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Sample records for inhibited nf-kappab activation

  1. Oleamide suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in BV2 murine microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Jung Yeon; Lee, Jinhwa; Lee, Ju Hie; Kim, Ja-Eun; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug

    2010-05-03

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is an endogenous sleep-inducing fatty acid amide that accumulates in the cerebrospinal fluid of the sleep-deprived animals. Microglia are the major immune cells involved in neuroinflammation causing brain damage during infection, ischemia, and neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we examined the effects of oleamide on LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and the mechanisms involved in BV2 microglia. Oleamide inhibited LPS-induced production of NO and prostaglandin E2 as well as expression of iNOS and COX-2. We showed that oleamide blocked LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and phosphorylation of inhibitor kappaB kinase (IKK). We also showed that oleamide inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, p38 MAPK, and ERK, activation of PI 3-kinase, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, we showed that a specific antagonist of the CB2 receptor, AM630, blocked the inhibitory effects of oleamide on LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and activation of NF-kappaB. Taken together, our results suggest that oleamide shows an anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by kainic acid mediates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression through a NF-kappaB dependent mechanism in C6 glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hana; Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Jung Yeon; Choi, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ju Hie; Baik, Hyung Hwan; Kim, Sung Soo; Choe, Wonchae; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug

    2008-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Kainic acid (KA), a prototype excitotoxin is known to induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in brain. In this study, we examined the role of AMPK in KA-induced BDNF expression in C6 glioma cells. We showed that KA and KA receptor agonist induced activation of AMPK and KA-induced AMPK activation was blocked by inhibition of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) β. We then showed that inhibition of AMPK by compound C, a selective inhibitor of AMPK, or small interfering RNA of AMPKα1 blocked KA-induced BDNF mRNA and protein expression. Inhibition of AMPK blocked KA-induced phosphorylation of CaMKII and I kappaB kinase (IKK) in C6 cells. Finally, we showed that inhibition of AMPK reduced DNA binding and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) in KA-treated cells. These results suggest that AMPK mediates KA-induced BDNF expression by regulating NF-κB activation

  3. RelA NF-κB subunit activation as a therapeutic target in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    It has been well established that nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation is important for tumor cell growth and survival. RelA/p65 and p50 are the most common NF-kB subunits and involved in the classical NF-kB pathway. However, the prognostic and biological significance of RelA/p65 is equivoca...

  4. Vorinostat, a HDAC inhibitor, showed anti-osteoarthritic activities through inhibition of iNOS and MMP expression, p38 and ERK phosphorylation and blocking NF-κB nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui-ming; Ding, Qian-hai; Chen, Wei-ping; Luo, Ru-bin

    2013-10-01

    Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). In present study, we investigated whether vorinostat can inhibit the catabolic effects of IL-1β in vitro, especially the inhibition of MMPs and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) through the attenuation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in human chondrocytes. Human OA chondrocytes were either left untreated or treated with various concentrations of vorinostat followed by incubation with IL-1β (5ng/mL). Effects of vorinostat on IL-1β-induced gene and protein expression of iNOS, MMP-1, MMP-13 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were verified by quantitative real time-PCR and Western blot analysis. Production of NO, MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 released in culture supernatant was estimated using commercially available kits. The roles of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the regulation of targeted genes and the mechanism involved in vorinostat mediated modulation of these genes were determined by Western blot using specific antibodies. We found that vorinostat down-regulated iNOS, MMP-1 and MMP-13 expression and up-regulated TIMP-1 expression in human OA chondrocytes. In addition, the release of NO, MMP-1 and MMP-13 secreted from IL-1β stimulated chondrocytes was also suppressed by vorinostat. Interestingly, vorinostat selectively inhibited IL-1β-induced p38 and ERK1/2 activation without affecting JNK activation. Furthermore, we observed that vorinostat inhibited NF-κB pathway by suppressing the degradation of I-κBα and attenuating NF-κB p65 translocation to the nucleus. These results suggest that vorinostat may be a promising therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of OA. © 2013.

  5. Identification of a novel A20-binding inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B activation termed ABIN-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huffel, S; Delaei, F; Heyninck, K; De Valck, D; Beyaert, R

    2001-08-10

    The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a central role in the regulation of genes implicated in immune responses, inflammatory processes, and apoptotic cell death. The zinc finger protein A20 is a cellular inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation by various stimuli and plays a critical role in terminating NF-kappaB responses. The underlying mechanism for NF-kappaB inhibition by A20 is still unknown. A20 has been shown to interact with several proteins including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factors 2 and 6, as well as the inhibitory protein of kappaB kinase (IKK) gamma protein. Here we report the cloning and characterization of ABIN-2, a previously unknown protein that binds to the COOH-terminal zinc finger domain of A20. NF-kappaB activation induced by TNF and interleukin-1 is inhibited by overexpression of ABIN-2. The latter also inhibits NF-kappaB activation induced by overexpression of receptor-interacting protein or TNF receptor-associated factor 2. In contrast, NF-kappaB activation by overexpression of IKKbeta or direct activators of the IKK complex, such as Tax, cannot be inhibited by ABIN-2. These results indicate that ABIN-2 interferes with NF-kappaB activation upstream of the IKK complex and that it might contribute to the NF-kappaB-inhibitory function of A20.

  6. Effects of acteoside on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in acute lung injury via regulation of NF-κB pathway in vivo and in vitro

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    Jing, Wang; Chunhua, Ma, E-mail: machunhuabest@126.com; Shumin, Wang, E-mail: wangshuminch@126.com

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of acteoside (AC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). BalB/c mice intraperitoneally received AC (30, and 60 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) 2 h prior to or after intratracheal instillation of LPS. Treatment with AC significantly decreased lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and ameliorated LPS-induced lung histopathological changes. In addition, AC increased super oxide dismutase (SOD) level and inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) content, total cell and neutrophil infiltrations, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in LPS-stimulated mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AC inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase-α (IKK-α) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase-β (IKKβ) in LPS-induced inflammation in A549 cells. Our data suggested that LPS evoked the inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells A549. The experimental results indicated that the protective mechanism of AC might be attributed partly to the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production and NF-κB activation. - Highlights: • Acteoside inhibited inflammation in LPS-induced lung injury in mice. • Acteoside inhibited inflammation in lung epithelial cells A549. • Acteoside inhibited NF-kB activation in LPS-induced mice and lung epithelial cells A549.

  7. Inhibition of NF-κB activity in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells by lovastatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhaoxia; Lan Xiaoli

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear factor NF-κB is believed to play an important role in regulating the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), which induce atherosclerosis, restenosis and plaque rupture. We incubated rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs) with 5 μmol/L lovastatin in the presence of IL-1-α and PDGF BB (20 μg/L, respectively) to study whether lovastatin inhibited NF-κB binding activity induced by IL-1 and PDGF. The NF-κB activity was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA); MMP-1 and MMP-3 were measured by western blotting; and MMP-9 was detected by zymography. The result showed that lovastatin strongly reduced NF-κB activity upregulated by IL-1 combined with PDGF, and lovastatin also dose-dependently inhibited the expression of MMP-1, -3 and -9 induced by IL-1 and PDGF. It suggested that the beneficial effects of statins may extend to mechanisms beyond cholesterol reduction

  8. A novel role of sesamol in inhibiting NF-κB-mediated signaling in platelet activation

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    Chang Chao-Chien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Our previous studies revealed that sesamol possesses potent antiplatelet activity through increasing cyclic AMP formation. Although platelets are anucleated cells, they also express the transcription factor, NF-κB, that may exert non-genomic functions in platelet activation. Therefore, we further investigated the inhibitory roles of sesamol in NF-κB-mediated platelet function. Methods Platelet aggregation, Fura 2-AM fluorescence, and immunoblotting analysis were used in this study. Results NF-κB signaling events, including IKKβ phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and p65 phosphorylation, were markedly activated by collagen (1 μg/ml in washed human platelets, and these signaling events were attenuated by sesamol (2.5~25 μM. Furthermore, SQ22536 and ODQ, inhibitors of adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase, respectively, strongly reversed the sesamol (25 μM-mediated inhibitory effects of IKKβ phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and p65 phosphorylation stimulated by collagen. The protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor, H89, also reversed sesamol-mediated inhibition of IκBα degradation. Moreover, BAY11-7082, an NF-κB inhibitor, abolished IκBα degradation, phospholipase C (PLCγ2 phosphorylation, protein kinase C (PKC activation, [Ca2+]i mobilization, and platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Preincubation of platelets with the inhibitors, SQ22536 and H89, both strongly reversed sesamol-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation and [Ca2+]i mobilization. Conclusions Sesamol activates cAMP-PKA signaling, followed by inhibition of the NF-κB-PLC-PKC cascade, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca2+]i mobilization and platelet aggregation. Because platelet activation is not only linked to hemostasis, but also has a relevant role in inflammation and metastasis, our data demonstrating that inhibition of NF-κB interferes with platelet function may

  9. Exercise Training Mitigates Water Pipe Smoke Exposure-Induced Pulmonary Impairment via Inhibiting NF-κB and Activating Nrf2 Signalling Pathways

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    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pipe smoking is a tobacco smoking method commonly used in Eastern countries and is gaining popularity in Europe and North America, in particular among adolescents and young adults. Several clinical and experimental studies have reported that exposure to water pipe smoke (WPS induces lung inflammation and impairment of pulmonary function. However, the mechanisms of such effects are not understood, as are data on the possible palliative effect of exercise training. The present study evaluated the effects of regular aerobic exercise training (treadmill: 5 days/week, 40 min/day on subchronic exposure to WPS (30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 2 months. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to air or WPS with or without exercise training. Airway resistance measured using forced oscillation technique was significantly and dose-dependently increased in the WPS-exposed group when compared with the air-exposed one. Exercise training significantly prevented the effect of WPS on airway resistance. Histologically, the lungs of WPS-exposed mice had focal moderate interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration consisting of neutrophil polymorphs, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. There was a mild increase in intra-alveolar macrophages and a focal damage to alveolar septae in some foci. Exercise training significantly alleviated these effects and also decreased the WPS-induced increase of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 concentrations and attenuated the increase of 8-isoprostane in lung homogenates. Likewise, the lung DNA damage induced by WPS was significantly inhibited by exercise training. Moreover, exercise training inhibited nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB expression induced by WPS and increased that of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Our findings suggest that exercise training significantly mitigated WPS-induced increase in airway resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage via mechanisms that include inhibiting NF-κB and

  10. Regulation of NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes: effects of flavonoids at dietary-relevant concentrations

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    Spilsbury, Alison [Reading School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB (United Kingdom); Vauzour, David; Spencer, Jeremy P.E. [Molecular Nutrition Group, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP (United Kingdom); Rattray, Marcus, E-mail: m.a.n.rattray@reading.ac.uk [Reading School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of flavonoids inhibit NF-{kappa}B in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Primary cultured astrocytes possess a functional {kappa}B-system, measured using luciferase assays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven flavonoids (100 nM-1 {mu}M) failed to reduce NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four flavonoids (100 nM-1 {mu}M) failed to reduce TNFa-stimulated NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (-)-Epicatechin did not regulate nuclear translocation of the NF-{kappa}B subunit, p65. -- Abstract: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Sustained activation of nuclear transcription factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Flavonoids have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and we investigated whether flavonoids, at submicromolar concentrations relevant to their bioavailability from the diet, were able to modulate NF-{kappa}B signalling in astrocytes. Using luciferase reporter assays, we found that tumour necrosis factor (TNF{alpha}, 150 ng/ml) increased NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription in primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes, which was abolished on co-transfection of a dominant-negative I{kappa}B{alpha} construct. In addition, TNF{alpha} increased nuclear localisation of p65 as shown by immunocytochemistry. To investigate potential flavonoid modulation of NF-{kappa}B activity, astrocytes were treated with flavonoids from different classes; flavan-3-ols ((-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin), flavones (luteolin and chrysin), a flavonol (kaempferol) or the flavanones (naringenin and hesperetin) at dietary-relevant concentrations (0.1-1 {mu}M) for 18 h. None of the flavonoids modulated constitutive or

  11. Lipocalin 2 Suppresses Ocular Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of NF-κβ Pathway in Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

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    Wenyi Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipocalin 2 (LCN2, an important mediator of a variety of cellular processes, is involved in regulating the inflammatory response, but its roles in different inflammatory diseases are controversial. Because the role of LCN2 in ocular inflammation has been unclear until now, we explored the function of LCN2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ocular inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by the intravitreal injection of LPS. The expression and location of LCN2 in the retina were detected with western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We determined the clinical scores for anterior inflammation, quantified the infiltrated inflammatory cells, and measured the pro-inflammatory factors to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of LCN2 in EIU eyes. Cultured primary rat Müller cells were stimulated with LPS and the expression and secretion of LCN2 were measured with real-time PCR, western blotting, and an ELISA. After Müller cells were cotreated with LPS and LCN2 or PBS, the expression and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 were examined with realtime PCR, western blotting, and ELISAs. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect the phosphorylation and cellular distribution of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB subunit p65. Results: In EIU, the expression of LCN2 was significantly upregulated in the retina, especially in the outer nuclear layer (mainly composed of Müller cells. LPS stimulation of cultured Müller cells also markedly elevated LCN2 expression. Intravitreal injection of LCN2 significantly reduced the clinical scores, inflammatory infiltration, and protein leakage in EIU, which correlated with the reduced levels of proinflammatory factors in the aqueous humor and retina. LCN2 treatment also reduced the expression and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 in LPS-stimulated Müller cells. LCN2 inhibited the inflammatory

  12. A novel form of the RelA nuclear factor kappaB subunit is induced by and forms a complex with the proto-oncogene c-Myc.

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    Chapman, Neil R; Webster, Gill A; Gillespie, Peter J; Wilson, Brian J; Crouch, Dorothy H; Perkins, Neil D

    2002-01-01

    Members of both Myc and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) families of transcription factors are found overexpressed or inappropriately activated in many forms of human cancer. Furthermore, NF-kappaB can induce c-Myc gene expression, suggesting that the activities of these factors are functionally linked. We have discovered that both c-Myc and v-Myc can induce a previously undescribed, truncated form of the RelA(p65) NF-kappaB subunit, RelA(p37). RelA(p37) encodes the N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domain of RelA(p65) and would be expected to function as a trans-dominant negative inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Surprisingly, we found that RelA(p37) no longer binds to kappaB elements. This result is explained, however, by the observation that RelA(p37), but not RelA(p65), forms a high-molecular-mass complex with c-Myc. These results demonstrate a previously unknown functional and physical interaction between RelA and c-Myc with many significant implications for our understanding of the role that both proteins play in the molecular events underlying tumourigenesis. PMID:12027803

  13. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

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    Wang, Qiang-Song; Xiang, Yaozu; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Lin, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK) α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food

  14. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Song Wang

    Full Text Available The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported.The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, interleukin (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo.These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional

  15. Ganoderma lucidum ethanol extract inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing the NF-κB and toll-like receptor pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglial cells.

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    Yoon, Hyun-Min; Jang, Kyung-Jun; Han, Min Seok; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gi Young; Lee, Jai-Heon; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Oriental medicine that has been widely used as a tonic to promote longevity and health in Korea and other Asian countries. Although a great deal of work has been carried out on the therapeutic potential of this mushroom, the pharmacological mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory actions remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of G. lucidum ethanol extract (EGL) on the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglia. We also investigated the effects of EGL on the LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production were detected in BV2 microglia following LPS stimulation. We identifed that EGL significantly inhibits the excessive production of NO, PGE(2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in a concentration-dependent manner without causing cytotoxicity. In addition, EGL suppressed NF-κB translocation and transcriptional activity by blocking IκB degradation and inhibiting TLR4 and MyD88 expression in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Our results indicate that the inhibitory effects of EGL on LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in BV2 microglia are associated with the suppression of the NF-κB and TLR signaling pathways. Therefore, EGL may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by inhibiting inflammatory mediator responses in activated microglia.

  16. Effects of protein-energy malnutrition on NF-kappaB signalling in murine peritoneal macrophages.

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    Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Curi, Rui; Borges, Maria Carolina; Borelli, Primavera

    2010-04-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is an important public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. PEM decreases resistance to infection, impairing a number of physiological processes. In unstimulated cells, NF-kappaB is kept from binding to its consensus sequence by the inhibitor I kappaB alpha, which retains NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm. Upon various signals, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), I kappaB alpha is rapidly degraded and NF-kappaB is induced to translocate into the nucleus, where it activates expression of various genes that participate in the inflammatory response, including those involved in the synthesis of TNF-alpha. TRAF-6 is a cytoplasmic adapter protein that links the stimulatory signal from Toll like receptor-4 to NF-kappaB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of malnutrition on induction of TNF-alpha by LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages. We evaluated peritoneal cellularity, the expression of MyD88, TRAF-6, IKK, I kappaB alpha and NF-kappaB, NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha mRNA and protein synthesis in macrophages. Two-month-old male BALB/C mice were submitted to PEM with a low-protein diet that contained 2% protein, compared to 12% protein in the control diet. When the experimental group had lost about 20% of the original body weight, it was used in the subsequent experiments. Malnourished animals presented anemia, leucopenia and severe reduction in peritoneal cavity cellularity. TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels of macrophages stimulated with LPS were significantly lower in malnourished animals. PEM also decreased TRAF-6 expression and NF-kappaB activation after LPS stimulation. These results led us to conclude that PEM changes NF-kB signalling pathway in macrophages to LPS stimulus.

  17. Danshen attenuates osteoarthritis-related cartilage degeneration through inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

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    Xu, Xilin; Lv, Hang; Li, Xiaodong; Su, Hui; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) is a traditional Chinese medicine herb that can alleviate the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) (Söder et al. 2006) in animals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and require further investigation. In this study, rabbits with experimentally induced OA were given an intra-articular injection of danshen (0.7 mL/day) for 5 weeks. In addition to attenuating the cartilage degeneration of OA in the rabbits, danshen decreased the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and MMP-13, and increased the expression of their natural inhibitors: tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. Apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage tissues was attenuated by danshen, accompanied with increased expression of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and decreased levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). Further, danshen inhibited the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) p65 in osteoarthritic cartilage. The therapeutic effects of danshen in vivo were comparable to that of sodium hyaluronate, which is a drug used clinically for the treatment OA. In vitro, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used to stimulate apoptosis in primary rabbit chondrocytes. We found that the SNP-induced apoptosis was mitigated by danshen. BAY11-7028, an inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway, augmented danshen's anti-apoptotic effects in cells exposed to SNP. When these results are considered together, they indicate that danshen alleviates the cartilage injury in rabbit OA through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  18. Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice

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    Sun, Daqing [Department of Respiration, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Wang, Jing [Department of Neonatology, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Yang, Niandi [Outpatient Department, School of Aerospace Engineering, Air Force Engineering University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Ma, Haixin, E-mail: drhaixinma@163.com [Department of Quality Control, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China)

    2016-08-12

    Matrine has been demonstrated to attenuate allergic airway inflammation. Elevated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was correlated with the severity of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on SOCS3 expression in airway inflammation. In this study, we found that matrine significantly inhibited OVA-induced AHR, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell differentiation, and mucous production in a dose-dependent manner in mice. Matrine also abrogated the level of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, but enhanced interferon (IFN)-γ expression, both in BALF and in lung homogenates. Furthermore, matrine impeded TNF-α-induced the expression of IL-6 and adhesion molecules in airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B and MLE-12). Additionally, we found that matrine inhibited SOCS3 expression, both in asthmatic mice and TNF-α-stimulated epithelial cells via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway by using pcDNA3.1-SOCS3 plasmid, SOCS3 siRNA, or nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) inhibitor PDTC. Conclusions: Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice. - Highlights: • Matrine attenuates asthmatic symptoms and regulates Th1/Th2 balance in vivo. • Matrine suppresses inflammation responses in vitro. • Matrine decreases SOCS3 expression both in vivo and in vitro. • Matrine inhibits SOCS3 expression by suppressing NF-κB signaling.

  19. Haloperidol Abrogates Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression by Inhibition of NF-κB Activation in Stimulated Human Monocytic Cells

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    Yueh-Lun Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence has indicated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs participate in the progression of neuroinflammatory disorders. The present study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of the antipsychotic haloperidol on MMP activation in the stimulated THP-1 monocytic cells. Haloperidol exerted a strong inhibition on tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α-induced MMP-9 gelatinolysis of THP-1 cells. A concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of haloperidol was observed in TNF-α-induced protein and mRNA expression of MMP-9. On the other hand, haloperidol slightly affected cell viability and tissue inhibition of metalloproteinase-1 levels. It significantly inhibited the degradation of inhibitor-κB-α (IκBα in activated cells. Moreover, it suppressed activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB detected by a mobility shift assay, NF-κB reporter gene, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. Consistent with NF-κB inhibition, haloperidol exerted a strong inhibition of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced MMP-9 gelatinolysis but not of transforming growth factor-β1-induced MMP-2. In in vivo studies, administration of haloperidol significantly attenuated LPS-induced intracerebral MMP-9 activation of the brain homogenate and the in situ in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, the selective anti-MMP-9 activation of haloperidol could possibly involve the inhibition of the NF-κB signal pathway. Hence, it was found that haloperidol treatment may represent a bystander of anti-MMP actions for its conventional psychotherapy.

  20. Pentacyclic Triterpenoids Inhibit IKKβ Mediated Activation of NF-κB Pathway: In Silico and In Vitro Evidences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpesh R Patil

    Full Text Available Pentacyclic Triterpenoids (PTs and their analogues as well as derivatives are emerging as important drug leads for various diseases. They act through a variety of mechanisms and a majority of them inhibit the nuclear factor kappa-beta (NF-κB signaling pathway. In this study, we examined the effects of the naturally occurring PTs on IκB kinase-β (IKKβ, which has great scientific relevance in the NF-κB signaling pathway. On virtual screening, 109 PTs were screened through the PASS (prediction of activity spectra of substances software for prediction of NF-κB inhibitory activity followed by docking on the NEMO/IKKβ association complex (PDB: 3BRV and testing for compliance with the softened Lipinski's Rule of Five using Schrodinger (LLC, New York, USA. Out of the projected 45 druggable PTs, Corosolic Acid (CA, Asiatic Acid (AA and Ursolic Acid (UA were assayed for IKKβ kinase activity in the cell free medium. The UA exhibited a potent IKKβ inhibitory effect on the hotspot kinase assay with IC50 of 69 μM. Whereas, CA at 50 μM concentration markedly reduced the NF-κB luciferase activity and phospho-IKKβ protein expressions. The PTs tested, attenuated the expression of the NF-κB cascade proteins in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, prevented the phosphorylation of the IKKα/β and blocked the activation of the Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ. The results suggest that the IKKβ inhibition is the major mechanism of the PTs-induced NF-κB inhibition. PASS predictions along with in-silico docking against the NEMO/IKKβ can be successfully applied in the selection of the prospective NF-κB inhibitory downregulators of IKKβ phosphorylation.

  1. Acetylshikonin Inhibits Human Pancreatic PANC-1 Cancer Cell Proliferation by Suppressing the NF-κB Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seok-Cheol; Choi, Bu Young

    2015-09-01

    Acetylshikonin, a natural naphthoquinone derivative compound, has been used for treatment of inflammation and cancer. In the present study, we have investigated whether acetylshikonin could regulate the NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby leading to suppression of tumorigenesis. We observed that acetylshikonin significantly reduced proliferation of several cancer cell lines, including human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells. In addition, acetylshikonin inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB reporter activity. Proteome cytokine array and real-time RT-PCR results illustrated that acetylshikonin inhibition of PMA-induced production of cytokines was mediated at the transcriptional level and it was associated with suppression of NF-κB activity and matrix metalloprotenases. Finally, we observed that an exposure of acetylshikonin significantly inhibited the anchorage-independent growth of PANC-1 cells. Together, our results indicate that acetylshikonin could serve as a promising therapeutic agent for future treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  2. Lentiviral-mediated targeted NF-kappaB blockade in dorsal spinal cord glia attenuates sciatic nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Alice; Latrémolière, Alban; Dominguez, Elisa; Mauborgne, Annie; Philippe, Stéphanie; Hamon, Michel; Mallet, Jacques; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Pohl, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Neuropathic pain developing after peripheral nerve injury is associated with altered neuronal and glial cell functions in the spinal cord. Activated glia produces algogenic mediators, exacerbating pain. Among the different intracellular pathways possibly involved in the modified glial function, the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) system is of particular interest, as numerous genes encoding inflammation- and pain-related molecules are controlled by this transcription factor. NF-kappaB is a pleiotropic factor also involved in central nervous system homeostasy. To study its role in chronic pain, it is thus essential to inhibit the NF-kappaB pathway selectively in activated spinal glial cells. Here, we show that when restricted to spinal cord and targeted to glial cells, lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of NF-kappaB super- repressor IkappaBalpha resulted in an inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway activated in the rat spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury (chronic constriction injury, CCI). Concomitantly, IkappaBalpha overproduction prevented the enhanced expression of interleukin-6 and of inducible nitric oxide synthase associated with chronic constriction injury and resulted in prolonged antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects. These data show that targeted blockade of NF-kappaB activity in spinal glia efficiently alleviates pain behavior in CCI rats, demonstrating the active participation of the glial NF-kappaB pathway in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury.

  3. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of KYKZL-1 via MAPK and NF-κB pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Guang-Lin; Du, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Jing; Huan, Lin; Chen, Shi-Cui; Wei, Shao-Hua; Gong, Zhu-Nan; Cai, Jie; Qiu, Ting; Wu, Hao; Sun, Ting; Ao, Gui-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    KYKZL-1, a newly synthesized compound with COX/5-LOX dual inhibition, was subjected to the anti-inflammatory activity test focusing on its modulation of inflammatory mediators as well as intracellular MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In acute ear edema model, pretreatment with KYKZL-1 (p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the xylene-induced ear edema in mice with a higher inhibition than diclofenac. In a three-day TPA-induced inflammation, KYKZL-1 also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition ranging between 20% and 64%. In gastric lesion test, KYKZL-1 elicited markedly fewer stomach lesions with a low index of ulcer as compared to diclofenac in rats. In further studies, KYKZL-1 was found to significantly inhibit the production of NO, PGE 2 , LTB 4 in LPS challenged RAW264.7, which is parallel to its attenuation of the expression of iNOS, COX-2, 5-LOX mRNAs or proteins and inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. Taken together, our data indicate that KYKZL-1 comprises dual inhibition of COX and 5-LOX and exerts an obvious anti-inflammatory activity with an enhanced gastric safety profile via simultaneous inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. - Highlights: • KYKZL-1 is designed to exhibit COX/5-LOX dual inhibition. • KYKZL-1 inhibits NO, PGE 2 and LTB 4 and iNOS, COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNAs and MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inhibits phosphorylation of MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inactivates NF-κB pathway

  4. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of KYKZL-1 via MAPK and NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang-Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Du, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Jing; Huan, Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Chen, Shi-Cui [Jinhu Food and Drug Administration, Jiangsu (China); Wei, Shao-Hua [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Zhu-Nan, E-mail: biopharmacology@126.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Cai, Jie; Qiu, Ting; Wu, Hao; Sun, Ting [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Ao, Gui-Zhen [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Soochow University, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-10-01

    KYKZL-1, a newly synthesized compound with COX/5-LOX dual inhibition, was subjected to the anti-inflammatory activity test focusing on its modulation of inflammatory mediators as well as intracellular MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In acute ear edema model, pretreatment with KYKZL-1 (p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the xylene-induced ear edema in mice with a higher inhibition than diclofenac. In a three-day TPA-induced inflammation, KYKZL-1 also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition ranging between 20% and 64%. In gastric lesion test, KYKZL-1 elicited markedly fewer stomach lesions with a low index of ulcer as compared to diclofenac in rats. In further studies, KYKZL-1 was found to significantly inhibit the production of NO, PGE{sub 2}, LTB{sub 4} in LPS challenged RAW264.7, which is parallel to its attenuation of the expression of iNOS, COX-2, 5-LOX mRNAs or proteins and inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. Taken together, our data indicate that KYKZL-1 comprises dual inhibition of COX and 5-LOX and exerts an obvious anti-inflammatory activity with an enhanced gastric safety profile via simultaneous inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. - Highlights: • KYKZL-1 is designed to exhibit COX/5-LOX dual inhibition. • KYKZL-1 inhibits NO, PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4} and iNOS, COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNAs and MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inhibits phosphorylation of MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inactivates NF-κB pathway.

  5. Soyasaponins can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Longying; Chen, Jiading; Sun, Suxia; Mao, Limei; Chu, Xinwei; Deng, Hong; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-01-01

    We and others have recently shown that soyasaponins abundant in soybeans can decrease inflammation by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated inflammation. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which soyasaponins inhibit the NF-kB pathway have not been established. In this study in macrophages, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of inflammatory marker prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a similar extent as the NF-kB inhibitor (BAY117082). Soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) also suppressed the LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), another inflammatory marker, in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting NF-kB activation. In defining the associated mechanisms, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) blunted the LPS-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation, IkB phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In studying the upstream targets of soyasaponins on the NF-kB pathway, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) suppressed the LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt similarly as the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, which alone blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kB. Additionally, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) reduced the LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the same extent as the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which alone inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, IKKα/β, IkBα, and p65, transactivity of NF-kB, PGE2 production, and malondialdehyde production. Finally, our results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) elevated SOD activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Together, these results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the ROS-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

  6. Inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by modulating cytokines and attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Jia, Lin-Lin; Qi, Jie; Song, Xin-Ai; Tan, Hong [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Young normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusions with NF–κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, cardiomyocyte diameters of the left cardiac ventricle, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). These SHR rats had higher PVN levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NAD(P)H oxidase activity, mRNA expression of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN IL-10, and higher plasma levels of PICs and NE, and lower plasma IL-10. PVN infusion of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC attenuated all these changes. These findings suggest that NF-κB activation in the PVN increases sympathoexcitation and hypertensive response, which are associated with the increases of PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN; PVN inhibition of NF-κB activity attenuates PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, thereby attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced neurohormonal excitation. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced imbalance of cytokines

  7. Pedilanthus tithymaloides Inhibits HSV Infection by Modulating NF-κB Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Ojha

    Full Text Available Pedilanthus tithymaloides (PT, a widely used ethnomedicinal plant, has been employed to treat a number of skin conditions. To extend its utility and to fully exploit its medicinal potential, we have evaluated the in vitro antiviral activity of a methanolic extract of PT leaves and its isolated compounds against Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Bioactivity-guided studies revealed that the extract and one of its constituents, luteolin, had potent antiviral activity against wild-type and clinical isolates of HSV-2 (EC50 48.5-52.6 and 22.4-27.5 μg/ml, respectively, with nearly complete inhibition at 86.5-101.8 and 40.2-49.6 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect was significant (p<0.001 when the drug was added 2 h prior to infection, and was effective up to 4 h post-infection. As viral replication requires NF-κB activation, we examined whether the observed extract-induced inhibition of HSV-2 was related to NF-κB inhibition. Interestingly, we observed that treatment of HSV-2-infected cells with extract or luteolin suppressed NF-κB activation. Although NF-κB, JNK and MAPK activation was compromised during HSV replication, neither the extract nor luteolin affected HSV-2-induced JNK1/2 and MAPK activation. Moreover, the PT leaf extract and luteolin potently down-regulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, NO and iNOS and the production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ, which are directly involved in controlling the NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, our results indicate that both PT leaf extract and luteolin modulate the NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in the inhibition of HSV-2 replication.

  8. Regorafenib induces extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis through inhibition of ERK/NF-κB activation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jai-Jen; Pan, Po-Jung; Hsu, Fei-Ting

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of NF-κB inactivation in regorafenib-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP-1 cells. SK-HEP-1 cells were treated with different concentrations of the NF-κB inhibitor 4-N-[2-(4-phenoxyphenyl)ethyl]quinazoline-4,6-diamine (QNZ) or regorafenib for different periods. The effects of QNZ and regorafenib on cell viability, expression of NF-κB-modulated anti-apoptotic proteins and apoptotic pathways were analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, western blotting, DNA gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry and NF-κB reporter gene assay. Inhibitors of various kinases including AKT, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), P38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were used to evaluate the mechanism of regorafenib-induced NF-κB inactivation. The results demonstrated that both QNZ and regorafenib significantly inhibited the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and triggered extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis. We also demonstrated that regorafenib inhibited NF-κB activation through ERK dephosphorylation. Taken all together, our findings indicate that regorafenib triggers extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis through suppression of ERK/NF-κB activation in SK-HEP-1 cells.

  9. Aloin Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis by Inhibiting the Activation of NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous herbal-derived natural products are excellent anti-inflammatory agents. Several studies have reported that aloin, the major anthraquinone glycoside obtained from the Aloe species, exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism of this activity is not well understood. In this report, we found that aloin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and nitric oxide production, and downregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Aloin inhibits the phosphorylation and acetylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit by suppressing the upstream kinases p38 and Msk1, preventing LPS-induced p65 translocation to the nucleus. We have also shown that aloin inhibits LPS-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these findings suggest that aloin effectively suppresses the inflammatory response, primarily through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling.

  10. Inhibition of transcription factor NF-kappaB signaling proteins IKKbeta and p65 through specific cysteine residues by epoxyquinone A monomer: correlation with its anti-cancer cell growth activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei-Chih; Bardhan, Sujata; Pace, Emily A; Rosman, Diana; Beutler, John A; Porco, John A; Gilmore, Thomas D

    2006-02-28

    Transcription factor NF-kappaB is constitutively active in many human chronic inflammatory diseases and cancers. Epoxyquinone A monomer (EqM), a synthetic derivative of the natural product epoxyquinol A, has previously been shown to be a potent inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced activation of NF-kappaB, but the mechanism by which EqM inhibits NF-kappaB activation was not known. In this report, we show that EqM blocks activation of NF-kappaB by inhibiting two molecular targets: IkappaB kinase IKKbeta and NF-kappaB subunit p65. EqM inhibits TNF-alpha-induced IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation by targeting IKKbeta, and an alanine substitution for Cys179 in the activation loop of IKKbeta makes it resistant to EqM-mediated inhibition. EqM also directly inhibits DNA binding by p65, but not p50; moreover, replacement of Cys38 in p65 with Ser abolishes EqM-mediated inhibition of DNA binding. Pretreatment of cells with reducing agent dithiothreitol dose-dependently reduces EqM-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB, further suggesting that EqM directly modifies the thiol group of Cys residues in protein targets. Modifications of the exocyclic alkene of EqM substantially reduce EqM's ability to inhibit NF-kappaB activation. In the human SUDHL-4 lymphoma cell line, EqM inhibits both proliferation and NF-kappaB DNA binding, and activates caspase-3 activity. EqM also effectively inhibits the growth of human leukemia, kidney, and colon cancer cell lines in the NCI's tumor cell panel. Among six colon cancer cell lines, those with low amounts of constitutive NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity are generally more sensitive to growth inhibition by EqM. Taken together, these results suggest that EqM inhibits growth and induces cell death in tumor cells through a mechanism that involves inhibition of NF-kappaB activity at multiple steps in the signaling pathway.

  11. Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Ko, Yong-Hyun; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. methanol extract (VBME) on microglial activation and to identify the underlying mechanisms of action of these effects. The anti-inflammatory properties of VBME were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. We measured the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as inflammatory parameters. We also examined the effect of VBME on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65). VBME significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of NO and PGE2 and LPS-mediated upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner; importantly, VBME was not cytotoxic. VBME also significantly reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In addition, VBME significantly dampened intracellular ROS production and suppressed NF-κB p65 translocation by blocking IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Our findings indicate that VBME inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in BV-2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB signaling. Thus, VBME may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases due to its ability to inhibit inflammatory mediator production in activated BV-2 microglial cells.

  12. Inhibition of NF-κB promotes autophagy via JNK signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hui; Lin, Lu; Haq, Ihtesham Ul; Zeng, Shen-ming

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays an important role in diverse processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of NF-κB in porcine follicle development is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased the level of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein and promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p65, indicating that FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB by FSH or another specific inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), could activate JNK signaling and enhance autophagic activity in porcine granulosa cells. Knockdown of RelA (p65) Subunit of NF-κB by RNA interference abrogated the activation of JNK signaling pathway and the increase of autophagic protein expression by FSH. Meanwhile, the functional significance of FSH or PDTC-mediated autophagy were further investigated. Our results demonstrated that the increased autophagy promoted progesterone secretion in porcine granulosa cells. Blockage of autophagy by chloroquine obviated the FSH or PDTC-induced progesterone production. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB increased autophagy via JNK signaling, and promote steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells. Our results provide new insights into the regulation and function of autophagy in mammalian follicle development. - Highlights: • FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine primary granulosa cells. • Inhibition of NF-κB by FSH promotes autophagy via JNK signaling in granulosa cells. • Increased autophagy contributes to progesterone production in granulosa cells. • This is the first report against beclin1 regulation in porcine granulosa cells.

  13. Inhibition of NF-κB promotes autophagy via JNK signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hui; Lin, Lu; Haq, Ihtesham Ul; Zeng, Shen-ming, E-mail: zengshenming@gmail.com

    2016-04-22

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays an important role in diverse processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of NF-κB in porcine follicle development is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased the level of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein and promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p65, indicating that FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB by FSH or another specific inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), could activate JNK signaling and enhance autophagic activity in porcine granulosa cells. Knockdown of RelA (p65) Subunit of NF-κB by RNA interference abrogated the activation of JNK signaling pathway and the increase of autophagic protein expression by FSH. Meanwhile, the functional significance of FSH or PDTC-mediated autophagy were further investigated. Our results demonstrated that the increased autophagy promoted progesterone secretion in porcine granulosa cells. Blockage of autophagy by chloroquine obviated the FSH or PDTC-induced progesterone production. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB increased autophagy via JNK signaling, and promote steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells. Our results provide new insights into the regulation and function of autophagy in mammalian follicle development. - Highlights: • FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine primary granulosa cells. • Inhibition of NF-κB by FSH promotes autophagy via JNK signaling in granulosa cells. • Increased autophagy contributes to progesterone production in granulosa cells. • This is the first report against beclin1 regulation in porcine granulosa cells.

  14. Sustained NF-κB activation and inhibition in β-cells have minimal effects on function and islet transplant outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen J F King

    Full Text Available The activation of the transcription factor NF-κB leads to changes in expression of many genes in pancreatic β-cells. However, the role of NF-κB activation in islet transplantation has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the state of NF-κB activation would influence the outcome of islet transplantation. Transgenic mice expressing a dominant active IKKβ (constitutively active or a non-degradable form of IκBα (constitutive inhibition under control of the rat insulin promoter were generated. Islets from these mice were transplanted into streptozotocin diabetic mice in suboptimal numbers. Further, the effects of salicylate (an inhibitor of NF-κB treatment of normal islets prior to transplantation, and the effects of salicylate administration to mice prior to and after islet implantation were evaluated. Transplantation outcomes were not affected using islets expressing a non-degradable form of IκBα when compared to wild type controls. However, the transplantation outcomes using islets isolated from mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of NF-κB were marginally worse, although no aberrations of islet function in vitro could be detected. Salicylate treatment of normal islets or mice had no effect on transplantation outcome. The current study draws attention to the complexities of NF-κB in pancreatic beta cells by suggesting that they can adapt with normal or near normal function to both chronic activation and inhibition of this important transcription factor.

  15. ANKRD1 modulates inflammatory responses in C2C12 myoblasts through feedback inhibition of NF-κB signaling activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Hua [National Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Bauman, William A. [National Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Cardozo, Christopher, E-mail: chris.cardozo@va.gov [National Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Transcription factors of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) family play a pivotal role in inflammation, immunity and cell survival responses. Recent studies revealed that NF-κB also regulates the processes of muscle atrophy. NF-κB activity is regulated by various factors, including ankyrin repeat domain 2 (AnkrD2), which belongs to the muscle ankyrin repeat protein family. Another member of this family, AnkrD1 is also a transcriptional effector. The expression levels of AnkrD1 are highly upregulated in denervated skeletal muscle, suggesting an involvement of AnkrD1 in NF-κB mediated cellular responses to paralysis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactive role of AnkrD1 in NF-κB mediated cellular responses is not well understood. In the current study, we examined the effect of AnkrD1 on NF-κB activity and determined the interactions between AnkrD1 expression and NF-κB signaling induced by TNFα in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts. TNFα upregulated AnkrD1 mRNA and protein levels. AnkrD1-siRNA significantly increased TNFα-induced transcriptional activation of NF-κB, whereas overexpression of AnkrD1 inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB activity. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AnkrD1 was able to bind p50 subunit of NF-κB and vice versa. Finally, CHIP assays revealed that AnkrD1 bound chromatin at a NF-κB binding site in the AnrkD2 promoter and required NF-κB to do so. These results provide evidence of signaling integration between AnkrD1 and NF-κB pathways, and suggest a novel anti-inflammatory role of AnkrD1 through feedback inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activity by which AnkrD1 modulates the balance between physiological and pathological inflammatory responses in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • AnkrD1 is upregulated by TNFα and represses NF-κB-induced transcriptional activity. • AnkrD1 binds to p50 subunit of NF-κB and is recruited to NF-κB bound to chromatin. • AnkrD1 mediates a feed-back inhibitory loop

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL24 Abrogates the DNA Sensing Signal Pathway by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyan; Su, Chenhe; Pearson, Angela; Mody, Christopher H; Zheng, Chunfu

    2017-04-01

    Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a newly identified DNA sensor that recognizes foreign DNA, including the genome of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Upon binding of viral DNA, cGAS produces cyclic GMP-AMP, which interacts with and activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to trigger the transcription of antiviral genes such as type I interferons (IFNs), and the production of inflammatory cytokines. HSV-1 UL24 is widely conserved among members of the herpesviruses family and is essential for efficient viral replication. In this study, we found that ectopically expressed UL24 could inhibit cGAS-STING-mediated promoter activation of IFN-β and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and UL24 also inhibited interferon-stimulatory DNA-mediated IFN-β and IL-6 production during HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, UL24 selectively blocked nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) but not IFN-regulatory factor 3 promoter activation. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that UL24 bound to the endogenous NF-κB subunits p65 and p50 in HSV-1-infected cells, and UL24 was also found to bind the Rel homology domains (RHDs) of these subunits. Furthermore, UL24 reduced the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-mediated nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. Finally, mutational analysis revealed that the region spanning amino acids (aa) 74 to 134 of UL24 [UL24(74-134)] is responsible for inhibiting cGAS-STING-mediated NF-κB promoter activity. For the first time, UL24 was shown to play an important role in immune evasion during HSV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE NF-κB is a critical component of the innate immune response and is strongly induced downstream of most pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to the production of IFN-β as well as a number of inflammatory chemokines and interleukins. To establish persistent infection, viruses have evolved various mechanisms to counteract the host NF-κB pathway. In the present study, for the first time, HSV-1 UL24 was demonstrated to inhibit the activation of NF

  17. Estrogen deficiency inhibits the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells via activation of the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Yan, Ming; Yu, Yan; Wu, Jintao; Yu, Jinhua; Fan, Zhipeng

    2013-06-01

    Various factors can affect the functions of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). However, little knowledge is available about the effects of estrogen deficiency on the differentiation of DPSCs. In this study, an estrogen-deficient rat model was constructed and multi-colony-derived DPSCs were obtained from the incisors of ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated rats. Odonto/osteogenic differentiation and the possible involvement of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in the OVX-DPSCs/Sham-DPSCs of these rats were then investigated. OVX-DPSCs presented decreased odonto/osteogenic capacity and an activated NF-κB pathway, as compared with Sham-DPSCs. When the cellular NF-κB pathway was specifically inhibited by BMS345541, the odonto/osteogenic potential in OVX-DPSCs was significantly upregulated. Thus, estrogen deficiency down-regulated the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs by activating NF-κB signaling and inhibition of the NF-κB pathway effectively rescued the decreased differentiation potential of DPSCs.

  18. Diclofenac inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-induced nuclear factor-κB activation causing synergistic hepatocyte apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Lisa; Herpers, Bram; Benedetti, Giulia; Matadin, Quraisha; Puigvert, Jordi C; de Bont, Hans; Dragovic, Sanja; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Commandeur, Jan N M; Danen, Erik; de Graauw, Marjo; van de Water, Bob

    2011-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important clinical problem. It involves crosstalk between drug toxicity and the immune system, but the exact mechanism at the cellular hepatocyte level is not well understood. Here we studied the mechanism of crosstalk in hepatocyte apoptosis caused by diclofenac and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). HepG2 cells were treated with diclofenac followed by TNF-α challenge and subsequent evaluation of necrosis and apoptosis. Diclofenac caused a mild apoptosis of HepG2 cells, which was strongly potentiated by TNF-α. A focused apoptosis machinery short interference RNA (siRNA) library screen identified that this TNF-α-mediated enhancement involved activation of caspase-3 through a caspase-8/Bid/APAF1 pathway. Diclofenac itself induced sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and inhibition of JNK decreased both diclofenac and diclofenac/TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Live cell imaging of GFPp65/RelA showed that diclofenac dampened the TNF-α-mediated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) translocation oscillation in association with reduced NF-κB transcriptional activity. This was associated with inhibition by diclofenac of the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of the inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα). Finally, inhibition of IκB kinase β (IKKβ) with BMS-345541 as well as stable lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-based knockdown of p65/RelA sensitized hepatocytes towards diclofenac/TNF-α-induced cytotoxicity. Together, our data suggest a model whereby diclofenac-mediated stress signaling suppresses TNF-α-induced survival signaling routes and sensitizes cells to apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Altholactone Inhibits NF-κB and STAT3 Activation and Induces Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells

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    Chunwa Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Altholactone, a natural compound isolated from Goniothalamus spp., has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, but its molecular mechanisms are still not fully defined. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 play pivotal roles in the cell survival of many human tumors. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of altholactone against prostate cancer DU145 cells and to evaluate whether its effects are mediated by inhibition of NF-κB and STAT3 activity. Altholactone inhibited proliferation of DU145 cells and induced cell cycle arrest in S phase and triggered apoptosis. Reporter assays revealed that altholactone repressed p65- and TNF-α-enhanced NF-κB transcriptional activity and also inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-induced transcriptional activity of STAT3. Consistent with this, altholactone down-regulated phosphorylation of STAT3 and moreover, decreased constitutively active mutant of STAT3 (STAT3C-induced transcriptional activity. Altholactone treatment also results in down-regulation of STAT3 target genes such as survivin, and Bcl-2 followed by up regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. However, pre-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC significantly inhibited the activation of Bax and prevented down-regulation of STAT3 target genes. Collectively, our findings suggest that altholactone induces DU145 cells death through inhibition of NF-κB and STAT3 activity.

  20. Reduced RAC1 activity inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in neurofibromatosis type 2(NF2)-associated schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Bo; Li, Peng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Pinan

    2017-12-01

    Objective To study the function and potential mechanism of RAC1 inhibitors in NF2-associated schwannoma. Methods In this study, we the downregulation of RAC1 activity and tumor cell phenotypes by RAC1 inhibitor NSC23766 in vitro. And we further validated the anti-proliferation effect by this RAC1 inhibitor in subcutaneous xenograft tumor model and sciatic nerve model. Results Pharmacological inhibition of RAC1 could significantly inhibit the proliferation of both RT4 cells and human NF2-associated primary schwannoma cells by inducing apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of RAC1 effectively reduced Rac1 activity and down-regulated the pathway downstream of Rac. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of RAC1 showed a potential antitumor effect, with low toxicity in vivo. Conclusion RAC1 inhibitors may play a therapeutic role in patients with schwannoma.

  1. Cancer Cell Growth Inhibitory Effect of Bee Venom via Increase of Death Receptor 3 Expression and Inactivation of NF-kappa B in NSCLC Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Eun Choi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Our previous findings have demonstrated that bee venom (BV has anti-cancer activity in several cancer cells. However, the effects of BV on lung cancer cell growth have not been reported. Cell viability was determined with trypan blue uptake, soft agar formation as well as DAPI and TUNEL assay. Cell death related protein expression was determined with Western blotting. An EMSA was used for nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB activity assay. BV (1–5 μg/mL inhibited growth of lung cancer cells by induction of apoptosis in a dose dependent manner in lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H460. Consistent with apoptotic cell death, expression of DR3 and DR6 was significantly increased. However, deletion of DRs by small interfering RNA significantly reversed BV induced cell growth inhibitory effects. Expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (caspase-3 and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the NF-κB activity and expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited. A combination treatment of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, docetaxel and cisplatin, with BV synergistically inhibited both A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cell growth with further down regulation of NF-κB activity. These results show that BV induces apoptotic cell death in lung cancer cells through the enhancement of DR3 expression and inhibition of NF-κB pathway.

  2. Shigella IpaH0722 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Effector Targets TRAF2 to Inhibit PKC–NF-κB Activity in Invaded Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB plays a central role in modulating innate immune responses to bacterial infections. Therefore, many bacterial pathogens deploy multiple mechanisms to counteract NF-κB activation. The invasion of and subsequent replication of Shigella within epithelial cells is recognized by various pathogen recognition receptors as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These receptors trigger innate defense mechanisms via the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here, we show the inhibition of the NF-κB activation by the delivery of the IpaH E3 ubiquitin ligase family member IpaH0722 using Shigella's type III secretion system. IpaH0722 dampens the acute inflammatory response by preferentially inhibiting the PKC-mediated activation of NF-κB by ubiquitinating TRAF2, a molecule downstream of PKC, and by promoting its proteasome-dependent degradation. PMID:23754945

  3. Torilin Inhibits Inflammation by Limiting TAK1-Mediated MAP Kinase and NF-κB Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehari Endale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Torilin, a sesquiterpene isolated from the fruits of Torilis japonica, has shown antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, data on the mechanism of torilin action against inflammation is limited. This study aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory property of torilin in LPS-induced inflammation using in vitro model of inflammation. We examined torilin’s effect on expression levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The involvement of NF-kB and AP-1, MAP kinases, and adaptor proteins were assessed. Torilin strongly inhibited LPS-induced NO release, iNOS, PGE2, COX-2, NF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and GM-CSF gene and protein expressions. In addition, MAPKs were also suppressed by torilin pretreatment. Involvement of ERK1/2, P38MAPK, and JNK1/2 was further confirmed by PD98059, SB203580, and SP600125 mediated suppression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Furthermore, torilin attenuated NF-kB and AP-1 translocation, DNA binding, and reporter gene transcription. Interestingly, torilin inhibited TAK1 kinase activation with the subsequent suppression of MAPK-mediated JNK, p38, ERK1/2, and AP-1 (ATF-2 and c-jun activation and IKK-mediated I-κBα degradation, p65/p50 activation, and translocation. Together, the results revealed the suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 regulated inflammatory mediator and cytokine expressions, suggesting the test compound’s potential as a candidate anti-inflammatory agent.

  4. Ceftiofur impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ci Xinxin; Song Yu; Zeng Fanqin; Zhang Xuemei; Li Hongyu; Wang Xinrui; Cui Junqing; Deng Xuming

    2008-01-01

    Ceftiofur is a new broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic for veterinary use. Immunopharmacological studies can provide new information on the immunomodulatory activities of some drugs, including their effect on cytokine productions. For this reason, we investigated the effect of ceftiofur on cytokine productions in vitro. We found that ceftiofur can downregulate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but did not affect interleukin-10 (IL-10) production. We further investigated signal transduction mechanisms to determine how ceftiofur affects. RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with 1, 5, or 10 mg/L of ceftiofur 1 h prior to treatment with 1 mg/L of LPS. Thirty minutes later, cells were harvested and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation was measured by Western blot. Alternatively, cells were fixed and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was measured using immunocytochemical analysis. Signal transduction studies showed that ceftiofur significantly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation protein expression. Ceftiofur also inhibited p65-NF-κB translocation into the nucleus. Therefore, ceftiofur may inhibit LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines by blocking NF-κB and MAPKs signaling in RAW264.7 cells

  5. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate inhibition of osteoclastic differentiation via NF-κB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.-W.; Chen, C.-H.; Wang, Y.-H.; Ho, M.-L.; Hung, S.-H.; Chen, I.-S.; Wang, G.-J.

    2009-01-01

    People who regularly drink tea have been found to have a higher bone mineral density (BMD) and to be at less risk of hip fractures than those who do not drink it. Green tea catechins such as (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been reported to increase osteogenic functioning in mesenchymal stem cells. However, its effect on osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of EGCG on RANKL-activation osteoclastogenesis and NF-κB in RAW 264.7, a murine preosteoclast cell line. EGCG (10-100 μM) significantly suppressed the RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and the formation of pits in murine RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). EGCG appeared to target osteoclastic differentiation at an early stage but had no cytotoxic effect on osteoclast precursors. In addition, it significantly inhibited RANKL-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation. We conclude that EGCG inhibits osteoclastogenesis through its activation of NF-κB.

  6. Genistein inhibited ammonia induced astrocyte swelling by inhibiting NF-κB activation-mediated nitric oxide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongliang; Jia, Guizhi; Wang, Wei; Liang, Chunguang; Han, Siyu; Chu, Minghui; Mei, Xifan

    2017-06-01

    Our previous study has indicated the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling, which represents a major pathogenesis of brain edema in hepatic encephalopathy. In this study, we examined the effect of genistein, a naturally occurred broad-spectrum protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor, on ammonia-induced cell swelling. We found that genistein pretreatment significantly prevented ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. Mechanistically, ammonia triggered EGFR/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) association and subsequent ERK phosphorylation were alleviated by genistein pretreatment. Moreover, ammonia-induced NF-κB nuclear location, iNOS expression, and consequent NO production were all prevented by AG1478 and genistein pretreatment. This study suggested that genistein could alleviate ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling, which may be, at least partly, related to its PTK-inhibiting activity and repression of NF-κB mediated iNOS-derived NO accumulation.

  7. Andrographolide inhibits multiple myeloma cells by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Wang, Jianrong

    2016-02-01

    Andrographolide is an active component from the extract of Andrographis paniculata [(Burm.f) Nees], a medicinal plant from the Acanthaceae family. Pharmacological studies have revealed that andrographolide possesses anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, immune regulatory and hepatoprotective properties, and is efficacious in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, while exhibiting low toxicity and low cost. The present study aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of andrographolide on the growth of multiple myeloma (MM) cells and its possible impact on the Toll-like receptor (TLR)4/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. Cell proliferation was detected using an MTT assay, cellular apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry, and caspase-9/3 activation were assessed using colorimetric assay kits. Furthermore, TLR4 and NF-κB protein expression was determined by western blot analysis. The results revealed that andrographolide reduced the proliferation, while increasing cellular apoptosis and caspase-9/3 activation of MM cells, in addition to downregulating the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB protein. Of note, TLR4- or NF-κB-targeting small-interfering (si)RNA enhanced the andrographolide-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis of MM cells. The results of the present study therefore suggested that andrographolide inhibited multiple myeloma cells via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  8. Sargahydroquinoic acid inhibits TNFα-induced AP-1 and NF-κB signaling in HaCaT cells through PPARα activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Youngsic; Jung, Yujung; Kim, Min Cheol; Kwon, Hak Cheol [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ki Sung [College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Seongnam 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kee, E-mail: yksnbk@sm.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Su-Nam, E-mail: snkim@kist.re.kr [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • SHQA increases PPARα/γ transactivation and inhibits MMP-2/-9 expression. • SHQA inhibits TNFα-induced AP-1 and MAPK signaling. • SHQA inhibits TNFα-induced p65 translocation and IκBα phosphorylation. • SHQA inhibits TNFα-induced AP-1 and NF-κB signaling via PPARα. - Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and expressed in various cell types in the skin, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts and infiltrating immune cells. Thus, their ligands are targets for the treatment of various skin disorders, such as photo-aging and chronological aging of skin. Intensive studies have revealed that PPARα/γ functions in photo-aging and age-related inflammation by regulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) via activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). However, the detailed mechanism of PPARα/γ’s role in skin aging has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we confirmed that sargahydroquinoic acid (SHQA) as a PPARα/γ ligand significantly decreased Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα)-induced MMP-2/-9 expression by downregulating TNFα-induced transcription factors, subsequently reducing IκBα degradation and blocking NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in HaCaT human epidermal keratinocyte cells. Treatment of cells with SHQA and GW6471 (PPARα antagonist) not bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (PPARγ antagonists), reversed the effect on TNFα-induced inflammatory signaling pathway activation. Taken together, our data suggest that SHQA inhibit TNFα-induced MMP-2/-9 expression and age-related inflammation by suppressing AP-1 and NF-κB pathway via PPARα.

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Inflexinol on Nitric Oxide Generation and iNOS Expression via Inhibition of NF-κB Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woong Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflexinol, an ent-kaurane diterpenoid, was isolated from the leaves of Isodon excisus. Many diterpenoids isolated from the genus Isodon (Labiatae have antitumor and antiinflammatory activities. We investigated the antiinflammatory effect of inflexinol in RAW 264.7 cells and astrocytes. As a result, we found that inflexinol (1, 5, 10 μM suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 as well as the production of nitric oxide (NO in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and astrocytes. Consistent with the inhibitory effect on iNOS and COX-2 expression, inflexinol also inhibited transcriptional and DNA binding activity of NF-κB via inhibition of IκB degradation as well as p50 and p65 translocation into nucleus. These results suggest that inflexinol inhibits iNOS and COX-2 expression through inhibition of NF-κB activation, thereby inhibits generation of inflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells and astrocytes, and may be useful for treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  10. AOPPs Induce MCP-1 Expression by Increasing ROS-Mediated Activation of the NF-κB Pathway in Rat Mesangial Cells: Inhibition by Sesquiterpene Lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Cheng Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 plays an important role in extracellular matrix accumulation through macrophage recruitment and activation in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, this study examined whether advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs are involved in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation and MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression in mesangial cells (MCs and evaluated the effects of derivatives of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs on AOPP-induced renal damage. Methods: MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression in MCs were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS was determined by flow cytometry. The protein expression of tubulin, P47, NF-κB p65, phospho-NF-κB p65, IκB, phospho-IκB, IKKß and phospho-IKKß was evaluated by Western blot. Results: AOPPs caused oxidative stress in MCs and activated the NF-κB pathway by inducing IκBa phosphorylation and degradation. Inhibition of ROS by SOD (ROS inhibitor blocked the AOPP-mediated NF-κB pathway. Moreover, the inhibition of AOPP-induced overproduction of MCP-1 mRNA and protein was associated with inhibition of IκBa degradation by SLs. Conclusion: AOPPs induce MCP-1 expression by activating the ROS/NF-κB pathway and can be inhibited by SLs. These findings may provide a novel approach to treat inflammatory and immune renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Piperlongumine selectively suppresses ABC-DLBCL through inhibition of NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Mingshan [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Shen, Yangling; Xu, Xiaoyu [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yao, Yao; Fu, Chunling [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yan, Zhiling [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wu, Qingyun [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Cao, Jiang; Sang, Wei [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Zeng, Lingyu [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Li, Zhenyu [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Xuejiao, E-mail: liuxuejiao0923@126.com [Insititute of Nervous System Diseases, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); and others

    2015-07-10

    Constitutive NF-κB activation is required for survival of activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). However, current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. Here, we identified a novel inhibitor, piperlongumine, features direct binding to NF-κB p65 subunit and suppression of p65 nuclear import. This was accompanied by NF-κB reporter activity suppression and NF-κB target gene downregulation. Moreover, mutation of Cys{sup 38} to Ser in p65 abolished this effect of piperlongumine on inhibition of p65 nuclear import. Furthermore, we show that piperlongumine selectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of ABC-DLBCL cells. Most notably, it has been reported that piperlongumine did not affect normal cells even at high doses and was nontoxic to animals. Hence, our current study provides new insight into piperlongumine's mechanism of action and novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy. - Highlights: • Current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. • Piperlongumine inhibits NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import via directly binding to p65. • Piperlongumine selectively inhibits proliferation of ABC-DLBCL cells. • This study provides a novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy.

  12. Piperlongumine selectively suppresses ABC-DLBCL through inhibition of NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Mingshan; Shen, Yangling; Xu, Xiaoyu; Yao, Yao; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Zhiling; Wu, Qingyun; Cao, Jiang; Sang, Wei; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Xuejiao

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive NF-κB activation is required for survival of activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). However, current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. Here, we identified a novel inhibitor, piperlongumine, features direct binding to NF-κB p65 subunit and suppression of p65 nuclear import. This was accompanied by NF-κB reporter activity suppression and NF-κB target gene downregulation. Moreover, mutation of Cys 38 to Ser in p65 abolished this effect of piperlongumine on inhibition of p65 nuclear import. Furthermore, we show that piperlongumine selectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of ABC-DLBCL cells. Most notably, it has been reported that piperlongumine did not affect normal cells even at high doses and was nontoxic to animals. Hence, our current study provides new insight into piperlongumine's mechanism of action and novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy. - Highlights: • Current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. • Piperlongumine inhibits NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import via directly binding to p65. • Piperlongumine selectively inhibits proliferation of ABC-DLBCL cells. • This study provides a novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy

  13. A Novel Role of Eruca sativa Mill. (Rocket Extract: Antiplatelet (NF-κB Inhibition and Antithrombotic Activities

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    Eduardo Fuentes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown the prevention of cardiovascular diseases through the regular consumption of vegetables. Eruca sativa Mill., commonly known as rocket, is a leafy vegetable that has anti-inflammatory activity. However, its antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities have not been described. Methods: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL, was evaluated on human platelets: (i P-selectin expression by flow cytometry; (ii platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid; (iii IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 release; and (iv activation of NF-κB and PKA by western blot. Furthermore, (v antithrombotic activity (200 mg/kg and (vi bleeding time in murine models were evaluated. Results: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL inhibited P-selectin expression and platelet aggregation induced by ADP. The release of platelet inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 induced by ADP was inhibited by Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract. Furthermore, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract inhibited NF-κB activation. Finally, in murine models, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract showed significant antithrombotic activity and a slight effect on bleeding time. Conclusion: Eruca sativa Mill. presents antiplatelet and antithrombotic activity.

  14. Pim-2 activates API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through NF-kappaB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Yujun; Gong, Jianping

    2010-06-01

    Pim-2 is proved to be relevant to the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the mechanism is unclear. We studied the relationship among Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5. In our experiment, expression level of the three factors and phosphorylation level of API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were detected in HCC tissues and the nontumorous controls. Then Pim-2 gene was transfected into nontumorous liver cells L02, and Pim-2 SiRNA was transfected into hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2. Parthenolide was added as NF-kappaB inhibitor. The same detections as above were repeated in the cells, along with the apoptosis analysis. We found the levels of Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were significantly higher in HCC tissues. Pim-2 level was increased in L02 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 gene, but decreased in HepG2 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 SiRNA. The levels of NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity and API-5 phosphorylation level, were in accordance with Pim-2 level, but could be reversed by Parthenolide. Cell apoptosis rates were negatively correlated with API-5 phosphorylation level. Therefore, we infer that Pim-2 could activate API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of liver cells, and NF-kappaB is the key regulator.

  15. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

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    Zhong, Xia, E-mail: zhongxia1977@126.com [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Shang, Deya, E-mail: wenhuashenghuo1@163.com [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  16. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-B signaling reduces growth in medulloblastoma in vivo

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    Deckard Lindsey A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant pediatric brain tumor that requires surgery, whole brain and spine irradiation, and intense chemotherapy for treatment. A more sophisticated understanding of the pathophysiology of medulloblastoma is needed to successfully reduce the intensity of treatment and improve outcomes. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB is a signaling pathway that controls transcriptional activation of genes important for tight regulation of many cellular processes and is aberrantly expressed in many types of cancer. Methods To test the importance of NFκB to medulloblastoma cell growth, the effects of multiple drugs that inhibit NFκB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfasalazine, curcumin and bortezomib, were studied in medulloblastoma cell lines compared to a malignant glioma cell line and normal neurons. Expression of endogenous NFκB was investigated in cultured cells, xenograft flank tumors, and primary human tumor samples. A dominant negative construct for the endogenous inhibitor of NFκB, IκB, was prepared from medulloblastoma cell lines and flank tumors were established to allow specific pathway inhibition. Results We report high constitutive activity of the canonical NFκB pathway, as seen by Western analysis of the NFκB subunit p65, in medulloblastoma tumors compared to normal brain. The p65 subunit of NFκB is extremely highly expressed in xenograft tumors from human medulloblastoma cell lines; though, conversely, the same cells in culture have minimal expression without specific stimulation. We demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of NFκB in cell lines halts proliferation and leads to apoptosis. We show by immunohistochemical stain that phosphorylated p65 is found in the majority of primary tumor cells examined. Finally, expression of a dominant negative form of the endogenous inhibitor of NFκB, dnIκB, resulted in poor xenograft tumor growth, with average tumor volumes

  17. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate blocks fructose-induced hepatic NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation and lipid metabolism disorder.

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    Zhao, Xiao-Juan; Yang, Yan-Zi; Zheng, Yan-Jing; Wang, Shan-Chun; Gu, Hong-Mei; Pan, Ying; Wang, Shui-Juan; Xu, Hong-Jiang; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2017-08-15

    Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate as a hepatoprotective agent possesses immune modulation and anti-inflammation, and treats liver diseases. But its effects on immunological-inflammatory and metabolic profiles for metabolic syndrome with liver injury and underlying potential mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate alleviated liver inflammation and lipid accumulation in fructose-fed rats with metabolic syndrome. It also suppressed hepatic inflammatory signaling activation by reducing protein levels of phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (p-NF-κB p65), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase α/β (p-IKKα/β) and inhibitor of NF-κB α (p-IκBα) as well as nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and Caspase-1 in rats, being consistent with its reduction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 levels. Furthermore, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate modulated lipid metabolism-related genes characterized by up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1), and down-regulating sensor for fatty acids to control-1 (SREBP-1) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) in the liver of fructose-fed rats, resulting in the reduction of triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. These effective actions were further confirmed in fructose-exposed BRL-3A and HepG2 cells. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these observations suggest that magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate may inhibit NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation to reduce immunological-inflammatory response, which in turn may prevent liver lipid metabolic disorder and accumulation under high fructose condition. Thus, blockade of NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation and lipid metabolism disorder by magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate may be the potential therapeutic approach for improving fructose-induced liver injury with

  18. Human Papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E 7 proteins alter NF-kB in cultured cervical epithelial cells and inhibition of NF-kB promotes cell growth and immortalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermark, Erik R.; Deluca, Krysta A.; Gardner, Courtney R.; Marker, Daniel F.; Schreiner, Cynthia N.; Strickland, David A.; Wilton, Katelynn M.; Mondal, Sumona; Woodworth, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    The NF-kB family of transcription factors regulates important biological functions including cell growth, survival and the immune response. We found that Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 and E6/E7 proteins inhibited basal and TNF-alpha-inducible NF-kB activity in human epithelial cells cultured from the cervical transformation zone, the anatomic region where most cervical cancers develop. In contrast, HPV-16 E6 regulated NF-kB in a cell type- and cell growth-dependent manner. NF-kB influenced immortalization of cervical cells by HPV16. Inhibition of NF-kB by an IkB alpha repressor mutant increased colony formation and immortalization by HPV-16. In contrast, activation of NF-kB by constitutive expression of p65 inhibited proliferation and immortalization. Our results suggest that inhibition of NF-kB by HPV-16 E6/E7 contributes to immortalization of cells from the cervical transformation zone. PMID:22284893

  19. Effusanin E suppresses nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth by inhibiting NF-κB and COX-2 signaling.

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    Mingzhu Zhuang

    Full Text Available Rabdosia serra is well known for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, but no information has been available for the active compounds derived from this plant in inhibiting human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cell growth. In this study, we isolated and purified a natural diterpenoid from Rabdosia serra and identified its chemical structure as effusanin E and elucidated its underlying mechanism of action in inhibiting NPC cell growth. Effusanin E significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. Effusanin E also induced the cleavage of PARP, caspase-3 and -9 proteins and inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB proteins. Moreover, effusanin E abrogated the binding of NF-κB to the COX-2 promoter, thereby inhibiting the expression and promoter activity of COX-2. Pretreatment with a COX-2 or NF-κB-selective inhibitor (celecoxib or ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate had an additive effect on the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation, while pretreatment with an activator of NF-κB/COX-2 (lipopolysaccharides abrogated the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Effusanin E also significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model without obvious toxicity, furthermore, the expression of p50 NF-κB and COX-2 were down-regulated in the tumors of nude mice. These data suggest that effusanin E suppresses p50/p65 proteins to down-regulate COX-2 expression, thereby inhibiting NPC cell growth. Our findings provide new insights into exploring effusanin E as a potential therapeutic compound for the treatment of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  20. Is NF-kappaB a good target for cancer therapy? Hopes and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Véronique; Karin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factors have a key role in many physiological processes such as innate and adaptive immune responses, cell proliferation, cell death, and inflammation. It has become clear that aberrant regulation of NF-kappaB and the signalling pathways that control its activity are involved in cancer development and progression, as well as in resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This article discusses recent evidence from cancer genetics and cancer genome studies that support the involvement of NF-kappaB in human cancer, particularly in multiple myeloma. The therapeutic potential and benefit of targeting NF-kappaB in cancer, and the possible complications and pitfalls of such an approach, are explored.

  1. NF-κB-Activating Complex Engaged in Response to EGFR Oncogene Inhibition Drives Tumor Cell Survival and Residual Disease in Lung Cancer

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    Collin M. Blakely

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although oncogene-targeted therapy often elicits profound initial tumor responses in patients, responses are generally incomplete because some tumor cells survive initial therapy as residual disease that enables eventual acquired resistance. The mechanisms underlying tumor cell adaptation and survival during initial therapy are incompletely understood. Here, through the study of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma, we show that NF-κB signaling is rapidly engaged upon initial EGFR inhibitor treatment to promote tumor cell survival and residual disease. EGFR oncogene inhibition induced an EGFR-TRAF2-RIP1-IKK complex that stimulated an NF-κB-mediated transcriptional survival program. The direct NF-κB inhibitor PBS-1086 suppressed this adaptive survival program and increased the magnitude and duration of initial EGFR inhibitor response in multiple NSCLC models, including a patient-derived xenograft. These findings unveil NF-κB activation as a critical adaptive survival mechanism engaged by EGFR oncogene inhibition and provide rationale for EGFR and NF-κB co-inhibition to eliminate residual disease and enhance patient responses.

  2. Double-edged swords as cancer therapeutics: novel, orally active, small molecules simultaneously inhibit p53-MDM2 interaction and the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Chunlin; Miao, Zhenyuan; Wu, Yuelin; Guo, Zizhao; Li, Jin; Yao, Jianzhong; Xing, Chengguo; Sheng, Chunquan; Zhang, Wannian

    2014-02-13

    Simultaneous inactivation of p53 and hyperactivation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a common occurrence in human cancer. Currently, antitumor agents are being designed to selectively activate p53 or inhibit NF-κB. However, there is no concerted effort yet to deliberately design inhibitors that can simultaneously do both. This paper provided a proof-of-concept study that p53-MDM2 interaction and NF-κB pathway can be simultaneously targeted by a small-molecule inhibitor. A series of pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole derivatives were rationally designed and synthesized as the first-in-class inhibitors of p53-MDM2 interaction and NF-κB pathway. Most of the compounds were identified to possess nanomolar p53-MDM2 inhibitory activity. Compounds 5q and 5s suppressed NF-κB activation through inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and elevation of the cytoplasmic levels of p65 and phosphorylated IKKα/β. Biochemical assay for the kinases also supported the fact that pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole compounds directly targeted the NF-κB pathway. In addition, four compounds (5j, 5q, 5s, and 5u) effectively inhibited tumor growth in the A549 xenograft model. Further pharmacokinetic study revealed that compound 5q exhibited excellent oral bioavailability (72.9%).

  3. Curcumin alleviates macrophage activation and lung inflammation induced by influenza virus infection through inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiming; Liu, Ling

    2017-09-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) result in severe public health problems with worldwide each year. Overresponse of immune system to IAV infection leads to complications, and ultimately causing morbidity and mortality. Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory ability. However, its molecular mechanism in immune responses remains unclear. We detected the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB)-related protein expression in human macrophages or mice infected by IAV with or without curcumin treatment. We found that the IAV infection caused a dramatic enhancement of pro-inflammatory cytokine productions of human macrophages and mice immune cells. However, curcumin treatment after IAV infection downregulated these cytokines production in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the NF-κB has been activated in human macrophages after IAV infection, while administration of curcumin inhibited NF-κB signaling pathway via promoting the expression of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα), and inhibiting the translocation of p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. In summary, IAV infection could result in the inflammatory responses of immune cells, especially macrophages. Curcumin has the therapeutic potentials to relieve these inflammatory responses through inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Vinpocetine Ameliorates Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Bárbara B; Fattori, Victor; Guazelli, Carla F S; Zaninelli, Tiago H; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Ferraz, Camila R; Bussmann, Allan J C; Ruiz-Miyazawa, Kenji W; Baracat, Marcela M; Casagrande, Rúbia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2018-04-10

    The idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise two types of chronic intestinal disorders: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Recruited neutrophils and macrophages contribute to intestinal tissue damage via production of ROS and NF-κB-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines. The introduction of anti-TNF-α therapies in the treatment of IBD patients was a seminal advance. This therapy is often limited by a loss of efficacy due to the development of adaptive immune response, underscoring the need for novel therapies targeting similar pathways. Vinpocetine is a nootropic drug and in addition to its antioxidant effect, it is known to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, partly by inhibition of NF-κB and downstream cytokines. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of the vinpocetine in a model of acid acetic-induced colitis in mice. Treatment with vinpocetine reduced edema, MPO activity, microscopic score and macroscopic damage, and visceral mechanical hyperalgesia. Vinpocetine prevented the reduction of colonic levels of GSH, ABTS radical scavenging ability, and normalized levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Moreover, vinpocetine reduced NF-κB activation and thereby NF-κB-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-33 in the colon. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that vinpocetine has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic effects in a model of acid acetic-induced colitis in mice and deserves further screening to address its suitability as an approach for the treatment of IBD.

  5. Memory extinction entails the inhibition of the transcription factor NF-kappaB.

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    Emiliano Merlo

    Full Text Available In contextual memories, an association between a positive or negative reinforcement and the contextual cues where the reinforcement occurs is formed. The re-exposure to the context without reinforcement can lead to memory extinction or reconsolidation, depending on the number of events or duration of a single event of context re-exposure. Extinction involves the temporary waning of the previously acquired conditioned response. The molecular processes underlying extinction and the mechanisms which determine if memory will reconsolidate or extinguish after retrieval are not well characterized, particularly the role of transcription factors and gene expression. Here we studied the participation of a transcription factor, NF-kappaB, in memory extinction. In the crab context-signal memory, the activation of NF-kappaB plays a critical role in consolidation and reconsolidation, memory processes that are well characterized in this model. The administration of a NF-kappaB inhibitor, sulfasalazine prior to extinction session impeded spontaneous recovery. Moreover, reinstatement experiments showed that the original memory was not affected and that NF-kappaB inhibition by sulfasalazine impaired spontaneous recovery strengthening the ongoing memory extinction process. Interestingly, in animals with fully consolidated memory, a brief re-exposure to the training context induced neuronal NF-kappaB activation and reconsolidation, while prolonged re-exposure induced NF-kappaB inhibition and memory extinction. These data constitutes a novel insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the switch between memory reconsolidation and extinction. Moreover, we propose the inhibition of NF-kappaB as the engaged mechanism underlying extinction, supporting a novel approach for the pharmacological enhancement of this memory process. The accurate description of the molecular mechanisms that support memory extinction is potentially useful for developing new strategies

  6. Felodipine attenuates vascular inflammation in a fructose-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome via the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hong-wei; Xing, Shan-shan; Bi, Xiu-ping; Li, Li; Gong, Hui-ping; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Wei

    2008-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased incidence of atherosclerosis. Clinical studies have shown that calcium channel blockers (CCB) inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated the inhibitory effect of felodipine on adhesion molecular expression and macrophage infiltration in the aorta of high fructose-fed rats (FFR). Male Wistar rats were given 10% fructose in drinking water. After 32 weeks of high fructose feeding, they were treated with felodipine (5 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) for 6 weeks. The control rats were given a normal diet and water. The aortic expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and the infiltration of macrophages were measured by real-time RT-PCR and/or immunohistochemistry. NF-kappaB activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). After 32 weeks of high fructose feeding, FFR displayed increased body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum insulin, and triglycerides when compared with the control rats. The aortic expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were significantly increased in FFR than in the control rats and accompanied by the increased activity of NF-kappaB. FFR also showed significantly increased CD68- positive macrophages in the aortic wall. After treatment with felodipine, SBP, serum insulin, and the homeostasis model assessment decreased significantly. In addition to reducing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, felodipine decreased macrophages in the aortic wall. EMSA revealed that felodipine inhibited NF-kappaB activation in FFR. Felodipine inhibited vessel wall inflammation. The inhibition of NF-kappaB may be involved in the modulation of vascular inflammatory response by CCB in metabolic syndrome.

  7. Osthole inhibits the invasive ability of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via suppression of NF-κB-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression

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    Kao, Shang-Jyh [Department of Chest Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China); Su, Jen-Liang [Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chi-Kuan [Graduate Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Ming-Chih; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Jer-Hua [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Bien, Mauo-Ying [School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Shun-Fa [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chien, Ming-Hsien, E-mail: mhchien1976@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-15

    The induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is particularly important for the invasiveness of various cancer cells. Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative extracted from traditional Chinese medicines, is known to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells, but the effect of osthole on the invasiveness of tumor cells is largely unknown. This study determines whether and by what mechanism osthole inhibits invasion in CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Herein, we found that osthole effectively inhibited the migratory and invasive abilities of CL1-5 cells. A zymographic assay showed that osthole inhibited the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in CL1-5 cells. Inhibition of migration, invasion, and MMP2 and/or MMP-9 proteolytic activities was also observed in other lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (H1299 and A549). We further found that osthole inhibited MMP-9 expression at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that osthole inhibited the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppressing the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the MMP-9 promoter. Using reporter assays with point-mutated promoter constructs further confirmed that the inhibitory effect of osthole requires an NF-κB binding site on the MMP-9 promoter. Western blot and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that osthole inhibited NF-κB activity by inhibiting IκB-α degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that osthole inhibits NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, resulting in suppression of lung cancer cell invasion and migration, and osthole might be a potential agent for preventing the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ► Osthole treatment inhibits lung adenocarcinoma cells migration and invasion. ► Osthole reduces the expression and proteolytic activity of MMP-9. ► Osthole inhibits MMP-9 transcription via suppression of NF-κB binding activity. ► Osthole

  8. Rosiglitazone attenuates NF-κB-dependent ICAM-1 and TNF-α production caused by homocysteine via inhibiting ERK1/2/p38MAPK activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yong-Ping; Liu, Yu-Hui; Chen, Jia; Song, Tao; You, Yu; Tang, Zhen-Yan; Li, Yuan-Jian; Zhang, Guo-Gang

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated an important interaction between nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and homocysteine (Hcy)-induced cytokines expression in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the underlying mechanism remains illusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of Hcy on NF-κB-mediated sICAM-1, TNF-α production and the possible involvement of ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK pathway. The effects of rosiglitazone intervention were also examined. Our results show that Hcy increased the levels of sICAM-1 and TNF-α in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was significantly depressed by rosiglitazone and different inhibitors (PDTC, NF-κB inhibitor; PD98059, MEK inhibitor; SB203580, p38MAPK specific inhibitor; and staurosporine, PKC inhibitor). Next, we investigated the effect of Hcy on ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK pathway and NF-κB activity in HUVECs. The results show that Hcy activated both ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK pathway and NF-κB-DNA-binding activity. These effects were markedly inhibited by rosiglitazone as well as other inhibitors (SB203580, PD98059, and PDTC). Further, the pretreatment of staurosporine abrogated ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK phosphorylation, suggesting that Hcy-induced ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK activation is associated with PKC activity. Our results provide evidence that Hcy-induced NF-κB activation was mediated by activation of ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK pathway involving PKC activity. Rosiglitazone reduces the NF-κB-mediated sICAM-1 and TNF-α production induced by Hcy via inhibition of ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK pathway

  9. Chikusetsu saponin IVa ameliorates high fat diet-induced inflammation in adipose tissue of mice through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengfu; Liu, Chaoqi; Wang, Ting; He, Yumin; Zhou, Zhiyong; Dun, Yaoyan; Zhao, Haixia; Ren, Dongming; Wang, Junjie; Zhang, Changcheng; Yuan, Ding

    2017-05-09

    Chronic metabolic inflammation in adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of obesity-associated diseases. Our previous study indicated that total saponins of Panax japonicus (SPJ) rhizoma and Chikusetsu saponin V, one main component of SPJ, could exert the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo and Ex vivo anti-inflammatory activities of another main component of SPJ, namely Chikusetsu saponin IVa (CS). CS could significantly inhibited HFD-induced lipid homeostasis, and inhibited inflammation in adipose tissue, as reflected by the decreased mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes and secretion of the chemokines/cytokines, inhibited the accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and shifted their polarization from M1 to M2, suppressed HFD-induced expression of NLRP3 inflammasome component genes and decreased IL-1β and Caspase-1 production in mice. Moreover, CS treatment also inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Meanwhile, CS treatment inhibited an NLRP3-induced ASC pyroptosome formation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pyroptosis. Furthermore, CS treatment suppressed HFD-induced NF-κB signaling in vivo and LPS-induced NF-κB activation as reflected by the fact that their phosphorylated forms and the ratios of pNF-κB/NF-κB, pIKK/IKK, and pIκB/IκB were all decreased in EAT from HFD-fed mice treated with CS as compared with those of HFD mice. Taking together, this study has revealed that CS effectively inhibits HFD-induced inflammation in adipose tissue of mice through inhibiting both NLRP3 inflammasome activation and NF-κB signaling. Thus, CS can serve as a potential therapeutic drug in the prevention and treatment of inflammation-associated diseases.

  10. Echinocystic acid inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by regulating NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways

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    Yang, Jian-hui, E-mail: jianhui_yangxa@163.com [Rehabilitation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710061, Shaanxi Province (China); Li, Bing [Department of Dermatology, the 451st Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Xi’an 710054, Shaanxi Province (China); Wu, Qiong; Lv, Jian-guo; Nie, Hui-Yong [Rehabilitation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710061, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2016-09-02

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is a key factor in the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Echinocystic acid (EA), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from the fruits of Gleditsia sinensis Lam, was reported to prevent reduction of bone mass and strength and improve the cancellous bone structure and biochemical properties in ovariectomy rats. However, the molecular mechanism of EA on the osteoclast formation has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of EA on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Our results showed that EA inhibited the formation of osteoclast, as well as the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker proteins in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). At molecular levels, EA inhibited RANKL-induced NF-κB activation and ERK phosphorylation in BMMs. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that EA can suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Moreover, we clarified that these inhibitory effects of EA occur through suppression of NF-κB and ERK activation. Therefore, EA may be a potential agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • EA inhibited the formation of osteoclast in BMMs. • EA inhibits the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker proteins in BMMs. • EA inhibits RANKL-induced NF-κB activation in BMMs. • EA inhibits RANKL-induced ERK phosphorylation in BMMs.

  11. Thromboxane synthase suppression induces lung cancer cell apoptosis via inhibiting NF-κB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kin Chung; Li, Ming-Yue; Leung, Billy C.S.; Hsin, Michael K.Y.; Mok, Tony S.K.; Underwood, Malcolm J.; Chen, George G.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induced apoptosis in cancer cells. TXS inhibitor 1-Benzylimidzole (1-BI) can trigger apoptosis in lung cancer cells but the mechanism is not fully defined. In this study, lung cancer cells were treated with 1-BI. In this study, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured and NF-κB activity was determined in human lung cancer cells. The roles of ROS and NF-κB in 1-BI-mediated cell death were analyzed. The results showed that 1-BI induced ROS generation but decreased the activity of NF-κB by reducing phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα) and inhibiting the translocation of p65 into the nucleus. In contrast to 1-BI, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) stimulated cell proliferation and significantly protected the cells from 1-BI-mediated cell death by neutralizing ROS. Collectively, apoptosis induced by 1-BI is associated with the over-production of ROS and the reduction of NF-κB. Antioxidants can significantly block the inhibitory effect of 1-BI.

  12. Prevalence of bortezomib-resistant constitutive NF-kappaB activity in mantle cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahl Brad S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib can inhibit activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, a mechanism implicated in its anti-neoplastic effects observed in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL. However, NF-κB can be activated through many distinct mechanisms, including proteasome independent pathways. While MCL cells have been shown to harbor constitutive NF-κB activity, what fraction of this activity in primary MCL samples is sensitive or resistant to inhibition by bortezomib remains unclear. Results Proteasome activity in the EBV-negative MCL cell lines Jeko-1 and Rec-1 is inhibited by greater than 80% after exposure to 20 nM bortezomib for 4 hours. This treatment decreased NF-κB activity in Jeko-1 cells, but failed to do so in Rec-1 cells when assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. Concurrently, Rec-1 cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of bortezomib than Jeko-1 cells. Consistent with a proteasome inhibitor resistant pathway of activation described in mouse B-lymphoma cells (WEHI231 and a breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468, the bortezomib-resistant NF-κB activity in Rec-1 cells is inhibited by calcium chelators, calmodulin inhibitors, and perillyl alcohol, a monoterpene capable of blocking L-type calcium channels. Importantly, the combination of perillyl alcohol and bortezomib is synergistic in eliciting Rec-1 cell cytotoxicity. The relevance of these results is illuminated by the additional finding that a considerable fraction of primary MCL samples (8 out of 10 displayed bortezomib-resistant constitutive NF-κB activity. Conclusion Our findings show that bortezomib-resistant NF-κB activity is frequently observed in MCL samples and suggest that this activity may be relevant to MCL biology as well as serve as a potential therapeutic target.

  13. Emodin attenuates high glucose-induced TGF-β1 and fibronectin expression in mesangial cells through inhibition of NF-κB pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Zeng, Zhi; Wu, Teng; Yang, Zhicheng; Liu, Bing; Lan, Tian

    2013-01-01

    The activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the subsequent overexpression of its downstream targets transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and fibronectin (FN) are among the hallmarks for the progressive diabetic nephropathy. Our previous studies demonstrated that emodin ameliorated renal injury and inhibited extracellular matrix accumulation in kidney and mesangial cells under diabetic condition. However, the molecular mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Here, we showed that emodin significantly attenuated high glucose-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation in mesangial cells. Interestingly, emodin also inhibited the DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, NF-κB-mediated TGF-β1 and FN expression was significantly decreased by emodin. These results demonstrated that emodin suppressed TGF-β1 and FN overexpression through inhibition of NF-κB activation, suggesting that emodin-mediated inhibition of the NF-κB pathway could protect against diabetic nephropathy. - Highlights: • Emodin decreased high glucose-induced p65 phosphorylation in MCs. • Emodin decreased high glucose-induced IκB-α degradation in MCs. • Emodin decreased high glucose-induced p65 translocation in MCs. • Emodin blocked high glucose-induced NF-κB activity. • Emodin blocked high glucose-induced the expression of TGF-β1 and FN

  14. DNA-dependent protein kinase participates in the radiation activation of NF-kB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Youmell, Matthew B.; Price, Brendan D.

    1997-01-01

    The NF-kB transcription factor is maintained in an inactive state by binding to the lkBa inhibitory protein. Activation requires phosphorylation and degradation of lkBa, releasing active NF-kB. NF-kB can be activated by cytokines, antigens, free radicals and X-ray irradiation. The protein kinase responsible for phosphorylation of lkBa in vivo has not been fully characterized. Here, we have examined the role of the DNA-dependent protein kinases (DNA-PK) in the radiation-activation of NF-kB. Wortmannin is an inhibitor of DNA-PK and related kinases. Exposure of SW480 cells to wortmannin inhibited the radioactivation of NF-kB DNA-binding. Analysis of lkBa levels by western blotting indicated that wortmannin blocked the radiation induced degradation of lkBa. In in vitro experiments, purified DNA-PK was able to efficiently phosphorylate lkBa, and this phosphorylation was inhibited by wortmannin. In contrast, the induction of NF-kB activity by TNFa was unaffected by wortmannin. The results suggest that DNA-PK may phosphorylate lkBa following irradiation, leading to degradation of lkBa and the release of active NF-kB. The inability of wortmannin to block TNFa activation of NF-kB indicates there may be more than one pathway for the activation of NF-kB

  15. Endothelial-specific inhibition of NF-κB enhances functional haematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Michael G; Ramalingam, Pradeep; Gutkin, Michael C; Kleppe, Maria; Ginsberg, Michael; Crowley, Michael J P; Elemento, Olivier; Levine, Ross L; Rafii, Shahin; Kitajewski, Jan; Greenblatt, Matthew B; Shim, Jae-Hyuck; Butler, Jason M

    2016-12-21

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in distinct niches within the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, comprised of endothelial cells (ECs) and tightly associated perivascular constituents that regulate haematopoiesis through the expression of paracrine factors. Here we report that the canonical NF-κB pathway in the BM vascular niche is a critical signalling axis that regulates HSC function at steady state and following myelosuppressive insult, in which inhibition of EC NF-κB promotes improved HSC function and pan-haematopoietic recovery. Mice expressing an endothelial-specific dominant negative IκBα cassette under the Tie2 promoter display a marked increase in HSC activity and self-renewal, while promoting the accelerated recovery of haematopoiesis following myelosuppression, in part through protection of the BM microenvironment following radiation and chemotherapeutic-induced insult. Moreover, transplantation of NF-κB-inhibited BM ECs enhanced haematopoietic recovery and protected mice from pancytopenia-induced death. These findings pave the way for development of niche-specific cellular approaches for the treatment of haematological disorders requiring myelosuppressive regimens.

  16. Endothelial-specific inhibition of NF-κB enhances functional haematopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Michael G.; Ramalingam, Pradeep; Gutkin, Michael C.; Kleppe, Maria; Ginsberg, Michael; Crowley, Michael J. P.; Elemento, Olivier; Levine, Ross L.; Rafii, Shahin; Kitajewski, Jan; Greenblatt, Matthew B.; Shim, Jae-Hyuck; Butler, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in distinct niches within the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, comprised of endothelial cells (ECs) and tightly associated perivascular constituents that regulate haematopoiesis through the expression of paracrine factors. Here we report that the canonical NF-κB pathway in the BM vascular niche is a critical signalling axis that regulates HSC function at steady state and following myelosuppressive insult, in which inhibition of EC NF-κB promotes improved HSC function and pan-haematopoietic recovery. Mice expressing an endothelial-specific dominant negative IκBα cassette under the Tie2 promoter display a marked increase in HSC activity and self-renewal, while promoting the accelerated recovery of haematopoiesis following myelosuppression, in part through protection of the BM microenvironment following radiation and chemotherapeutic-induced insult. Moreover, transplantation of NF-κB-inhibited BM ECs enhanced haematopoietic recovery and protected mice from pancytopenia-induced death. These findings pave the way for development of niche-specific cellular approaches for the treatment of haematological disorders requiring myelosuppressive regimens. PMID:28000664

  17. FTO Inhibits Insulin Secretion and Promotes NF-κB Activation through Positively Regulating ROS Production in Pancreatic β cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Qi Fan

    Full Text Available FTO (Fat mass and obesity-associated is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes incurrence. Pancreas islet β cells dysfunction and insulin resistance are major causes of type 2 diabetes. However, whether FTO plays an important functional role in pancreatic β cells as well as the related molecular mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, the tissue expression profile of FTO was firstly determined using quantitative PCR and western blot. FTO is widely expressed in various tissues and presented with relative high expression in pancreas tissue, especially in endocrine pancreas. FTO overexpression in MIN6 cells achieved by lentivirus delivery significantly inhibits insulin secretion in the presence of glucose stimulus as well as KCl. FTO silence has no effect on insulin secretion of MIN6 cells. However, FTO overexpression doesn't affect the transcription of insulin gene. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS production and NF-κB activation are significantly promoted by FTO overexpression. Inhibition of intracellular ROS production by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC can alleviate NF-κB activation and restore the insulin secretion mediated by FTO overexpression. A whole transcript-microarray is employed to analyze the differential gene expression mediated by FTO overexpression. The genes which are modulated by FTO are involved in many important biological pathways such as G-protein coupled receptor signaling and NF-κB signaling. Therefore, our study indicates that FTO may contribute to pancreas islet β cells dysfunction and the inhibition of FTO activity is a potential target for the treatment of diabetes.

  18. Tenuigenin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by down-regulating NF-κB activation and suppresses bone loss in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Department of Orthopedics, Hunan Cancer Hospital and The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Li, Xianan [Department of Orthopedics, Hunan Cancer Hospital and The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Cheng, Liang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Wu, Hongwei [Department of Orthopedics, Hunan Cancer Hospital and The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Zhang, Can [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Li, Kanghua, E-mail: lkh8738@sina.com [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Tenuigenin, a major active component of polygala tenuifolia root, has been used to treat patients with insomnia, dementia, and neurosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of tenuigenin on osteoclastogenesis and clarify the possible mechanism. We showed that tenuigenin inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption without cytotoxicity, which was further demonstrated by reduced osteoclast specific gene expression such as TRAP, c-Src, ATP6v0d2, etc. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of tenuigenin was associated with impaired NF-κB activity owing to delayed degradation/regeneration of IkBa and inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation. Consistent with the in vitro results, micro-ct scanning and analysis data showed that tenuigenin suppressed RANKL-induced bone loss in an animal model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that tenuigenin inhibit osteoclast formation and bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo, and comprise a potential therapeutic alternative for osteoclast-related disorders such as osteoporosis and cancer-induced bone destruction. - Highlights: • Tenuigenin suppresses osteoclasts formation, survival and function in vitro. • Tenuigenin impairs NF-κB activation. • Tenuigenin suppresses RANKL-induced bone lose in vivo. • Tenuigenin may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases.

  19. Tenuigenin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by down-regulating NF-κB activation and suppresses bone loss in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shuo; Li, Xianan; Cheng, Liang; Wu, Hongwei; Zhang, Can; Li, Kanghua

    2015-01-01

    Tenuigenin, a major active component of polygala tenuifolia root, has been used to treat patients with insomnia, dementia, and neurosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of tenuigenin on osteoclastogenesis and clarify the possible mechanism. We showed that tenuigenin inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption without cytotoxicity, which was further demonstrated by reduced osteoclast specific gene expression such as TRAP, c-Src, ATP6v0d2, etc. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of tenuigenin was associated with impaired NF-κB activity owing to delayed degradation/regeneration of IkBa and inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation. Consistent with the in vitro results, micro-ct scanning and analysis data showed that tenuigenin suppressed RANKL-induced bone loss in an animal model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that tenuigenin inhibit osteoclast formation and bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo, and comprise a potential therapeutic alternative for osteoclast-related disorders such as osteoporosis and cancer-induced bone destruction. - Highlights: • Tenuigenin suppresses osteoclasts formation, survival and function in vitro. • Tenuigenin impairs NF-κB activation. • Tenuigenin suppresses RANKL-induced bone lose in vivo. • Tenuigenin may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases.

  20. Vitamin E γ-Tocotrienol Inhibits Cytokine-Stimulated NF-κB Activation by Induction of Anti-Inflammatory A20 via Stress Adaptive Response Due to Modulation of Sphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Park, Na-Young; Jang, Yumi; Ma, Averil; Jiang, Qing

    2015-07-01

    NF-κB plays a central role in pathogenesis of inflammation and cancer. Many phytochemicals, including γ-tocotrienol (γTE), a natural form of vitamin E, have been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation, but the underlying mechanism has not been identified. In this study, we show that γTE inhibited cytokine-triggered activation of NF-κB and its upstream regulator TGF-β-activated kinase-1 in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. In these cells, γTE induced upregulation of A20, an inhibitor of NF-κB. Knockout of A20 partially diminished γTE's anti-NF-κB effect, but γTE increased another NF-κB inhibitor, Cezanne, in A20(-/-) cells. In search of the reason for A20 upregulation, we found that γTE treatment increased phosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2, IκBα, and JNK, indicating induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that γTE modulated sphingolipids, including enhancement of intracellular dihydroceramides, sphingoid bases in de novo synthesis of the sphingolipid pathway. Chemical inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthesis partially reversed γTE's induction of A20 and the anti-NF-κB effect. The importance of dihydroceramide increase is further supported by the observation that C8-dihydroceramide mimicked γTE in upregulating A20, enhancing endoplasmic reticulum stress, and attenuating TNF-triggered NF-κB activation. Our study identifies a novel anti-NF-κB mechanism where A20 is induced by stress-induced adaptive response as a result of modulation of sphingolipids, and it demonstrates an immunomodulatory role of dihydrocermides. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Agmatine inhibits nuclear factor-κB nuclear translocation in acute spinal cord compression injury rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. Samy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary damage after acute spinal cord compression injury (SCCI exacerbates initial insult. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB-p65 activation is involved in SCCI deleterious effects. Agmatine (Agm showed neuroprotection against various CNS injuries. However, Agm impact on NF-κB signaling in acute SCCI remains to be investigated. The present study compared the effectiveness of Agm therapy and decompression laminectomy (DL in functional recovery, oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic responses, and modulation of NF-κB activation in acute SCCI rat model. Rats were either sham-operated or subjected to SCCI at T8–9, using 2-Fr. catheter. SCCI rats were randomly treated with DL at T8–9, intraperitoneal Agm (100 mg/kg/day, combined (DL/Agm treatment or saline (n = 16/group. After 28-days of neurological follow-up, spinal cords were either subjected to biochemical measurement of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers or histopathology and immuno-histochemistry for NF-κB-p65 and caspase-3 expression (n = 8/group. Agm was comparable to DL in facilitating neurological functions recovery, reducing inflammation (TNF-α/interleukin-6, and apoptosis. Agm was distinctive in combating oxidative stress. Agm neuroprotective effects were paralleled with inhibition of NF-κB-p65 nuclear translocation. Combined pharmacological and surgical interventions were proved superior in functional recovery. In conclusion, present research suggested a new mechanism for Agm neuroprotection in rats SCCI through inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  2. NIK is required for NF-κB-mediated induction of BAG3 upon inhibition of constitutive protein degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapino, F; Abhari, B A; Jung, M; Fulda, S

    2015-03-12

    Recently, we reported that induction of the co-chaperone Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is critical for recovery of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells after proteotoxic stress upon inhibition of the two constitutive protein degradation pathways, that is, the ubiquitin-proteasome system by Bortezomib and the aggresome-autophagy system by histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor ST80. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms mediating BAG3 induction under these conditions. Here, we identify nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-inducing kinase (NIK) as a key mediator of ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated NF-κB activation and transcriptional upregulation of BAG3. ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment upregulates mRNA and protein expression of NIK, which is accompanied by an initial increase in histone H3 acetylation. Importantly, NIK silencing by siRNA abolishes NF-κB activation and BAG3 induction by ST80/Bortezomib. Furthermore, ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment stimulates NF-κB transcriptional activity and upregulates NF-κB target genes. Genetic inhibition of NF-κB by overexpression of dominant-negative IκBα superrepressor (IκBα-SR) or by knockdown of p65 blocks the ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated upregulation of BAG3 mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, inhibition of lysosomal activity by Bafilomycin A1 inhibits ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated IκBα degradation, NF-κB activation and BAG3 upregulation, indicating that IκBα is degraded via the lysosome in the presence of Bortezomib. Thus, by demonstrating a critical role of NIK in mediating NF-κB activation and BAG3 induction upon ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment, our study provides novel insights into mechanisms of resistance to proteotoxic stress in RMS.

  3. TLR4 activates NF-{kappa}B in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Dori C., E-mail: dwoods2@partners.org [Vincent Center for Reproductive Biology, Vincent Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); White, Yvonne A.R. [Vincent Center for Reproductive Biology, Vincent Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Dau, Caroline [University of California, San Francisco, School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Johnson, A.L. [Center for Reproductive Biology and Health, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} TLR4 is expressed in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. {yields} Acting through TLR4, LPS and HSP60 induce a NF{kappa}B signaling cascade in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B activation or inhibition did not alter chemosensitivity to TRAIL or cisplatin. -- Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the surface epithelium of normal ovaries (OSE) and in epithelial ovarian tumors. Most notably, OSE-derived cancers express TLR4, which activates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signaling cascade as a mediator of inflammatory response. Currently, there is considerable interest in elucidating the role of TLR-mediated signaling in cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of TLRs in granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary, and the extent to which GCT expression of TLRs may influence cell-signaling pathways and/or modulate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, has yet to be determined. In the present study, human GCT lines (COV434 and KGN) were utilized to evaluate expression of functional TLR4. TLR4 is expressed in GCT cell lines and ligation of TLR4 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to I{kappa}B degradation and activation of NF-{kappa}B. NF-{kappa}B activation was confirmed by nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65 following treatment with LPS and the naturally occurring ligand, HSP60. Notably, immunoneutralization of TLR4 blocked nuclear localization, and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling attenuated LPS-induced TNF{alpha} plus increased doubling time in both cell lines. Contradictory to reports using human OSE cell lines, inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling failed to sensitize GCT lines to TRAIL or cisplatin. In summary, findings herein are the first to demonstrate a functional TLR-signaling pathway specifically in GCTs, and indicate that in contrast to OSE-derived cancers, inhibition of NF-{kappa}B does not sensitize GCTs to TRAIL or cisplatin.

  4. [ABIN1 is not involved in imatinib upregulating A20 to inhibit the activation of NF-κB pathway in Jurkat T cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Wang, Senlin; Lin, Chen; Chen, Shaohua; Zhao, Xiaoling; Li, Yangqiu

    2017-05-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of imatinib (IM) on the expressions of A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB1 (ABIN1) and A20 in Jurkat T cells. Methods Jurkat T cells were treated with 25, 50 and 100 nmol/L IM for 24 hours. The mRNA and protein levels of ABIN1, A20 and NF-κB were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. Results IM significantly inhibited both mRNA and protein levels of ABIN1 and NF-κB, but raised the mRNA and protein levels of A20; while phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin increased the expression levels of ABIN1 and A20 mRNA and protein. Conclusion IM could upregulate A20 protein to inhibit the activation of NF-κB pathway in Jurkat T cells, which was independent of the ABIN1 protein.

  5. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  6. Salicortin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by down-regulating JNK and NF-κB/NFATc1 signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Shaobo [Department of Orthopaedics, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Xu, Jiawei [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Zhang, Chenghua [Department of Orthopaedics, Changle County Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Weifang 262400 (China); Xu, Chen [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu, Ming, E-mail: ming_li4717@sina.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Yu, Degang, E-mail: ydg163@126.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2016-01-29

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL)-activated signaling is essential for osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. Salicortin is a phenolic glycoside that has been isolated from many plants such as Populus and Salix species, and has been shown to have anti-amnesic and anti-adipogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicortin on RANKL-induced osteoclasts formation, bone resorption, and activation of osteoclast-related signaling pathways. Salicortin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow macrophage cultures in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption activity without any cytotoxicity. Salicortin inhibited RANKL-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase and NF-κB activation, concomitant with retarded IκBα phosphorylation and inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation, leading to impaired transcription of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and expression of osteoclastic-specific genes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that salicortin inhibits NF-κB and NFATc1 activation, leading to attenuation of osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Thus, salicortin may be of interest in developments of treatment for osteoclast related diseases. - Highlights: • Salicortin suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • Salicortin impairs the JNK and NF-κB/NFATc1 signaling pathway. • Salicortin may be of interest in developments of osteoporosis treatment.

  7. Salicortin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by down-regulating JNK and NF-κB/NFATc1 signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Shaobo; Xu, Jiawei; Zhang, Chenghua; Xu, Chen; Liu, Ming; Yu, Degang

    2016-01-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL)-activated signaling is essential for osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. Salicortin is a phenolic glycoside that has been isolated from many plants such as Populus and Salix species, and has been shown to have anti-amnesic and anti-adipogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicortin on RANKL-induced osteoclasts formation, bone resorption, and activation of osteoclast-related signaling pathways. Salicortin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow macrophage cultures in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption activity without any cytotoxicity. Salicortin inhibited RANKL-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase and NF-κB activation, concomitant with retarded IκBα phosphorylation and inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation, leading to impaired transcription of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and expression of osteoclastic-specific genes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that salicortin inhibits NF-κB and NFATc1 activation, leading to attenuation of osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Thus, salicortin may be of interest in developments of treatment for osteoclast related diseases. - Highlights: • Salicortin suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • Salicortin impairs the JNK and NF-κB/NFATc1 signaling pathway. • Salicortin may be of interest in developments of osteoporosis treatment.

  8. Melatonin Inhibits Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-7 (AR-V7)-Induced Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Activation and NF-κB Activator-Induced AR-V7 Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells: Potential Implications for the Use of Melatonin in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Vincent Wing Sun; Yau, Wing Lung; Tam, Chun Wai; Yao, Kwok-Ming; Shiu, Stephen Yuen Wing

    2017-05-31

    A major current challenge in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, which can be initially controlled by medical or surgical castration, is the development of effective, safe, and affordable therapies against progression of the disease to the stage of castration resistance. Here, we showed that in LNCaP and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells transiently overexpressing androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was activated and could result in up-regulated interleukin ( IL ) -6 gene expression, indicating a positive interaction between AR-V7 expression and activated NF-κB/IL-6 signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) pathogenesis. Importantly, both AR-V7-induced NF-κB activation and IL-6 gene transcription in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells could be inhibited by melatonin. Furthermore, stimulation of AR-V7 mRNA expression in LNCaP cells by betulinic acid, a pharmacological NF-κB activator, was reduced by melatonin treatment. Our data support the presence of bi-directional positive interactions between AR-V7 expression and NF-κB activation in CRPC pathogenesis. Of note, melatonin, by inhibiting NF-κB activation via the previously-reported MT₁ receptor-mediated antiproliferative pathway, can disrupt these bi-directional positive interactions between AR-V7 and NF-κB and thereby delay the development of castration resistance in advanced prostate cancer. Apparently, this therapeutic potential of melatonin in advanced prostate cancer/CRPC management is worth translation in the clinic via combined androgen depletion and melatonin repletion.

  9. Melatonin Inhibits Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-7 (AR-V7-Induced Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB Activation and NF-κB Activator-Induced AR-V7 Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells: Potential Implications for the Use of Melatonin in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Wing Sun Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A major current challenge in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, which can be initially controlled by medical or surgical castration, is the development of effective, safe, and affordable therapies against progression of the disease to the stage of castration resistance. Here, we showed that in LNCaP and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells transiently overexpressing androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB was activated and could result in up-regulated interleukin (IL-6 gene expression, indicating a positive interaction between AR-V7 expression and activated NF-κB/IL-6 signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC pathogenesis. Importantly, both AR-V7-induced NF-κB activation and IL-6 gene transcription in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells could be inhibited by melatonin. Furthermore, stimulation of AR-V7 mRNA expression in LNCaP cells by betulinic acid, a pharmacological NF-κB activator, was reduced by melatonin treatment. Our data support the presence of bi-directional positive interactions between AR-V7 expression and NF-κB activation in CRPC pathogenesis. Of note, melatonin, by inhibiting NF-κB activation via the previously-reported MT1 receptor-mediated antiproliferative pathway, can disrupt these bi-directional positive interactions between AR-V7 and NF-κB and thereby delay the development of castration resistance in advanced prostate cancer. Apparently, this therapeutic potential of melatonin in advanced prostate cancer/CRPC management is worth translation in the clinic via combined androgen depletion and melatonin repletion.

  10. The Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Transactivator CIITA Inhibits the Persistent Activation of NF-κB by the Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Tax-1 Oncoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, Greta; Abdallah, Rawan; Accolla, Roberto S; Tosi, Giovanna

    2016-01-20

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax-1, a key protein in HTLV-1-induced T cell transformation, deregulates diverse cell signaling pathways. Among them, the NF-κB pathway is constitutively activated by Tax-1, which binds to NF-κB proteins and activates the IκB kinase (IKK). Upon phosphorylation-dependent IκB degradation, NF-κB migrates into the nucleus, mediating Tax-1-stimulated gene expression. We show that the transcriptional regulator of major histocompatibility complex class II genes CIITA (class II transactivator), endogenously or ectopically expressed in different cells, inhibits the activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway by Tax-1 and map the region that mediates this effect. CIITA affects the subcellular localization of Tax-1, which is mostly retained in the cytoplasm, and this correlates with impaired migration of RelA into the nucleus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear mutant forms of CIITA reveal that CIITA exploits different strategies to suppress Tax-1-mediated NF-κB activation in both subcellular compartments. CIITA interacts with Tax-1 without preventing Tax-1 binding to both IKKγ and RelA. Nevertheless, CIITA affects Tax-1-induced IKK activity, causing retention of the inactive p50/RelA/IκB complex in the cytoplasm. Nuclear CIITA associates with Tax-1/RelA in nuclear bodies, blocking Tax-1-dependent activation of NF-κB-responsive genes. Thus, CIITA inhibits cytoplasmic and nuclear steps of Tax-1-mediated NF-κB activation. These results, together with our previous finding that CIITA acts as a restriction factor inhibiting Tax-1-promoted HTLV-1 gene expression and replication, indicate that CIITA is a versatile molecule that might also counteract Tax-1 transforming activity. Unveiling the molecular basis of CIITA-mediated inhibition of Tax-1 functions may be important in defining new strategies to control HTLV-1 spreading and oncogenic potential. HTLV-1 is the causative agent of human adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL). The viral

  11. PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC) negatively regulates endothelial adhesion of monocytes via inhibition of NF κB activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chengye, Zhan; Daixing, Zhou, E-mail: dxzhou7246@hotmail.com; Qiang, Zhong; Shusheng, Li

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •First time to display that LPS downregulate the expression of PRC. •First time to show that PRC inhibits the induction of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. •First time to show that PRC inhibit monocytes attachment to endothelial cells. •First time to display that PRC inhibits transcriptional activity of NF-κB. •PRC protects the respiration rate and suppresses the glycolysis rate against LPS. -- Abstract: PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC) is a growth-regulated transcriptional cofactor known to activate many of the nuclear genes specifying mitochondrial respiratory function. Endothelial dysfunction is a prominent feature found in many inflammatory diseases. Adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, mediate the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells, thereby playing an important role in endothelial inflammation. The effects of PRC in regards to endothelial inflammation remain unknown. In this study, our findings show that PRC can be inhibited by the inflammatory cytokine LPS in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In the presence of LPS, the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecular, such as VCAM1 and E-selectin, is found to be increased. These effects can be negated by overexpression of PRC. Importantly, monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells caused by LPS is significantly attenuated by PRC. In addition, overexpression of PRC protects mitochondrial metabolic function and suppresses the rate of glycolysis against LPS. It is also found that overexpression of PRC decreases the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. These findings suggest that PRC is a negative regulator of endothelial inflammation.

  12. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) inhibits inflammatory nuclear factor (NF)-κB and NF-κB-regulated gene products and induces death receptors leading to suppressed proliferation, induced chemosensitization, and suppressed osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji H; Gupta, Subash C; Park, Byoungduck; Yadav, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of cancer is significantly lower in regions where turmeric is heavily consumed. Whether lower cancer incidence is due to turmeric was investigated by examining its effects on tumor cell proliferation, on pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-κB and STAT3, and on associated gene products. Cell proliferation and cell cytotoxicity were measured by the MTT method, NF-κB activity by EMSA, protein expression by Western blot analysis, ROS generation by FACS analysis, and osteoclastogenesis by TRAP assay. Turmeric inhibited NF-κB activation and down-regulated NF-κB-regulated gene products linked to survival (Bcl-2, cFLIP, XIAP, and cIAP1), proliferation (cyclin D1 and c-Myc), and metastasis (CXCR4) of cancer cells. The spice suppressed the activation of STAT3, and induced the death receptors (DR)4 and DR5. Turmeric enhanced the production of ROS, and suppressed the growth of tumor cell lines. Furthermore, turmeric sensitized the tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents capecitabine and taxol. Turmeric was found to be more potent than pure curcumin for cell growth inhibition. Turmeric also inhibited NF-κB activation induced by RANKL that correlated with the suppression of osteoclastogenesis. Our results indicate that turmeric can effectively block the proliferation of tumor cells through the suppression of NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Intranuclear interactomic inhibition of NF-κB suppresses LPS-induced severe sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung-Dong; Cheon, So Yeong; Park, Tae-Yoon; Shin, Bo-Young; Oh, Hyunju; Ghosh, Sankar; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Lee, Sang-Kyou

    2015-01-01

    Suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, which is best known as a major regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses, is a potent strategy for the treatment of endotoxic sepsis. To inhibit NF-κB functions, we designed the intra-nuclear transducible form of transcription modulation domain (TMD) of RelA (p65), called nt-p65-TMD, which can be delivered effectively into the nucleus without influencing the cell viability, and work as interactomic inhibitors via disruption of the endogenous p65-mediated transcription complex. nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6 from BV2 microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). nt-p65-TMD did not inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of signaling mediators such as ZAP-70, p38, JNK, or ERK involved in T cell activation, but was capable of suppressing the transcriptional activity of NF-κB without the functional effect on that of NFAT upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. The transduced nt-p65-TMD in T cell did not affect the expression of CD69, however significantly inhibited the secretion of T cell-specific cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A, or IL-10. Systemic administration of nt-p65-TMD showed a significant therapeutic effect on LPS-induced sepsis model by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. Therefore, nt-p65-TMD can be a novel therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including sepsis, where a transcription factor has a key role in pathogenesis, and further allows us to discover new functions of p65 under normal physiological condition without genetic alteration. - Highlights: • The nt-p65-TMD is intra-nuclear interactomic inhibitor of endogenous p65. • The nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • The excellent therapeutic potential of nt-p65-TMD was confirmed in sepsis model

  14. Intranuclear interactomic inhibition of NF-κB suppresses LPS-induced severe sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Dong [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, So Yeong [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae-Yoon; Shin, Bo-Young [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyunju; Ghosh, Sankar [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Koo, Bon-Nyeo, E-mail: koobn@yuhs.ac [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Kyou, E-mail: sjrlee@yonsei.ac.kr [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-28

    Suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, which is best known as a major regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses, is a potent strategy for the treatment of endotoxic sepsis. To inhibit NF-κB functions, we designed the intra-nuclear transducible form of transcription modulation domain (TMD) of RelA (p65), called nt-p65-TMD, which can be delivered effectively into the nucleus without influencing the cell viability, and work as interactomic inhibitors via disruption of the endogenous p65-mediated transcription complex. nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6 from BV2 microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). nt-p65-TMD did not inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of signaling mediators such as ZAP-70, p38, JNK, or ERK involved in T cell activation, but was capable of suppressing the transcriptional activity of NF-κB without the functional effect on that of NFAT upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. The transduced nt-p65-TMD in T cell did not affect the expression of CD69, however significantly inhibited the secretion of T cell-specific cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A, or IL-10. Systemic administration of nt-p65-TMD showed a significant therapeutic effect on LPS-induced sepsis model by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. Therefore, nt-p65-TMD can be a novel therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including sepsis, where a transcription factor has a key role in pathogenesis, and further allows us to discover new functions of p65 under normal physiological condition without genetic alteration. - Highlights: • The nt-p65-TMD is intra-nuclear interactomic inhibitor of endogenous p65. • The nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • The excellent therapeutic potential of nt-p65-TMD was confirmed in sepsis model.

  15. TLR4 activates NF-κB in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Dori C.; White, Yvonne A.R.; Dau, Caroline; Johnson, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → TLR4 is expressed in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. → Acting through TLR4, LPS and HSP60 induce a NFκB signaling cascade in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. → NFκB activation or inhibition did not alter chemosensitivity to TRAIL or cisplatin. -- Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the surface epithelium of normal ovaries (OSE) and in epithelial ovarian tumors. Most notably, OSE-derived cancers express TLR4, which activates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling cascade as a mediator of inflammatory response. Currently, there is considerable interest in elucidating the role of TLR-mediated signaling in cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of TLRs in granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary, and the extent to which GCT expression of TLRs may influence cell-signaling pathways and/or modulate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, has yet to be determined. In the present study, human GCT lines (COV434 and KGN) were utilized to evaluate expression of functional TLR4. TLR4 is expressed in GCT cell lines and ligation of TLR4 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to IκB degradation and activation of NF-κB. NF-κB activation was confirmed by nuclear localization of NF-κB p65 following treatment with LPS and the naturally occurring ligand, HSP60. Notably, immunoneutralization of TLR4 blocked nuclear localization, and inhibition of NF-κB signaling attenuated LPS-induced TNFα plus increased doubling time in both cell lines. Contradictory to reports using human OSE cell lines, inhibition of NF-κB signaling failed to sensitize GCT lines to TRAIL or cisplatin. In summary, findings herein are the first to demonstrate a functional TLR-signaling pathway specifically in GCTs, and indicate that in contrast to OSE-derived cancers, inhibition of NF-κB does not sensitize GCTs to TRAIL or cisplatin.

  16. Lauroside B, a megastigmane glycoside from Laurus nobilis (bay laurel) leaves, induces apoptosis in human melanoma cell lines by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panza, Elisabetta; Tersigni, Mariaroberta; Iorizzi, Maria; Zollo, Franco; De Marino, Simona; Festa, Carmen; Napolitano, Maria; Castello, Giuseppe; Ialenti, Armando; Ianaro, Angela

    2011-02-25

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor that frequently resists chemotherapy, so the search for new agents for its treatment is of great importance. In the present study, the antiproliferative propensity against human melanoma cell lines of lauroside B (1), a megastigmane glycoside isolated from Laurus nobilis (bay laurel) leaves, was investigated. This compound suppressed the proliferation of three human melanoma cell lines, namely, A375, WM115, and SK-Mel-28. The 1-induced inhibition of human melanoma cell proliferation was due to the induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by FACS analysis with annexin V/PI staining and confirmed by activation of caspase-3 and by the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Growing evidence implicates NF-κB as an important contributor to metastasis and increased chemoresistance of melanoma. Thus, it was hypothesized that 1-induced apoptosis could be associated with suppression of NF-κB activation. The results showed that exposure of human melanoma cells to 1 inhibited IκB-α degradation and constitutive NF-κB DNA-binding activity as well as the expression, regulated by NF-κB, of two antiapoptotic genes, XIAP and c-FLIP. Induction of apoptosis by 1 in human aggressive melanoma cell lines has a potential high biological value.

  17. Lobatin B inhibits NPM/ALK and NF-κB attenuating anaplastic-large-cell-lymphomagenesis and lymphendothelial tumour intravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Izabella; Unger, Christine; Huu, Chi Nguyen; Atanasov, Atanas Georgiev; Kramer, Nina; Chatruphonprasert, Waranya; Brenner, Stefan; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Peschel, Andrea; Vasas, Andrea; Lajter, Ildiko; Kain, Renate; Saiko, Philipp; Szekeres, Thomas; Kenner, Lukas; Hassler, Melanie R; Diaz, Rene; Frisch, Richard; Dirsch, Verena M; Jäger, Walter; de Martin, Rainer; Bochkov, Valery N; Passreiter, Claus M; Peter-Vörösmarty, Barbara; Mader, Robert M; Grusch, Michael; Dolznig, Helmut; Kopp, Brigitte; Zupko, Istvan; Hohmann, Judit; Krupitza, Georg

    2015-01-28

    An apolar extract of the traditional medicinal plant Neurolaena lobata inhibited the expression of the NPM/ALK chimera, which is causal for the majority of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs). Therefore, an active principle of the extract, the furanoheliangolide sesquiterpene lactone lobatin B, was isolated and tested regarding the inhibition of ALCL expansion and tumour cell intravasation through the lymphendothelium. ALCL cell lines, HL-60 cells and PBMCs were treated with plant compounds and the ALK inhibitor TAE-684 to measure mitochondrial activity, proliferation and cell cycle progression and to correlate the results with protein- and mRNA-expression of selected gene products. Several endpoints indicative for cell death were analysed after lobatin B treatment. Tumour cell intravasation through lymphendothelial monolayers was measured and potential causal mechanisms were investigated analysing NF-κB- and cytochrome P450 activity, and 12(S)-HETE production. Lobatin B inhibited the expression of NPM/ALK, JunB and PDGF-Rβ, and attenuated proliferation of ALCL cells by arresting them in late M phase. Mitochondrial activity remained largely unaffected upon lobatin B treatment. Nevertheless, caspase 3 became activated in ALCL cells. Also HL-60 cell proliferation was attenuated whereas PBMCs of healthy donors were not affected by lobatin B. Additionally, tumour cell intravasation, which partly depends on NF-κB, was significantly suppressed by lobatin B most likely due to its NF-κB-inhibitory property. Lobatin B, which was isolated from a plant used in ethnomedicine, targets malignant cells by at least two properties: I) inhibition of NPM/ALK, thereby providing high specificity in combating this most prevalent fusion protein occurring in ALCL; II) inhibition of NF-κB, thereby not affecting normal cells with low constitutive NF-κB activity. This property also inhibits tumour cell intravasation into the lymphatic system and may provide an option to manage this

  18. Fisetin inhibits TNF-α/NF-κB-induced IL-8 expression by targeting PKCδ in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoghyun; Ro, Hyunju; In, Hyun Ju; Choi, Ji-Hee; Kim, Mun-Ock; Lee, Jinhyuk; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Su Ui

    2018-08-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid, is a therapeutic agent for respiratory inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, detailed molecular mechanisms regarding the target protein of fisetin remain unknown. Fisetin significantly reduces tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced interleukin (IL)-8 levels by inhibiting both nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and the phosphorylation of its upstream effectors. We show that fisetin prevents interactions between protein kinase C (PKC)δ and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), thereby inhibiting the inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK)/NF-κB downstream signalling cascade. Furthermore, we found that fisetin directly binds to PKCδ in vitro. Our findings provide evidence that fisetin inhibits the TNF-α-activated IKK/NF-κB cascade by targeting PKCδ, thereby mediating inflammatory diseases such as COPD. These data suggest that fisetin is a good therapeutic drug for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases, such as COPD, by inhibiting the TNF-α/NF-κB signalling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian folk remedy, through inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Durbadal; Mukherjee, Hemanta; Mondal, Supriya; Jena, Aditya; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Mondal, Keshab C; Malhotra, Bharti; Samanta, Amalesh; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of self-limiting non-specific immune response, which occurs during bodily injury. In some disorders the inflammatory process becomes continuous, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer etc. Several Indian tribes used the bark of Odina wodier (OWB) for treating inflammatory disorders. Thus, we have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of OWB methanol extract and its major constituent chlorogenic acid (CA), using three popular in vivo antiinflammatory models: Carrageenan- and Dextran-induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma, and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. To elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action we determine the level of major inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 or PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12). Further, we determine the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), and NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IK-Bα) by protein and mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis in drug treated LPS-induced murine macrophage model. Moreover, we determined the acute and sub-acute toxicity of OWB extract in BALB/c mice. Our study demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity of OWB extract and CA along with the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 expressions. Further, the expression of TLR4, NF-κBp65, MyD88, iNOS and COX-2 molecules were reduced in drug-treated groups, but not in the LPS-stimulated untreated or control groups, Thus, our results collectively indicated that the OWB extract and CA can efficiently inhibit inflammation through the down regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian folk remedy, through inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Ojha

    Full Text Available Inflammation is part of self-limiting non-specific immune response, which occurs during bodily injury. In some disorders the inflammatory process becomes continuous, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer etc. Several Indian tribes used the bark of Odina wodier (OWB for treating inflammatory disorders. Thus, we have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of OWB methanol extract and its major constituent chlorogenic acid (CA, using three popular in vivo antiinflammatory models: Carrageenan- and Dextran-induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma, and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. To elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action we determine the level of major inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 or PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12. Further, we determine the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB, and NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IK-Bα by protein and mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis in drug treated LPS-induced murine macrophage model. Moreover, we determined the acute and sub-acute toxicity of OWB extract in BALB/c mice. Our study demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity of OWB extract and CA along with the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 expressions. Further, the expression of TLR4, NF-κBp65, MyD88, iNOS and COX-2 molecules were reduced in drug-treated groups, but not in the LPS-stimulated untreated or control groups, Thus, our results collectively indicated that the OWB extract and CA can efficiently inhibit inflammation through the down regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway.

  1. Cheongsangbangpung-tang ameliorated the acute inflammatory response via the inhibition of NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Young; Park, Sang Mi; Hwangbo, Min; Lee, Jong Rok; Byun, Sung Hui; Ku, Sae Kwang; Cho, Il Je; Kim, Sang Chan; Jee, Seon Young; Park, Sook Jahr

    2017-01-13

    Cheongsangbangpung-tang (CBT) is a traditional herbal formula used in Eastern Asia to treat heat-related diseases and swellings in the skin. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of cheongsangbangpung-tang extract (CBTE) both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro effects of CBTE on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammation-related proteins were examined in RAW 264.7 cells. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) were measured with the Griess reagent. Inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) were detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Inflammation-related proteins were detected by Western blot. The effect of CBTE on acute inflammation in vivo was evaluated using carrageenan (CA)-induced paw oedema. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect, paw oedema volume, thickness of the dorsum and ventrum pedis skin, number of infiltrated inflammatory cells, and number of COX-2-, iNOS-immunoreactive cells were measured. In an in vitro study, CBTE inhibited the production of NO and PGE 2 and also decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumuor necrosis factor-α. In LPS-activated macrophages, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling is a pivotal pathway in the inflammatory process. These plausible molecular mechanisms increased the phosphorylation of I-κBα, while the activation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of MAPK by LPS were blocked by CBTE treatment. In our in vivo study, a CA-induced acute oedematous paw inflammation rat model was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of CBTE. CBTE significantly reduced the increases in paw swelling, skin thicknesses, infiltrated inflammatory cells and iNOS-, COX-2 positive cells induced by CA injection. Based on these results, CBTE should favourably inhibit the acute inflammatory response through

  2. miR-339-5p inhibits alcohol-induced brain inflammation through regulating NF-κB pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Guangkuan; Di, Zhiyong; Zhao, Qingjie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alcohol upregulates miR-339-5p expression. • miR-339-5p inhibits the NF-kB pathway. • miR-339-5p interacts with and blocks activity of IKK-beat and IKK-epsilon. • miR-339-5p modulates IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Abstract: Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by the innate immunesystem. Pro-inflammatory responses to alcohol are modulated by miRNAs. The miRNA miR-339-5p has previously been found to be upregulated in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. However, little has been elucidated on the regulatory functions of this miRNA in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. We investigated the function of miR-339-5p in alcohol exposed brain tissue and isolated microglial cells using ex vivo and in vitro techniques. Our results show that alcohol induces transcription of miR 339-5p, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in mouse brain tissue and isolated microglial cells by activating NF-κB. Alcohol activation of NF-κB allows for nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65 and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. miR-339-5p inhibited expression of these pro-inflammatory factors through the NF-κB pathway by abolishing IKK-β and IKK-ε activity

  3. miR-339-5p inhibits alcohol-induced brain inflammation through regulating NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated School of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, Guangkuan [Department of Neurology, Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital, Harbin 150036 (China); Di, Zhiyong [Department of Laboratory, Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital, Harbin 150036 (China); Zhao, Qingjie, E-mail: zhaoqingjie2013@163.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated School of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-09-26

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alcohol upregulates miR-339-5p expression. • miR-339-5p inhibits the NF-kB pathway. • miR-339-5p interacts with and blocks activity of IKK-beat and IKK-epsilon. • miR-339-5p modulates IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Abstract: Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by the innate immunesystem. Pro-inflammatory responses to alcohol are modulated by miRNAs. The miRNA miR-339-5p has previously been found to be upregulated in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. However, little has been elucidated on the regulatory functions of this miRNA in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. We investigated the function of miR-339-5p in alcohol exposed brain tissue and isolated microglial cells using ex vivo and in vitro techniques. Our results show that alcohol induces transcription of miR 339-5p, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in mouse brain tissue and isolated microglial cells by activating NF-κB. Alcohol activation of NF-κB allows for nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65 and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. miR-339-5p inhibited expression of these pro-inflammatory factors through the NF-κB pathway by abolishing IKK-β and IKK-ε activity.

  4. Reaction Characteristics of Andrographolide and its Analogue AL-1 with GSH, as a Simple Chemical Simulation of NF-κB Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 14-α-Lipoic acid-3,19-dihydroxyandrographolide (AL-1, 2 is an analogue of andrographolide (Andro, 1 coupled to α-lipoic acid (LA, 4. AL-1 was at least 10-fold more potent than the natural parent compound Andro in inhibiting nuclear factor (NF-κB activation in RIN-m cells. In the present study, glutathione (GSH, 3 was used as a simple chemical model molecule of NF-κB with cysteine 62. The characteristics of the reaction between AL-1 or Andro and GSH were investigated to trace some possible elucidation for the inhibitive mechanism and stronger inhibition of AL-1 to NF-κB activation. The results showed that the main reaction products of AL-1 and Andro were identical, sulfhydryl adduct and amino adduct. AL-1 reacted much faster than Andro with GSH. The product yield of AL-1 was much higher than that of Andro. It was speculated that AL-1 might inhibit NF-κB by the same mechanism as Andro. And the faster reaction rate and higher yield may account for the stronger NF-κB inhibition of AL-1 when compared with Andro.

  5. Human xenospecific T suppressor cells inhibit T helper cell proliferation to porcine aortic endothelial cells, and NF-kappaB activity in porcine APC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotariu, R; Li, J; Colovai, A I; Platt, J L; Cortesini, R; Suciu Foca Cortesini, N

    2001-05-01

    Human T suppressor cells (Ts), capable of preventing autologous T helper cells (Th) from reacting against xenogeneic pig endothelial cells and pig APC can be generated in vitro. Ts derive from a population of CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) T lymphocytes and specifically recognize the MHC class I antigens of the APC used for in vitro immunization. To study the mechanism that underlies suppression, we investigated whether Ts inhibit the expression of costimulatory molecules in xenogeneic professional and semiprofessional APC. We found that Ts down-regulate Th-induced expression of CD86 in pig APC, and that this effect occurs at the level of transcription, as indicated by nuclear run-on and Northern blot assays. EMSA results revealed that inhibition of CD86 expression is mediated by inactivation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. Furthermore, transfection of pig APC with a vector expressing NF-kappaB p65 partially rescued Th-induced expression of the CD86 molecule. These results strongly support the concept that xenospecific Ts inhibit the APC function of xenogeneic cells by preventing activation of NF-kappaB.

  6. Curcumin attenuates lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury by activating Nrf2 nuclear translocation and inhibiting NF-kB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Lian; Chu, Jin-Guo; Jian, Xiao-Min; Dong, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Li-Ping; Li, Guo-Xiang; Yang, Nai-Bin

    2017-07-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol in curry spice isolated from the rhizome of turmeric, has been reported to possess versatile biological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antifibrotic, and anticancer activities. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of curcumin was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (d-GalN)-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in rats. Experimental ALI was induced with an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of sterile 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution containing 8μg LPS and 800mg/kg d-GalN. Curcumin was administered once daily starting three days prior to LPS/d-GalN treatment. Results indicated that curcumin could attenuate hepatic pathological damage, decrease serum ALT and AST levels, and reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) content in experimental ALI rats. Moreover, higher dosages of curcumin pretreatment inhibited NF-κB activation and reduced serum TNF-α and liver TNF-α levels induced by LPS/d-GalN ip injection. Furthermore, we found that curcumin up-regulated the expression of nuclear Nrf2 and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant defense genes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone (NQO-1) in a dose-dependent manner. Our results showed that curcumin protected experimental animals against LPS/d-GalN-induced ALI through activation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and inhibition of NF-κB activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Tat-CBR1 inhibits inflammatory responses through the suppressions of NF-κB and MAPK activation in macrophages and TPA-induced ear edema in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Nam [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Won [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Research Institute of Oral Sciences, College of Dentistry, Kangnung-Wonju National University, Kangneung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyo Sang; Shin, Min Jea; Ahn, Eun Hee; Ryu, Eun Ji; Yong, Ji In; Cha, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sang Jin; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Youn, Jong Kyu; Hwang, Jae Hyeok [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji-Heon; Kim, Duk-Soo [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan-Si 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Woo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Eum, Won Sik, E-mail: wseum@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young, E-mail: sychoi@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) plays a crucial role in cell survival and protects against oxidative stress response. However, its anti-inflammatory effects are not yet clearly understood. In this study, we examined whether CBR1 protects against inflammatory responses in macrophages and mice using a Tat-CBR1 protein which is able to penetrate into cells. The results revealed that purified Tat-CBR1 protein efficiently transduced into Raw 264.7 cells and inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) expression levels. In addition, Tat-CBR1 protein leads to decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression through suppression of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Furthermore, Tat-CBR1 protein inhibited inflammatory responses in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation when applied topically. These findings indicate that Tat-CBR1 protein has anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK activation, suggesting that Tat-CBR1 protein may have potential as a therapeutic agent against inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • Transduced Tat-CBR1 reduces LPS-induced inflammatory mediators and cytokines. • Tat-CBR1 inhibits MAPK and NF-κB activation. • Tat-CBR1 ameliorates inflammation response in vitro and in vivo. • Tat-CBR1 may be useful as potential therapeutic agent for inflammation.

  8. Lycopene acts through inhibition of IκB kinase to suppress NF-κB signaling in human prostate and breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assar, Emelia A; Vidalle, Magdalena Castellano; Chopra, Mridula; Hafizi, Sassan

    2016-07-01

    We studied the effect of the potent dietary antioxidant lycopene on multiple points along the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in prostate and breast cancer cells. Lycopene significantly inhibited prostate and breast cancer cell growth at physiologically relevant concentrations of ≥1.25 μM. Similar concentrations also caused a 30-40 % reduction in inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) phosphorylation in the cells, as determined by western blotting. Furthermore, the same degree of inhibition by lycopene was observed for NF-κB transcriptional activity, as determined by reporter gene assay. Concomitant with this, immunofluorescence staining of lycopene-treated cells showed a significant suppression (≥25 %) of TNF-induced NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear translocation. Further probing of lycopene's effects on upstream elements of the NF-κB pathway showed a 25 % inhibition of both activity of recombinant IκB kinase β (IKKβ) kinase in a cell-free in vitro assay, as well as activity of IKKβ immunoprecipitated from MDA-MB-231 cells treated with lycopene. In conclusion, the anticancer properties of lycopene may occur through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway, beginning at the early stage of cytoplasmic IKK kinase activity, which then leads to reduced NF-κB-responsive gene regulation. Furthermore, these effects in cancer cells were observed at concentrations of lycopene that are relevant and achievable in vivo.

  9. Anesthetic propofol reduces endotoxic inflammation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-regulated Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsi Hsing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anesthetic propofol has immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the area of anti-inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces inflammation through toll-like receptor (TLR 4 signaling. We investigated the molecular actions of propofol against LPS/TLR4-induced inflammatory activation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-cytotoxic levels of propofol reduced LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and NO as determined by western blotting and the Griess reaction, respectively. Propofol also reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-10 as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Western blot analysis showed propofol inhibited LPS-induced activation and phosphorylation of IKKβ (Ser180 and nuclear factor (NF-κB (Ser536; the subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 was also reduced. Additionally, propofol inhibited LPS-induced Akt activation and phosphorylation (Ser473 partly by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS generation; inter-regulation that ROS regulated Akt followed by NF-κB activation was found to be crucial for LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. An in vivo study using C57BL/6 mice also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties against LPS in peritoneal macrophages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that propofol reduces LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages by inhibiting the interconnected ROS/Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathways.

  10. Anesthetic Propofol Reduces Endotoxic Inflammation by Inhibiting Reactive Oxygen Species-regulated Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Lin, Ming-Chung; Choi, Pui-Ching; Huang, Wei-Ching; Kai, Jui-In; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Wang, Chi-Yun; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Hong; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Background Anesthetic propofol has immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the area of anti-inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammation through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling. We investigated the molecular actions of propofol against LPS/TLR4-induced inflammatory activation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-cytotoxic levels of propofol reduced LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO as determined by western blotting and the Griess reaction, respectively. Propofol also reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Western blot analysis showed propofol inhibited LPS-induced activation and phosphorylation of IKKβ (Ser180) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB (Ser536); the subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 was also reduced. Additionally, propofol inhibited LPS-induced Akt activation and phosphorylation (Ser473) partly by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; inter-regulation that ROS regulated Akt followed by NF-κB activation was found to be crucial for LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. An in vivo study using C57BL/6 mice also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties against LPS in peritoneal macrophages. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that propofol reduces LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages by inhibiting the interconnected ROS/Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:21408125

  11. Haloperidol Suppresses NF-kappaB to Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Response in RAW 264 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Ohta, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Atsuhiro; Horiguchi, Yu; Koide, Moe; Fujino, Yuji

    2016-02-04

    BACKGROUND Haloperidol, a tranquilizing agent, is administered both to treat symptoms of psychotic disorders and to sedate agitated and delirious patients. Notably, haloperidol has been suggested to inhibit the immune response through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that the sedative modulates the immune response via NF-κB. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using flow cytometry, we analyzed the effects of haloperidol on expression CD80 and CD86 in RAW 264 cells and in primary macrophages derived from bone marrow. Secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, NF-κB activation was evaluated using a reporter assay based on secretory embryonic alkaline phosphatase. Finally, synthetic antagonists were used to identify the dopamine receptor that mediates the effects of haloperidol. RESULTS Haloperidol inhibited NF-κB activation, and thereby suppressed expression of CD80, as well as secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 p40. CD80 and IL-6 levels were similarly attenuated by a D2-like receptor antagonist, but not by a D1-like receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS The data strongly suggest that haloperidol inhibits the immune response by suppressing NF-kB signaling via the dopamine D2 receptor.

  12. Inhibition of NF-κB in Tumor Cells Exacerbates Immune Cell Activation Following Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekgaarden, Mans; Kos, Milan; Jurg, Freek A.; van Beek, Adriaan A.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Heger, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) yields very good outcomes in numerous types of superficial solid cancers, some tumors respond suboptimally to PDT. Novel treatment strategies are therefore needed to enhance the efficacy in these therapy-resistant tumors. One of these strategies is to combine PDT with inhibitors of PDT-induced survival pathways. In this respect, the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) has been identified as a potential pharmacological target, albeit inhibition of NF-κB may concurrently dampen the subsequent anti-tumor immune response required for complete tumor eradication and abscopal effects. In contrast to these postulations, this study demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of NF-κB in murine breast carcinoma (EMT-6) cells increased survival signaling in these cells and exacerbated the inflammatory response in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results suggest a pro-death and immunosuppressive role of NF-κB in PDT-treated cells that concurs with a hyperstimulated immune response in innate immune cells. PMID:26307977

  13. Gallic acid inhibits gastric cancer cells metastasis and invasive growth via increased expression of RhoB, downregulation of AKT/small GTPase signals and inhibition of NF-κB activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Hsieh-Hsun [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chi-Sen [Department of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Division of Gastroenterology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Ho, Wei-Chi [Division of Gastroenterology, Jen-Ai Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liao, Sheng-You [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wea-Lung [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chau-Jong, E-mail: wcj@csmu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of gallic acid (GA) for controlling tumor metastasis through its inhibitory effect on the motility of AGS cells. A noteworthy finding in our previous experiment was increased RhoB expression in GA-treated cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of RhoB expression on the inhibitory effects of GA on AGS cells. By applying the transfection of RhoB siRNA into AGS cells and an animal model, we tested the effect of GA on inhibition of tumor growth and RhoB expression. The results confirmed that RhoB-siRNA transfection induced GA to inhibit AGS cells’ invasive growth involving blocking the AKT/small GTPase signals pathway and inhibition of NF-κB activity. Finally, we evaluated the effect of GA on AGS cell metastasis by colonization of tumor cells in nude mice. It showed GA inhibited tumor cells growth via the expression of RhoB. These data support the inhibitory effect of GA which was shown to inhibit gastric cancer cell metastasis and invasive growth via increased expression of RhoB, downregulation of AKT/small GTPase signals and inhibition of NF-κB activity. Thus, GA might be a potential agent in treating gastric cancer. Highlights: ► GA could downregulate AKT signal via increased expression of RhoB. ► GA inhibits metastasis in vitro in gastric carcinoma. ► GA inhibits tumor growth in nude mice model.

  14. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses growth of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of Akt/NF-kappaB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiahua; Slivova, Veronika; Harvey, Kevin; Valachovicova, Tatiana; Sliva, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi, Lingzhi) is a popular Asian mushroom that has been used for more than 2 millennia for the general promotion of health and was therefore called the "Mushroom of Immortality." Ganoderma lucidum was also used in traditional Chinese medicine to prevent or treat a variety of diseases, including cancer. We previously demonstrated that Ganoderma lucidum suppresses the invasive behavior of breast cancer cells by inhibiting the transcription factor NF-kappaB. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of Ganoderma lucidum on the growth of highly invasive and metastatic breast cancer cells has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by downregulating Akt/NF-kappaB signaling. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and downregulates the expression of Akt, which results in the inhibition of NF-kappaB activity in MDA-MB-231 cells. The biological effect of Ganoderma lucidum was demonstrated by cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, which was the result of the downregulation of expression of NF-kappaB-regulated cyclin D1, followed by the inhibition of cdk4. Our results suggest that Ganoderma lucidum inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by modulating Akt/NF-kappaB signaling and could have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of breast cancer.

  15. JANEX-1, a JAK3 inhibitor, protects pancreatic islets from cytokine toxicity through downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activation and the JAK/STAT pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Na; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Mi-Young [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School and Diabetes Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ha-Na; Moon, Woo Sung [Department of Pathology, Medical School and Diabetes Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung-Joo [Department of Herbology, School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School and Diabetes Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kang-Beom, E-mail: desson@wonkwang.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung-Hyun, E-mail: bhpark@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School and Diabetes Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    JANEX-1/WHI-P131, a selective Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor, has been shown to delay the onset of diabetes in the NOD mouse model. However, the molecular mechanism by which JANEX-1 protects pancreatic {beta}-cells is unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of JANEX-1 on interleukin (IL)-1{beta} and interferon (IFN)-{gamma}-induced {beta}-cell damage using isolated islets. JANEX-1-pretreated islets showed resistance to cytokine toxicity, namely suppressed nitric oxide (NO) production, reduced inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS) expression, and decreased islet destruction. The molecular mechanism by which JANEX-1 inhibits iNOS expression was mediated through suppression of the nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways. Islets treated with the cytokines downregulated the protein levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 and SOCS-3, but pretreatment with JANEX-1 attenuated these decreases. Additionally, islets from JAK3{sup -/-} mice were more resistant to cytokine toxicity than islets from control mice. These results demonstrate that JANEX-1 protects {beta}-cells from cytokine toxicity through suppression of the NF-{kappa}B and JAK/STAT pathways and upregulation of SOCS proteins, suggesting that JANEX-1 may be used to preserve functional {beta}-cell mass.

  16. Dexmedetomidine Inhibits Inflammatory Reaction in Lung Tissues of Septic Rats by Suppressing TLR4/NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Wu

    2013-01-01

    and 20 μg/kg significantly decreased mortality and pulmonary inflammation of septic rats, as well as suppressed CLP-induced elevation of TNF-α and IL-6 and inhibited TLR4/MyD88 expression and NF-κB activation. These results suggest that dexmedetomidine may decrease mortality and inhibit inflammatory reaction in lung tissues of septic rats by suppressing TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway.

  17. Moringa fruit inhibits LPS-induced NO/iNOS expression through suppressing the NF-κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Tae-Sung; Park, Yoon-Yub; Chae, Whi-Gun; Chung, Il-Kyung; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a natural biologically active substance, by determining its inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Extracts from different parts of moringa (root, leaf, and fruit) reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) release in a dose-dependent manner. The moringa fruit extract most effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production and levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The moringa fruit extract also was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Furthermore, moringa fruit extract inhibited the cytoplasmic degradation of I κ B -α and the nuclear translocation of p65 proteins, resulting in lower levels of NF -κ B transactivation. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that moringa fruit extract reduces the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including NO , IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 via the inhibition of NF -κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells. These findings reveal, in part, the molecular basis underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of moringa fruit extract.

  18. Curcumin ameliorates macrophage infiltration by inhibiting NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines in streptozotocin induced-diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN and that the infiltration of macrophages in glomerulus has been implicated in the development of glomerular injury. We hypothesized that the plant polyphenolic compound curcumin, which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effect, would ameliorate macrophage infiltration in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced with STZ (55 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection in rats. Three weeks after STZ injection, rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, diabetic, and diabetic treated with curcumin at 100 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 8 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. The excised kidney was used to assess macrophage infiltration and expression of various inflammatory markers. Results At 11 weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats exhibited renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, increased blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria, along with marked reduction in the body weight. All of these abnormalities were significantly reversed by curcumin. Hyperglycemia induced the degradation of IκBα and NF-κB activation and as a result increased infiltration of macrophages (52% as well as increased proinflammatory cytokines: TNF-α and IL-1β. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced macrophage infiltration in the kidneys of diabetic rats, suppressed the expression of above proinflammatory cytokines and degradation of IκBα. In addition, curcumin treatment also markedly decreased ICAM-1, MCP-1 and TGF-β1 protein expression. Moreover, at nuclear level curcumin inhibited the NF-κB activity. Conclusion Our results suggested that curcumin treatment protect against the development of DN in rats by reducing macrophage infiltration through the inhibition of NF-κB activation in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  19. Paeoniflorin Attenuates Inflammatory Pain by Inhibiting Microglial Activation and Akt-NF-κB Signaling in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Paeoniflorin (PF is known to have anti-inflammatory and paregoric effects, but the mechanism underlying its analgesic effect remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of PF on Freund’s complete adjuvant (CFA-induced inflammatory pain and explore the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: An inflammatory pain model was established by intraplantar injection of CFA in C57BL/6J mice. After intrathecal injection of PF daily for 8 consecutive days, thermal and mechanical withdrawal thresholds, the levels of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, microglial activity, and the expression of Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway in the spinal cord tissue were detected by animal ethological test, cell culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence histochemistry, and western blot. Results: PF inhibited the spinal microglial activation in the CFA-induced pain model. The production of proinflammatory cytokines was decreased in the central nervous system after PF treatment both in vivo and in vitro. PF further displayed a remarkable effect on inhibiting the activation of Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion: These results suggest that PF is a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory pain and merits further investigation.

  20. Recombinant CC16 protein inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Pang; Guoping Zheng; Baofeng Yu; Hailong Wang; Yangyang Yuan; Dong Wang; Ting Li; Dan Wang; Xiaohong Shi; Min Guo; Chunfang Wang; Xinri Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that Clara cell protein-16 (CC16) has anti-inflammatory functions,although the involved molecular pathways have not been completely elucidated.Here,we evaluated the effect of recombinant rat CC16 (rCC16) on the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α),interleukin-6 (IL-6),and IL-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms.It was found that rCC16 inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α,IL-6,and IL-8 expression at both the messenger ribonucleicacid (mRNA) level and protein level in a concentration-dependent manner,as demonstrated by realtime reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Such suppressive effects were accompanied by the inhibition of transcriptional activity and the deoxyribonucleic acid binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB but not activator protein (AP)-1.Western blot analysis further revealed that rCC16 inhibited the increase of nuclear NF-κB and the reduction of cytosolic NF-κB,the phosphorylation and reduction of NF-κB inhibitory protein IκBα,and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent NF-κB activation by phosphoryl-ation at Ser276 of its p65 subunit.Furthermore,rCC16 was found to have no effect on the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase,c-Jun,or the nuclear translocation of c-Jun.In addition,reduction of TNF-α,IL-6,and IL-8 were reversed when the level of endogenous uteroglobin-binding protein was reduced by RNA interference in rCC16-and LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells.Our data suggest that rCC16 suppresses LPS-mediated inflammatory mediator TNF-α,IL-6,and IL-8 production by inactivating NF-κB and p38 MAPK but not AP-1 in RAW264.7 cells.

  1. Porcine arterivirus activates the NF-κB pathway through IκB degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Myeong; Kleiboeker, Steven B.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune function as well as cell proliferation and survival. The present study demonstrated for the first time that a virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family activates NF-κB in MARC-145 cells and alveolar macrophages. In porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected cells, NF-κB activation was characterized by translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, increased DNA binding activity, and NF-κB-regulated gene expression. NF-κB activation was increased as PRRSV infection progressed and in a viral dose-dependent manner. UV-inactivation of PRRSV significantly reduced the level of NF-κB activation. Degradation of IκB protein was detected late in PRRSV infection, and overexpression of the dominant negative form of IκBα (IκBαDN) significantly suppressed NF-κB activation induced by PRRSV. However, IκBαDN did not affect viral replication and viral cytopathic effect. PRRSV infection induced oxidative stress in cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidants inhibited NF-κB DNA binding activity in PRRSV-infected cells, suggesting ROS as a mechanism by which NF-κB was activated by PRRSV infection. Moreover, NF-κB-dependent expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was observed in PRRSV-infected cells, an observation which implies that NF-κB activation is a biologically significant aspect of PRRSV pathogenesis. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular pathways of pathology and immune evasion associated with disease caused by PRRSV

  2. Omega-3 free fatty acids suppress macrophage inflammasome activation by inhibiting NF-κB activation and enhancing autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Williams-Bey

    Full Text Available The omega-3 (ω3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can suppress inflammation, specifically IL-1β production through poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that DHA reduces macrophage IL-1β production by limiting inflammasome activation. Exposure to DHA reduced IL-1β production by ligands that stimulate the NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasomes. The inhibition required Free Fatty Acid Receptor (FFAR 4 (also known as GPR120, a G-protein coupled receptor (GPR known to bind DHA. The exposure of cells to DHA recruited the adapter protein β-arrestin1/2 to FFAR4, but not to a related lipid receptor. DHA treatment reduced the initial inflammasome priming step by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. DHA also reduced IL-1β levels by enhancing autophagy in the cells. As a consequence macrophages derived from mice lacking the essential autophagy protein ATG7 were partially resistant to suppressive effects of DHA. Thus, DHA suppresses inflammasome activation by two distinct mechanisms, inhibiting the initial priming step and by augmenting autophagy, which limits inflammasome activity.

  3. Cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase prevents diabetes-induced pathological changes by inhibiting NF-κB signaling activation in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Weitao; Ruan, Dandan; Xuan, Yuanhu; Niu, Chao; Tao, Youli; Wang, Yang; Zhan, Kungao; Cai, Lu; Jin, Litai; Tan, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that specifically catabolizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Overexpression of catalase via a heart-specific promoter (CAT-TG) was reported to reduce diabetes-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and further prevent diabetes-induced pathological abnormalities, including cardiac structural derangement and left ventricular abnormity in mice. However, the mechanism by which catalase overexpression protects heart function remains unclear. This study found that activation of a ROS-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway was downregulated in hearts of diabetic mice overexpressing catalase. In addition, catalase overexpression inhibited the significant increase in nitration levels of key enzymes involved in energy metabolism, including α-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E1 component (α-KGD) and ATP synthase α and β subunits (ATP-α and ATP-β). To assess the effects of the NF-κB pathway activation on heart function, Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway, was injected into diabetic mice, protecting mice against the development of cardiac damage and increased nitrative modifications of key enzymes involved in energy metabolism. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that catalase protects mouse hearts against diabetic cardiomyopathy, partially by suppressing NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses and associated protein nitration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Involvement of nuclear factor {kappa}B in platelet CD40 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachem, Ahmed [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Yacoub, Daniel [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Zaid, Younes [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Mourad, Walid [Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Merhi, Yahye, E-mail: yahye.merhi@icm-mhi.org [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer sCD40L induces TRAF2 association to CD40 and NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation downstream of CD40L/CD40 signaling is independent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} is required for sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of aggregation. -- Abstract: CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a thrombo-inflammatory molecule that predicts cardiovascular events. Platelets constitute the major source of soluble CD40L (sCD40L), which has been shown to potentiate platelet activation and aggregation, in a CD40-dependent manner, via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 signaling. In many cells, the CD40L/CD40 dyad also induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). Given that platelets contain NF-{kappa}B, we hypothesized that it may be involved in platelet CD40 signaling and function. In human platelets, sCD40L induces association of CD40 with its adaptor protein the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 and triggers phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which are abolished by CD40L blockade. Inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation without affecting p38 MAPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation has no effect on I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation, indicating a divergence in the signaling pathway originating from CD40 upon its ligation. In functional studies, inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to a sub-threshold concentration of collagen. This study demonstrates that the sCD40L/CD40 axis triggers NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. This signaling pathway plays a critical role in platelet activation and aggregation upon sCD40L stimulation and may represent an important target against thrombo

  5. Scandoside Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect Via Suppressing NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages

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    Jingyu He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The iridoids of Hedyotis diffusa Willd play an important role in the anti-inflammatory process, but the specific iridoid with anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism has not be thoroughly studied. An iridoid compound named scandoside (SCA was isolated from H. diffusa and its anti-inflammatory effect was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory mechanism was confirmed by in intro experiments and molecular docking analyses. As results, SCA significantly decreased the productions of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and inhibited the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, TNF-α and IL-6 messenger RNA (mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. SCA treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B alpaha (IκB-α, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. The docking data suggested that SCA had great binding abilities to COX-2, iNOS and IκB. Taken together, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of SCA is due to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via suppressing the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, which provided useful information for its application and development.

  6. 8-Hydroxyquinoline inhibits iNOS expression and nitric oxide production by down-regulating LPS-induced activity of NF-κB and C/EBPβ in Raw 264.7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ho; Woo, Kyung Jin; Lim, Jun Hee; Kim, Shin; Lee, Tae Jin; Jung, Eun Mi; Lee, Jin-Man; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2005-01-01

    In activated macrophage, large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) are generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), resulting in acute or chronic inflammatory disorders. In Raw 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic inflammation, 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) inhibited the LPS-induced expression of both iNOS protein and mRNA in a parallel dose-dependent manner. 8HQ did not enhance the degradation of iNOS mRNA. To investigate the mechanism by which 8HQ inhibits iNOS gene expression, we examined the activation of MAP kinases in Raw 264.7 cells. We did not observe any significant change in the phosphorylation of MAPKs between LPS alone and LPS plus 8HQ-treated cells. Moreover, 8HQ significantly inhibited the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), but not activator protein-1 and cAMP response element-binding protein. Taken together, these results suggest that 8HQ acts to inhibit inflammation through inhibition of NO production and iNOS expression through blockade of C/EBPβ DNA-binding activity and NF-κB activation

  7. Curcumin Modulates the Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells by Suppressing Constitutive and Inducible NF-κB Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandur, Santosh K.; Deorukhkar, Amit; Pandey, Manoj K.; Pabon, Ana Maria B.S.; Shentu, Shujun; Guha, Sushovan; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy is an integral part of the preoperative treatment of rectal cancers. However, only a minority of patients achieve a complete pathologic response to therapy because of resistance of these tumors to radiation therapy. This resistance may be mediated by constitutively active pro-survival signaling pathways or by inducible/acquired mechanisms in response to radiation therapy. Simultaneous inhibition of these pathways can sensitize these tumors to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Human colorectal cancer cells were exposed to clinically relevant doses of gamma rays, and the mechanism of their radioresistance was investigated. We characterized the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation as a mechanism of inducible radioresistance in colorectal cancer and used curcumin, the active ingredient in the yellow spice turmeric, to overcome this resistance. Results: Curcumin inhibited the proliferation and the post-irradiation clonogenic survival of multiple colorectal cancer cell lines. Radiation stimulated NF-κB activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas curcumin suppressed this radiation-induced NF-κB activation via inhibition of radiation-induced phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of κB alpha, inhibition of inhibitor of κB kinase activity, and inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Curcumin also suppressed NF-κB-regulated gene products (Bcl-2, Bcl-x L , inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2, cyclooxygenase-2, and cyclin D1). Conclusions: Our results suggest that transient inducible NF-κB activation provides a prosurvival response to radiation that may account for development of radioresistance. Curcumin blocks this signaling pathway and potentiates the antitumor effects of radiation therapy.

  8. Curcumin inhibits interferon-α induced NF-κB and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeeyun; Im, Young-Hyuck; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Kihyun; Kim, Won Seog; Ahn, Jin Seok; Jung, Chul Won; Park, Young Suk; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Keunchil

    2005-01-01

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-α treatment. The IFN-α-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-κB and COX-2. IFN-α induced NF-κB binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-α-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-α rapidly induced the binding activity of a γ- 32 P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-α-induced activations of NF-κB and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549 cells

  9. Genistein inhibits phorbol ester-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity and COX-2 expression by blocking the phosphorylation of p65/RelA in human mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Do-Hee [Research Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hye-Kyung [Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Ha-Na [Research Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Haegeman, Guy [LEGEST, University of Gent (Belgium); Surh, Young-Joon, E-mail: surh@snu.ac.kr [Research Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Genistein, an isoflavone present in soy products, has chemopreventive effects on mammary carcinogenesis. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of genistein on phorbol ester-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) that plays an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. Pretreatment of cultured human breast epithelial (MCF10A) cells with genistein reduced COX-2 expression induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). There are multiple lines of evidence supporting that the induction of COX-2 is regulated by the eukaryotic transcription factor NF-κB. Genistein failed to inhibit TPA-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB as well as degradation of IκB. However, genistein abrogated the TPA-induced transcriptional activity of NF-κB as determined by the luciferase reporter gene assay. Genistein inhibited phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB and its interaction with cAMP regulatory element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP)/p300 and TATA-binding protein (TBP). TPA-induced NF-κB phosphorylation was abolished by pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Likewise, pharmacologic inhibition or dominant negative mutation of ERK suppressed phosphorylation of p65. The above findings, taken together, suggest that genistein inhibits TPA-induced COX-2 expression in MCF10A cells by blocking ERK-mediated phosphorylation of p65 and its subsequent interaction with CBP and TBP.

  10. Fluocinolone acetonide partially restores the mineralization of LPS-stimulated dental pulp cells through inhibition of NF-κB pathway and activation of AP-1 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongning; Jiang, Ting; Wang, Xinzhi; Wang, Yixiang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Fluocinolone acetonide (FA) is commonly used as a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. We recently found that in dental pulp cells (DPCs) FA has osteo-/odonto-inductive as well as anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanism by which FA induces these effects in DPCs is poorly understood. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of FA on the mineralization of DPCs during inflammatory conditions and the underlying mechanism were investigated by real-time PCR, Western blot, EMSA, histochemical staining, immunostaining and pathway blockade assays. KEY RESULTS FA significantly inhibited the inflammatory response in LPS-treated DPCs not only by down-regulating the expression of pro–inflammation-related genes, but also by up-regulating the expression of the anti-inflammatory gene PPAR-γ and mineralization-related genes. Moreover, histochemical staining and immunostaining showed that FA could partially restore the expressions of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and mineralization in LPS-stimulated DPCs. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that FA up-regulated DSPP and runt-related transcription factor 2 expression by inhibiting the expression of phosphorylated-NF-κB P65 and activating activator protein-1 (AP-1) (p-c-Jun and Fra-1). These results were further confirmed through EMSA, by detection of NF-κB DNA-binding activity and pathway blockade assays using a NF-κB pathway inhibitor, AP-1 pathway inhibitor and glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Inflammation induced by LPS suppresses the mineralization process in DPCs. FA partially restored this osteo-/odonto-genesis process in LPS-treated DPCs and had an anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway and activation of the AP-1 pathway. Hence, FA is a potential new treatment for inflammation-associated bone/teeth diseases. PMID:24024985

  11. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) promotes IL-2 mRNA expression through the up-regulation of NF-kappaB, AP-1 and NF-AT in EL4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S H; Yea, S S; Jeon, Y J; Yang, K H; Kaminski, N E

    1998-12-01

    Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) has been previously shown to modulate interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion by activated T-cells. In the present studies, we determined that TGF-beta1 induced IL-2 mRNA expression in the murine T-cell line EL4, in the absence of other stimuli. IL-2 mRNA expression was significantly induced by TGF-beta1 (0.1-1 ng/ml) over a relatively narrow concentration range, which led to the induction of IL-2 secretion. Under identical condition, we examined the effect of TGF-beta1 on the activity of nuclear factor AT (NF-AT), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and octamer, all of which contribute to the regulation of IL-2 gene expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that TGF-beta1 markedly increased NF-AT, NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding to their respective cognate DNA binding sites, whereas octamer binding remained constant, as compared with untreated cells. Employing a reporter gene expression system with p(NF-kappaB)3-CAT, p(NF-AT)3-CAT and p(AP-1)3-CAT, TGF-beta1 treatment of transfected EL4 cells induced a dose-related increase in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity that correlated well with the DNA binding profile found in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay studies. These results show that TGF-beta1, in the absence of any additional stimuli, up-regulates the activity of key transcription factors involved in IL-2 gene expression, including NF-AT, NF-kappaB and AP-1, to help promote IL-2 mRNA expression by EL4 cells.

  12. Azadirachtin interacts with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding domain of its receptors and inhibits TNF-induced biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Kumar, Pankaj; Nagarajaram, Hampathalu A; Manna, Sunil K

    2010-02-19

    The role of azadirachtin, an active component of a medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica), on TNF-induced cell signaling in human cell lines was investigated. Azadirachtin blocks TNF-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and also expression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes such as adhesion molecules and cyclooxygenase 2. Azadirachtin inhibits the inhibitory subunit of NF-kappaB (IkappaB alpha) phosphorylation and thereby its degradation and RelA (p65) nuclear translocation. It blocks IkappaB alpha kinase (IKK) activity ex vivo, but not in vitro. Surprisingly, azadirachtin blocks NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in transfected cells with TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)2, TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD), IKK, or p65, but not with TNFR, suggesting its effect is at the TNFR level. Azadirachtin blocks binding of TNF, but not IL-1, IL-4, IL-8, or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) with its respective receptors. Anti-TNFR antibody or TNF protects azadirachtin-mediated down-regulation of TNFRs. Further, in silico data suggest that azadirachtin strongly binds in the TNF binding site of TNFR. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin modulates cell surface TNFRs thereby decreasing TNF-induced biological responses. Thus, azadirachtin exerts an anti-inflammatory response by a novel pathway, which may be beneficial for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  13. Regorafenib inhibits tumor progression through suppression of ERK/NF-κB activation in hepatocellular carcinoma bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Mao-Chi; Wang, Mei-Hui; Tsai, Jai-Jen; Kuo, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Chang; Hsu, Fei-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2018-03-13

    Regorafenib has been demonstrated in our previous study to trigger apoptosis through suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SK-Hep1 cells in vitro However, the effect of regorafenib on NF-κB-modulated tumor progression in HCC in vivo is ambiguous. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of regorafenib on NF-κB-modulated tumor progression in HCC bearing mouse model. pGL4.50 luciferase reporter vector transfected SK-Hep1 (SK-Hep1/ luc2 ) and Hep3B 2.1-7 tumor bearing mice were established and used for this study. Mice were treated with vehicle or regorafenib (20 mg/kg/day by gavage) for 14 days. Effects of regorafenib on tumor growth and protein expression together with toxicity of regorafenib were evaluated with digital caliper and bioluminescence imaging (BLI), ex vivo Western blotting immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, and measurement of body weight and pathological examination of liver tissue, respectively, in SK-Hep1/ luc2 and Hep3B 2.1-7 tumor bearing mice. The results indicated regorafenib significantly reduced tumor growth and expression of phosphorylated ERK, NF-κB p65 (Ser536), phosphorylated AKT and tumor progression-associated proteins. In addition, we found regorafenib induced both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Body weight and liver morphology were not affected by regorafenib treatment. Our findings present the mechanism of tumor progression inhibition by regorafenib is linked to suppression of ERK/NF-κB signaling in SK-Hep1/ luc2 and Hep3B 2.1-7 tumor-bearing mice. ©2018 The Author(s).

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Anticancer Activity of C-5 Curcumin Analogues with Potential to Inhibit TNF-α-Induced NF-κB Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Anthwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a search of new compounds active against cancer, synthesis of a series of C-5 curcumin analogues was carried out. The new compounds demonstrated good cytotoxicity against chronic myeloid leukemia (KBM5 and colon cancer (HCT116 cell lines. Further, these compounds were found to have better potential to inhibit TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in comparison to curcumin, which show their potential to act as anti-inflammatory agents. Some compounds were found to show higher cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines in comparison to curcumin used as standard.

  15. Sinomenine inhibits breast cancer cell invasion and migration by suppressing NF-κB activation mediated by IL-4/miR-324-5p/CUEDC2 axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Lingqin, E-mail: qinlingsongxa@163.com [Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical School of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710004 (China); Liu, Di; Zhao, Yang [Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical School of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710004 (China); He, Jianjun [Department of Surgical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Medical School of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710061 (China); Kang, Huafeng; Dai, Zhijun; Wang, Xijing; Zhang, Shuqun; Zan, Ying [Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical School of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710004 (China)

    2015-08-28

    Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a vital transcription factor that regulates multiple important biological processes, including the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of breast cancer. Sinomenine is an isoquinoline well known for its remarkable curative effect on rheumatic and arthritic diseases and can induce apoptosis of several cancer cell types. Recently, sinomenine was reported as a tumor suppressor via inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. However, the role and mechanism of sinomenine in invasion and metastasis of breast cancer are largely unknown. Here, we report that sinomenine suppressed the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. We detected binding of NF-κB to the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) after the MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mM sinomenine. Co-IP analysis revealed that sinomenine enhanced the binding of NF-κB and IκB in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that sinomenine had an effect on inactivation of NF-κB. Western blotting and ELISA approaches indicated that the suppression effect was closely associated with the phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) and its negative regulator CUEDC2. Sinomenine treatment decreased miR-324-5p expression, thus increased the level of its target gene CUEDC2, and then blocked the phosphorylation of IKK through altering the upstream axis. Finally, transfection of a miR-324-5p mimic inhibited the suppression of invasion and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cell by sinomenine, providing evidence that sinomenine treatment suppressed breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis via regulation of the IL4/miR-324-5p/CUEDC2 axis. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which sinomenine suppresses cancer cell invasion and metastasis, i.e., blocking NF-κB activation. - Highlights: • Sinomenine reduced invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 breast cancer cells.

  16. Sinomenine inhibits breast cancer cell invasion and migration by suppressing NF-κB activation mediated by IL-4/miR-324-5p/CUEDC2 axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Lingqin; Liu, Di; Zhao, Yang; He, Jianjun; Kang, Huafeng; Dai, Zhijun; Wang, Xijing; Zhang, Shuqun; Zan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a vital transcription factor that regulates multiple important biological processes, including the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of breast cancer. Sinomenine is an isoquinoline well known for its remarkable curative effect on rheumatic and arthritic diseases and can induce apoptosis of several cancer cell types. Recently, sinomenine was reported as a tumor suppressor via inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. However, the role and mechanism of sinomenine in invasion and metastasis of breast cancer are largely unknown. Here, we report that sinomenine suppressed the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. We detected binding of NF-κB to the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) after the MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mM sinomenine. Co-IP analysis revealed that sinomenine enhanced the binding of NF-κB and IκB in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that sinomenine had an effect on inactivation of NF-κB. Western blotting and ELISA approaches indicated that the suppression effect was closely associated with the phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) and its negative regulator CUEDC2. Sinomenine treatment decreased miR-324-5p expression, thus increased the level of its target gene CUEDC2, and then blocked the phosphorylation of IKK through altering the upstream axis. Finally, transfection of a miR-324-5p mimic inhibited the suppression of invasion and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cell by sinomenine, providing evidence that sinomenine treatment suppressed breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis via regulation of the IL4/miR-324-5p/CUEDC2 axis. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which sinomenine suppresses cancer cell invasion and metastasis, i.e., blocking NF-κB activation. - Highlights: • Sinomenine reduced invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 breast cancer cells.

  17. Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Mediated Microglial Inflammation via TLR2/TLR6 MyD88/NF-κB Pathway and Toll Like Receptor Ligand Treatment Furnished Immune Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayilam Ramachandran Rajalakshmy

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the neurotrophic potential of hepatitis C virus (HCV. HCV NS3 protein is one of the potent antigens of this virus mediating inflammatory response in different cell types. Microglia being the immune surveillance cells in the central nervous system (CNS, the inflammatory potential of NS3 on microglia was studied. Role of toll like receptor (TLR ligands Pam2CSK3 and Pam3CSK4 in controlling the NS3 mediated microglial inflammation was studied using microglial cell line CHME3.IL (Interleukin-8, IL-6, TNF-α (Tumor nicrosis factor alpha and IL-1β gene expressions were measured by semi quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR. ELISA was performed to detect IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 secretion. FACS (Flourescent activated cell sorting was performed to quantify TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, MyD88 (Myeloid differntiation factor 88, IkB-α (I kappaB alpha and pNF-κB (phosphorylated nuclear factor kappaB expression. Immunofluorescence staining was performed for MyD88, TLR6 and NF-κB (Nuclear factor kappaB. Student's t-test or One way analysis of variance with Bonferoni post hoc test was performed and p < 0.05 was considered significant.Microglia responded to NS3 by secreting IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β via TLR2 or TLR6 mediated MyD88/NF-κB pathway. Transcription factor NF-κB was involved in activating the cytokine gene expression and the resultant inflammatory response was controlled by NF-κB inhibitor, Ro106-9920, which is known to down regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Activation of the microglia by TLR agonists Pam3CSK4 and Pam2CSK4 induced immune tolerance against NS3. TLR ligand treatment significantly down regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the microglia. IL-10 secretion was suggested as the possible mechanism by which TLR agonists induced immune tolerance. NS3 as such was not capable of self-inducing immune tolerance in microglia.In conclusion, NS3 protein was capable of activating

  18. Lycopene inhibits ICAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation by Nrf2-regulated cell redox state in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po-Min; Wu, Zhi-Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Wung, Being-Sun

    2016-06-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the most common diseases leading to blindness in elderly people. The progression of AMD may be prevented through anti-inflammation and antioxidation in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Lycopene, a carotenoid, has been shown to possess both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This research was conducted to detail the mechanisms of these effects of lycopene-treated RPE cells. We exposed ARPE-19 cells to TNFα after pretreatment with lycopene, and measured monocyte adhesion, ICAM-1 expression, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activity. Cell viability was assayed with Alamar Blue. The cell redox state was tested by glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The importance of the Nrf2 pathway was tested in nuclear translocation, promoter reporter assay, and siRNA. Lycopene could reduce TNF-α-induced monocyte adhesion and H2O2- induced cell damage in RPE cells. Furthermore, lycopene inhibits ICAM-1 expression and abolishes NF-κB activation for up to 12h in TNFα-treated RPE cells. Lycopene upregulates Nrf2 levels in nuclear extracts and increases the transactivity of antioxidant response elements. The use of Nrf2 siRNA blocks the inhibitory effect of lycopene in TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation. Glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo synthesis of GSH. We found that lycopene increases intracellular GSH levels and GCL expression. Following lycopene treatment, TNF-α-induced ROS production was abolished. The Nrf2-regulated antioxidant property plays a pivotal role in the anti-inflammatory mechanism underlying the inhibition of NF-κB activation in lycopene-treated ARPE-19 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Terminalia catappa Exerts Antimetastatic Effects on Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Transcriptional Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Modulating NF-κB and AP-1 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Bin Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and morbidity rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in Taiwan primarily result from uncontrolled tumor metastasis. Previous studies have identified that Terminalia catappa leaf extracts (TCE exert hepatoprotective, antioxidative, antiinflammatory, anticancer, and antimetastatic activities. However, the effects of TCE on HCC and the underlying molecular mechanisms of its activities have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study's findings demonstrate that TCE concentration dependently inhibits human HCC migration/invasion. Zymographic and western blot analyses revealed that TCE inhibited the activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. Assessment of mRNA levels, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR and real-time PCR, and promoter assays confirmed the inhibitory effects of TCE on MMP-9 expression in HCC cells. The inhibitory effects of TCE on MMP-9 proceeded by upregulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, as well as suppressing nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and activating protein-1 (AP-1 on the MMP-9 promoter in Huh7 cells. In conclusion, TCE inhibits MMP-9 expression and HCC cell metastasis and, thus, has potential use as a chemopreventive agent. Its inhibitory effects are associated with downregulation of the binding activities of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1.

  20. Synergistic chondroprotective effects of curcumin and resveratrol in human articular chondrocytes: inhibition of IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB-mediated inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaki, Constanze; Mobasheri, Ali; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    Currently available treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) are restricted to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which exhibit numerous side effects and are only temporarily effective. Thus novel, safe and more efficacious anti-inflammatory agents are needed for OA. Naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds, such as curcumin and resveratrol, are potent agents for modulating inflammation. Both compounds mediate their effects by targeting the NF-kappaB signalling pathway. We have recently demonstrated that in chondrocytes resveratrol modulates the NF-kappaB pathway by inhibiting the proteasome, while curcumin modulates the activation of NF-kappaB by inhibiting upstream kinases (Akt). However, the combinational effects of these compounds in chondrocytes has not been studied and/or compared with their individual effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential synergistic effects of curcumin and resveratrol on IL-1beta-stimulated human chondrocytes in vitro using immunoblotting and electron microscopy. Treatment with curcumin and resveratrol suppressed NF-kappaB-regulated gene products involved in inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor), inhibited apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and TNF-alpha receptor-associated factor 1) and prevented activation of caspase-3. IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB activation was suppressed directly by cocktails of curcumin and resveratrol through inhibition of Ikappakappa and proteasome activation, inhibition of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation, and inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. The modulatory effects of curcumin and resveratrol on IL-1beta-induced expression of cartilage specific matrix and proinflammatory enzymes were mediated in part by the cartilage-specific transcription factor Sox-9. We propose that combining these natural compounds may be a useful strategy in OA therapy as compared with separate treatment with each individual

  1. Ethanol Decreases Inflammatory Response in Human Lung Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting the Canonical NF-kB-Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Mörs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Alcohol (ethanol, EtOH as significant contributor to traumatic injury is linked to suppressed inflammatory response, thereby influencing clinical outcomes. Alcohol-induced immune-suppression during acute inflammation (trauma was linked to nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-ĸB. Here, we analyzed alcohol`s effects and mechanisms underlying its influence on NF-ĸB-signaling during acute inflammation in human lung epithelial cells. Methods: A549-cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL-1β, or sera from trauma patients (TP or healthy volunteers, with positive/negative blood alcohol concentrations (BAC, and subsequently exposed to EtOH (170 Mm, 1h. IL-6-release and neutrophil adhesion to A549 were analyzed. Specific siRNA-NIK mediated downregulation of non-canonical, and IKK-NBD-inhibition of canonical NF-ĸB signaling were performed. Nuclear levels of activated p50 and p52 NF-ĸB-subunits were detected using TransAm ELISA. Results: Both stimuli significantly induced IL-6-release (39.79±4.70 vs. 0.58±0.8 pg/ml and neutrophil adhesion (132.30±8.80 vs. 100% control, p<0.05 to A549-cells. EtOH significantly decreased IL-6-release (22.90±5.40, p<0.05 and neutrophil adherence vs. controls (105.40±14.5%, p<0.05. IL-1β-induced significant activation of canonical/p50 and non-canonical/p52 pathways. EtOH significantly reduced p50 (34.90±23.70 vs. 197.70±36.43, p<0.05 not p52 activation. Inhibition of canonical pathway was further increased by EtOH (less p50-activation, while p52 remained unaltered. Inhibition of non-canonical pathway was unchanged by EtOH. Conclusion: Here, alcohol`s anti-inflammatory effects are mediated via decreasing nuclear levels of activated p50-subunit and canonical NF-ĸB signaling pathway.

  2. Ethanol Decreases Inflammatory Response in Human Lung Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting the Canonical NF-kB-Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörs, Katharina; Hörauf, Jason-Alexander; Kany, Shinwan; Wagner, Nils; Sturm, Ramona; Woschek, Mathias; Perl, Mario; Marzi, Ingo; Relja, Borna

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) as significant contributor to traumatic injury is linked to suppressed inflammatory response, thereby influencing clinical outcomes. Alcohol-induced immune-suppression during acute inflammation (trauma) was linked to nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-ĸB). Here, we analyzed alcohol`s effects and mechanisms underlying its influence on NF-ĸB-signaling during acute inflammation in human lung epithelial cells. A549-cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β, or sera from trauma patients (TP) or healthy volunteers, with positive/negative blood alcohol concentrations (BAC), and subsequently exposed to EtOH (170 Mm, 1h). IL-6-release and neutrophil adhesion to A549 were analyzed. Specific siRNA-NIK mediated downregulation of non-canonical, and IKK-NBD-inhibition of canonical NF-ĸB signaling were performed. Nuclear levels of activated p50 and p52 NF-ĸB-subunits were detected using TransAm ELISA. Both stimuli significantly induced IL-6-release (39.79±4.70 vs. 0.58±0.8 pg/ml) and neutrophil adhesion (132.30±8.80 vs. 100% control, p<0.05) to A549-cells. EtOH significantly decreased IL-6-release (22.90±5.40, p<0.05) and neutrophil adherence vs. controls (105.40±14.5%, p<0.05). IL-1β-induced significant activation of canonical/p50 and non-canonical/p52 pathways. EtOH significantly reduced p50 (34.90±23.70 vs. 197.70±36.43, p<0.05) not p52 activation. Inhibition of canonical pathway was further increased by EtOH (less p50-activation), while p52 remained unaltered. Inhibition of non-canonical pathway was unchanged by EtOH. Here, alcohol`s anti-inflammatory effects are mediated via decreasing nuclear levels of activated p50-subunit and canonical NF-ĸB signaling pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Andrographolide Suppress Tumor Growth by Inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Activation in Insulinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ding, Yi; Lei, Yan; Qi, Cui-Ling; He, Xiao-Dong; Lan, Tian; Li, Jiang-Chao; Gong, Ping; Yang, Xuesong; Geng, Jian-Guo; Wang, Li-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Insulinomas are rare tumors, and approximately 10% of insulinomas are malignant. Accumulating evidence has implicated that we still lack effective therapy to treat the patients who are diagnosed with rare malignant insulinoma. Previous studies have reported that Andrographolide (Andro) could inhibit cell cycle progression, reduce cell invasion and induce cell apoptosis in many common cancer cells. However, the effects of andro are cell type-dependent. So we emplored the β-TC-6 cells and the RIP1-Tag2 transgenic mouse model of endogenously growing insulinoma model to elucidate the possible anti-cancer effect of Andro on insulinoma, an uncommon type of malignant cancers in this study. Our experiments revealed that Andro significantly inhibited tumor growth at both the early-stage and the advanced-stage of insulinoma through targeting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. This work initially provides the evidence that the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway might be vital as a potential therapeutic target, and also indispensable in Andro-mediated anti-cancer effect in insulinoma. PMID:24719558

  4. Chalepin: A Compound from Ruta angustifolia L. Pers Exhibits Cell Cycle Arrest at S phase, Suppresses Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Pathway, Signal Transducer and Activation of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Phosphorylation and Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Carcinoma (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jaime Stella Moses; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2017-10-01

    Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells. Cell cycle analysis and caspase 8 activation were conducted using a flow cytometer, and protein expressions in molecular pathways were determined using Western blot technique. Cell cycle analysis showed that cell cycle was arrested at the S phase. Further studies using Western blotting technique showed that cell cycle-related proteins such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and inhibitors of CDKs correspond to a cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Chalepin also showed inhibition in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT-3), cyclooxygenase-2, and c-myc were also downregulated upon treatment with chalepin. Chalepin was found to induce extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Death receptors 4 and 5 showed a dramatic upregulation at 24 h. Analysis of activation of caspase 8 with the flow cytometer showed an increase in activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Activation of caspase 8 induced cleavage of BH3-interacting domain death agonist, which initiated a mitochondrial-dependent or -independent apoptosis. Chalepin causes S phase cell cycle arrest, NF-κB pathway inhibition, and STAT-3 inhibition, induces extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and could be an excellent chemotherapeutic agent. This study reports the capacity of an isolated bioactive compound known as chalepin to suppress the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway, signal

  5. Anti-inflammatory activities of inotilone from Phellinus linteus through the inhibition of MMP-9, NF-κB, and MAPK activation in vitro and in vivo.

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    Guan-Jhong Huang

    Full Text Available Inotilone was isolated from Phellinus linteus. The anti-inflammatory effects of inotilone were studied by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells and λ-carrageenan (Carr-induced hind mouse paw edema model. Inotilone was tested for its ability to reduce nitric oxide (NO production, and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression. Inotilone was tested in the inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK [extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK, c-Jun NH(2-terminal kinase (JNK, p38], and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP-9 protein expressions in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with inotilone together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of NO production was detected. Western blotting revealed that inotilone blocked the protein expression of iNOS, NF-κB, and MMP-9 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, significantly. Inotilone also inhibited LPS-induced ERK, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation. In in vivo tests, inotilone decreased the paw edema at the 4(th and the 5(th h after Carr administration, and it increased the activities of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. We also demonstrated that inotilone significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA level in the edema paw at the 5(th h after Carr injection. Inotilone decreased the NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels on serum at the 5(th h after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that inotilone decreased Carr-induced iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, NF-κB, and MMP-9 expressions at the 5(th h in the edema paw. An intraperitoneal (i.p. injection treatment with inotilone diminished neutrophil infiltration into sites of inflammation, as did indomethacin (Indo. The anti-inflammatory activities of inotilone might be related to decrease the levels of MDA, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB, and MMP-9 and increase the activities

  6. MCPIP1 contributes to the toxicity of proteasome inhibitor MG-132 in HeLa cells by the inhibition of NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalniak, Lukasz; Dziendziel, Monika; Jura, Jolanta

    2014-10-01

    Recently, we have shown that the treatment of cells with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 results in the induction of expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 induced protein 1 (MCPIP1). MCPIP1 is a ribonuclease, responsible for the degradation of transcripts encoding certain pro-inflammatory cytokines. The protein is also known as an inhibitor of NF-κB transcription factor. Thanks to its molecular properties, MCPIP1 is considered as a regulator of inflammation, differentiation, and survival. Using siRNA technology, we show here that MCPIP1 expression contributes to the toxic properties of MG-132 in HeLa cells. The inhibition of proteasome by MG-132 and epoxomicin markedly increased MCPIP1 expression. While MG-132 induces HeLa cell death, down-regulation of MCPIP1 expression by siRNA partially protects HeLa cells from MG-132 toxicity and restores Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, inhibited by MG-132 treatment. Inversely, overexpression of MCPIP1 decreased constitutive activity of NF-κB and limited the survival of HeLa cells, as we have shown in the previous study. Interestingly, although MG-132 decreased the expression of IκBα and increased p65 phosphorylation, the inhibition of constitutive NF-κB activity was observed in MG-132-treated cells. Since the elevated constitutive activity of NF-κB is one of the mechanisms providing increased survival of cancer cells, including HeLa cells, we propose that death-promoting properties of MCPIP1 in MG-132-treated HeLa cells may, at least partially, derive from the negative effect on the constitutive NF-κB activity.

  7. The oncoprotein gankyrin interacts with RelA and suppresses NF-κB activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashitsuji, Hiroaki; Higashitsuji, Hisako; Liu, Yu; Masuda, Tomoko; Fujita, Takanori; Abdel-Aziz, H. Ismail; Kongkham, Supranee; Dawson, Simon; John Mayer, R.; Itoh, Yoshito; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Fujita, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Gankyrin is an oncoprotein commonly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas. It interacts with multiple proteins and accelerates degradation of tumor suppressors Rb and p53. Since gankyrin consists of 7 ankyrin repeats and is structurally similar to IκBs, we investigated its interaction with NF-κB. We found that gankyrin directly binds to RelA. In HeLa and 293 cells, overexpression of gankyrin suppressed the basal as well as TNFα-induced transcriptional activity of NF-κB, whereas down-regulation of gankyrin increased it. Gankyrin did not affect the NF-κB DNA-binding activity or nuclear translocation of RelA induced by TNFα in these cells. Leptomycin B that inhibits nuclear export of RelA suppressed the NF-κB activity, which was further suppressed by gankyrin. The inhibitory effect of gankyrin was abrogated by nicotinamide as well as down-regulation of SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase. Thus, gankyrin binds to NF-κB and suppresses its activity at the transcription level by modulating acetylation via SIRT1

  8. Morusin induces apoptosis and suppresses NF-κB activity in human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-C.; Won, S.-J.; Chao, C.-L.; Wu, F.-L.; Liu, H.-S.; Ling Pin; Lin, C.-N.; Su, C.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Morusin is a pure compound isolated from root bark of Morusaustralis (Moraceae). In this study, we demonstrated that morusin significantly inhibited the growth and clonogenicity of human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells. Apoptosis induced by morusin was characterized by accumulation of cells at the sub-G 1 phase, fragmentation of DNA, and condensation of chromatin. Morusin also inhibited the phosphorylation of IKK-α, IKK-β and IκB-α, increased expression of IκB-α, and suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its DNA binding activity. Dephosphorylation of NF-κB upstream regulators PI3K, Akt and PDK1 was also displayed. In addition, activation of caspase-8, change of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO, and activation of caspase-9 and -3 were observed at the early time point. Downregulation in the expression of Ku70 and XIAP was exhibited afterward. Caspase-8 or wide-ranging caspase inhibitor suppressed morusin-induced apoptosis. Therefore, the antitumor mechanism of morusin in HT-29 cells may be via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-κB

  9. OSU-A9 inhibits angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via disrupting Akt–NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, Hany A. [Division of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Arafa, El-Shaimaa A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Salama, Samir A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11511 (Egypt); Arab, Hany H. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt); Wu, Chieh-Hsi, E-mail: chhswu@mail.cmu.edu.tw [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Weng, Jing-Ru, E-mail: columnster@gmail.com [Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-01

    Since the introduction of angiogenesis as a useful target for cancer therapy, few agents have been approved for clinical use due to the rapid development of resistance. This problem can be minimized by simultaneous targeting of multiple angiogenesis signaling pathways, a potential strategy in cancer management known as polypharmacology. The current study aimed at exploring the anti-angiogenic activity of OSU-A9, an indole-3-carbinol-derived pleotropic agent that targets mainly Akt–nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling which regulates many key players of angiogenesis such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to study the in vitro anti-angiogenic effect of OSU-A9 on several key steps of angiogenesis. Results showed that OSU-A9 effectively inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HUVECs. Besides, OSU-A9 inhibited angiogenesis as evidenced by abrogation of migration/invasion and Matrigel tube formation in HUVECs and attenuation of the in vivo neovascularization in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. Mechanistically, Western blot, RT-PCR and ELISA analyses showed the ability of OSU-A9 to inhibit MMP-2 production and VEGF expression induced by hypoxia or phorbol-12-myristyl-13-acetate. Furthermore, dual inhibition of Akt–NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, the key regulators of angiogenesis, was observed. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-angiogenic activity of OSU-A9, at least in part through the inhibition of Akt–NF-κB and MAPK signaling and their consequent inhibition of VEGF and MMP-2. These findings support OSU-A9's clinical promise as a component of anticancer therapy. - Highlights: • The antiangiogenic activity of OSU-A9 in HUVECs was explored. • OSU-A9 inhibited HUVECs proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation. • OSU-A9

  10. Pycnogenol Attenuates the Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Expression of Perilipin 2 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Microglia in Part via Inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fan

    Full Text Available Over activation of microglia results in the production of proinflammatory agents that have been implicated in various brain diseases. Pycnogenol is a patented extract from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Aiton with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency. The present study investigated whether pycnogenol may be associated with the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 (mouse-derived microglia. It was found that pycnogenol treatment was dose-dependently associated with significantly less release of nitricoxide (NO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and lower levels of intercellular adhesion molecule1 (ICAM-1 and perilipin 2 (PLIN2. Furthermore, this effect was replicated in primary brain microglia. Levels of inducible NO synthase mRNA and protein were attenuated, whereas there was no change in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Further evidence indicated that pycnogenol treatment led to the suppression of NF-κB activation through inhibition of p65 translocation into the nucleus and inhibited DNA binding of AP-1, suggesting that these proinflammatory factors are associated with NF-κB and AP-1. We conclude that pycnogenol exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of the NF-κB and AP-1pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in the prevention of diseases caused by over activation of microglia.

  11. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. → Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. → P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. → Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the regulation of foam

  12. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi, E-mail: wangyi2004a@126.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. {yields} Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. {yields} P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. {yields} Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the

  13. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Ameliorates Seawater Aspiration-Induced Lung Injury By Inhibiting The Translocation Of NF-κB and RhoA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minlong; Jin, Faguang

    2017-06-01

    Our previous study have reported that 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) suppresses seawater aspiration-induced ALI in vitro and in vivo. We also have confirmed that treatment with calcitriol ameliorates seawater aspiration-induced inflammation and pulmonary edema via the inhibition of NF-κB and RhoA/Rho kinase pathway activation. In our further work, we investigated the effect of calcitriol on nuclear translocation of NF-κB and membrane translocation of RhoA in vitro. A549 cells and rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMVECs) were cultured with calcitriol or not for 48 h and then stimulated with 25% seawater for 40 min. After these treatments, cells were collected and performed with immunofluorescent staining to observe the translocation of NF-κB and RhoA and the cytoskeleton remodeling. In vitro, seawater stimulation activates nuclear translocation of NF-κB and membrane translocation of RhoA in A549 cells. In addition, seawater administration also induced cytoskeleton remodeling in A549 cells and RPMVECs. However, pretreatment with calcitriol significantly inhibited the activation of NF-κB and RhoA/Rho kinase pathways, as demonstrated by the reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and membrane translocation of RhoA in A549 cells. Meanwhile, treatment of calcitriol also regulated the cytoskeleton remodeling in both A549 cells and RPMVECs. These results demonstrated that treatment with calcitriol ameliorates seawater aspiration-induced ALI via inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-κB and membrane translocation of RhoA and protection of alveolar epithelial and pulmonary microvascular endothelial barrier.

  14. Fentanyl Suppresses the Survival of CD4+ T Cells Isolated from Human Umbilical Cord Blood through Inhibition of IKKs-mediated NF-κB Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, K; Ma, P; Lu, H; Liu, S; Cao, Q

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanisms of fentanyl anaesthetic on T lymphocytes isolated from human umbilical cord blood in vitro. The percentages of CD4 + , CD8 + and regulatory T (Treg) cells in human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UBMC) treated with fentanyl in vitro were analysed by flow cytometry. The levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-17 secreted by activated CD4 + T cells were measured by ELISA assays. Expressions of MAPK and NF-κB signalling pathway proteins were determined by Western blotting. Effects of fentanyl on IKK and p65 expression promoter activities were analysed by luciferase assay. Fentanyl decreased the percentages and amounts of CD4 + , CD8 + and Foxp3 + Treg T lymphocyte subsets in UBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Fentanyl inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of activated CD4 + T cells dose dependently. Fentanyl could not reverse the increase of cell proliferation in activated groups to be equivalent with those in inactivated group. Secretions of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4 cytokines were significantly decreased by moderate to high dose of fentanyl compared with controls. No significant differences were observed in protein expressions of MAPK pathway. In addition, fentanyl suppressed the IKKs-mediated activation of NF-κB. This study demonstrates that fentanyl exerts immunosuppressive effects on T lymphocytes obtained from UBMCs. Thus, the clinical application of fentanyl would not only relieve pain caused by surgery but regulate immune responses post-operation possibly through inhibition of IKKs-mediated NF-κB activation. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  15. NF-κB inhibition is involved in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis in the lungs of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Caiyun; Zhou Yamei; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis is a vital mechanism for the regulation of cell turnover and plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and development of many disease processes. Previous studies have demonstrated the apoptotic effect of tobacco smoke; however, the molecular mechanisms by which tobacco smoke triggers apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on the induction of apoptosis in the lungs of rats and modulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in this process. Exposure of rats to 80 mg/m 3 tobacco smoke significantly induced apoptosis in the lungs. Tobacco smoke resulted in inhibition of NF-κB activity, noted by suppression of inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase (IKK), accumulation of IκBα, decrease of NF-κB DNA binding activity, and downregulation of NF-κB-dependent anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and inhibitors of apoptosis. Initiator caspases for the death receptor pathway (caspase 8) and the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 9) as well as effector caspase 3 were activated following tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure did not alter the levels of p53 and Bax proteins. These findings suggest the role of NF-κB pathway in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis

  16. Baicalein inhibits IL-1β- and TNF-α-induced inflammatory cytokine production from human mast cells via regulation of the NF-κB pathway

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    Krishnaswamy Guha

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human mast cells are multifunctional cells capable of a wide variety of inflammatory responses. Baicalein (BAI, isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Huangqin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. We examined its effects and mechanisms on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in an IL-1β- and TNF-α-activated human mast cell line, HMC-1. Methods HMC-1 cells were stimulated either with IL-1β (10 ng/ml or TNF-α (100 U/ml in the presence or absence of BAI. We assessed the expression of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 by ELISA and RT-PCR, NF-κB activation by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, and IκBα activation by Western blot. Results BAI (1.8 to 30 μM significantly inhibited production of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner in IL-1β-activated HMC-1. BAI (30 μM also significantly inhibited production of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 in TNF-α-activated HMC-1. Inhibitory effects appear to involve the NF-κB pathway. BAI inhibited NF-κB activation in IL-1β- and TNF-α-activated HMC-1. Furthermore, BAI increased cytoplasmic IκBα proteins in IL-1β- and TNF-α-activated HMC-1. Conclusion Our results showed that BAI inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of NF-κB activation and IκBα phosphorylation and degradation in human mast cells. This inhibitory effect of BAI on the expression of inflammatory cytokines suggests its usefulness in the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapies.

  17. Proinflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α Increased Telomerase Activity through NF-κB/STAT1/STAT3 Activation, and Withaferin A Inhibited the Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Cells

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    Seyung S. Chung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing evidences of proinflammatory cytokine involvement in cancer development. Here, we found that two cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, activated colorectal cancer cells to be more invasive and stem-like. Combined treatment of IL-6 and TNF-α phosphorylated transcription factors STAT3 in a synergistic manner. STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB physically interacted upon the cytokine stimulation. STAT3 was bound to the promoter region of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT. IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation further enhanced STAT3 binding affinity. Stem cell marker Oct-4 was upregulated in colorectal cancer cells upon IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation. Withaferin A, an anti-inflammatory steroidal lactone, inhibited the IL-6- and TNF-α-induced cancer cell invasion and decreased colonosphere formation. Notably, withaferin A inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and abolished the STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB interactions. Oct-4 expression was also downregulated by withaferin A inhibition. The binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter region and telomerase activity showed reduction with withaferin A treatments. Proinflammatory cytokine-induced cancer cell invasiveness is mediated by a STAT3-regulated mechanism in colorectal cancer cells. Our data suggest that withaferin A could be a promising anticancer agent that effectively inhibits the progression of colorectal cancer.

  18. Aconitum pseudo-laeve var. erectum Inhibits Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand-Induced Osteoclastogenesis via the c-Fos/nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells, Cytoplasmic 1 Signaling Pathway and Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Loss in Mice

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    Jong Min Baek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum pseudo-laeve var. erectum (APE has been widely shown in herbal medicine to have a therapeutic effect on inflammatory conditions. However, there has been no evidence on whether the extract of APE is involved in the biological bone metabolism process, particularly osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In this study, we confirmed that the administration of APE could restore normal skeletal conditions in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced bone loss via a decrease in the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG ratio and osteoclast number. We then investigated the effect of APE on the RANKL-induced formation and function of osteoclasts to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. APE suppressed the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive cells, as well as the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, APE attenuated nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1 and c-Fos without affecting any early signal pathway of osteoclastogenesis. Subsequently, APE significantly downregulated the expression of various genes exclusively expressed in osteoclasts. These results demonstrate that APE restores LPS-induced bone loss through a decrease of the serum RANKL/OPG ratio, and inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function, suggesting the promise of APE as a potential cure for various osteoclast-associated bone diseases.

  19. Wine polyphenols exert antineoplasic effect on androgen resistant PC-3 cell line through the inhibition of the transcriptional activity of COX-2 promoter mediated by NF-kβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruelo, A; de Las Heras, M M; Redondo, C; Ramón de Fata, F; Romero, I; Angulo, J C

    2014-09-01

    Mediterranean diet may play a role in the prevention of prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is associated with increased cellular proliferation, prevents apoptosis and favors tumor invasion. We intend to clarify whether resveratrol and other polyphenols effectively inhibit COX-2 activity and induce apoptosis in hormone-resistant PC-3 cell line. PC-3 cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of gallic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, and resveratrol in presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; 50 μg/ml) that induces COX-2 expression. Total RNA was extracted and COX-2 expression was analyzed by relative quantification real-time PCR (ΔΔCt method). COX-2 activity was determined by PGE-2 detection using ELISA. Caspase 3/7 luminescence assay was used to disclose apoptosis. Transitory transfection with short human COX-2 (phPES2 -327/+59) and p5xNF-kβ-Luc plasmids determined COX-2 promoter activity and specifically that dependant of NF-kβ. COX-2 expression was not modified in media devoid of PMA. However, under PMA induction tannic acid (2.08 ±.21), gallic acid (2.46 ±.16), quercetin (1.78 ±.14) and resveratrol (1.15 ±.16) significantly inhibited COX-2 mRNA with respect to control (3.14 ±.07), what means a 34%, 23%, 46% and 61% reduction, respectively. The inhibition in the levels of PGE-2 followed a similar pattern. All compounds studied induced apoptosis at 48 h, although at a different rate. PMA caused a rise in activity 7.4 ±.23 times phPES2 -327/+59 and 2.0 ±.1 times p5xNF-kβ-Luc at 6h compared to basal. Resveratrol suppressed these effects 17.1 ±.21 and 32.4 ±.18 times, respectively. Similarly, but to a lesser extent, the rest of evaluated polyphenols diminished PMA inductor effect on the activity of both promoters. Polyphenols inhibit transcriptional activity of COX-2 promoter mediated by NF-kβ. This effect could explain, at least in part, the induction of apoptosis in vitro by

  20. [Gallic acid inhibits inflammatory response of RAW264.7 macrophages by blocking the activation of TLR4/NF-κB induced by LPS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihua; Hou, Lin; Xue, Hainan; Wang, Chunjie

    2016-12-01

    Objective To observe the influence of gallic acid on Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB (TLR4/NF-κB) pathway in the RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods RAW264.7 macrophages were divided into the following groups: control group, LPS group, LPS combined with gallic acid group, LPS combined with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) group and LPS combined with dexamethasone (DM) group. RAW264.7 cells were cultured for 24 hours after corresponding treatments. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 were detected by ELISA. The levels of TLR4 and NF-κB mRNAs were tested by real-time PCR. The levels of p-IκBα, p65, p-p65 and TLR4 proteins were examined by Western blotting. Results The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 were up-regulated in the RAW264.7 macrophages after stimulated by LPS. Gallic acid could reduce the elevated expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 induced by LPS. The expression of TLR4 significantly increased after stimulated by LPS and NF-κB was activated. Gallic acid could reverse the above changes and prevent the activation of NF-κB. Conclusion Gallic acid could inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages via TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

  1. Diarctigenin, a lignan constituent from Arctium lappa, down-regulated zymosan-induced transcription of inflammatory genes through suppression of DNA binding ability of nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Hak; Hong, Seong Su; Kwon, Soon Woo; Lee, Hwa Young; Sung, Hyeran; Lee, In-Jeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Song, Sukgil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Chung, Daehyun; Ahn, Byeongwoo; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2008-11-01

    Diarctigenin was previously isolated as an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages from the seeds of Arctium lappa used as an alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. However, little is known about the molecular basis of these effects. Here, we demonstrated that diarctigenin inhibited the production of NO, prostaglandin E(2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 with IC(50) values of 6 to 12 miciroM in zymosan- or lipopolysaccharide-(LPS) activated macrophages. Diarctigenin attenuated zymosan-induced mRNA synthesis of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and also inhibited promoter activities of iNOS and cytokine genes in the cells. Because nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB plays a pivotal role in inflammatory gene transcription, we next investigated the effect of diarctigenin on NF-kappaB activation. Diarctigenin inhibited the transcriptional activity and DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB in zymosan-activated macrophages but did not affect the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB) proteins. Moreover, diarctigenin suppressed expression vector NF-kappaB p65-elicited NF-kappaB activation and also iNOS promoter activity, indicating that the compound could directly target an NF-kappa-activating signal cascade downstream of IkappaB degradation and inhibit NF-kappaB-regulated iNOS expression. Diarctigenin also inhibited the in vitro DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB but did not affect the nuclear import of NF-kappaB p65 in the cells. Taken together, diarctigenin down-regulated zymosan- or LPS-induced inflammatory gene transcription in macrophages, which was due to direct inhibition of the DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB. Finally, this study provides a pharmacological potential of diarctigenin in the NF-kappaB-associated inflammatory disorders.

  2. NF-κB activation impairs somatic cell reprogramming in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Valles, Clara; Osorio, Fernando G; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; De Los Angeles, Alejandro; Bueno, Clara; Menéndez, Pablo; Martín-Subero, José I; Daley, George Q; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Ageing constitutes a critical impediment to somatic cell reprogramming. We have explored the regulatory mechanisms that constitute age-associated barriers, through derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from individuals with premature or physiological ageing. We demonstrate that NF-κB activation blocks the generation of iPSCs in ageing. We also show that NF-κB repression occurs during cell reprogramming towards a pluripotent state. Conversely, ageing-associated NF-κB hyperactivation impairs the generation of iPSCs by eliciting the reprogramming repressor DOT1L, which reinforces senescence signals and downregulates pluripotency genes. Genetic and pharmacological NF-κB inhibitory strategies significantly increase the reprogramming efficiency of fibroblasts from Néstor-Guillermo progeria syndrome and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome patients, as well as from normal aged donors. Finally, we demonstrate that DOT1L inhibition in vivo extends lifespan and ameliorates the accelerated ageing phenotype of progeroid mice, supporting the interest of studying age-associated molecular impairments to identify targets of rejuvenation strategies.

  3. Sirtuin 6 prevents matrix degradation through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in intervertebral disc degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Liang [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Hu, Jia [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Weng, Yuxiong [Department of Hand Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Jia, Jie [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zhang, Yukun, E-mail: zhangyukuncom@126.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is marked by imbalanced metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs. This study aimed to determine whether sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a member of the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, protects the NP from ECM degradation in IDD. Our study showed that expression of SIRT6 markedly decreased during IDD progression. Overexpression of wild-type SIRT6, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, prevented IL-1β-induced NP ECM degradation. SIRT6 depletion by RNA interference in NP cells caused ECM degradation. Moreover, SIRT6 physically interacted with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) catalytic subunit p65, transcriptional activity of which was significantly suppressed by SIRT6 overexpression. These results suggest that SIRT6 prevented NP ECM degradation in vitro via inhibiting NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity and that this effect depended on its deacetylase activity. - Highlights: • SIRT6 expression is decreased in degenerative nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues. • SIRT6 overexpression lowers IL-1β-induced matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 inhibition induces matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 prevents matrix degradation of NP via the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  4. Sirtuin 6 prevents matrix degradation through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in intervertebral disc degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Liang; Hu, Jia; Weng, Yuxiong; Jia, Jie; Zhang, Yukun

    2017-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is marked by imbalanced metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs. This study aimed to determine whether sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a member of the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, protects the NP from ECM degradation in IDD. Our study showed that expression of SIRT6 markedly decreased during IDD progression. Overexpression of wild-type SIRT6, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, prevented IL-1β-induced NP ECM degradation. SIRT6 depletion by RNA interference in NP cells caused ECM degradation. Moreover, SIRT6 physically interacted with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) catalytic subunit p65, transcriptional activity of which was significantly suppressed by SIRT6 overexpression. These results suggest that SIRT6 prevented NP ECM degradation in vitro via inhibiting NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity and that this effect depended on its deacetylase activity. - Highlights: • SIRT6 expression is decreased in degenerative nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues. • SIRT6 overexpression lowers IL-1β-induced matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 inhibition induces matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 prevents matrix degradation of NP via the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  5. Thiol dependent NF-κB suppression and inhibition of T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses by a naturally occurring steroidal lactone Withaferin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Lokesh; Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Thoh, M. [Radiation Biology & Health Sciences Division, Bio-science Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Patil, Anand [Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai (India); Degani, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai (India); Gota, Vikram [Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai (India); Sandur, Santosh K., E-mail: sskumar@barc.gov.in [Radiation Biology & Health Sciences Division, Bio-science Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2015-12-01

    Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone isolated from ayurvedic medicinal plant Withania somnifera, was shown to inhibit tumor growth by inducing oxidative stress and suppressing NF-κB pathway. However, its effect on T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses and the underlying mechanism has not been investigated. Since both T-cell responses and NF-κB pathway are known to be redox sensitive, the present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of WA on adaptive immune responses in vitro and in vivo. WA inhibited mitogen induced T-cell and B-cell proliferation in vitro without inducing any cell death. It inhibited upregulation of T-cell (CD25, CD69, CD71 and CD54) and B-cell (CD80, CD86 and MHC-II) activation markers and secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. WA induced oxidative stress by increasing the basal ROS levels and the immunosuppressive effects of WA were abrogated only by thiol anti-oxidants. The redox modulatory effects of WA in T-cells were attributed to its ability to directly interact with free thiols. WA inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation in lymphocytes and prevented the direct binding of nuclear NF-κB to its consensus sequence. MALDI-TOF analysis using a synthetic NF-κB-p50 peptide containing Cys-62 residue suggested that WA can modify the cysteine residue of NF-κB. The pharmacokinetic studies for WA were also carried out and in vivo efficacy of WA was studied using mouse model of Graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, WA is a potent inhibitor of T-cell responses and acts via a novel thiol dependent mechanism and inhibition of NF-κB pathway. - Highlights:: • Withaferin A (WA) inhibited T-cell and B-cell mediated immune responses. • WA increased basal ROS levels in lymphocytes. • WA directly interacted with GSH as studied using spectrophotometry and HPLC. • WA inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation and binding of nuclear NF-κB to DNA. • WA inhibited induction of the graft-versus-host disease in mice.

  6. Cdc25A promotes cell survival by stimulating NF-κB activity through IκB-α phosphorylation and destabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hey-Young; Choi, Jiyeon; Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine the antiapoptotic mechanisms of Cdc25A. ► Smad7 decreases the phosphorylation of IκB-alpha at Ser-32. ► Smad7 positively regulates NF-κB activity through IκB-alpha ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A), a dual specificity protein phosphatase, exhibits anti-apoptotic activity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly characterized. Here we report that Cdc25A inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death by stimulating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. In HEK-293 cells, Cdc25A decreased protein level of inhibitor subunit kappa B alpha (Iκ-Bα) in association with increased serine 32-phosphorylation, followed by stimulation of transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Inhibition of NF-κB activity by chemical inhibitor or overexpression of Iκ-Bα in Cdc25A-elevated cancer cells resistant to cisplatin improved their sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Our data show for the first time that Cdc25A has an important physiological role in NF-κB activity regulation and it may be an important survival mechanism of cancer cells.

  7. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 impairs NF-κB activation in human naive B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldmeyer-Hilt, Kerstin; Heine, Guido; Hartmann, Bjoern; Baumgrass, Ria; Radbruch, Andreas; Worm, Margitta

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In naive B cells, VDR activation by calcitriol results in reduced NF-κB p105 and p50 protein expression. → Ligating the VDR with calcitriol causes reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. → Reduced nuclear amount of p65 after calcitriol incubation results in reduced binding of p65 on the p105 promoter. → Thus, vitamin D receptor signaling may reduce or prevent activation of B cells and unwanted immune responses, e.g. in IgE dependent diseases such as allergic asthma. -- Abstract: 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (calcitriol), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, modulates the activation and inhibits IgE production of anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulated human peripheral B cells. Engagement of CD40 results in NF-κB p50 activation, which is essential for the class switch to IgE. Herein, we investigated by which mechanism calcitriol modulates NF-κB mediated activation of human naive B cells. Naive B cells were predominantly targeted by calcitriol in comparison with memory B cells as shown by pronounced induction of the VDR target gene cyp24a1. Vitamin D receptor activation resulted in a strongly reduced p105/p50 protein and mRNA expression in human naive B cells. This effect is mediated by impaired nuclear translocation of p65 and consequently reduced binding of p65 to its binding site in the p105 promoter. Our data indicate that the vitamin D receptor reduces NF-κB activation by interference with NF-κB p65 and p105. Thus, the vitamin D receptor inhibits costimulatory signal transduction in naive B cells, namely by reducing CD40 signaling.

  8. [NF-κB signaling pathways and the future perspectives of bone disease therapy using selective inhibitors of NF-κB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimi, Eijiro; Fukushima, Hidefumi

    2016-02-01

    The transcriptional factor nuclear factor κB(NF-κB)regulates the expression of a wide variety of genes that are involved in immune and inflammatory responses, proliferation, and tumorigenesis. NF-κB consists of five members, such as p65(RelA), RelB, c-Rel, p50/p105(NF-κB1), and p52/p100(NF-κB2). There are two distinct NF-κB activation pathways, termed the classical and alternative NF-κB signaling pathways. Since mice lacking both p50 and p52 subunits developed typical osteopetrosis, due to total lack of osteoclasts, NF-κB is also important osteoclast differentiation. A selective NF-κB inhibitor blocked receptor activator of NF-κB ligand(RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Recent findings have shown that inactivation of NF-κB enhances osteoblast differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo. NF-κB is constitutively activated in many cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC), and is involved in the invasive characteristics of OSCC. A selective NF-κB inhibitor also prevented jaw bone destruction by OSCC by reduced osteoclast numbers in animal model. Thus the inhibition of NF-κB might useful for the treatment of bone diseases, such as arthritis, osteoporosis, periodontitis, and bone invasion by OSCC by inhibiting bone resorption and by stimulating bone formation.

  9. Oridonin attenuates Aβ1-42-induced neuroinflammation and inhibits NF-κB pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulei Wang

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and inhibiting Aβ-induced neuroinflammation serves as a potential strategy for the treatment of AD. Oridonin (Ori, a compound of Rabdosia rubescens, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we demonstrated that Ori inhibited glial activation and decreased the release of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus of Aβ1-42-induced AD mice. In addition, Ori inhibited the NF-κB pathway and Aβ1-42-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Ori could attenuate memory deficits in Aβ1-42-induced AD mice. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Ori inhibited the neuroinflammation and attenuated memory deficits induced by Aβ1-42, suggesting that Ori might be a promising candidate for AD treatment.

  10. Proteasome and NF-kappaB inhibiting phaeophytins from the green alga Cladophora fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinping; Li, Min; Xu, Bo; Zhu, Xiaobin; Deng, Zhiwei; Lin, Wenhan

    2007-03-21

    Chemical examination of the green alga Cladophora fascicularis resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new porphyrin derivative, porphyrinolactone (1), along with five known phaeophytins 2-6 and fourteen sterols and cycloartanes. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and by comparison of its NMR data with those of known phaeophytins. Compounds 1-6 displayed moderate inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, while 2 and 4 displayed potential inhibitory activity toward proteasome chymotripsin-like activation. The primary structure-activity relationship was also discussed.

  11. Bacterial endotoxin enhances colorectal cancer cell adhesion and invasion through TLR-4 and NF-kappaB-dependent activation of the urokinase plasminogen activator system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2009-05-19

    Perioperative exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with accelerated metastatic colorectal tumour growth. LPS directly affects cells through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and the transcription factor NF-kappaB. The urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) system is intimately implicated in tumour cell extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions fundamental to tumour progression. Thus we sought to determine if LPS directly induces accelerated tumour cell ECM adhesion and invasion through activation of the u-PA system and to elucidate the cellular pathways involved. Human colorectal tumour cell lines were stimulated with LPS. u-PA concentration, u-PA activity, active u-PA, surface urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and TLR-4 expression were assessed by ELISA, colorimetric assay, western blot analysis and flow cytometry respectively. In vitro tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion were analysed by vitronectin adhesion assay and ECM invasion chambers. u-PA and u-PAR function was inhibited with anti u-PA antibodies or the selective u-PA inhibitors amiloride or WXC-340, TLR-4 by TLR-4-blocking antibodies and NF-kappaB by the selective NF-kappaB inhibitor SN-50. LPS upregulates u-PA and u-PAR in a dose-dependent manner, enhancing in vitro tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion by >40% (P<0.01). These effects were ameliorated by u-PA and u-PAR inhibition. LPS activates NF-kappaB through TLR-4. TLR-4 and NF-kappaB inhibition ameliorated LPS-enhanced u-PA and u-PAR expression, tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion. LPS promotes tumour cell ECM adhesion and invasion through activation of the u-PA system in a TLR-4- and NF-kappaB-dependent manner.

  12. Suppression of Oncolytic Adenovirus-Mediated Hepatotoxicity by Liver-Specific Inhibition of NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Machitani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase-specific replication-competent adenoviruses (Ads, i.e., TRADs, which possess an E1 gene expression cassette driven by the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter, are promising agents for cancer treatment. However, even though oncolytic Ads, including TRAD, are intratumorally administered, they are disseminated from the tumor to systemic circulation, causing concern about oncolytic Ad-mediated hepatotoxicity (due mainly to leaky expression of Ad genes in liver. We reported that inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB leads to the suppression of replication-incompetent Ad vector-mediated hepatotoxicity via reduction of the leaky expression of Ad genes in liver. Here, to develop a TRAD with an improved safety profile, we designed a TRAD that carries a liver-specific promoter-driven dominant-negative IκBα (DNIκBα expression cassette (TRAD-DNIκBα. Compared with a conventional TRAD, TRAD-DNIκBα showed hepatocyte-specific inhibition of NF-κB signaling and significantly reduced Ad gene expression and replication in the normal human hepatocyte cell line. TRAD-induced hepatotoxicity was largely suppressed in mice following intravenous administration of TRAD-DNIκBα. However, the replication profiles and oncolytic activities of TRAD-DNIκBα were comparable with those of the conventional TRAD in human non-hepatic tumor cells. These results indicate that oncolytic Ads containing the liver-specific DNIκBα expression cassette have improved safety profiles without inhibiting oncolytic activities.

  13. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates LPS-induced NF-κB activation in the development of lung injury and RAW 264.7 macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee J.; Lee, Hui S.; Chong, Young H.; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2006-01-01

    Clarification of the key regulatory steps that lead to nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) under cellular and pathological conditions is very important. The action of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on the upstream of NF-κB activation remains controversial. To examine this issue using an in vivo lung injury model, SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor was given intraorally 1 h prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment (intratracheally). The mice were sacrificed 4 h after LPS treatment. SB203580 substantially suppressed LPS-induced rises in p38 MAPK phosphorylation, neutrophil recruitment, total protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and apoptosis of bronchoalveolar cells. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked LPS-induced NF-κB activation in lung tissue through down-regulation of serine phosphorylation, degradation of IκB-α, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB to the nucleus. It is likely that, in cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages, SB203580 also blocked LPS-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. SB203580 inhibited LPS-induced serine phosphorylation, degradation of IκB-α, and tyrosine phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB. These data indicate that p38 MAPK acts upstream of LPS-induced NF-κB activation by modulating the phosphorylation of IκB-α and p65 NF-κB during acute lung injury. Because LPS-stimulated macrophages may contribute to inflammatory lung injury, the inhibition of the p38 MAPK-mediated intracellular signaling pathway leading to NF-κB activation represents a target for the attenuation of lung inflammation and parenchymal damage

  14. Vinpocetine reduces diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury through inhibition of oxidative stress, apoptosis, cytokine production, and NF-κB activation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattori, Victor; Borghi, Sergio M; Guazelli, Carla F S; Giroldo, Andressa C; Crespigio, Jefferson; Bussmann, Allan J C; Coelho-Silva, Letícia; Ludwig, Natasha G; Mazzuco, Tânia L; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a complex clinical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately, 19-33% AKI episodes in hospitalized patients are related to drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Although, considered safe, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac have received special attention in the past years due to the potential risk of renal damage. Vinpocetine is a nootropic drug known to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanisms of vinpocetine in a model of diclofenac-induced AKI. We observed that diclofenac increased proteinuria and blood urea, creatinine, and oxidative stress levels 24h after its administration. In renal tissue, diclofenac also increased oxidative stress and induced morphological changes consistent with renal damage. Moreover, diclofenac induced kidney cells apoptosis, up-regulated proinflammatory cytokines, and induced the activation of NF-κB in renal tissue. On the other hand, vinpocetine reduced diclofenac-induced blood urea and creatinine. In the kidneys, vinpocetine inhibited diclofenac-induced oxidative stress, morphological changes, apoptosis, cytokine production, and NF-κB activation. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that diclofenac-induced AKI increases NF-κB activation, and that vinpocetine reduces the nephrotoxic effects of diclofenac. Therefore, vinpocetine is a promising molecule for the treatment of diclofenac-induced AKI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EBV induces persistent NF-κB activation and contributes to survival of EBV-positive neoplastic T- or NK-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honami Takada

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been detected in several T- and NK-cell neoplasms such as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma nasal type, aggressive NK-cell leukemia, EBV-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma, systemic EBV-positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood, and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV. However, how this virus contributes to lymphomagenesis in T or NK cells remains largely unknown. Here, we examined NF-κB activation in EBV-positive T or NK cell lines, SNT8, SNT15, SNT16, SNK6, and primary EBV-positive and clonally proliferating T/NK cells obtained from the peripheral blood of patients with CAEBV. Western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and immunofluorescent staining revealed persistent NF-κB activation in EBV-infected cell lines and primary cells from patients. Furthermore, we investigated the role of EBV in infected T cells. We performed an in vitro infection assay using MOLT4 cells infected with EBV. The infection directly induced NF-κB activation, promoted survival, and inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in MOLT4 cells. The luciferase assay suggested that LMP1 mediated NF-κB activation in MOLT4 cells. IMD-0354, a specific inhibitor of NF-κB that suppresses NF-κB activation in cell lines, inhibited cell survival and induced apoptosis. These results indicate that EBV induces NF-κB-mediated survival signals in T and NK cells, and therefore, may contribute to the lymphomagenesis of these cells.

  16. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit [Graduate Program in Industrial Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pudhom, Khanitha [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Center for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Palaga, Tanapat, E-mail: tanapat.p@chula.ac.th [Graduate Program in Industrial Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A gedunin type limonoid from seeds of mangroves, 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin, exhibits strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with this limonoid results in significant decrease in expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast-related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mode of action of this limonoid is by inhibiting activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways which are activated by RANKL. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14 {mu}M. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions.

  17. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit; Pudhom, Khanitha; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► A gedunin type limonoid from seeds of mangroves, 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin, exhibits strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity. ► Treatment with this limonoid results in significant decrease in expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast-related genes. ► The mode of action of this limonoid is by inhibiting activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways which are activated by RANKL. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14 μM. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-κB p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions.

  18. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan; Surh, Young-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of IκBα and DNA binding of NF-κB in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin

  19. Minocycline attenuates bone cancer pain in rats by inhibiting NF-κB in spinal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen-Peng; Xiong, Bing-Rui; Guan, Xue-Hai; Cao, Fei; Manyande, Anne; Zhou, Ya-Qun; Zheng, Hua; Tian, Yu-Ke

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-nociceptive effect of minocycline on bone cancer pain (BCP) in rats. A rat model of BCP was established by inoculating Walker 256 mammary carcinoma cells into tibial medullary canal. Two weeks later, the rats were injected with minocycline (50, 100 μg, intrathecally; or 40, 80 mg/kg, ip) twice daily for 3 consecutive days. Mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was used to assess pain behavior. After the rats were euthanized, spinal cords were harvested for immunoblotting analyses. The effects of minocycline on NF-κB activation were also examined in primary rat astrocytes stimulated with IL-1β in vitro. BCP rats had marked bone destruction, and showed mechanical tactile allodynia on d 7 and d 14 after the operation. Intrathecal injection of minocycline (100 μg) or intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (80 mg/kg) reversed BCP-induced mechanical tactile allodynia. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (80 mg/kg) reversed BCP-induced upregulation of GFAP (astrocyte marker) and PSD95 in spinal cord. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (80 mg/kg) reversed BCP-induced upregulation of NF-κB, p-IKKα and IκBα in spinal cord. In IL-1β-stimulated primary rat astrocytes, pretreatment with minocycline (75, 100 μmol/L) significantly inhibited the translocation of NF-κB to nucleus. Minocycline effectively alleviates BCP by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway in spinal astrocytes.

  20. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} impairs NF-{kappa}B activation in human naive B cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldmeyer-Hilt, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.hilt@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Heine, Guido, E-mail: guido.heine@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hartmann, Bjoern, E-mail: bjoern.hartmann@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Baumgrass, Ria, E-mail: baumgrass@drfz.de [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Radbruch, Andreas, E-mail: radbruch@drfz.de [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Worm, Margitta, E-mail: margitta.worm@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} In naive B cells, VDR activation by calcitriol results in reduced NF-{kappa}B p105 and p50 protein expression. {yields} Ligating the VDR with calcitriol causes reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65. {yields} Reduced nuclear amount of p65 after calcitriol incubation results in reduced binding of p65 on the p105 promoter. {yields} Thus, vitamin D receptor signaling may reduce or prevent activation of B cells and unwanted immune responses, e.g. in IgE dependent diseases such as allergic asthma. -- Abstract: 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (calcitriol), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, modulates the activation and inhibits IgE production of anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulated human peripheral B cells. Engagement of CD40 results in NF-{kappa}B p50 activation, which is essential for the class switch to IgE. Herein, we investigated by which mechanism calcitriol modulates NF-{kappa}B mediated activation of human naive B cells. Naive B cells were predominantly targeted by calcitriol in comparison with memory B cells as shown by pronounced induction of the VDR target gene cyp24a1. Vitamin D receptor activation resulted in a strongly reduced p105/p50 protein and mRNA expression in human naive B cells. This effect is mediated by impaired nuclear translocation of p65 and consequently reduced binding of p65 to its binding site in the p105 promoter. Our data indicate that the vitamin D receptor reduces NF-{kappa}B activation by interference with NF-{kappa}B p65 and p105. Thus, the vitamin D receptor inhibits costimulatory signal transduction in naive B cells, namely by reducing CD40 signaling.

  1. DMS triggers apoptosis associated with the inhibition of SPHK1/NF-κB activation and increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Pan, Qiuwei; Gao, Ying; Yang, Xinyan; Wang, Shibing; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Kong, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    N,N-Dimethyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (DMS) is known to induce cell apoptosis by specifically inhibiting sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) and modulating the activity of cellular ceramide levels. The present study investigated the effects and the mechanism(s) of action of DMS in human lung cancer cells. We found that DMS dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in the human lung cancer cell line, A549. Mechanistically, treatment with DMS suppressed the activation of SPHK1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, but increased intracellular [Ca2+]i in A549 cells. This study demonstrates that DMS triggers the apoptosis of human lung cancer cells through the modulation of SPHK1, NF-κB and calcium signaling. These molecules may represent targets for anticancer drug design.

  2. Fisetin inhibits the generation of inflammatory mediators in interleukin-1β-induced human lung epithelial cells by suppressing the NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui-Ling; Huang, Wen-Chung; Cheng, Shu-Chen; Liou, Chian-Jiun

    2018-07-01

    Fisetin, a flavone that can be isolated from fruits and vegetables, has anti-tumor and anti-oxidative properties and ameliorates airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic mice. This study investigated whether fisetin can suppress the expression of inflammatory mediators and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in A549 human lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to induce inflammatory responses. A549 cells were treated with fisetin (3-30 μM) and then with IL-1β. Fisetin significantly inhibited COX-2 expression and reduced prostaglandin E 2 production, and it suppressed the levels of IL-8, CCL5, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, tumor necrosis factor α, and IL-6. Fisetin also significantly attenuated the expression of chemokine and inflammatory cytokine genes and decreased the expression of ICAM-1, which mediates THP-1 monocyte adhesion to inflammatory A549 cells. Fisetin decreased the translocation of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) subunit p65 into the nucleus and inhibited the phosphorylation of proteins in the ERK1/2 pathway. Co-treatment of IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells with ERK1/2 inhibitors plus fisetin reduced ICAM-1 expression. Furthermore, fisetin significantly increased the effects of the protective antioxidant pathway by promoting the expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 and heme oxygenase 1. Taken together, these data suggest that fisetin has anti-inflammatory effects and that it suppresses the expression of chemokines, inflammatory cytokines, and ICAM-1 by suppressing the NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in IL-1β-stimulated human lung epithelial A549 cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Activation of NF-κB in basolateral amygdala is required for memory reconsolidation in auditory fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jijian; Yang, Jianli; Xue, Lifen; Yang, Chenhao; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Lu, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by acute and chronic changes in the stress response, manifested as conditioned fear memory. Previously formed memories that are susceptible to disruption immediately after retrieval undergo a protein synthesis-dependent process to become persistent, termed reconsolidation, a process that is regulated by many distinct molecular mechanisms that control gene expression. Increasing evidence supports the participation of the transcription factor NF-κB in the different phases of memory. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of NF-κB in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but not central nucleus of the amygdala, after memory reactivation impairs the retention of amygdala-dependent auditory fear conditioning (AFC). We used two independent pharmacological strategies to disrupt the reconsolidation of AFC. Bilateral intra-BLA infusion of sulfasalazine, an inhibitor of IκB kinase that activates NF-κB, and bilateral intra-BLA infusion of SN50, a direct inhibitor of the NF-κB DNA-binding complex, immediately after retrieval disrupted the reconsolidation of AFC. We also found that systemic pretreatment with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that enhances histone acetylation, in the amygdala rescued the disruption of reconsolidation induced by NF-κB inhibition in the BLA. These findings indicate that NF-κB activity in the BLA is required for memory reconsolidation in AFC, suggesting that NF-κB might be a potential pharmacotherapy target for posttraumatic stress disorder.

  4. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits superoxide anion-induced pain and inflammation in the paw skin and spinal cord by targeting NF-κB and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Fattori, Victor; Zarpelon, Ana C; Borghi, Sergio M; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Cunha, Thiago M; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) in superoxide anion-induced inflammatory pain. Male Swiss mice were treated with PDTC and stimulated with an intraplantar or intraperitoneal injection of potassium superoxide, a superoxide anion donor. Subcutaneous PDTC treatment attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, paw oedema and leukocyte recruitment (neutrophils and macrophages). Intraplantar injection of superoxide anion activated NF-κB and increased cytokine production (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10) and oxidative stress (nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels) at the primary inflammatory foci and in the spinal cord (L4-L6). PDTC treatment inhibited superoxide anion-induced NF-κB activation, cytokine production and oxidative stress in the paw and spinal cord. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of PDTC successfully inhibited superoxide anion-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and inflammatory response in peripheral foci (paw). These results suggest that peripheral stimulus with superoxide anion activates the local and spinal cord oxidative- and NF-κB-dependent inflammatory nociceptive mechanisms. PDTC targets these events, therefore, inhibiting superoxide anion-induced inflammatory pain in mice.

  5. Involvement of HDAC1 and the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways in NF-κB activation by the HDAC inhibitor apicidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Hoi Young; Han, Jeung-Whan; Kim, Su-Nam

    2006-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are appreciated as one of promising anticancer drugs, but they exert differential responses depending on the cell type. We recently reported the critical role of NF-κB as a modulator in determining cell fate for apoptosis in response to an HDAC inhibitor. In this study, we investigate a possible signaling pathway required for NF-κB activation in response to the HDAC inhibitor apicidin. Treatment of HeLa cells with apicidin leads to an increase in transcriptional activity of NF-κB and the expression of its target genes, IL-8 and TNF-α. TNF-α expression by apicidin is induced at earlier time points than NF-κB activation or IL-8 expression. In addition, our data show that the early expression of TNF-α does not lead to activation of NF-κB, because disruption of TNF-α activity by a neutralizing antibody does not affect nuclear translocation of NF-κB, IκBα degradation or reporter gene activation by apicidin. However, this activation of NF-κB requires the PI3K and PKC signaling pathways, but not ERK or JNK. Furthermore, apicidin activation of NF-κB seems to result from HDAC1 inhibition, as evidenced by the observation that overexpression of HDAC1, but not HDAC2, 3 or 4, dramatically inhibits NF-κB reporter gene activity. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of NF-κB signaling by apicidin requires both the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways and HDAC1, and functions as a critical modulator in determining the cellular effect of apicidin

  6. Role of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and activator protein-1 in the inhibition of interleukin-2 gene transcription by cannabinol in EL4 T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yea, S S; Yang, K H; Kaminski, N E

    2000-02-01

    We previously reported that immunosuppressive cannabinoids inhibited interleukin (IL)-2 steady-state mRNA expression and secretion by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate plus ionomycin-activated mouse splenocytes and EL4 murine T-cells. Here we show that inhibition of IL-2 production by cannabinol, a modest central nervous system-active cannabinoid, is mediated through the inhibition of IL-2 gene transcription. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that cannabinol markedly inhibited the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in activated EL4 cells. The inhibitory effects produced by cannabinol on AP-1 DNA binding were quite transient, showing partial recovery by 240 min after cell activation and no effect on the activity of a reporter gene under the control of AP-1. Conversely, cannabinol-mediated inhibition of NF-AT was robust and sustained as demonstrated by an NF-AT-regulated reporter gene. Collectively, these results suggest that decreased IL-2 production by cannabinol in EL4 cells is due to the inhibition of transcriptional activation of the IL-2 gene and is mediated, at least in part, through a transient inhibition of AP-1 and a sustained inhibition of NF-AT.

  7. NF-κB signaling is activated and confers resistance to apoptosis in three-dimensionally cultured EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yuji; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yoshiyasu; Yoshihara, Mitsuyo; Matsukuma, Shoichi; Koizume, Shiro; Miyagi, Yohei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► EGFR-mutant cells in 3D culture resist EGFR inhibition compared with suspended cells. ► Degradation of IκB and activation of NF-κB are observed in 3D-cultured cells. ► Inhibiting NF-κB enhances the efficacy of the EGFR inhibitor in 3D-cultured cells. -- Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells in suspension undergo apoptosis to a greater extent than adherent cells in a monolayer when EGFR autophosphorylation is inhibited by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This suggests that cell adhesion to a culture dish may activate an anti-apoptotic signaling pathway other than the EGFR pathway. Since the microenvironment of cells cultured in a monolayer are substantially different to that of cells existing in three-dimension (3D) in vivo, we assessed whether two EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, HCC827 and H1975, were more resistant to EGFR TKI-induced apoptosis when cultured in a 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) as compared with in suspension. The ECM-adherent EGFR-mutant cells in 3D were significantly less sensitive to treatment with WZ4002, an EGFR TKI, than the suspended cells. Further, a marked degradation of IκBα, the inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, was observed only in the 3D-cultured cells, leading to an increase in the activation of NF-κB. Moreover, the inhibition of NF-κB with pharmacological inhibitors enhanced EGFR TKI-induced apoptosis in 3D-cultured EGFR-mutant cells. These results suggest that inhibition of NF-κB signaling would render ECM-adherent EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells in vivo more susceptible to EGFR TKI-induced cell death.

  8. Albaconol, a Plant-Derived Small Molecule, Inhibits Macrophage Function by Suppressing NF-κB Activation and Enhancing SOCSI Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuyan Liu; Xiaoli Shu; Li Wang; Anna Sun; Jikai Liu; Xuetao Cao

    2008-01-01

    Discovery and functional identification of plant-derived small compounds as the immunosuppressant attract much attention these years. Albaconol is a new kind of small compound, prenylated resorcinol, isolated from the fruiting bodies of the inedible mushroom Albatrellus confluens. Our previous studies showed that albaconol can inhibit tumor cell growth and dendritic cell maturation. However, the immunomodulatory roles and the underlying mechanisms of albaconol have not been fully understood. In this study we investigated the effects of aibaconol on the proliferation and LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production of macrophages. AIbaconol, when used at a dose higher than 1.0 μg/ml, inhibited proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and could induce cellular apoptosis when used at high dosage (≥7.5 μg/ml). Furthermore, we found that albaconol used at a lower dosage without apoptosis induction could significantly inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-β and NO production in RAW264.7 cells. The inhibition of NF-κB activation and enhancement of SOCS1 expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages by albaconol may contribute to the above immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory activities of aibaconoi. Our results suggest that albaconol may be a potential immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drug. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(4):271-278.

  9. Synergistic effect of baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A mixture: multistep inhibition of the NF-κB signalling pathway contributes to an anti-inflammatory effect of Scutellaria root flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tomofumi; Shibuya, Nobuhiko; Narukawa, Yuji; Oshima, Naohiro; Hada, Noriyasu; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki

    2018-01-01

    Scutellaria root, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is a crude drug used for inflammatory diseases. In our previous report, the combination of flavonoids contained in Scutellaria root have been found to inhibit PGE 2 production more strongly than individual flavonoids. Here, to investigate the mechanism of the synergistic effect, we examined the effects of an equimolar mixture (F-mix) of baicalein (1), wogonin (2) and oroxylin A (3) on the production of PGE 2 in LPS-treated J774.1 cells. Although 1 and 3 inhibited COX-2 activity, the F-mix showed no synergistic effect on COX-2 inhibition. Therefore, we investigated the steps leading to the activation of COX-2 protein. Compounds 1-3 and F-mix inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein. However, only 2 inhibited the expression of COX-2 mRNA among the flavonoids, and the F-mix showed no synergistic effect. Only 1 inhibited NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, and the F-mix showed no synergistic effect. Although 2 did not affect NF-κB translocation, it strongly inhibited NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity, and the F-mix inhibited the activity slightly more than 2. Compounds 1-3 also inhibited NO production, and the F-mix showed a synergistic effect. However, the effects of each flavonoid on the expression of iNOS mRNA were not consistent with those on COX-2 mRNA. Because the flavonoids inhibit different steps in the production of PGE 2 and NO, and their mixture did not show apparent synergistic effects in each step, we conclude that the synergistic effect of the flavonoid mixture reflects the total effect of the flavonoids inhibiting different steps in the NF-κB signalling pathway.

  10. Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf Extract Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via Down-Regulation of Akt/NF-κB/MMP-9 Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Chou, Fen-Pi; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf has been previously shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anticancer activity of H. sabdariffa leaf extract (HLE) are poorly understood. The object of the study was to examine the anti-invasive potential of HLE. First, HLE was demonstrated to be rich in polyphenols. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that HLE dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Our results further showed that HLE exerted an inhibitory effect on the activity and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The HLE-inhibited MMP-9 expression appeared to be a consequence of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inactivation because its DNA-binding activity was suppressed by HLE. Molecular data showed all these influences of HLE might be mediated via inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt)/NF-κB/MMP-9 cascade pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of Akt1 overexpression vector. Finally, the inhibitory effect of HLE was proven by its inhibition on the growth of LNCaP cells and the expressions of metastasis-related molecular proteins in vivo. These findings suggested that the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by HLE may act through the suppression of the Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway, which in turn led to the reduced invasiveness of the cancer cells. PMID:26115086

  11. Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf Extract Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via Down-Regulation of Akt/NF-kB/MMP-9 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Chou, Fen-Pi; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2015-06-24

    Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf has been previously shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anticancer activity of H. sabdariffa leaf extract (HLE) are poorly understood. The object of the study was to examine the anti-invasive potential of HLE. First, HLE was demonstrated to be rich in polyphenols. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that HLE dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Our results further showed that HLE exerted an inhibitory effect on the activity and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The HLE-inhibited MMP-9 expression appeared to be a consequence of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inactivation because its DNA-binding activity was suppressed by HLE. Molecular data showed all these influences of HLE might be mediated via inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt)/NF-kB/MMP-9 cascade pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of Akt1 overexpression vector. Finally, the inhibitory effect of HLE was proven by its inhibition on the growth of LNCaP cells and the expressions of metastasis-related molecular proteins in vivo. These findings suggested that the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by HLE may act through the suppression of the Akt/NF-kB signaling pathway, which in turn led to the reduced invasiveness of the cancer cells.

  12. Lycopene Inhibits NF-kB-Mediated IL-8 Expression and Changes Redox and PPARγ Signalling in Cigarette Smoke–Stimulated Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Rossella E.; Russo, Marco; Catalano, Assunta; Monego, Giovanni; Froehlich, Kati; Boehm, Volker; Palozza, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that lycopene, the major carotenoid present in tomato, may be preventive against smoke-induced cell damage. However, the mechanisms of such a prevention are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of lycopene on the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 induced by cigarette smoke and the possible mechanisms implicated. Therefore, human THP-1 macrophages were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE), alone and following a 6-h pre-treatment with lycopene (0.5–2 µM). CSE enhanced IL-8 production in a time- and a dose-dependent manner. Lycopene pre-treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of CSE-induced IL-8 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. NF-kB controlled the transcription of IL-8 induced by CSE, since PDTC prevented such a production. Lycopene suppressed CSE-induced NF-kB DNA binding, NF-kB/p65 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of IKKα and IkBα. Such an inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in CSE-induced ROS production and NOX-4 expression. Lycopene further inhibited CSE-induced phosphorylation of the redox-sensitive ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPKs. Moreover, the carotenoid increased PPARγ levels which, in turn, enhanced PTEN expression and decreased pAKT levels in CSE-exposed cells. Such effects were abolished by the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662. Taken together, our data indicate that lycopene prevented CSE-induced IL-8 production through a mechanism involving an inactivation of NF-kB. NF-kB inactivation was accompanied by an inhibition of redox signalling and an activation of PPARγ signalling. The ability of lycopene in inhibiting IL-8 production, NF-kB/p65 nuclear translocation, and redox signalling and in increasing PPARγ expression was also found in isolated rat alveolar macrophages exposed to CSE. These findings provide novel data on new molecular mechanisms by which lycopene regulates cigarette smoke-driven inflammation in human macrophages. PMID:21625550

  13. L-ascorbate attenuates the endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting MAPK activation and NF-κB translocation in cortical neurons/glia Cocultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ni Huang

    Full Text Available In response to acute insults to the central nervous system, such as pathogen invasion or neuronal injuries, glial cells become activated and secrete inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO, cytokines, and chemokines. This neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Endogenous ascorbate levels are significantly decreased among patients with septic encephalopathy. Using the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS to induce neuroinflammation in primary neuron/glia cocultures, we investigated how L-ascorbate (vitamin C; Vit. C affected neuroinflammation. LPS (100 ng/ml induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and the production of NO, interleukin (IL-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2/CXCL2 in a time-dependent manner; however, cotreatment with Vit. C (5 or 10 mM attenuated the LPS-induced iNOS expression and production of NO, IL-6, and MIP-2 production. The morphological features revealed after immunocytochemical staining confirmed that Vit. C suppressed LPS-induced astrocytic and microglial activation. Because Vit. C can be transported into neurons and glia via the sodium-dependent Vit. C transporter-2, we examined how Vit. C affected LPS-activated intracellular signaling in neuron/glia cocultures. The results indicated the increased activation (caused by phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, such as p38 at 30 min and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs at 180 min after LPS treatment. The inhibition of p38 and ERK MAPK suppressed the LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators. Vit. C also inhibited the LPS-induced activation of p38 and ERK. Combined treatments of Vit. C and the inhibitors of p38 and ERK yielded no additional inhibition compared with using the inhibitors alone, suggesting that Vit. C functions through the same signaling pathway (i.e., MAPK as these inhibitors. Vit. C also reduced LPS-induced Iκ

  14. Stevia and stevioside protect against cisplatin nephrotoxicity through inhibition of ERK1/2, STAT3, and NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potočnjak, Iva; Broznić, Dalibor; Kindl, Marija; Kropek, Matija; Vladimir-Knežević, Sanda; Domitrović, Robert

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effect of natural sweetener Stevia rebaudiana and its constituent stevioside in cisplatin (CP)-induced kidney injury. Male BALB/cN mice were orally administered 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg body weight of Stevia rebaudiana ethanol extract (SE) or stevioside 50 mg/kg, 48 h after intraperitoneal administration of CP (13 mg/kg). Two days later, CP treatment resulted in histopathological changes showing kidney injury. Increased expression of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in mice kidneys suggested oxidative stress. CP treatment also increased renal expression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 subunit and phosphorylated inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBα), as well as expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of the cell cycle in kidneys was evidenced by increased expression of p53, Bax, caspase-9, and p21, proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), with concomitant suppression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 expression. The number of apoptotic cells in kidneys was also assessed. CP administration resulted in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Both SE and stevioside attenuated CP nephrotoxicity by suppressing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis through mechanism involving ERK1/2, STAT3, and NF-κB suppression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ezrin/NF-kB activation regulates epithelial- mesenchymal transition induced by EGF and promotes metastasis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingru; Lin, Zhaoyu; Chen, Bin; Chen, Shuang; Jiang, Zhipeng; Zhou, Taicheng; Hou, Zehui; Wang, Youyuan

    2017-08-01

    There is growing evidence that epithelial mesenchymal-transition (EMT) plays significant roles in terms of tumor metastasis. There are a lot of cytokines inducing EMT of tumor cells, EGF is one of the important cytokines.Ezrin is a connexin between the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane, which is closely related to the morphological movement and metastasis of tumor cells.EGF can activate Ezrin and affects cell motility. In recent years, many studies have shown that NF-kB acts as an important transcription factor, involving in the process of EMT. However, does Ezrin participate in the regulation of EGF-induced EMT through the NF-kB pathway? This question needs us to discuss.In the present study, we found that EGF could induce colorectal cancer cells to develop EMT,enhance their ability to invade and migrate and promotes phosphorylation of Ezrin Tyr353.On the other hand, inhibition of Ezrin could reverse EGF-induced EMT and inhibit NF-kB P65 translocating into the nucleus. Finally, knockout of Ezrin inhibited EGF-induced lung metastasis of colorectal cancer xenografts and abnormal activation of Ezrin and NF-kB were related with colorectal cancer metastasis and poor prognosis. Our present results suggest that Ezrin/NF-kB pathway may provide experimental evidence for new targeted drugs for colorectal cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Cdc25A promotes cell survival by stimulating NF-{kappa}B activity through I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation and destabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hey-Young; Choi, Jiyeon [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 192-1 Hyoja-2-dong, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Wook [Korea Basic Science Institute, Chuncheon Center, Gangwondaehak-gil 1, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Chul, E-mail: bckim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 192-1 Hyoja-2-dong, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the antiapoptotic mechanisms of Cdc25A. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad7 decreases the phosphorylation of I{kappa}B-alpha at Ser-32. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad7 positively regulates NF-{kappa}B activity through I{kappa}B-alpha ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A), a dual specificity protein phosphatase, exhibits anti-apoptotic activity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly characterized. Here we report that Cdc25A inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death by stimulating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity. In HEK-293 cells, Cdc25A decreased protein level of inhibitor subunit kappa B alpha (I{kappa}-B{alpha}) in association with increased serine 32-phosphorylation, followed by stimulation of transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B. Inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activity by chemical inhibitor or overexpression of I{kappa}-B{alpha} in Cdc25A-elevated cancer cells resistant to cisplatin improved their sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Our data show for the first time that Cdc25A has an important physiological role in NF-{kappa}B activity regulation and it may be an important survival mechanism of cancer cells.

  17. Rosiglitazone inhibits chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis via modulation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyeon; Jang, Sea Jeong [Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hyun Chul, E-mail: hckoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Oxidative stress can lead to expression of inflammatory transcription factors, which are important regulatory elements in the induction of inflammatory responses. One of the transcription factors, nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) plays a significant role in the inflammation regulatory process. Inflammatory cell death has been implicated in neuronal cell death in some neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying apoptosis initiated by chlorpyrifos (CPF)-mediated oxidative stress. Based on the cytotoxic mechanism of CPF, we examined the neuroprotective effects of rosiglitazone (RGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, against CPF-induced neuronal cell death. The treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CPF induced oxidative stress. In addition, CPF activated the p38, JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and induced increases in the inflammatory genes such as COX-2 and TNF-α. CPF also induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and inhibitors of NF-κB abolished the CPF-induced COX-2 expression. Pretreatment with RGZ significantly reduced ROS generation and enhanced HO-1 expression in CPF-exposed cells. RGZ blocked the activation of both p38 and JNK signaling, while ERK activation was strengthened. RGZ also attenuated CPF-induced cell death through the reduction of NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory factors. Results from this study suggest that RGZ may exert an anti-apoptotic effect against CPF-induced cytotoxicity by attenuation of oxidative stress as well as inhibition of the inflammatory cascade via inactivation of signaling by p38 and JNK, and NF-κB. - Highlights: • CPF induces apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells • ROS involved in CPF-mediated apoptotic cell death • Inflammation involved in CPF-mediated apoptotic cell death • Rosiglitazone modulates ROS and inflammatory response in CPF-treated cells.

  18. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-κB translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang; Li, Junying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization. ► Moderate acidification activates NF-κB nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. ► Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. ► Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca 2+ entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca 2+ entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-κB. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca 2+ mobilization, activating NF-κB nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  19. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-{kappa}B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Junying, E-mail: jyli04@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification activates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, activating NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  20. Activation of NF-κB in basolateral amygdala is required for memory reconsolidation in auditory fear conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijian Si

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by acute and chronic changes in the stress response, manifested as conditioned fear memory. Previously formed memories that are susceptible to disruption immediately after retrieval undergo a protein synthesis-dependent process to become persistent, termed reconsolidation, a process that is regulated by many distinct molecular mechanisms that control gene expression. Increasing evidence supports the participation of the transcription factor NF-κB in the different phases of memory. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of NF-κB in the basolateral amygdala (BLA, but not central nucleus of the amygdala, after memory reactivation impairs the retention of amygdala-dependent auditory fear conditioning (AFC. We used two independent pharmacological strategies to disrupt the reconsolidation of AFC. Bilateral intra-BLA infusion of sulfasalazine, an inhibitor of IκB kinase that activates NF-κB, and bilateral intra-BLA infusion of SN50, a direct inhibitor of the NF-κB DNA-binding complex, immediately after retrieval disrupted the reconsolidation of AFC. We also found that systemic pretreatment with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that enhances histone acetylation, in the amygdala rescued the disruption of reconsolidation induced by NF-κB inhibition in the BLA. These findings indicate that NF-κB activity in the BLA is required for memory reconsolidation in AFC, suggesting that NF-κB might be a potential pharmacotherapy target for posttraumatic stress disorder.

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus and TNFalpha induction of chemokine gene expression involves differential activation of Rel A and NF-kappaB1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roebuck Kenneth A

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection of airway epithelial cells stimulates the expression and secretion of a variety of cytokines including the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. Chemokines are important chemoattractants for the recruitment of distinct sets of leukocytes to airway sites of inflammation. Results We have shown previously that chemokine expression is regulated in airway epithelial cells (A549 in a stimulus-specific manner in part through the redox-responsive transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB. In this study, we examined the NF-κB-mediated effects of RSV and the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα on the induction of IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES chemokine gene expression in A549 epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that RSV induces chemokine expression with distinct kinetics that is associated with a specific pattern of NF-κB binding activity. This distinction was further demonstrated by the differential effects of the NF-κB inhibitors dexamethasone (DEX and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC. NAC preferentially inhibited RSV induced chemokine expression, whereas DEX preferentially inhibited TNFα induced chemokine expression. DNA binding studies using NF-κB subunit specific binding ELISA demonstrated that RSV and TNFα induced different NF-κB binding complexes containing Rel A (p65 and NF-κB1 (p50. Both TNFα and RSV strongly induced Rel A the activation subunit of NF-κB, whereas only TNFα was able to substantially induce the p50 subunit. Consistent with the expression studies, RSV but not TNFα induction of Rel A and p50 were markedly inhibited by NAC, providing a mechanism by which TNFα and RSV can differentially activate chemokine gene expression via NF-κB. Conclusions These data suggest that RSV induction of chemokine gene expression, in contrast to TNFα, involves redox

  2. Regulation of NF-κB activity in astrocytes: effects of flavonoids at dietary-relevant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsbury, Alison; Vauzour, David; Spencer, Jeremy P.E.; Rattray, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of flavonoids inhibit NF-κB in astrocytes. ► Primary cultured astrocytes possess a functional κB-system, measured using luciferase assays. ► Seven flavonoids (100 nM–1 μM) failed to reduce NF-κB activity in astrocytes. ► Four flavonoids (100 nM–1 μM) failed to reduce TNFa-stimulated NF-κB activity in astrocytes. ► (−)-Epicatechin did not regulate nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit, p65. -- Abstract: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Sustained activation of nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Flavonoids have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and we investigated whether flavonoids, at submicromolar concentrations relevant to their bioavailability from the diet, were able to modulate NF-κB signalling in astrocytes. Using luciferase reporter assays, we found that tumour necrosis factor (TNFα, 150 ng/ml) increased NF-κB-mediated transcription in primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes, which was abolished on co-transfection of a dominant-negative IκBα construct. In addition, TNFα increased nuclear localisation of p65 as shown by immunocytochemistry. To investigate potential flavonoid modulation of NF-κB activity, astrocytes were treated with flavonoids from different classes; flavan-3-ols ((−)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin), flavones (luteolin and chrysin), a flavonol (kaempferol) or the flavanones (naringenin and hesperetin) at dietary-relevant concentrations (0.1–1 μM) for 18 h. None of the flavonoids modulated constitutive or TNFα-induced NF-κB activity. Therefore, we conclude that NF-κB signalling in astrocytes is not a major target for flavonoids.

  3. Andrographolide Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokines Secretion in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells through Suppression of NF-κB/MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; He, Shengnan; Tang, Jishun; Ding, Nana; Chu, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lianping; Ding, Xuedong; Liang, Ting; Feng, Shibin; Rahman, Sajid Ur; Wang, Xichun; Wu, Jinjie

    2017-01-01

    Andrographolide, the main active component extracted from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees, exerts anti-inflammatory effects; however, the principal molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of Andrographolide in modifying lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells. An in vitro model of inflammation was induced by LPS in mouse RAW264.7 cells in the presence of Andrographolide. The concentration and expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively. The nuclear level of NF- κ B was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The expression levels of NF- κ B, p38, ERK, and JNK were determined by western blot. Andrographolide dose-dependently inhibited the release and mRNA expression of TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-1 β in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The nuclear level of p65 protein was decreased in Andrographolide treatment group. Western blot analysis showed that Andrographolide suppressed LPS-induced NF- κ B activation and the phosphorylation of IkBa, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. These results suggest that Andrographolide exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activation of NF- κ B/MAPK signaling pathway and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines.

  4. Andrographolide Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokines Secretion in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells through Suppression of NF-κB/MAPK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide, the main active component extracted from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Wall. ex Nees, exerts anti-inflammatory effects; however, the principal molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of Andrographolide in modifying lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells. An in vitro model of inflammation was induced by LPS in mouse RAW264.7 cells in the presence of Andrographolide. The concentration and expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, respectively. The nuclear level of NF-κB was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The expression levels of NF-κB, p38, ERK, and JNK were determined by western blot. Andrographolide dose-dependently inhibited the release and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The nuclear level of p65 protein was decreased in Andrographolide treatment group. Western blot analysis showed that Andrographolide suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation and the phosphorylation of IkBa, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. These results suggest that Andrographolide exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines.

  5. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Eui-Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Han-Gyu [Department of Microbiology and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Nak-Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong, E-mail: ehbyun80@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited MAPKs activation and NF-{kappa}B p65 translocation via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG elevated the expression of the Tollip protein through 67LR in DCs. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-{alpha}, interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  6. Celastrol ameliorates HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB and AP-1 inhibition and heme oxygenase-1 induction in astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Gi Soo; Kwon, Dong-Joo; Ju, Sung Mi; Rhim, Hyangshuk; Bae, Yong Soo; Choi, Soo Young; Park, Jinseu

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes. - Highlights: • Celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat -induced activation of JNK MAPK. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via HO-1 induction

  7. Celastrol ameliorates HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB and AP-1 inhibition and heme oxygenase-1 induction in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Gi Soo; Kwon, Dong-Joo; Ju, Sung Mi [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyangshuk [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Medical Life Sciences, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Soo [Department of Biological Science, College of Natural Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu, E-mail: jinpark@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes. - Highlights: • Celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat -induced activation of JNK MAPK. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via HO-1 induction.

  8. A new structural class of proteasome inhibitors that prevent NF-kappa B activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, R T; Kerwar, S S; Meyer, S M; Nelson, M G; Schow, S R; Shiffman, D; Wick, M M; Joly, A

    1998-05-01

    The multicatalytic proteinase or proteasome is a highly conserved cellular structure that is responsible for the ATP-dependent proteolysis of many proteins involved in important regulatory cellular processes. We have identified a novel class of inhibitors of the chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity of the 20S proteasome that exhibit IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 microgram/mL (0.1 to 1 microM). In cell proliferation assays, these compounds inhibit growth with an IC50 ranging from 5 to 10 micrograms/mL (10-20 microM). A representative member of this class of inhibitors was tested in other biological assays. CVT-634 (5-methoxy-1-indanone-3-acetyl-leu-D-leu-1-indanylamide) prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and phorbol ester-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) in vitro by preventing signal-induced degradation of I kappa B-alpha. In these studies, the I kappa B-alpha that accumulated was hyperphosphorylated, indicating that CVT-634 did not inhibit I kappa B-alpha kinase, the enzyme responsible for signal-induced phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha. In vivo studies indicated that CVT-634 prevented LPS-induced TNF synthesis in a murine macrophage cell line. In addition, in mice pretreated with CVT-634 at 25 and 50 mg/kg and subsequently treated with LPS, serum TNF levels were significantly lower (225 +/- 59 and 83 +/- 41 pg/mL, respectively) than in those mice that were treated only with LPS (865 +/- 282 pg/mL). These studies suggest that specific inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome is sufficient to prevent signal-induced NF-kappa B activation and that the proteasome is a novel target for the identification of agents that may be useful in the treatment of diseases whose etiology is dependent upon the activation of NF-kappa B.

  9. Recombinant Human Endostatin Suppresses Mouse Osteoclast Formation by Inhibiting the NF-κB and MAPKs Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Non eChen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and progressive joint destruction. As reported previously, recombinant human endostatin (rhEndostatin is associated with inhibition of joint bone destruction present in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis; however, the effect of rhEndostatin on bone destruction is not known. This study was designed to assess the inhibitory effect and mechanisms of rhEndostatin on formation and function of osteoclasts in vitro, and to gain insight into the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of bone destruction. Bone marrow-derived macrophages isolated from BALB/c mice were stimulated with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor to establish osteoclast formation. Osteoclast formation was determined by TRAP staining. Cell viability of BMMs affected by rhEndostatin was determined using a MTT assay. Bone resorption was examined with a bone resorption pits assay. The expression of osteoclast-specific markers was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. The related signaling pathways were examined using a Luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis. Indeed, rhEndostatin showed a significant reduction in the number of osteoclast-like cells and early-stage bone resorption. Moreover, molecular analysis demonstrated that rhEndostatin attenuated RANKL-induced NF-κB signaling by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, rhEndostatin significantly inhibited the activation of RANKL-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, such as ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Hence, we demonstrated for the first time that preventing the formation and function of osteoclasts is an important anti-bone destruction mechanism of rhEndostatin, which might be useful in the prevention and treatment of bone destruction in RA.

  10. Endocytosis-independent function of clathrin heavy chain in the control of basal NF-κB activation.

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    Man Lyang Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is a transcription factor that regulates the transcription of genes involved in a variety of biological processes, including innate and adaptive immunity, stress responses and cell proliferation. Constitutive or excessive NF-κB activity has been associated with inflammatory disorders and higher risk of cancer. In contrast to the mechanisms controlling inducible activation, the regulation of basal NF-κB activation is not well understood. Here we test whether clathrin heavy chain (CHC contributes to the regulation of basal NF-κB activity in epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY: Using RNA interference to reduce endogenous CHC expression, we found that CHC is required to prevent constitutive activation of NF-κB and gene expression. Immunofluorescence staining showed constitutive nuclear localization of the NF-κB subunit p65 in absence of stimulation after CHC knockdown. Elevated basal p65 nuclear localization is caused by constitutive phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα through an IκB kinase α (IKKα-dependent mechanism. The role of CHC in NF-κB signaling is functionally relevant as constitutive expression of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, whose expression is regulated by NF-κB, was found after CHC knockdown. Disruption of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chemical inhibition or depletion of the μ2-subunit of the endocytosis adaptor protein AP-2, and knockdown of clathrin light chain a (CHLa, failed to induce constitutive NF-κB activation and IL-8 expression, showing that CHC acts on NF-κB independently of endocytosis and CLCa. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that CHC functions as a built-in molecular brake that ensures a tight control of basal NF-κB activation and gene expression in unstimulated cells. Furthermore, our data suggest a potential link between a defect in CHC expression and chronic inflammation disorder and cancer.

  11. MCL Plays an Anti-Inflammatory Role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Immune Response by Inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

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    Qingwen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb remains a significant menace to global health as it induces granulomatous lung lesions and systemic inflammatory responses during active tuberculosis (TB. Micheliolide (MCL, a sesquiterpene lactone, was recently reported to have a function of relieving LPS-induced inflammatory response, but the regulative role of MCL on the immunopathology of TB still remains unknown. In this experiment, we examined the inhibitory effect of MCL on Mtb-induced inflammatory response in mouse macrophage-like cell line Raw264.7 by downregulating the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome. Evidences showed that MCL decreased the secretion of Mtb-induced inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, MCL dramatically suppressed Mtb-induced activation of iNOS and COX2 as well as subsequent production of NO. Furthermore, MCL inhibited Mtb-induced phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473 in Raw264.7. According to our results, MCL plays an important role in modulating Mtb-induced inflammatory response through PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway and subsequently downregulating the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Therefore, MCL may represent as a potential drug candidate in the adjuvant treatment of TB by regulating host immune response.

  12. Fisetin inhibits migration and invasion of human cervical cancer cells by down-regulating urokinase plasminogen activator expression through suppressing the p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway.

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    Ruey-Hwang Chou

    Full Text Available Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer types. However, its effect on the anti-metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, we found that fisetin inhibits the invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells. The expression and activity of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA was significantly suppressed by fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that fisetin reduces the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not that of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, or AKT. Addition of a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, further enhanced the inhibitory effect of fisetin on the expression and activity of uPA and the invasion and motility in cervical cancer cells. Fisetin suppressed the TPA (tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced activation of p38 MAPK and uPA, and inhibited the TPA-enhanced migratory and invasive abilities. Furthermore, the promoter activity of the uPA gene was dramatically repressed by fisetin, which disrupted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its binding amount on the promoter of the uPA gene, and these suppressive effects could be further enhanced by SB203580. This study provides strong evidence for the molecular mechanism of fisetin in inhibiting the aggressive phenotypes by repression of uPA via interruption of p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway in cervical cancer cells and thus contributes insight to the potential of using fisetin as a therapeutic strategy against cervical cancer by inhibiting migration and invasion.

  13. Fisetin Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Cervical Cancer Cells by Down-Regulating Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Expression through Suppressing the p38 MAPK-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway

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    Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Yu, Yung-Luen; Huang, Min-Hsien; Huang, Yi-Chang; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    Fisetin (3,3’,4’,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer types. However, its effect on the anti-metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, we found that fisetin inhibits the invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells. The expression and activity of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was significantly suppressed by fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that fisetin reduces the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not that of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, or AKT. Addition of a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, further enhanced the inhibitory effect of fisetin on the expression and activity of uPA and the invasion and motility in cervical cancer cells. Fisetin suppressed the TPA (tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced activation of p38 MAPK and uPA, and inhibited the TPA-enhanced migratory and invasive abilities. Furthermore, the promoter activity of the uPA gene was dramatically repressed by fisetin, which disrupted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its binding amount on the promoter of the uPA gene, and these suppressive effects could be further enhanced by SB203580. This study provides strong evidence for the molecular mechanism of fisetin in inhibiting the aggressive phenotypes by repression of uPA via interruption of p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway in cervical cancer cells and thus contributes insight to the potential of using fisetin as a therapeutic strategy against cervical cancer by inhibiting migration and invasion. PMID:23940799

  14. Low-Dose Radiation Promotes Dendritic Cell Migration and IL-12 Production via the ATM/NF-KappaB Pathway.

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    Yu, Nan; Wang, Sinian; Song, Xiujun; Gao, Ling; Li, Wei; Yu, Huijie; Zhou, Chuanchuan; Wang, Zhenxia; Li, Fengsheng; Jiang, Qisheng

    2018-04-01

    For dendritic cells (DCs) to initiate an immune response, their ability to migrate and to produce interleukin-12 (IL-12) is crucial. It has been previously shown that low-dose radiation (LDR) promoted IL-12 production by DCs, resulting in increased DC activity that contributed to LDR hormesis in the immune system. However, the molecular mechanism of LDR-induced IL-12 production, as well as the effect of LDR on DC migration capacity require further elucidation. Using the JAWSII immortalized mouse dendritic cell line, we showed that in vitro X-ray irradiation (0.2 Gy) of DCs significantly increased DC migration and IL-12 production, and upregulated CCR7. The neutralizing antibody against CCR7 has been shown to abolish LDR-enhanced DC migration, demonstrating that CCR7 mediates LDR-promoting DC migration. We identified nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) as the central signaling pathway that mediated LDR-enhanced expression of IL-12 and CCR7 based on findings that 0.2 Gy X-ray irradiation activated NF-κB, showing increased nuclear p65 translocation and NF-κB DNA-binding activity, while an NF-κB inhibitor blocked LDR-enhanced expression of IL-12 and CCR7, as well as DC migration. Finally, we demonstrated that 0.2 Gy X-ray irradiation promoted ATM phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species generation; however, only the ATM inhibitor abolished the LDR-induced NF-κB-mediated expression of IL-12 and CCR7. Altogether, our data show that exposure to LDR resulted in a hormetic effect on DCs regarding CCR7-mediated migration and IL-12 production by activating the ATM/NF-κB pathway.

  15. Melatonin alleviates inflammasome-induced pyroptosis through inhibiting NF-κB/GSDMD signal in mice adipose tissue.

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    Liu, Zhenjiang; Gan, Lu; Xu, Yatao; Luo, Dan; Ren, Qian; Wu, Song; Sun, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Pyroptosis is a proinflammatory form of cell death that is associated with pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. Melatonin is substantially reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting inflammasome activation. However, the effects of melatonin on inflammasome-induced pyroptosis in adipocytes remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that melatonin alleviated lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome formation in mice adipose tissue. The NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis was also inhibited by melatonin in adipocytes. Further analysis revealed that gasdermin D (GSDMD), the key executioner of pyroptosis, was the target for melatonin inhibition of adipocyte pyroptosis. Importantly, we determined that nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal was required for the GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis in adipocytes. We also confirmed that melatonin alleviated adipocyte pyroptosis by transcriptional suppression of GSDMD. Moreover, GSDMD physically interacted with interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) and subsequently formed a complex to promote adipocyte pyroptosis. Melatonin also attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis, which was induced by LPS or obesity. In summary, our results demonstrate that melatonin alleviates inflammasome-induced pyroptosis by blocking NF-κB/GSDMD signal in mice adipose tissue. Our data reveal a novel function of melatonin on adipocyte pyroptosis, suggesting a new potential therapy for melatonin to prevent and treat obesity caused systemic inflammatory response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Electroacupuncture ameliorates cognitive impairment through inhibition of NF-κB-mediated neuronal cell apoptosis in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injured rats.

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    Feng, Xiaodong; Yang, Shanli; Liu, Jiao; Huang, Jia; Peng, Jun; Lin, Jiumao; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a serious mental deficit following stroke that severely affects the quality of life of stroke survivors. Nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB)-mediated neuronal cell apoptosis is involved in the development of post-stroke cognitive impairment; therefore, it has become a promising target for the treatment of impaired cognition. Acupuncture at the Baihui (DU20) and Shenting (DU24) acupoints is commonly used in China to clinically treat post‑stroke cognitive impairment; however, the precise mechanism of its action is largely unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of electroacupuncture against post-stroke cognitive impairment and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms using a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Electroacupuncture at Baihui and Shenting was identified to significantly ameliorate neurological deficits and reduce cerebral infarct volume. Additionally, electroacupuncture improved learning and memory ability in cerebral I/R injured rats, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy against post-stroke cognitive impairment. Furthermore, electroacupuncture significantly suppressed the I/R-induced activation of NF-κB signaling in ischemic cerebral tissues. The inhibitory effect of electroacupuncture on NF-κB activation led to the inhibition of cerebral cell apoptosis. Finally, electroacupuncture markedly downregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and Fas, two critical downstream target genes of the NF-κB pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest that inhibition of NF-κB‑mediated neuronal cell apoptosis may be one mechanism via which electroacupuncture at Baihui and Shenting exerts a therapeutic effect on post-stroke cognitive impairment.

  17. Paeoniflorin protects against ischemia-induced brain damages in rats via inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses.

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    Ruo-Bing Guo

    Full Text Available Paeoniflorin (PF, the principal component of Paeoniae Radix prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to exhibit many pharmacological effects including protection against ischemic injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of PF on cerebral ischemia are still under investigation. The present study showed that PF treatment for 14 days could significantly inhibit transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO-induced over-activation of astrocytes and microglia, and prevented up-regulations of pro-inflamamtory mediators (TNFα, IL-1β, iNOS, COX(2 and 5-LOX in plasma and brain. Further study demonstrated that chronic treatment with PF suppressed the activations of JNK and p38 MAPK, but enhanced ERK activation. And PF could reverse ischemia-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, our in vitro study revealed that PF treatment protected against TNFα-induced cell apoptosis and neuronal loss. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that PF produces a delayed protection in the ischemia-injured rats via inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB mediated peripheral and cerebral inflammatory response. Our study reveals that PF might be a potential neuroprotective agent for stroke.

  18. Paeoniflorin protects against ischemia-induced brain damages in rats via inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruo-Bing; Wang, Guo-Feng; Zhao, An-Peng; Gu, Jun; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Hu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF), the principal component of Paeoniae Radix prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to exhibit many pharmacological effects including protection against ischemic injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of PF on cerebral ischemia are still under investigation. The present study showed that PF treatment for 14 days could significantly inhibit transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced over-activation of astrocytes and microglia, and prevented up-regulations of pro-inflamamtory mediators (TNFα, IL-1β, iNOS, COX(2) and 5-LOX) in plasma and brain. Further study demonstrated that chronic treatment with PF suppressed the activations of JNK and p38 MAPK, but enhanced ERK activation. And PF could reverse ischemia-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, our in vitro study revealed that PF treatment protected against TNFα-induced cell apoptosis and neuronal loss. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that PF produces a delayed protection in the ischemia-injured rats via inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB mediated peripheral and cerebral inflammatory response. Our study reveals that PF might be a potential neuroprotective agent for stroke.

  19. Inhibition of NF-κB by a cell permeable form of IκBα induces apoptosis in eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Satoko; Jaffray, Ellis; Farrow, Stuart N.; Rossi, Adriano G.; Haslett, Christopher; Hay, Ronald T.

    2005-01-01

    An 11 amino acid HIV-TAT peptide can deliver target proteins into a variety of cells in a receptor-independent manner. To generate a highly specific inhibitor of the transcription factor NF-κB, we have fused the TAT-peptide to a version of IκBα that is resistant to signal-induced degradation. TAT-IκBα(S32A, S36A) inhibited NF-κB-dependent transcription in HeLa and A549 cells by retaining NF-κB p65 in the cytoplasm. Introduction of TAT-IκBα(S32A, S36A) into human eosinophils inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and induced apoptosis. Thus, continuous NF-κB-dependent transcription is important for eosinophil survival. While eosinophils are normally refractive to standard methods of gene delivery, the ability of TAT fusion proteins to be taken up by these cells should enable a detailed molecular analysis of survival pathways in these cells

  20. Spinal NF-κB and chemokine ligand 5 expression during spinal glial cell activation in a neuropathic pain model.

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    Qin Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The NF-κB pathway and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5 are involved in pain modulation; however, the precise mechanisms of their interactions in chronic neuropathic pain have yet to be established. METHODS: The present study examined the roles of spinal NF-κB and CCL5 in a neuropathic pain model after chronic constriction injury (CCI surgery. CCI-induced pain facilitation was evaluated using the Plantar and von Frey tests. The changes in NF-κB and CCL5 expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. RESULTS: Spinal NF-κB and CCL5 expression increased after CCI surgery. Repeated intrathecal infusions of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, a NF-κB inhibitor decreased CCL5 expression, inhibited the activation of microglia and astrocytes, and attenuated CCI-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. Intrathecal injection of a CCL5-neutralizing antibody attenuated CCI-induced pain facilitation and also suppressed spinal glial cell activation after CCI surgery. However, the CCL5-neutralizing antibody did not affect NF-κB expression. Furthermore, selective glial inhibitors, minocycline and fluorocitrate, attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by intrathecal CCL5. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of spinal CCL5 expression may provide a new method to prevent and treat nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain.

  1. Antioxidant Activity of γ-Oryzanol: A Complex Network of Interactions

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    Igor Otavio Minatel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available γ-oryzanol (Orz, a steryl ferulate extracted from rice bran layer, exerts a wide spectrum of biological activities. In addition to its antioxidant activity, Orz is often associated with cholesterol-lowering, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. In recent years, the usefulness of Orz has been studied for the treatment of metabolic diseases, as it acts to ameliorate insulin activity, cholesterol metabolism, and associated chronic inflammation. Previous studies have shown the direct action of Orz when downregulating the expression of genes that encode proteins related to adiposity (CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs, inflammatory responses (nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB, and metabolic syndrome (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. It is likely that this wide range of beneficial activities results from a complex network of interactions and signals triggered, and/or inhibited by its antioxidant properties. This review focuses on the significance of Orz in metabolic disorders, which feature remarkable oxidative imbalance, such as impaired glucose metabolism, obesity, and inflammation.

  2. Antioxidant Activity of γ-Oryzanol: A Complex Network of Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatel, Igor Otavio; Francisqueti, Fabiane Valentini; Corrêa, Camila Renata; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira

    2016-08-09

    γ-oryzanol (Orz), a steryl ferulate extracted from rice bran layer, exerts a wide spectrum of biological activities. In addition to its antioxidant activity, Orz is often associated with cholesterol-lowering, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. In recent years, the usefulness of Orz has been studied for the treatment of metabolic diseases, as it acts to ameliorate insulin activity, cholesterol metabolism, and associated chronic inflammation. Previous studies have shown the direct action of Orz when downregulating the expression of genes that encode proteins related to adiposity (CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs)), inflammatory responses (nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)), and metabolic syndrome (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)). It is likely that this wide range of beneficial activities results from a complex network of interactions and signals triggered, and/or inhibited by its antioxidant properties. This review focuses on the significance of Orz in metabolic disorders, which feature remarkable oxidative imbalance, such as impaired glucose metabolism, obesity, and inflammation.

  3. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors suppress Lactobacillus casei cell-wall-induced NF-κB and MAPK activations and cell proliferation through protein kinase A--or exchange protein activated by cAMP-dependent signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takekatsu; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Ohta, Kunio; Shimizu, Tohru; Ohtani, Kaori; Nakayama, Yuko; Nakamura, Taichi; Hitomi, Yashiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Shoichi; Yachie, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Specific strains of Lactobacillus have been found to be beneficial in treating some types of diarrhea and vaginosis. However, a high mortality rate results from underlying immunosuppressive conditions in patients with Lactobacillus casei bacteremia. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a small second messenger molecule that mediates signal transduction. The onset and progression of inflammatory responses are sensitive to changes in steady-state cAMP levels. L. casei cell wall extract (LCWE) develops arteritis in mice through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intracellular cAMP affects LCWE-induced pathological signaling. LCWE was shown to induce phosphorylation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and cell proliferation in mice fibroblast cells. Theophylline and phosphodiesterase inhibitor increased intracellular cAMP and inhibited LCWE-induced cell proliferation as well as phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPK. Protein kinase A inhibitor H89 prevented cAMP-induced MAPK inhibition, but not cAMP-induced NF-κB inhibition. An exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) agonist inhibited NF-κB activation but not MAPK activation. These results indicate that an increase in intracellular cAMP prevents LCWE induction of pathological signaling pathways dependent on PKA and Epac signaling.

  4. Astragalus Polysaccharide Improves Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance by Inhibiting PTP1B and NF-κB in C2C12 Myotubes

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    Yong Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS on palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes. Palmitate-reduced glucose uptake was restored by APS. APS prevented palmitate-induced C2C12 myotubes from impaired insulin signaling by inhibiting Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and increasing Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover, the increases in protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B protein level and NF-κB activation associated with palmitate treatment were also prevented by APS. However the treatment with APS didn’t change AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation in palmitate-induced myotubes. The results of the present study suggest that Astragalus polysaccharide inhibits palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes by inhibiting expression of PTP1B and regulating NF-κB but not AMPK pathway.

  5. Dexmedetomidine reduces ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI by inhibiting Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4/nuclear factor (NF-κB signaling pathway

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    Hongli Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV may lead to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI. Previous research has shown that dexmedetomidine attenuates pulmonary inflammation caused by MV, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our study aims to test whether dexmedetomidine has a protective effect against VILI and to explore the possible molecular mechanisms using the rat model. Thirty adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 6: control, low tidal volume MV (LMV, high tidal volume (HVT MV (HMV, HVT MV + dexmedetomidine (DEX, HVT MV + dexmedetomidine + yohimbine (DEX+Y. Rats were euthanized after being ventilated for 4 hours. Pathological changes, lung wet/dry (W/D weight ratio, lung myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and IL-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and lung tissues, expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and nuclear factor (NF-κB, and activation of NF-κB in lung tissues were measured. Compared with HMV, DEX group showed fewer pathological changes, lower W/D ratios and decreased MPO activity of the lung tissues and lower concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines in the BALF and lung tissues. Dexmedetomidine significantly inhibited the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB and activation of NF-κB. Yohimbine partly alleviated the effects of dexmedetomidine. Dexmedetomidine reduced the inflammatory response to HVT-MV and had a protective effect against VILI, with the inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, at least partly via α2-adrenoceptors.

  6. Characterization of the enhanced apoptotic response to azidothymidine by pharmacological inhibition of NF-kB.

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    Matteucci, Claudia; Minutolo, Antonella; Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Grelli, Sandro; Frezza, Caterina; Mastino, Antonio; Macchi, Beatrice

    2015-04-15

    The present study addresses the issue of enhanced apoptotic response to AZT following co-treatment with an NF-kB inhibitor. To investigate this issue, different cell lines were assayed for susceptibility to AZT-mediated apoptosis without or with the addition of the NF-kB inhibitor Bay-11-7085. For further investigation, U937 cells were selected as good-responder cells to the combination treatment with 32 or 128 μM AZT, and 1 μM Bay-11-7085. Inhibition of NF-kB activation by Bay-11-7085 in cells treated with AZT was assayed through Western blot analysis of p65 expression and by EMSA. Involvement of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in mechanisms underlying the improved effect of AZT following Bay-11-7085 co-treatment, was evaluated by assaying the cytochrome c release and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) status using the JC-1 dye. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of both anti- and pro-apoptotic genes in U937 cells after combination treatment was quantitatively evaluated through real-time PCR. We found that the combined treatment induced high levels of cytochrome c release and of MMP collapse in association with evident changes in the expression of both anti- and pro-apoptotic genes of the Bcl-2 family. Overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly suppressed the sensitization of U937 cells to an enhanced apoptotic response to AZT following co-treatment with the NF-kB inhibitor. The new findings suggest that a combination regimen based on AZT plus an NF-kB inhibitor could represent a new chemotherapeutic tool for retrovirus-related pathologies.

  7. 20-Hydroxycholecalciferol, product of vitamin D3 hydroxylation by P450scc, decreases NF-kappaB activity by increasing IkappaB alpha levels in human keratinocytes.

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    Zorica Janjetovic

    Full Text Available The side chain of vitamin D3 is hydroxylated in a sequential manner by cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1 to form 20-hydroxycholecalciferol, which can induce growth arrest and differentiation of both primary and immortalized epidermal keratinocytes. Since nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, we examined the capability of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol to modulate the activity of NF-kappaB, using 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol as a positive control. 20-hydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the activation of NFkappaB DNA binding activity as well as NF-kappaB-driven reporter gene activity in keratinocytes. Also, 20-hydroxycholecalciferol induced significant increases in the mRNA and protein levels of the NF-kappaB inhibitor protein, IkappaB alpha, in a time dependent manner, while no changes in total NF-kappaB-p65 mRNA or protein levels were observed. Another measure of NF-kappaB activity, p65 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus was also inhibited in extracts of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol treated keratinocytes. Increased IkappaB alpha was concomitantly observed in cytosolic extracts of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol treated keratinocytes, as determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining. In keratinocytes lacking vitamin D receptor (VDR, 20-hydroxycholecalciferol did not affect IkappaB alpha mRNA levels, indicating that it requires VDR for its action on NF-kappaB activity. Comparison of the effects of calcitrol, hormonally active form of vitamin D3, with 20-hydrocholecalciferol show that both agents have a similar potency in inhibiting NF-kappaB. Since NF-kappaB is a major transcription factor for the induction of inflammatory mediators, our findings indicate that 20-hydroxycholecalciferol may be an effective therapeutic agent for inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin diseases.

  8. Inhibitory effect of snake venom toxin on NF-κB activity prevents human cervical cancer cell growth via increase of death receptor 3 and 5 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Lim; Park, Mi Hee; Hong, Ji Eun; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Ji Young; Seo, Hyen Ok; Han, Sang-Bae; Yoon, Joo Hee; Lee, Won Hyoung; Song, Ho Sueb; Lee, Ji In; Lee, Ung Soo; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-02-01

    We previously found that snake venom toxin inhibits nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity in several cancer cells. NF-κB is implicated in cancer cell growth and chemoresistance. In our present study, we investigated whether snake venom toxin (SVT) inhibits NF-κB, thereby preventing human cervical cancer cell growth (Ca Ski and C33A). SVT (0-12 μg/ml) inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells by the induction of apoptotic cell death. These inhibitory effects were associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activity. However, SVT dose dependently increased the expression of death receptors (DRs): DR3, DR5 and DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins. Exploration of NF-κB inhibitor (Phenylarsine oxide, 0.1 μM) synergistically further increased SVT-induced DR3 and DR5 expressions accompanied with further inhibition of cancer cells growth. Moreover, deletion of DR3 and DR5 by small interfering RNA significantly abolished SVT-induced cell growth inhibitory effects, as well as NF-κB inactivation. Using TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand resistance cancer cells (A549 and MCF-7), we also found that SVT enhanced the susceptibility of chemoresistance of these cancer cells through down-regulation of NF-κB, but up-regulation of DR3 and DR5. In vivo study also showed that SVT (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth accompanied with inactivation of NF-κB. Thus, our present study indicates that SVT could be applicable as an anticancer agent for cervical cancer, or as an adjuvant agent for chemoresistant cancer cells.

  9. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang

    2009-01-01

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells

  10. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  11. Superoxide dismutase recombinant Lactobacillus fermentum ameliorates intestinal oxidative stress through inhibiting NF-κB activation in a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, C L; Zhang, J; Liu, X T; Liu, H; Zeng, X F; Qiao, S Y

    2014-06-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) can prevent and cure inflammatory bowel diseases by decreasing the amount of reactive oxygen species. Unfortunately, short half-life of SOD in the gastrointestinal tract limited its application in the intestinal tract. This study aimed to investigate the treatment effects of recombinant SOD Lactobacillus fermentum in a colitis mouse model. In this study, we expressed the sodA gene in Lact. fermentum I5007 to obtain the SOD recombinant strain. Then, we determined the therapeutic effects of this SOD recombinant strain in a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mouse model. We found that SOD activity in the recombinant Lact. fermentum was increased by almost eightfold compared with that in the wild type. Additionally, both the wild type and the recombinant Lact. fermentum increased the numbers of lactobacilli in the colon of mice (P < 0·05). Colitis mice treated with recombinant Lact. fermentum showed a higher survival rate and lower disease activity index (P < 0·05). Recombinant Lact. fermentum significantly decreased colonic mucosa histological scoring for infiltration of inflammatory cells, lipid peroxidation, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (P < 0·05) and inhibited NF-κB activity in colitis mice (P < 0·05). SOD recombinant Lact. fermentum significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammation through inhibiting NF-κB activation in the TNBS-induced colitis model. This study provides insights into the anti-inflammatory effects of SOD recombinant Lact. fermentum, indicating the potential therapeutic effects in preventing and curing intestinal bowel diseases. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Complex formation of p65/RelA with nuclear Akt1 for enhanced transcriptional activation of NF-κB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Osong; Kim, Kyung A; He, Long; Jung, Mira; Jeong, Sook Jung; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2008-01-01

    Akt1 was revealed to interact with Ki-Ras in the cytoplasm of Ki-Ras-transformed human prostate epithelial cells, 267B1/K-ras. Moreover, p65/RelA in the nucleus was found to interact with both Ki-Ras and Akt1, suggesting the nuclear translocation of Akt1:Ki-Ras complex for NF- κB activation. In support of this, compared with wild type Akt1, the dominant negative Akt1 mutant was decreased in its nuclear expression, reducing the Ki-Ras-induced NF-κB transcriptional activation. Moreover, inhibitors of Ras (sulindac sulfide and farnesyltransferase inhibitor I) or PI3K/Akt (wortmannin), reduced the amounts of Akt1 and Ki-Ras in the nucleus as well as partial NF-κB activity. The complete inhibition of Ki-Ras-induced NF-κB activation, however, could only be obtained by combined treatment with wortmannin and proteasome inhibitor-1. Accordingly, clonogenic assay showed Akt1 contribution to IκBα-mediated NF-κB activation for oncogenic cell growth by Ki-Ras. Our data suggest a crucial role of Ki-Ras:Akt1 complex in NF-κB transcriptional activation and enhancement of cell survival

  13. Acrolein inhibits cytokine gene expression by alkylating cysteine and arginine residues in the NF-kappaB1 DNA binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Cherie; Li, Jimei; Jonscher, Karen; Yang, Teng-Chieh; Reigan, Philip; Quintana, Megan; Harvey, Jean; Freed, Brian M

    2007-07-06

    Cigarette smoke is a potent inhibitor of pulmonary T cell responses, resulting in decreased immune surveillance and an increased incidence of respiratory tract infections. The alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes in cigarette smoke (acrolein and crotonaldehyde) inhibited production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by human T cells but did not inhibit production of IL-8. The saturated aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde) in cigarette smoke were inactive. Acrolein inhibited induction of NF-kappaB DNA binding activity after mitogenic stimulation of T cells but had no effect on induction of NFAT or AP-1. Acrolein inhibited NF-kappaB1 (p50) binding to the IL-2 promoter in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay by >99%. Using purified recombinant p50 in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we demonstrated that acrolein was 2000-fold more potent than crotonaldehyde in blocking DNA binding to an NF-kappaB consensus sequence. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated that acrolein alkylated two amino acids (Cys-61 and Arg-307) in the DNA binding domain. Crotonaldehyde reacted with Cys-61, but not Arg-307, whereas the saturated aldehydes in cigarette smoke did not react with p50. These experiments demonstrate that aldehydes in cigarette smoke can regulate gene expression by direct modification of a transcription factor.

  14. Xanthohumol attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through inhibiting NF-κB and activating Nrf2 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yao, Yunyi; Huang, Hui; Hao, Hua; Ying, Mingzhong

    2018-06-12

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that widely used in the treatment of cancer. However, cisplatin has been reported to induce nephrotoxicity by directly inducing inflammatory response and oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of xanthohumol on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The model of nephrotoxicity was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin and xanthohumol was given intraperitoneally for three consecutive days. The results showed that xanthohumol significantly attenuated kidney histological changes and serum creatinine and BUN production. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6 in kidney tissues were suppressed by xanthohumol. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS were suppressed by treatment of xanthohumol. The activities of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased by cisplatin were reversed by xanthohumol. Furthermore, the expression of TLR4 and the activation of NF-κB induced by cisplatin were significantly inhibited by xanthohumol. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 were dose-dependently up-regulated by the treatment of xanthohumol. In conclusion, xanthohumol protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by ameliorating inflammatory and oxidative responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: shaoboxiao@yahoo.com [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  16. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebron C. Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (HE is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926 cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α- stimulation (10 ng/mL. The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50–200 μg/mL significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC, and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2 in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways.

  17. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hebron C; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50-200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways.

  18. Insulin receptor substrate-3, interacting with Bcl-3, enhances p50 NF-{kappa}B activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabuta, Tomohiro [Departments of Animal Sciences and Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan); Hakuno, Fumihiko; Cho, Yoshitake; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Chida, Kazuhiro [Departments of Animal Sciences and Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Asano, Tomoichiro [Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Wada, Keiji [Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro, E-mail: atkshin@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Departments of Animal Sciences and Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are major substrates of both insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor tyrosine kinases. Previously, we reported that IRS-3 is localized to both cytosol and nucleus, and possesses transcriptional activity. In the present study, we identified Bcl-3 as a novel binding protein to IRS-3. Bcl-3 is a nuclear protein, which forms a complex with the homodimer of p50 NF-{kappa}B, leading to enhancement of transcription through p50 NF-{kappa}B. We found that Bcl-3 interacts with the pleckstrin homology domain and the phosphotyrosine binding domain of IRS-3, and that IRS-3 interacts with the ankyrin repeat domain of Bcl-3. In addition, IRS-3 augmented the binding activity of p50 to the NF-{kappa}B DNA binding site, as well as the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-induced transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B. Lastly, IRS-3 enhanced NF-{kappa}B-dependent anti-apoptotic gene induction and consequently inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced cell death. This series of results proposes a novel function for IRS-3 as a transcriptional regulator in TNF-{alpha} signaling, distinct from its function as a substrate of insulin/IGF receptor kinases.

  19. Low-level laser therapy activates NF-kB via generation of reactive oxygen species in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C-H Chen

    Full Text Available Despite over forty years of investigation on low-level light therapy (LLLT, the fundamental mechanisms underlying photobiomodulation at a cellular level remain unclear.In this study, we isolated murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF from transgenic NF-kB luciferase reporter mice and studied their response to 810 nm laser radiation. Significant activation of NF-kB was observed at fluences higher than 0.003 J/cm(2 and was confirmed by Western blot analysis. NF-kB was activated earlier (1 hour by LLLT compared to conventional lipopolysaccharide treatment. We also observed that LLLT induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production similar to mitochondrial inhibitors, such as antimycin A, rotenone and paraquat. Furthermore, we observed similar NF-kB activation with these mitochondrial inhibitors. These results, together with inhibition of laser induced NF-kB activation by antioxidants, suggests that ROS play an important role in the laser induced NF-kB signaling pathways. However, LLLT, unlike mitochondrial inhibitors, induced increased cellular ATP levels, which indicates that LLLT also upregulates mitochondrial respiration.We conclude that LLLT not only enhances mitochondrial respiration, but also activates the redox-sensitive NFkB signaling via generation of ROS. Expression of anti-apoptosis and pro-survival genes responsive to NFkB could explain many clinical effects of LLLT.

  20. Antitumor Activity of Tenacissoside H on Esophageal Cancer through Arresting Cell Cycle and Regulating PI3K/Akt-NF-κB Transduction Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-sen Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of tenacissoside H (TDH inhibiting esophageal carcinoma infiltration and proliferation. Methods. In vitro, EC9706 cells were treated with TDH. Cells proliferation and cell cycle were assayed. PI3K and NF-κB mRNAs expression were determined by real time PCR. In vivo, model of nude mice with tumor was established. Mice were treated with TDH. Inhibition ratio of tumor volume was calculated. PCNA expression was examined. Protein expression in PI3K/Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway was determined. Results. In vitro, TDH significantly inhibited cells proliferation in a time-and-dose-dependent manner. TDH arrested the cell cycle in S phase and significantly inhibited PI3K and NF-κB mRNA expression, compared with blank controlled group (P<0.05. In vivo, TDH strongly inhibits tumor growth and volume. PCNA expression was significantly decreased after treatment of TDH. TDH downregulated proteins expression in PI3K/Akt-NF-κB transduction cascade (P<0.05. Conclusion. TDH inhibited esophageal carcinoma infiltration and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. The anticancer activity has relation to arresting the cell cycle at the S phase, inhibited the PCNA expression of transplanted tumors in nude mice, and regulated the protein expression in the PI3K/Akt-NF-κB transduction cascade.

  1. Anti-cancer effect of bee venom in prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase pathway via inactivation of NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Hee; Choi, Myoung Suk; Kwak, Dong Hoon; Oh, Ki-Wan; Yoon, Do Young; Han, Sang Bae; Song, Ho Sueb; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2011-06-01

    Bee venom has been used as a traditional medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, back pain, cancerous tumors, and skin diseases. However, the effects of bee venom on the prostate cancer and their action mechanisms have not been reported yet. To determine the effect of bee venom and its major component, melittin on the prostate cancer cells, apoptosis is analyzed by tunnel assay and apoptotic gene expression. For xenograft studies, bee venom was administrated intraperitoneally twice per week for 4 weeks, and the tumor growth was measured and the tumor were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. To investigate whether bee venom and melittin can inactivate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), we assessed NF-κB activity in vitro and in vivo. Bee venom (1-10 µg/ml) and melittin (0.5-2.5 µg/ml) inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptotic cell death in LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. These effects were mediated by the suppression of constitutively activated NF-κB. Bee venom and melittin decreased anti-apoptotic proteins but induced pro-apoptotic proteins. However, pan caspase inhibitor abolished bee venom and melittin-induced apoptotic cell death and NF-κB inactivation. Bee venom (3-6 mg/kg) administration to nude mice implanted with PC-3 cells resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and activity of NF-κB accompanied with apoptotic cell death. Therefore, these results indicated that bee venom and melittin could inhibit prostate cancer in in vitro and in vivo, and these effects may be related to NF-κB/caspase signal mediated induction of apoptotic cell death. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Attenuation of liver pro-inflammatory responses by Zingiber officinale via inhibition of NF-kappa B activation in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; McGrath, Kristine C-Y; Nammi, Srinivas; Heather, Alison K; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment with a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats suppresses Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-driven hepatic inflammation and to subsequently explore the molecular mechanisms in vitro. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) along with a HFD for 6 weeks. Hepatic cytokine mRNA levels, cytokine protein levels and NF-κB activation were measured by real-time PCR, Western blot and an NF-κB nuclear translocation assay, respectively. In vitro, cell culture studies were carried out in human hepatocyte (HuH-7) cells by treatment with Zingiber officinale (100 μg/mL) for 24 hr prior to interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 8 ng/mL)-induced inflammation. We showed that Zingiber officinale treatment decreased cytokine gene TNFα and IL-6 expression in HFD-fed rats, which was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation. In vitro, Zingiber officinale treatment decreased NF-κB-target inflammatory gene expression of IL-6, IL-8 and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), while it suppressed NF-κB activity, IκBα degradation and IκB kinase (IKK) activity. In conclusion, Zingiber officinale suppressed markers of hepatic inflammation in HFD-fed rats, as demonstrated by decreased hepatic cytokine gene expression and decreased NF-κB activation. The study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory effect of Zingiber officinale occurs at least in part through the NF-κB signalling pathway. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  3. Melatonin enhances the anti-tumor effect of fisetin by inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canhui Yi

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a hormone identified in plants and pineal glands of mammals and possesses diverse physiological functions. Fisetin is a bio-flavonoid widely found in plants and exerts antitumor activity in several types of human cancers. However, the combinational effect of melatonin and fisetin on antitumor activity, especially in melanoma treatment, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin could enhance the antitumor activity of fisetin in melanoma cells and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. The combinational treatment of melanoma cells with fisetin and melatonin significantly enhanced the inhibitions of cell viability, cell migration and clone formation, and the induction of apoptosis when compared with the treatment of fisetin alone. Moreover, such enhancement of antitumor effect by melatonin was found to be mediated through the modulation of the multiply signaling pathways in melanoma cells. The combinational treatment of fisetin with melatonin increased the cleavage of PARP proteins, triggered more release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondrial inter-membrane, enhanced the inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS expression, repressed the nuclear localization of p300 and NF-κB proteins, and abrogated the binding of NF-κB on COX-2 promoter. Thus, these results demonstrated that melatonin potentiated the anti-tumor effect of fisetin in melanoma cells by activating cytochrome-c-dependent apoptotic pathway and inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 signaling pathways, and our study suggests the potential of such a combinational treatment of natural products in melanoma therapy.

  4. Melatonin Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Fisetin by Inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenlong; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Jingshu; Qiu, Huijuan; Yu, Wendan; Tang, Ranran; Yuan, Yuhui; Guo, Wei; Deng, Wuguo

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a hormone identified in plants and pineal glands of mammals and possesses diverse physiological functions. Fisetin is a bio-flavonoid widely found in plants and exerts antitumor activity in several types of human cancers. However, the combinational effect of melatonin and fisetin on antitumor activity, especially in melanoma treatment, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin could enhance the antitumor activity of fisetin in melanoma cells and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. The combinational treatment of melanoma cells with fisetin and melatonin significantly enhanced the inhibitions of cell viability, cell migration and clone formation, and the induction of apoptosis when compared with the treatment of fisetin alone. Moreover, such enhancement of antitumor effect by melatonin was found to be mediated through the modulation of the multiply signaling pathways in melanoma cells. The combinational treatment of fisetin with melatonin increased the cleavage of PARP proteins, triggered more release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondrial inter-membrane, enhanced the inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS expression, repressed the nuclear localization of p300 and NF-κB proteins, and abrogated the binding of NF-κB on COX-2 promoter. Thus, these results demonstrated that melatonin potentiated the anti-tumor effect of fisetin in melanoma cells by activating cytochrome-c-dependent apoptotic pathway and inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 signaling pathways, and our study suggests the potential of such a combinational treatment of natural products in melanoma therapy. PMID:25000190

  5. NF-kappaB in Lung Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Zhenjian; Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng; Rom, William N.

    2011-01-01

    The development of lung cancer in humans can be divided into three steps initiation, promotion and progression. This process is driven by alterations in related signal transduction pathways. These pathways signal the aberrant activation of NF-kappaB, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes important for lung tumorigenesis. Our current knowledge about the role of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in the development of lung cancer has been bolstered by animal models demonstrating the connection between K-ras and tobacco induced lung transformation with NF-kappaB. Activation of downstream genes leads to cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis

  6. NF-kappaB in Lung Tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Zhenjian [Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 462 First Avenue, NBV 7N24, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng; Rom, William N., E-mail: william.rom@nyumc.org [Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 462 First Avenue, NBV 7N24, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2011-12-14

    The development of lung cancer in humans can be divided into three steps initiation, promotion and progression. This process is driven by alterations in related signal transduction pathways. These pathways signal the aberrant activation of NF-kappaB, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes important for lung tumorigenesis. Our current knowledge about the role of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in the development of lung cancer has been bolstered by animal models demonstrating the connection between K-ras and tobacco induced lung transformation with NF-kappaB. Activation of downstream genes leads to cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis.

  7. Binimetinib inhibits MEK and is effective against neuroblastoma tumor cells with low NF1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfield, Sarah E.; Zhang, Linna; Scorsone, Kathleen A.; Liu, Yin; Zage, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapies are needed for children with high-risk and relapsed neuroblastoma. We hypothesized that MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibition with the novel MEK1/2 inhibitor binimetinib would be effective in neuroblastoma preclinical models. Levels of total and phosphorylated MEK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were examined in primary neuroblastoma tumor samples and in neuroblastoma cell lines by Western blot. A panel of established neuroblastoma tumor cell lines was treated with increasing concentrations of binimetinib, and their viability was determined using MTT assays. Western blot analyses were performed to examine changes in total and phosphorylated MEK and ERK and to measure apoptosis in neuroblastoma tumor cells after binimetinib treatment. NF1 protein levels in neuroblastoma cell lines were determined using Western blot assays. Gene expression of NF1 and MEK1 was examined in relationship to neuroblastoma patient outcomes. Both primary neuroblastoma tumor samples and cell lines showed detectable levels of total and phosphorylated MEK and ERK. IC 50 values for cells sensitive to binimetinib ranged from 8 nM to 1.16 μM, while resistant cells did not demonstrate any significant reduction in cell viability with doses exceeding 15 μM. Sensitive cells showed higher endogenous expression of phosphorylated MEK and ERK. Gene expression of NF1, but not MEK1, correlated with patient outcomes in neuroblastoma, and NF1 protein expression also correlated with responses to binimetinib. Neuroblastoma tumor cells show a range of sensitivities to the novel MEK inhibitor binimetinib. In response to binimetinib, sensitive cells demonstrated complete loss of phosphorylated ERK, while resistant cells demonstrated either incomplete loss of ERK phosphorylation or minimal effects on MEK phosphorylation, suggesting alternative mechanisms of resistance. NF1 protein expression correlated with responses to binimetinib, supporting the use of NF1 as a biomarker to identify

  8. A role for NF-κB–dependent gene transactivation in sunburn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyama, Kazuhiro; Eng, William; Jester, James V.; Vink, Arie A.; Edelbaum, Dale; Cockerell, Clay J.; Bergstresser, Paul R.; Takashima, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is known to induce NF-κB activation, but the functional role for this pathway in UV-induced cutaneous inflammation remains uncertain. In this study, we examined whether experimentally induced sunburn reactions in mice could be prevented by blocking UV-induced, NF-κB–dependent gene transactivation with oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing the NF-κB cis element (NF-κB decoy ODNs). UV-induced secretion of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and VEGF by skin-derived cell lines was inhibited by the decoy ODNs, but not by the scrambled control ODNs. Systemic or local injection of NF-κB decoy ODNs also inhibited cutaneous swelling responses to UV irradiation. Moreover, local UV-induced inflammatory changes (swelling, leukocyte infiltration, epidermal hyperplasia, and accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines) were all inhibited specifically by topically applied decoy ODNs. Importantly, these ODNs had no effect on alternative types of cutaneous inflammation caused by irritant or allergic chemicals. These results indicate that sunburn reactions culminate from inflammatory events that are triggered by UV-activated transcription of NF-κB target genes, rather than from nonspecific changes associated with tissue damage. PMID:10862790

  9. Fisetin inhibits laryngeal carcinoma through regulation of AKT/NF-κB/mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Jun; Jia, Shen-Shan

    2016-10-01

    Targeting cancer cells is crucial for improving the efficiency of laryngeal cancer treatment. However, the signaling pathway and therapeutic strategy, related to the tumor, still need further research. Dietary flavonoid fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) found in many fruits and vegetables has been shown in preclinical studies to inhibit cancer growth through regulating cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis without causing any toxicity to normal cells. PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 have been known as essential signaling pathways to modulate cell proliferation, apoptosis as well as autophagy via mTOR, Caspase-3 and NF-κB signals. In our study, flow cytometry and western blot assays suggested that apoptosis was induced by fisetin administration, promoting Caspase-3 expressions by regulating PI3K/AKT/NF-κB. Additionally, fisetin suppressed TU212 cells proliferation, which was linked with ERK1/2 inactivation. Further, the activation of PI3K/AKT-regulated mTOR was inhibited by fisetin, leading to transcription suppression and proliferation inhibition of TU212 cells. In vivo studies also showed that the tumor volume and weight of nude mice were reduced for fisetin use with KI-67 decrease and LC3II increase in tumor tissue samples. Together, our data indicated that fisetin had a potential role in controlling human laryngeal cancer through inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and autophagy regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT/NF-κB/mTOR signaling pathways, which might provide a therapeutic strategy for laryngeal cancer inhibition in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. NF-kappaB mediates FGF signal regulation of msx-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushdid, P B; Chen, C L; Brantley, D M; Yull, F; Raghow, R; Kerr, L D; Barnett, J V

    2001-09-01

    The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of transcription factors is involved in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in a stage- and cell-dependent manner. Recent evidence has shown that NF-kappaB activity is necessary for both chicken and mouse limb development. We report here that the NF-kappaB family member c-rel and the homeodomain gene msx-1 have partially overlapping expression patterns in the developing chick limb. In addition, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity resulted in a decrease in msx-1 mRNA expression. Sequence analysis of the msx-1 promoter revealed three potential kappaB-binding sites similar to the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) kappaB-binding site. These sites bound to c-Rel, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Furthermore, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity significantly reduced transactivation of the msx-1 promoter in response to FGF-2/-4, known stimulators of msx-1 expression. These results suggest that NF-kappaB mediates the FGF-2/-4 signal regulation of msx-1 gene expression. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. NF-kappaB and p53 are the dominant apoptosis-inducing transcription factors elicited by the HIV-1 envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfettini, Jean-Luc; Roumier, Thomas; Castedo, Maria; Larochette, Nathanael; Boya, Patricia; Raynal, Brigitte; Lazar, Vladimir; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Nardacci, Roberta; Penninger, Josef; Piacentini, Mauro; Kroemer, Guido

    2004-03-01

    The coculture of cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) with cells expressing CD4 results into cell fusion, deregulated mitosis, and subsequent cell death. Here, we show that NF-kappaB, p53, and AP1 are activated in Env-elicited apoptosis. The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) super repressor had an antimitotic and antiapoptotic effect and prevented the Env-elicited phosphorylation of p53 on serine 15 and 46, as well as the activation of AP1. Transfection with dominant-negative p53 abolished apoptosis and AP1 activation. Signs of NF-kappaB and p53 activation were also detected in lymph node biopsies from HIV-1-infected individuals. Microarrays revealed that most (85%) of the transcriptional effects of HIV-1 Env were blocked by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha. Macroarrays led to the identification of several Env-elicited, p53-dependent proapoptotic transcripts, in particular Puma, a proapoptotic "BH3-only" protein from the Bcl-2 family known to activate Bax/Bak. Down modulation of Puma by antisense oligonucleotides, as well as RNA interference of Bax and Bak, prevented Env-induced apoptosis. HIV-1-infected primary lymphoblasts up-regulated Puma in vitro. Moreover, circulating CD4+ lymphocytes from untreated, HIV-1-infected donors contained enhanced amounts of Puma protein, and these elevated Puma levels dropped upon antiretroviral therapy. Altogether, these data indicate that NF-kappaB and p53 cooperate as the dominant proapoptotic transcription factors participating in HIV-1 infection.

  12. RPAP3 enhances cytotoxicity of doxorubicin by impairing NF-kappa B pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Kana; Saeki, Makio; Egusa, Hiroshi; Fukuyasu, Sho; Yura, Yoshiaki; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Kamisaki, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → RNA polymerase II-associated protein 3 (RPAP3) possesses an activity to bind with NEMO and to inhibit the ubiquitination of NEMO. → RPAP3 enhances doxorubicin-induced cell death in breast cancer cell line T-47D through the marked impairment of NF-κB pathway. → RPAP3 is a novel modulator of NF-κB pathway in apoptosis induced by anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents. -- Abstract: Activation of anti-apoptotic gene transcription by NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) has been reported to be linked with a resistance of cancer cells against chemotherapy. NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) interacts with a number of proteins and modulates the activity of NF-κB pathway. In this study, we revealed that RPAP3 (RNA polymerase II-associated protein 3) possesses an activity to bind with NEMO and to inhibit the ubiquitination of NEMO and that RPAP3 enhances doxorubicin-induced cell death in breast cancer cell line T-47D through the marked impairment of NF-κB pathway. These results indicate that RPAP3 may be a novel modulator of NF-κB pathway in apoptosis induced by anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  13. Commensal-induced regulatory T cells mediate protection against pathogen-stimulated NF-kappaB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin O'Mahony

    Full Text Available Host defence against infection requires a range of innate and adaptive immune responses that may lead to tissue damage. Such immune-mediated pathologies can be controlled with appropriate T regulatory (Treg activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of gut microbiota composition on Treg cellular activity and NF-kappaB activation associated with infection. Mice consumed the commensal microbe Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 followed by infection with Salmonella typhimurium or injection with LPS. In vivo NF-kappaB activation was quantified using biophotonic imaging. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cell phenotypes and cytokine levels were assessed using flow cytometry while CD4+ T cells were isolated using magnetic beads for adoptive transfer to naïve animals. In vivo imaging revealed profound inhibition of infection and LPS induced NF-kappaB activity that preceded a reduction in S. typhimurium numbers and murine sickness behaviour scores in B. infantis-fed mice. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, T cell proliferation, and dendritic cell co-stimulatory molecule expression were significantly reduced. In contrast, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cell numbers were significantly increased in the mucosa and spleen of mice fed B. infantis. Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells transferred the NF-kappaB inhibitory activity. Consumption of a single commensal micro-organism drives the generation and function of Treg cells which control excessive NF-kappaB activation in vivo. These cellular interactions provide the basis for a more complete understanding of the commensal-host-pathogen trilogue that contribute to host homeostatic mechanisms underpinning protection against aberrant activation of the innate immune system in response to a translocating pathogen or systemic LPS.

  14. Rhein inhibits malignant phenotypes of human renal cell carcinoma by impacting on MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma YL

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Li Ma,* Fang Chen,* Jun ShiDepartment of Nephrology, Huaihe Hospital Henan University, Kaifeng, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Rhein, an anthraquinone derivative of rhubarb, is traditionally used in Chinese herbal medicine. Now emerging studies suggest its antitumor properties in many human cancers. The present study aims to investigate the antitumor role of Rhein and its possible mechanism in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC.Materials and methods: Three RCC cell lines (A489, 786-O and ACHN were used as the cell models. We applied CCK-8, cell counting, colony formation, wound healing and Transwell assays to assess the antitumor roles of Rhein in RCC cells in vitro. The therapeutic efficacy of Rhein was further evaluated by intraperitoneal administrations in tumor formation of mice. Western blot was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of action of Rhein.Results: Rhein inhibited RCC cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also suppressed RCC cell migration and invasion in vitro. Moreover, Rhein was able to inhibit tumor growth in nude mice by intraperitoneal administration in vivo. Mechanistically, the protein levels of phosphorylated MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, phosphorylated Akt and two targets of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells pathway, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and CCND1 were all markedly reduced by Rhein treatment.Conclusion: Rhein processed the antitumor effects in RCC cells by inhibiting cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and these tumor-suppressing functions might be mediated by MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways.Keywords: Rhein, renal cell carcinoma, antitumor effects, MAPK, NF-κB

  15. GYF-21, an Epoxide 2-(2-Phenethyl-Chromone Derivative, Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immunity via Inhibiting STAT1/3 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by demyelinating plaques and axonal loss. Inhibition on over activation of innate and adaptive immunity provides a rationale strategy for treatment of multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of GYF-21, an epoxide 2-(2-phenethyl-chromone derivative isolated from Chinese agarwood, on innate and adaptive immunity for revealing its potential to treat multiple sclerosis. The results showed that GYF-21 markedly inhibited the activation of microglia, and dendritic cells as well as neutrophils, all of which play important roles in innate immunity. Furthermore, GYF-21 significantly suppressed adaptive immunity via inhibiting the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into T helper 1 (Th1 and T helper 17 (Th17 cells, and suppressing the activation, proliferation, and IFN-γ secretion of CD8+ T cells. The mechanism study showed that GYF-21 evidently inhibited the activation of STAT1/3 and NF-κB signaling pathways in microglia. In conclusion, we demonstrated that GYF-21 can significantly inhibit innate and adaptive immunity via suppressing STAT1/3 and NF-κB signaling pathways, and has potential to be developed into therapeutic drug for multiple sclerosis.

  16. Purification of a peptide from seahorse, that inhibits TPA-induced MMP, iNOS and COX-2 expression through MAPK and NF-kappaB activation, and induces human osteoblastic and chondrocytic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-03-30

    Ongoing efforts to search for naturally occurring, bioactive substances for the amelioration of arthritis have led to the discovery of natural products with substantial bioactive properties. The seahorse (Hippocampus kuda Bleeler), a telelost fish, is one source of known beneficial products, yet has not been utilized for arthritis research. In the present work, we have purified and characterized a bioactive peptide from seahorse hydrolysis. Among the hydrolysates tested, pronase E-derived hydrolysate exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a phenotype marker of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation. After its separation from the hydrolysate by several purification steps, the peptide responsible for the ALP activity was isolated and its sequence was identified as LEDPFDKDDWDNWK (1821Da). We have shown that the isolated peptide induces differentiation of osteoblastic MG-63 and chondrocytic SW-1353 cells by measuring ALP activity, mineralization and collagen synthesis. Our results indicate that the peptide acts during early to late stages of differentiation in MG-63 and SW-1353 cells. We also assessed the concentration dependence of the peptide's inhibition of MMP (-1, -3 and -13), iNOS and COX-2 expression after treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a common form of phorbol ester. The peptide also inhibited NO production in MG-63 and SW-1353 cells. To elucidate the mechanisms by which the peptide acted, we examined its effects on TPA-induced MAPKs/NF-kappaB activation and determined that the peptide treatment significantly reduced p38 kinase/NF-kappaB in MG-63 cells and MAPKs/NF-kappaB in SW-1353 cells.

  17. Inhibitory effects of curcumin and capsaicin on phorbol ester-induced activation of eukaryotic transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Y J; Han, S S; Keum, Y S; Seo, H J; Lee, S S

    2000-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on identifying dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that can inhibit, retard or reverse the multi-stage carcinogenesis. Spices and herbs contain phenolic substances with potent antioxidative and chemopreventive properties. Curcumin, a yellow colouring agent from turmeric and capsaicin, a pungent principle of red pepper exhibit profound anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities. Two well-defined eukaryotic transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) have been implicated in pathogenesis of many human diseases including cancer. These transcription factors are known to be activated by a wide array of external stimuli, such as tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), tumor necrosis factor, reactive oxygen species, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and ultraviolet. In the present study, we found that topical application of TPA onto dorsal skin of female ICR mice resulted in marked activation of epidermal NF-kappaB and AP-1. Curcumin and capsaicin, when topically applied prior to TPA, significantly attenuated TPA-induced activation of each transcription factor in mouse skin. Likewise, both compounds inhibited NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells stimulated with TPA. Based on these findings, it is likely that curcumin and capsaicin exert anti-tumor promotional effects through suppression of the tumor promoter-induced activation of transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1.

  18. Inhibition of Nuclear Transcription Factor-κB and Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in HepG2 Cells by Cucurbitane-Type Triterpene Glycosides from Momordica charantia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Yen, Pham Hai; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Quang, Tran Hong; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Tai, Bui Huu; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Song, Seok Bean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Momordica charantia: is used to treat various diseases, including inflammatory conditions. Previous reports indicated that the extract of this plant inhibits activation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) but activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). Additionally, cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides are the main bioactive components of the fruit of M. charantia. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 17 cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides (1–17) isolated from this plant. Their inhibition of NF-κB and activation of PPAR activities in HepG2 cells were measured using luciferase reporter and PPAR subtype transactivation assays. Compounds 6 and 8 were found to inhibit NF-κB activation stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in a dose-dependent manner. With 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values of 0.4 μM, compounds 6 and 8 were more potent inhibitors than the positive control, sulfasalazine (IC50=0.9 μM). Compounds 4, 6, and 8 also inhibited TNFα-induced expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA. However, only compound 13 significantly increased PPARγ transactivation. PMID:22248180

  19. Novel Mechanism of Attenuation of LPS-Induced NF-κB Activation by the Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor, 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, in Human Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangjam, Gagan S.; Dimitropoulou, Chistiana; Joshi, Atul D.; Barabutis, Nektarios; Shaw, Mary C.; Kovalenkov, Yevgeniy; Wallace, Chistopher M.; Fulton, David J.; Patel, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein (hsp) 90 inhibition attenuates NF-κB activation and blocks inflammation. However, the precise mechanism of NF-κB regulation by hsp90 in the endothelium is not clear. We investigated the mechanisms of hsp90 inhibition by 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) on NF-κB activation by LPS in primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells. Transcriptional activation of NF-κB was measured by luciferase reporter assay, gene expression by real-time RT-PCR, DNA binding of transcription factors by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, protein–protein interaction by coimmunoprecipitation/immunoblotting, histone deacetylase (HDAC)/histone acetyltransferase enzyme activity by fluorometry, and nucleosome eviction by partial microccocal DNase digestion. In human lung microvascular endothelial cells, 17-AAG–induced degradation of IKBα was accomplished regardless of the phosphorylation/ubiquitination state of the protein. Hence, 17-AAG did not block LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity. Instead, 17-AAG blocked the recruitment of the coactivator, cAMP response element binding protein binding protein, and prevented the assembly of a transcriptionally competent RNA polymerase II complex at the κB elements of the IKBα (an NF-κB–responsive gene) promoter. The effect of LPS on IKBα mRNA expression was associated with rapid deacetylation of histone-H3(Lys9) and a dramatic down-regulation of core histone H3 binding. Even though treatment with an HDAC inhibitor produced the same effect as hsp90 inhibition, the effect of 17-AAG was independent of HDAC. We conclude that hsp90 inhibition attenuates NF-κB transcriptional activation by preventing coactivator recruitment and nucleosome eviction from the target promoter in human lung endothelial cells. PMID:24303801

  20. Bojesodok-eum, a Herbal Prescription, Ameliorates Acute Inflammation in Association with the Inhibition of NF-κB-Mediated Nitric Oxide and ProInflammatory Cytokine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kook Ho Sohn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bojesodok-eum (BSE is a herbal prescription consisting of Coptidis Rhizoma and Scutellariae Radix as main components. This paper investigated the effects of BSE on the induction of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and proinflammatory cytokines that are caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in murine macrophage cell line and on the paw edema formation in animals. Administration of BSE (0.3 g/kg and 1 g/kg in rats significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema formation, as did dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory positive control drug. In cell model, treatment of BSE decreased the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS. BSE also inhibited the expression of iNOS and COX-2 protein as well as COX activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, BSE suppressed the ability of LPS to produce TNF-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6. LPS treatment induced nuclear NF-κB level and I-κBα phosphorylation, which were inhibited subsequent treatment of BSE, suggesting its repression of LPS-inducible NF-κB activation. BSE abrogated the induction of NO, PGE2, and proinflammatory cytokines, as well as iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS as mediated with NF-κB inhibition.

  1. Curcumin effectively inhibits oncogenic NF-kB signaling and restrains stemness features in liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis; Arreguin Camacho, Lucrecia O

    2015-01-01

    -kB inhibition in liver cancer achieved by the IKK inhibitor curcumin, RNAi and specific peptide SN50. The effects on CSCs were assessed by analysis of Side Population (SP), sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Molecular changes were determined by RT-qPCR, global gene expression microarray, EMSA, and Western...... blotting. RESULTS: HCC cell lines exposed to curcumin exhibited differential responses to curcumin and were classified as sensitive and resistant. In sensitive lines, curcumin-mediated induction of cell death was directly related to the extent of NF-kB inhibition. The treatment also led to a selective CSC......-depletion as evidenced by a reduced SP size, decreased sphere formation, down-regulation of CSC markers and suppressed tumorigenicity. Similarly, NF-kB inhibition by SN50 and siRNA against p65 suppressed tumor cell growth. In contrast, curcumin-resistant cells displayed a paradoxical increase in proliferation...

  2. Acrolein, an I-κBα-independent downregulator of NF-κB activity, causes the decrease in nitric oxide production in human malignant keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ki-Young

    2011-05-01

    Acrolein, a reactive electrophilic α, β-unsaturated aldehyde, is known to be an alkylating chemical carcinogen. The effect of acrolein on the activation of NF-κB in human malignant epidermal keratinocytes was examined to elucidate the molecular mechanism associated with this NF-κB-acrolein regulation and its consecutive sequence, nitric oxide (NO) production. Acrolein significantly downregulated the cellular NF-κB activity up to 60% compared with control as well as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in a dose response manner at concentrations of 10~30 μM. To investigate the regulatory mechanism associated with this NF-κB-acrolein downregulation, the relative level of phosphorylation of I-κBα (serines-32 and -36), a principle regulator of NF-κB activation, represented by acrolein, was quantified. Acrolein inhibited NF-κB activity without altering cellular levels of the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of I-κBα, implying that the downregulatory effect of acrolein on cellular NF-κB activity in human skin cells is an I-κBα-independent activation pathway. The results suggests that acrolein causes the decrease in nitric oxide production as an I-κBα-independent downregulator of NF-κB activity in human malignant keratinocytes, and acrolein-induced carcinogenesis may be associated with the modulation of cellular NF-κB activity.

  3. Atrial natriuretic peptide down-regulates LPS/ATP-mediated IL-1β release by inhibiting NF-kB, NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1 activation in THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasoma, Letizia; Antognelli, Cinzia; Talesa, Vincenzo Nicola

    2016-02-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is an hormone/paracrine/autocrine factor regulating cardiovascular homeostasis by guanylyl cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-1). ANP plays an important role also in regulating inflammatory and immune systems by altering macrophages functions and cytokines secretion. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in a wide range of biological responses, including the immunological one. Unlike other cytokines, IL-1β production is rigorously controlled. Primarily, NF-kB activation is required to produce pro-IL-1β; subsequently, NALP3 inflammasome/caspase-1 activation is required to cleave pro-IL-1β into the active secreted protein. NALP3 is a molecular platform capable of sensing a large variety of signals and a major player in innate immune defense. Due to their pleiotropism, IL-1β and NALP3 dysregulation is a common feature of a wide range of diseases. Therefore, identifying molecules regulating IL-1β/NALP3/caspase-1 expression is an important step in the development of new potential therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of ANP on IL-1β/NALP3/caspase-1 expression in LPS/ATP-stimulated human THP1 monocytes. We provided new evidence of the direct involvement of ANP/NPR-1/cGMP axis on NF-kB/NALP3/caspase-1-mediated IL-1β release and NF-kB-mediated pro-IL-1β production. In particular, ANP inhibited both NF-kB and NALP3/caspase-1 activation leading to pro- and mature IL-1β down-regulation. Our data, pointing out a modulatory role of this endogenous peptide on IL-1β release and on NF-kB/NALP3/caspase-1 activation, indicate an important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of ANP via these mechanisms. We suggest a possible employment of ANP for the treatment of inflammatory/immune-related diseases and IL-1β/NALP3-associated disorders, affecting millions of people worldwide.

  4. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation attenuates microglial-induced inflammation by inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway following experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangrong; Wu, Shukai; Chen, Chunnuan; Xie, Baoyuan; Fang, Zhongning; Hu, Weipeng; Chen, Junyan; Fu, Huangde; He, Hefan

    2017-07-24

    Microglial activation and the subsequent inflammatory response in the central nervous system play important roles in secondary damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, an important mediator in late inflammatory responses, interacts with transmembrane receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) to activate downstream signaling pathways, such as the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway, leading to a cascade amplification of inflammatory responses, which are related to neuronal damage after TBI. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) is a commonly used clinical immunonutrient, which has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of ω-3 PUFA on HMGB1 expression and HMGB1-mediated activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway are not clear. The Feeney DM TBI model was adopted to induce brain injury in rats. Modified neurological severity scores, brain water content, and Nissl staining were employed to determine the neuroprotective effects of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Assessment of microglial activation in lesioned sites and protein markers for proinflammatory, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, and HMGB1 were used to evaluate neuroinflammatory responses and anti-inflammation effects of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Immunofluorescent staining and western blot analysis were used to detect HMGB1 nuclear translocation, secretion, and HMGB1-mediated activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway to evaluate the effects of ω-3 PUFA supplementation and gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying the development of the neuroinflammatory response after TBI. It was found that ω-3 PUFA supplementation inhibited TBI-induced microglial activation and expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ), reduced brain edema, decreased neuronal apoptosis, and improved neurological

  5. Psidium guajava extract inhibits thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) production in human keratinocytes by inducing heme oxygenase-1 and blocking NF-κB and STAT1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Hee; Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Jae Ho; Yang, Ji Hye; Seo, Jong Kwon; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-09-01

    Psidium guajava (P. guajava) is a food and medicinal plant with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities that support its traditional uses. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of P. guajava ethyl acetate extract (PGEA) on atopic dermatitis and to investigate the possible mechanisms by which PGEA inhibits cytokine-induced Th2 chemokine expression in HaCaT human keratinocyte cells. We found that PGEA suppressed the IFN-γ/TNF-α-co-induced production of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) protein and mRNA in HaCaT cells. Additionally, PGEA inhibited the TNF-α/IFN-γ-co-induced activation of NF-κB and STAT1 and increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and mRNA. HO-1 inhibitor enhanced the suppressive effects of PGEA on TNF-α/IFN-γ-co-induced TARC production and gene expression. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PGEA inhibits chemokine expression in keratinocytes by inducing HO-1 expression and it suggests a possible therapeutic application in atopic dermatitis and other inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (Vimang) inhibits T cell proliferation and TNF-induced activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Gabino; Blanco-Molina, Magdalena; Sancho, Rocío; Macho, Antonio; Delgado, René; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2005-03-01

    A commercial aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) has been reported to have antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. The molecular basis for these diverse properties is still unknown. This study shows that a stem bark extract of M. indica inhibits early and late events in T cell activation, including CD25 cell surface expression, progression to the S-phase of the cell cycle and proliferation in response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Moreover, the extract prevented TNFalpha-induced IkappaBalpha degradation and the binding of NF-kappaB to the DNA. This study may help to explain at the molecular level some of the biological activities attributed to the aqueous stem bark extract of M. indica (Vimang).

  7. PSMB4 promotes multiple myeloma cell growth by activating NF-κB-miR-21 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Peihao; Guo, Honggang [Department of Hematology, Navy General Hospital, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Guangchao [School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Han, Siqi [Department of Medical Oncology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing 210002 (China); Luo, Fei [Department of Stomatology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing 210002 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: liuyi2033@163.com [Department of Hematology, Navy General Hospital, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2015-03-06

    Proteasomal subunit PSMB4, was recently identified as potential cancer driver genes in several tumors. However, the regulatory mechanism of PSMB4 on carcinogenesis process remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression and roles of PSMB4 in multiple myeloma (MM). We found a significant up-regulation of PSMB4 in MM plasma and cell lines. Ectopic overexpression of PSMB4 promoted cell growth and colony forming ability of MM cells, whereas inhibition of PSMB4 led to a decrease of such events. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the up-regulation of miR-21 and a positive correlation between the levels of miR-21 and PSMB4 in MM. Re-expression of miR-21 markedly rescued PSMB4 knockdown-mediated suppression of cell proliferation and clone-formation. Additionally, while enforced expression of PSMB4 profoundly increased NF-κB activity and the level of miR-21, PSMB4 knockdown or NF-κB inhibition suppressed miR-21 expression in MM cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PSMB4 regulated MM cell growth in part by activating NF-κB-miR-21 signaling, which may represent promising targets for novel specific therapies. - Highlights: • First reported upregulation of PSMB4 in MM plasma and cell lines. • PSMB4 promoted MM cell growth and colony forming ability. • Further found miR-21 was up-regulated by PSMB4 in MM plasma and cell lines. • PSMB4-induced miR-21 expression was modulated by NF-κB. • PSMB4-NF-κB-miR-21 axis may be potential therapeutic targets of MM.

  8. Classical NF-κB Metabolically Reprograms Sarcoma Cells Through Regulation of Hexokinase 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Londhe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic reprogramming has emerged as a cancer hallmark, and one of the well-known cancer-associated metabolic alterations is the increase in the rate of glycolysis. Recent reports have shown that both the classical and alternative signaling pathways of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB play important roles in controlling the metabolic profiles of normal cells and cancer cells. However, how these signaling pathways affect the metabolism of sarcomas, specifically rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS and osteosarcoma (OS, has not been characterized.MethodsClassical NF-κB activity was inhibited through overexpression of the IκBα super repressor of NF-κB in RMS and OS cells. Global gene expression analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array 2.0, and data were interpreted using gene set enrichment analysis. Seahorse Bioscience XFe24 was used to analyze oxygen consumption rate as a measure of aerobic respiration.ResultsInhibition of classical NF-κB activity in sarcoma cell lines restored alternative signaling as well as an increased oxidative respiratory metabolic phenotype in vitro. In addition, microarray analysis indicated that inhibition of NF-κB in sarcoma cells reduced glycolysis. We showed that a glycolytic gene, hexokinase (HK 2, is a direct NF-κB transcriptional target. Knockdown of HK2 shifted the metabolic profile in sarcoma cells away from aerobic glycolysis, and re-expression of HK2 rescued the metabolic shift induced by inhibition of NF-κB activity in OS cells.ConclusionThese findings suggest that classical signaling of NF-κB plays a crucial role in the metabolic profile of pediatric sarcomas potentially through the regulation of HK2.

  9. Synergistic activation of the CMV promoter by NF-κB P50 and PKG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Bin; Weber, Georg F.

    2004-01-01

    Several DNA binding NF-κB subunits are substrates for cGMP-dependent kinase (PKG) and their transactivation from cognate sites is induced by phosphorylation. This includes p50, which does not have a transcriptional activation domain and therefore needs to bind to other proteins to mediate gene expression. Here, we describe the synergistic transactivation by p50 and PKG from the CMV promoter. This is caused not only by phosphorylation of p50, leading to increased DNA binding, but also by PKG-dependent activation of CRE sites in the promoter. One of the CRE sites is located directly adjacent to a NF-κB site and is essential for p50-mediated induction of transcription. According to the binding of CREB to p50 in pull-down assays and according to the inhibition of p50-dependent transactivation by dominant-negative CREB, this reflects the formation of a transcription factor complex containing CREB and p50. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB is insufficient to distinguish among the multitude of promoters that harbor cognate recognition sites. The phosphorylation of multiple transcription factors by an upstream kinase, such as PKG, can lead to the formation of transcription factor complexes and differential transactivation from a subset of NF-κB sites. These interactions may be relevant for the activation of viral gene expression

  10. Exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells activate NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Hui; Yuan, Xiao; Sun, Yaoxiang; Pan, Zhaoji; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2016-09-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles secreted by both normal and cancer cells. Emerging evidence indicates that cancer cells derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression through the modulation of tumor microenvironment. However, the effects of exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells on macrophages are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the biological role of gastric cancer cells derived exosomes in the activation of macrophages. We demonstrated that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes activated macrophages to express increased levels of proinflammatory factors, which in turn promoted tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, gastric cancer cells derived exosomes remarkably upregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB in macrophages. Inhibiting the activation of NF-κB reversed the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in macrophages and blocked their promoting effects on gastric cancer cells. Moreover, we found that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes could also activate macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes through the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, our results suggest that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes stimulate the activation of NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression, which provides a potential therapeutic approach for gastric cancer by interfering with the interaction between exosomes and macrophages in tumor microenvironment.

  11. Lasiodin inhibits proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by simultaneous modulation of the Apaf-1/caspase, AKT/MAPK and COX-2/NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianzhu Lin

    Full Text Available Rabdosia serra has been widely used for the treatment of the various human diseases. However, the antiproliferative effects and underlying mechanisms of the compounds in this herb remain largely unknown. In this study, an antiproliferative compound against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cells from Rabdosia serra was purified and identified as lasiodin (a diterpenoid. The treatment with lasiodin inhibited cell viability and migration. Lasiodin also mediated the cell morphology change and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. The treatment with lasiodin induced the Apaf-1 expression, triggered the cytochrome-C release, and stimulated the PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9 cleavages, thereby activating the apoptotic pathways. The treatment with lasiodin also significantly inhibited the phosphorylations of the AKT, ERK1/2, p38 and JNK proteins. The pretreatment with the AKT or MAPK-selective inhibitors considerably blocked the lasiodin-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, the treatment with lasiodin inhibited the COX-2 expression, abrogated NF-κB binding to the COX-2 promoter, and promoted the NF-κB translocation from cell nuclei to cytosol. The pretreatment with a COX-2-selective inhibitor abrogated the lasiodin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. These results indicated that lasiodin simultaneously activated the Apaf-1/caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways and suppressed the AKT/MAPK and COX-2/NF-κB signaling pathways. This study also suggested that lasiodin could be a promising natural compound for the prevention and treatment of NPC.

  12. Proteasome and NF-κB Inhibiting Phaeophytins from the Green Alga Cladophora fascicularis

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    Wenhan Lin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical examination of the green alga Cladophora fascicularis resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new porphyrin derivative, porphyrinolactone (1, along with five known phaeophytins 2-6 and fourteen sterols and cycloartanes. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and by comparison of its NMR data with those of known phaeophytins. Compounds 1-6 displayed moderate inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation, while 2 and 4 displayed potential inhibitory activity toward proteasome chymotripsin-like activation. The primary structure-activity relationship was also discussed.

  13. Anti-influenza A virus activity of rhein through regulating oxidative stress, TLR4, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signal pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Wen Wang

    Full Text Available Rhein, an anthraquinone compound existing in many traditional herbal medicines, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities, but its anti-influenza A virus (IAV activity is ambiguous. In the present study, through plaque inhibition assay, time-of-addition assay, antioxidant assay, qRT-PCR, ELISA, and western blotting assays, we investigated the anti-IAV effect and mechanism of action of rhein in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that rhein could significantly inhibit IAV adsorption and replication, decrease IAV-induced oxidative stress, activations of TLR4, Akt, p38, JNK MAPK, and NF-κB pathways, and production of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in vitro. Oxidant H2O2 and agonists of TLR4, Akt, p38/JNK and IKK/NF-κB could significantly antagonize the inhibitory effects of rhein on IAV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE and IAV replication. Through an in vivo test in mice, we also found that rhein could significantly improve the survival rate, lung index, pulmonary cytokines, and pulmonary histopathological changes. Rhein also significantly decreased pulmonary viral load at a high dose. In conclusion, rhein can inhibit IAV adsorption and replication, and the mechanism of action to inhibit IAV replication may be due to its ability to suppress IAV-induced oxidative stress and activations of TLR4, Akt, p38, JNK MAPK, and NF-κB signal pathways.

  14. Emodin Protects Against Concanavalin A-Induced Hepatitis in Mice Through Inhibiting Activation of the p38 MAPK-NF-κB Signaling Pathway

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    Jihua Xue

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the effects of emodin on concanavalin A (Con A-induced hepatitis in mice and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: A fulminant hepatitis model was established successfully by the intravenous administration of Con A (20 mg/kg to male Balb/c mice. Emodin was administered to the mice by gavage before and after Con A injection. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, numbers of CD4+ and F4/80+ cells infiltrated into the liver, and amounts of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and NF-γB in mouse livers and RAW264.7 and EL4 cells were measured. Results: Pretreatment with emodin significantly protected the animals from T cell-mediated hepatitis, as shown by the decreased elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, as well as reduced hepatic necrosis. In addition, emodin pretreatment markedly reduced the intrahepatic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a, interferon (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, integrin alpha M (ITGAM, chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2 and chemokine (CXC motif receptor 2 (CXCR2. Furthermore, emodin pretreatment dramatically suppressed the numbers of CD4+ and F4/80+ cells infiltrating into the liver as well as the activation of p38 MAPK and NF-γB in Con A-treated mouse livers and RAW264.7 and EL4 cells. Conclusion: The results indicate that emodin pretreatment protects against Con A-induced liver injury in mice; these beneficial effects may occur partially through inhibition of both the infiltration of CD4+ and F4/80+ cells and the activation of the p38 MAPK-NF-γB pathway in CD4+ T cells and macrophages.

  15. The MC160 Protein Expressed by the Dermatotropic Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Prevents Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced NF-κB Activation via Inhibition of I Kappa Kinase Complex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Daniel Brian; Shisler, Joanna L.

    2006-01-01

    The pluripotent cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) binds to its cognate TNF receptor I (TNF-RI) to stimulate inflammation via activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. To prevent the detrimental effects of TNF-α in keratinocytes infected with the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV), this poxvirus is expected to produce proteins that block at least one step of the TNF-RI signal transduction pathway. One such product, the MC160 protein, is predicted to interfere with this cellular response because of its homology to other proteins that regulate TNF-RI-mediated signaling. We report here that expression of MC160 molecules did significantly reduce TNF-α-mediated NF-κB activation in 293T cells, as measured by gene reporter and gel mobility shift assays. Since we observed that MC160 decreased other NF-κB activation pathways, namely those activated by receptor-interacting protein, TNF receptor-associated factor 2, NF-κB-inducing kinase, or MyD88, we hypothesized that the MC160 product interfered with I kappa kinase (IKK) activation, an event common to multiple signal transduction pathways. Indeed, MC160 protein expression was associated with a reduction in in vitro IKK kinase activity and IKK subunit phosphorylation. Further, IKK1-IKK2 interactions were not detected in MC160-expressing cells, under conditions demonstrated to induce IKK complex formation, but interactions between the MC160 protein and the major IKK subunits were undetectable. Surprisingly, MC160 expression correlated with a decrease in IKK1, but not IKK2 levels, suggesting a mechanism for MC160 disruption of IKK1-IKK2 interactions. MCV has probably retained its MC160 gene to inhibit NF-κB activation by interfering with signaling via multiple biological mediators. In the context of an MCV infection in vivo, MC160 protein expression may dampen the cellular production of proinflammatory molecules and enhance persistent infections in host keratinocytes. PMID:16378960

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of edible oyster mushroom is mediated through the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon James

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms are well recognized for their culinary properties as well as for their potency to enhance immune response. In the present study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory properties of an edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus in vitro and in vivo. Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line and murine splenocytes were incubated with the oyster mushroom concentrate (OMC, 0-100 μg/ml in the absence or presence of lipopolysacharide (LPS or concanavalin A (ConA, respectively. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. Expression of cytokines and proteins was measured by ELISA assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. DNA-binding activity was assayed by the gel-shift analysis. Inflammation in mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Results OMC suppressed LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and IL-12p40 from RAW264.7 macrophages. OMC inhibited LPS-induced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO through the down-regulation of expression of COX-2 and iNOS, respectively. OMC also inhibited LPS-dependent DNA-binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Oral administration of OMC markedly suppressed secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice challenged with LPS in vivo. Anti-inflammatory activity of OMC was confirmed by the inhibition of proliferation and secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-6 from concanavalin A (ConA-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Conclusions Our study suggests that oyster mushroom possesses anti-inflammatory activities and could be considered a dietary agent against inflammation. The health benefits of the oyster mushroom warrant further clinical studies.

  17. Central inhibition of IKKβ/NF-κB signaling attenuates high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzler, Jonas; Ganjam, Goutham K; Pretz, Dominik; Oelkrug, Rebecca; Koch, Christiane E; Legler, Karen; Stöhr, Sigrid; Culmsee, Carsten; Williams, Lynda M; Tups, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Metabolic inflammation in the central nervous system might be causative for the development of overnutrition-induced metabolic syndrome and related disorders, such as obesity, leptin and insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigated whether nutritive and genetic inhibition of the central IκB kinase β (IKKβ)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in diet-induced obese (DIO) and leptin-deficient mice improves these metabolic impairments. A known prominent inhibitor of IKKβ/NF-κB signaling is the dietary flavonoid butein. We initially determined that oral, intraperitoneal, and intracerebroventricular administration of this flavonoid improved glucose tolerance and hypothalamic insulin signaling. The dose-dependent glucose-lowering capacity was profound regardless of whether obesity was caused by leptin deficiency or high-fat diet (HFD). To confirm the apparent central role of IKKβ/NF-κB signaling in the control of glucose and energy homeostasis, we genetically inhibited this pathway in neurons of the arcuate nucleus, one key center for control of energy homeostasis, via specific adeno-associated virus serotype 2-mediated overexpression of IκBα, which inhibits NF-κB nuclear translocation. This treatment attenuated HFD-induced body weight gain, body fat mass accumulation, increased energy expenditure, and reduced arcuate suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression, indicative for enhanced leptin signaling. These results reinforce a specific role of central proinflammatory IKKβ/NF-κB signaling in the development and potential treatment of DIO-induced comorbidities. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide attenuates trauma-/haemorrhagic shock-induced acute lung injury through inhibiting oxidative stress and the NF-κB-dependent inflammatory/MMP-9 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhi; Zhao, Xiu; Liu, Martin; Jin, Hongxu; Wang, Ling; Hou, Mingxiao; Gao, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most serious complications in traumatic patients and is an important part of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) is a peptide with a wide range of biological activity. In this study, we investigated local changes in oxidative stress and the NF-κB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) pathway in rats with trauma/haemorrhagic shock (TH/S)-induced ALI and evaluated the effects of pretreatment with rhBNP. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation group, model group, low-dosage rhBNP group and high-dosage rhBNP group (n = 12 for each group). Oxidative stress and MPO activity were measured by ELISA kits. MMP-9 activity was detected by zymography analysis. NF-κB activity was determined using Western blot assay. With rhBNP pretreatment, TH/S-induced protein leakage, increased MPO activity, lipid peroxidation and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity were inhibited. Activation of antioxidative enzymes was reversed. The phosphorylation of NF-κB and the degradation of its inhibitor IκB were suppressed. The results suggested that the protection mechanism of rhBNP is possibly mediated through upregulation of anti-oxidative enzymes and inhibition of NF-κB activation. More studies are needed to further evaluate whether rhBNP is a suitable candidate as an effective inhaling drug to reduce the incidence of TH/S-induced ALI. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  19. Agmatine protects against zymosan-induced acute lung injury in mice by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanfei; Liu, Zheng; Jin, He; Fan, Xia; Yang, Xue; Tang, Wanqi; Yan, Jun; Liang, Huaping

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine, is an endogenous neuromodulator that plays protective roles in diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, agmatine has been reported to have beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and gastric disorder. In this study, we tested the effect of agmatine on the lung inflammation induced by Zymosan (ZYM) challenge in mice. We found that agmatine treatment relieved ZYM-induced acute lung injury, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, wet/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue. This was accompanied by reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased iNOS expression in lung. Furthermore, agmatine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB induced by Zymosan. Taken together, our results showed that agmatine treatment inhibited NF-κB signaling in lungs and protected mice against ALI induced by Zymosan, suggesting agmatine may be a potential safe and effective approach for the treatment of ALI.

  20. Light induces translocation of NF-κB p65 to the mitochondria and suppresses expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III) in the rat retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Hiroshi, E-mail: htomita@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Soft-Path Engineering Research Center (SPERC), Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Clinical Research, Innovation and Education Center, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8574 (Japan); Tabata, Kitako, E-mail: ktabata@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Takahashi, Maki, E-mail: mqdelta@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Nishiyama, Fumiaki, E-mail: t2114018@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Sugano, Eriko, E-mail: sseriko@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Soft-Path Engineering Research Center (SPERC), Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) plays various roles in cell survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. In the rat retina, NF-κB activity increases after exposure to damaging light, resulting in degeneration of photoreceptors. Here, we report that in dark-adapted rats exposed for 6 h to bright white light, the p65 subunit of retinal NF-κB translocates to the mitochondria, an event associated with a decrease in expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III). However, sustained exposure for 12 h depleted p65 from the mitochondria, and enhanced COX III expression. Treatment with the protective antioxidant PBN prior to light exposure prevents p65 depletion in the mitochondria and COX III upregulation during prolonged exposure, and apoptosis in photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that COX III expression is sensitive to the abundance of NF-κB p65 in the mitochondria, which, in turn, is affected by exposure to damaging light. - Highlights: • Damaging light exposure of the retina induces NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation. • NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation is associated with the decrease of COX III expression. • Prolonged light exposure depletes mitochondrial p65 resulting in the increase in COX III expression. • NF-κB p65 and COX III expression play an important role in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration.

  1. Light induces translocation of NF-κB p65 to the mitochondria and suppresses expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III) in the rat retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroshi; Tabata, Kitako; Takahashi, Maki; Nishiyama, Fumiaki; Sugano, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) plays various roles in cell survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. In the rat retina, NF-κB activity increases after exposure to damaging light, resulting in degeneration of photoreceptors. Here, we report that in dark-adapted rats exposed for 6 h to bright white light, the p65 subunit of retinal NF-κB translocates to the mitochondria, an event associated with a decrease in expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III). However, sustained exposure for 12 h depleted p65 from the mitochondria, and enhanced COX III expression. Treatment with the protective antioxidant PBN prior to light exposure prevents p65 depletion in the mitochondria and COX III upregulation during prolonged exposure, and apoptosis in photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that COX III expression is sensitive to the abundance of NF-κB p65 in the mitochondria, which, in turn, is affected by exposure to damaging light. - Highlights: • Damaging light exposure of the retina induces NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation. • NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation is associated with the decrease of COX III expression. • Prolonged light exposure depletes mitochondrial p65 resulting in the increase in COX III expression. • NF-κB p65 and COX III expression play an important role in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration.

  2. The Fruits of Wampee Inhibit H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells via the NF-κB Pathway and Regulation of Cellular Redox Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Zeng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wampee (Clausena lansium fruits (CLS, whose pulp can be used to prepare fruit cups, desserts, jam, or jelly, can be eaten along with the peel. In this study, a PC12 cell model was built to observe the protective effect of CLS against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. We found that pretreatment with CLS increased cell viability and inhibited cytotoxicity, caspase-3 activity and DNA condensation. CLS also attenuated the increase in ROS production and MMP reduction. Moreover, we attempted to determine whether CLS suppressed the expression and phosphorylation of NF-κB. Western blot and immunostaining assay revealed that CLS inhibited H2O2-induced up-regulation of NF-κB p65 and pNF-κB p65. And CLS significantly suppressed the translocation of NF-κB p65 and pNF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nuclear. Also, seven major compounds including a new flavanoid, luteolin-4'-O-β-d-gluco-pyranoside (3 and six known compounds 1,2, 4–7 were isolated and identified from CLS. Their antioxidative and H2O2-induced PC12 cell apoptosis-reversing activity were determined. These findings suggest that CLS and its major constituents (flavanoids may be potential antioxidant agents and should encourage further research into their use as a functional food for neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin Isolated from Geopropolis Attenuates Inflammatory Process by Inhibiting Cytokine Production: Involvement of MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, Marcelo; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Silva, Rangel Leal; Colón, David F; Bassi, Gabriel Shimizu; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Alves-Filho, José C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Beutler, John A; Cunha, Thiago Mattar

    2016-07-22

    Chemical compounds belonging to the class of coumarins have promising anti-inflammatory potential. Cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin (CNM) is a 4-phenylcoumarin that can be isolated from Brazilian geopropolis. To our knowledge, its anti-inflammatory activity has never been studied. Therefore, the present study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of CNM and elucidated its mechanism of action on isolated macrophages. Pretreatment with CNM reduced neutrophil migration into the peritoneal and joint cavity of mice. Likewise, CNM reduced the in vitro and in vivo release of TNF-α and CXCL2/MIP-2. Regarding the possible molecular mechanism of action, CNM reduced the phosphorylation of proteins ERK 1/2, JNK, p38 MAPK, and AP-1 (subunit c-jun) in PG-stimulated macrophages. Pretreatment with CNM also reduced NF-κB activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages stably expressing the NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene. On the other hand, it did not alter IκBα degradation or nuclear translocation of p65. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate promising anti-inflammatory activity of CNM and provide an explanation of its mechanism of action in macrophages via inhibition of MAPK signaling, AP-1, and NF-κB.

  4. Oridonin stabilizes retinoic acid receptor alpha through ROS-activated NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Qing; Xu, Wen-Bin; Yu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Ying-Li; Yan, Hua

    2015-04-10

    Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) plays an essential role in the regulation of many biological processes, such as hematopoietic cell differentiation, while abnormal RARα function contributes to the pathogenesis of certain diseases including cancers, especially acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Recently, oridonin, a natural diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, was demonstrated to regulate RARα by increasing its protein level. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for this action has not been fully elucidated. In the APL cell line, NB4, the effect of oridonin on RARα protein was analyzed by western blot and real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Flow cytometry was performed to detect intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The association between nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and the effect of oridonin was assessed using specific inhibitors, shRNA gene knockdown, and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, primary leukemia cells were treated with oridonin and analyzed by western blot in this study. RARα possesses transcriptional activity in the presence of its ligand, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Oridonin remarkably stabilized the RARα protein, which retained transcriptional activity. Oridonin also moderately increased intracellular ROS levels, while pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), dramatically abrogated RARα stabilization by oridonin. More intriguingly, direct exposure to low concentrations of H2O2 also increased RARα protein but not mRNA levels, suggesting a role for ROS in oridonin stabilization of RARα protein. Further investigations showed that NAC antagonized oridonin-induced activation of NF-κB signaling, while the NF-κB signaling inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, effectively blocked the oridonin increase in RARα protein levels. In line with this, over-expression of IκΒα (A32/36), a super-repressor form of IκΒα, or NF-κB-p65 knockdown inhibited oridonin or H2O2-induced

  5. Rosmarinic acid counteracts activation of hepatic stellate cells via inhibiting the ROS-dependent MMP-2 activity: Involvement of Nrf2 antioxidant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Changfang; Zou, Yu; Liu, Yuzhang; Niu, Yingcai, E-mail: nyc1968@126.com

    2017-03-01

    Recently, oxidative stress is involved in hepatofibrogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is required for activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that the inhibitory effect of rosmarinic acid (RA) on HSCs activation might mainly result from its antioxidant capability by increasing the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) involved in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent inhibition of MMP-2 activity. Here, we demonstrate that RA reverses activated HSCs to quiescent cells. Concomitantly, RA inhibits MMP-2 activity. RNA interference-imposed knockdown of NF-κB abolished down-regulation of MMP-2 by RA. RA-mediated inactivation of NF-κB could be blocked by the diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI; a ROS inhibitor). Conversely, transfection of dominant-negative (DN) mutant of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 2 (ERK2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), or p38α kinase had no such effect. Simultaneously, RA suppresses ROS generation and lipid peroxidation (LPO) whereas increases cellular GSH in HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, RA significantly increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated luciferase activity, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and catalytic subunits from glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc) expression, but not modulatory subunits from GCL (GCLm). RA-mediated up-regulation of GClc is inhibited by the shRNA-induced Nrf2 knockdown. The knocking down of Nrf2 or buthionine sulfoximine (a GCL inhibitor) abolished RA-mediated inhibition of ROS. Collectively, these results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of RA as an antifibrogenic candidate in the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • RA reverses activated HSCs to quiescent cells. • RA suppresses MMP-2 activity through a NF-κB-dependent pathway. • Inhibition of oxidative stress by RA is dependent on nuclear translocation of Nrf2

  6. Rosmarinic acid counteracts activation of hepatic stellate cells via inhibiting the ROS-dependent MMP-2 activity: Involvement of Nrf2 antioxidant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Changfang; Zou, Yu; Liu, Yuzhang; Niu, Yingcai

    2017-01-01

    Recently, oxidative stress is involved in hepatofibrogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is required for activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that the inhibitory effect of rosmarinic acid (RA) on HSCs activation might mainly result from its antioxidant capability by increasing the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) involved in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent inhibition of MMP-2 activity. Here, we demonstrate that RA reverses activated HSCs to quiescent cells. Concomitantly, RA inhibits MMP-2 activity. RNA interference-imposed knockdown of NF-κB abolished down-regulation of MMP-2 by RA. RA-mediated inactivation of NF-κB could be blocked by the diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI; a ROS inhibitor). Conversely, transfection of dominant-negative (DN) mutant of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 2 (ERK2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), or p38α kinase had no such effect. Simultaneously, RA suppresses ROS generation and lipid peroxidation (LPO) whereas increases cellular GSH in HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, RA significantly increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated luciferase activity, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and catalytic subunits from glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc) expression, but not modulatory subunits from GCL (GCLm). RA-mediated up-regulation of GClc is inhibited by the shRNA-induced Nrf2 knockdown. The knocking down of Nrf2 or buthionine sulfoximine (a GCL inhibitor) abolished RA-mediated inhibition of ROS. Collectively, these results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of RA as an antifibrogenic candidate in the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • RA reverses activated HSCs to quiescent cells. • RA suppresses MMP-2 activity through a NF-κB-dependent pathway. • Inhibition of oxidative stress by RA is dependent on nuclear translocation of Nrf2

  7. Bmi-1 promotes the aggressiveness of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Lili; Wu, Jueheng; Yang, Yi; Liu, Liping; Song, Libing; Li, Jun; Li, Mengfeng

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of human glioma is poor, and the highly invasive nature of the disease represents a major impediment to current therapeutic modalities. The oncoprotein B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 protein (Bmi-1) has been linked to the development and progression of glioma; however, the biological role of Bmi-1 in the invasion of glioma remains unclear. A172 and LN229 glioma cells were engineered to overexpress Bmi-1 via stable transfection or to be silenced for Bmi-1 expression using RNA interfering method. Migration and invasiveness of the engineered cells were assessed using wound healing assay, Transwell migration assay, Transwell matrix penetration assay and 3-D spheroid invasion assay. MMP-9 expression and activity were measured using real-time PCR, ELISA and the gelatin zymography methods. Expression of NF-kappaB target genes was quantified using real-time PCR. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity was assessed using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system. Expression of Bmi-1 and MMP-9 in clinical specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical assay. Ectopic overexpression of Bmi-1 dramatically increased, whereas knockdown of endogenous Bmi-1 reduced, the invasiveness and migration of glioma cells. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and MMP-9 expression and activity were significantly increased in Bmi-1-overexpressing but reduced in Bmi-1-silenced cells. The reporter luciferase activity driven by MMP-9 promoter in Bmi-1-overexpressing cells was dependent on the presence of a functional NF-kappaB binding site, and blockade of NF-kappaB signaling inhibited the upregulation of MMP-9 in Bmi-1 overexpressing cells. Furthermore, expression of Bmi-1 correlated with NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as well as MMP-9 expression in clinical glioma samples. Bmi-1 may play an important role in the development of aggressive phenotype of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 pathway and therefore might represent a novel therapeutic

  8. Bmi-1 promotes the aggressiveness of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis of human glioma is poor, and the highly invasive nature of the disease represents a major impediment to current therapeutic modalities. The oncoprotein B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 protein (Bmi-1 has been linked to the development and progression of glioma; however, the biological role of Bmi-1 in the invasion of glioma remains unclear. Methods A172 and LN229 glioma cells were engineered to overexpress Bmi-1 via stable transfection or to be silenced for Bmi-1 expression using RNA interfering method. Migration and invasiveness of the engineered cells were assessed using wound healing assay, Transwell migration assay, Transwell matrix penetration assay and 3-D spheroid invasion assay. MMP-9 expression and activity were measured using real-time PCR, ELISA and the gelatin zymography methods. Expression of NF-kappaB target genes was quantified using real-time PCR. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity was assessed using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system. Expression of Bmi-1 and MMP-9 in clinical specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical assay. Results Ectopic overexpression of Bmi-1 dramatically increased, whereas knockdown of endogenous Bmi-1 reduced, the invasiveness and migration of glioma cells. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and MMP-9 expression and activity were significantly increased in Bmi-1-overexpressing but reduced in Bmi-1-silenced cells. The reporter luciferase activity driven by MMP-9 promoter in Bmi-1-overexpressing cells was dependent on the presence of a functional NF-kappaB binding site, and blockade of NF-kappaB signaling inhibited the upregulation of MMP-9 in Bmi-1 overexpressing cells. Furthermore, expression of Bmi-1 correlated with NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as well as MMP-9 expression in clinical glioma samples. Conclusions Bmi-1 may play an important role in the development of aggressive phenotype of glioma via activating the NF

  9. Prolyl hydroxylase-1 regulates hepatocyte apoptosis in an NF-κB-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, Susan F.; Fábián, Zsolt; Schaible, Bettina; Lenihan, Colin R.; Schwarzl, Thomas [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Rodriguez, Javier [Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Zheng, Xingnan; Li, Zongwei [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tambuwala, Murtaza M. [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Higgins, Desmond G.; O' Meara, Yvonne [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Slattery, Craig [School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Manresa, Mario C. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Fraisl, Peter; Bruning, Ulrike [Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 (Belgium); Baes, Myriam [Laboratory for Cell Metabolism, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven (Belgium); Carmeliet, Peter; Doherty, Glen [Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 (Belgium); Kriegsheim, Alex von [Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cummins, Eoin P. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); and others

    2016-06-03

    Hepatocyte death is an important contributing factor in a number of diseases of the liver. PHD1 confers hypoxic sensitivity upon transcription factors including the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Reduced PHD1 activity is linked to decreased apoptosis. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism(s) in hepatocytes. Basal NF-κB activity was elevated in PHD1{sup −/−} hepatocytes compared to wild type controls. ChIP-seq analysis confirmed enhanced binding of NF-κB to chromatin in regions proximal to the promoters of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Inhibition of NF-κB (but not knock-out of HIF-1 or HIF-2) reversed the anti-apoptotic effects of pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibition. We hypothesize that PHD1 inhibition leads to altered expression of NF-κB-dependent genes resulting in reduced apoptosis. This study provides new information relating to the possible mechanism of therapeutic action of hydroxylase inhibitors that has been reported in pre-clinical models of intestinal and hepatic disease. -- Highlights: •Genetic ablation of PHD1 upregulates NF-kappaB (NF-κB) in hepatocytes. •Activation of NF-κB leads to differential DNA-binding of p50/p65 and results in differential regulation of apoptotic genes. •We identified proline 191 in the beta subunit of the I-kappaB kinase as a target for PHD1-mediated hydroxylation. •Blockade of prolyl-4-hydroxylases has been found cytoprotective in liver cells.

  10. A natural xanthone increases catalase activity but decreases NF-kappa B and lipid peroxidation in U-937 and HepG2 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Binay K; Zaidi, Adeel H; Gupta, Pankaj; Mokhamatam, Raveendra B; Raviprakash, Nune; Mahali, Sidhartha K; Manna, Sunil K

    2015-10-05

    Mangiferin, a C-glycosyl xanthone, has shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic activities. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism for the antioxidant property of mangiferin. Considering the role of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) in inflammation and tumorigenesis, we hypothesized that modulating its activity will be a viable therapeutic target in regulating the redox-sensitive ailments. Our results show that mangiferin blocks several inducers, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lypopolysaccharide (LPS), phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) mediated NF-κB activation via inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation. In silico docking studies predicted strong binding energy of mangiferin to the active site of catalase (-9.13 kcal/mol), but not with other oxidases such as myeloperoxidase, glutathione peroxidase, or inducible nitric oxide synthase. Mangiferin increased activity of catalase by 44%, but had no effect on myeloperoxidase activity in vitro. Fluorescence spectroscopy further revealed the binding of mangiferin to catalase at the single site with binding constant and binding affinity of 3.1×10(-7) M(-1) and 1.046 respectively. Mangiferin also inhibits TNF-induced lipid peroxidation and thereby protects apoptosis. Hence, mangiferin with its ability to inhibit NF-κB and increase the catalase activity may prove to be a potent therapeutic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A new synthetic chalcone derivative, 2-hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimethoxychalcone (DK-139), suppresses the Toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory response through inhibition of the Akt/NF-κB pathway in BV2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Jeon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Se Hyun; Kim, Changyoun; Lee, Seung-Jae; Koh, Dongsoo; Lim, Yoongho; Ha, Kyooseob; Shin, Soon Young

    2012-06-30

    Microglial cells are the resident innate immune cells that sense pathogens and tissue injury in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglial activation is critical for neuroinflammatory responses. The synthetic compound 2-hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimethoxychalcone (DK-139) is a novel chalcone-derived compound. In this study, we investigated the effects of DK-139 on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory responses in BV2 microglial cells. DK-139 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 activity, as determined using a cell-based assay. DK-139 blocked LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκB and p65/RelA NF-κB, resulting in inhibition of the nuclear translocation and trans-acting activity of NF-κB in BV2 microglial cells. We also found that DK-139 reduced the expression of NF-κB target genes, such as those for COX-2, iNOS, and IL-1β, in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Interestingly, DK-139 blocked LPS-induced Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of Akt abrogated LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65/RelA, while overexpression of dominant- active p110CAAX enhanced p65/RelA phosphorylation as well as iNOS and COX2 expression. These results suggest that DK-139 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on microglial cells by inhibiting the Akt/IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  12. PDK1 in NF-κB signaling is a target of Xanthium strumarium methanolic extract-mediated anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Muhammad Jahangir; Cho, Jae Youl; Kim, Daewon

    2016-08-22

    Xanthium strumarium L. (Asteraceae) has traditionally been used to treat bacterial infections, nasal sinusitis, urticaria, arthritis, chronic bronchitis and rhinitis, allergic rhinitis, edema, lumbago, and other ailments. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this plant exerts its anti-inflammatory effects are poorly characterized. Here we studied the immunopharmacological activities of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of this plant (Xs-ME) and validated its pharmacological targets. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Xs-ME, we employed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages and an HCl/EtOH-induced mouse model of gastritis. We also used HPLC to identify the potentially active anti-inflammatory components of this extract. The molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory activity were studied by kinase assays, reporter gene assays, immunoprecipitation analysis, and overexpression of target enzymes. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were both suppressed by Xs-ME. Moreover, orally administered Xs-ME ameliorated HCl/EtOH-induced gastric lesions. Furthermore, this extract downregulated the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and reduced the nuclear levels of NF-κB. Signaling events upstream of NF-κB translocation, such as phosphorylation of AKT and the formation of PDK1-AKT signaling complexes, were also inhibited by Xs-ME. Moreover, Xs-ME suppressed the enzymatic activity of PDK1. Additionally, PDK1-induced luciferase activity and Akt phosphorylation were both inhibited by Xs-ME. We also identified the polyphenol resveratrol as a likely active anti-inflammatory component in Xs-ME that targets PDK1. Xs-ME exerts anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting PDK1 kinase activity and blocking signaling to its downstream transcription factor, NF-κB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Therapeutic effect of methyl salicylate 2-O-β-d-lactoside on LPS-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting TAK1/NF-kappaB phosphorylation and NLRP3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengqian; Yu, Ziru; Yuan, Tianyi; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xue; Yang, Haiguang; Sun, Lan; Wang, Yuehua; Du, Guanhua

    2016-11-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI), characterized by pulmonary edema and inflammatory cell infiltration, is a common syndrome of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Methyl salicylate 2-O-β-d-lactoside (MSL), a natural derivative of salicylate extracted from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder, was reported to have potent anti-inflammatory effects on the progression of collagen or adjuvant-induced arthritis in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of MSL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and reveal underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that MSL significantly ameliorated pulmonary edema and histological severities, and inhibited IL-6 and IL-1β production in LPS-induced ALI mice. MSL also reduced MPO activity in lung tissues and the number of inflammatory cells in BALF. Moreover, we found that MSL significantly inhibited LPS-induced TAK1 and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, as well as the expression of NLRP3 protein in lung tissues. Furthermore, MSL significantly inhibited LPS-induced TAK1 and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. In addition, MSL significantly inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in cells treated with LPS in vitro. Taken together, our results suggested that MSL exhibited a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI by inhibiting TAK1/NF-κB phosphorylation and NLRP3 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition disrupts nuclear factor-kappaB activity in pancreatic cancer, but fails to sensitize to gemcitabine chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamaghani Shadi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant activation NF-kappaB has been proposed as a mechanism of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer. Recently, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 has been shown to exert anti-tumor effects on pancreatic cancer cells by suppressing NF-kappaB. Consequently, we investigated whether inhibition of GSK-3 sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine. Methods GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using the pharmacological agent AR-A014418 or siRNA against GSK-3 alpha and beta isoforms. Cytotoxicity was measured using a Sulphorhodamine B assay and clonogenic survival following exposure of six different pancreatic cancer cell lines to a range of doses of either gemcitabine, AR-A014418 or both for 24, 48 and 72 h. We measured protein expression levels by immunoblotting. Basal and TNF-alpha induced activity of NF-kappaB was assessed using a luciferase reporter assay in the presence or absence of GSK-3 inhibition. Results GSK-3 inhibition reduced both basal and TNF-alpha induced NF-kappaB luciferase activity. Knockdown of GSK-3 beta reduced nuclear factor kappa B luciferase activity to a greater extent than GSK-3 alpha, and the greatest effect was seen with dual knockdown of both GSK-3 isoforms. GSK-3 inhibition also resulted in reduction of the NF-kappaB target proteins XIAP, Bcl-XL, and cyclin D1, associated with growth inhibition and decreased clonogenic survival. In all cell lines, treatment with either AR-A014418, or gemcitabine led to growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, with the exception of PANC-1 where drug synergy occurred with some dose schedules, the inhibitory effect of combined drug treatment was additive, sub-additive, or even antagonistic. Conclusion GSK-3 inhibition has anticancer effects against pancreatic cancer cells with a range of genetic backgrounds associated with disruption of NF-kappaB, but does not significantly sensitize these cells to the standard

  15. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition disrupts nuclear factor-kappaB activity in pancreatic cancer, but fails to sensitize to gemcitabine chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamaghani, Shadi; Patel, Satish; Hedley, David W

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant activation NF-kappaB has been proposed as a mechanism of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer. Recently, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 has been shown to exert anti-tumor effects on pancreatic cancer cells by suppressing NF-kappaB. Consequently, we investigated whether inhibition of GSK-3 sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using the pharmacological agent AR-A014418 or siRNA against GSK-3 alpha and beta isoforms. Cytotoxicity was measured using a Sulphorhodamine B assay and clonogenic survival following exposure of six different pancreatic cancer cell lines to a range of doses of either gemcitabine, AR-A014418 or both for 24, 48 and 72 h. We measured protein expression levels by immunoblotting. Basal and TNF-alpha induced activity of NF-kappaB was assessed using a luciferase reporter assay in the presence or absence of GSK-3 inhibition. GSK-3 inhibition reduced both basal and TNF-alpha induced NF-kappaB luciferase activity. Knockdown of GSK-3 beta reduced nuclear factor kappa B luciferase activity to a greater extent than GSK-3 alpha, and the greatest effect was seen with dual knockdown of both GSK-3 isoforms. GSK-3 inhibition also resulted in reduction of the NF-kappaB target proteins XIAP, Bcl-X L , and cyclin D1, associated with growth inhibition and decreased clonogenic survival. In all cell lines, treatment with either AR-A014418, or gemcitabine led to growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, with the exception of PANC-1 where drug synergy occurred with some dose schedules, the inhibitory effect of combined drug treatment was additive, sub-additive, or even antagonistic. GSK-3 inhibition has anticancer effects against pancreatic cancer cells with a range of genetic backgrounds associated with disruption of NF-kappaB, but does not significantly sensitize these cells to the standard chemotherapy agent gemcitabine. This lack of synergy might be

  16. NF-{kappa}B p50 promotes tumor cell invasion through negative regulation of invasion suppressor gene CRMP-1 in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Gao [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University, Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, P Y [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China); Lu, Y -S [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University, Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, W C [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kuo, M -L [Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, A -L [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University, Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: alcheng@ntu.edu.tw

    2008-11-14

    Lung adenocarcinoma Cl1-5 cells were selected from parental Cl1-0 cells based on their high metastatic potential. In a previous study, CRMP-1, an invasion suppressor gene, was shown to be suppressed in Cl1-5 cells. However, the regulation of CRMP-1 expression has not been explored. In this study, we showed nuclear factor-{kappa}B controls CRMP-1 expression. The electromobility shift assay showed that while Cl1-0 cells exhibited low NF-{kappa}B activity in response to TNF-{alpha}, an abundance of basal and TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-DNA complex was detected in Cl1-5 cells. Supershift-coupled EMSA and Western blotting of nuclear proteins, however, revealed p50 protein, but not classic p65/p50 heterodimer in the complex. ChIP and EMSA demonstrated that p50 binds to a {kappa}B site residing between -1753 and -1743 of the CRMP-1 promoter region. Transfection of antisense p50 gene into Cl1-5 cells increased the CRMP-1 protein level and decreased the invasive activity of Cl1-5 cells.

  17. The Regulation of NF-κB Subunits by Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Christian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The NF-κB transcription factor is the master regulator of the inflammatory response and is essential for the homeostasis of the immune system. NF-κB regulates the transcription of genes that control inflammation, immune cell development, cell cycle, proliferation, and cell death. The fundamental role that NF-κB plays in key physiological processes makes it an important factor in determining health and disease. The importance of NF-κB in tissue homeostasis and immunity has frustrated therapeutic approaches aimed at inhibiting NF-κB activation. However, significant research efforts have revealed the crucial contribution of NF-κB phosphorylation to controlling NF-κB directed transactivation. Importantly, NF-κB phosphorylation controls transcription in a gene-specific manner, offering new opportunities to selectively target NF-κB for therapeutic benefit. This review will focus on the phosphorylation of the NF-κB subunits and the impact on NF-κB function.

  18. Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bcl-2 via NF-κB in H1299 human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Mi Ran; Nam, Hyo-Jung; Kim, So-Young; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (Gi proteins) mediate a variety of signaling pathways by coupling receptors and effectors to regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, the role of Gi proteins in the modulation of hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis is not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of Gi proteins on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in H1299 human lung cancer cells. The stable expression of constitutively active alpha subunits of Gi1 (Gαi1QL), Gi2, or Gi3 inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. The expression of Gαi1QL up-regulated Bcl-2 expression, and the knockdown of Bcl-2 with siRNA abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of Gαi1QL. Gαi1 induced the transcription of Bcl-2 by activation of NF-κB, which resulted from an increase in NF-κB p50 protein. We conclude that Gαi1 inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of H1299 lung cancer cells by up-regulating the transcription of Bcl-2 through a p50-mediated NF-κB activation.

  19. Flavonoids Identified from Korean Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Inhibit Inflammatory Signaling by Suppressing Activation of NF-κB and MAPK in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong-Eun Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi has been used as traditional medicine for treating inflammatory diseases, hepatitis, tumors, and diarrhea in Asia. Hence, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and determined the molecular mechanism of action of flavonoids isolated from Korean S. baicalensis G. in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to examine cytotoxicity of the flavonoids at various concentrations of 10, 40, 70, and 100 µg/mL. No cytotoxicity was observed in RAW 264.7 cells at these concentrations. Furthermore, the flavonoids decreased production of inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inhibited phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, to identify the differentially expressed proteins in RAW 264.7 cells of the control, LPS-treated, and flavonoid-treated groups, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were conducted. The identified proteins were involved in the inflammatory response and included PRKA anchor protein and heat shock protein 70 kD. These findings suggest that the flavonoids isolated from S. baicalensis G. might have anti-inflammatory effects that regulate the expression of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway via the MAPK signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

  20. The germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone neurolenin B of the medicinal plant Neurolaena lobata (L.) R.Br. ex Cass inhibits NPM/ALK-driven cell expansion and NF-κB-driven tumour intravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Christine; Kiss, Izabella; Vasas, Andrea; Lajter, Ildikó; Kramer, Nina; Atanasov, Atanas Georgiev; Nguyen, Chi Huu; Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Brenner, Stefan; Krieger, Sigurd; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Peschel, Andrea; Kain, Renate; Saiko, Philipp; Szekeres, Thomas; Kenner, Lukas; Hassler, Melanie R; Diaz, Rene; Frisch, Richard; Dirsch, Verena M; Jäger, Walter; de Martin, Rainer; Bochkov, Valery N; Passreiter, Claus M; Peter-Vörösmarty, Barbara; Mader, Robert M; Grusch, Michael; Dolznig, Helmut; Kopp, Brigitte; Zupko, Istvan; Hohmann, Judit; Krupitza, Georg

    2015-08-15

    The t(2;5)(p23;q35) chromosomal translocation results in the expression of the fusion protein NPM/ALK that when expressed in T-lymphocytes gives rise to anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL). In search of new therapy options the dichloromethane extract of the ethnomedicinal plant Neurolaena lobata (L.) R.Br. ex Cass was shown to inhibit NPM/ALK expression. Therefore, we analysed whether the active principles that were recently isolated and found to inhibit inflammatory responses specifically inhibit growth of NPM/ALK+ ALCL, leukaemia and breast cancer cells, but not of normal cells, and the intravasation through the lymphendothelial barrier. ALCL, leukaemia and breast cancer cells, and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with isolated sesquiterpene lactones and analysed for cell cycle progression, proliferation, mitochondrial activity, apoptosis, protein and mRNA expression, NF-κB and cytochrome P450 activity, 12(S)-HETE production and lymphendothelial intravasation. In vitro treatment of ALCL by neurolenin B suppressed NPM/ALK, JunB and PDGF-Rβ expression, inhibited the growth of ALCL cells late in M phase, and induced apoptosis via caspase 3 without compromising mitochondrial activity (as a measure of general exogenic toxicity). Moreover, neurolenin B attenuated tumour spheroid intravasation probably through inhibition of NF-κB and CYP1A1. Neurolenin B specifically decreased pro-carcinogenic NPM/ALK expression in ALK+ ALCL cells and, via the inhibition of NF-kB signalling, attenuated tumour intra/extravasation into the lymphatics. Hence, neurolenin B may open new options to treat ALCL and to manage early metastatic processes to which no other therapies exist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. BRAF activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) promoting gastric cancer cells proliferation via regulation of NF-κB1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Biao; Lu, Xin-Yang; Ning, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Chuan-Tao; Wang, Ai-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Long non-coding RNA, BANCR, has been demonstrated to contribute to the proliferation and migration of tumors. However, its molecular mechanism underlying gastric cancer is still unknown. In present study, we investigated whether BANCR was involved in the development of gastric cancer cells via regulation of NF-κB1. Methods: Human gastric cancer tissues were isolated as well as human gastric cell lines MGC803 and BGC823 were cultured to investigate the role of BANCR in gastric cancer. Results: BANCR expression was significantly up-regulated in gastric tumor tissues and gastric cell lines. Down-regulation of BANCR inhibited gastric cancer cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis, and it also contributed to a significant decrease of NF-κB1 (P50/105) expression and 3′UTR of NF-κB1 activity. Overexpression of NF-κB1 reversed the effect of BANCR on cancer cell growth and apoptosis. MiroRNA-9 (miR-9) targeted NF-κB1, and miR-9 inhibitor also reversed the effects of BANCR on gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis. Conclusion: BANCR was highly expressed both in gastric tumor tissues and in cancer cells. NF-κB1 and miR-9 were involved in the role of BANCR in gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis. - Highlights: • BANCR up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissues and cell lines MGC803 and BGC823. • Down-regulation of BANCR inhibited GC cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis. • Down-regulation of BANCR contributed to decreased 3′UTR of NF-κB1 and its expression. • Overexpressed NF-κB1 reversed the effect of BANCR on GC cell growth. • miR-9 inhibitor reversed the effect of BANCR on cancer GC cell growth

  2. MicroRNA-129-5p inhibits the development of autoimmune encephalomyelitis-related epilepsy by targeting HMGB1 through the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-Hua; Wu, Ya-Ting; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to explore the effects of microRNA-129-5p (miR-129-5p) on the development of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (AE)-related epilepsy by targeting HMGB1 through the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway in a rat model. AE-related epilepsy models were established. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control, model, miR-129-5p mimics, miR-129-5p inhibitor, HMGB1 shRNA, TLR4/NF-kB (TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway was inhibited) and miR-129-5p mimics+HMGB1 shRNA groups respectively. Latency to a first epilepsy seizure attack was recorded. Neuronal injuries in the hippocampus regions were detected using HE, Nissl and FJB staining methods 24h following model establishment. Microglial cells were detected by OX-42 immunohistochemistry. Expressions of miR-129-5p, HMGB1 and TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway-related proteins were detected by qRT-PCR. Protein expressions of HMGB1 and TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway-related proteins were detected by Western blotting. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay showed that miR-129-5p was negatively targeting HMGB1. Neurons of hippocampal tissues in rats were heavily injured by an injection of lithium chloride. Compared with the model and control groups, neuronal injury of the hippocampus and AE-related epilepsy decreased and microglial cells increased in the miR-129-5p mimics, HMGB1 shRNA and TLR4/NF-kB groups; however, in the miR-129-5p inhibitor group, miR-129-5p expression decreased, HMGB1 expression increased, TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway was activated, latency to a first epilepsy seizure attack was shortened, and neuronal injury increased. This study provides evidence that miR-129-5p inhibits the development of AE-related epilepsy by suppressing HMGB1 expression and inhibiting TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Silencing of FKBP51 alleviates the mechanical pain threshold, inhibits DRG inflammatory factors and pain mediators through the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Mei; Wang, Qi; Sun, Wen-Bo

    2017-09-05

    Neuropathic pain is chronic pain caused by lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system, currently available analgesics provide only temporal relief. The precise role of FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) is not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of FKBP51 in neuropathic pain in the rat model of CCI. Our results showed that FKBP51 was obviously upregulated in a time-dependent manner in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of CCI rats. Additionally, silencing of FKBP51 remarkably attenuated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as reflected by paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) in CCI rats. Moreover, knockdown of FKBP51 reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the DRG of CCI rats. Furthermore, we revealed that inhibition of FKBP51 greatly suppressed the activation of the NF-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling in the DRG of CCI rats. Interestingly, similar to the FKBP51 siRNA (si-FKBP51), ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB) also alleviated neuropathic pain and neuro-inflammation, indicating that knockdown of FKBP51 alleviated neuropathic pain development of CCI rats by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings indicate that FKBP51 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Thrombin-induced, TNFR-dependent miR-181c downregulation promotes MLL1 and NF-κB target gene expression in human microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Min; Chen, Zhiying; Ouyang, Yetong; Zhang, Huiyan; Wan, Zhigang; Wang, Han; Wu, Wei; Yin, Xiaoping

    2017-06-29

    Controlling thrombin-driven microglial activation may serve as a therapeutic target for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Here, we investigated microRNA (miRNA)-based regulation of thrombin-driven microglial activation using an in vitro thrombin toxicity model applied to primary human microglia. A miRNA array identified 22 differential miRNA candidates. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) identified miR-181c as the most significantly downregulated miRNA. TargetScan analysis identified mixed lineage leukemia-1 (MLL1) as a putative gene target for miR-181c. qRT-PCR was applied to assess tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), miR-181c, and MLL1 levels following thrombin or proteinase-activated receptor-4-specific activating peptide (PAR4AP) exposure. Anti-TNF-α antibodies and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) silencing were employed to test TNF-α/TNFR dependence. A dual-luciferase reporter system and miR-181c mimic transfection assessed whether mir-181c directly binds to and negatively regulates MLL1. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)-dependent luciferase reporter assays and NF-κB target gene expression were assessed in wild-type (MLL1+) and MLL1-silenced cells. Thrombin or PAR4AP-induced miR-181c downregulation (p < 0.05) and MLL1 upregulation (p < 0.05) that were dependent upon TNF-α/TNFR. miR-181c decreased wild-type MLL1 3'-UTR luciferase reporter activity (p < 0.05), and a miR-181c mimic suppressed MLL1 expression (p < 0.05). Thrombin treatment increased, while miR-181c reduced, NF-κB activity and NF-κB target gene expression in both wild-type (MLL1+) and MLL1-silenced cells (p < 0.05). Thrombin-induced, TNF-α/TNFR-dependent miR-181c downregulation promotes MLL1 expression, increases NF-κB activity, and upregulates NF-κB target gene expression. As miR-181c opposes thrombin's stimulation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB activity, miR-181c mimic therapy may show promise in controlling thrombin

  5. Resveratrol protects vascular endothelial cells from high glucose-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation-driven oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Qian, Li-Hua; Deng, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Min; Zhao, Ying; Le, Ying-Ying

    2013-09-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress has been implicated in diabetic vascular complications in which NADPH oxidase is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol, which has vasoprotective effects in diabetic animal models and inhibits high glucose (HG)-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells. We aimed to examine whether HG-induced NADPH oxidase activation and ROS production contribute to glucotoxicity to endothelial cells and the effect of resveratrol on glucotoxicity. Using a murine brain microvascular endothelial cell line bEnd3, we found that NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin) and resveratrol both inhibited HG-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. HG-induced elevation of NADPH oxidase activity and production of ROS were inhibited by apocynin, suggesting that HG induces endothelial cell apoptosis through NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production. Mechanistic studies revealed that HG upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit Nox1 but not Nox2, Nox4, and p22(phox) expression through NF-κB activation, which resulted in elevation of NADPH oxidase activity and consequent ROS production. Resveratrol prevented HG-induced endothelial cell apoptosis through inhibiting HG-induced NF-κB activation, NADPH oxidase activity elevation, and ROS production. HG induces endothelial cell apoptosis through NF-κB/NADPH oxidase/ROS pathway, which was inhibited by resveratrol. Our findings provide new potential therapeutic targets against brain vascular complications of diabetes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins inhibit flowering under long-day conditions in rice

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, SoonKap

    2015-11-05

    OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response through the modulation of three flowering-time genes ( Ehd1, Hd3a , and RFT1 ) in rice. Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors control numerous developmental processes by forming heterotrimeric complexes, but little is known about their roles in flowering in rice. In this study, it is shown that some subunits of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC interact with each other, and among them, OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response of rice. Protein interaction studies showed that the physical interactions occurred between the three OsNF-YC proteins (OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4 and OsNF-YC6) and three OsNF-YB proteins (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 and OsNF-YB11). Repression and overexpression of the OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 genes revealed that they act as inhibitors of flowering only under long-day (LD) conditions. Overexpression of OsNF-YC6, however, promoted flowering only under LD conditions, suggesting it could function as a flowering promoter. These phenotypes correlated with the changes in the expression of three rice flowering-time genes [Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1)]. The diurnal and tissue-specific expression patterns of the subsets of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes were similar to those of CCT domain encoding genes such as OsCO3, Heading date 1 (Hd1) and Ghd7. We propose that OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response by interacting directly with OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 or OsNF-YB11 proteins in rice.

  7. Agmatine Protects against Zymosan-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanfei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine, is an endogenous neuromodulator that plays protective roles in diverse central nervous system (CNS disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, agmatine has been reported to have beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, Parkinson’s disease, and gastric disorder. In this study, we tested the effect of agmatine on the lung inflammation induced by Zymosan (ZYM challenge in mice. We found that agmatine treatment relieved ZYM-induced acute lung injury, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, wet/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue. This was accompanied by reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased iNOS expression in lung. Furthermore, agmatine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB induced by Zymosan. Taken together, our results showed that agmatine treatment inhibited NF-κB signaling in lungs and protected mice against ALI induced by Zymosan, suggesting agmatine may be a potential safe and effective approach for the treatment of ALI.

  8. Anti-proliferative, Cytotoxic and NF-ĸB Inhibitory Properties of Spiro(Lactone-Cyclohexanone) Compounds in Human Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhenna, Mustapha M; Orlikova, Barbora; Talhi, Oualid; Schram, Ben; Pinto, Diana C G A; Taibi, Nadia; Bachari, Khaldoun; Diederich, Marc; Silva, Artur M S; Mameri, Nabil

    2017-09-01

    NF-ĸB affects most aspects of cellular physiology. Deregulation of NF-ĸB signaling is associated with inflammatory diseases and cancer. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic and NF-ĸB inhibition potential of new spiro(lactone-cyclohexanone) compounds in two different human leukemia cell lines (U937 and K562). The anti-proliferative effects of the spiro(lactone-cyclohexanone) compounds on human K562 and U937 cell lines was evaluated by trypan blue staining, as well as their involvement in NF-kB regulation were analyzed by luciferase reporter gene assay, Caspase-3/7 activities were evaluated to analyze apoptosis induction. Both spiro(coumarin-cyclohexanone) 4 and spiro(6- methyllactone-cyclohexanone) 9 down-regulated cancer cell viability and proliferation. Compound 4 inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-ĸB activation in a dose-dependent manner and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in both leukemia cell lines. Results show that compound 4 and compound 9 have potential as anti-cancer agents. In addition, compound 4 exerted NF-kB inhibition activity in leukemia cancer cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of a novel TIF-IA-NF-κB nucleolar stress response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyu; Lobb, Ian T; Morin, Pierre; Novo, Sonia M; Simpson, James; Kennerknecht, Kathrin; von Kriegsheim, Alex; Batchelor, Emily E; Oakley, Fiona; Stark, Lesley A

    2018-06-05

    p53 as an effector of nucleolar stress is well defined, but p53 independent mechanisms are largely unknown. Like p53, the NF-κB transcription factor plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis under stress. Many stresses that stimulate NF-κB also disrupt nucleoli. However, the link between nucleolar function and activation of the NF-κB pathway is as yet unknown. Here we demonstrate that artificial disruption of the PolI complex stimulates NF-κB signalling. Unlike p53 nucleolar stress response, this effect does not appear to be linked to inhibition of rDNA transcription. We show that specific stress stimuli of NF-κB induce degradation of a critical component of the PolI complex, TIF-IA. This degradation precedes activation of NF-κB and is associated with increased nucleolar size. It is mimicked by CDK4 inhibition and is dependent upon a novel pathway involving UBF/p14ARF and S44 of the protein. We show that blocking TIF-IA degradation blocks stress effects on nucleolar size and NF-κB signalling. Finally, using ex vivo culture, we show a strong correlation between degradation of TIF-IA and activation of NF-κB in freshly resected, human colorectal tumours exposed to the chemopreventative agent, aspirin. Together, our study provides compelling evidence for a new, TIF-IA-NF-κB nucleolar stress response pathway that has in vivo relevance and therapeutic implications.

  10. Blocking NF-κB: an inflammatory issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Arshad; Fazal, Fabeha

    2011-11-01

    The nuclear factor (NF)-κB is considered the master regulator of inflammatory responses. Studies in mouse models have established this transcription factor as an important mediator of many inflammatory disease states, including pulmonary diseases such as acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Endothelial cells provide the first barrier for leukocytes migrating to the inflamed sites and hence offer an attractive cellular context for targeting NF-κB for treatment of these diseases. However, recent studies showing that NF-κB also plays an important role in resolution phase of inflammation and in tissue repair and homeostasis have challenged the view of therapeutic inhibition of NF-κB. This article reviews the regulation of NF-κB in the context of endothelial cell signaling and provides a perspective on why "dampening" rather than "abolishing" NF-κB activation may be a safe and effective treatment strategy for inflammation-associated pulmonary and other inflammatory diseases.

  11. Src-family-tyrosine kinase Lyn is critical for TLR2-mediated NF-κB activation through the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Julie; Rossi, Anne-Lise; Belaidouni, Nadia; Grimaldi, David; Pene, Frederic; Chafey, Philippe; Comba, Béatrice; Camoin, Luc; Bismuth, Georges; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Mira, Jean-Paul; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2015-10-01

    TLR2 has a prominent role in host defense against a wide variety of pathogens. Stimulation of TLR2 triggers MyD88-dependent signaling to induce NF-κB translocation, and activates a Rac1-PI 3-kinase dependent pathway that leads to transactivation of NF-κB through phosphorylation of the P65 NF-κB subunit. This transactivation pathway involves tyrosine phosphorylations. The role of the tyrosine kinases in TLR signaling is controversial, with discrepancies between studies using only chemical inhibitors and knockout mice. Here, we show the involvement of the tyrosine-kinase Lyn in TLR2-dependent activation of NF-κB in human cellular models, by using complementary inhibition strategies. Stimulation of TLR2 induces the formation of an activation cluster involving TLR2, CD14, PI 3-kinase and Lyn, and leads to the activation of AKT. Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase is essential to the control of PI 3-kinase biological activity upstream of AKT and thereby to the transactivation of NF-κB. Thus, Lyn kinase activity is crucial in TLR2-mediated activation of the innate immune response in human mononuclear cells. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Production of DNA minicircles less than 250 base pairs through a novel concentrated DNA circularization assay enabling minicircle design with NF-κB inhibition activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Thomas; Degrouard, Jeril; Baril, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Midoux, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Double-stranded DNA minicircles of less than 1000 bp in length have great interest in both fundamental research and therapeutic applications. Although minicircles have shown promising activity in gene therapy thanks to their good biostability and better intracellular trafficking, minicircles down to 250 bp in size have not yet been investigated from the test tube to the cell for lack of an efficient production method. Herein, we report a novel versatile plasmid-free method for the production of DNA minicircles comprising fewer than 250 bp. We designed a linear nicked DNA double-stranded oligonucleotide blunt-ended substrate for efficient minicircle production in a ligase-mediated and bending protein-assisted circularization reaction at high DNA concentration of 2 μM. This one pot multi-step reaction based-method yields hundreds of micrograms of minicircle with sequences of any base composition and position and containing or not a variety of site-specifically chemical modifications or physiological supercoiling. Biochemical and cellular studies were then conducted to design a 95 bp minicircle capable of binding in vitro two NF-κB transcription factors per minicircle and to efficiently inhibiting NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity in human cells. Therefore, our production method could pave the way for the design of minicircles as new decoy nucleic acids. PMID:27899652

  13. Cell wall mannoprotein of Candida albicans induces cell cycle alternation and inhibits apoptosis of HaCaT cells via NF-κB signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Jiang, Hang-Hang; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Hao, Xing-Jia; Sun, Yu-Zhe; Qi, Rui-Qun; Chen, Hong-Duo; Gao, Xing-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a commensal organism in human and a well-known dimorphic opportunistic pathogenic fungus. Though plenty of researches on the pathogenesis of C. albicans have been performed, the mechanism is not fully understood. The cell wall components of C. albicans have been documented to play important roles in its pathogenic processes. To further study the infectious mechanism of C. albicans, we investigated the potential functional role of its cell wall mannoprotein in cell cycle and apoptosis of HaCaT cells. We found that mannoprotein could promote the transition of cell cycle from G1/G0 to S phase, in which Cyclin D1, CDK4 and p-Rb, the major regulators of the cell cycle progression, showed significant upregulation, and CDKN1A (cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21)) showed significant downregulation. Mannoprotein also could inhibit apoptosis of HaCaT cells, which was well associated with increased expression of BCL2 (Bcl-2). Moreover, mannoprotein could increase the phosphorylation levels of RELA (p65) and NFKBIA (IκBα), as the key factors of NF-κB signal pathway in HaCaT cells, suggesting the activation of NF-κB signal pathway. Additionally, a NF-κB specific inhibitor, PDTC, could rescue the effect of mannoprotein on cell cycle and apoptosis of HaCaT cells, which suggested that mannoprotein could activate NF-κB signal pathway to mediate cell cycle alternation and inhibit apoptosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Leishmania donovani isolates with antimony-resistant but not -sensitive phenotype inhibit sodium antimony gluconate-induced dendritic cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Haldar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The inability of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG-unresponsive kala-azar patients to clear Leishmania donovani (LD infection despite SAG therapy is partly due to an ill-defined immune-dysfunction. Since dendritic cells (DCs typically initiate anti-leishmanial immunity, a role for DCs in aberrant LD clearance was investigated. Accordingly, regulation of SAG-induced activation of murine DCs following infection with LD isolates exhibiting two distinct phenotypes such as antimony-resistant (Sb(RLD and antimony-sensitive (Sb(SLD was compared in vitro. Unlike Sb(SLD, infection of DCs with Sb(RLD induced more IL-10 production and inhibited SAG-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and leishmanicidal effects. Sb(RLD inhibited these effects of SAG by blocking activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways. In contrast, Sb(SLD failed to block activation of SAG (20 microg/ml-induced PI3K/AKT pathway; which continued to stimulate NF-kappaB signaling, induce leishmanicidal effects and promote DC activation. Notably, prolonged incubation of DCs with Sb(SLD also inhibited SAG (20 microg/ml-induced activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways and leishmanicidal effects, which was restored by increasing the dose of SAG to 40 microg/ml. In contrast, Sb(RLD inhibited these SAG-induced events regardless of duration of DC exposure to Sb(RLD or dose of SAG. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of isogenic Sb(SLD expressing ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter MRPA on SAG-induced leishmanicidal effects mimicked that of Sb(RLD to some extent, although antimony resistance in clinical LD isolates is known to be multifactorial. Furthermore, NF-kappaB was found to transcriptionally regulate expression of murine gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase heavy-chain (mgammaGCS(hc gene, presumably an important regulator of antimony resistance. Importantly, Sb(RLD but not Sb(SLD blocked SAG-induced mgammaGCS expression in DCs by

  15. [6]-Gingerol Prevents Disassembly of Cell Junctions and Activities of MMPs in Invasive Human Pancreas Cancer Cells through ERK/NF-κB/Snail Signal Transduction Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ok Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of [6]-gingerol, a ginger phytochemical, on tight junction (TJ molecules, we investigated TJ tightening and signal transduction pathways in human pancreatic duct cell-derived cancer cell line PANC-1. The following methods were utilized: MTT assay to determine cytotoxicity; zymography to examine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activities; transepithelial electrical resistance (TER and paracellular flux for TJ measurement; RT-PCR and immunoblotting for proteins related to TJ and invasion; and EMSA for NF-κB activity in PANC-1 cells. Results revealed that TER significantly increased and claudin 4 and MMP-9 decreased compared to those of the control. TJ protein levels, including zonula occludens (ZO- 1, occludin, and E-cadherin, increased in [6]-gingerol-treated cells, which correlated with a decrease in paracellular flux and MMP activity. Furthermore, NF-κB/Snail nuclear translocation was suppressed via downregulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway in response to [6]-gingerol treatment. Moreover, treatment with U0126, an ERK inhibitor, completely blocked NF-κB activity. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that [6]-gingerol regulates TJ-related proteins and suppresses invasion and metastasis through NF-κB/Snail inhibition via inhibition of the ERK pathway. Therefore, [6]-gingerol may suppress the invasive activity of PANC-1 cells.

  16. Quantification of cellular NEMO content and its impact on NF-κB activation by genotoxic stress.

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    Byounghoon Hwang

    Full Text Available NF-κB essential modulator, NEMO, plays a key role in canonical NF-κB signaling induced by a variety of stimuli, including cytokines and genotoxic agents. To dissect the different biochemical and functional roles of NEMO in NF-κB signaling, various mutant forms of NEMO have been previously analyzed. However, transient or stable overexpression of wild-type NEMO can significantly inhibit NF-κB activation, thereby confounding the analysis of NEMO mutant phenotypes. What levels of NEMO overexpression lead to such an artifact and what levels are tolerated with no significant impact on NEMO function in NF-κB activation are currently unknown. Here we purified full-length recombinant human NEMO protein and used it as a standard to quantify the average number of NEMO molecules per cell in a 1.3E2 NEMO-deficient murine pre-B cell clone stably reconstituted with full-length human NEMO (C5. We determined that the C5 cell clone has an average of 4 x 10(5 molecules of NEMO per cell. Stable reconstitution of 1.3E2 cells with different numbers of NEMO molecules per cell has demonstrated that a 10-fold range of NEMO expression (0.6-6x10(5 molecules per cell yields statistically equivalent NF-κB activation in response to the DNA damaging agent etoposide. Using the C5 cell line, we also quantified the number of NEMO molecules per cell in several commonly employed human cell lines. These results establish baseline numbers of endogenous NEMO per cell and highlight surprisingly normal functionality of NEMO in the DNA damage pathway over a wide range of expression levels that can provide a guideline for future NEMO reconstitution studies.

  17. Dual mechanisms of NF-κB inhibition in carnosol-treated endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, K.-C.; Chuang, J.-J.; Hsieh, C.-W.; Wung, B.-S.; Huang, G.-D.; Jian, T.-Y.; Sun, Y.-W.

    2010-01-01

    The increased adhesion of monocytes to injured endothelial layers is a critical early event in atherogenesis. Under inflammatory conditions, there is increased expression of specific cell adhesion molecules on activated vascular endothelial cells, which increases monocyte adhesion. In our current study, we demonstrate a putative mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effects of carnosol, a diterpene derived from the herb rosemary. Our results show that both carnosol and rosemary essential oils inhibit the adhesion of TNFα-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppress the expression of ICAM-1 at the transcriptional level. Moreover, carnosol was found to exert its inhibitory effects by blocking the degradation of the inhibitory protein IκBα in short term pretreatments but not in 12 h pretreatments. Our data show that carnosol reduces IKK-β phosphorylation in pretreatments of less than 3 h. In TNFα-treated ECs, NF-κB nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity was abolished by up to 12 h of carnosol pretreatment and this was blocked by Nrf-2 siRNA. The long-term inhibitory effects of carnosol thus appear to be mediated through its induction of Nrf-2-related genes. The inhibition of ICAM-1 expression and p65 translocation is reversed by HO-1 siRNA. Carnosol also upregulates the Nrf-2-related glutathione synthase gene and thereby increases the GSH levels after 9 h of exposure. Treating ECs with a GSH synthesis inhibitor, BSO, blocks the inhibitory effects of carnosol. In addition, carnosol increases p65 glutathionylation. Hence, our present findings indicate that carnosol suppresses TNFα-induced singling pathways through the inhibition of IKK-β activity or the upregulation of HO-1 expression. The resulting GSH levels are dependent, however, on the length of the carnosol pretreatment period.

  18. Amelioration of Mitochondrial Dysfunction-Induced Insulin Resistance in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via Inhibition of NF-κB Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathways is among the inflammatory mechanism involved in the development of insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues derived from obese animal and human subjects. Nevertheless, little is known about the roles of NF-κB pathways in regulating mitochondrial function of the adipose tissues. In the present study, we sought to investigate the direct effects of celastrol (potent NF-κB inhibitor upon mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Celastrol ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction by altering mitochondrial fusion and fission in adipocytes. The levels of oxidative DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation were down-regulated. Further, the morphology and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets revealed the decrease of intracellular lipid accumulation with reduced lipolysis. Moreover, massive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β were markedly depleted. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity was restored with the enhancement of insulin signaling pathways. This study signified that the treatments modulated towards knockdown of NF-κB transcription factor may counteract these metabolic insults exacerbated in our model of synergy between mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NF-κB inhibition modulates mitochondrial dysfunction induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  19. Curcumin induces G2/M arrest, apoptosis, NF-κB inhibition, and expression of differentiation genes in thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertheim, Suzan; Wein, Frederik; Lennartz, Klaus; Worm, Karl; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Sheu-Grabellus, Sien-Yi

    2017-07-01

    The therapy of unresectable advanced thyroid carcinomas shows unfavorable outcome. Constitutive nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in thyroid carcinomas frequently contributes to therapeutic resistance; the radioiodine therapy often fails due to the loss of differentiated functions in advanced thyroid carcinomas. Curcumin is known for its anticancer properties in a series of cancers, but only few studies have focused on thyroid cancer. Our aim was to evaluate curcumin's molecular mechanisms and to estimate if curcumin could be a new therapeutic option in advanced thyroid cancer. Human thyroid cancer cell lines TPC-1 (papillary), FTC-133 (follicular), and BHT-101 (anaplastic) were treated with curcumin. Using real-time PCR analysis, we investigated microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression levels. Cell cycle, Annexin V/PI staining, and caspase-3 activity analysis were performed to detect apoptosis. NF-κB p65 activity and cell proliferation were analyzed using appropriate ELISA-based colorimetric assay kits. Treatment with 50 μM curcumin significantly increased the mRNA expression of the differentiation genes thyroglobulin (TG) and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in all three cell lines and induced inhibition of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and decrease of NF-κB p65 activity. The miRNA expression analyses showed a significant deregulation of miRNA-200c, -21, -let7c, -26a, and -125b, known to regulate cell differentiation and tumor progression. Curcumin arrested cell growth at the G2/M phase. Curcumin increases the expression of redifferentiation markers and induces G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and downregulation of NF-κB activity in thyroid carcinoma cells. Thus, curcumin appears to be a promising agent to overcome resistance to the conventional cancer therapy.

  20. Phorbol-ester-induced activation of the NF-κB transcription factor involves dissociation of an apparently cytoplasmic NF-κB/inhibitor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeuerle, P.A.; Lenardo, M.; Pierce, J.W.; Baltimore, D.

    1988-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that inducible transcription of genes is mediated through the induction of the activity of trans-acting protein factors. The NF-κB transcription factor provides a model system to study the posttranslational activation of a phorbol-ester-inducible transcription factor. The finding that NF-κB activity is undectable in subcellular fractions from unstimulated cells suggests that NF-κB exists as an inactive precursor. The authors showed that NF-κB is detectable in two different forms. After selective removal of endogenous NF-κB, they demonstrate the existence of a protein inhibitor in cytosolic fractions of unstimulated cells that is able in vitro to convert NF-κB into an inactive desoxycholate-dependent form. The data are consistent with a molecular mechanism of inducible gene expression by which an apparently cytoplasmic transcription factor-inhibitor complex is dissociated by the action of TPA-activated protein kinase C

  1. Regulation of Gene Expression with Double-Stranded Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska, Anna; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.; Zhang, Liquan; Nabel, Gary J.

    1990-11-01

    Alteration of gene transcription by inhibition of specific transcriptional regulatory proteins is necessary for determining how these factors participate in cellular differentiation. The functions of these proteins can be antagonized by several methods, each with specific limitations. Inhibition of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins was achieved with double-stranded (ds) phosphorothioate oligonucleotides that contained octamer or kappaB consensus sequences. The phosphorothioate oligonucleotides specifically bound either octamer transcription factor or nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. The modified oligonucleotides accumulated in cells more effectively than standard ds oligonucleotides and modulated gene expression in a specific manner. Octamer-dependent activation of a reporter plasmid or NF-kappaB-dependent activation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enhancer was inhibited when the appropriate phosphorothioate oligonucleotide was added to a transiently transfected B cell line. Addition of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides that contained the octamer consensus to Jurkat T leukemia cells inhibited interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion to a degree similar to that observed with a mutated octamer site in the IL-2 enhancer. The ds phosphorothioate oligonucleotides probably compete for binding of specific transcription factors and may provide anti-viral, immunosuppressive, or other therapeutic effects.

  2. Control of NF-kB activity in human melanoma by bromodomain and extra-terminal protein inhibitor I-BET151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stuart J; Mijatov, Branka; Gunatilake, Dilini; Gowrishankar, Kavitha; Tiffen, Jessamy; James, Wilmott; Jin, Lei; Pupo, Gulietta; Cullinane, Carleen; McArthur, Grant A; Tummino, Peter J; Rizos, Helen; Hersey, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The transcription factor NF-kappaB (NF-kB) is a key regulator of cytokine and chemokine production in melanoma and is responsible for symptoms such as anorexia, fatigue, and weight loss. In addition, NF-kB is believed to contribute to progression of the disease by upregulation of cell cycle and anti-apoptotic genes and to contribute to resistance against targeted therapies and immunotherapy. In this study, we have examined the ability of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein inhibitor I-BET151 to inhibit NF-kB in melanoma cells. We show that I-BET151 is a potent, selective inhibitor of a number of NF-kB target genes involved in induction of inflammation and cell cycle regulation and downregulates production of cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8. SiRNA studies indicate that BRD2 is the main BET protein involved in regulation of NF-kB and that I-BET151 caused transcriptional downregulation of the NF-kB subunit p105/p50. These results suggest that BET inhibitors may have an important role in treatment of melanoma where activation of NF-kB may have a key pathogenic role. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Styrene induces an inflammatory response in human lung epithelial cells via oxidative stress and NF-κB activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder-Stolinski, Carmen; Fischaeder, Gundula; Oostingh, Gertie Janneke; Feltens, Ralph; Kohse, Franziska; Bergen, Martin von; Moerbt, Nora; Eder, Klaus; Duschl, Albert; Lehmann, Irina

    2008-01-01

    Styrene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is widely used as a solvent in many industrial settings. Chronic exposure to styrene can result in irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Contact of styrene with epithelial cells stimulates the expression of a variety of inflammatory mediators, including the chemotactic cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). To characterise the underlying mechanisms of the induction of inflammatory signals by styrene, we investigated the influence of this compound on the induction of oxidative stress and the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway in human lung epithelial cells (A549). The results demonstrate that styrene-induced MCP-1 expression, as well as the expression of the oxidative stress marker glutathione S-transferase (GST), is associated with a concentration dependent pattern of NF-κB activity. An inhibitor of NF-κB, IKK-NBD, and the anti-inflammatory antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were both effective in suppressing styrene-induced MCP-1 secretion. In addition, NAC was capable of inhibiting the upregulation of GST expression. Our findings suggest that the activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway by styrene is mediated via a redox-sensitive mechanism

  4. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in part via downregulated NF-κB and p38/JNK activation in microglial and attenuates microglia activation in lipopolysaccharide treatment mice.

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    Chongfei Yang

    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies designed to inhibit the activation of microglia may lead to significant advancement in the treatment of most neurodegenerative diseases. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ is a naturally occurring redox cofactor that acts as an essential nutrient, antioxidant, and has been reported to exert potent immunosuppressive effects. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of PQQ was investigated in LPS treated primary microglia cells. Our observations showed that pretreatment with PQQ significantly inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP-1a in LPS treated primary microglia cells. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation level of p65, p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways were also inhibited by PQQ in LPS stimulated primary microglia cells. Further a systemic LPS treatment acute inflammation murine brain model was used to study the suppressive effects of PQQ against neuroinflammation in vivo. Mice treated with PQQ demonstrated marked attenuation of neuroinflammation based on Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis of Iba1-against antibody in the brain tissue. Indicated that PQQ protected primary cortical neurons against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. These results collectively suggested that PQQ might be a promising therapeutic agent for alleviating the progress of neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglia activation.

  5. Baicalin attenuates focal cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury through inhibition of nuclear factor κB p65 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xia; Qu, Xian-Jun; Yang, Ying; Sheng, Xie-Huang; Cheng, Fang; Jiang, E-Nang; Wang, Jian-hua; Bu, Wen; Liu, Zhao-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Permanent NF-κB p65 activation contributes to the infarction after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. → Baicalin can markedly inhibit the nuclear NF-κB p65 expression and m RNA levels after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. → Baicalin decreased the cerebral infarction area via inhibiting the activation of nuclear NF-κB p65. -- Abstract: Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. We aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of baicalin against cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. Male Wistar rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Baicalin at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was intravenously injected after ischemia onset. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, the neurological deficit was scored and infarct volume was measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was performed to analyze the histopathological changes of cortex and hippocampus neurons. We examined the levels of NF-κB p65 in ischemic cortexes by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR assay. The results showed that the neurological deficit scores were significantly decreased from 2.0 ± 0.7 to 1.2 ± 0.4 and the volume of infarction was reduced by 25% after baicalin injection. Histopathological examination showed that the increase of neurons with pycnotic shape and condensed nuclear in cortex and hippocampus were not observed in baicalin treated animals. Further examination showed that NF-κB p65 in cortex was increased after ischemia reperfusion injury, indicating the molecular mechanism of ischemia reperfusion injury. The level of NF-κB p65 was decreased by 73% after baicalin treatment. These results suggest that baicalin might be useful as a potential neuroprotective agent in stroke therapy. The neuroprotective effects of baicalin may relate to inhibition of NF-κB p65.

  6. Airway epithelial NF-κB activation promotes Mycoplasma pneumoniae clearance in mice.

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    Di Jiang

    Full Text Available Respiratory infections including atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp contribute to the pathobiology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Mp infection mainly targets airway epithelium and activates various signaling pathways such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. We have shown that short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1 serves as a novel host defense protein and is up-regulated upon Mp infection through NF-κB activation in cultured human and mouse primary airway epithelial cells. However, the in vivo role of airway epithelial NF-κB activation in host defense against Mp infection has not been investigated. In the current study, we investigated the effects of in vivo airway epithelial NF-κB activation on lung Mp clearance and its association with airway epithelial SPLUNC1 expression.Non-antimicrobial tetracycline analog 9-t-butyl doxycycline (9-TB was initially optimized in mouse primary tracheal epithelial cell culture, and then utilized to induce in vivo airway epithelial specific NF-κB activation in conditional NF-κB transgenic mice (CC10-(CAIKKβ with or without Mp infection. Lung Mp load and inflammation were evaluated, and airway epithelial SPLUNC1 protein was examined by immunohistochemistry. We found that 9-TB treatment in NF-κB transgene positive (Tg+, but not transgene negative (Tg- mice significantly reduced lung Mp load. Moreover, 9-TB increased airway epithelial SPLUNC1 protein expression in NF-κB Tg+ mice.By using the non-antimicrobial 9-TB, our study demonstrates that in vivo airway epithelial NF-κB activation promotes lung bacterial clearance, which is accompanied by increased epithelial SPLUNC1 expression.

  7. Sensitization of TNF-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells by concurrent suppression of the NF-κB and Akt pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xia; Chen Wenshu; Lin Yong

    2007-01-01

    Blockage of either nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) or Akt sensitizes cancer cells to TNF-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the undetermined effect of concurrent blockage of these two survival pathways on TNF-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. The results show that Akt contributes to TNF-induced NF-κB activation in lung cancer cells through regulating phosphorylation of the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB. Although individually blocking IKK or Akt partially suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activation, concurrent suppression of these pathways completely inhibited TNF-induced NF-κB activation and downstream anti-apoptotic gene expression, and synergistically potentiated TNF-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, suppression of Akt inhibited the Akt-mediated anti-apoptotic pathway through dephosphorylation of BAD. These results indicate that concurrent suppression of NF-κB and Akt synergistically sensitizes TNF-induced cytotoxicity through blockage of distinct survival pathways downstream of NF-κB and Akt, which may be applied in lung cancer therapy

  8. Aberrant activation of NF-κB signaling in mammary epithelium leads to abnormal growth and ductal carcinoma in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, Whitney; Chen, Lianyi; Tikhomirov, Oleg; Onishko, Halina; Gleaves, Linda; Stricker, Thomas P.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Yull, Fiona E.

    2015-01-01

    activated ductal tissue. These results indicate that aberrant NF-κB activation within mammary epithelium can lead to molecular and morphological changes consistent with the earliest stages of breast cancer. Thus, inhibition of NF-κB signaling following acute inflammation or the initial signs of hyperplastic ductal growth could represent an important opportunity for breast cancer prevention. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1652-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  9. Natural proteasome inhibitor celastrol suppresses androgen-independent prostate cancer progression by modulating apoptotic proteins and NF-kappaB.

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    Yao Dai

    Full Text Available Celastrol is a natural proteasome inhibitor that exhibits promising anti-tumor effects in human malignancies, especially the androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC with constitutive NF-κB activation. Celastrol induces apoptosis by means of proteasome inhibition and suppresses prostate tumor growth. However, the detailed mechanism of action remains elusive. In the current study, we aim to test the hypothesis that celastrol suppresses AIPC progression via inhibiting the constitutive NF-κB activity as well as modulating the Bcl-2 family proteins.We examined the efficacy of celastrol both in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated the role of NF-κB in celastrol-mediated AIPC regression. We found that celastrol inhibited cell proliferation in all three AIPC cell lines (PC-3, DU145 and CL1, with IC₅₀ in the range of 1-2 µM. Celastrol also suppressed cell migration and invasion. Celastrol significantly induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased sub-G1 population, caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Moreover, celastrol promoted cleavage of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and activated the pro-apoptotic protein Noxa. In addition, celastrol rapidly blocked cytosolic IκBα degradation and nuclear translocation of RelA. Likewise, celastrol inhibited the expression of multiple NF-κB target genes that are involved in proliferation, invasion and anti-apoptosis. Celastrol suppressed AIPC tumor progression by inhibiting proliferation, increasing apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis, in PC-3 xenograft model in nude mouse. Furthermore, increased cellular IκBα and inhibited expression of various NF-κB target genes were observed in tumor tissues.Our data suggest that, via targeting the proteasome, celastrol suppresses proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis by inducing the apoptotic machinery and attenuating constitutive NF-κB activity in AIPC both in vitro and in vivo. Celastrol as an active ingredient of traditional herbal medicine could thus be

  10. Inhibitory effect of a tyrosine-fructose Maillard reaction product, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal on amyloid-β generation and inflammatory reactions via inhibition of NF-κB and STAT3 activation in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells

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    Choi Im Seup

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloidogenesis is linked to neuroinflammation. The tyrosine-fructose Maillard reaction product, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal, possesses anti-inflammatory properties in cultured macrophages, and in an arthritis animal model. Because astrocytes and microglia are responsible for amyloidogenesis and inflammatory reactions in the brain, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects of 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. Methods Cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells were treated with LPS (1 μg/ml for 24 h, in the presence (1, 2, 5 μM or absence of 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal, and harvested. We performed molecular biological analyses to determine the levels of inflammatory and amyloid-related proteins and molecules, cytokines, Aβ, and secretases activity. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB DNA binding activity was determined using gel mobility shift assays. Results We found that 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal (1, 2, 5 μM suppresses the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 as well as the production of nitric oxide (NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in LPS (1 μg/ml-stimulated astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. Further, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal inhibited the transcriptional and DNA binding activity of NF-κB--a transcription factor that regulates genes involved in neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis via inhibition of IκB degradation as well as nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. Consistent with the inhibitory effect on inflammatory reactions, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal inhibited LPS-elevated Aβ42 levels through attenuation of β- and γ-secretase activities. Moreover, studies using signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 siRNA and a pharmacological inhibitor showed that 2

  11. Production of DNA minicircles less than 250 base pairs through a novel concentrated DNA circularization assay enabling minicircle design with NF-κB inhibition activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Thomas; Degrouard, Jeril; Baril, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Midoux, Patrick; Malinge, Jean-Marc

    2017-03-17

    Double-stranded DNA minicircles of less than 1000 bp in length have great interest in both fundamental research and therapeutic applications. Although minicircles have shown promising activity in gene therapy thanks to their good biostability and better intracellular trafficking, minicircles down to 250 bp in size have not yet been investigated from the test tube to the cell for lack of an efficient production method. Herein, we report a novel versatile plasmid-free method for the production of DNA minicircles comprising fewer than 250 bp. We designed a linear nicked DNA double-stranded oligonucleotide blunt-ended substrate for efficient minicircle production in a ligase-mediated and bending protein-assisted circularization reaction at high DNA concentration of 2 μM. This one pot multi-step reaction based-method yields hundreds of micrograms of minicircle with sequences of any base composition and position and containing or not a variety of site-specifically chemical modifications or physiological supercoiling. Biochemical and cellular studies were then conducted to design a 95 bp minicircle capable of binding in vitro two NF-κB transcription factors per minicircle and to efficiently inhibiting NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity in human cells. Therefore, our production method could pave the way for the design of minicircles as new decoy nucleic acids. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Andrographolide protects against LPS-induced acute lung injury by inactivation of NF-κB.

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    Tao Zhu

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is a central transcriptional factor and a pleiotropic regulator of many genes involved in acute lung injury. Andrographolide is found in the plant of Andrographis paniculata and widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, exhibiting potently anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting NF-κB activity. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of andrographolide on various aspects of LPS induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro.In vivo, BALB/C mice were subjected to LPS injection with or without andrographolide treatments to induce ALI model. In vitro, MLE-12 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence and absence of andrographolide. In vivo, pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, ultrastructure changes of type II alveolar epithelial cells, MPO activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in BALF, along with the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF were dose-dependently attenuated by andrographolide. Meanwhile, in vitro, the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF was also reduced by andrographolide. Moreover, our data showed that andrographolide significantly inhibited the ratios of phospho-IKKβ/total IKKβ, phospho-IκBα/total IκBα and phospho-NF-κB p65/total NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p65 DNA binding activities, both in vivo and in vitro.These results indicate that andrographolide dose-dependently suppressed the severity of LPS-induced ALI, more likely by virtue of andrographolide-mediated NF-κB inhibition at the level of IKKβ activation. These results suggest andrographolide may be considered as an effective and safe drug for the potential treatment of ALI.

  13. Andrographolide Protects against LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inactivation of NF-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Wang, Dao-xin; Zhang, Wei; Liao, Xiu-qing; Guan, Xian; Bo, Hong; Sun, Jia-yang; Huang, Ni-wen; He, Jing; Zhang, Yun-kun; Tong, Jing; Li, Chang-yi

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a central transcriptional factor and a pleiotropic regulator of many genes involved in acute lung injury. Andrographolide is found in the plant of Andrographis paniculata and widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, exhibiting potently anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting NF-κB activity. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of andrographolide on various aspects of LPS induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Methods and Results In vivo, BALB/C mice were subjected to LPS injection with or without andrographolide treatments to induce ALI model. In vitro, MLE-12 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence and absence of andrographolide. In vivo, pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, ultrastructure changes of type II alveolar epithelial cells, MPO activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in BALF, along with the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF were dose-dependently attenuated by andrographolide. Meanwhile, in vitro, the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF was also reduced by andrographolide. Moreover, our data showed that andrographolide significantly inhibited the ratios of phospho-IKKβ/total IKKβ, phospho-IκBα/total IκBα and phospho-NF-κB p65/total NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p65 DNA binding activities, both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions These results indicate that andrographolide dose-dependently suppressed the severity of LPS-induced ALI, more likely by virtue of andrographolide-mediated NF-κB inhibition at the level of IKKβ activation. These results suggest andrographolide may be considered as an effective and safe drug for the potential treatment of ALI. PMID:23437127

  14. Foeniculum vulgare essential oil ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza; Motamed, Saeed Mohammadi; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Chamanara, Mohsen; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Rashidian, Amir

    2017-10-24

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil on intestinal inflammation through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway in acetic acid-induced rat colitis. Acute colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2 mL of diluted acetic acid (4%) solution. Two hours after the induction of colitis, 0.2% tween 80 in normal saline, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) and F. vulgare essential oil (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) were administered to the animals by oral gavage and continued for 5 consecutive days. Assessment of macroscopic and microscopic lesions was done. MPO activity was evaluated by biochemical method. Furthermore, TNF-α activity was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the expression level of p-NF-kB p65 protein was measured by western blot analysis. Dexamethasone and F. vulgare essential oil (200, 400 mg/kg) reduced the macroscopic and microscopic lesions compared to the acetic acid group (p kB p65 protein (p kB pathway.

  15. Inhibition of Curcumin on ZAKα Activity Resultant in Apoptosis and Anchorage-Independent Growth in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Sun; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Lin, Ming Cheng; Lin, Wei-Wen; Yang, Jaw-Ji

    2017-10-31

    Curcumin, a popular yellow pigment of the dietary spice turmeric, has been reported to inhibit cell growth and to induce apoptosis in a wide variety of cancer cells. Although numerous studies have investigated anticancer effects of curcumin, the precise molecular mechanism of action remains unidentified. Whereas curcumin mediates cell survival and apoptosis through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling cascades, its impact on the upstream regulation of MAPK is unclear. The leucine-zipper and sterile-α motif kinase alpha (ZAKα), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-κB pathway. This paper investigated the prospective involvement of ZAKα in curcumin-induced effects on cancer cells. Our results suggest that the antitumor activity of curcumin is mediated via a mechanism involving inhibition of ZAKα activity.

  16. NF-κB Signaling Regulates Epstein–Barr Virus BamHI-Q-Driven EBNA1 Expression

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    Rob J. A. Verhoeven

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 is one of the few viral proteins expressed by EBV in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, most likely because of its essential role in maintaining the viral genome in EBV-infected cells. In NPC, EBNA1 expression is driven by the BamHI-Q promoter (Qp, which is regulated by both cellular and viral factors. We previously determined that the expression of another group of EBV transcripts, BamHI-A rightward transcripts (BARTs, is associated with constitutively activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB signaling in NPC cells. Here, we show that, like the EBV BART promoter, the EBV Qp also responds to NF-κB signaling. NF-κB p65, but not p50, can activate Qp in vitro, and NF-κB signaling regulates Qp-EBNA1 expression in NPC cells, as well as in other EBV-infected epithelial cells. The introduction of mutations in the putative NF-κB site reduced Qp activation by the NF-κB p65 subunit. Binding of p65 to Qp was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis, while electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs demonstrated that p50 can also bind to Qp. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling by the IκB kinase inhibitor PS-1145 resulted in the downregulation of Qp-EBNA1 expression in C666-1 NPC cells. Since EBNA1 has been reported to block p65 activation by inhibiting IKKα/β through an unknown mechanism, we suggest that, in NPC, NF-κB signaling and EBNA1 may form a regulatory loop which supports EBV latent gene expression, while also limiting NF-κB activity. These findings emphasize the role of NF-κB signaling in the regulation of EBV latency in EBV-associated tumors.

  17. NF-κB activation fails to protect cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis in the absence of Bcl-xL, but not Mcl-1, Bcl-2 or Bcl-w.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanelles, Elisenda; Gozzelino, Raffaella; Marqués-Fernández, Fernando; Iglesias-Guimarais, Victoria; Garcia-Belinchón, Mercè; Sánchez-Osuna, María; Solé, Carme; Moubarak, Rana S; Comella, Joan X; Yuste, Victor J

    2013-05-01

    TNFα can promote either cell survival or cell death. The activation of NF-κB plays a central role in cell survival while its inhibition makes TNFα-triggered cytotoxicity possible. Here, we report that the overexpression of a non-degradable mutant of the inhibitor of NF-κB (super-repressor (SR)-IκBα) sensitizes HeLa cells towards TNFα-induced apoptosis, involving caspases activation and cytocrome C release from the mitochondria. Interestingly, we describe that the specific knockdown of Bcl-xL, but not that of Bcl-2, Bcl-w or Mcl-1, renders cells sensitive to TNFα-induced apoptosis. This cytotoxic effect occurs without altering the activation of NF-κB. Then, the activation of the NF-κB pathway is not sufficient to protect Bcl-xL-downregulated cells from TNFα-induced cell death, meaning that TNFα is not able to promote cell survival in the absence of Bcl-xL. In addition, Bcl-xL silencing does not potentiate the cytotoxicity afforded by the cytokine in SR-IκBα-overexpressing cells. This indicates that TNFα-induced apoptosis in SR-IκBα-overexpressing cells relies on the protein levels of Bcl-xL. We have corroborated these findings using RD and DU-145 cells, which also become sensitive to TNFα-induced apoptosis after Bcl-xL knockdown despite that NF-κB remains activated. Altogether, our results point out that the impairment of the anti-apoptotic function of Bcl-xL should make cells sensitive towards external insults circumventing the TNFα-triggered NF-κB-mediated cytoprotective effect. Hence, the specific inhibition of Bcl-xL could be envisaged as a promising alternative strategy against NF-κB-dependent highly chemoresistant proliferative malignancies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Isoalantolactone inhibits LPS-induced inflammation via NF-κB inactivation in peritoneal macrophages and improves survival in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guodong; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Yanhua; Chen, Jing; Li, Li; Xie, Yubo

    2017-06-01

    Sepsis, a clinical syndrome occurring in patients following infection or injury, is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. It involves uncontrolled inflammatory response resulting in multi-organ failure and even death. Isoalantolactone (IAL), a sesquiterpene lactone, is known for its anti-cancer effects. Nevertheless, little is known about the anti-inflammatory effects of IAL, and the role of IAL in sepsis is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that IAL decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated production of nitric oxide, PEG 2 and cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) in peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, molecular mechanism studies indicated that IAL plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting LPS-induced activation of NF-κB pathway in peritoneal macrophages. In vivo, IAL reduced the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum, and increased the survival rate of mice with LPS-induced sepsis. In addition, IAL attenuated the activation of NF-κB pathway in liver. Taken together, our data suggest that IAL may represent a potentially new drug candidate for the treatment of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. NF-κB in T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Oncogenic Functions in Leukemic and in Microenvironmental Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Nuno R. dos; Ghezzo, Marinella N.; Silva, Ricardo C. da; Fernandes, Mónica T.

    2010-01-01

    Two main NF-κB signaling pathways, canonical and noncanonical, performing distinct functions in organisms have been characterized. Identification of mutations in genes encoding components of these NF-κB signaling pathways in lymphoid malignancies confirmed their key role in leukemogenesis. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes that despite significant therapeutic advances can still be fatal. Although mutations in NF-κB genes have not been reported in T-ALL, NF-κB constitutive activation in human T-ALL and in acute T-cell leukemia mouse models has been observed. Although these studies revealed activation of members of both canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways in acute T-cell leukemia, only inhibition of canonical NF-κB signaling was shown to impair leukemic T cell growth. Besides playing an important pro-oncogenic role in leukemic T cells, NF-κB signaling also appears to modulate T-cell leukemogenesis through its action in microenvironmental stromal cells. This article reviews recent data on the role of these transcription factors in T-ALL and pinpoints further research crucial to determine the value of NF-κB inhibition as a means to treat T-ALL

  20. NF-κB in T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Oncogenic Functions in Leukemic and in Microenvironmental Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Nuno R. dos, E-mail: nrsantos@ualg.pt; Ghezzo, Marinella N.; Silva, Ricardo C. da; Fernandes, Mónica T. [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine (CBME), University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-11-05

    Two main NF-κB signaling pathways, canonical and noncanonical, performing distinct functions in organisms have been characterized. Identification of mutations in genes encoding components of these NF-κB signaling pathways in lymphoid malignancies confirmed their key role in leukemogenesis. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes that despite significant therapeutic advances can still be fatal. Although mutations in NF-κB genes have not been reported in T-ALL, NF-κB constitutive activation in human T-ALL and in acute T-cell leukemia mouse models has been observed. Although these studies revealed activation of members of both canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways in acute T-cell leukemia, only inhibition of canonical NF-κB signaling was shown to impair leukemic T cell growth. Besides playing an important pro-oncogenic role in leukemic T cells, NF-κB signaling also appears to modulate T-cell leukemogenesis through its action in microenvironmental stromal cells. This article reviews recent data on the role of these transcription factors in T-ALL and pinpoints further research crucial to determine the value of NF-κB inhibition as a means to treat T-ALL.

  1. Fungal-induced cell cycle impairment, chromosome instability and apoptosis via differential activation of NF-κB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Ben-Abdallah

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens have developed efficient strategies to compromise host immune responses. Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen, recognised as the most common cause of systemic fungal infections leading to severe meningoencephalitis, mainly in immunocompromised patients. This yeast is characterized by a polysaccharide capsule, which inhibits its phagocytosis. Whereas phagocytosis escape and macrophage intracellular survival have been intensively studied, extracellular survival of this yeast and restraint of host innate immune response are still poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated whether C. neoformans affected macrophage cell viability and whether NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB, a key regulator of cell growth, apoptosis and inflammation, was involved. Using wild-type (WT as well as mutant strains of C. neoformans for the pathogen side, and WT and mutant cell lines with altered NF-κB activity or signalling as well as primary macrophages for the host side, we show that C. neoformans manipulated NF-κB-mediated signalling in a unique way to regulate macrophage cell fate and viability. On the one hand, serotype A strains reduced macrophage proliferation in a capsule-independent fashion. This growth decrease, which required a critical dosage of NF-κB activity, was caused by cell cycle disruption and aneuploidy, relying on fungal-induced modification of expression of several cell cycle checkpoint regulators in S and G2/M phases. On the other hand, C. neoformans infection induced macrophage apoptosis in a capsule-dependent manner with a differential requirement of the classical and alternative NF-κB signalling pathways, the latter one being essential. Together, these findings shed new light on fungal strategies to subvert host response through uncoupling of NF-κB activity in pathogen-controlled apoptosis and impairment of cell cycle progression. They also provide the first demonstration of induction of

  2. The Notch/Hes1 pathway sustains NF-κB activation through CYLD repression in T cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Lluis; Cathelin, Severine; D'Altri, Teresa; Trimarchi, Thomas; Statnikov, Alexander; Guiu, Jordi; Rodilla, Veronica; Inglés-Esteve, Julia; Nomdedeu, Josep; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Kucine, Nicole; Sun, Shao-Cong; Song, Guangchan; Mullighan, Charles C; Levine, Ross L; Rajewsky, Klaus; Aifantis, Iannis; Bigas, Anna

    2010-09-14

    It was previously shown that the NF-κB pathway is downstream of oncogenic Notch1 in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we visualize Notch-induced NF-κB activation using both human T-ALL cell lines and animal models. We demonstrate that Hes1, a canonical Notch target and transcriptional repressor, is responsible for sustaining IKK activation in T-ALL. Hes1 exerts its effects by repressing the deubiquitinase CYLD, a negative IKK complex regulator. CYLD expression was found to be significantly suppressed in primary T-ALL. Finally, we demonstrate that IKK inhibition is a promising option for the targeted therapy of T-ALL as specific suppression of IKK expression and function affected both the survival of human T-ALL cells and the maintenance of the disease in vivo. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol, an environmentally persistent alkylphenol, enhances interleukin-4 production in T cells via NF-AT activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi H.; Kim, Eugene; Kim, Tae S.

    2004-01-01

    4-tert-Octylphenol (OP) is a representative endocrine disruptor that may have adverse effects on human health. The influence of this compound on allergic immune responses remains unclear. In this study, we have examined the effects of OP on production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), a pro-inflammatory cytokine closely associated with allergic immune responses. OP significantly enhanced IL-4 production in antigen-primed T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with OP in vivo resulted in significant increase of IL-4 production in T cells and of IgE levels in sera of antigen-primed mice. Furthermore, OP enhanced the activation of IL-4 gene promoter in EL4 T cells transiently transfected with IL-4 promoter/reporter constructs, and the enhancing effect mapped to a region in the IL-4 promoter containing binding sites for nuclear factor of activated T cell (NF-AT). Activation of T cells by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) resulted in markedly enhanced binding activities to the NF-AT site, which significantly increased upon addition of OP, indicating that the transcription factor NF-AT was involved in the enhancing effect of OP on IL-4 production. The enhancement of IL-4 production by OP was blocked by FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, but not by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182 780. FK506 inhibited the NF-AT-DNA binding activity and IL-4 gene promoter activity enhanced by OP in a dose-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that OP enhances IL-4 production in T cells via the stimulation of calcineurin-dependent NF-AT activation

  4. Nobiletin Inhibits CD36-Dependent Tumor Angiogenesis, Migration, Invasion, and Sphere Formation Through the Cd36/Stat3/Nf-Κb Signaling Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipin Sp

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Targeted cancer therapy with natural compounds is more effective than nontargeted therapy. Nobiletin is a flavonoid derived from citrus peel that has anticancer activity. Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36 is a member of the class B scavenger receptor family that is involved in importing fatty acids into cells. CD36 plays a role in tumor angiogenesis by binding to its ligand, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1, and then interacting with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1. CD36 is implicated in tumor metastasis through its roles in fatty acid metabolism. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying nobiletin’s anticancer activity by characterizing its interactions with CD36 as the target molecule. We hypothesize that the anti-angiogenic activity of nobiletin involving its regulation of CD36 via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 rather than through TSP-1. Gene analysis identified a Gamma interferon activation site (GAS element in the CD36 gene promoter that acts as a STAT3 binding site, an interaction that was confirmed by ChIP assay. STAT3 interacts with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB, suggesting that nobiletin also acts through the CD36/ (STAT3/NF-κB signaling axis. Nobiletin inhibited CD36-dependent breast cancer cell migration and invasion as well as CD36-mediated tumor sphere formation. Taken together, these results suggest that nobiletin inhibits cancer stem cells in multiple ways.

  5. TGF-β1 activates the canonical NF-κB signaling to promote cell survival and proliferation in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhen-Yu [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China); Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, No.250 Changgang East Road, Guangzhou 510260, Guangdong Province (China); Zhong, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Meng-Yao; Zhong, Yu-Hua [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China); Zhang, Wei-Xi, E-mail: weixizhang@qq.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China)

    2016-03-18

    Activated fibroblasts continue to proliferate at injury sites, leading to progressive muscular fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). TGF-β1 is a dominant profibrotic mediator thought to play a critical role in muscle fibrosis; however, the implicated mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we showed that TGF-β1 increased the resistance to apoptosis and stimulated cell cycle progression in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts under serum deprivation conditions in vitro. TGF-β1 treatment activated the canonical NF-κB pathway; and we found that pharmacological inhibition of IKKβ with IMD-0354 and RelA gene knockdown with siRNA attenuated these effects of TGF-β1 on dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that TGF-β1 prevents apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts through the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. - Highlights: • TGF-β1 promotes survival and proliferation in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. • TGF-β1 activated the canonical NF-κB pathway in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. • Canonical NF-κB pathway mediates these effects of TGF-β1.

  6. TGF-β1 activates the canonical NF-κB signaling to promote cell survival and proliferation in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Zhen-Yu; Zhong, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Meng-Yao; Zhong, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Activated fibroblasts continue to proliferate at injury sites, leading to progressive muscular fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). TGF-β1 is a dominant profibrotic mediator thought to play a critical role in muscle fibrosis; however, the implicated mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we showed that TGF-β1 increased the resistance to apoptosis and stimulated cell cycle progression in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts under serum deprivation conditions in vitro. TGF-β1 treatment activated the canonical NF-κB pathway; and we found that pharmacological inhibition of IKKβ with IMD-0354 and RelA gene knockdown with siRNA attenuated these effects of TGF-β1 on dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that TGF-β1 prevents apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts through the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. - Highlights: • TGF-β1 promotes survival and proliferation in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. • TGF-β1 activated the canonical NF-κB pathway in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. • Canonical NF-κB pathway mediates these effects of TGF-β1.

  7. 6-Gingerol inhibits ROS and iNOS through the suppression of PKC-α and NF-κB pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tzung-Yan; Lee, Ko-Chen; Chen, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation is involved in numerous diseases, including chronic inflammatory diseases and the development of cancer. Many plants possess a variety of biological activities, including antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, our understanding of the anti-inflammatory effects of 6-gingerol is very limited. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages as a model of inflammation to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of 6-gingerol, which contains phenolic structure. We found that 6-gingerol exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect. 6-Gingerol could decrease inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α expression through suppression of I-κBα phosphorylation, NF-κB nuclear activation and PKC-α translocation, which in turn inhibits Ca 2+ mobilization and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that 6-gingerol acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by blocking NF-κB and PKC signaling, and may be developed as a useful agent for the chemoprevention of cancer or inflammatory diseases.

  8. Thrombin selectively engages LIM kinase 1 and slingshot-1L phosphatase to regulate NF-κB activation and endothelial cell inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Antony; Marando, Catherine; Rahman, Arshad; Fazal, Fabeha

    2013-11-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) inflammation is a central event in the pathogenesis of many pulmonary diseases such as acute lung injury and its more severe form acute respiratory distress syndrome. Alterations in actin cytoskeleton are shown to be crucial for NF-κB regulation and EC inflammation. Previously, we have described a role of actin binding protein cofilin in mediating cytoskeletal alterations essential for NF-κB activation and EC inflammation. The present study describes a dynamic mechanism in which LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1), a cofilin kinase, and slingshot-1Long (SSH-1L), a cofilin phosphatase, are engaged by procoagulant and proinflammatory mediator thrombin to regulate these responses. Our data show that knockdown of LIMK1 destabilizes whereas knockdown of SSH-1L stabilizes the actin filaments through modulation of cofilin phosphorylation; however, in either case thrombin-induced NF-κB activity and expression of its target genes (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) is inhibited. Further mechanistic analyses reveal that knockdown of LIMK1 or SSH-1L each attenuates nuclear translocation and thereby DNA binding of RelA/p65. In addition, LIMK1 or SSH-1L depletion inhibited RelA/p65 phosphorylation at Ser(536), a critical event conferring transcriptional competency to the bound NF-κB. However, unlike SSH-1L, LIMK1 knockdown also impairs the release of RelA/p65 by blocking IKKβ-dependent phosphorylation/degradation of IκBα. Interestingly, LIMK1 or SSH-1L depletion failed to inhibit TNF-α-induced RelA/p65 nuclear translocation and proinflammatory gene expression. Thus this study provides evidence for a novel role of LIMK1 and SSH-1L in selectively regulating EC inflammation associated with intravascular coagulation.

  9. Desloratadine citrate disodium injection, a potent histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, inhibits chemokine production in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis guinea pig model and histamine-induced human nasal epithelial cells via inhibiting the ERK1/2 and NF-kappa B signal cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiling; Xu, Shuhong; Zhou, Peipei; He, Guangwei; Jie, Qiong; Wu, Yulin

    2015-11-15

    Chemokines have chemotactic properties on leukocyte subsets whose modulation plays a pivotal role in allergic inflammatory processes. Our present study was designed to investigate the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of desloratadine citrate disodium injection (DLC) and elucidate the molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory properties. The anti-allergic effects of DLC were evaluated based on allergic symptoms, serological marker production and histological changes of the nasal mucosa in guinea pigs model of allergic rhinitis. The anti-inflammatory properties and molecular mechanisms of DLC were explored by studying the regulation of a set of chemokines and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways, after DLC treatment in guinea pigs model of allergic rhinitis in vivo and histamine-activated human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) in vitro. In vivo model in guinea pigs, DLC alleviated the rhinitis symptoms, inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and histamine, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed, and presumably secreted (RANTEs) and interleukin (IL)-8 release in sera and P-ERK1/2 and NF-κB activation in nasal mucosa. In vitro, DLC markedly inhibited histamine-induced production of MCP-1, RANTEs and IL-8 and suppressed c-Raf, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and ERK1/2 activation in HNECs. These results provide evidence that DLC possesses potent anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties. The mechanism of action underlying DLC in allergic inflammation appears to be inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, in addition to blocking of the NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct inhibition of TNF-α promoter activity by Fanconi anemia protein FANCD2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Matsushita

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA, an inherited disease, is associated with progressive bone marrow failure, predisposition to cancer, and genomic instability. Genes corresponding to 15 identified FA complementation groups have been cloned, and each gene product functions in the response to DNA damage induced by cross-linking agents and/or in protection against genome instability. Interestingly, overproduction of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and aberrant activation of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity have been observed in FA cells. Here we demonstrated that FANCD2 protein inhibits NF-κB activity in its monoubiquitination-dependent manner. Furthermore, we detected a specific association between FANCD2 and an NF-κB consensus element in the TNF-α promoter by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. Therefore, we propose FANCD2 deficiency promotes transcriptional activity of the TNF-α promoter and induces overproduction of TNF-which then sustains prolonged inflammatory responses. These results also suggest that artificial modulation of TNFα production could be a promising therapeutic approach to FA.

  11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 enhances NF-kappaB activation in Escherichia coli-stimulated urinary bladder cells through TLR4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Mattias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial cells of the urinary tract recognize pathogenic bacteria through pattern recognition receptors on their surface, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs, and mount an immune response through the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. Some uropathogenic bacteria can subvert these cellular responses, creating problems with how the host eliminates pathogens. Lactobacillus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria that are part of the microbiota and consist of many probiotic strains, some specifically for urogenital infections. Immunomodulation has emerged as an important mode of action of probiotic and commensal lactobacilli and given the importance of epithelial cells, we evaluated the effect of the urogenital probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on epithelial immune activation. Results Immune activation through the NF-kappaB pathway was initiated by stimulation of T24 urothelial cells with heat-killed Escherichia coli and this was further potentiated when cells were co-cultured with live L. rhamnosus GR-1. Heat-killed lactobacilli were poor activators of NF-kappaB. Concomitant stimulation of bladder cells with E. coli and L. rhamnosus GR-1 increased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF, whereas IL-6 and CXCL8 levels were reduced. Another probiotic, L. rhamnosus GG, was also able to potentiate NF-kappaB in these cells although at a significantly reduced level compared to the GR-1 strain. The transcript numbers and protein levels of the lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4 were significantly increased after co-stimulation with E. coli and lactobacilli compared to controls. Furthermore, inhibition of TLR4 activation by polymixin B completely blocked the lactobacilli potentiation of NF-kappaB. Conclusions The immunological outcome of E. coli challenge of bladder cells was influenced by probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1, by enhancing the activation of NF-kappaB and TNF release. Thus the urogenital probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1

  12. The novel NF-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanduri, M; Tobin, G; Åleskog, A; Nilsson, K; Rosenquist, R

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important regulator of cell survival and has been shown to be constitutively active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Recently, a novel NF-κB inhibitor, IMD-0354 (N-(3, 5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-5-chloro-2-hydroxy-benzamide), was shown to specifically inhibit the phosphorylation of IκBα by IkB kinases, thus preventing NF-κB release. In this study, we investigated if IMD-0354 can inhibit NF-κB activation and induce apoptosis in CLL cells in vitro. The rate of increase in apoptosis, drug sensitivity and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB were studied using Annexin V stainings, the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. Finally, the impact of IMD-0354 treatment on the expression of a set of apoptosis-related genes was investigated. The results clearly show that IMD-0354 induced apoptosis (mean 26%, range 8–48%) in CLL cells, independent of immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) gene mutational status, and showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect. IMD-0354 treatment also significantly lowered the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in CLL cells. In addition, we identified differences in expression levels of pro- and antiapoptotic genes following IMD-0354 treatment. In summary, our novel findings show that IMD-0354 can induce apoptosis in CLL cells, and thus merits further investigation as an anticancer agent in vivo

  13. The novel NF-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduri, M; Tobin, G; Åleskog, A; Nilsson, K; Rosenquist, R

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important regulator of cell survival and has been shown to be constitutively active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Recently, a novel NF-κB inhibitor, IMD-0354 (N-(3, 5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-5-chloro-2-hydroxy-benzamide), was shown to specifically inhibit the phosphorylation of IκBα by IkB kinases, thus preventing NF-κB release. In this study, we investigated if IMD-0354 can inhibit NF-κB activation and induce apoptosis in CLL cells in vitro. The rate of increase in apoptosis, drug sensitivity and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB were studied using Annexin V stainings, the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. Finally, the impact of IMD-0354 treatment on the expression of a set of apoptosis-related genes was investigated. The results clearly show that IMD-0354 induced apoptosis (mean 26%, range 8–48%) in CLL cells, independent of immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) gene mutational status, and showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect. IMD-0354 treatment also significantly lowered the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in CLL cells. In addition, we identified differences in expression levels of pro- and antiapoptotic genes following IMD-0354 treatment. In summary, our novel findings show that IMD-0354 can induce apoptosis in CLL cells, and thus merits further investigation as an anticancer agent in vivo. PMID:22829125

  14. The novel NF-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanduri, M; Tobin, G [Rudbeck Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Åleskog, A [Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Nilsson, K; Rosenquist, R [Rudbeck Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important regulator of cell survival and has been shown to be constitutively active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Recently, a novel NF-κB inhibitor, IMD-0354 (N-(3, 5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-5-chloro-2-hydroxy-benzamide), was shown to specifically inhibit the phosphorylation of IκBα by IkB kinases, thus preventing NF-κB release. In this study, we investigated if IMD-0354 can inhibit NF-κB activation and induce apoptosis in CLL cells in vitro. The rate of increase in apoptosis, drug sensitivity and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB were studied using Annexin V stainings, the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. Finally, the impact of IMD-0354 treatment on the expression of a set of apoptosis-related genes was investigated. The results clearly show that IMD-0354 induced apoptosis (mean 26%, range 8–48%) in CLL cells, independent of immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) gene mutational status, and showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect. IMD-0354 treatment also significantly lowered the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in CLL cells. In addition, we identified differences in expression levels of pro- and antiapoptotic genes following IMD-0354 treatment. In summary, our novel findings show that IMD-0354 can induce apoptosis in CLL cells, and thus merits further investigation as an anticancer agent in vivo.

  15. 2',4-Dihydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from Chromolaena odorata possesses anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of NF-κB and p38 MAPK in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Rana; Kimseng, Rungruedee; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn; Hiransai, Poonsit; Utaipan, Tanyarath; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Chunglok, Warangkana

    2018-02-01

    Immune dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Macrophages play a crucial role contributing to the onset, progression, and resolution of inflammation. Macrophage inflammatory mediators are of considerable interest as potential targets to treat inflammatory diseases. The present study was conducted to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of 2',4-dihydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone (1), the major chalcone isolated from Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cell viability, nitric oxide (NO), and proinflammatory cytokines of LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells were measured by MTT, Griess, and ELISA assays, respectively. Cell lysates were subjected to Western blotting for investigation of protein expression. Treatment with the major chalcone 1 significantly attenuated the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in a dose-dependent manner. The chalcone suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) stimulation by preventing activation of inhibitor κB kinase (IKK) α/β, degradation of inhibitor κB (IκB) α, and translocation of p65 NF-κB into the nucleus. Additionally, the chalcone markedly repressed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but no further inhibition was detected for c-Jun N-terminal activated kinases or extracellular regulated kinases. Thus, suppression of NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation may be the core mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of 2',4-dihydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone (1). These findings provide evidence that 2',4-dihydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone (1) possesses anti-inflammatory activity via targeting proinflammatory macrophages. This anti-inflammatory chalcone is a promising compound for reducing inflammation.

  16. Nano-gold displayed anti-inflammatory property via NF-kB pathways by suppressing COX-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahmood Ahmad; Khan, Mohd Jahir

    2018-03-19

    pro-inflammatory cytokines, COX-2 and other inflammatory mediators that leads to cartilage destruction. AuNGs inhibit the activation of NF-kB and other inflammatory mediators and attenuate inflammation and cartilage destruction. COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2; IKK: IkB kinases; IKB: I Kappa B; IL-1β: interleukin-6; IL-6: interleukin-6; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; NF-kB: nuclear transcription factor kappa B; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TNF-α: tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

  17. Diisononyl phthalate aggravates allergic dermatitis by activation of NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Song, Jing; Shen, Shiping; Li, Baizhan; Yang, Xu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-12-20

    Several epidemiological studies have suggested a possible link between exposure to Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and the development of allergies. These findings remain controversial since there is insufficient scientific evidence to assess the ability of DINP to influence allergic immune responses. In addition, the mechanisms behind DINP-caused allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In this study, Balb/c mice were orally exposed to DINP for 3 weeks and were then sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). We showed that oral exposure to DINP could aggravate allergic-dermatitis-like lesions, indicated by an increase in the number of mast cells, and in increased skin edema in FITC-induced contact hypersensitivity. This deterioration was concomitant with increased total serum immunoglobulin-E and Th2 cytokines. We determined the oxidative damage and the activation of nuclear factor-kb (NF-kB). The data demonstrated that DINP could promote oxidative damage and the activation of NF-kB in the skin. The expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcriptions 3, 5 and 6 were enhanced concomitant with exacerbated allergic dermatitis effects and the activation of NF-kB induced by DINP. These effects were alleviated by pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-kB. The results suggest that oral exposure to DINP aggravated allergic contact dermatitis, which was positively regulated via NF-kB.

  18. Collagen gel protects L929 cells from TNFα-induced death by activating NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ju; Li, Meng-Qi; Liu, Wei-Wei; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Type I collagen is one of the most abundant components of extracellular matrix. We previously illustrated that murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells grew well on type I collagen gel and escaped from TNFα-induced cell death. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effect of collagen gel. We used western blot, confocal microscopy, MTT assay and flow cytometry by introducing fluorescence staining to determine the expression levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory ratio and autophagy. L929 cells on collagen gel showed higher expression of NF-κB in the nucleus. Inhibition of NF-κB with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate hydrochloride (PDTC) or knockdown by NF-κB-siRNA canceled the protective effect of collagen gel on L929 cells from TNFα-induced death, suggesting for the role of NF-κB in the protection from cell death. We found a new aspect of the effect of PDTC on L929 cells cultured on collagen gel. PDTC alone without TNFα induced apoptosis in the L929 cells cultured on collagen gel but not the cells on plastic dish. The apoptosis induction of the L929 cells cultured on collagen gel with PDTC was repressed by inhibiting autophagy with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, suggesting that autophagy contributes to the death induced by the treatment with PDTC. Possible underlying mechanism of this finding is discussed. NF-κB played an important role in protecting the L929 cells cultured on collagen gel from TNFα-induced death.

  19. NF-κB is involved in the LPS-mediated proliferation and apoptosis of MAC-T epithelial cells as part of the subacute ruminal acidosis response in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen-Jie; Li, He-Ping; Zhu, He-Shui; Sui, Shi-Ping; Chen, Pei-Ge; Deng, Yue; Sui, Tong-Ming; Wang, Yue-Ying

    2016-11-01

    To determine the effect of NF-κB on cell proliferation and apoptosis, we investigate the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related factors in the bovine mammary epithelial cell line, MAC-T. MAC-T cells were cultured in vitro and MTT and LDH assays used to determine the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on proliferation and cytotoxicity respectively. RT-PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate the effect of LPS and NF-κB inhibition [pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) treatment] on the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related factors. LPS significantly inhibited MAC-T cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, LPS promoted apoptosis while the NF-кB inhibitor PDTC attenuated this effect. After LPS treatment, the NF-кB signaling pathway was activated, and the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related factors increased. When PDTC blocked NF-кB signaling, the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related factors were decreased in MAC-T cells. LPS activates the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in MAC-T cells. NF-кB inhibition attenuates MAC-T cell apoptosis and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. NF-кB inhibitor alleviating MAC-T cell apoptosis is presumably modulated by NF-кB.

  20. CARMA3 is overexpressed in colon cancer and regulates NF-κB activity and cyclin D1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Tingting; Wang, Zhenning; Xu, Yingying; Song, Yongxi; Wu, Jianhua; Xu, Huimian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CARMA3 expression is elevated in colon cancers. ► CARMA3 promotes proliferation and cell cycle progression in colon cancer cells. ► CARMA3 upregulates cyclinD1 through NF-κB activation. -- Abstract: CARMA3 was recently reported to be overexpressed in cancers and associated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the expression of CARMA3 and its biological roles in colon cancer have not been reported. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of CARMA3 in colon cancer tissues and found that CARMA3 was overexpressed in 30.8% of colon cancer specimens. There was a significant association between CARMA3 overexpression and TNM stage (p = 0.0383), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0091) and Ki67 proliferation index (p = 0.0035). Furthermore, knockdown of CARMA3 expression in HT29 and HCT116 cells with high endogenous expression decreased cell proliferation and cell cycle progression while overexpression of CARMA3 in LoVo cell line promoted cell proliferation and facilitated cell cycle transition. Further analysis showed that CARMA3 knockdown downregulated and its overexpression upregulated cyclin D1 expression and phospho-Rb levels. In addition, we found that CARMA3 depletion inhibited p-IκB levels and NF-κB activity and its overexpression increased p-IκB expression and NF-κB activity. NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 reversed the role of CARMA3 on cyclin D1 upregulation. In conclusion, our study found that CARMA3 is overexpressed in colon cancers and contributes to malignant cell growth by facilitating cell cycle progression through NF-κB mediated upregulation of cyclin D1.

  1. Effects of Qingshen Granules on the Oxidative Stress-NF/kB Signal Pathway in Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Background . The activation of NF-kappa B (NF/kB) signaling pathway plays an important role in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) in renal tubules. The process of oxidative stress reaction in kidney is via excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to activate NF/kB signaling pathway. Qingshen Granule (QSG) is an effective Chinese formula utilized to treat chronic renal failure. Previous studies confirmed that QSG could inhibit RIF in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) rats. In this study, we used UUO rats to investigate the effects of QSG on oxidative stress and the activation of NF/kB signaling. Seventy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a sham group, UUO model group, Qingshen Granules (QSG) high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose groups, PDTC group, and candesartan group (10 rats in each group). Our study demonstrated that oxidative stress-NF/kB signal pathway contributed to the formation of UUO renal interstitial fibrosis. QSG may protect against RIF by inhibiting the oxidative stress-NF/kB signal pathway, reducing inflammation, and improving renal tubular EMT.

  2. TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-κB-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Mio; Sato, Tomonobu; Nukiwa, Ryota; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NF-κB plays an important role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. ► TRIM45 negatively regulates TNFα-induced NF-κB-mediated transcription. ► TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. ► TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-κB signal and regulates cell growth. -- Abstract: The NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-κB is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-κB signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one of the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNFα-induced NF-κB-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-κB signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-κB signal and regulates cell growth.

  3. BFV activates the NF-κB pathway through its transactivator (BTas) to enhance viral transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Tan Juan; Zhang Xihui; Guo Hongyan; Zhang Qicheng; Guo Tingting; Geng Yunqi; Qiao Wentao

    2010-01-01

    Multiple families of viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to regulate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling, which plays a pivotal role in diverse cellular events, including virus-host interactions. In this study, we report that bovine foamy virus (BFV) is able to activate the NF-κB pathway through the action of its transactivator, BTas. Both cellular IKKβ and IκBα also participate in this activation. In addition, we demonstrate that BTas induces the processing of p100, which implies that BTas can activate NF-κB through a noncanonical pathway as well. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis shows that BTas interacts with IKK catalytic subunits (IKKα and IKKβ), which may be responsible for regulation of IKK kinase activity and persistent NF-κB activation. Furthermore, our results indicate that the level of BTas-mediated LTR transcription correlates with the activity of cellular NF-κB. Together, this study suggests that BFV activates the NF-κB pathway through BTas to enhance viral transcription.

  4. Molecular evidence for the existence of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel/NF-kB pathways in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel family nuclear factor kappaB (Rel/NF-kB) are two important transcription factors which play major roles in the regulating inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis and immune related genes. Here, we report the discovery of disk abalone LITAF (AbLITAF) and Rel/NF-kB (AbRel/NF-kB) homologues and their immune responses. Full-length cDNA of AbLITAF consists of 441 bp open reading frame (ORF) that translates into putative peptide of 147 aa. Analysis of AbLITAF sequence showed it has characteristic LITAF (Zn(+2)) binding domain with two CXXC motifs. Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed that AbLITAF is a member of LITAF family. AbRel/NF-kB is 584 aa protein that contains several characteristic motifs including Rel homology domain (RHD), Rel protein signature, DNA binding motif, nuclear localization signal (NLS) and transcription factor immunoglobulin - like fold (TIG) similar to their invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts. Tissue specific analysis results showed that both AbLITAF and AbRel/NF-kB mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner. However, constitutive expression of AbLITAF was higher than AbRel/NF-kB in all tissues except mantle. Upon immune challenge by bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) and viral hemoragic septicemia virus (VHSV), AbLITAF showed the significant up-regulation in gills while AbRel/NF-kB transcription was not change significantly. Based on transcriptional response against immune challenge, we could suggest that regulation of TNF-alpha expression may have occurred mainly by LITAF activation rather than NF-kB in disk abalone. The cumulative data from other molluscs and our data with reference to TNF-alpha, LITAF and Rel/NF-kB from disk abalone provide strong evidence that LITAF and NF-kB are independent pathways likely to occur throughout the Phylum mollusca. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Two specific drugs, BMS-345541 and purvalanol A induce apoptosis of HTLV-1 infected cells through inhibition of the NF-kappaB and cell cycle pathways

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    Wu Weilin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1 induces adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL/L, a fatal lymphoproliferative disorder, and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system after a long period of latent infection. Although the mechanism of transformation and leukemogenesis is not fully elucidated, there is evidence to suggest that the viral oncoprotein Tax plays a crucial role in these processes through the regulation of several pathways including NF-κB and the cell cycle pathways. The observation that NF-κB, which is strongly induced by Tax, is indispensable for the maintenance of the malignant phenotype of HTLV-1 by regulating the expression of various genes involved in cell cycle regulation and inhibition of apoptosis provides a possible molecular target for these infected cells. To develop potential new therapeutic strategies for HTLV-1 infected cells, in this present study, we initially screened a battery of NF-κB and CDK inhibitors (total of 35 compounds to examine their effects on the growth and survival of infected T-cell lines. Two drugs namely BMS-345541 and Purvalanol A exhibited higher levels of growth inhibition and apoptosis in infected cell as compared to uninfected cells. BMS-345541 inhibited IKKβ kinase activity from HTLV-1 infected cells with an IC50 (the 50% of inhibitory concentration value of 50 nM compared to 500 nM from control cells as measured by in vitro kinase assays. The effects of Purvalanol A were associated with suppression of CDK2/cyclin E complex activity as previously shown by us. Combination of both BMS-345541 and Purvalanol A showed a reduced level of HTLV-1 p19 Gag production in cell culture. The apparent apoptosis in these infected cells were associated with increased caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage. The potent and selective apoptotic effects of these drugs suggest that both BMS-345541 and Purvalanol A

  6. Two specific drugs, BMS-345541 and purvalanol A induce apoptosis of HTLV-1 infected cells through inhibition of the NF-kappaB and cell cycle pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbottah, Emmanuel; Yeh, Wen-I; Berro, Reem; Klase, Zachary; Pedati, Caitlin; Kehn-Hall, Kyleen; Wu, Weilin; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2008-06-10

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) induces adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL/L), a fatal lymphoproliferative disorder, and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system after a long period of latent infection. Although the mechanism of transformation and leukemogenesis is not fully elucidated, there is evidence to suggest that the viral oncoprotein Tax plays a crucial role in these processes through the regulation of several pathways including NF-kappaB and the cell cycle pathways. The observation that NF-kappaB, which is strongly induced by Tax, is indispensable for the maintenance of the malignant phenotype of HTLV-1 by regulating the expression of various genes involved in cell cycle regulation and inhibition of apoptosis provides a possible molecular target for these infected cells. To develop potential new therapeutic strategies for HTLV-1 infected cells, in this present study, we initially screened a battery of NF-kappaB and CDK inhibitors (total of 35 compounds) to examine their effects on the growth and survival of infected T-cell lines. Two drugs namely BMS-345541 and Purvalanol A exhibited higher levels of growth inhibition and apoptosis in infected cell as compared to uninfected cells. BMS-345541 inhibited IKKbeta kinase activity from HTLV-1 infected cells with an IC50 (the 50% of inhibitory concentration) value of 50 nM compared to 500 nM from control cells as measured by in vitro kinase assays. The effects of Purvalanol A were associated with suppression of CDK2/cyclin E complex activity as previously shown by us. Combination of both BMS-345541 and Purvalanol A showed a reduced level of HTLV-1 p19 Gag production in cell culture. The apparent apoptosis in these infected cells were associated with increased caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage. The potent and selective apoptotic effects of these drugs suggest that both BMS-345541 and Purvalanol A, which target

  7. Curcumin protects intestinal mucosal barrier function of rat enteritis via activation of MKP-1 and attenuation of p38 and NF-κB activation.

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    Wei-Bing Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal mucosa barrier (IMB dysfunction results in many notorious diseases for which there are currently few effective treatments. We studied curcumin's protective effect on IMB and examined its mechanism by using methotrexate (MTX induced rat enteritis model and lipopolysaccharide (LPS treated cell death model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Curcumin was intragastrically administrated from the first day, models were made for 7 days. Cells were treated with curcumin for 30 min before exposure to LPS. Rat intestinal mucosa was collected for evaluation of pathological changes. We detected the activities of D-lactate and diamine oxidase (DAO according to previous research and measured the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO and superoxide dismutase (SOD by colorimetric method. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin 1β (IL-1β were determined by RT-PCR and IL-10 production was determined by ELISA. We found Curcumin decreased the levels of D-lactate, DAO, MPO, ICAM-1, IL-1β and TNF-α, but increased the levels of IL-10 and SOD in rat models. We further confirmed mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 was activated but phospho-p38 was inhibited by curcumin by western blot assay. Finally, NF-κB translocation was monitored by immunofluorescent staining. We showed that curcumin repressed I-κB and interfered with the translocation of NF-κB into nucleus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The effect of curcumin is mediated by the MKP-1-dependent inactivation of p38 and inhibition of NF-κB-mediated transcription. Curcumin, with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities may be used as an effective reagent for protecting intestinal mucosa barrier and other related intestinal diseases.

  8. Geranylgeranylacetone ameliorates lung ischemia/reperfusion injury by HSP70 and thioredoxin redox system: NF-kB pathway involved.

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    Cao, Weijun; Li, Manhui; Li, Jianxiong; Li, Chengwei; Xu, Xin; Gu, Weiqing

    2015-06-01

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) has been clinically used as an anti-ulcer drug. In the present study, we explored the protective effects of GGA on lung ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and the underlying mechanism. The results demonstrated that GGA ameliorated the lung biochemical and histological alterations induced by IRI, which was reversed by HSP70 inhibition. To further explore the mechanism of GGA action, we focused on NF-kB and thioredoxin (Trx) redox system. It was shown that GGA induced the HSP70 and Trx-1 expression, NF-kB nuclear translocation and activated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). The Trx-1 expression and TrxR activity was suppressed by HSP70 and NF-kB inhibition, while the nuclear NF-kB p65 expression was suppressed by HSP70 inhibitor. These results indicated that GGA may protect rat lung against IRI by HSP70 and Trx redox system, in which NF-kB pathway may be involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bee Venom in BV2 Microglial Cells: Mediation of MyD88-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun Ju; Kim, Su Jung; Hong, Seung Bok; Park, Jin-Kyu; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used as a traditional folk medicine in Korea. It has been reportedly used for the treatment of arthritis, cancer, and inflammation. Although its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated inflammatory cells has been reported, the exact mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of bee venom in BV2 microglial cells. We first investigated whether NO production in LPS-activated BV2 cells was inhibited by bee venom, and further iNOS mRNA and protein expressions were determined. The mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were examined using semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Moreover, modulation of the transcription factor NF-κB by bee venom was also investigated using a luciferase assay. LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglial cells was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner upon pretreatment with bee venom. Bee venom markedly reduced the mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and suppressed LPS-induced activation of MyD88 and IRAK1 and phosphorylation of TAK1. Moreover, NF-κB translocation by IKKα/β phosphorylation and subsequent IκB-α degradation were also attenuated. Thus, collectively, these results indicate that bee venom exerts its anti-inflammatory activity via the IRAK1/TAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  10. Baicalin Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation Through Signaling NF-κB Pathway in HBE16 Airway Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shou-jin; Zhong, Yun-qing; Lu, Wen-ting; Li, Guan-hong; Jiang, Hong-li; Mao, Bing

    2015-08-01

    Baicalin, a flavonoid monomer derived from Scutellaria baicalensis called Huangqin in mandarin, is the main active ingredient contributing to S. baicalensis' efficacy. It is known in China that baicalin has potential therapeutic effects on inflammatory diseases. However, its anti-inflammatory mechanism has still not been fully interpreted. We aim to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of baicalin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in HBE16 airway epithelial cells and also to explore the underlying signaling mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory action of baicalin was evaluated in human airway epithelial cells HBE16 treated with LPS. Airway epithelial cells HBE16 were pretreated with a range of concentrations of baicalin for 30 min and then stimulated with 10 μg/ml LPS. The secretions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in cell culture supernatants were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR). Furthermore, Western blotting was used to determine whether the signaling pathway NF-κB was involved in the anti-inflammatory action of baicalin. The inflammatory cell model was successfully built with 10 μg/ml LPS for 24 h in our in vitro experiments. Both the secretions and the mRNA expressions of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were significantly inhibited by baicalin. Moreover, the expression levels of phospho-IKKα/β and phospho-NF-κB p65 were downregulated, and the phospho-IκB-α level was upregulated by baicalin. These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of baicalin may be resulted from the inhibition of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α expression via preventing signaling NF-κB pathway in HBE16 airway epithelial cells. In addition, this study provides evidence to understand the therapeutic effects of baicalin on inflammatory diseases in

  11. NF-κB targeting by way of IKK inhibition sensitizes lung cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL

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    Karacay Bahri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer causes the highest rate of cancer-related deaths both in men and women. As many current treatment modalities are inadequate in increasing patient survival, new therapeutic strategies are required. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL selectively induces apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells, prompting its current evaluation in a number of clinical trials. The successful therapeutic employment of TRAIL is restricted by the fact that many tumor cells are resistant to TRAIL. The goal of the present study was to test a novel combinatorial gene therapy modality involving adenoviral delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL and IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA to overcome TRAIL resistance in lung cancer cells. Methods Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect optimum doses of adenovirus vectors to transduce lung cancer cells. Cell viability was assessed via a live/dead cell viability assay. Luciferase assays were employed to monitor cellular NF-κB activity. Apoptosis was confirmed using Annexin V binding. Results Neither Ad5hTRAIL nor AdIKKβKA infection alone induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells, but the combined use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA significantly increased the amount of A549 apoptosis. Luciferase assays demonstrated that both endogenous and TRAIL-induced NF-κB activity was down-regulated by AdIKKβKA expression. Conclusions Combination treatment with Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA induced significant apoptosis of TRAIL-resistant A549 cells, suggesting that dual gene therapy strategy involving exogenous TRAIL gene expression with concurrent IKK inhibition may be a promising novel gene therapy modality to treat lung cancer.

  12. NF-κB targeting by way of IKK inhibition sensitizes lung cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Cigdem; Sanlioglu, Ahter D; Bisgin, Atil; Yoldas, Burcak; Dertsiz, Levent; Karacay, Bahri; Griffith, Thomas S; Sanlioglu, Salih

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer causes the highest rate of cancer-related deaths both in men and women. As many current treatment modalities are inadequate in increasing patient survival, new therapeutic strategies are required. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells, prompting its current evaluation in a number of clinical trials. The successful therapeutic employment of TRAIL is restricted by the fact that many tumor cells are resistant to TRAIL. The goal of the present study was to test a novel combinatorial gene therapy modality involving adenoviral delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL) and IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA) to overcome TRAIL resistance in lung cancer cells. Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect optimum doses of adenovirus vectors to transduce lung cancer cells. Cell viability was assessed via a live/dead cell viability assay. Luciferase assays were employed to monitor cellular NF-κB activity. Apoptosis was confirmed using Annexin V binding. Neither Ad5hTRAIL nor AdIKKβKA infection alone induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells, but the combined use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA significantly increased the amount of A549 apoptosis. Luciferase assays demonstrated that both endogenous and TRAIL-induced NF-κB activity was down-regulated by AdIKKβKA expression. Combination treatment with Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA induced significant apoptosis of TRAIL-resistant A549 cells, suggesting that dual gene therapy strategy involving exogenous TRAIL gene expression with concurrent IKK inhibition may be a promising novel gene therapy modality to treat lung cancer

  13. Andrographolide Suppresses Proliferation of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells via Attenuating NF-κB Pathway

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    Tao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (Andro has been reported to have anticancer activity in multiple types of cancer due to its capacity to inactivate NF-κB pathway. Previous studies showed the therapeutic potential of targeting NF-κB pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. However, the anticancer activity of Andro in NPC has not been reported. In this study, we defined the anticancer effects of Andro in NPC and elucidated its potential mechanisms of action. Our results showed that Andro significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of NPC cells (P<0.05, resp.. These anticancer activities were associated with cell apoptosis, cell death and induction of cell cycle arrest, and the downregulation of NF-κB target genes. This work provides evidence that NF-κB pathway is a potential therapeutic target and may also be indispensable in the Andro-mediated anticancer activities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  14. Spontaneous NF-κB activation by autocrine TNFα signaling: a computational analysis.

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    Jakub Pękalski

    Full Text Available NF-κB is a key transcription factor that regulates innate immune response. Its activity is tightly controlled by numerous feedback loops, including two negative loops mediated by NF-κB inducible inhibitors, IκBα and A20, which assure oscillatory responses, and by positive feedback loops arising due to the paracrine and autocrine regulation via TNFα, IL-1 and other cytokines. We study the NF-κB system of interlinked negative and positive feedback loops, combining bifurcation analysis of the deterministic approximation with stochastic numerical modeling. Positive feedback assures the existence of limit cycle oscillations in unstimulated wild-type cells and introduces bistability in A20-deficient cells. We demonstrated that cells of significant autocrine potential, i.e., cells characterized by high secretion of TNFα and its receptor TNFR1, may exhibit sustained cytoplasmic-nuclear NF-κB oscillations which start spontaneously due to stochastic fluctuations. In A20-deficient cells even a small TNFα expression rate qualitatively influences system kinetics, leading to long-lasting NF-κB activation in response to a short-pulsed TNFα stimulation. As a consequence, cells with impaired A20 expression or increased TNFα secretion rate are expected to have elevated NF-κB activity even in the absence of stimulation. This may lead to chronic inflammation and promote cancer due to the persistent activation of antiapoptotic genes induced by NF-κB. There is growing evidence that A20 mutations correlate with several types of lymphomas and elevated TNFα secretion is characteristic of many cancers. Interestingly, A20 loss or dysfunction also leaves the organism vulnerable to septic shock and massive apoptosis triggered by the uncontrolled TNFα secretion, which at high levels overcomes the antiapoptotic action of NF-κB. It is thus tempting to speculate that some cancers of deregulated NF-κB signaling may be prone to the pathogen-induced apoptosis.

  15. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-κB transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Guoping; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Jing; Gao, Hui; Yuan, Xiao; Shen, Gang

    2010-01-01

    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-κB in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-κB activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of IκB-α, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB to the nucleus. It is likely that stretch-induced NF-κB activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB. Moreover, depletion of p38α using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-κB activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The α isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-κB following stimulation with cyclic stretch.

  16. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Guoping [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu, Dongxu [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Liu, Jing [Department of Orthodontics, The Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266075 (China); Gao, Hui [Department of Orthodontics, Tianjin Stomatological Hospital, Tianjin 300041 (China); Yuan, Xiao, E-mail: yuanxiaoqd@163.com [Department of Orthodontics, The Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266075 (China); Shen, Gang, E-mail: ganshen2007@163.com [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2010-01-01

    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. It is likely that stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-{kappa}B. Moreover, depletion of p38{alpha} using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-{kappa}B activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-{kappa}B signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The {alpha} isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B following stimulation with cyclic stretch.

  17. Immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in immune T-cells and T-lymphoma cells via regulation of Th1, Th2 immune response and MAPK/ERK2 signaling pathway.

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    Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Chaudhary, Narendra; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Min-Yong; Shin, Tai-Sun; Kim, Jong-Deog

    2014-06-01

    The anti-cancer activity of saponins and phenolic compounds present in green tea was previously reported. However, the immunomodulatory and adjuvanticity activity of tea saponin has never been studied. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in T-lymphocytes and EL4 cells via regulation of cytokine response and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression level of cytokines were performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following stimulation with tea saponin, ovalbumin (OVA) alone or tea saponin in combination with OVA. Tea saponin inhibited the proliferation of EL4 cells measured in a dose-dependent manner. No cytotoxicity effect of tea saponin was detected in T-lymphocytes; rather, tea saponin enhanced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Tea saponin with OVA increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-12, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased the expression level of IL-10 and IL-8 in T-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tea saponin, in the presence of OVA, downregulated the MAPK signaling pathway via inhibition of IL-4, IL-8 and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in EL4 cells. Th1 cytokines enhancer and Th2 cytokines and NF-κB inhibitor, tea saponin can markedly inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of T-lymphoma (EL4) cells, possibly due to TNF-α- and NF-κB-mediated regulation of MAPK signaling pathway.

  18. Targeting the NF-κB Pathway as a Combination Therapy for Advanced Thyroid Cancer.

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    Nikita Pozdeyev

    Full Text Available NF-κB signaling plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and drug/radiation resistance. Combination therapy involving NF-κB pathway inhibition is an attractive strategy for the treatment of advanced forms of thyroid cancer. This study was designed to test the efficacy of NF-κB pathway inhibition in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy, using docetaxel and ionizing radiation in in vitro models of thyroid cancer. We found that while both docetaxel and ionizing radiation activated NF-κB signaling in thyroid cancer cells, there was no synergistic effect on cell proliferation and/or programmed cell death with either genetic (transduction of a dominant negative mutant form of IκBα or pharmacologic (proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and IKKβ inhibitor GO-Y030 inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in thyroid cancer cell lines BCPAP, 8505C, THJ16T and SW1736. Docetaxel plus bortezomib synergistically decreased in vitro invasion of 8505C cells, but not in the other cell lines. Screening of a panel of clinically relevant targeted therapies for synergy with genetic NF-κB inhibition in a proliferation/cytotoxicity assay identified the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA as a potential candidate. However, the synergistic effect was confirmed only in the BCPAP cells. These results indicate that NF-κB inhibitors are unlikely to be beneficial as combination therapy with taxane cytotoxic chemotherapy, external radiation therapy or radioiodine therapy. There may be unique circumstances where NF-κB inhibitors may be considered in combination with docetaxel to reduce tumor invasion or in combination with HDAC inhibitors to reduce tumor growth, but this does not appear to be a combination therapy that could be broadly applied to patients with advanced thyroid cancer. Further research may identify which subsets of patients/tumors may respond to this therapeutic

  19. Protein kinase Cη activates NF-κB in response to camptothecin-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Hai, Naama; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Shahaf, Galit; Gopas, Jacob; Livneh, Etta

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Protein kinase C-eta (PKCη)