.
1983-08-01
The principles and advantages of the constant exposure technique are explained. Choice of exposure factors is analyzed. Film, paper and intensifying screens used throughout the investigation and film and paper processing are described. Exposure technique and the use of image quality indicators are given. Methods of determining of radiographic image quality are presented. Conclusions about the use of constant exposure vs. constant kilovoltage technique are formulated. (author)
Radiographic constant exposure technique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw
1985-01-01
The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...
Estimation of optical constants of a bio-thin layer (onion epidermis), using SPR spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehman, Saif-ur-; Hayashi, Shinji; Sekkat, Zouheir; Mumtaz, Huma; Shaukat, S F
2014-01-01
We estimate the optical constants of a biological thin layer (Allium cepa) by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. For this study, the fresh inner thin epidermis of an onion bulb was used and stacked directly on gold (Au) and silver (Ag) film surfaces in order to identify the shift in SPR mode of each metal film at an operating wavelength of 632.8 nm. The thickness and dielectric constants of the biological thin layer were determined by matching the experimental SPR curves to theoretical ones. The thickness and roughness of bare Au and Ag thin films were also measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM); the results of which are in good agreement with those obtained through experiment. Due to the high surface roughness of the natural onion epidermis layer, AFM could not measure the exact thickness of an onion epidermis. It is estimated that the value of the real part of the dielectric constant of an onion epidermis is between the dielectric constants of water and air. (paper)
Constant-roll tachyon inflation and observational constraints
Gao, Qing; Gong, Yungui; Fei, Qin
2018-05-01
For the constant-roll tachyon inflation, we derive the analytical expressions for the scalar and tensor power spectra, the scalar and tensor spectral tilts and the tensor to scalar ratio to the first order of epsilon1 by using the method of Bessel function approximation. The derived ns-r results are compared with the observations, we find that only the constant-roll inflation with ηH being a constant is consistent with the observations and observations constrain the constant-roll inflation to be slow-roll inflation. The tachyon potential is also reconstructed for the constant-roll inflation which is consistent with the observations.
Arnold, William A; Oueis, Yan; O'Connor, Meghan; Rinaman, Johanna E; Taggart, Miranda G; McCarthy, Rachel E; Foster, Kimberley A; Latch, Douglas E
2017-03-22
Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for prediction of the reaction rate constants of phenols and phenolates with three photochemically produced oxidants, singlet oxygen, carbonate radical, and triplet excited state sensitizers/organic matter, are developed. The predictive variable is the one-electron oxidation potential (E 1 ), which is calculated for each species using density functional theory. The reaction rate constants are obtained from the literature, and for singlet oxygen, are augmented with new experimental data. Calculated E 1 values have a mean unsigned error compared to literature values of 0.04-0.06 V. For singlet oxygen, a single linear QSAR that includes both phenols and phenolates is developed that predicts experimental rate constants, on average, to within a factor of three. Predictions for only 6 out of 87 compounds are off by more than a factor of 10. A more limited data set for carbonate radical reactions with phenols and phenolates also gives a single linear QSAR with prediction of rate constant being accurate to within a factor of three. The data for the reactions of phenols with triplet state sensitizers demonstrate that two sensitizers, 2-acetonaphthone and methylene blue, most closely predict the reactivity trend of triplet excited state organic matter with phenols. Using sensitizers with stronger reduction potentials could lead to overestimation of rate constants and thus underestimation of phenolic pollutant persistence.
$K^{\\pm}n$ forward dispersion relations and the KN$\\Sigma$ coupling constant
Baillon, Paul; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Jenni, Peter; Perreau, J M; Tripp, R D; Ypsilantis, Thomas; Déclais, Y; Séguinot, Jacques
1976-01-01
Recent measurements of the K/sup -/n forward scattering amplitude at 1.2, 1.4, 2.6 GeV/c are used in a once-subtracted dispersion relation to determine the value of the KN Sigma coupling constant. The result is g/sub Sigma //sup 2/=1.9+or-3.2, in agreement with the prediction of the SU(3) theory.
Graviton fluctuations erase the cosmological constant
Wetterich, C.
2017-10-01
Graviton fluctuations induce strong non-perturbative infrared renormalization effects for the cosmological constant. The functional renormalization flow drives a positive cosmological constant towards zero, solving the cosmological constant problem without the need to tune parameters. We propose a simple computation of the graviton contribution to the flow of the effective potential for scalar fields. Within variable gravity, with effective Planck mass proportional to the scalar field, we find that the potential increases asymptotically at most quadratically with the scalar field. The solutions of the derived cosmological equations lead to an asymptotically vanishing cosmological "constant" in the infinite future, providing for dynamical dark energy in the present cosmological epoch. Beyond a solution of the cosmological constant problem, our simplified computation also entails a sizeable positive graviton-induced anomalous dimension for the quartic Higgs coupling in the ultraviolet regime, substantiating the successful prediction of the Higgs boson mass within the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity.
Solubility and first hydrolysis constants of europium at different ionic strength and 303 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramirez-Garcia, J.J.; Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Lopez-Gonzalez, H.; Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa Univ., Mexico City; Solache-Rios, M.; Fernandez-Ramirez, E.; Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, Toluca; Rojas-Hernandez, A.
2003-01-01
The solubility of europium at 0.02M, 0.1M and 0.7M NaClO 4 ionic strength solutions was determined by a radiometric method and pEu s -pC H diagrams were obtained. Hydrolysis constants were also determined at the same ionic strengths by pH titration and the values found were log *β 1 -7.68±0.11, -8.07±0.10 and -8.20±0.11. The log K sp values were -23.5±0.2, -22.7±0.2 and -21.9±0.2 for 0.02M, 0.1M and 0.7M NaClO 4 ionic strengths, respectively, at 303 K under CO 2 -free conditions and the extrapolated value at zero ionic strength was log K sp 0 = -24.15. The working pC H ranges for the calculation of the hydrolysis constants were selected from the pEu s -pC H diagrams in the region where precipitation of europium oxide or hydroxide was less than 20%. Europium removal from aqueous solutions with zeolites was explored. (author)
Shindey, Radhika; Varma, Vishwanath; Nikhil, K. L.; Sharma, Vijay Kumar
2016-10-01
Robustness is considered to be an important feature of biological systems which may evolve when the functionality of a trait is associated with higher fitness across multiple environmental conditions. Thus, the ability to maintain stable biological phenotypes across environments is thought to be of adaptive value. Previously, we have reported higher intrinsic activity levels (activity levels of free-running rhythm in constant darkness) and power of rhythm (as assessed by amplitude of the periodogram) in Drosophila melanogaster populations (stocks) reared in constant darkness (DD stocks) as compared to those reared in constant light (LL stocks) and 12:12-h light-dark cycles (LD stocks) for over 19 years (˜330 generations). In the current study, we intended to examine whether the enhanced levels of activity observed in DD stocks persist under various environments such as photoperiods, ambient temperatures, non-24-h light-dark (LD) cycles, and semi-natural conditions (SN). We found that DD stocks largely retain their phenotype of enhanced activity levels across most of the above-mentioned environments suggesting the evolution of robust circadian clocks in DD stocks. Furthermore, we compared the peak activity levels of the three stocks across different environmental conditions relative to their peaks in constant darkness and found that the change in peak activity levels upon entrainment was not significantly different across the three stocks for any of the examined environmental conditions. This suggests that the enhancement of activity levels in DD stocks is not due to differential sensitivity to environment. Thus, these results suggest that rearing in constant darkness (DD) leads to evolution of robust circadian clocks suggesting a possible adaptive value of possessing such rhythms under constant dark environments.
ETOA, ABBN Multigroup Constants from ENDF/B for Fast Reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimura, Hideo
1977-01-01
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Production of ABBN type group constants up to 70 groups for fast reactor calculations, reading ENDF/B library as input. 2 - Method of solution: The multigroup method of Bondarenko et al. is used for processing basic nuclear data. Calculational algorithms for an unresolved resonance region are the same as those in the MC 2 code. For a resolved resonance region, an ultrafine energy structure dependent on a level scheme is adopted. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of: energy groups: 70; sigma 0 values: 6; temperatures: 5. Self-shielding factors for an unrealistically low value of sigma 0 are not guaranteed because of the approximations used in the unresolved resonance region
Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Elusive Amorphous Methane
Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.
2015-01-01
New and accurate laboratory results are reported for amorphous methane (CH4) ice near 10 K for the study of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the outer Solar System. Near- and mid-infrared (IR) data, including spectra, band strengths, absorption coefficients, and optical constants, are presented for the first time for this seldom-studied amorphous solid. The apparent IR band strength near 1300 cm(exp -1) (7.69 micrometer) for amorphous CH4 is found to be about 33% higher than the value long used by IR astronomers to convert spectral observations of interstellar CH4 into CH4 abundances. Although CH4 is most likely to be found in an amorphous phase in the ISM, a comparison of results from various laboratory groups shows that the earlier CH4 band strength at 1300 cm(exp -1) (7.69 micrometer) was derived from IR spectra of ices that were either partially or entirely crystalline CH4 Applications of the new amorphous-CH4 results are discussed, and all optical constants are made available in electronic form.
Khan, Mohammad Niyaz; Yusof, Nor Saadah Mohd; Razak, Norazizah Abdul
2013-01-01
The semi-empirical spectrophotometric (SESp) method, for the indirect determination of ion exchange constants (K(X)(Br)) of ion exchange processes occurring between counterions (X⁻ and Br⁻) at the cationic micellar surface, is described in this article. The method uses an anionic spectrophotometric probe molecule, N-(2-methoxyphenyl)phthalamate ion (1⁻), which measures the effects of varying concentrations of inert inorganic or organic salt (Na(v)X, v = 1, 2) on absorbance, (A(ob)) at 310 nm, of samples containing constant concentrations of 1⁻, NaOH and cationic micelles. The observed data fit satisfactorily to an empirical equation which gives the values of two empirical constants. These empirical constants lead to the determination of K(X)(Br) (= K(X)/K(Br) with K(X) and K(Br) representing cationic micellar binding constants of counterions X and Br⁻). This method gives values of K(X)(Br) for both moderately hydrophobic and hydrophilic X⁻. The values of K(X)(Br), obtained by using this method, are comparable with the corresponding values of K(X)(Br), obtained by the use of semi-empirical kinetic (SEK) method, for different moderately hydrophobic X. The values of K(X)(Br) for X = Cl⁻ and 2,6-Cl₂C6H₃CO₂⁻, obtained by the use of SESp and SEK methods, are similar to those obtained by the use of other different conventional methods.
The GMO sumrule and the πNN coupling constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ericson, T.E.O.; Loiseau, B.; Thomas, A.W.
2000-01-01
The isovector GMO sumrule for forward πN scattering is critically evaluated using the precise π - p and π - d scattering lengths obtained recently from pionic atom measurements. The charged πNN coupling constant is then deduced with careful analysis of systematic and statistical sources of uncertainties. This determination gives directly from data g c 2 (GMO)/4π = 14.17±0.09 (statistic) ±0.17 (systematic) or f c 2 / 4π=0.078(11). This value is half-way between that of indirect methods (phase-shift analyses) and the direct evaluation from from backward np differential scattering cross sections (extrapolation to pion pole). From the π - p and π - d scattering lengths our analysis leads also to accurate values for (1/2)(a π - p +a π - n ) and (1/2) (a π - p -a π - n ). (orig.)
The GMO Sumrule and the πNN Coupling Constant
Ericson, T. E. O.; Loiseau, B.; Thomas, A. W.
The isovector GMO sumrule for forward πN scattering is critically evaluated using the precise π-p and π-d scattering lengths obtained recently from pionic atom measurements. The charged πNN coupling constant is then deduced with careful analysis of systematic and statistical sources of uncertainties. This determination gives directly from data gc2(GMO)/4π = 14.17±0.09 (statistic) ±0.17 (systematic) or fc2/ 4π=0.078(11). This value is half-way between that of indirect methods (phase-shift analyses) and the direct evaluation from from backward np differential scattering cross sections (extrapolation to pion pole). From the π-p and π-d scattering lengths our analysis leads also to accurate values for (1/2)(aπ-p+aπ-n) and (1/2) (aπ-p-aπ-n).
Determination of the pion-nucleon coupling constant and scattering lengths
Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Thomas, A W
2002-01-01
We critically evaluate the isovector GMO sum rule for forward pion-nucleon scattering using the recent precision measurements of negatively charged pion-proton and pion-deuteron scattering lengths from pionic atoms. We deduce the charged-pion-nucleon coupling constant, with careful attention to systematic and statistical uncertainties. This determination gives, directly from data a pseudoscalar coupling constant of 14.17+-0.05(statistical)+-0.19(systematic) or a pseudovector one of 0.0786(11). This value is intermediate between that of indirect methods and the direct determination from backward neutron-proton differential scattering cross sections. We also use the pionic atom data to deduce the coherent symmetric and antisymmetric sums of the negatively charged pion-proton and pion-neutron scattering lengths with high precision. The symmetric sum gives 0.0017+-0.0002(statistical)+-0.0008 (systematic) and the antisymmetric one 0.0900+-0.0003(statistical)+-0.0013(systematic), both in units of inverse charged pi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anneé Miranda Carracedo
2012-12-01
, the surgeon factor and the anterior chamber depth. Additionally, the preoperative axial length was evaluated by IOL Master, as well as the best uncorrected visual acuity, the expected and the obtained spherical component, and the refractive results. Results: the constants optimized by the partial coherence interferometry were different from those suggested by the intraocular lens manufacturers. These customized constants for each surgeon did not show significant differences among them. The optimized constants according to the axial lengths showed significant differences in the three study groups. The difference between the implanted lens and the estimated lens based on the new constants was lower than one dioptre of error in 83.1 % of patients. Good visual correction in relation with the difference between the expected and the final refractions was attained in 75.4 % of patients. Conclusions: the partial coherence interferometry-optimized constants showed higher values than those suggested by the manufacturer. The constant optimization for the intraocular lens calculation by IOL Master allows, according to the ocular individual features (axial length, using the adequate formula and increasing the predictability of postoperative refractive results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznik, V.; Odehnal, M.
1986-01-01
The RSJ model of the Josephson junction in the presence of a microwave field is studied using an analog computer, with special attention to the behavior of this system near or at the critical line, where the set of substeps forms a complete devil's staircase on the I-V characteristic. A value of fractal dimension D = 0.868 +/- 0.002 is determined from 240 substeps between the winding numbers W = 0 and W = 1. Four values of decay constants are determined. The results agree very well with the prediction obtained from the one-dimensional circle map. A self-similarity graph is shown confirming that the staircase is very near the critical line. Results confirm the universal and global character of D and decay constants on the critical line, as was suggested by Jensen et al
Curcumin Inhibits Tau Aggregation and Disintegrates Preformed Tau Filaments in vitro.
Rane, Jitendra Subhash; Bhaumik, Prasenjit; Panda, Dulal
2017-01-01
The pathological aggregation of tau is a common feature of most of the neuronal disorders including frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The inhibition of tau aggregation is considered to be one of the important strategies for treating these neurodegenerative diseases. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic molecule, has been reported to have neuroprotective ability. In this work, curcumin was found to bind to adult tau and fetal tau with a dissociation constant of 3.3±0.4 and 8±1 μM, respectively. Molecular docking studies indicated a putative binding site of curcumin in the microtubule-binding region of tau. Using several complementary techniques, including dynamic light scattering, thioflavin S fluorescence, 90° light scattering, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, curcumin was found to inhibit the aggregation of tau. The dynamic light scattering analysis and atomic force microscopic images revealed that curcumin inhibits the oligomerization of tau. Curcumin also disintegrated preformed tau oligomers. Using Far-UV circular dichroism, curcumin was found to inhibit the β-sheets formation in tau indicating that curcumin inhibits an initial step of tau aggregation. In addition, curcumin inhibited tau fibril formation. Furthermore, the effect of curcumin on the preformed tau filaments was analyzed by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and 90° light scattering. Curcumin treatment disintegrated preformed tau filaments. The results indicated that curcumin inhibited the oligomerization of tau and could disaggregate tau filaments.
Inhibition of calcium phosphate precipitation under environmentally-relevant conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Xinde; Harris, Willie G.; Josan, Manohardeep S.; Nair, Vimala D.
2007-01-01
Precipitation of Ca phosphates plays an important role in controlling P activity and availability in environmental systems. The purpose of this study was to determine inhibitory effects on Ca phosphate precipitation by Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , humic acid, oxalic acid, biogenic Si, and Si-rich soil clay commonly found in soils, sediments, and waste streams. Precipitation rates were determined by measuring decrease of P concentration in solutions during the first 60 min; and precipitated solid phases identified using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Poorly-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP: Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH) formed in control solutions over the experiment period of 24 h, following a second-order dependence on P concentration. Humic acid and Mg 2+ significantly inhibited formation of HAP, allowing formation of a more soluble amorphous Ca phosphate phase (ACP), and thus reducing the precipitation rate constants by 94-96%. Inhibition caused by Mg 2+ results from its incorporation into Ca phosphate precipitates, preventing formation of a well-crystalline phase. Humic acid likely suppressed Ca phosphate precipitation by adsorbing onto the newly-formed nuclei. Presence of oxalic acid resulted in almost complete inhibition of HAP precipitation due to preemptive Ca-oxalate formation. Carbonate substituted for phosphate, decreasing the crystallinity of HAP and thus reducing precipitation rate constant by 44%. Sulfate and Si-rich solids had less impact on formation of HAP; while they reduced precipitation in the early stage, they did not differ from the control after 24 h. Results indicate that components (e.g., Mg 2+ , humic acid) producing relatively soluble ACP are more likely to reduce P stability and precipitation rate of Ca phosphate in soils and sediments than are components (e.g., SO 4 2- , Si) that have less effect on the crystallinity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumaraswamy, L; Xu, Z; Podgorsak, M [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Bailey, D [Northside Hospital, Atlanta, GA (United States); Schmitt, J [RadAmerica, LLC--MedStar Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: Commercial dose calculation algorithms incorporate a single DLG value for a given beam energy that is applied across an entire treatment field. However, the physical processes associated with beam generation and dose delivery suggest that the DLG is not constant. The aim of this study is to evaluate the variation of DLG among all leaf pairs, to quantify how this variation impacts delivered dose, and to establish a novel method to correct dose distributions calculated using the approximation of constant DLG. Methods: A 2D diode array was used to measure the DLG for all 60 leaf pairs at several points along each leaf pair travel direction. This approach was validated by comparison to DLG values measured at select points using a 0.6 cc ion chamber with the standard formalism. In-house software was developed to enable incorporation of position dependent DLG values into dose distribution optimization and calculation. The accuracy of beam delivery of both the corrected and uncorrected treatment plans was studied through gamma pass rate evaluation. A comparison of DVH statistics in corrected and uncorrected treatment plans was made. Results: The outer 20 MLC leaf pairs (1.0 cm width) have DLG values that are 0.32 mm (mean) to 0.65 mm (maximum) lower than the central leaf-pair. VMAT plans using a large number of 1 cm wide leaves were more accurately delivered (gamma pass rate increased by 5%) and dose coverage was higher (D100 increased by 3%) when the 2D DLG was modeled. Conclusion: Using a constant DLG value for a given beam energy will result in dose optimization, dose calculation and treatment delivery inaccuracies that become significant for treatment plans with high modulation complexity scores delivered with 1 cm wide leaves.
Price of shifting the Hubble constant
Evslin, Jarah; Sen, Anjan A.; Ruchika
2018-05-01
An anisotropic measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature fixes the product of the Hubble constant and the acoustic scale H0rd. Therefore, regardless of the dark energy dynamics, to accommodate a higher value of H0 one needs a lower rd and so necessarily a modification of early time cosmology. One must either reduce the age of the Universe at the drag epoch or else the speed of sound in the primordial plasma. The first can be achieved, for example, with dark radiation or very early dark energy, automatically preserving the angular size of the acoustic scale in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with no modifications to post-recombination dark energy. However, it is known that the simplest such modifications fall afoul of CMB constraints at higher multipoles. As an example, we combine anisotropic BAO with geometric measurements from strong lensing time delays from H0LiCOW and megamasers from the Megamaser Cosmology Project to measure rd, with and without the local distance ladder measurement of H0. We find that the best fit value of rd is indeed quite insensitive to the dark energy model and is also hardly affected by the inclusion of the local distance ladder data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Demissie, Taye B. [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa, Kasprzaka 44 (Poland); Jaszuński, Michał, E-mail: michal.jaszunski@icho.edu.pl [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa, Kasprzaka 44 (Poland)
2014-05-21
We present an analysis of the spin–rotation and absolute shielding constants of XF{sub 6} molecules (X = S, Se, Te, Mo, W) based on ab initio coupled cluster and four-component relativistic density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that the relativistic contributions to the spin–rotation and shielding constants are large both for the heavy elements as well as for the fluorine nuclei. In most cases, incorporating the computed relativistic corrections significantly improves the agreement between our results and the well-established experimental values for the isotropic spin–rotation constants and their anisotropic components. This suggests that also for the other molecules, for which accurate and reliable experimental data are not available, reliable values of spin–rotation and absolute shielding constants were determined combining ab initio and relativistic DFT calculations. For the heavy nuclei, the breakdown of the relationship between the spin–rotation constant and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constant, due to relativistic effects, causes a significant error in the total absolute shielding constants.
Razdan, Neil K; Koshy, David M; Prausnitz, John M
2017-11-07
A group-contribution method based on scaled-particle theory was developed to predict Henry's constants for six families of persistent organic pollutants: polychlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. The group-contribution model uses limited experimental data to obtain group-interaction parameters for an easy-to-use method to predict Henry's constants for systems where reliable experimental data are scarce. By using group-interaction parameters obtained from data reduction, scaled-particle theory gives the partial molar Gibbs energy of dissolution, Δg̅ 2 , allowing calculation of Henry's constant, H 2 , for more than 700 organic pollutants. The average deviation between predicted values of log H 2 and experiment is 4%. Application of an approximate van't Hoff equation gives the temperature dependence of Henry's constants for polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environmentally relevant range 0-40 °C.
CYTOTOXIC, α-CHYMOTRYPSIN AND UREASE INHIBITION ACTIVITIES OF THE PLANT Heliotropium dasycarpum L.
Ghaffari, Muhammad Abuzar; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmed; Uzair, Muhammad; Ashfaq, Khuram
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate Cytotoxic, α-Chymotrypsin and Urease inhibition activities of the plant Heliotropium dasycarpum . Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the plant were evaluated for cytotoxic, α-Chymotrypsin and Urease inhibition by using in vivo Brine Shrimp lethality bioassay and in vitro enzymatic inhibition assays respectively. The methanol extract of the plant exhibited significant cytotoxic activity. Out of 30 brine shrimp larvae, 2 (6%), 26 (86%) and 28 (93%) larvae were survived at concentration of 1000μg/ml, 100μg/ml and 10μg/ml respectively with LD50; 215.837. Similarly 21 (70%), 25 (83%), 29 (96%) larvae were survived of dichloromethane plant extract with LD50; 6170.64. The methanol and dichloromethane extract exhibited 10.50±0.18% and 41.51±0.15% α-chymotrypsin enzyme inhibition respectively with IC 50 values of greater than 500 μmol. The methanol extract showed 24.39±0.21% Urease enzyme inhibition with IC 50 values of greater than 400 μmol While dichloromethane extract has 11.46±0.09% enzyme inhibition with IC 50 values of greater than 500 μmol. The results clearly indicated that Heliotropium dasycarpum has cytotoxic potential and enzyme inhibition properties. Further study is needed to screen out antitumor and anti-ulcerative agents.
New perspectives on constant-roll inflation
Cicciarella, Francesco; Mabillard, Joel; Pieroni, Mauro
2018-01-01
We study constant-roll inflation using the β-function formalism. We show that the constant rate of the inflaton roll is translated into a first order differential equation for the β-function which can be solved easily. The solutions to this equation correspond to the usual constant-roll models. We then construct, by perturbing these exact solutions, more general classes of models that satisfy the constant-roll equation asymptotically. In the case of an asymptotic power law solution, these corrections naturally provide an end to the inflationary phase. Interestingly, while from a theoretical point of view (in particular in terms of the holographic interpretation) these models are intrinsically different from standard slow-roll inflation, they may have phenomenological predictions in good agreement with present cosmological data.
The fine-structure constant before quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kragh, Helge
2003-01-01
This paper focuses on the early history of the fine-structure constant, largely the period until 1925. Contrary to what is generally assumed, speculations concerning the interdependence of the elementary electric charge and Planck's constant predated Arnold Sommerfeld's 1916 discussion of the dimensionless constant. This paper pays particular attention to a little known work from 1914 in which G N Lewis and E Q Adams derived what is effectively a numerical expression for the fine-structure constant
Constraints on alternate universes: stars and habitable planets with different fundamental constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, Fred C.
2016-01-01
This paper develops constraints on the values of the fundamental constants that allow universes to be habitable. We focus on the fine structure constant α and the gravitational structure constant α G , and find the region in the α-α G plane that supports working stars and habitable planets. This work is motivated, in part, by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes. The following constraints are enforced: [A] long-lived stable nuclear burning stars exist, [B] planetary surface temperatures are hot enough to support chemical reactions, [C] stellar lifetimes are long enough to allow biological evolution, [D] planets are massive enough to maintain atmospheres, [E] planets are small enough in mass to remain non-degenerate, [F] planets are massive enough to support sufficiently complex biospheres, [G] planets are smaller in mass than their host stars, and [H] stars are smaller in mass than their host galaxies. This paper delineates the portion of the α-α G plane that satisfies all of these constraints. The results indicate that viable universes—with working stars and habitable planets—can exist within a parameter space where the structure constants α and α G vary by several orders of magnitude. These constraints also provide upper bounds on the structure constants (α,α G ) and their ratio. We find the limit α G /α ∼< 10 −34 , which shows that habitable universes must have a large hierarchy between the strengths of the gravitational force and the electromagnetic force
Constraints on alternate universes: stars and habitable planets with different fundamental constants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, Fred C., E-mail: fca@umich.edu [Physics Department, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)
2016-02-01
This paper develops constraints on the values of the fundamental constants that allow universes to be habitable. We focus on the fine structure constant α and the gravitational structure constant α{sub G}, and find the region in the α-α{sub G} plane that supports working stars and habitable planets. This work is motivated, in part, by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes. The following constraints are enforced: [A] long-lived stable nuclear burning stars exist, [B] planetary surface temperatures are hot enough to support chemical reactions, [C] stellar lifetimes are long enough to allow biological evolution, [D] planets are massive enough to maintain atmospheres, [E] planets are small enough in mass to remain non-degenerate, [F] planets are massive enough to support sufficiently complex biospheres, [G] planets are smaller in mass than their host stars, and [H] stars are smaller in mass than their host galaxies. This paper delineates the portion of the α-α{sub G} plane that satisfies all of these constraints. The results indicate that viable universes—with working stars and habitable planets—can exist within a parameter space where the structure constants α and α{sub G} vary by several orders of magnitude. These constraints also provide upper bounds on the structure constants (α,α{sub G}) and their ratio. We find the limit α{sub G}/α ∼< 10{sup −34}, which shows that habitable universes must have a large hierarchy between the strengths of the gravitational force and the electromagnetic force.
Work Values of Lithuanian University Students: Internal Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincentas Lamanauskas
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Individual’s work values define his/her career purposefulness. Individual’s chosen work values allow foreseeing what activity context and career model is important for him/her, seeking to successfully realize oneself in professional activity. Planning his/her professional career an individual is searching for the activity sphere, which could conform not only to his/her personal features, but also to his/her value orientations. Work values important for the individual allow realizing if they form conditions for planning modern career (successfully solve constantly changing activity problems and to correspond to always new raised requirements for a person in the organisation or in labour market, the realisation of which in today’s constantly changing labour market and social context becomes more and more problematic. Empiric research was carried out seeking to discover the work (activity value structure. The research instrument was created by the authors of the research. Two hundred sixty five first-year students from three Lithuanian universities participated in the research. These are the main higher education institutions, preparing teachers in Lithuania. The obtained results show that work value structure of the first year students studying in social and humanitarian science programmes can be expressed by 6 main factors: responsible activity values, active work values, harmony values, reward values, activity style values, and social status values. Also, the main differences were ascertained between female and male work value structure. Responsible activity values, active work values and harmony values were much more important for female than male students.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohajery, K.; Lister, D.H.
2012-01-01
In this study, the dissolution rate constants of magnetite were measured at various water chemistry conditions and different temperatures, corresponding to several feedwater conditions of water-cooled reactors. Sintered magnetite pellets were used as the dissolving material and these were mounted in a jet-impingement apparatus in a recirculating water loop. Exposures were carried out at temperatures of 25, 55 and 140 o C and pHs of neutral and 9.2 in which many FAC (Flow Accelerated Corrosion) studies have been conducted. Average dissolution rate constants were estimated by measuring the volume of lost material with a profilometry technique. The excellent correspondent between the calculated value of dissolution rate constant of 2.20 mm/s for the synthesized magnetite and 2.05 mm/s for the single crystal of magnetite at neutral condition shows that the particle removal from the synthesized pellets is not an obstruction in this technique. Also, good agreement between the values calculated in duplicated runs at neutral condition at room temperature supports the accuracy of the method. (author)
Stability constants of scandium complexes, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Hisako; Itoh, Naomi; Suzuki, Yasuo
1984-01-01
The stability constants of scandium complexes with some carboxylate ligands were determined potentiometrically at 25.0 and 40.0 0 C and at an ionic strength of 0.10 with potassium nitrate as supporting electrolyte. The constants of the scandium complexes were appreciably greater than those of the corresponding lanthanoid complexes, as expected. The changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for the formation of the scandium complexes were calculated from the stability constants at two temperatures. (author)
Pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants of strontium, barium, and lead nitrate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bedi, S.S.; Verma, M.P.
1980-01-01
An interpretation is given of the measured results on the pressure derivatives of second-order elastic constants (SOEC) of strontium barium, and lead nitrate crystallizing in the fluorite type structure from the Lundquist potential. Potential parameters are determined from the experimental values of SOEC and the equilibrium condition
Zero cosmological constant from normalized general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, Aharon; Rubin, Shimon
2009-01-01
Normalizing the Einstein-Hilbert action by the volume functional makes the theory invariant under constant shifts in the Lagrangian. The associated field equations then resemble unimodular gravity whose otherwise arbitrary cosmological constant is now determined as a Machian universal average. We prove that an empty space-time is necessarily Ricci tensor flat, and demonstrate the vanishing of the cosmological constant within the scalar field paradigm. The cosmological analysis, carried out at the mini-superspace level, reveals a vanishing cosmological constant for a universe which cannot be closed as long as gravity is attractive. Finally, we give an example of a normalized theory of gravity which does give rise to a non-zero cosmological constant.
Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium by Capparis deciduas in Acidic Media
P. Arora; S. Kumar; M. K. Sharma; S. P. Mathur
2007-01-01
The inhibition efficiency of ethanolic extract of different parts of Capparis deciduas (Ker) in acidic medium has been evaluated by mass loss and thermometric methods. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained from the two methods are in good agreement and are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and acid.
The time constant of the somatogravic illusion.
Correia Grácio, B J; de Winkel, K N; Groen, E L; Wentink, M; Bos, J E
2013-02-01
Without visual feedback, humans perceive tilt when experiencing a sustained linear acceleration. This tilt illusion is commonly referred to as the somatogravic illusion. Although the physiological basis of the illusion seems to be well understood, the dynamic behavior is still subject to discussion. In this study, the dynamic behavior of the illusion was measured experimentally for three motion profiles with different frequency content. Subjects were exposed to pure centripetal accelerations in the lateral direction and were asked to indicate their tilt percept by means of a joystick. Variable-radius centrifugation during constant angular rotation was used to generate these motion profiles. Two self-motion perception models were fitted to the experimental data and were used to obtain the time constant of the somatogravic illusion. Results showed that the time constant of the somatogravic illusion was on the order of two seconds, in contrast to the higher time constant found in fixed-radius centrifugation studies. Furthermore, the time constant was significantly affected by the frequency content of the motion profiles. Motion profiles with higher frequency content revealed shorter time constants which cannot be explained by self-motion perception models that assume a fixed time constant. Therefore, these models need to be improved with a mechanism that deals with this variable time constant. Apart from the fundamental importance, these results also have practical consequences for the simulation of sustained accelerations in motion simulators.
Induced cosmological constant in braneworlds with warped internal spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saharian, Aram A.
2006-01-01
We investigate the vacuum energy density induced by quantum fluctuations of a bulk scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter on two codimension one parallel branes in a (D + 1)-dimensional background spacetime AdS D1+1 x Σ with a warped internal space Σ. It is assumed that on the branes the field obeys Robin boundary conditions. Using the generalized zeta function technique in combination with contour integral representations, the surface energies on the branes are presented in the form of the sums of single brane and second brane induced parts. For the geometry of a single brane both regions, on the left (L-region) and on the right (R-region), of the brane are considered. The surface densities for separate L- and R-regions contain pole and finite contributions. For an infinitely thin brane taking these regions together, in odd spatial dimensions the pole parts cancel and the total surface energy is finite. The parts in the surface densities generated by the presence of the second brane are finite for all nonzero values of the interbrane separation. The contribution of the Kaluza-Klein modes along Σ is investigated in various limiting cases. It is shown that for large distances between the branes the induced surface densities give rise to an exponentially suppressed cosmological constant on the brane. In the higher dimensional generalization of the Randall-Sundrum braneworld model, for the interbrane distances solving the hierarchy problem, the cosmological constant generated on the visible brane is of the right order of magnitude with the value suggested by the cosmological observations. (author)
Determination of sulfur in solids by constant current coulometric titration following combustion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monteiro, R.P.G.
1986-01-01
A method for determination of sulfur in solid materials by combustion in induction furnace, followed by constant current coulometric titration of the sulfur dioxide produced, is described. The method is applicable to samples with sulfur contents of 80 ppm to 20,000 ppm. Its feasibility was checked on the NBS and Leco steel samples. The results are in good agreement with the specified values. (author) [pt
Selective inhibition of monoamine oxidase A by purpurin, an anthraquinone.
Lee, Hyun Woo; Ryu, Hyung Won; Kang, Myung-Gyun; Park, Daeui; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Hoon
2017-03-01
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidation of monoamines that act as neurotransmitters. During a target-based screening of natural products using two isoforms of recombinant human MAO-A and MAO-B, purpurin (an anthraquinone derivative) was found to potently and selectively inhibit MAO-A, with an IC 50 value of 2.50μM, and not to inhibit MAO-B. Alizarin (also an anthraquinone) inhibited MAO-A less potently with an IC 50 value of 30.1μM. Furthermore, purpurin was a reversible and competitive inhibitor of MAO-A with a K i value of 0.422μM. A comparison of their chemical structures suggested the 4-hydroxy group of purpurin might play an important role in its inhibition of MAO-A. Molecular docking simulation showed that the binding affinity of purpurin for MAO-A (-40.0kcal/mol) was higher than its affinity for MAO-B (-33.9kcal/mol), and that Ile 207 and Gly 443 of MAO-A were key residues for hydrogen bonding with purpurin. The findings of this study suggest purpurin is a potent, selective, reversible inhibitor of MAO-A, and that it be considered a new potential lead compound for development of novel reversible inhibitors of MAO-A (RIMAs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. T. Kulakov
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to computational investigation of influence relative time constant of an object which changes in broad band on quality of steam temperature control behind a boiler with due account of value of regulating action in the system with PI- and PID- regulator. The simulation has been based on a single-loop automatic control system (ACS. It has been revealed that the less value of the relative time constant of an object leads to more integral control error in system with PID- regulator while operating external ACS perturbation. Decrease of numerical value of relative time constant of an object while operating external perturbation causes decrease of relative time concerning appearance of maximum dynamic control error from common relative control time.
Invited Article: A precise instrument to determine the Planck constant, and the future kilogram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haddad, D.; Seifert, F.; Williams, C.; Chao, L. S.; Li, S.; Newell, D. B.; Pratt, J. R.; Schlamminger, S.
2016-01-01
A precise instrument, called a watt balance, compares mechanical power measured in terms of the meter, the second, and the kilogram to electrical power measured in terms of the volt and the ohm. A direct link between mechanical action and the Planck constant is established by the practical realization of the electrical units derived from the Josephson and the quantum Hall effects. We describe in this paper the fourth-generation watt balance at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and report our initial determination of the Planck constant obtained from data taken in late 2015 and the beginning of 2016. A comprehensive analysis of the data and the associated uncertainties led to the SI value of the Planck constant, h = 6.626 069 83(22) × 10 −34 J s. The relative standard uncertainty associated with this result is 34 × 10 −9 .
Change of MIT bag constant in nuclear medium and implication for the EMC effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin, X.; Jennings, B.K.
1997-01-01
The modified quark-meson coupling model, which features a density-dependent bag constant and bag radius in nuclear matter, is checked against the EMC effect within the framework of dynamical rescaling. Our emphasis is on the change in the average bag radius in nuclei, as evaluated in a local density approximation, and its implication for the rescaling parameter. We find that when the bag constant in nuclear matter is significantly reduced from its free-space value, the resulting rescaling parameter is in good agreement with that required to explain the observed depletion of the structure functions in the medium Bjorken x region. Such a large reduction of the bag constant also implies large and canceling Lorentz scalar and vector potentials for the nucleon in nuclear matter which are comparable to those suggested by the relativistic nuclear phenomenology and finite-density QCD sum rules. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Invited Article: A precise instrument to determine the Planck constant, and the future kilogram
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haddad, D., E-mail: darine.haddad@nist.gov; Seifert, F.; Williams, C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 100 Bureau Drive Stop 8171, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); University of Maryland, Joint Quantum Institute, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Chao, L. S.; Li, S.; Newell, D. B.; Pratt, J. R.; Schlamminger, S., E-mail: stephan.schlamminger@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 100 Bureau Drive Stop 8171, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)
2016-06-15
A precise instrument, called a watt balance, compares mechanical power measured in terms of the meter, the second, and the kilogram to electrical power measured in terms of the volt and the ohm. A direct link between mechanical action and the Planck constant is established by the practical realization of the electrical units derived from the Josephson and the quantum Hall effects. We describe in this paper the fourth-generation watt balance at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and report our initial determination of the Planck constant obtained from data taken in late 2015 and the beginning of 2016. A comprehensive analysis of the data and the associated uncertainties led to the SI value of the Planck constant, h = 6.626 069 83(22) × 10{sup −34} J s. The relative standard uncertainty associated with this result is 34 × 10{sup −9}.
Thermosetting resins with high fractions of free volume and inherently low dielectric constants.
Lin, Liang-Kai; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Su, Wen-Chiung; Liu, Ying-Ling
2015-08-18
This work demonstrates a new class of thermosetting resins, based on Meldrum's acid (MA) derivatives, which have high fractions of free volume and inherently low k values of about 2.0 at 1 MHz. Thermal decomposition of the MA groups evolves CO2 and acetone to create air-trapped cavities so as to reduce the dielectric constants.
Photometric method for determination of acidity constants through integral spectra analysis
Zevatskiy, Yuriy Eduardovich; Ruzanov, Daniil Olegovich; Samoylov, Denis Vladimirovich
2015-04-01
An express method for determination of acidity constants of organic acids, based on the analysis of the integral transmittance vs. pH dependence is developed. The integral value is registered as a photocurrent of photometric device simultaneously with potentiometric titration. The proposed method allows to obtain pKa using only simple and low-cost instrumentation. The optical part of the experimental setup has been optimized through the exclusion of the monochromator device. Thus it only takes 10-15 min to obtain one pKa value with the absolute error of less than 0.15 pH units. Application limitations and reliability of the method have been tested for a series of organic acids of various nature.
INFRARED SPECTRA AND OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF NITRILE ICES RELEVANT TO TITAN's ATMOSPHERE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, Marla H.; Hudson, Reggie; Ferrante, Robert F.; James Moore, W.
2010-01-01
Spectra and optical constants of nitrile ices known or suspected to be in Titan's atmosphere are presented from 2.0 to 333.3 μm (∼5000-30 cm -1 ). These results are relevant to the ongoing modeling of Cassini CIRS observations of Titan's winter pole. Ices studied are: HCN, hydrogen cyanide; C 2 N 2 , cyanogen; CH 3 CN, acetonitrile; C 2 H 5 CN, propionitrile; and HC 3 N, cyanoacetylene. For each of these molecules, we also report new cryogenic measurements of the real refractive index, n, determined in both the amorphous and crystalline phases at 670 nm. These new values have been incorporated into our optical constant calculations. Spectra were measured and optical constants were calculated for each nitrile at a variety of temperatures, including, but not limited to, 20, 35, 50, 75, 95, and 110 K, in both the amorphous phase and the crystalline phase. This laboratory effort used a dedicated FTIR spectrometer to record transmission spectra of thin-film ice samples. Laser interference was used to measure film thickness during condensation onto a transparent cold window attached to the tail section of a closed-cycle helium cryostat. Optical constants, real (n) and imaginary (k) refractive indices, were determined using Kramers-Kronig analysis. Our calculation reproduces the complete spectrum, including all interference effects.
On prediction of inhibiting properties of o-aryl-carboxylates in local dissolution of iron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Kerbeleva, I.Ya.; Brusnikina, V.M.; Rozenfel'd, I.L.
1979-01-01
The anodic behaviour of Armco iron in the borate buffer (ph 7.4), containing sulphates as agressive anions and inhibiting substances - aryl carboxilates is studied. The possibility of using the principle of free energy linearity for quantitative prediction of protective properties of aryl carboxilates at the metal local solution is shown. The latter characterized by the pitting formation potential (phi sub(pf)), the inhibiting criterion being Δphi=phisub(pf)sup(R)-phisub(pf)sup(H). The linear correlation between Δphi and delta constants, reflecting the summary electron effects of substituent induction and mesomeric effects have been found
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senna, J.G.
1981-01-01
A model to analyze Laminar Free convection with variable properties in the entrance of a vertical open tube with constant wall temperature and for one Prandtl number (0.7), is studied. The velocity and temperature profiles are determined by finite difference methods for different rates of wall to ambient temperatures and different values of the velocity in the entrance of the tube. The results will be compared with those obtained in the same problem with constant properties. (Author) [pt
The Price of Anarchy in Network Creation Games Is (Mostly) Constant
Mihalák, Matúš; Schlegel, Jan Christoph
We study the price of anarchy and the structure of equilibria in network creation games. A network creation game (first defined and studied by Fabrikant et al. [4]) is played by n players {1,2,...,n}, each identified with a vertex of a graph (network), where the strategy of player i, i = 1,...,n, is to build some edges adjacent to i. The cost of building an edge is α> 0, a fixed parameter of the game. The goal of every player is to minimize its creation cost plus its usage cost. The creation cost of player i is α times the number of built edges. In the SumGame (the original variant of Fabrikant et al. [4]) the usage cost of player i is the sum of distances from i to every node of the resulting graph. In the MaxGame (variant defined and studied by Demaine et al. [3]) the usage cost is the eccentricity of i in the resulting graph of the game. In this paper we improve previously known bounds on the price of anarchy of the game (of both variants) for various ranges of α, and give new insights into the structure of equilibria for various values of α. The two main results of the paper show that for α > 273·n all equilibria in SumGame are trees and thus the price of anarchy is constant, and that for α> 129 all equilibria in MaxGame are trees and the price of anarchy is constant. For SumGame this (almost) answers one of the basic open problems in the field - is price of anarchy of the network creation game constant for all values of α? - in an affirmative way, up to a tiny range of α.
13C, 1H spin-spin coupling constants. Pt. 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydin, R.; Guenther, H.
1979-01-01
One-bond, geminal, and vicinal 13 C, 1 H coupling constants have been determined for adamantane using α-and β-[D]adamantane and the relation sup(n)J( 13 C, 1 H)=6,5144sup(n)J( 13 C, 2 H) for the conversion of the measured sup(n)J( 13 C, 2 H) values. It is shown that the magnitude of 3 Jsub(trans) is strongly influenced by the substitution pattern. Relative H,D isotope effects for 13 C chemical shifts are given. (orig.) [de
Dynamical evolution of star clusters with a changing gravitational constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angeletti, L.; Giannone, P.
1978-01-01
The dynamical evolution of massive star clusters was studied, taking into account variations with time of the gravitional constant. The rates of change of G were adopted according to theoretical and observational indications. Various conditions concerning the number of star groups, star masses, mass loss from stars, and initial star concentration were tested for the clusters. The comparison with analogous evolutionary sequences computed with a constant value of G showed that the effects of changes of G may be conspicuous. The analytical dependence of basic structural functions on the law of variation of G with time was determined from the numerical results. They allow an estimate of the consequences of G in a large range of cases. The effects of a decrease of G tended to prevent the formation of dense cores, which is a specific feature of the evolution of 'standard' models of star clusters. The expansion of the whole cluster structure was noteworthy. However, there was not a significant increase of escape of stars from cluster compared with the cases computed with constant G. Although detailed comparison with observations was beyond our present aims, it appears that a varaition of G according to the Brans-Dicke theory is not in conflict with observational data, as is the case for an exponential decrease of G consistent with Van Flandern's result. (orig.) [de
STABILITY CONSTANT OF THE TRISGLYCINATO METAL ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DR. AMINU
overall stability constants of the complexes were found to be similar. Keywords: Glycinato, titration ... +. −. = 1 where Ka = dissociation constant of the amino acid. [ ]+. H = concentration of the .... Synthesis and techniques in inorganic chemistry.
Determination of formation constants of hydroxo carbonate complexes of Pr3+ in 2M NaCl at 303 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez G, H.D.
1996-01-01
The hydrolysis of Praseodymium III in 2M sodium chloride at 303 K was studied. Two methods were used: pH titration followed by a computational refinement and solvent extraction in the presence of a competitive ligand. The hydrolysis constants obtained by pH titration were: log β 1,H = -7.68 ± 0.07, log β 1,2H = -15.10 ± 0.03, and β 1,3H -23.8 ± 0.04. The stability constants of Praseodymium carbonates were determined by pH titration as well and were: log β 1,CO3 2- = 5.94 ± 0.08 and log β 1,2CO3 2- = 11.15 ± 0.15. Praseodymium carbonate species were taken into consideration for calculating the first hydrolysis constants by the solvent extraction method and the value obtained was: log β 1,H = -7.69 ± 0.27. The values for log β 1,H attained by both methods are the same. The species-distribution diagram was obtained from the stability constants of Praseodymium carbonates and hydrolysis products in the conditions of the present work. (Author)
Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement
Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco
2015-01-01
A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.
Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium by Capparis deciduas in Acidic Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Arora
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of ethanolic extract of different parts of Capparis deciduas (Ker in acidic medium has been evaluated by mass loss and thermometric methods. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained from the two methods are in good agreement and are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and acid.
Uncertainties in constraining low-energy constants from {sup 3}H β decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klos, P.; Carbone, A.; Hebeler, K. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Menendez, J. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Schwenk, A. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)
2017-08-15
We discuss the uncertainties in constraining low-energy constants of chiral effective field theory from {sup 3}H β decay. The half-life is very precisely known, so that the Gamow-Teller matrix element has been used to fit the coupling c{sub D} of the axial-vector current to a short-range two-nucleon pair. Because the same coupling also describes the leading one-pion-exchange three-nucleon force, this in principle provides a very constraining fit, uncorrelated with the {sup 3}H binding energy fit used to constrain another low-energy coupling in three-nucleon forces. However, so far such {sup 3}H half-life fits have only been performed at a fixed cutoff value. We show that the cutoff dependence due to the regulators in the axial-vector two-body current can significantly affect the Gamow-Teller matrix elements and consequently also the extracted values for the c{sub D} coupling constant. The degree of the cutoff dependence is correlated with the softness of the employed NN interaction. As a result, present three-nucleon forces based on a fit to {sup 3}H β decay underestimate the uncertainty in c{sub D}. We explore a range of c{sub D} values that is compatible within cutoff variation with the experimental {sup 3}H half-life and estimate the resulting uncertainties for many-body systems by performing calculations of symmetric nuclear matter. (orig.)
Temperature dependent lattice constant of InSb above room temperature
Breivik, Magnus; Nilsen, Tron Arne; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove
2013-10-01
Using temperature dependent X-ray diffraction on two InSb single crystalline substrates, the bulk lattice constant of InSb was determined between 32 and 325 °C. A polynomial function was fitted to the data: a(T)=6.4791+3.28×10-5×T+1.02×10-8×T2 Å (T in °C), which gives slightly higher values than previously published (which go up to 62 °C). From the fit, the thermal expansion of InSb was calculated to be α(T)=5.062×10-6+3.15×10-9×T K-1 (T in °C). We found that the thermal expansion coefficient is higher than previously published values above 100 °C (more than 10% higher at 325 °C).
So, Edmund Cheung; Wu, Sheng-Nan; Wu, Ping-Ching; Chen, Hui-Zhen; Yang, Chia-Jung
2017-01-01
Artemisinin (ART) is an anti-malarial agent reported to influence endocrine function. Effects of ART on ionic currents and action potentials (APs) in pituitary tumor (GH3) cells were evaluated by patch clamp techniques. ART inhibited the amplitude of delayed-rectifier K+ current (IK(DR)) in response to membrane depolarization and accelerated the process of current inactivation. It exerted an inhibitory effect on IK(DR) with an IC50 value of 11.2 µM and enhanced IK(DR) inactivation with a KD value of 14.7 µM. The steady-state inactivation curve of IK(DR) was shifted to hyperpolarization by 10 mV. Pretreatment of chlorotoxin (1 µM) or iloprost (100 nM) did not alter the magnitude of ART-induced inhibition of IK(DR) in GH3 cells. ART also decreased the peak amplitude of voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) with a concentration-dependent slowing in inactivation rate. Application of KMUP-1, an inhibitor of late INa, was effective at reversing ART-induced prolongation in inactivation time constant of INa. Under current-clamp recordings, ART alone reduced the amplitude of APs and prolonged the duration of APs. Under ART exposure, the inhibitory actions on both IK(DR) and INa could be a potential mechanisms through which this drug influences membrane excitability of endocrine or neuroendocrine cells appearing in vivo. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Datta, A.; Sivaraman, N.; Viswanathan, K.S.; Ghosh, Suddhasattwa; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group
2013-03-01
The present study describes a correlation that is developed from retention of lanthanide and actinide complexes with the stability constant. In these studies, an ion-pairing reagent, camphor-10-sulphonic acid (CSA) was used as the modifier and organic acids such as {alpha}-hydroxy isobutyric acid ({alpha}-HIBA), mandelic acid, lactic acid and tartaric acid were used as complexing reagent for elution. From these studies, a correlation has been established between capacity factor of a metal ion, concentration of ion-pairing reagent and complexing agent with the stability constant of metal complex. Based on these studies, it has been shown that the stability constant of lanthanide and actinide complexes can be estimated using a single lanthanide calibrant. Validation of the method was carried out with the complexing agents such as {alpha}-HIBA and lactic acid. It was also demonstrated that data from a single chromatogram can be used for estimation of stability constant at various ionic strengths. These studies also demonstrated that the method can be applied for estimation of stability constant of actinides with a ligand whose value is not reported yet, e.g., ligands of importance in the lanthanide-actinide separations, chelation therapy etc. The chromatographic separation method is fast and the estimation of stability constant can be done in a very short time, which is a significant advantage especially in dealing with radioactive elements. The stability constant data was used to derive speciation data of plutonium in different oxidation states as well as that of americium with {alpha}-HIBA. The elution behavior of actinides such as Pu and Am from reversed phase chromatographic technique could be explained based on these studies. (orig.)
Dose rate constant and energy spectrum of interstitial brachytherapy sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder
2001-01-01
In the past two years, several new manufacturers have begun to market low-energy interstitial brachytherapy seeds containing 125 I and 103 Pd. Parallel to this development, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has implemented a modification to the air-kerma strength (S K ) standard for 125 I seeds and has also established an S K standard for 103 Pd seeds. These events have generated a considerable number of investigations on the determination of the dose rate constants (Λ) of interstitial brachytherapy seeds. The aim of this work is to study the general properties underlying the determination of Λ and to develop a simple method for a quick and accurate estimation of Λ. As the dose rate constant of clinical seeds is defined at a fixed reference point, we postulated that Λ may be calculated by treating the seed as an effective point source when the seed's source strength is specified in S K and its source characteristics are specified by the photon energy spectrum measured in air at the reference point. Using a semi-analytic approach, an analytic expression for Λ was derived for point sources with known photon energy spectra. This approach enabled a systematic study of Λ as a function of energy. Using the measured energy spectra, the calculated Λ for 125 I model 6711 and 6702 seeds and for 192 Ir seed agreed with the AAPM recommended values within ±1%. For the 103 Pd model 200 seed, the agreement was 5% with a recently measured value (within the ±7% experimental uncertainty) and was within 1% with the Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic expression for Λ proposed here can be evaluated using a programmable calculator or a simple spreadsheet and it provides an efficient method for checking the measured dose rate constant for any interstitial brachytherapy seed once the energy spectrum of the seed is known
Thermal neutron group constants in monoatomic-gas approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matausek, M V; Bosevski, T [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)
1965-12-15
To solve the problem of space-energy neutron distribution in an elementary reactor cell, a combination of the multigroup procedure and the P{sub 3} approximation of the spherical harmonics method was chosen. The calculation was divided into two independent parts: the first part was to provide multigroup constants which serve as input data for the second part - the determination of the slow neutron spectra. In the present report only the first part of the problem will be discussed. The velocity dependence of cross-sections and scattering function in thermal range was interpreted by the monoatomic-gas model. A digital computer program was developed for the evaluation of the group values for these quantities (author00.
Goldberger-Treiman constraint criterion for hyperon coupling constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
General, Ignacio J.; Cotanch, Stephen R.
2004-01-01
The generalized Goldberger-Treiman relation is combined with the Dashen-Weinstein sum rule to provide a constraint equation between the g KΣN and g KΛN coupling constants. A comprehensive examination of the published phenomenological and theoretical hyperon couplings has yielded a much smaller set of values, spanning the intervals 0.80≤g KΣN /√(4π)≤2.72 and -3.90≤g KΛN /√(4π)≤-1.84, consistent with this criterion. The broken SU F (3) and Goldberger-Treiman hyperon couplings satisfy the constraint along with predictions from a Taylor series extrapolation using the same momentum variation as exhibited by g πNN
Li, Li-Na; Wu, Yu-Qing; Buchet, René
2009-10-01
To evaluate the inhibition effect of dansyl-L-phenylalanine on calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP), UV-Vis spectrophotometric method was employed. It was found that dansyl-L-phenylalanine can selectively inhibit CIAP. The kinetic inhibition processes of dansyl-L-phenylalanine and L-phenylalanine were comparatively studied. The authors' finding elucidates that at the optimized alkaline pH of alkaline phosphatase (pH 10.4) and 37 degrees C, dansyl-L-phenylalanine can inhibit alkaline phosphatase activity of CIAP efficiently and specifically, similar as L-phenylalanine. Both inhibition types were uncompetitive inhibition resulting from the double reciprocal curve fitting of upsilon versus substrate concentrations, and the inhibition constants Ki of both inhibitors were determined to be 2.3 and 1.1 mmol L(-1) respectively, both of which were at millimolar level. The investigation of the inhibition effect of dansyl modified L-phenylalanine on calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase not only helped get insight into the detailed inhibition mechanism of L-phenylalanine on tissue specific alkaline phosphatase, such as in the case of intestinal alkaline phosphatase, but also provided the possibility to employ fluorescence spectroscopy by labeling the specific inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase with chromophoric groups.
Cosmological constant and general isocurvature initial conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trotta, R.; Riazuelo, A.; Durrer, R.
2003-01-01
We investigate in detail the question of whether a nonvanishing cosmological constant is required by the present-day cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data when general isocurvature initial conditions are taken into account. We also discuss the differences between the usual Bayesian and the frequentist approaches in data analysis. We show that the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized matter power spectrum is dominated by the adiabatic mode and therefore breaks the degeneracy between initial conditions which is present in the cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We find that in a flat universe the Bayesian analysis requires Ω Λ =e0 to more than 3σ, while in the frequentist approach Ω Λ =0 is still within 3σ for a value of h≤0.48. Both conclusions hold regardless of the initial conditions
Constant conditional entropy and related hypotheses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Dębowski, Łukasz; Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín
2013-01-01
Constant entropy rate (conditional entropies must remain constant as the sequence length increases) and uniform information density (conditional probabilities must remain constant as the sequence length increases) are two information theoretic principles that are argued to underlie a wide range of linguistic phenomena. Here we revise the predictions of these principles in the light of Hilberg’s law on the scaling of conditional entropy in language and related laws. We show that constant entropy rate (CER) and two interpretations for uniform information density (UID), full UID and strong UID, are inconsistent with these laws. Strong UID implies CER but the reverse is not true. Full UID, a particular case of UID, leads to costly uncorrelated sequences that are totally unrealistic. We conclude that CER and its particular cases are incomplete hypotheses about the scaling of conditional entropies. (letter)
Spring constant calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers of arbitrary shape
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sader, John E. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kavli Nanoscience Institute and Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Sanelli, Julian A.; Adamson, Brian D.; Bieske, Evan J. [School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Monty, Jason P.; Marusic, Ivan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Wei Xingzhan; Mulvaney, Paul [School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Crawford, Simon A. [School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); MicroNanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)
2012-10-15
The spring constant of an atomic force microscope cantilever is often needed for quantitative measurements. The calibration method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] for a rectangular cantilever requires measurement of the resonant frequency and quality factor in fluid (typically air), and knowledge of its plan view dimensions. This intrinsically uses the hydrodynamic function for a cantilever of rectangular plan view geometry. Here, we present hydrodynamic functions for a series of irregular and non-rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers that are commonly used in practice. Cantilever geometries of arrow shape, small aspect ratio rectangular, quasi-rectangular, irregular rectangular, non-ideal trapezoidal cross sections, and V-shape are all studied. This enables the spring constants of all these cantilevers to be accurately and routinely determined through measurement of their resonant frequency and quality factor in fluid (such as air). An approximate formulation of the hydrodynamic function for microcantilevers of arbitrary geometry is also proposed. Implementation of the method and its performance in the presence of uncertainties and non-idealities is discussed, together with conversion factors for the static and dynamic spring constants of these cantilevers. These results are expected to be of particular value to the design and application of micro- and nanomechanical systems in general.
Spring constant calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers of arbitrary shape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sader, John E.; Sanelli, Julian A.; Adamson, Brian D.; Bieske, Evan J.; Monty, Jason P.; Marusic, Ivan; Wei Xingzhan; Mulvaney, Paul; Crawford, Simon A.; Friend, James R.
2012-01-01
The spring constant of an atomic force microscope cantilever is often needed for quantitative measurements. The calibration method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] for a rectangular cantilever requires measurement of the resonant frequency and quality factor in fluid (typically air), and knowledge of its plan view dimensions. This intrinsically uses the hydrodynamic function for a cantilever of rectangular plan view geometry. Here, we present hydrodynamic functions for a series of irregular and non-rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers that are commonly used in practice. Cantilever geometries of arrow shape, small aspect ratio rectangular, quasi-rectangular, irregular rectangular, non-ideal trapezoidal cross sections, and V-shape are all studied. This enables the spring constants of all these cantilevers to be accurately and routinely determined through measurement of their resonant frequency and quality factor in fluid (such as air). An approximate formulation of the hydrodynamic function for microcantilevers of arbitrary geometry is also proposed. Implementation of the method and its performance in the presence of uncertainties and non-idealities is discussed, together with conversion factors for the static and dynamic spring constants of these cantilevers. These results are expected to be of particular value to the design and application of micro- and nanomechanical systems in general.
Systematics of constant roll inflation
Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2018-02-01
We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.
Reactor group constants and benchmark test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
2001-08-01
The evaluated nuclear data files such as JENDL, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2 are validated by analyzing critical mock-up experiments for various type reactors and assessing applicability for nuclear characteristics such as criticality, reaction rates, reactivities, etc. This is called Benchmark Testing. In the nuclear calculations, the diffusion and transport codes use the group constant library which is generated by processing the nuclear data files. In this paper, the calculation methods of the reactor group constants and benchmark test are described. Finally, a new group constants scheme is proposed. (author)