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Sample records for inhibited cytokine response

  1. Cytokine Response to Exercise and Its Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuhiko Suzuki

    2018-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces such inflammatory responses as leukocytosis (neutrophilia) and symptoms as delayed-onset muscle soreness and swelling. However, the association between inflammatory mediator cytokines and oxidative stress is not fully delineated. Herein, in addition to basic background information on cytokines, research findings on exertional effects on cytokine release and the underlying mechanisms and triggers are introduced. Then, the associations among cytokine responses, oxidat...

  2. Ex vivo inhibited cytokine profiling may explain inferior treatment response to golimumab after adalimumab failure in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tweehuysen, L; Schraa, K.; Netea, M.G.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Joosten, L.A.B.; Broeder, A.A. den

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Clinical data suggest that the response of rheumatoid arthritis patients to treatment with golimumab is much lower among those who switched from adalimumab than among those who switched from etanercept. To elucidate the mechanism behind this difference in response to sequential biologic

  3. Total glucosides of paeony inhibit the inflammatory responses of mice with allergic contact dermatitis by restoring the balanced secretion of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Yuan, Jun; Wu, Hua-Xun; Chang, Yan; Wang, Qing-Tong; Wu, Yu-Jing; Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Jun; Wei, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the regulation exerted by the total glucosides of paeony (TGP) on the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 in the serum and lymphocytes of mice with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). ACD in mice was induced by the repeated application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to their skins. The mice were orally administered TGP (35, 70, and 140mg/kg/d) and prednisone (Pre, 5mg/kg/d) from day 1 to day 7 after immunization. The inflammatory responses were evaluated by ear swelling and histological examination. Thymocyte proliferation was assayed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide assay. The cytokine production in the serum and lymphocytes supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the topical application of DNCB to the skin provoked obvious inflammatory responses. The oral administration of TGP (70 and 140mg/kg/d) and Pre (5mg/kg/d) significantly inhibited skin inflammation, decreased the thymus and spleen indices, and inhibited thymocyte proliferation in mice treated with DNCB. Further study indicated that TGP increased IL-4 and IL-10 production but decreased the production of IL-2 and IL-17 in the serum and lymphocyte supernatant. The correlation analysis suggested significantly positive correlations between IL-2 and IL-17 production and the severity of skin inflammation, whereas negative correlations were obtained for IL-4 and IL-10 production and skin inflammation. In summary, these results suggest that the therapeutic effects of TGP on ACD may result from its regulation of the imbalanced secretion of IL-2/IL-4 and IL-10/IL-17. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytokine Response to Exercise and Its Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Suzuki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Strenuous exercise induces such inflammatory responses as leukocytosis (neutrophilia and symptoms as delayed-onset muscle soreness and swelling. However, the association between inflammatory mediator cytokines and oxidative stress is not fully delineated. Herein, in addition to basic background information on cytokines, research findings on exertional effects on cytokine release and the underlying mechanisms and triggers are introduced. Then, the associations among cytokine responses, oxidative stress, and tissue damage are described not only in overloaded skeletal muscle, but also in other internal organs. Furthermore, we introduce preventive countermeasures against the exhaustive exercise-induced pathogenesis together with the possibility of antioxidant interventions.

  5. Natural killer cell cytokine response to M. bovis BCG Is associated with inhibited proliferation, increased apoptosis and ultimate depletion of NKp44(+CD56(bright cells.

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    Damien Portevin

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis BCG, a live attenuated strain of M. bovis initially developed as a vaccine against tuberculosis, is also used as an adjuvant for immunotherapy of cancers and for treatment of parasitic infections. The underlying mechanisms are thought to rely on its immunomodulatory properties including the recruitment of natural killer (NK cells. In that context, we aimed to study the impact of M. bovis BCG on NK cell functions. We looked at cytotoxicity, cytokine production, proliferation and cell survival of purified human NK cells following exposure to single live particles of mycobacteria. We found that M. bovis BCG mediates apoptosis of NK cells only in the context of IL-2 stimulation during which CD56(bright NK cells are releasing IFN-γ in response to mycobacteria. We found that the presence of mycobacteria prevented the IL-2 induced proliferation and surface expression of NKp44 receptor by the CD56(bright population. In summary, we observed that M. bovis BCG is modulating the functions of CD56(bright NK cells to drive this subset to produce IFN-γ before subsequent programmed cell death. Therefore, IFN-γ production by CD56(bright cells constitutes the main effector mechanism of NK cells that would contribute to the benefits observed for M. bovis BCG as an immunotherapeutic agent.

  6. Fisetin, a flavonol, inhibits TH2-type cytokine production by activated human basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Shinji; Hirano, Toru; Kotani, Mayumi; Matsumoto, Motonobu; Fujita, Akihito; Suemura, Masaki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio

    2003-06-01

    Activation of mast cells and basophils through allergen stimulation releases chemical mediators and synthesizes cytokines. Among these cytokines, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5 have major roles in allergic inflammation. We sought to determine the potency of flavonoids (astragalin, fisetin, kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, and rutin) for the inhibition of cytokine expression and synthesis by human basophils. The inhibitory effect of flavonoids on cytokine expression by stimulated KU812 cells, a human basophilic cell line, and freshly purified peripheral blood basophils was measured by means of semiquantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assays. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells were assessed by means of electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Fisetin suppressed the induction of IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5 mRNA expression by A23187-stimulated KU812 cells and basophils in response to cross-linkage of the IgE receptor. Fisetin reduced IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5 synthesis (inhibitory concentration of 50% [IC(50)] = 19.4, 17.7, and 17.4 micromol/L, respectively) but not IL-6 and IL-8 production by KU812 cells. In addition, fisetin inhibited IL-4 and IL-13 synthesis by anti-IgE antibody-stimulated human basophils (IC(50) = 5.1 and 6.2 micromol/L, respectively) and IL-4 synthesis by allergen-stimulated basophils from allergic patients (IC(50) = 4.8 micromol/L). Among the flavonoids examined, kaempferol and quercetin showed substantial inhibitory activities in cytokine expression but less so than those of fisetin. Fisetin inhibited nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T cells c2 by A23187-stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide evidence of a novel activity of the flavonoid fisetin that suppresses the expression of T(H)2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5) by basophils.

  7. Laticifer proteins from Plumeria pudica inhibit the inflammatory and nociceptive responses by decreasing the action of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana B. Fernandes

    Full Text Available AbstractSome publications have described the pharmacological properties of latices proteins. Thus, in the present study proteins from Plumeria pudica Jacq., Apocynaceae, latex were evaluated for anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Obtained data showed that an intraperitoneal administration of different doses of latex was able to reduce the paw edema induced by carrageenan in a dose-dependent manner (better dose 40 mg/kg; 72.7% inhibition at 3rd and 78.7% at 4th hour and the edema induced by dextran (40 mg/kg; 51.5% inhibition at 30 min and 93.0% at 1st hour. Inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan was accompanied by a reduction of myeloperoxidase activity. Pre-treating animals with latex (40 mg/kg also inhibited the paw edema induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, prostaglandin E2, compound 48/80. Additionally, the latex (40 mg/kg reduced the leukocyte peritoneal migration induced by carrageenan and this event was followed by reduction of IL-1β and TNF-α in peritoneal fluid. The latex-treatment (40 mg/kg reduced the animal abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid and the first phase on paw licking model induced by formalin. When latex was treated with heat (at 100 °C for 30 min, anti-edematogenic and myeloperoxidase activities were significantly reduced, indicating the involvement of heat-sensitive proteins on anti-inflammatory effect. Our results evidence that latex fluids are a source of proteins with pharmacological properties.

  8. Vitamin E γ-Tocotrienol Inhibits Cytokine-Stimulated NF-κB Activation by Induction of Anti-Inflammatory A20 via Stress Adaptive Response Due to Modulation of Sphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Park, Na-Young; Jang, Yumi; Ma, Averil; Jiang, Qing

    2015-07-01

    NF-κB plays a central role in pathogenesis of inflammation and cancer. Many phytochemicals, including γ-tocotrienol (γTE), a natural form of vitamin E, have been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation, but the underlying mechanism has not been identified. In this study, we show that γTE inhibited cytokine-triggered activation of NF-κB and its upstream regulator TGF-β-activated kinase-1 in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. In these cells, γTE induced upregulation of A20, an inhibitor of NF-κB. Knockout of A20 partially diminished γTE's anti-NF-κB effect, but γTE increased another NF-κB inhibitor, Cezanne, in A20(-/-) cells. In search of the reason for A20 upregulation, we found that γTE treatment increased phosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2, IκBα, and JNK, indicating induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that γTE modulated sphingolipids, including enhancement of intracellular dihydroceramides, sphingoid bases in de novo synthesis of the sphingolipid pathway. Chemical inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthesis partially reversed γTE's induction of A20 and the anti-NF-κB effect. The importance of dihydroceramide increase is further supported by the observation that C8-dihydroceramide mimicked γTE in upregulating A20, enhancing endoplasmic reticulum stress, and attenuating TNF-triggered NF-κB activation. Our study identifies a novel anti-NF-κB mechanism where A20 is induced by stress-induced adaptive response as a result of modulation of sphingolipids, and it demonstrates an immunomodulatory role of dihydrocermides. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Sirtuin inhibition attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Claudia A. [Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium); Fievez, Laurence [University of Liege, GIGA-Research, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Liege B-4000 (Belgium); Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Delzenne, Nathalie M. [Universite catholique de Louvain, LDRI, Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium); Bureau, Fabrice [University of Liege, GIGA-Research, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Liege B-4000 (Belgium); Vanbever, Rita, E-mail: rita.vanbever@uclouvain.be [Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages were treated with cambinol and sirtinol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol and sirtinol decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol decreased NF-{kappa}B activity but had no impact on p38 MAPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sirtuins are an interesting target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: In several inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or sepsis, the regulatory mechanisms of inflammation are inefficient and the excessive inflammatory response leads to damage to the host. Sirtuins are class III histone deacetylases that modulate the activity of several transcription factors that are implicated in immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the impact of sirtuin inhibition on the activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 macrophages by assessing the production of inflammatory cytokines. The pharmacologic inhibition of sirtuins decreased the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Rantes. The reduction of cytokine production was associated with decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity and inhibitor kappa B alpha (I{kappa}B{alpha}) phosphorylation while no impact was observed on the phosphorylation status of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK). This work shows that sirtuin pharmacologic inhibitors are a promising tool for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  10. Sirtuin inhibition attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Cláudia A.; Fievez, Laurence; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Bureau, Fabrice; Vanbever, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages were treated with cambinol and sirtinol. ► Cambinol and sirtinol decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokines. ► Cambinol decreased NF-κB activity but had no impact on p38 MAPK activation. ► Sirtuins are an interesting target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: In several inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or sepsis, the regulatory mechanisms of inflammation are inefficient and the excessive inflammatory response leads to damage to the host. Sirtuins are class III histone deacetylases that modulate the activity of several transcription factors that are implicated in immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the impact of sirtuin inhibition on the activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 macrophages by assessing the production of inflammatory cytokines. The pharmacologic inhibition of sirtuins decreased the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Rantes. The reduction of cytokine production was associated with decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity and inhibitor kappa B alpha (IκBα) phosphorylation while no impact was observed on the phosphorylation status of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK). This work shows that sirtuin pharmacologic inhibitors are a promising tool for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  11. Potassium humate inhibits complement activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Naude, P.J. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-08-15

    The effects of brown coal derived potassium humate on lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and complement activation were investigated in vitro. Potassium humate increased lymphocyte proliferation of phytohaemaglutinin A (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulated mononuclear lymphocytes (MNL) in vitro from concentrations of 20 to 80 {mu} g/ml, in a dose dependant manner. On the other hand potassium humate, at 40 {mu} g/ml, significantly inhibited the release of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PHA stimulated MNL. Regarding complement activation it was found that potassium humate inhibits the activation of both the alternative and classical pathways without affecting the stability of the red blood cell membranes. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory potential of potassium humate could be partially due to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for the initiation of these reactions as well as inhibition of complement activation. The increased lymphocyte proliferation observed, might be due to increased IL-2 production as previously been documented.

  12. Dual function of CD70 in viral infection: modulator of early cytokine responses and activator of adaptive responses1

    OpenAIRE

    Allam, Atef; Swiecki, Melissa; Vermi, William; Ashwell, Jonathan D.; Colonna, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The role of the tumor necrosis factor family member CD70 in adaptive T cell responses has been intensively studied but its function in innate responses is still under investigation. Here we show that CD70 inhibits the early innate response to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) but is essential for the optimal generation of virus-specific CD8 T cells. CD70-/- mice reacted to MCMV infection with a robust type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine response. This response was sufficient for initia...

  13. Inhibition of cytokine production by methotrexate. Studies in healthy volunteers and patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, A.H.; Lathouder, de S; Groot, E.R.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Aarden, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse whether the beneficial effects of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could be due to inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production. METHODS: Cytokine production was studied using whole blood (WB) and mononuclear cells (MNC) of healthy volunteers and RA patients.

  14. Inhibition of cytokine production by methotrexate. Studies in healthy volunteers and patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, A. H.; de Lathouder, S.; de Groot, E. R.; Dijkmans, B. A. C.; Aarden, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. To analyse whether the beneficial effects of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could be due to inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production. Methods. Cytokine production was studied using whole blood (WB) and mononuclear cells (MNC) of healthy volunteers and RA patients.

  15. Mechanism of inhibition of growth hormone receptor signaling by suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J A; Lindberg, K; Hilton, D J

    1999-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins in GH receptor-mediated signaling. GH-induced transcription was inhibited by SOCS-1 and SOCS-3, while SOCS-2 and cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) had no effect By using chimeric SOCS pro...

  16. Suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 expression inhibits cytokine-mediated destruction of primary mouse and rat pancreatic islets and delays allograft rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, S G; Börjesson, A; Bruun, C

    2008-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IFNgamma are critical molecules in immune-mediated beta cell destruction leading to type 1 diabetes mellitus. Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 inhibits the cytokine-mediated destruction of insulinoma-1 cells. Here we investigate the effect of SOCS...

  17. Acrolein in cigarette smoke inhibits T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Cherie; McCue, Jesica; Portas, Mary; Ouyang, Yanli; Li, JiMei; Rosano, Thomas G; Lazis, Alexander; Freed, Brian M

    2005-10-01

    Cigarette smoking inhibits T-cell responses in the lungs, but the immunosuppressive compounds have not been fully identified. Cigarette smoke extracts inhibit IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha production in stimulated lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, even when the extracts were diluted 100-fold to 1000-fold. The objective of these studies was to identify the immunosuppressive compounds found in cigarette smoke. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and HPLC were used to identify and quantitate volatile compounds found in cigarette smoke extracts. Bioactivity was measured by viability and production of cytokine mRNA and protein levels in treated human lymphocytes. The vapor phase of the cigarette smoke extract inhibited cytokine production, indicating that the immunosuppressive compounds were volatile. Among the volatile compounds identified in cigarette smoke extracts, only the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein (inhibitory concentration of 50% [IC50] = 3 micromol/L) and crotonaldehyde (IC50 = 6 micromol/L), exhibited significant inhibition of cytokine production. Although the levels of aldehydes varied 10-fold between high-tar (Camel) and ultralow-tar (Carlton) extracts, even ultralow-tar cigarettes produced sufficient levels of acrolein (34 micromol/L) to suppress cytokine production by >95%. We determined that the cigarette smoke extract inhibited transcription of cytokine genes. The inhibitory effects of acrolein could be blocked with the thiol compound N-acetylcysteine. The vapor phase from cigarette smoke extracts potently suppresses cytokine production. The compound responsible for this inhibition appears to be acrolein.

  18. Chalcones from Chinese liquorice inhibit proliferation of T cells and production of cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Kemp, Kåre; Hansen, Majbritt

    2002-01-01

    Licochalcone A (LicA), an oxygenated chalcone, has been shown to inhibit the growth of both parasites and bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effect of LicA and four synthetic analogues on the activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine production. Four...... out of five chalcones tested inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes measured by thymidine incorporation and by flow cytometry. The production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes and T cells was also inhibited by four of five chalcones. Furthermore, intracellular detection...... of cytokines revealed that the chalcones inhibited the production rather than the release of the cytokines. Taken together, these results indicate that LicA and some analogues may have immunomodulatory effects, and may thus be candidates not only as anti-microbial agents, but also for the treatment of other...

  19. Antibiotic-Mediated Inhibition of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV Infection: A Novel Quinolone Function Which Potentiates the Antiviral Cytokine Response in MARC-145 Cells and Pig Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Cafruny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an economically significant agent for which there currently are no effective treatments. Development of antiviral agents for PRRSV as well as many other viruses has been limited by toxicity of known antiviral compounds. In contrast, antibiotics for non-virus microbial infections have been widely useful, in part because of their acceptable toxicity in animals. We report here the discovery that the quinolonecontaining compound Plasmocin™, as well as the quinolones nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, have potent anti-PRRSV activity in vitro. PRRSV replication was inhibited by these antibiotics in both cultured MARC-145 cells and cultured primary alveolar porcine macrophages (PAMs. Furthermore, sub-optimal concentrations of nalidixic acid synergized with antiviral cytokines (AK-2 or IFN-γ to quantitatively and qualitatively inhibit PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells or PAMs. The antiviral activity of Plasmocin and nalidixic acid correlated with reduced actin expression in MARC-145 cells. Replication of the related lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV was also inhibited in primary mouse macrophages by Plasmocin. These results are significant to the development of antiviral strategies with potentially reduced toxicity, and provide a model system to better understand regulation of arterivirus replication.

  20. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  1. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak2 in the JH2 domain inhibits cytokine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feener, Edward P; Rosario, Felicia; Dunn, Sarah L; Stancheva, Zlatina; Myers, Martin G

    2004-06-01

    Jak family tyrosine kinases mediate signaling by cytokine receptors to regulate diverse biological processes. Although Jak2 and other Jak kinase family members are phosphorylated on numerous sites during cytokine signaling, the identity and function of most of these sites remains unknown. Using tandem mass spectroscopic analysis of activated Jak2 protein from intact cells, we identified Tyr(221) and Tyr(570) as novel sites of Jak2 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of both sites was stimulated by cytokine treatment of cultured cells, and this stimulation required Jak2 kinase activity. While we observed no gross alteration of signaling upon mutation of Tyr(221), Tyr(570) lies within the inhibitory JH2 domain of Jak2, and mutation of this site (Jak2(Y570F)) results in constitutive Jak2-dependent signaling in the absence of cytokine stimulation and enhances and prolongs Jak2 activation during cytokine stimulation. Mutation of Tyr(570) does not alter the ability of SOCS3 to bind or inhibit Jak2, however. Thus, the phosphorylation of Tyr(570) in vivo inhibits Jak2-dependent signaling independently of SOCS3-mediated inhibition. This Tyr(570)-dependent mechanism of Jak2 inhibition likely represents an important mechanism by which cytokine function is regulated.

  2. Inhibition of cytokine production by methotrexate. Studies in healthy volunteers and patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerards, A.H.; Lathouder, de, S; Groot, E.R.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Aarden, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse whether the beneficial effects of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could be due to inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production. METHODS: Cytokine production was studied using whole blood (WB) and mononuclear cells (MNC) of healthy volunteers and RA patients. Cultures were stimulated with either bacterial products such as lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) or Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC) to activate monocytes or with monoclonal antibodies to CD3 and CD28 to in...

  3. Alpha-mangostin inhibits both dengue virus production and cytokine/chemokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuk, Mayuri; Songprakhon, Pucharee; Chimma, Pattamawan; Sratongno, Panudda; Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai

    2017-08-15

    Since severe dengue virus (DENV) infection in humans associates with both high viral load and massive cytokine production - referred to as "cytokine storm", an ideal drug for treatment of DENV infection should efficiently inhibit both virus production and cytokine expression. In searching for such an ideal drug, we discovered that α-mangostin (α-MG), a major bioactive compound purified from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana Linn), which has been used in traditional medicine for several conditions including trauma, diarrhea, wound infection, pain, fever, and convulsion, inhibits both DENV production in cultured hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and Huh-7 cells, and cytokine/chemokine expression in HepG2 cells. α-MG could also efficiently inhibit all four serotypes of DENV. Treatment of DENV-infected cells with α-MG (20μM) significantly reduced the infection rates of four DENV serotypes by 47-55%. α-MG completely inhibited production of DENV-1 and DENV-3, and markedly reduced production of DENV-2 and DENV-4 by 100 folds. Furthermore, it could markedly reduce cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokine (RANTES, MIP-1β, and IP-10) transcription. These actions of α-MG are more potent than those of antiviral agent (ribavirin) and anti-inflammatory drug (dexamethasone). Thus, α-MG is potential to be further developed as therapeutic agent for DENV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytokine response to Escherichia coli in gnotobiotic pigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šplíchal, Igor; Šplíchalová, Alla; Trebichavský, Ilja

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2008), s. 161-164 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/05/0249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : germ-free pigs * escherichia coli * cytokine response Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  5. Oral warfarin intake affects skin inflammatory cytokine responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, Aleksandra Popov; Mirkov, Ivana; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Ninkov, Marina; Mileusnic, Dina; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2017-09-01

    Warfarin is an anticoagulant used in prevention/prophylaxis of thromboembolism. Besides the effects on coagulation, non-hemorrhagic reactions have also been documented. Although cutaneous reactions were reported in some patients, the impact on skin immunity was not explored. In the present paper, the effect of 30-day oral warfarin intake on skin cytokine responses in rats was analyzed. Increased release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β and IL-10) was noted by skin explants from rats which received warfarin, but without effect on IL-6. No impact on epidermal cell cytokine secretion was seen, except a tendency of an increase of IL-6 response to stimulation with microbial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Topical application of contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) resulted in slight (numerical solely) increase of TNF release by skin explants of warfarin-treated animals, while epidermal cells responded by increased secretion of all four cytokines examined. The data presented provide new information on the potential of oral warfarin to modulate skin innate immune activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cyperus scariosus Chloroform Fraction Inhibits T cell Responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    CSC did not significantly (p < 0.01) suppress Th2 (IL-4) system. Conclusion: The findings from this investigation reveal that C. scariosus causes immunosuppression by inhibiting Th1 cytokines. Keywords: Cyperus scariosus; Immunosuppression; Humoral antibody titre; Cell-mediated immune response; CD 4+ T- helper cells ...

  7. Dual function of CD70 in viral infection: modulator of early cytokine responses and activator of adaptive responses1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Atef; Swiecki, Melissa; Vermi, William; Ashwell, Jonathan D.; Colonna, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The role of the tumor necrosis factor family member CD70 in adaptive T cell responses has been intensively studied but its function in innate responses is still under investigation. Here we show that CD70 inhibits the early innate response to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) but is essential for the optimal generation of virus-specific CD8 T cells. CD70-/- mice reacted to MCMV infection with a robust type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine response. This response was sufficient for initial control of MCMV, although at later time points, CD70-/- mice became more susceptible to MCMV infection. The heightened cytokine response during the early phase of MCMV infection in CD70-/- mice was paralleled by a reduction in regulatory T cells (Treg). Treg from naïve CD70-/- mice were not as efficient at suppressing T cell proliferation compared to Treg from naïve WT mice and depletion of Treg during MCMV infection in Foxp3-DTR mice or in WT mice recapitulated the phenotype observed in CD70-/- mice. Our study demonstrates that while CD70 is required for the activation of the antiviral adaptive response, it has a regulatory role in early cytokine responses to viruses such as MCMV, possibly through maintenance of Treg survival and function. PMID:24913981

  8. Fisetin Inhibits Hyperglycemia-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Epigenetic Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Hye Joo Kim; Seong Hwan Kim; Jung-Mi Yun

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is characterized by a proinflammatory state, and several inflammatory processes have been associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the resulting complications. High glucose levels induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Fisetin, a flavonoid dietary ingredient found in the smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria), and is also widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Fisetin is known to exert anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of the NF-?B signaling pathway. In this...

  9. Translational overview of cytokine inhibition in acute myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Minke H T; Groot, Hilde E; Leach, Irene Mateo; Karper, Jacco C; van der Harst, Pim

    2018-02-15

    Many cytokines are currently under investigation as potential target to improve cardiac function and outcome in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (MI) or chronic heart failure (HF). Here we aim to provide a translational overview of cytokine inhibiting therapies tested in experimental models and clinical studies. In various experimental studies, inhibition of interleukin-1 (IL-1), -6 (IL-6), -8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), CC- and CXC chemokines, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) had beneficial effects on cardiac function and outcome. On the other hand, neutral or even detrimental results have been reported for some (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1). Ambivalence of cytokine function, differences in study designs, treatment regimens and chosen endpoints hamper the translation of experimental research into clinical practice. Human studies are currently limited to IL-1β inhibition, IL-1 receptor antagonists (IL-1RA), IL-6 receptor antagonists (IL-6RA) or TNF inhibition. Despite favorable effects on cardiovascular events observed in retrospective cohort studies of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with TNF inhibition or IL-1RA, most prospective studies reported disappointing and inconsistent results. Smaller studies (n 100) evaluating IL-1β inhibition presented positive results on outcome. In conclusion, of the 10 anticytokine therapies tested in animals models beneficial effects have been reported in at least one setting. In larger clinical studies, findings were unsatisfactory in all but one. Many anticytokine therapies with promising animal experimental data continue to require further evaluation in humans. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of early T cell cytokine production by arsenic trioxide occurs independently of Nrf2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R VanDenBerg

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a stress-activated transcription factor that induces a variety of cytoprotective genes. Nrf2 also mediates immunosuppressive effects in multiple inflammatory models. Upon activation, Nrf2 dissociates from its repressor protein, Keap1, and translocates to the nucleus where it induces Nrf2 target genes. The Nrf2-Keap1 interaction is disrupted by the environmental toxicant and chemotherapeutic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ATO on early events of T cell activation and the role of Nrf2 in those effects. The Nrf2 target genes Hmox-1, Nqo-1, and Gclc were all upregulated by ATO (1-2 μM in splenocytes derived from wild-type, but not Nrf2-null, mice, suggesting that Nrf2 is activated by ATO in splenocytes. ATO also inhibited IFNγ, IL-2, and GM-CSF mRNA and protein production in wild-type splenocytes activated with the T cell activator, anti-CD3/anti-CD28. However, ATO also decreased production of these cytokines in activated splenocytes from Nrf2-null mice, suggesting the inhibition is independent of Nrf2. Interestingly, ATO inhibited TNFα protein secretion, but not mRNA expression, in activated splenocytes suggesting the inhibition is due to post-transcriptional modification. In addition, c-Fos DNA binding was significantly diminished by ATO in wild-type and Nrf2-null splenocytes activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28, consistent with the observed inhibition of cytokine production by ATO. Collectively, this study suggests that although ATO activates Nrf2 in splenocytes, inhibition of early T cell cytokine production by ATO occurs independently of Nrf2 and may instead be due to impaired AP-1 DNA binding.

  11. Flavonoids inhibit histamine release and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Hyun; Lee, Soyoung; Son, Hee-Young; Park, Seung-Bin; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Eun-Ju; Singh, Thoudam S K; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Lee, Maan-Gee; Kim, Jung-Eun; Hyun, Myung Chul; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Yeo Hyang; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2008-10-01

    Mast cells participate in allergy and inflammation by secreting inflammatory mediators such as histamine and proinflammatory cytokines. Flavonoids are naturally occurring molecules with antioxidant, cytoprotective, and antiinflammatory actions. However, effect of flavonoids on the release of histamine and proinflammatory mediator, and their comparative mechanism of action in mast cells were not well defined. Here, we compared the effect of six flavonoids (astragalin, fisetin, kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, and rutin) on the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation. Fisetin, kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, and rutin inhibited IgE or phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-mediated histamine release in RBL-2H3 cells. These five flavonoids also inhibited elevation of intracellular calcium. Gene expressions and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 were assessed in PMACI-stimulated human mast cells (HMC-1). Fisetin, quercetin, and rutin decreased gene expression and production of all the proinflammatory cytokines after PMACI stimulation. Myricetin attenuated TNF-alpha and IL-6 but not IL-1beta and IL-8. Fisetin, myricetin, and rutin suppressed activation of NF-kappaB indicated by inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, NF-kappaB/DNA binding, and NF-kappaB-dependent gene reporter assay. The pharmacological actions of these flavonoids suggest their potential activity for treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases through the down-regulation of mast cell activation.

  12. Methyl Protodioscin from the Roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis Attenuates Airway Inflammation by Inhibiting Cytokine Production

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    Ju Hee Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to find pharmacologically active compound against airway inflammation from the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis. The 70% ethanol extract of the roots of A. cochinchinensis (ACE was found to inhibit IL-6 production from IL-1β-treated lung epithelial cells (A549 and the major constituent, methyl protodioscin (MP, also strongly inhibited the production of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α from A549 cells at 10–100 μM. This downregulating effect of proinflammatory cytokine production was found to be mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and c-Jun activation pathway. When examined on an in vivo model of airway inflammation in mice, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced acute lung injury, ACE, and MP significantly inhibited cell infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by the oral treatment at doses of 100–400 mg/kg and 30–60 mg/kg, respectively. MP also inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lung tissue. All of these findings provide scientific evidence supporting the role of A. cochinchinensis as a herbal remedy in treating airway inflammation and also suggest a therapeutic value of MP on airway inflammatory disorders.

  13. Fisetin Inhibits Hyperglycemia-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Epigenetic Mechanisms

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    Hye Joo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is characterized by a proinflammatory state, and several inflammatory processes have been associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the resulting complications. High glucose levels induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Fisetin, a flavonoid dietary ingredient found in the smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria, and is also widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Fisetin is known to exert anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In this study, we analyzed the effects of fisetin on proinflammatory cytokine secretion and epigenetic regulation, in human monocytes cultured under hyperglycemic conditions. Human monocytic (THP-1 cells were cultured under control (14.5 mmol/L mannitol, normoglycemic (NG, 5.5 mmol/L glucose, or hyperglycemic (HG, 20 mmol/L glucose conditions, in the absence or presence of fisetin. Fisetin was added (3–10 μM for 48 h. While the HG condition significantly induced histone acetylation, NF-κB activation, and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α release from THP-1 cells, fisetin suppressed NF-κB activity and cytokine release. Fisetin treatment also significantly reduced CBP/p300 gene expression, as well as the levels of acetylation and HAT activity of the CBP/p300 protein, which is a known NF-κB coactivator. These results suggest that fisetin inhibits HG-induced cytokine production in monocytes, through epigenetic changes involving NF-κB. We therefore propose that fisetin supplementation be considered for diabetes prevention.

  14. Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis does not affect allergen-specific cytokine responses despite a parasite-specific cytokine response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourke, C.D.; Mutapi, F.; Nausch, N.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic helminths have been shown to reduce inflammation in most experimental models of allergic disease, and this effect is mediated via cytokine responses. However, in humans, the effects of controlled helminth infection on cytokine responses during allergy have not been studied....

  15. Cytokines and the Inception of CD8 T Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Maureen A.; Harrington, Laurie E.; Zajac, Allan J.

    2011-01-01

    The activation and differentiation of CD8 T cells is a necessary first step that endows these cells with the phenotypic and functional properties required for the control of intracellular pathogens. The induction of the CD8 T cell responses typically results in the development of a massive overall population of effector cells, comprised of both highly functional but short-lived terminally differentiated cells, as well as a smaller subset of precursors that are predisposed to survive and transition into the memory T cell pool. In this article we discuss how inflammatory cytokines and IL-2 bias the initial response towards short-lived effector generation and also highlight the potential counterbalancing role of IL-21. PMID:21371940

  16. Oxidative stress modulates the cytokine response of differentiated Th17 and Th1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimannan, Thiruvaimozhi; Peroumal, Doureradjou; Parida, Jyoti R; Barik, Prakash K; Padhan, Prasanta; Devadas, Satish

    2016-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling is critical in T helper (Th) cell differentiation; however its role in differentiated Th cell functions is unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of oxidative stress on the effector functions of in vitro differentiated mouse Th17 and Th1 cells or CD4 + T cells from patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis using pro-oxidants plumbagin (PB) and hydrogen peroxide. We found that in mouse Th cells, non-toxic concentration of pro-oxidants inhibited reactivation induced expression of IL-17A in Th17 and IFN-γ in Th1 cells by reducing the expression of their respective TFs, RORγt and T-bet. Interestingly, in both the subsets, PB increased the expression of IL-4 by enhancing reactivation induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We further investigated the cytokine modulatory effect of PB on CD4 + T cells isolated from PBMCs of patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, a well-known Th17 and or Th1 mediated disease. In human CD4 + T cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis patients, PB reduced the frequencies of IL-17A + (Th17), IFN - γ + (Th1) and IL-17A + /IFN - γ + (Th17/1) cells and also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) an antioxidant completely reversed PB mediated cytokine modulatory effects in both mouse and human cells indicating a direct role for ROS. Together our data suggest that oxidative microenvironment can alter cytokine response of terminally differentiated cells and thus altering intracellular ROS could be a potential way to target Th17 and Th1 cells in autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Stratum corneum cytokines and skin irritation response to sodium lauryl sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Cindy M.; Verberk, Maarten M.; Withagen, Carien E. T.; Jacobs, John J. L.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about cytokines involved in chronic irritant contact dermatitis. Individual cytokine profiles might explain at least part of the differences in the individual response to irritation. Our objective was to investigate the relation between baseline stratum corneum (SC) cytokine levels

  18. A small-molecule/cytokine combination enhances hematopoietic stem cell proliferation via inhibition of cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Guan, Xin; Wang, Huihui; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Yu; Ren, Zhihua; Ma, Yupo; Ding, Xinxin; Jiang, Yongping

    2017-07-18

    Accumulated evidence supports the potent stimulating effects of multiple small molecules on the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) which are important for the therapy of various hematological disorders. Here, we report a novel, optimized formula, named the SC cocktail, which contains a combination of three such small molecules and four cytokines. Small-molecule candidates were individually screened and then combined at their optimal concentration with the presence of cytokines to achieve maximum capacity for stimulating the human CD34 + cell expansion ex vivo. The extent of cell expansion and the immunophenotype of expanded cells were assessed through flow cytometry. The functional preservation of HSC stemness was confirmed by additional cell and molecular assays in vitro. Subsequently, the expanded cells were transplanted into sublethally irradiated NOD/SCID mice for the assessment of human cell viability and engraftment potential in vivo. Furthermore, the expression of several genes in the cell proliferation and differentiation pathways was analyzed through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) during the process of CD34 + cell expansion. The SC cocktail supported the retention of the immunophenotype of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells remarkably well, by yielding purities of 86.6 ± 11.2% for CD34 + cells and 76.2 ± 10.5% for CD34 + CD38 - cells, respectively, for a 7-day culture. On day 7, the enhancement of expansion of CD34 + cells and CD34 + CD38 - cells reached a maxima of 28.0 ± 5.5-fold and 27.9 ± 4.3-fold, respectively. The SC cocktail-expanded CD34 + cells preserved the characteristics of HSCs by effectively inhibiting their differentiation in vitro and retained the multilineage differentiation potential in primary and secondary in vivo murine xenotransplantation trials. Further gene expression analysis suggested that the small-molecule combination strengthened the ability of the cytokines to enhance the Notch

  19. Perilipin 1 Mediates Lipid Metabolism Homeostasis and Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokine Synthesis in Bovine Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows with ketosis displayed lipid metabolic disorder and high inflammatory levels. Adipose tissue is an active lipid metabolism and endocrine tissue and is closely related to lipid metabolism homeostasis and inflammation. Perilipin 1 (PLIN1, an adipocyte-specific lipid-coated protein, may be involved in the above physiological function. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of PLIN1 in lipid metabolism regulation and inflammatory factor synthesis in cow adipocytes. The results showed that PLIN1 overexpression upregulated the expression of fatty acid and triglyceride (TAG synthesis molecule sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c and its target genes, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT 1, and DGAT2, but inhibited the expression of lipolysis enzymes hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL and CGI-58 for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, thus augmenting the fatty acids and TAG synthesis and inhibiting lipolysis. Importantly, PLIN1 overexpression inhibited the activation of the NF-κB inflammatory pathway and decreased the expression and content of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide. Conversely, PLIN1 silencing inhibited TAG synthesis, promoted lipolysis, and overinduced the activation of the NF-κB inflammatory pathway in cow adipocytes. In ketotic cows, the expression of PLIN1 was markedly decreased, whereas lipid mobilization, NF-κB pathway, and downstream inflammatory cytokines were overinduced in adipose tissue. Taken together, these results indicate that PLIN1 can maintain lipid metabolism homeostasis and inhibit the NF-κB inflammatory pathway in adipocytes. However, low levels of PLIN1 reduced the inhibitory effect on fat mobilization, NF-κB pathway, and inflammatory cytokine synthesis in ketotic cows.

  20. Perilipin 1 Mediates Lipid Metabolism Homeostasis and Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokine Synthesis in Bovine Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiqi; Liu, Guowen; Xu, Chuang; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Qiushi; Jia, Hongdou; Li, Xiaobing; Li, Xinwei

    2018-01-01

    Dairy cows with ketosis displayed lipid metabolic disorder and high inflammatory levels. Adipose tissue is an active lipid metabolism and endocrine tissue and is closely related to lipid metabolism homeostasis and inflammation. Perilipin 1 (PLIN1), an adipocyte-specific lipid-coated protein, may be involved in the above physiological function. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of PLIN1 in lipid metabolism regulation and inflammatory factor synthesis in cow adipocytes. The results showed that PLIN1 overexpression upregulated the expression of fatty acid and triglyceride (TAG) synthesis molecule sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and its target genes, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1, and DGAT2, but inhibited the expression of lipolysis enzymes hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and CGI-58 for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), thus augmenting the fatty acids and TAG synthesis and inhibiting lipolysis. Importantly, PLIN1 overexpression inhibited the activation of the NF-κB inflammatory pathway and decreased the expression and content of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) induced by lipopolysaccharide. Conversely, PLIN1 silencing inhibited TAG synthesis, promoted lipolysis, and overinduced the activation of the NF-κB inflammatory pathway in cow adipocytes. In ketotic cows, the expression of PLIN1 was markedly decreased, whereas lipid mobilization, NF-κB pathway, and downstream inflammatory cytokines were overinduced in adipose tissue. Taken together, these results indicate that PLIN1 can maintain lipid metabolism homeostasis and inhibit the NF-κB inflammatory pathway in adipocytes. However, low levels of PLIN1 reduced the inhibitory effect on fat mobilization, NF-κB pathway, and inflammatory cytokine synthesis in ketotic cows.

  1. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Mediators and Cytokines by Chlorella Vulgaris Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, G; Rabina, Santa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of solvent fractions from Chlorella vulgaris by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Methanolic extracts (80%) of C. vulgaris were prepared and partitioned with solvents of increasing polarity viz., n-hexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water. Various concentrations of the fractions were tested for cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the concentrations inducing cell growth inhibition by about 50% (IC50) were chosen for further studies. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were treated with varying concentrations of C. vulgaris fractions and examined for its effects on nitric oxide (NO) production by Griess assay. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Celecoxib and polymyxin B as positive controls. MTT assay revealed all the solvent fractions that inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Of all the extracts, 80% methanolic extract exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production (P < 0.01), PGE2 (P < 0.05), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.001) release in LPS induced RAW 264.7 cells. Both hexane and chloroform fractions recorded a significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent inhibition of LPS induced inflammatory mediators and cytokines in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts was not significant in the study. The significant inhibition of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by fractions from C. vulgaris suggests that this microalga would be a potential source of developing anti-inflammatory agents and a good alternate for conventional steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. C. vulgaris extracts have potential anti-inflammatory activitySolvent extraction using methanol

  2. Effects of Danggui Sini decoction on neuropathic pain: experimental studies and clinical pharmacological significance of inhibiting glial activation and proinflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Qiang, Qiu Hong; Ling, Qian; Yu, Chang Xi; Li, Xuejun; Liu, Suhuan; Yang, Shuyu

    2017-05-01

    Neuropathic pain responds poorly to drug treatments. Partial relief is achieved in only about half of the patients. Danggui Sini decoction (DSD), an aqueous extract of Angelica sinensis, Ramulus Cinnamomi, and Radix Puerariae, has been used extensively in China to treat inflammatory and ischemic diseases. The current study examined the putative effects of DSD on neuropathic pain. We used two commonly-used animal models: chronic constriction injury (CCI) and diabetic neuropathy for the study. And we examined effects of DSD on pain response, activation of microglia and astroglia in spinal dorsal horn, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord. Consecutive intragastric administration of DSD (25 - 100 mg/kg) for 10 days inhibited the mechanical and thermal nociceptive response induced by CCI and diabetes without interfering with the normal pain response. Meanwhile, in both models, DSD inhibited the over-expression of specific markers for microglia (Iba-1) and astroglia (GFAP) activation in the spinal dorsal horn. DSD also reduced the elevated nuclear NF-κB level and inhibited the up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in the spinal cord. DSD can alleviate CCI and diabetes-induced neuropathic pain, and its effectiveness might be due to the inhibition of neuroinflammation in the spinal dorsal horn. The anti-inflammation effect of DSD may be related to the suppression of spinal NF-κB activation and/or cytokines expression.
.

  3. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leifheit Erica C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. Methods MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA, anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Results Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376 secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. Conclusions This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma.

  4. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L; Leifheit, Erica C; Vera, Pedro L

    2004-01-01

    The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA), anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense) on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376) secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma

  5. Melanocortin peptides inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide by activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, R; Carlin, A; Airaghi, L; Demitri, M T; Meda, L; Galimberti, D; Baron, P; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    1998-06-01

    Inflammatory processes contribute to neurodegenerative disease, stroke, encephalitis, and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Activated microglia are a source of cytokines and other inflammatory agents within the CNS and it is therefore important to control glial function in order to preserve neural cells. Melanocortin peptides are pro-opiomelanocortin-derived amino acid sequences that include alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These peptides have potent and broad anti-inflammatory effects. We tested effects of alpha-MSH (1-13), alpha-MSH (11-13), and ACTH (1-24) on production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) in a cultured murine microglial cell line (N9) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). Melanocortin peptides inhibited production of these cytokines and NO in a concentration-related fashion, probably by increasing intracellular cAMP. When stimulated with LPS + IFN-gamma, microglia increased release of alpha-MSH. Production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and NO was greater in activated microglia after innmunoneutralization of endogenous alpha-MSH. The results suggest that alpha-MSH is an autocrine factor in microglia. Because melanocortin peptides inhibit production of pro-inflammatory mediators by activated microglia they might be useful in treatment of inflammatory/degenerative brain disorders.

  6. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, L; Yu, Q H; Du, Y X; Deng, X M

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis.

  7. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, L. [Second Military Medical University, Changhai Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai, China, Department of Anesthesiology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); No. 82 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Department of Anesthesiology, Jiangsu, China, Department of Anesthesiology, No. 82 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Jiangsu (China); Yu, Q. H. [Second Military Medical University, Changhai Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai, China, Department of Gastroenterology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Du, Y. X. [No. 82 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Department of Anesthesiology, Jiangsu, China, Department of Anesthesiology, No. 82 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Jiangsu (China); Deng, X. M. [Second Military Medical University, Changhai Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai, China, Department of Anesthesiology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-03-03

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis.

  8. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN and lipopolysaccharide (LPS in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis.

  9. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong, L.; Yu, Q.H.; Du, Y.X.; Deng, X.M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis

  10. Analysis of SF and plasma cytokines provides insights into the mechanisms of inflammatory arthritis and may predict response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Helen L; Bucknall, Roger C; Moots, Robert J; Edwards, Steven W

    2012-03-01

    Biologic drugs have revolutionized the care of RA, but are expensive and not universally effective. To further understand the inflammatory mechanisms underlying RA and identify potential biomarkers predicting response to therapy, we measured multiple cytokine concentrations in SF of patients with inflammatory arthritides (IAs) and, in a subset of patients with RA, correlated this with response to TNF-α inhibition. SF from 42 RA patients and 19 non-RA IA patients were analysed for 12 cytokines using a multiplex cytokine assay. Cytokines were also measured in the plasma of 16 RA patients before and following treatment with anti-TNF-α. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman's rank correlation and cluster analysis with the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-test analysis. RA SF contained significantly elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, G-CSF, GM-CSF and TNF-α compared with other IA SF. RA patients who did not respond to anti-TNF therapy had elevated IL-6 in their SF pre-therapy (P < 0.05), whereas responders had elevated IL-2 and G-CSF (P < 0.05). Plasma cytokine concentrations were not significantly modulated by TNF inhibitors, with the exception of IL-6, which decreased after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). Cytokine profiles in RA SF vary with treatment and response to therapy. Cytokine concentrations are significantly lower in plasma than in SF and relatively unchanged by TNF inhibitor therapy. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-2 and G-CSF in SF may predict response to TNF inhibitors.

  11. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 regulates microvascular endothelial growth induced by inflammatory cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasawa, Wataru; Ohnuma, Kei; Hatano, Ryo; Endo, Yuko; Dang, Nam H.; Morimoto, Chikao

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → TNF-α or IL-1β induces EC proliferation with reduction of CD26 expression. → CD26 siRNA or DPP-4 inhibition enhances TNF-α or IL-1β-induced EC proliferation. → Loss of CD26/DPP-4 enhances aortic sprouting induced by TNF-α or IL-1β. → Capillary formation induced by TNF-α or IL-1β is enahced in the CD26 -/- mice. -- Abstract: CD26/DPP-4 is abundantly expressed on capillary of inflamed lesion as well as effector T cells. Recently, CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibition has been used as a novel oral therapeutic approach for patients with type 2 diabetes. While accumulating data indicate that vascular inflammation is a key feature of both micro- and macro-vascular complications in diabetes, the direct role of CD26/DPP-4 in endothelial biology is to be elucidated. We herein showed that proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-1 reduce expression of CD26 on microvascular endothelial cells, and that genetical or pharmacological inhibition of CD26/DPP-4 enhances endothelial growth both in vitro and in vivo. With DPP-4 inhibitors being used widely in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, our data strongly suggest that DPP-4 inhibition plays a pivotal role in endothelial growth and may have a potential role in the recovery of local circulation following diabetic vascular complications.

  12. Photoperiodic Regulation of Behavioral Responsiveness to Proinflammatory Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Jarvi C.; Prendergast, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Symptoms of bacterial infection include decreases in body mass (cachexia), induction of depressive-like hedonic tone (anhedonia), decreases in food intake (anorexia), and increases in body temperature (fever). Recognition of bacteria by the innate immune system triggers the release of proinflammatory cytokines which induce these sickness behaviors via central and peripheral substrates. In Siberian hamsters, exposure to short day lengths decreases both the production of proinflammatory cytokin...

  13. Saponin Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Propagation by Up-regulating Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Min; Min, Saehong; Son, Kidong; Lee, Han Sol; Park, Eun Mee; Ngo, Huong T. T.; Tran, Huong T. L.; Lim, Yun-Sook; Hwang, Soon B.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides which possess a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-tumorigenic and antiviral activities. To investigate whether saponin has anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity, we examined the effect of saponin on HCV replication. HCV replication was efficiently inhibited at a concentration of 10 µg/ml of saponin in cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Inhibitory effect of saponin on HCV replication was verified by quantitative real-time PCR, reporter assay, and immunoblot analysis. In addition, saponin potentiated IFN-α-induced anti-HCV activity. Moreover, saponin exerted antiviral activity even in IFN-α resistant mutant HCVcc-infected cells. To investigate how cellular genes were regulated by saponin, we performed microarray analysis using HCVcc-infected cells. We demonstrated that suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) protein level was distinctively increased by saponin, which in turn resulted in inhibition of HCV replication. We further showed that silencing of SOCS2 resurrected HCV replication and overexpression of SOCS2 suppressed HCV replication. These data imply that saponin inhibits HCV replication via SOCS2 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that saponin may be a potent therapeutic agent for HCV patients. PMID:22745742

  14. IL-33-induced alterations in murine intestinal function and cytokine responses are MyD88, STAT6, and IL-13-dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine member of the IL-1 family. The biological activities of IL-33 are associated with promotion of Th2 and inhibition of Th1/Th17 immune responses. Exogenous IL-33 induces a typical “type 2” immune response in the gastrointestinal tract, yet the underlying mechani...

  15. Therapeutic activity of multiple common γ-chain cytokine inhibition in acute and chronic GVHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, Anne-Kathrin; Smith, Benjamin A H; Flynn, Ryan; Hanke, Kathrin; McDonald-Hyman, Cameron; Taylor, Patricia A; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Hackanson, Björn; Leonhardt, Franziska; Prinz, Gabriele; Dierbach, Heide; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Kovarik, Jiri; Blazar, Bruce R; Zeiser, Robert

    2015-01-15

    The common γ chain (CD132) is a subunit of the interleukin (IL) receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21. Because levels of several of these cytokines were shown to be increased in the serum of patients developing acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we reasoned that inhibition of CD132 could have a profound effect on GVHD. We observed that anti-CD132 monoclonal antibody (mAb) reduced acute GVHD potently with respect to survival, production of tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, and IL-6, and GVHD histopathology. Anti-CD132 mAb afforded protection from GVHD partly via inhibition of granzyme B production in CD8 T cells, whereas exposure of CD8 T cells to IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 increased granzyme B production. Also, T cells exposed to anti-CD132 mAb displayed a more naive phenotype in microarray-based analyses and showed reduced Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) phosphorylation upon activation. Consistent with a role of JAK3 in GVHD, Jak3(-/-) T cells caused less severe GVHD. Additionally, anti-CD132 mAb treatment of established chronic GVHD reversed liver and lung fibrosis, and pulmonary dysfunction characteristic of bronchiolitis obliterans. We conclude that acute GVHD and chronic GVHD, caused by T cells activated by common γ-chain cytokines, each represent therapeutic targets for anti-CD132 mAb immunomodulation. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Mycobacteria-specific cytokine responses as correlates of treatment response in active and latent tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Vanessa; Tebruegge, Marc; Zufferey, Christel; Germano, Susie; Forbes, Ben; Cosentino, Lucy; McBryde, Emma; Eisen, Damon; Robins-Browne, Roy; Street, Alan; Denholm, Justin; Curtis, Nigel

    2017-08-01

    A biomarker indicating successful tuberculosis (TB) therapy would assist in determining appropriate length of treatment. This study aimed to determine changes in mycobacteria-specific antigen-induced cytokine biomarkers in patients receiving therapy for latent or active TB, to identify biomarkers potentially correlating with treatment success. A total of 33 adults with active TB and 36 with latent TB were followed longitudinally over therapy. Whole blood stimulation assays using mycobacteria-specific antigens (CFP-10, ESAT-6, PPD) were done on samples obtained at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. Cytokine responses (IFN-γ, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IP-10, MIP-1β, and TNF-α) in supernatants were measured by Luminex xMAP immunoassay. In active TB cases, median IL-1ra (with CFP-10 and with PPD stimulation), IP-10 (CFP-10, ESAT-6), MIP-1β (ESAT-6, PPD), and TNF-α (ESAT-6) responses declined significantly over the course of therapy. In latent TB cases, median IL-1ra (CFP-10, ESAT-6, PPD), IL-2 (CFP-10, ESAT-6), and IP-10 (CFP-10, ESAT-6) responses declined significantly. Mycobacteria-specific cytokine responses change significantly over the course of therapy, and their kinetics in active TB differ from those observed in latent TB. In particular, mycobacteria-specific IL-1ra responses are potential correlates of successful therapy in both active and latent TB. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytokine responses to two common respiratory pathogens in children are dependent on interleukin-1β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice C-H. Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB in young children is a common cause of prolonged wet cough and may be a precursor to bronchiectasis in some children. Although PBB and bronchiectasis are both characterised by neutrophilic airway inflammation and a prominent interleukin (IL-1β signature, the contribution of the IL-1β pathway to host defence is not clear. This study aimed to compare systemic immune responses against common pathogens in children with PBB, bronchiectasis and control children and to determine the importance of the IL-1β pathway. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from control subjects (n=20, those with recurrent PBB (n=20 and bronchiectasis (n=20 induced high concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN-γ and IL-10. Blocking with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra modified the cellular response to pathogens, inhibiting cytokine synthesis by NTHi-stimulated PBMCs and rhinovirus-stimulated PBMCs (in a separate PBB cohort. Inhibition of IFN-γ production by IL-1Ra was observed across multiple cell types, including CD3+ T cells and CD56+ NK cells. Our findings highlight the extent to which IL-1β regulates the cellular immune response against two common respiratory pathogens. While blocking the IL-1β pathway has the potential to reduce inflammation, this may come at the cost of protective immunity against NTHi and rhinovirus.

  18. PORCINE CYTOKINE RESPONSES TO PAMP-STRUCTURES IN VITRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Vorsholt, Henriette

    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are conserved microbial structures recognized by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system. Binding of PAMPs by certain PRRs on dendritic cells induces these to express costimulatory molecules and cytokines, enabling an inducti...

  19. Noninvasive optical monitoring multiple physiological parameters response to cytokine storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zebin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Cancer and other disease originated by immune or genetic problems have become a main cause of death. Gene/cell therapy is a highlighted potential method for the treatment of these diseases. However, during the treatment, it always causes cytokine storm, which probably trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Here we developed a point-of-care device for noninvasive monitoring cytokine storm induced multiple physiological parameters simultaneously. Oxy-hemoglobin, deoxy-hemoglobin, water concentration and deep-tissue/tumor temperature variations were simultaneously measured by extended near infrared spectroscopy. Detection algorithms of symptoms such as shock, edema, deep-tissue fever and tissue fibrosis were developed and included. Based on these measurements, modeling of patient tolerance and cytokine storm intensity were carried out. This custom device was tested on patients experiencing cytokine storm in intensive care unit. The preliminary data indicated the potential of our device in popular and milestone gene/cell therapy, especially, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T).

  20. Aspergillus fumigatus conidial melanin modulates host cytokine response.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, L.; Netea, M.G.; Sugui, J.; Vonk, A.G.; Sande, W.W. van de; Warris, A.; Kwon-Chung, K.J.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Melanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced cytokine

  1. Cytokine responses in acute and persistent human parvovirus B19 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, A; Lundqvist, A; Lindblom, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the proinflammatory and T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine responses during acute parvovirus B19 (B19) infection and determine whether an imbalance of the Th1/Th2 cytokine pattern is related to persistent B19 infection. Cytokines were quantified by multiplex beads...... immunoassay in serum from B19-infected patients and controls. The cytokine responses were correlated with B19 serology, quantitative B19 DNA levels and clinical symptoms. In addition to a proinflammatory response, elevated levels of the Th1 type of cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12 and IL-15 were evident...... at time of the initial peak of B19 viral load in a few patients during acute infection. This pattern was seen in the absence of an interferon (IFN)-gamma response. During follow-up (20-130 weeks post-acute infection) some of these patients had a sustained Th1 cytokine response. The Th1 cytokine response...

  2. Regulation of Cytokine Production by the Unfolded Protein Response; Implications for Infection and Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Judith A. Smith; Judith A. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cell function. To safeguard this process in the face of environmental threats and internal stressors, cells mount an evolutionarily conserved response known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Invading pathogens induce cellular stress that impacts protein folding, thus the UPR is well situated to sense danger and contribute to immune responses. Cytokines (inflammatory cytokines and interferons) critically mediate host defen...

  3. STIR: Assessing and Training Response Inhibition Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    Learning to stop responding to alcohol cues reduces alcohol intake via reduced affective associations rather than increased response inhibition. Addiction ...requires an abstract application of the core learning principle1,2, and viable examples are often hard to find and/or assess. If exposure to non...inhibition training that expands upon previous successful “near transfer” response inhibition training efforts—such as treating alcohol addictions by

  4. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) accelerates cutaneous wound healing and inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürgen, Seren Gülşen; Sayın, Oya; Cetin, Ferihan; Tuç Yücel, Ayşe

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and other common treatment methods used in the process of wound healing in terms of the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the study, 24 female and 24 male adult Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups: (1) the non-wounded group having no incision wounds, (2) the control group having incision wounds, (3) the TENS (2 Hz, 15 min) group, (4) the physiological saline (PS) group and (5) the povidone iodine (PI) group. In the skin sections, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods. In the non-wounded group, the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α signaling molecules was weaker in the whole tissue; however, in the control group, significant inflammatory response occurred, and strong cytokine expression was observed in the dermis, granulation tissue, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands (P TENS group, the decrease in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 immunoreaction in the skin was significant compared to the other forms of treatment (P TENS group suggest that TENS shortened the healing process by inhibating the inflammation phase.

  5. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M. Assaf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  6. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Areej M; Al-Abbassi, Reem; Al-Binni, Maysaa

    2017-12-01

    Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  7. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)5 ameliorates influenza infection via inhibition of EGFR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Lukasz; Tate, Michelle D; Hsu, Alan C; Kolesnik, Tatiana B; Linossi, Edmond M; Dagley, Laura; Dong, Zhaoguang; Freeman, Sarah; Infusini, Giuseppe; Starkey, Malcolm R; Bird, Nicola L; Chatfield, Simon M; Babon, Jeffrey J; Huntington, Nicholas; Belz, Gabrielle; Webb, Andrew; Wark, Peter Ab; Nicola, Nicos A; Xu, Jianqing; Kedzierska, Katherine; Hansbro, Philip M; Nicholson, Sandra E

    2017-02-14

    Influenza virus infections have a significant impact on global human health. Individuals with suppressed immunity, or suffering from chronic inflammatory conditions such as COPD, are particularly susceptible to influenza. Here we show that suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) five has a pivotal role in restricting influenza A virus in the airway epithelium, through the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Socs5 -deficient mice exhibit heightened disease severity, with increased viral titres and weight loss. Socs5 levels were differentially regulated in response to distinct influenza viruses (H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H11N9) and were reduced in primary epithelial cells from COPD patients, again correlating with increased susceptibility to influenza. Importantly, restoration of SOCS5 levels restricted influenza virus infection, suggesting that manipulating SOCS5 expression and/or SOCS5 targets might be a novel therapeutic approach to influenza.

  8. Attenuation of massive cytokine response to the staphylococcal enterotoxin B superantigen by the innate immunomodulatory protein lactoferrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, J L; Kasper, K J; Leon-Ponte, M; Herfst, C A; Yue, D; Brintnell, W C; Mazzuca, D M; Heinrichs, D E; Cairns, E; Madrenas, J; Hoskin, D W; McCormick, J K; Haeryfar, S M M

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a pyrogenic exotoxin and a potent superantigen which causes massive T cell activation and cytokine secretion, leading to profound immunosuppression and morbidity. The inhibition of SEB-induced responses is thus considered a goal in the management of certain types of staphylococcal infections. Lactoferrin (LF) is a multi-functional glycoprotein with both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities. In addition, LF is known to have potent immunomodulatory properties. Given the anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties of this protein, we hypothesized that LF can modulate T cell responses to SEB. Here, we report that bovine LF (bLF) was indeed able to attenuate SEB-induced proliferation, interleukin-2 production and CD25 expression by human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR4 transgenic mouse T cells. This inhibition was not due to bLF's iron-binding capacity, and could be mimicked by the bLF-derived peptide lactoferricin. Cytokine secretion by an engineered SEB-responsive human Jurkat T cell line and by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors was also inhibited by bLF. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized property of LF in modulation of SEB-triggered immune activation and suggest a therapeutic potential for this naturally occurring protein during toxic shock syndrome. PMID:19659771

  9. Forced expression of stabilized c-Fos in dendritic cells reduces cytokine production and immune responses in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ryoko; Suzuki, Mayu; Sakaguchi, Ryota; Hasegawa, Eiichi; Kimura, Akihiro; Shichita, Takashi; Sekiya, Takashi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku 102-0075 (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroshi [Division of Medical Biochemistry, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Saga Medical School, Saga (Japan); Shimoda, Kouji [Department of Laboratory Animal Center, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshimura, Akihiko, E-mail: yoshimura@a6.keio.jp [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku 102-0075 (Japan)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos produced less inflammatory cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos activated T cells less efficiently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transgenic mice expressing stabilized c-Fos were resistant to EAE model. -- Abstract: Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) suppresses innate immunity by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytic cells. We have shown that the transcription factor c-Fos is responsible for cAMP-mediated suppression of inflammatory cytokine production, and that c-Fos protein is stabilized by IKK{beta}-mediated phosphorylation. We found that S308 is one of the major phosphorylation sites, and that the S308D mutation prolongs c-Fos halflife. To investigate the role of stabilized c-Fos protein in dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo, we generated CD11c-promoter-deriven c-FosS308D transgenic mice. As expected, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from these Tg mice produced smaller amounts of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-{alpha}, IL-12, and IL-23, but higher levels of IL-10, in response to LPS, than those from wild-type (Wt) mice. When T cells were co-cultured with BMDCs from Tg mice, production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines was reduced, although T cell proliferation was not affected. Tg mice demonstrated more resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) than did Wt mice. These data suggest that c-Fos in DCs plays a suppressive role in certain innate and adaptive immune responses.

  10. Baicalein inhibits IL-1β- and TNF-α-induced inflammatory cytokine production from human mast cells via regulation of the NF-κB pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaswamy Guha

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human mast cells are multifunctional cells capable of a wide variety of inflammatory responses. Baicalein (BAI, isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Huangqin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. We examined its effects and mechanisms on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in an IL-1β- and TNF-α-activated human mast cell line, HMC-1. Methods HMC-1 cells were stimulated either with IL-1β (10 ng/ml or TNF-α (100 U/ml in the presence or absence of BAI. We assessed the expression of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 by ELISA and RT-PCR, NF-κB activation by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, and IκBα activation by Western blot. Results BAI (1.8 to 30 μM significantly inhibited production of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner in IL-1β-activated HMC-1. BAI (30 μM also significantly inhibited production of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 in TNF-α-activated HMC-1. Inhibitory effects appear to involve the NF-κB pathway. BAI inhibited NF-κB activation in IL-1β- and TNF-α-activated HMC-1. Furthermore, BAI increased cytoplasmic IκBα proteins in IL-1β- and TNF-α-activated HMC-1. Conclusion Our results showed that BAI inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of NF-κB activation and IκBα phosphorylation and degradation in human mast cells. This inhibitory effect of BAI on the expression of inflammatory cytokines suggests its usefulness in the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapies.

  11. Exogenously triggered response inhibition in developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between children's exogenously triggered response inhibition and stuttering. Participants were 18 children who stutter (CWS; mean age = 9;01 years) and 18 children who not stutter (CWNS; mean age = 9;01 years). Participants were matched on age (±3 months) and gender. Response inhibition was assessed by a stop signal task (Verbruggen, Logan, & Stevens, 2008). Results suggest that CWS, compared to CWNS, perform comparable to CWNS in a task where response control is externally triggered. Our findings seem to indicate that previous questionnaire-based findings (Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) of a decreased efficiency of response inhibition cannot be generalized to all types of response inhibition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Pulsatilla decoction inhibits vulvovaginal Candida albicans proliferation and reduces inflammatory cytokine levels in vulvovaginal candidiasis mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Zhang, Mengxiang; Shi, Gaoxiang; Xu, Zhiqing; Wu, Daqiang; Shao, Jing; Wang, Tianming; Wang, Changzhong

    2016-02-01

    significantly. Pulsatilla decoction could inhibit the proliferation of vulvovaginal C. albicans and reduces the levels of inflammatory cytokines in VVC mice.

  13. Can short-term administration of dexamethasone abrogate radiation-induced acute cytokine gene response in lung and modify subsequent molecular responses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, J.-H.; Chiang, C.-S.; Tsao, C.-Y.; Lin, P.-Y.; Wu, C.-J.; McBride, William H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of short-term administration of dexamethasone (DEX) on radiation-induced responses in the mouse lung, focusing on expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and related genes. Methods and Materials: At indicated times after thoracic irradiation and/or drug treatment, mRNA expression levels of cytokines (mTNF-α, mIL-1α, mIL-1β, mIL-2, mIL-3, mIL-4, mIL-5, mIL-6, mIFN-γ) and related genes in the lungs of C3H/HeN mice were measured by RNase protection assay. Results: Radiation-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression levels in lung peak at 6 h after thoracic irradiation. DEX (5 mg/kg) suppresses both basal cytokine mRNA levels and this early response when given immediately after irradiation. However, by 24 h, in mice treated with DEX alone or DEX plus radiation, there was a strong rebound effect that lasted up to 3 days. Modification of the early radiation-induced response by DEX did not change the second wave of cytokine gene expression in the lung that occurs at 1 to 2 weeks, suggesting that early cytokine gene induction might not determine subsequent molecular events. A single dose of DEX attenuated, but did not completely suppress, increases in cytokine mRNA levels induced by lipopolysaccharide (2.5 mg/kg) treatment, but, unlike with radiation, no significant rebound effect was seen. Five days of dexamethasone treatment in the pneumonitic phase also inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and, again, there was a rebound effect after withdrawal of the drug. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that short-term use of dexamethasone can temporarily suppress radiation-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression, but there may be a rebound after drug withdrawal and the drug does little to change the essence and course of the pneumonitic process

  14. Costunolide inhibits proinflammatory cytokines and iNOS in activated murine BV2 microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Nirmala Arul; Baby, Nimmi; Pitchai, Daisy; Indraswari, Fransisca; Ling, Eng-Ang; Lu, Jia; Dheen, Thameem

    2011-06-01

    Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone present in Costus speciosus root exerts a variety of pharmacological activity but its effects on neuroinflammation have not been studied. Microglia, the resident phagocytic cells in the central nervous system respond to neuroinflammation and their overwhelming response in turn aggravate brain damage during infection, ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we report the effect of Costunolide on the production of proinflammatory mediators and mechanisms involved in BV2 microglial cells stimulated with LPS. Costunolide attenuated the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1,6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 in activated microglia. This Costunolide-mediated inhibition was correspondent with the inhibition of NFkappaB activation. It has been further shown that Costunolide suppressed MAPK pathway activation by inducing MKP-1 production. Collectively our results suggest that Costunolide shows an ability to inhibit expression of multiple neuroinflammatory mediators and this is attributable to the compounds inhibition of NFkappaB and MAPK activation. This novel role of Costunolide upon investigation may aid in developing better therapeutic strategies for treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases.

  15. Inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by modulating cytokines and attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Jia, Lin-Lin; Qi, Jie; Song, Xin-Ai; Tan, Hong [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Young normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusions with NF–κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, cardiomyocyte diameters of the left cardiac ventricle, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). These SHR rats had higher PVN levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NAD(P)H oxidase activity, mRNA expression of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN IL-10, and higher plasma levels of PICs and NE, and lower plasma IL-10. PVN infusion of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC attenuated all these changes. These findings suggest that NF-κB activation in the PVN increases sympathoexcitation and hypertensive response, which are associated with the increases of PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN; PVN inhibition of NF-κB activity attenuates PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, thereby attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced neurohormonal excitation. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced imbalance of cytokines

  16. Inhibition of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages by resveratrol, a potent proteasome inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Asaf A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altered immune function during ageing results in increased production of nitric oxide (NO and other inflammatory mediators. Recently, we have reported that NO production was inhibited by naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors (quercetin, δ-tocotrienol, and riboflavin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice. In a continuous effort to find more potent, non-toxic, commercially available, naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors that suppress inflammation, the present study was carried out to describe the inhibition of NF-κB activation and NO, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and iNOS expression by trans-resveratrol, trans-pterostilbene, morin hydrate, and nicotinic acid in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Results The present results indicate that resveratrol, pterostilbene, and morin hydrate caused significant inhibition (>70% to 90%; P 40%; P 60%; P 40%; P P  Conclusions The present results clearly demonstrate that resveratrol and pterostilbene are particularly potent proteasome inhibitors that suppress expression of genes, and production of inflammatory products in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, and macrophages from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Resveratrol and pterostilbene which are present in grapes, blueberries, and red wine, have been implicated as contributing factors to the lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in the French population, despite their relatively high dietary fat intake. Consequently, it appears likely that the beneficial nutritional effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene are due at least in part, to their ability to inhibit NF-κB activation by the proteasome, thereby suppressing activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS genes, resulting in decreased secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NO levels, in response to inflammatory stimuli

  17. Complement activation by cholesterol crystals triggers a subsequent cytokine response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niyonzima, Nathalie; Halvorsen, Bente; Sporsheim, Bjørnar

    2017-01-01

    beneficial effects on atherosclerosis and a large clinical trial with an IL-1β inhibitor is currently in progress (the CANTOS study). However, upstream inhibition of CC-induced inflammation by using a complement inhibitor may be more efficient in treating atherosclerosis since this will block initiation...

  18. Ceftiofur impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ci Xinxin; Song Yu; Zeng Fanqin; Zhang Xuemei; Li Hongyu; Wang Xinrui; Cui Junqing; Deng Xuming

    2008-01-01

    Ceftiofur is a new broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic for veterinary use. Immunopharmacological studies can provide new information on the immunomodulatory activities of some drugs, including their effect on cytokine productions. For this reason, we investigated the effect of ceftiofur on cytokine productions in vitro. We found that ceftiofur can downregulate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but did not affect interleukin-10 (IL-10) production. We further investigated signal transduction mechanisms to determine how ceftiofur affects. RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with 1, 5, or 10 mg/L of ceftiofur 1 h prior to treatment with 1 mg/L of LPS. Thirty minutes later, cells were harvested and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation was measured by Western blot. Alternatively, cells were fixed and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was measured using immunocytochemical analysis. Signal transduction studies showed that ceftiofur significantly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation protein expression. Ceftiofur also inhibited p65-NF-κB translocation into the nucleus. Therefore, ceftiofur may inhibit LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines by blocking NF-κB and MAPKs signaling in RAW264.7 cells

  19. miR-20a inhibits TCR-mediated signaling and cytokine production in human naïve CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra V Reddycherla

    Full Text Available Upon TCR stimulation by peptide-MHC complexes, CD4+ T cells undergo activation and proliferation. This process will ultimately culminate in T-cell differentiation and the acquisition of effector functions. The production of specific cytokines by differentiated CD4+ T cells is crucial for the generation of the appropriate immune response. Altered CD4+ T-cell activation and cytokine production result in chronic inflammatory conditions and autoimmune disorders. miRNAs have been shown to be important regulators of T-cell biology. In this study, we have focused our investigation on miR-20a, a member of the miR-17-92 cluster, whose expression is decreased in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. We have found that miR-20a is rapidly induced upon TCR-triggering in primary human naïve CD4+ T cells and that its transcription is regulated in a Erk-, NF-κB-, and Ca++-dependent manner. We have further shown that overexpression of miR-20a inhibits TCR-mediated signaling but not the proliferation of primary human naïve CD4+ T cells. However, miR-20a overexpression strongly suppresses IL-10 secretion and moderately decreases IL-2, IL-6 and IL8 production, which are crucial regulators of inflammatory responses. Our study suggests that miR-20a is a new player in the regulation of TCR signaling strength and cytokine production.

  20. Delineation of diverse macrophage activation programs in response to intracellular parasites and cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyi Zhang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reside and proliferate in macrophages is characteristic of several infectious agents that are of major importance to public health, including the intracellular parasites Trypanosoma cruzi (the etiological agent of Chagas disease and Leishmania species (etiological agents of Kala-Azar and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Although recent studies have elucidated some of the ways macrophages respond to these pathogens, the relationships between activation programs elicited by these pathogens and the macrophage activation programs elicited by bacterial pathogens and cytokines have not been delineated.To provide a global perspective on the relationships between macrophage activation programs and to understand how certain pathogens circumvent them, we used transcriptional profiling by genome-wide microarray analysis to compare the responses of mouse macrophages following exposure to the intracellular parasites T. cruzi and Leishmania mexicana, the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and the cytokines IFNG, TNF, IFNB, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17. We found that LPS induced a classical activation state that resembled macrophage stimulation by the Th1 cytokines IFNG and TNF. However, infection by the protozoan pathogen L. mexicana produced so few transcriptional changes that the infected macrophages were almost indistinguishable from uninfected cells. T. cruzi activated macrophages produced a transcriptional signature characterized by the induction of interferon-stimulated genes by 24 h post-infection. Despite this delayed IFN response by T. cruzi, the transcriptional response of macrophages infected by the kinetoplastid pathogens more closely resembled the transcriptional response of macrophages stimulated by the cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 than macrophages stimulated by Th1 cytokines.This study provides global gene expression data for a diverse set of biologically significant pathogens and cytokines and identifies the relationships between

  1. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Jak2 in the JH2 Domain Inhibits Cytokine Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Feener, Edward P.; Rosario, Felicia; Dunn, Sarah L.; Stancheva, Zlatina; Myers, Martin G.

    2004-01-01

    Jak family tyrosine kinases mediate signaling by cytokine receptors to regulate diverse biological processes. Although Jak2 and other Jak kinase family members are phosphorylated on numerous sites during cytokine signaling, the identity and function of most of these sites remains unknown. Using tandem mass spectroscopic analysis of activated Jak2 protein from intact cells, we identified Tyr221 and Tyr570 as novel sites of Jak2 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of both sites was stimulated by c...

  2. Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes modulating the cytokine response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molenaar Douwe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of the immune system is one of the most plausible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria on human health. Presently, the specific probiotic cell products responsible for immunomodulation are largely unknown. In this study, the genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains of the Lactobacillus plantarum species were investigated to identify genes of L. plantarum with the potential to influence the amounts of cytokines interleukin 10 (IL-10 and IL-12 and the ratio of IL-10/IL-12 produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Results A total of 42 Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from diverse environmental and human sources were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate cytokine production in PBMCs. The L. plantarum strains induced the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 over an average 14-fold range and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 over an average 16-fold range. Comparisons of the strain-specific cytokine responses of PBMCs to comparative genome hybridization profiles obtained with L. plantarum WCFS1 DNA microarrays (also termed gene-trait matching resulted in the identification of 6 candidate genetic loci with immunomodulatory capacities. These loci included genes encoding an N-acetyl-glucosamine/galactosamine phosphotransferase system, the LamBDCA quorum sensing system, and components of the plantaricin (bacteriocin biosynthesis and transport pathway. Deletion of these genes in L. plantarum WCFS1 resulted in growth phase-dependent changes in the PBMC IL-10 and IL-12 cytokine profiles compared with wild-type cells. Conclusions The altered PBMC cytokine profiles obtained with the L. plantarum WCFS1 mutants were in good agreement with the predictions made by gene-trait matching for the 42 L. plantarum strains. This study therefore resulted in the identification of genes present in certain strains of L. plantarum which might be responsible for

  3. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Qing; Qin, Da-Nian; Wang, Fu-Xin; Ren, Jun; Li, Hong-Bao; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Qing; Miao, Yu-Wang; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jie; Zhu, Zhiming; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To explore whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (tempol) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused intravenously with ANG II (10 ng/kg per min) or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. These rats were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (TEMP, 20 μg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These ANG II-infused rats also had higher levels of gp91 phox (a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the PVN than the control animals. Treatment with PVN infusion of TEMP attenuated the overexpression of gp91 phox , ACE and IL-1β within the PVN, and decreased sympathetic activity and MAP in ANG II-infused rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces elevated PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, which contribute to the sympathoexcitation in hypertension. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in ANG II-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • The effect of chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide on hypertension was investigated. • ANG II infusion induced increased proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in PVN. • ANG II infusion resulted in oxidative stress, sympathoexcitation and hypertension. • Chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide attenuates RAS and cytokines in hypertension

  4. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Wang, Fu-Xin [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154002 (China); Ren, Jun [Center for Cardiovascular Research and Alternative Medicine, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Li, Hong-Bao; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Qing; Miao, Yu-Wang; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jie [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Zhiming [Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing 400042 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Aims: To explore whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (tempol) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused intravenously with ANG II (10 ng/kg per min) or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. These rats were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (TEMP, 20 μg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These ANG II-infused rats also had higher levels of gp91{sup phox} (a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the PVN than the control animals. Treatment with PVN infusion of TEMP attenuated the overexpression of gp91{sup phox}, ACE and IL-1β within the PVN, and decreased sympathetic activity and MAP in ANG II-infused rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces elevated PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, which contribute to the sympathoexcitation in hypertension. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in ANG II-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • The effect of chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide on hypertension was investigated. • ANG II infusion induced increased proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in PVN. • ANG II infusion resulted in oxidative stress, sympathoexcitation and hypertension. • Chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide attenuates RAS and cytokines in hypertension.

  5. Impaired Cytokine Responses to Epstein-Barr Virus Antigens in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Anette Holck; Sandhu, Noreen; Larsen, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed cytokine responses against latent and lytic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls (HCs) to obtain an overview of the distinctive immune regulatory response in SLE patients and to expand the previously determined impaired...

  6. Pattern recognition receptor-mediated cytokine response in infants across 4 continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Kinga K; Ruck, Candice E; Fortuno, Edgardo S; Ho, Kevin; Dimitriu, Pedro; Mohn, William W; Speert, David P; Cooper, Philip J; Esser, Monika; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Marchant, Arnaud; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2014-03-01

    Susceptibility to infection as well as response to vaccination varies among populations. To date, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these clinical observations have not been fully delineated. Because innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, we hypothesized that differences between populations in innate immune responses may represent a mechanistic link to variation in susceptibility to infection or response to vaccination. Determine whether differences in innate immune responses exist among infants from different continents of the world. We determined the innate cytokine response following pattern recognition receptor (PRR) stimulation of whole blood from 2-year-old infants across 4 continents (Africa, North America, South America, and Europe). We found that despite the many possible genetic and environmental exposure differences in infants across 4 continents, innate cytokine responses were similar for infants from North America, South America, and Europe. However, cells from South African infants secreted significantly lower levels of cytokines than did cells from infants from the 3 other sites, and did so following stimulation of extracellular and endosomal but not cytosolic PRRs. Substantial differences in innate cytokine responses to PRR stimulation exist among different populations of infants that could not have been predicted. Delineating the underlying mechanism(s) for these differences will not only aid in improving vaccine-mediated protection but possibly also provide clues for the susceptibility to infection in different regions of the world. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Persistence of STAT-1 inhibition and induction of cytokine resistance in pancreatic β cells treated with St John's wort and its component hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Michela; Beffy, Pascale; Gregorelli, Alex; Porozov, Svetlana; Mascia, Fabrizio; Vantaggiato, Chiara; Masiello, Pellegrino; Menegazzi, Marta

    2017-10-09

    St John's wort extract (SJW) and its component hyperforin (HPF) were shown to potently inhibit cytokine-induced STAT-1 and NF-κB activation in pancreatic β cells and protect them against injury. This study aimed at exploring the time course of STAT-1 inhibition afforded by these natural compounds in the β-cell line INS-1E. INS-1E cells were pre-incubated with SJW extract (2-5 μg/ml) or HPF (0.5-2 μm) and then exposed to a cytokine mixture. In some experiments, these compounds were added after or removed before cytokine exposure. STAT-1 activation was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, apoptosis by caspase-3 activity assay, mRNA gene expression by RT-qPCR. Pre-incubation with SJW/HPF for 1-2 h exerted a remarkable STAT-1 downregulation, which was maintained upon removal of the compounds before early or delayed cytokine addition. When the protective compounds were added after cell exposure to cytokines, between 15 and 90 min, STAT-1 inhibition also occurred at a progressively decreasing extent. Upon 24-h incubation, SJW and HPF counteracted cytokine-induced β-cell dysfunction, apoptosis and target gene expression. SJW and HPF confer to β cells a state of 'cytokine resistance', which can be elicited both before and after cytokine exposure and safeguards these cells from deleterious cytokine effects. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  9. Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to ROS-Producing NLRP3-Dependent Inflammasome Activation and Cytokine Secretion in High Glucose-Induced Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiezhi; Zhang, Xiaotian; Li, Li; Chen, Hua; Chai, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a persistent inflammatory response that impairs the healing process. We hypothesized that stimulation with high glucose following a pro-inflammatory signal would lead to autophagy inhibition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and eventually to the activation of the Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP) -3. Macrophages were isolated from human diabetic wound. We measured the expression of NLRP3, caspase1 and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) by western blot and real-time PCR, and the surface markers on cells by flow cytometry. THP-1-derived macrophages exposed to high glucose were applied to study the link between autophagy, ROS and NLRP3 activation. LC3-II, P62, NLRP3 inflammation and IL-1β expression were measured by western blot and real-time PCR. ROS production was measured with a Cellular Reactive Oxygen Species Detection Assay Kit. Macrophages isolated from diabetic wounds exhibited a pro-inflammatory phenotype, including sustained NLRP3 inflammasome activity associated with IL-1β secretion. Our data showed that high glucose inhibited autophagy, induced ROS production, and activated NLRP3 inflammasome and cytokine secretion in THP-1-derived macrophages. To study high glucose-induced NLRP3 inflammasome signalling, we performed studies using an autophagy inducer, a ROS inhibitor and a NLRP3 inhibitor and found that all reduced the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cytokine secretion. Sustained NLRP3 inflammasome activity in wound-derived macrophages contributes to the hyper-inflammation in human diabetic wounds. Autophagy inhibition and ROS generation play an essential role in high glucose-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cytokine secretion in macrophages. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. LYATK1 potently inhibits LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Feng; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiujuan; Kong, Wei; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed monocytes/macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could lead to endotoxin shock. TGF-β-activated kinase1 (TAK1) activation is involved in the process. In the current study, we studied the potential effect of a selective TAK1 inhibitor, LYTAK1, on LPS-stimulated response both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression and production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LYTAK1's activity was almost nullified with TAK1 shRNA-knockdown. Meanwhile, in both primary mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production was again attenuated with LYTAK1 co-treatment. Molecularly, LYTAK1 dramatically inhibited LPS-induced TAK1-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk, Jnk and p38) activation in RAW 264.7 cells, mouse BMDMs and human PBMCs. In vivo, oral administration of LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced activation of TAK1-NFκB-p38 in ex-vivo cultured PBMCs, and cytokine production and endotoxin shock in mice. Together, these results demonstrate that LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin shock probably through blocking TAK1-regulated signalings. - Highlights: • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in RAW 264.7 cells. • The effect by LYTAK1 is more potent than other known TAK1 inhibitors. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in primary macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced TAK1-NFκB and MAPK activation in macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 gavage inhibits LPS-induced endotoxin shock and cytokine production in mice.

  11. LYATK1 potently inhibits LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Feng [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Taixing People" ' s Hospital, Taixing, Jiangsu Province, 225400 (China); Liu, Yuan [Department of Ophthalmology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Wang, Xiujuan; Kong, Wei [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Taixing People" ' s Hospital, Taixing, Jiangsu Province, 225400 (China); Zhao, Feng, E-mail: taixingzhaofeng163@163.com [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Taixing People" ' s Hospital, Taixing, Jiangsu Province, 225400 (China)

    2016-01-29

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed monocytes/macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could lead to endotoxin shock. TGF-β-activated kinase1 (TAK1) activation is involved in the process. In the current study, we studied the potential effect of a selective TAK1 inhibitor, LYTAK1, on LPS-stimulated response both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression and production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LYTAK1's activity was almost nullified with TAK1 shRNA-knockdown. Meanwhile, in both primary mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production was again attenuated with LYTAK1 co-treatment. Molecularly, LYTAK1 dramatically inhibited LPS-induced TAK1-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk, Jnk and p38) activation in RAW 264.7 cells, mouse BMDMs and human PBMCs. In vivo, oral administration of LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced activation of TAK1-NFκB-p38 in ex-vivo cultured PBMCs, and cytokine production and endotoxin shock in mice. Together, these results demonstrate that LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin shock probably through blocking TAK1-regulated signalings. - Highlights: • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in RAW 264.7 cells. • The effect by LYTAK1 is more potent than other known TAK1 inhibitors. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in primary macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced TAK1-NFκB and MAPK activation in macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 gavage inhibits LPS-induced endotoxin shock and cytokine production in mice.

  12. Antioxidants inhibit SAA formation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in a human cell model of alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Adriano; Millucci, Lia; Ghezzi, Lorenzo; Geminiani, Michela; Braconi, Daniela; Amato, Loredana; Chellini, Federico; Frediani, Bruno; Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Bernardini, Giulia; Santucci, Annalisa

    2013-09-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an ultra-rare autosomal recessive disease that currently lacks an appropriate therapy. Recently we provided experimental evidence that AKU is a secondary serum amyloid A (SAA)-based amyloidosis. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of antioxidants to inhibit SAA amyloid and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in AKU. We adopted a human chondrocytic cell AKU model to evaluate the anti-amyloid capacity of a set of antioxidants that had previously been shown to counteract ochronosis in a serum AKU model. Amyloid presence was evaluated by Congo red staining. Homogentisic acid-induced SAA production and pro-inflammatory cytokine release (overexpressed in AKU patients) were evaluated by ELISA and multiplex systems, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by means of a fluorescence-based assay. Our AKU model allowed us to prove the efficacy of ascorbic acid combined with N-acetylcysteine, taurine, phytic acid and lipoic acid in significantly inhibiting SAA production, pro-inflammatory cytokine release and membrane lipid peroxidation. All the tested antioxidant compounds were able to reduce the production of amyloid and may be the basis for establishing new therapies for AKU amyloidosis.

  13. Stratum corneum cytokines and skin irritation response to sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jongh, Cindy M; Verberk, Maarten M; Withagen, Carien E T; Jacobs, John J L; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-06-01

    Little is known about cytokines involved in chronic irritant contact dermatitis. Individual cytokine profiles might explain at least part of the differences in the individual response to irritation. Our objective was to investigate the relation between baseline stratum corneum (SC) cytokine levels and the skin response to a single and a repeated irritation test. This study also aimed to determine changes in SC cytokine levels after repeated irritation. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema were measured in 20 volunteers after single 24-hr exposure to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and during and after repeated exposure to 0.1% SLS over a 3-week period. SC cytokine levels were measured from an unexposed skin site and from the repeatedly exposed site. Interleukin (IL)-1alpha decreased by 30% after repeated exposure, while IL-1RA increased 10-fold and IL-8 increased fourfold. Baseline IL-1RA and IL-8 values were predictors of TEWL and erythema after single exposure (r = 0.55-0.61). 6 subjects showed barrier recovery during repeated exposure. Baseline IL-1RA and IL-8 levels are likely to be indicators of higher skin irritability after single exposure to SLS. Barrier repair in some of the subjects might explain the lack of agreement between the TEWL response after single and repeated irritation.

  14. 6-Shogaol, an active compound of ginger, alleviates allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions via cytokine inhibition by activating the Nrf2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gunhyuk, E-mail: uranos5@kiom.re.kr [The K-herb Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dal-Seok [The K-herb Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Gi; Lee, Chang Eon [Major in Cosmeceutical Science, Division of Bio-technology and Convergence, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-ung, E-mail: ykim@dhu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Biomedical Science, Daegu Haany University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Allergic dermatitis (AD) clinically presents with skin erythematous plaques, eruption, and elevated serum IgE, and T helper cell type 2 and 1 (Th2 and Th1) cytokine levels. 6-Shogaol [1-(4-hydroxy-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-one], a pungent compound isolated from ginger, has shown anti-inflammatory effects, but its inhibitory effects on AD are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether 6-shogaol inhibits AD-like skin lesions and their underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. An AD-like response was induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) + IFN-γ in human keratinocytes or by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in mice. In vivo, 6-shogaol inhibited the development of DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesions and scratching behavior, and showed significant reduction in Th2/1-mediated inflammatory cytokines, IgE, TNF-α, IFN-γ, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-1, 4, 12, and 13, cyclooxygenase-2, and nitric oxide synthase levels. In vitro, 6-shogaol inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling, and increased the levels of total glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and quinone 1 via nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. 6-Shogaol can alleviate AD-like skin lesions by inhibiting immune mediators via regulating the ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway, and may be an effective alternative therapy for AD. - Highlights: • 6-Shogaol inhibited Th2/1-mediated inflammatory mediators in vitro and in vivo. • 6-Shogaol regulated ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway. • 6-Shogaol can protect against the development of AD-like skin lesions.

  15. 6-Shogaol, an active compound of ginger, alleviates allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions via cytokine inhibition by activating the Nrf2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gunhyuk; Oh, Dal-Seok; Lee, Mi Gi; Lee, Chang Eon; Kim, Yong-ung

    2016-01-01

    Allergic dermatitis (AD) clinically presents with skin erythematous plaques, eruption, and elevated serum IgE, and T helper cell type 2 and 1 (Th2 and Th1) cytokine levels. 6-Shogaol [1-(4-hydroxy-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-one], a pungent compound isolated from ginger, has shown anti-inflammatory effects, but its inhibitory effects on AD are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether 6-shogaol inhibits AD-like skin lesions and their underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. An AD-like response was induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) + IFN-γ in human keratinocytes or by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in mice. In vivo, 6-shogaol inhibited the development of DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesions and scratching behavior, and showed significant reduction in Th2/1-mediated inflammatory cytokines, IgE, TNF-α, IFN-γ, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-1, 4, 12, and 13, cyclooxygenase-2, and nitric oxide synthase levels. In vitro, 6-shogaol inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling, and increased the levels of total glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and quinone 1 via nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. 6-Shogaol can alleviate AD-like skin lesions by inhibiting immune mediators via regulating the ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway, and may be an effective alternative therapy for AD. - Highlights: • 6-Shogaol inhibited Th2/1-mediated inflammatory mediators in vitro and in vivo. • 6-Shogaol regulated ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway. • 6-Shogaol can protect against the development of AD-like skin lesions.

  16. Bee Venom Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines through Suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woon-Hae; An, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Gwon, Mi-Gyeong; Gu, Hyemin; Park, Jae-Bok; Sung, Woo Jung; Kwon, Yong-Chul; Park, Kyung-Duck; Han, Sang Mi; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2016-11-10

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis ( P. gingivalis ), especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced activation of the signaling pathways of inflammatory cytokines-related transcription factors, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1). BV effectively inhibited those pro-inflammatory cytokines through suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways. These results suggest that administration of BV attenuates PgLPS-induced inflammatory responses. Furthermore, BV may be a useful treatment to anti-inflammatory therapy for periodontitis.

  17. Inhibition of furin results in increased growth, invasiveness and cytokine production of synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changshun; Song, Zezhong; Liu, Huiling; Pan, Jihong; Jiang, Huiyu; Liu, Chao; Yan, Zexing; Feng, Hong; Sun, Shui

    2017-07-01

    Fibroblast-like synoviocytes derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis play a key role by local production of cytokines and proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix and cartilage. These synoviocytes acquire phenotypic characteristics commonly observed in transformed cells, like anchorage-independent growth, increased proliferation and invasiveness, and insensitivity to apoptosis. Furin is a ubiquitous proprotein convertase that is capable of cleaving precursors of a wide variety of proteins. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, furin is reported to be highly expressed in the synovial pannus compared with healthy persons. However, the mechanisms are poorly understood. This study is to explore the effect of furin overexpression in rheumatoid synoviocytes. In this study, RNA interference was used to knock down furin expression and to assess the resultant effects on biological behaviors of synoviocytes, such as cell proliferation, invasion, migration, cell cycle and cell apoptosis. In addition, the production of inflammatory cytokines was evaluated. The results showed that the inhibition of furin enhanced proliferation, invasion, and migration of synoviocytes in vitro. Cell cycle was accelerated and cell death was affected by furin knockdown. Also, the inhibition of furin increased interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion of synoviocytes. Inhibition of furin enhances invasive phenotype of synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, implying a protective role of furin. Agents targeting upregulation of furin may have therapeutic potential for rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. COL-3, a chemically modified tetracycline, inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia activation and cytokine expression in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Abdulhameed Edan

    Full Text Available Microglia activation results in release of proinflammatory molecules including cytokines, which contribute to neuronal damage in the central nervous system (CNS if not controlled. Tetracycline antibiotics such as minocycline inhibit microglial activation and cytokine expression during CNS inflammation. In the present study we found that administration of chemically modified tetracycline-3 (COL-3, inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced microglial and p38 MAPK activation, as well as the increase in TNF-α, but not IL-1β expression, in the brains of BALB/c mice. COL-3 has been described to have no antibacterial activity. We observed that COL-3 had no activity against a Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli; however surprisingly, COL-3 had antibacterial activity against a Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/ml. Our data show that COL-3 has some antibacterial activity against S. aureus, inhibits LPS-induced neuroinflammation, and displays potential as a therapeutic agent for treatment of conditions involving CNS inflammation.

  19. Neural Synchrony during Response Production and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Viktor; Anokhin, Andrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of irrelevant information (conflict monitoring) and/or of prepotent actions is an essential component of adaptive self-organized behavior. Neural dynamics underlying these functions has been studied in humans using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited in Go/NoGo tasks that require a speeded motor response to the Go stimuli and withholding a prepotent response when a NoGo stimulus is presented. However, averaged ERP waveforms provide only limited information about the neuronal mechanisms underlying stimulus processing, motor preparation, and response production or inhibition. In this study, we examine the cortical representation of conflict monitoring and response inhibition using time-frequency analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings during continuous performance Go/NoGo task in 50 young adult females. We hypothesized that response inhibition would be associated with a transient boost in both temporal and spatial synchronization of prefrontal cortical activity, consistent with the role of the anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices in cognitive control. Overall, phase synchronization across trials measured by Phase Locking Index and phase synchronization between electrode sites measured by Phase Coherence were the highest in the Go and NoGo conditions, intermediate in the Warning condition, and the lowest under Neutral condition. The NoGo condition was characterized by significantly higher fronto-central synchronization in the 300–600 ms window, whereas in the Go condition, delta- and theta-band synchronization was higher in centro-parietal regions in the first 300 ms after the stimulus onset. The present findings suggest that response production and inhibition is supported by dynamic functional networks characterized by distinct patterns of temporal and spatial synchronization of brain oscillations. PMID:22745691

  20. Neural synchrony during response production and inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Müller

    Full Text Available Inhibition of irrelevant information (conflict monitoring and/or of prepotent actions is an essential component of adaptive self-organized behavior. Neural dynamics underlying these functions has been studied in humans using event-related brain potentials (ERPs elicited in Go/NoGo tasks that require a speeded motor response to the Go stimuli and withholding a prepotent response when a NoGo stimulus is presented. However, averaged ERP waveforms provide only limited information about the neuronal mechanisms underlying stimulus processing, motor preparation, and response production or inhibition. In this study, we examine the cortical representation of conflict monitoring and response inhibition using time-frequency analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG recordings during continuous performance Go/NoGo task in 50 young adult females. We hypothesized that response inhibition would be associated with a transient boost in both temporal and spatial synchronization of prefrontal cortical activity, consistent with the role of the anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices in cognitive control. Overall, phase synchronization across trials measured by Phase Locking Index and phase synchronization between electrode sites measured by Phase Coherence were the highest in the Go and NoGo conditions, intermediate in the Warning condition, and the lowest under Neutral condition. The NoGo condition was characterized by significantly higher fronto-central synchronization in the 300-600 ms window, whereas in the Go condition, delta- and theta-band synchronization was higher in centro-parietal regions in the first 300 ms after the stimulus onset. The present findings suggest that response production and inhibition is supported by dynamic functional networks characterized by distinct patterns of temporal and spatial synchronization of brain oscillations.

  1. Cytokine balance in human malaria: does Plasmodium vivax elicit more inflammatory responses than Plasmodium falciparum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel M Gonçalves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which humans regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory responses on exposure to different malaria parasites remains unclear. Although Plasmodium vivax usually causes a relatively benign disease, this parasite has been suggested to elicit more host inflammation per parasitized red blood cell than P. falciparum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured plasma concentrations of seven cytokines and two soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α receptors, and evaluated clinical and laboratory outcomes, in Brazilians with acute uncomplicated infections with P. vivax (n = 85, P. falciparum (n = 30, or both species (n = 12, and in 45 asymptomatic carriers of low-density P. vivax infection. Symptomatic vivax malaria patients, compared to those infected with P. falciparum or both species, had more intense paroxysms, but they had no clear association with a pro-inflammatory imbalance. To the contrary, these patients had higher levels of the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL-10, which correlated positively with parasite density, and elevated IL-10/TNF-α, IL-10/interferon (IFN-γ, IL-10/IL-6 and sTNFRII/TNF-α ratios, compared to falciparum or mixed-species malaria patient groups. Vivax malaria patients had the highest levels of circulating soluble TNF-α receptor sTNFRII. Levels of regulatory cytokines returned to normal values 28 days after P. vivax clearance following chemotherapy. Finally, asymptomatic carriers of low P. vivax parasitemias had substantially lower levels of both inflammatory and regulatory cytokines than did patients with clinical malaria due to either species. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling fast-multiplying P. falciparum blood stages requires a strong inflammatory response to prevent fulminant infections, while reducing inflammation-related tissue damage with early regulatory cytokine responses may be a more cost-effective strategy in infections with the less virulent P. vivax parasite. The early induction

  2. Adjuvant effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd. derived saponins in antibody production, allergic response and pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nimisha; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pandey, Pallavi; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The study manifests the immunoadjuvant potential of saponin rich fraction from Asparagus racemosus in terms of cellular and humoral immune response that can be exploited against microbial infections. Asparagus racemosus (AR) has been attributed as an adaptogen and rasayana in traditional medication systems for enhancing the host defence mechanism. Spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis ensured the presence of saponins. The saponin rich fractions were tested for immunoadjuvant property in ovalbumin immunised mice for the humoral response, quantified in terms of prolonged antibody production upto a duration of 56days. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were estimated for the cellular immune response in LPS stimulated primary murine macrophages. The safety evaluation in terms of cytotoxicity and allergic response has also been evaluated through in-vitro (MTT) and in-vivo (IgE) respectively. ARS significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines, in LPS stimulated murine macrophages with no intrinsic cytotoxicity. The significant increase in IgG production infers the utility of ARS for prolonged humoral response. Further, the antigen specific response of IL-12 at early stage and IgE titres also suggests the generation of cellular immune response and low allergic reaction respectively, as compared to conventional adjuvants. IL-6 and TNF fluctuations in LPS stimulated and non-stimulated macrophages along with IgG and IL-12 also confirmed the Th1/Th2 modulating effect of ARS. The study indicates potential effect of ARS as an adjuvant for the stimulation of cellular immune response in addition to generating a sustained adaptive response without any adverse effects paving way for further validation with pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytokine profiles show heterogeneity of interferon-β response in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegen, Harald; Adrianto, Indra; Lessard, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum cytokine profiles for their utility to determine the heterogeneous responses to interferon (IFN)-β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome receiving de novo IFN-β treatment...... were included in this prospective, observational study. Number of relapses and changes in disability were assessed 2 years prior to and 2 years after initiation of treatment. Sera were collected at baseline and after 3 months on therapy. Cytokine levels in sera were assessed by Luminex multiplex assays...

  4. Inhibition of cytokine gene expression and induction of chemokine genes in non-lymphatic cells infected with SARS coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Friedemann

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV is the etiologic agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome. SARS-CoV mainly infects tissues of non-lymphatic origin, and the cytokine profile of those cells can determine the course of disease. Here, we investigated the cytokine response of two human non-lymphatic cell lines, Caco-2 and HEK 293, which are fully permissive for SARS-CoV. Results A comparison with established cytokine-inducing viruses revealed that SARS-CoV only weakly triggered a cytokine response. In particular, SARS-CoV did not activate significant transcription of the interferons IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2/3, as well as of the interferon-induced antiviral genes ISG56 and MxA, the chemokine RANTES and the interleukine IL-6. Interestingly, however, SARS-CoV strongly induced the chemokines IP-10 and IL-8 in the colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2, but not in the embryonic kidney cell line 293. Conclusion Our data indicate that SARS-CoV suppresses the antiviral cytokine system of non-immune cells to a large extent, thus buying time for dissemination in the host. However, synthesis of IP-10 and IL-8, which are established markers for acute-stage SARS, escapes the virus-induced silencing at least in some cell types. Therefore, the progressive infiltration of immune cells into the infected lungs observed in SARS patients could be due to the production of these chemokines by the infected tissue cells.

  5. Cytokine inhibition in chronic fatigue syndrome patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerink, Megan E; Knoop, Hans; Bredie, Sebastian J H; Heijnen, Michael; Joosten, Leo A B; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; van der Meer, Jos W M

    2015-10-05

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a medically unexplained syndrome for which no somatic or pharmacological treatment has been proven effective. Dysfunction of the cytokine network has been suspected to play a role in the pathophysiology of CFS. The disturbances of the cytokine network detected in CFS patients are highly variable, in part due to the lack of adequate controls in many studies. Furthermore, all studies have been performed on peripheral venous blood of patients. As cytokines mainly act in tissues, for example, the brain, the information that can be derived from peripheral blood cells is limited. The information regarding the possible role of cytokines in the pathophysiology could come from intervention studies in which the activities of relevant cytokines are reduced, for example, reducing interleukin-1, interleukin-6 or tumor necrosis factor. In this study, the clinical usefulness of anakinra, an IL-1 antagonist, will be assessed in patients with CFS. A randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind trial will be conducted. Fifty adult female patients meeting the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria for CFS and without psychiatric co-morbidity will be included. After inclusion, patients will be randomized between treatment with anakinra (recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) or placebo. Each group will be treated for 4 weeks. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, after 4 weeks of intervention, and 6 months after baseline assessment. The primary outcome measure will be fatigue severity at 4 weeks, measured with the validated Checklist of Individual Strength (CIS). Secondary outcome measures are functional impairment, physical and social functioning, psychological distress, pain severity, presence of accompanying symptoms, and cytokine and cortisol concentrations. This is the first randomized placebo-controlled trial that will evaluate the effect of interference with IL-1 on the experience of fatigue in patients with CFS. The

  6. Impaired cytokine responses in patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, M H; van de Vosse, E; Goldbach-Mansky, R; Holland, S M

    2014-09-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is characterized by dysregulated inflammation with excessive interleukin (IL)-1β activation and secretion. Neonatal-onset multi-system inflammatory disease (NOMID) is the most severe form. We explored cytokine responses in 32 CAPS patients before and after IL-1β blocking therapy. We measured cytokines produced by activated peripheral blood monuclear cells (PBMCs) from treated and untreated CAPS patients after stimulation for 48 h with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), PHA plus IL-12, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS plus interferon (IFN)-γ. We measured IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), IL-12p70 and IFN-γ in the supernatants. PBMCs from three untreated CAPS patients were cultured in the presence of the IL-1β blocker Anakinra. Fifty healthy individuals served as controls. CAPS patients had high spontaneous production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF and IFN-γ by unstimulated cells. However, stimulation indexes (SIs, ratio of stimulated to unstimulated production) of these cytokines to PHA and LPS were low in NOMID patients compared to controls. Unstimulated IL-10 and IL-12p70 production was normal, but up-regulation after PHA and LPS was also low. LPS plus IFN-γ inadequately up-regulated the production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF and IL-10 in CAPS patients. In-vitro but not in-vivo treatment with Anakinra improved SIs by lowering spontaneous cytokine production. However, in-vitro treatment did not improve the low stimulated cytokine levels. Activating mutations in NLRP3 in CAPS are correlated with poor SIs to PHA, LPS and IFN-γ. The impairment in stimulated cytokine responses in spite of IL-1β blocking therapy suggests a broader intrinsic defect in CAPS patients, which is not corrected by targeting IL-1β. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  7. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits cytokine production by human blood monocytes at the post-transcriptional level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Haahr, P M; Diamant, M

    1992-01-01

    was not caused by impaired production of mRNA. Taken together, the study demonstrates a vitamin D-induced inhibitory effect of LPS-driven monokine production, which is most likely a vitamin D-receptor mediated phenomenon exerted at a post-transcriptional, presecretory level. Impaired monokine production may...... be of importance in 1,25-(OH)2D3-mediated inhibition of lymphocyte functions in vitro.......1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and production of antibodies and lymphokines such as interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma. These lymphocyte functions are dependent upon cytokines, including IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha...

  8. The cytomegalovirus homolog of interleukin-10 requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity for inhibition of cytokine synthesis in monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Juliet V

    2007-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) has evolved numerous strategies for evading host immune defenses, including piracy of cellular cytokines. A viral homolog of interleukin-10, designated cmvIL-10, binds to the cellular IL-10 receptor and effects potent immune suppression. The signaling pathways employed by cmvIL-10 were investigated, and the classic IL-10R/JAK1/Stat3 pathway was found to be activated in monocytes. However, inhibition of JAK1 had little effect on cmvIL-10-mediated suppression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway had a more significant impact on TNF-alpha levels but did not completely relieve the immune suppression, demonstrating that cmvIL-10 stimulates multiple signaling pathways to modulate cell function.

  9. PR-957 mediates neuroprotection by inhibiting Th17 differentiation and modulating cytokine production in a mouse model of ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y; Chen, X; Li, D; Liu, H; Ding, Y; Han, R; Shi, Y; Ma, X

    2018-03-30

    Acute ischaemic stroke can induce secondary brain injury by activating an inflammatory response that contributes to clinical impairment. As a specific inhibitor of the immunoproteasome subunit low molecular weight polypeptide 7 (LMP7), PR-957 may participate in regulating pathophysiological and inflammatory responses in multiple diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We investigated the neuroprotective properties of PR-957 in a mouse model of stroke, induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After MCAO and injections of PR-957 or vehicle, we evaluated mice behaviourally using modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS) and sensorimotor tests, including the adhesive-removal test, a foot-fault test and an inclined plane test. Infarct volume was measured 24 and 72 h after MCAO. Infiltration by different lymphocyte subpopulations was evaluated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining of brain tissue from the penumbral area. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure the expression of proinflammatory cytokines: interkeukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT-3) protein levels in brain was measured by immunoblot. MCAO mice treated with PR-957 showed a significant decrease in infarct volume and had mild neurological deficits compared to vehicle-treated mice. PR-957 administration also significantly decreased IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17A and TNF-α. PR-957 provides neuroprotection via inhibiting T lymphocyte infiltration and decreasing T helper type 17 (Th17) cell differentiation in MCAO mice, which may result from the reduced expression of pSTAT-3. The neuroprotective effect of PR-957 indicates its

  10. (−-Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits endotoxin-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jieliang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background (−-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is a major polyphenol component of green tea that has antioxidant activities. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces inflammatory cytokine production and impairs blood–brain barrier (BBB integrity. We examined the effect of EGCG on LPS-induced expression of the inflammatory cytokines in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMECs and BBB permeability. Methods The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2 was determined by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR and ELISA. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM in hCMECs were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Monocytes that adhered to LPS-stimulated endothelial cells were measured by monocyte adhesion assay. Tight junctional factors were detected by qRT-PCR (Claudin 5 and Occludin and immunofluorescence staining (Claudin 5 and ZO-1. The permeability of the hCMEC monolayer was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry of transmembrane fluorescin and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER. NF-kB activation was measured by luciferase assay. Results EGCG significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in hCMECs. EGCG also inhibited the expression of MCP-1/CCL2, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Functional analysis showed that EGCG induced the expression of tight junction proteins (Occludin and Claudin-5 in hCMECs. Investigation of the mechanism showed that EGCG had the ability to inhibit LPS-mediated NF-κB activation. In addition, 67-kD laminin receptor was involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of EGCG. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that LPS induced inflammatory cytokine production in hCMECs, which could be attenuated by EGCG. These data indicate that EGCG has a therapeutic potential for endotoxin-mediated endothelial inflammation.

  11. Peripheral Injection of SB203580 Inhibits the Inflammatory-Dependent Synthesis of Proinflammatory Cytokines in the Hypothalamus

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    Andrzej P. Herman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the effects of peripheral injection of SB203580 on the synthesis of interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF α in the hypothalamus of ewes during prolonged inflammation. Inflammation was induced by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (400 ng/kg over 7 days. SB203580 is a selective ATP-competitive inhibitor of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which is involved in the regulation of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα synthesis. Intravenous injection of SB203580 successfully inhibited (P<0.01 synthesis of IL-1β and reduced (P<0.01 the production of IL-6 in the hypothalamus. The p38 MAPK inhibitor decreased (P<0.01 gene expression of TNFα but its effect was not observed at the level of TNFα protein synthesis. SB203580 also reduced (P<0.01 LPS-stimulated IL-1 receptor type 1 gene expression. The conclusion that inhibition of p38 MAPK blocks LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine synthesis seems to initiate new perspectives in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases also within the central nervous system. However, potential proinflammatory effects of SB203580 treatment suggest that all therapies using p38 MAPK inhibitors should be introduced very carefully with analysis of all expected and unexpected consequences of treatment.

  12. Pre-treatment with Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm uterine contractility, cytokines, and prostaglandins in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Persing, David; Novy, Miles J.; Sadowsky, Drew W.; Gravett, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-uterine infection, which occurs in the majority of early preterm births, triggers an immune response culminating in preterm labor. We hypothesized that blockade of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune responses by a Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist (TLR4A) would prevent elevations in amniotic fluid (AF) cytokines, prostaglandins, and uterine contractility. Chronically catheterized rhesus monkeys at 128-147 days gestation received intra-amniotic infusions of either: 1) saline (n=6), 2) LPS (0.15-10μg; n=4), or 3) TLR4A pre-treatment with LPS (10 μg) one hour later (n=4). AF cytokines, prostaglandins, and uterine contractility were compared using oneway ANOVA with Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons. Compared to saline controls, LPS induced significant elevations in AF IL-8, TNF-α, PGE2, PGF2α, and uterine contractility (p<0.05). In contrast, TLR4A pre-treatment inhibited LPS-induced uterine activity and was associated with significantly lower AF IL-8, TNF-α, PGE2, and PGF2α versus LPS alone (p<0.05). Toll-like receptor antagonists, together with antibiotics, may delay or prevent infection-associated preterm birth. PMID:18187405

  13. Immunologic Characterization of Cytokine Responses to Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yan; Xu, Mei-Yan; Xu, Hong-Mei; Li, Xiu-Jun; Ding, Shu-Jun; Wang, Xian-Jun; Li, Ting-Yu; Lu, Qing-Bin

    2015-07-01

    Viral encephalitis is a serious complication of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but characteristics of cytokines response in enterovirus 71 (EV-71) and/or coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) associated HFMD with or without viral encephalitis remained unclear.We performed a multigroup retrospective study and compared the serum cytokines concentrations among 16 encephalitis patients infected with EV-71 and CV-A16, 24 encephalitis patients with single EV-71 infection, 34 mild HFMD patients with EV-71 infection, 18 mild HFMD patients with CV-A16 infection, and 39 healthy control subjects.Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-22, and IL-23 were significantly higher in encephalitis patients than in HFMD-alone patients when adjusting for age and sex; IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4, IL-22, and IL-1β were significantly higher in HFMD-alone patients of EV-71 infection than in CV-A16 infected HFMD patients; cerebrospinal fluid level of IL-6 was lower in the EV-71/CV-A16 associated encephalitis than that in the EV-71 alone associated encephalitis patients.Over or low expression of the cytokines cascade in HFMD patients appears to play an important role in the elicitation of the immune response to EV-71 and CV-A16. These data will be used to define a cytokine profile, which might help to recognize HFMD patients with the high risk of developing encephalitis.

  14. Monitoring bottlenose dolphin leukocyte cytokine mRNA responsiveness by qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Kirsten C.; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K.; Jensen, Eric D.; Porter, Tracy J.; Waters, Theresa E.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2017-01-01

    Both veterinarians caring for dolphins in managed populations and researchers monitoring wild populations use blood-based diagnostics to monitor bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) health. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to assess cytokine transcription patterns of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This can supplement currently available blood tests with information on immune status. Full realization of this potential requires establishment of normal ranges of cytokine gene transcription levels in bottlenose dolphins. We surveyed four dolphins over the span of seven months by serial bleeds. PBMC were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (1, 5, and 10 μg/mL) and concanavalin A (1 μg/mL) for 48 H in vitro. RNA from these cultures was probed by qPCR using Tursiops truncatus-specific primers (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-18, IFN-γ and TNF-α). Two blood samples from an additional bottlenose dolphin diagnosed with acute pulmonary disease add further perspective to the data. We observed that mitogen choice made a significant difference in the magnitude of gene transcription observed. On the other hand, most cytokines tested exhibited limited intra-animal variation. However, IL-6 and IL-12p40 differed between older and younger dolphins. Furthermore, the magnitude of mitogenic response clusters the tested cytokines into three groups. The data provide a reference for the selection of target cytokine mRNAs and their expected range of mitogen-stimulated cytokine gene transcription for future studies. PMID:29272269

  15. Monitoring bottlenose dolphin leukocyte cytokine mRNA responsiveness by qPCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Ruth Hofstetter

    Full Text Available Both veterinarians caring for dolphins in managed populations and researchers monitoring wild populations use blood-based diagnostics to monitor bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus health. Quantitative PCR (qPCR can be used to assess cytokine transcription patterns of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. This can supplement currently available blood tests with information on immune status. Full realization of this potential requires establishment of normal ranges of cytokine gene transcription levels in bottlenose dolphins. We surveyed four dolphins over the span of seven months by serial bleeds. PBMC were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (1, 5, and 10 μg/mL and concanavalin A (1 μg/mL for 48 H in vitro. RNA from these cultures was probed by qPCR using Tursiops truncatus-specific primers (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-18, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Two blood samples from an additional bottlenose dolphin diagnosed with acute pulmonary disease add further perspective to the data. We observed that mitogen choice made a significant difference in the magnitude of gene transcription observed. On the other hand, most cytokines tested exhibited limited intra-animal variation. However, IL-6 and IL-12p40 differed between older and younger dolphins. Furthermore, the magnitude of mitogenic response clusters the tested cytokines into three groups. The data provide a reference for the selection of target cytokine mRNAs and their expected range of mitogen-stimulated cytokine gene transcription for future studies.

  16. Effect of praziquantel treatment during pregnancy on cytokine responses to schistosome antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweyongyere, Robert; Mawa, Patrice A.; Ngom-Wegi, Sophy

    2008-01-01

    . Cytokine responses to S. mansoni worm and egg antigens were measured in whole blood culture before and 6 weeks after each treatment. RESULTS: Schistosome-specific cytokine responses were suppressed during pregnancy. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy caused significant boosts in interferon-gamma (IFN......Praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis boosts antischistosome responses, with type 2 helper T cell bias that may contribute to immunologically mediated killing and to protection against reinfection. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy was recommended in 2002, but the immunological effects...... of the treatment had not been investigated. METHODS: A cohort of 387 Schistosoma mansoni-infected women were recruited from a larger trial of deworming during pregnancy. Women were randomized to receive either praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy. Six weeks after delivery, all women received praziquantel...

  17. Mucorales spores induce a proinflammatory cytokine response in human mononuclear phagocytes and harbor no rodlet hydrophobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Sebastian; Thielen, Vanessa; Weis, Philipp; Walther, Paul; Elias, Johannes; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Dragan, Mariola; Dandekar, Thomas; Einsele, Hermann; Löffler, Jürgen; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2017-11-17

    Mucormycoses are life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. This study characterizes the response of human mononuclear cells to different Mucorales and Ascomycota. PBMC, monocytes, and monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) from healthy donors were stimulated with resting and germinated stages of Mucorales and Ascomycota. Cytokine response and expression of activation markers were studied. Both inactivated germ tubes and resting spores of Rhizopus arrhizus and other human pathogenic Mucorales species significantly stimulated mRNA synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, R. arrhizus spores induced the upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules on moDCs and a specific T-helper cell response. Removal of rodlet hydrophobins by hydrofluoric acid treatment of A. fumigatus conidia resulted in enhanced immunogenicity, whereas the cytokine response of PBMCs to dormant R. arrhizus spores was not influenced by hydrofluoric acid. Scanning electron micrographs of Mucorales spores did not exhibit any morphological correlates of rodlet hydrophobins. Taken together, this study revealed striking differences in the response of human mononuclear cells to resting stages of Ascomycota and Mucorales, which may be explained by absence of an immunoprotective hydrophobin layer in Mucorales spores.

  18. Response inhibition in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Wiggs, Edythe; Kranick, Sarah; Ameli, Rezvan; Harrison, Neil A; Hallett, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Conversion disorders (CDs) are unexplained neurological symptoms presumed to be related to a psychological issue. Studies focusing on conversion paralysis have suggested potential impairments in motor initiation or execution. Here we studied CD patients with aberrant or excessive motor movements and focused on motor response inhibition. We also assessed cognitive measures in multiple domains. We compared 30 CD patients and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers on a motor response inhibition task (go/no go), along with verbal motor response inhibition (color-word interference) and measures of attention, sustained attention, processing speed, language, memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function including planning and verbal fluency. CD patients had greater impairments in commission errors on the go/no go task (P conversion. Patients with nonepileptic seizures, a different form of conversion disorder, are commonly reported to have lower IQ and multiple cognitive deficits. Our results point toward potential differences between conversion disorder subgroups. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Local cytokine treatment of HPV16-associated tumours results in inhibition of their lung metastases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikyšková, Romana; Bubeník, Jan; Mendoza, Luis; Vonka, V.; Šmahel, M.; Šímová, Jana; Jandlová, Táňa

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 7 (2001), s. 581-587 ISSN 0262-0898 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5526; GA MZd NC5900; GA ČR GA312/99/0542; GA ČR GA301/01/0985; GA ČR GA301/00/0114; GA AV ČR IAA7052002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HPV 16 * cytokines * lung metastasis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.966, year: 2001

  20. Andrographolide Ameliorates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression by Inhibiting Inflammatory Cell Infiltration through Downregulation of Cytokine and Integrin Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Liu, Zhenjie; Wang, Qiwei; Giles, Jasmine; Greenberg, Jason; Sheibani, Nader; Kent, K. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), characterized by exuberant inflammation and tissue deterioration, is a common aortic disease associated with a high mortality rate. There is currently no established pharmacological therapy to treat this progressive disease. Andrographolide (Andro), a major bioactive component of the herbaceous plant Andrographis paniculata, has been found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity in several disease models. In this study, we investigated the ability of Andro to suppress inflammation associated with aneurysms, and whether it may be used to block the progression of AAA. Whereas diseased aortae continued to expand in the solvent-treated group, daily administration of Andro to mice with small aneurysms significantly attenuated aneurysm growth, as measured by the diminished expansion of aortic diameter (165.68 ± 15.85% vs. 90.62 ± 22.91%, P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that Andro decreased infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and T cells. Mechanistically, Andro inhibited arterial NF-κB activation and reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines [CCL2, CXCL10, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon-γ] in the treated aortae. Furthermore, Andro suppressed α4 integrin expression and attenuated the ability of monocytes/macrophages to adhere to activated endothelial cells. These results indicate that Andro suppresses progression of AAA, likely through inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration via downregulation of NF-κB–mediated cytokine production and α4 integrin expression. Thus, Andro may offer a pharmacological therapy to slow disease progression in patients with small aneurysms. PMID:26483397

  1. Cytokine responses in relation to age, gender, body mass index, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and otitis media among inuit in greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Soborg, Bolette; Børresen, Malene

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection.......To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection....

  2. Cytokine profiles in tears accompanying the secondary conjunctival responses induced by nasal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, Zdenek

    2014-02-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) occurs either in a primary form, due to the allergic reaction localized in the conjunctivae or in a secondary form, induced by an allergic reaction initiated primarily in the nasal mucosa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytokine profiles in tears associated with the secondary conjunctival response (SCR) types. In 47 AC patients developing 16 immediate (SICR; p tears. The SCRs were associated with significant concentration changes of particular cytokines in tears (p tears during the phosphate-buffered saline controls or negative SCRs. Different cytokine profiles in the tears accompanying the immediate, late and delayed types of SCR, induced by nasal allergy, would indicate involvement of different hypersensitivity mechanisms in the particular SCR types. The low cytokine concentrations in tears recorded during the SCRs may suggest their origin from the nasal mucosa. These results emphasize the diagnostic value of NPTs with allergens combined with monitoring of various ocular features in patients suffering from the secondary form of AC. These results may also have an impact on the therapeutical approach to this clinical entity.

  3. Cytokines in tears during the secondary keratoconjunctival responses induced by allergic reaction in the nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Allergic keratoconjunctivitis (KC) can occur in a primary form due to an allergic reaction taking place in the conjunctivae or in a secondary form induced by nasal allergy. To search for the cytokine changes in tears accompanying the secondary keratoconjunctival response types (SKCR), caused by the nasal allergy. In 43 KC patients developing 15 immediate (SIKCR), 16 late (SLKCR) and 12 delayed (SDYKCR) responses to nasal provocation tests with allergens (NPT), the NPTs were repeated with subsequent recording of cytokine concentrations in tears up to 72 h. The SIKCRs (ptears, suggesting involvement of different hypersensitivity mechanisms. These results also stress the diagnostic usefulness of NPTs combined with monitoring of ocular features in KC patients who did not respond satisfactorily to the topical ophthalmological treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The peri-operative cytokine response in infants and young children following major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Andersen, J B

    1998-01-01

    The peri-operative cytokine response was studied in 13 infants and young children undergoing major surgery. All children were anaesthetized with a combined general and epidural anaesthetic technique, followed by post-operative epidural analgesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl. Blood samples were...... taken before and after surgery, 24 h post-operatively, and finally, when the children were mobilized and had regained gastrointestinal function. Plasma samples were analysed for tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, interleukin-10...... and the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. The cytokine responses were highly variable. Overall, no significant changes between pre- and post-operative plasma concentrations were found. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were detectable in all children, and a trend towards an early...

  5. Cytokine Responses in Gills of Capoeta umbla as Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabas, Durali; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Onal, Ayten Oztufekci; Uslu, Gulsad; Unlu, Erhan; Danabas, Seval; Ergin, Cemil; Tayhan, Nilgun

    2016-03-01

    Immunological biomarkers reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. In this study, the suitability and sensitivity of cytokine responses, interleukin1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gill tissues of Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843), collected from different regions, as early warning indices of environmental pollution and ecosystem health was evaluated. Fish and water samples were taken from ten stations in March and September 2011 and 2012. Tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were determined in samples of the gill tissues by using an ELISA kit. Significant variations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels observed between stations and seasons. The results of this study show that seasonal variations of cytokine responses in gills of Capoeta umbla are sensitive to the contaminants present in Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey) water and are valuable biomarkers for environmental pollution and ecosystem health.

  6. Differing House Finch Cytokine Expression Responses to Original and Evolved Isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vinkler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of the poultry bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG in free-living house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus, which causes mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in this passerine bird species, resulted in a rapid coevolutionary arms-race between MG and its novel avian host. Despite extensive research on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of this host–pathogen system over the past two decades, the immunological responses of house finches to MG infection remain poorly understood. We developed seven new probe-based one-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to investigate mRNA expression of house finch cytokine genes (IL1B, IL6, IL10, IL18, TGFB2, TNFSF15, and CXCLi2, syn. IL8L. These assays were then used to describe cytokine transcription profiles in a panel of 15 house finch tissues collected at three distinct time points during MG infection. Based on initial screening that indicated strong pro-inflammatory cytokine expression during MG infection at the periorbital sites in particular, we selected two key house finch tissues for further characterization: the nictitating membrane, i.e., the internal eyelid in direct contact with MG, and the Harderian gland, the secondary lymphoid tissue responsible for regulation of periorbital immunity. We characterized cytokine responses in these two tissues for 60 house finches experimentally inoculated either with media alone (sham or one of two MG isolates: the earliest known pathogen isolate from house finches (VA1994 or an evolutionarily more derived isolate collected in 2006 (NC2006, which is known to be more virulent. We show that the more derived and virulent isolate NC2006, relative to VA1994, triggers stronger local inflammatory cytokine signaling, with peak cytokine expression generally occurring 3–6 days following MG inoculation. We also found that the extent of pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta signaling was correlated with conjunctival

  7. Differing House Finch Cytokine Expression Responses to Original and Evolved Isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Michal; Leon, Ariel E; Kirkpatrick, Laila; Dalloul, Rami A; Hawley, Dana M

    2018-01-01

    The recent emergence of the poultry bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in free-living house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus ), which causes mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in this passerine bird species, resulted in a rapid coevolutionary arms-race between MG and its novel avian host. Despite extensive research on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of this host-pathogen system over the past two decades, the immunological responses of house finches to MG infection remain poorly understood. We developed seven new probe-based one-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to investigate mRNA expression of house finch cytokine genes ( IL1B, IL6, IL10, IL18, TGFB2, TNFSF15 , and CXCLi2 , syn. IL8L ). These assays were then used to describe cytokine transcription profiles in a panel of 15 house finch tissues collected at three distinct time points during MG infection. Based on initial screening that indicated strong pro-inflammatory cytokine expression during MG infection at the periorbital sites in particular, we selected two key house finch tissues for further characterization: the nictitating membrane, i.e., the internal eyelid in direct contact with MG, and the Harderian gland, the secondary lymphoid tissue responsible for regulation of periorbital immunity. We characterized cytokine responses in these two tissues for 60 house finches experimentally inoculated either with media alone (sham) or one of two MG isolates: the earliest known pathogen isolate from house finches (VA1994) or an evolutionarily more derived isolate collected in 2006 (NC2006), which is known to be more virulent. We show that the more derived and virulent isolate NC2006, relative to VA1994, triggers stronger local inflammatory cytokine signaling, with peak cytokine expression generally occurring 3-6 days following MG inoculation. We also found that the extent of pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta signaling was correlated with conjunctival MG loads

  8. Associations between cytokines, endocrine stress response, and gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Bradley J.; Marler, Sarah; Altstein, Lily L.; Lee, Evon Batey; Mazurek, Micah O.; McLaughlin, Aaron; Macklin, Eric A.; McDonnell, Erin; Davis, Daniel J.; Belenchia, Anthony M.; Gillespie, Catherine H.; Peterson, Catherine A.; Bauman, Margaret L.; Margolis, Kara Gross; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significant gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, but the etiology is currently unknown. Some individuals with ASD show altered reactivity to stress and altered immune markers relative to typically-developing individuals, particularly stress-responsive cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Acute and chronic stress is associated with the onset and exacerbation of GI symptoms in those wi...

  9. Epithelial cell pro-inflammatory cytokine response differs across dental plaque bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Panagiota G; Benakanakere, Manjunatha R; Galicia, Johnah C; Kinane, Denis F

    2010-01-01

    The dental plaque is comprised of numerous bacterial species, which may or may not be pathogenic. Human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) respond to perturbation by various bacteria of the dental plaque by production of different levels of inflammatory cytokines, which is a putative reflection of their virulence. The aim of the current study was to determine responses in terms of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 secretion induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus gordonii in order to gauge their virulence potential. HGECs were challenged with the four bacterial species, live or heat killed, at various multiplicity of infections and the elicited IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 responses were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primary HGECs challenged with live P. gingivalis produced high levels of IL-1beta, while challenge with live A. actinomycetemcomitans gave high levels of IL-8. The opportunistic pathogen F. nucleatum induces the highest levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while the commensal S. gordonii is the least stimulatory. We conclude that various dental plaque biofilm bacteria induce different cytokine response profiles in primary HGECs that may reflect their individual virulence or commensal status.

  10. Virulent Type A Francisella tularensis actively suppresses cytokine responses in human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Devyn D.; Curry, Heather M.; Cremer, Thomas; Ravneberg, David; Fatehchand, Kavin; Shah, Prexy A.; Wewers, Mark D.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Tridandapani, Susheela; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human monocyte inflammatory responses differ between virulent and attenuated Francisella infection. Results: A mixed infection model showed that the virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 can attenuate inflammatory cytokine responses to the less virulent F. novicida in human monocytes. Conclusion: F. tularensis dampens inflammatory response by an active process. Significance: This suppression may contribute to enhanced pathogenicity of F. tularensis. Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative bacterium that can cause the disease tularemia, even upon exposure to low numbers of bacteria. One critical characteristic of Francisella is its ability to dampen or subvert the host immune response. Previous work has shown that monocytes infected with highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu S4 responded with a general pattern of quantitatively reduced pro-inflammatory signaling pathway genes and cytokine production in comparison to those infected with the less virulent related F. novicida. However, it has been unclear whether the virulent Schu S4 was merely evading or actively suppressing monocyte responses. By using mixed infection assays with F. tularensis and F. novicida, we show that F. tularensis actively suppresses monocyte pro-inflammatory responses. Additional experiments show that this suppression occurs in a dose-dependent manner and is dependent upon the viability of F. tularensis. Importantly, F. tularensis was able to suppress pro-inflammatory responses to earlier infections with F. novicida. These results lend support that F. tularensis actively dampens human monocyte responses and this likely contributes to its enhanced pathogenicity. PMID:24783062

  11. Antigen-Specific Interferon-Gamma Responses and Innate Cytokine Balance in TB-IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Odin; Jennes, Wim; Massinga-Loembé, Marguerite; Ceulemans, Ann; Worodria, William; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Colebunders, Robert; Kestens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) remains a poorly understood complication in HIV-TB patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). TB-IRIS could be associated with an exaggerated immune response to TB-antigens. We compared the recovery of IFNγ responses to recall and TB-antigens and explored in vitro innate cytokine production in TB-IRIS patients. Methods In a prospective cohort study of HIV-TB co-infected patients treated for TB before ART initiation, we compared 18 patients who developed TB-IRIS with 18 non-IRIS controls matched for age, sex and CD4 count. We analyzed IFNγ ELISpot responses to CMV, influenza, TB and LPS before ART and during TB-IRIS. CMV and LPS stimulated ELISpot supernatants were subsequently evaluated for production of IL-12p70, IL-6, TNFα and IL-10 by Luminex. Results Before ART, all responses were similar between TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls. During TB-IRIS, IFNγ responses to TB and influenza antigens were comparable between TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls, but responses to CMV and LPS remained significantly lower in TB-IRIS patients. Production of innate cytokines was similar between TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls. However, upon LPS stimulation, IL-6/IL-10 and TNFα/IL-10 ratios were increased in TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS controls. Conclusion TB-IRIS patients did not display excessive IFNγ responses to TB-antigens. In contrast, the reconstitution of CMV and LPS responses was delayed in the TB-IRIS group. For LPS, this was linked with a pro-inflammatory shift in the innate cytokine balance. These data are in support of a prominent role of the innate immune system in TB-IRIS. PMID:25415590

  12. Differential response to dexamethasone on the TXB2 release in guinea-pig alveolar macrophages induced by zymosan and cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Salgueiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticosteroids reduce the production of inflammatory mediators but this effect may depend on the stimulus. We have compared the time course of the effect of dexamethasone on the thromboxane B2 (TXB2 release induced by cytokine stimulation and zymosan in guinea-pig alveolar macrophages. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and opsonized zymosan (OZ, all stimulate TXB2 release. High concentrations of dexamethasone (1–10 μM inhibit the TXB2 production induced by both cytokines and OZ, but the time course of this response is different. Four hours of incubation with dexamethasone reduce the basal TXB2 release and that induced by IL-1β and TNF-α, but do not modify the TXB2 release induced by OZ. However, this stimulus was reduced after 24 h incubation. Our results suggest that the antiinflammatory activity of glucocorticosteroids shows some dependence on stimulus and, therefore, may have more than one mechanism involved.

  13. Cytokine Responses to Acute Exercise in Healthy Older Adults: The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T. Windsor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Markers of chronic inflammation increase with aging, and are associated with cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality. Increases in fitness with exercise training have been associated with lower circulating concentrations of cytokines known to have pro-inflammatory actions (such as interleukin-6 [IL-6] and higher circulating concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-10 [IL-10]. However, the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on acute cytokine responses to a single bout of exercise in healthy older individuals is unknown. We compared the response of plasma cytokines IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and IL-10 to a bout of moderate-intensity continuous and higher-intensity interval exercise between older individuals with higher and lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Sixteen lower-fit (VO2peak: 22.6±2.8 mL.kg−1.min−1 and fourteen higher-fit participants (VO2peak: 37.4±5.9 mL.kg−1.min−1 completed three 24 min experimental protocols in a randomized order: (1 moderate-intensity continuous exercise (40% of peak power output [PPO]; (2 higher-intensity interval exercise (12 × 1 min intervals at 70% PPO separated by 1 min periods at 10% PPO; or (3 non-exercise control. Plasma cytokines were measured at rest, immediately after, and during 90 min of recovery following exercise or control. Plasma IL-6 concentrations at baseline were greater in the higher-fit compared to the lower-fit group (P = 0.02, with no difference in plasma IL-10 or TNF-α concentrations at baseline between groups. Plasma IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in both groups increased immediately after all protocols (IL-6: P = 0.02, IL-10: P < 0.01. However, there was no difference in the IL-6 and IL-10 response between the exercise and non-exercise (control protocols. After all protocols, no changes in plasma TNF-α concentrations were observed in either the higher- or lower-fit groups. In this study, basal concentrations of circulating IL-6

  14. Esculetin from Fraxinus rhynchophylla attenuates atopic skin inflammation by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Na-Hee; Yang, Eun-Ju; Jin, Meiling; Lee, Jong Yeong; Choi, Young-Ae; Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sun-Uk; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Jang, Yong Hyun; Song, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2018-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder afflicting from infancy to adults with itching, scratching, and lichenification. We aimed to investigate the effects of esculetin from Fraxinus rhynchophylla on atopic skin inflammation. For induction of atopic skin inflammation, we exposed the ears of female BALB/c mice to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for 4 weeks. Oral administration of esculetin reduced the symptoms of DFE/DNCB-induced atopic skin inflammation, which were evaluated based on ear swelling and number of scratch bouts. The immunoglobulin (Ig) E, IgG2a, and histamine levels in serum were decreased and inflammatory cell infiltration in skin tissue was reduced by the esculetin. It suppressed production of Th1, Th2 and Th17-related cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-31 and IL-17 in the ear tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of esculetin on activated keratinocytes, which are representative cells used for studying the pathogenesis of acute and chronic atopic skin inflammation. As results, esculetin suppressed gene expression of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines and the activation of nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated keratinocytes. Taken together, these results imply that esculetin attenuated atopic skin inflammation, suggesting that esculetin could be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation of cutaneous sensitivity and cytokine response in children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy occurs in a significant portion of pediatric asthma. Various cells and their mediators/cytokines play a pivotal role in orchestrating the airway inflammatory response in asthma. Objective: To study the cutaneous hypersensitivity, Th1, Th2, and Th17 response of pediatric population with asthma and genetic predisposition to atopy, by determining total immunoglobulin E (IgE level in response to various food allergens. Materials and Methods: Fifty asthmatic children with a history of worsening symptoms by various food allergens (study group and twenty healthy children (control group were included. Food allergy was assessed through skin prick test (SPT of various food allergens. Total serum IgE level was measured by sandwich ELISA, and T-cell (Th1, Th2, and Th17-dependent cytokines were measured by flow cytometry. Results: All 50 asthmatic children in the study group showed SPT positivity against various food allergens (rice = 17; banana, fish and groundnut = 10; wheat = 9; milk and orange = 7; egg = 6; and mango = 4. The average total IgE level in the study group was 316.8 ± 189.8 IU/mL. A significant positive correlation of total IgE with interleukin 17 (IL-17 (r = 0.796; P < 0.0001, IL-13 (r = 0.383; P = 0.01, and IL-4 (r = 0.263; P = 0.043 level was noted. A significant negative correlation of total IgE was noted with interferon gamma (r = −0.5823; P < 0.0001 and IL-10 (r = −0.4474; P < 0.001 level and the duration of breastfeeding (r = −0.31, P = 0.03. Conclusions: The present study found a positive correlation between total serum IgE level and Th2, Th17 cytokines in a pediatric population with asthma. A significant negative correlation was found between the duration of breastfeeding and the cytokines.

  16. Involvement of three mechanisms in the alteration of cytokine responses by sodium methyldithiocarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruett, Stephen B.; Fan, Ruping; Zheng, Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Sodium methyldithiocarbamate (SMD) is the third most abundantly used conventional pesticide in the U.S. We recently reported that it alters the induction of cytokine production mediated though Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 at relevant dosages in mice. Its chemical properties and evidence from the literature suggest thee potential mechanisms of action for this compound. It could either act as a free radical scavenger (by means of its free S - group) or promote oxidation by breaking down to form methylisothiocyanate, which can deplete glutathione. It is a potent copper chelator and may affect the availability of copper to a number of copper-dependent enzymes (including some signaling molecules). SMD induces a classical neuroendocrine stress response characterized by elevated serum corticosterone concentrations, which could affect cytokine production. Although each of these mechanisms could potentially contribute to altered cytokine responses, direct evidence is lacking. The present study was conducted to obtain such evidence. The role of redox balance was investigated by pretreating mice with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which increases cellular glutathione concentrations, before administration of SMD. NAC exacerbated the SMD-induced suppression of IL-12 and the SMD-induced enhancement of IL-10 in the serum. The role of copper chelation was investigated by comparing the effects of SMD with an equimolar dose to SMD that was administered in the form of a copper chelation complex. Addition of copper significantly decreased the action of SMD on IL-12 production but not on IL-10 production. The role of the stress response was investigated by pretreating mice with antagonists of corticosterone and catecholamines. This treatment partially prevented the action of SMD on IL-10 and IL-12 in the peritoneal fluid. The results suggest that all of the proposed mechanisms have some role in the alteration of cytokine production by SMD

  17. Th9 cytokines response and its possible implications in the immunopathogenesis of leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Jorge Rodrigues; Pagliari, Carla; de Almeida, Dandara Simone Maia; Barros, Luiz Fernando Lima; Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Dias, Leonidas Braga; de Souza Aarão, Tinara Leila; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões

    2017-06-01

    Leprosy is an infectious-contagious disease whose clinical evolution depends on the interaction of the infectious agent with the immune response of the host, leading to a clinical spectrum that ranges from lepromatous leprosy (susceptibility, LL) to tuberculoid leprosy (resistance, TT). The immune response profile will depend on the pattern of cytokine production and on the activity of macrophages during infection. Classically, the clinical evolution of leprosy has been associated with Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles, but the role of new cytokine profiles such as T helper 9 (Th9) remains to be elucidated. To evaluate the tissue expression profile of these cytokines, a cross-sectional study was conducted using a sample of 30 leprosy skin lesion biopsies obtained from patients with leprosy, 16 TT and 14 lepromatous LL. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant difference in interleukin (IL)-9, IL-4 transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and IL-10 levels between the two groups. IL-9 was more expressed in TT lesions compared with LL lesions. Higher expression of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β was observed in LL compared with TT. IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β tended to be negatively correlated with the expression of IL-9, indicating a possible antagonistic activity in tissue. The results suggest that Th9 lymphocytes may be involved in the response to Mycobacterium leprae , positively or negatively regulating microbicidal activity of the local immune system in the disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

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    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  19. Exercise-induced muscle-derived cytokines inhibit mammary cancer cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Dethlefsen, Christine; Brandt, Claus

    2011-01-01

    in caspase activity was found after incubation of MCF-7 cells with conditioned media from electrically stimulated myotubes. PCR array analysis (CAPM-0838E; SABiosciences) revealed that seven genes were upregulated in the muscles after exercise, and of these oncostatin M (OSM) proved to inhibit MCF-7...

  20. Curcumin ameliorates macrophage infiltration by inhibiting NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines in streptozotocin induced-diabetic nephropathy

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    Suzuki Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN and that the infiltration of macrophages in glomerulus has been implicated in the development of glomerular injury. We hypothesized that the plant polyphenolic compound curcumin, which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effect, would ameliorate macrophage infiltration in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced with STZ (55 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection in rats. Three weeks after STZ injection, rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, diabetic, and diabetic treated with curcumin at 100 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 8 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. The excised kidney was used to assess macrophage infiltration and expression of various inflammatory markers. Results At 11 weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats exhibited renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, increased blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria, along with marked reduction in the body weight. All of these abnormalities were significantly reversed by curcumin. Hyperglycemia induced the degradation of IκBα and NF-κB activation and as a result increased infiltration of macrophages (52% as well as increased proinflammatory cytokines: TNF-α and IL-1β. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced macrophage infiltration in the kidneys of diabetic rats, suppressed the expression of above proinflammatory cytokines and degradation of IκBα. In addition, curcumin treatment also markedly decreased ICAM-1, MCP-1 and TGF-β1 protein expression. Moreover, at nuclear level curcumin inhibited the NF-κB activity. Conclusion Our results suggested that curcumin treatment protect against the development of DN in rats by reducing macrophage infiltration through the inhibition of NF-κB activation in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  1. Influence of HMB supplementation and resistance training on cytokine responses to resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Hatfield, Disa L; Comstock, Brett A; Fragala, Maren S; Davitt, Patrick M; Cortis, Cristina; Wilson, Jacob M; Lee, Elaine C; Newton, Robert U; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Häkkinen, Keijo; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; White, Mark T; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a multinutritional supplement including amino acids, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), and carbohydrates on cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training. Seventeen healthy, college-aged men were randomly assigned to a Muscle Armor™ (MA; Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH) or placebo supplement group and 12 weeks of resistance training. An acute resistance exercise protocol was administered at 0, 6, and 12 weeks of training. Venous blood samples at pre-, immediately post-, and 30-minutes postexercise were analyzed via bead multiplex immunoassay for 17 cytokines. After 12 weeks of training, the MA group exhibited decreased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-10. IL-1β differed by group at various times. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β) changed over the 12-week training period but did not differ by group. Twelve weeks of resistance training alters the cytokine response to acute resistance exercise, and supplementation with HMB and amino acids appears to further augment this result.

  2. Interleukin-36 cytokines may overcome microbial immune evasion strategies that inhibit interleukin-1 family signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Liselotte E

    2017-08-15

    Pathogens deploy immune evasion strategies to successfully establish infections within their hosts. Naturally, the host responds by acquiring mechanisms to counter these strategies. There is increasing evidence that the three interleukin-36 (IL-36) cytokines, IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ, play important roles in host immunity. With a focus on the skin as a target for microbial and viral invasion, the current knowledge of IL-36 functions is reviewed. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the IL-36s have evolved to counteract virulence factors is presented using viruses as an example. The IL-36s are related to IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33. Numerous viruses affecting the skin have developed immune evasion strategies that neutralize IL-1α, IL-1β, or IL-18 signaling or combinations of these pathways. Through small differences in activation mechanisms and receptor utilization, it is possible that IL-36 signaling may proceed unhindered in the presence of these viral inhibitors. Thus, one physiological function of the IL-36s may be to counteract microbial immune evasion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. Saponin Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Propagation by Up-regulating Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jihye; Lim, Seri; Kang, Sang-Min; Min, Saehong; Son, Kidong; Lee, Han Sol; Park, Eun Mee; Ngo, Huong T. T.; Tran, Huong T. L.; Lim, Yun-Sook; Hwang, Soon B.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides which possess a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-tumorigenic and antiviral activities. To investigate whether saponin has anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity, we examined the effect of saponin on HCV replication. HCV replication was efficiently inhibited at a concentration of 10 µg/ml of saponin in cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Inhibitory effect of saponin on HCV replication was verified by...

  4. IL-1beta-induced chemokine and Fas expression are inhibited by suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 in insulin-producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, M L B; Rønn, S G; Bruun, C

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Chemokines recruit activated immune cells to sites of inflammation and are important mediators of insulitis. Activation of the pro-apoptotic receptor Fas leads to apoptosis-mediated death of the Fas-expressing cell. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IFN-gamma regulate...... the transcription of genes encoding the Fas receptor and several chemokines. We have previously shown that suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 inhibits IL-1beta- and IFN-gamma-induced nitric oxide production in a beta cell line. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SOCS-3 can influence cytokine......-induced Fas and chemokine expression in beta cells. METHODS: Using a beta cell line with inducible Socs3 expression or primary neonatal rat islet cells transduced with a Socs3-encoding adenovirus, we employed real-time RT-PCR analysis to investigate whether SOCS-3 affects cytokine-induced chemokine and Fas m...

  5. Exercise-induced muscle-derived cytokines inhibit mammary cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojman, Pernille; Dethlefsen, Christine; Brandt, Claus; Hansen, Jakob; Pedersen, Line; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-09-01

    Regular physical activity protects against the development of breast and colon cancer, since it reduces the risk of developing these by 25-30%. During exercise, humoral factors are released from the working muscles for endocrinal signaling to other organs. We hypothesized that these myokines mediate some of the inhibitory effects of exercise on mammary cancer cell proliferation. Serum and muscles were collected from mice after an exercise bout. Incubation with exercise-conditioned serum inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation by 52% and increased caspase activity by 54%. A similar increase in caspase activity was found after incubation of MCF-7 cells with conditioned media from electrically stimulated myotubes. PCR array analysis (CAPM-0838E; SABiosciences) revealed that seven genes were upregulated in the muscles after exercise, and of these oncostatin M (OSM) proved to inhibit MCF-7 proliferation by 42%, increase caspase activity by 46%, and induce apoptosis. Blocking OSM signaling with anti-OSM antibodies reduced the induction of caspase activity by 51%. To verify that OSM was a myokine, we showed that it was significantly upregulated in serum and in three muscles, tibialis cranialis, gastronemius, and soleus, after an exercise bout. In contrast, OSM expression remained unchanged in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, liver, and spleen (mononuclear cells). We conclude that postexercise serum inhibits mammary cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of these cells. We suggest that one or more myokines secreted from working muscles may be mediating this effect and that OSM is a possible candidate. These findings emphasize that role of physical activity in cancer treatment, showing a direct link between exercise-induced humoral factors and decreased tumor cell growth.

  6. Inflammatory cytokines and plasma redox status responses in hypertensive subjects after heat exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Fonseca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is characterized by a pro-inflammatory status, including redox imbalance and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may be exacerbated after heat exposure. However, the effects of heat exposure, specifically in individuals with inflammatory chronic diseases such as hypertension, are complex and not well understood. This study compared the effects of heat exposure on plasma cytokine levels and redox status parameters in 8 hypertensive (H and 8 normotensive (N subjects (age: 46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years old, body mass index: 25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure: 98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively. They remained at rest in a sitting position for 10 min in a thermoneutral environment (22°C followed by 30 min in a heated environmental chamber (38°C and 60% relative humidity. Blood samples were collected before and after heat exposure. Plasma cytokine levels were measured using sandwich ELISA kits. Plasma redox status was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP. Hypertensive subjects showed higher plasma levels of IL-10 at baseline (P<0.05, although levels of this cytokine were similar between groups after heat exposure. Moreover, after heat exposure, hypertensive individuals showed higher plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR1 and lower TBARS (P<0.01 and FRAP (P<0.05 levels. Controlled hypertensive subjects, who use angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors, present an anti-inflammatory status and balanced redox status. Nevertheless, exposure to a heat stress condition seems to cause an imbalance in the redox status and an unregulated inflammatory response.

  7. DNA methylation differentially regulates cytokine secretion in gingival epithelia in response to bacterial challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Jeanie L; Chung, Whasun Oh

    2015-03-01

    Epigenetic modifications are changes in gene expression without altering DNA sequence. We previously reported that bacteria-specific innate immune responses are regulated by epigenetic modifications. Our hypothesis is that DNA methylation affects gingival cytokine secretion in response to bacterial stimulation. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were treated with DNMT-1 inhibitors prior to Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) exposure. Protein secretion was assessed using ELISA. Gene expression was quantified using qRT-PCR. The ability of bacteria to invade inhibitor pretreated GECs was assessed utilizing flow cytometry. Changes were compared to unstimulated GECs. GEC upregulation of IL-6 and CXCL1 by Pg or Fn stimulation was significantly diminished by inhibitor pretreatment. Pg stimulated IL-1α secretion and inhibitor pretreatment significantly enhanced this upregulation, while Fn alone or with inhibitor pretreatment had no effect on IL-1α expression. GEC upregulation of human beta-definsin-2 in response to Pg and Fn exposure was enhanced following the inhibitor pretreatment. GEC susceptibility to bacterial invasion was unaltered. These results suggest that DNA methylation differentially affects gingival cytokine secretion in response to Pg or Fn. Our data provide basis for better understanding of how epigenetic modifications, brought on by exposure to oral bacteria, will subsequently affect host susceptibility to oral diseases. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Monoethylhexyl Phthalate Elicits an Inflammatory Response in Adipocytes Characterized by Alterations in Lipid and Cytokine Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteiga, Sara; Lee, Kyongbum

    2017-04-01

    A growing body of evidence links endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with obesity-related metabolic diseases. While it has been shown that EDCs can predispose individuals toward adiposity by affecting developmental processes, little is known about the chemicals' effects on adult adipose tissue. Our aim was to study the effects of low, physiologically relevant doses of EDCs on differentiated murine adipocytes. We combined metabolomics, proteomics, and gene expression analysis to characterize the effects of mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in differentiated adipocytes. Repeated exposure to MEHP over several days led to changes in metabolite and enzyme levels indicating elevated lipogenesis and lipid oxidation. The chemical exposure also increased expression of major inflammatory cytokines, including chemotactic factors. Proteomic and gene expression analysis revealed significant alterations in pathways regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). Inhibiting the nuclear receptor's activity using a chemical antagonist abrogated not only the alterations in PPARγ-regulated metabolic pathways, but also the increases in cytokine expression. Our results show that MEHP can induce a pro-inflammatory state in differentiated adipocytes. This effect is at least partially mediated PPARγ.

  9. The role of multiple negative social relationships in inflammatory cytokine responses to a laboratory stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmi Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the unique impact of perceived negativity in multiple social relationships on endocrine and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor. Via hierarchical cluster analysis, those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with a romantic partner, family, and their closest friend had higher mean IL-6 across time and a greater increase in TNF-α from 15 min to 75 min post stress. Those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with roommates, family, and their closest friend showed greater IL-6 responses to stress. Differences in mean IL-6 were accounted for by either depressed mood or hostility, whereas differences in the cytokine stress responses remained significant after controlling for those factors. Overall, this research provides preliminary evidence to suggest that having multiple negative relationships may exacerbate acute inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor independent of hostility and depressed mood.

  10. The role of multiple negative social relationships in inflammatory cytokine responses to a laboratory stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sunmi; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Ceballos, Rachel M; Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the unique impact of perceived negativity in multiple social relationships on endocrine and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor. Via hierarchical cluster analysis, those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with a romantic partner, family, and their closest friend had higher mean IL-6 across time and a greater increase in TNF-α from 15 min to 75 min post stress. Those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with roommates, family, and their closest friend showed greater IL-6 responses to stress. Differences in mean IL-6 were accounted for by either depressed mood or hostility, whereas differences in the cytokine stress responses remained significant after controlling for those factors. Overall, this research provides preliminary evidence to suggest that having multiple negative relationships may exacerbate acute inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor independent of hostility and depressed mood.

  11. Heroin use is associated with suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine response after LPS exposure in HIV-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinta Meijerink

    Full Text Available Opioid use is associated with increased incidence of infectious diseases. Although experimental studies have shown that opioids affect various functions of immune cells, only limited data are available from human studies. Drug use is an important risk factor for HIV transmission; however no data are available whether heroin and/or methadone modulate immune response. Therefore, we examined the effect of heroin and methadone use among HIV-infected individuals on the production of cytokines after ex vivo stimulation with various pathogens.Treatment naïve HIV-infected individuals from Indonesia were recruited. Several cohorts of individuals were recruited: 1 using heroin 2 receiving methadone opioid substitution 3 using heroin over 1 year ago and 4 controls (never used opioids. Whole blood was stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans and LPS for 24 to 48 hours. Cytokine production (IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-α, IFN-γ and TNF-α was determined using multiplex beads assay.Among 82 individuals, the cytokine levels in unstimulated samples did not differ between groups. Overall, heroin users had significantly lower cytokine response after exposure to LPS (p<0.05. After stimulation with either M. tuberculosis or C. albicans the cytokine production of all groups were comparable.The cytokine production after exposure to LPS is significantly down-regulated in HIV-infected heroin users. Interesting, methadone use did not suppress cytokine response, which could have implications guidelines of opioid substitution.

  12. Periostin Limits Tumor Response to VEGFA Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keklikoglou, Ioanna; Kadioglu, Ece; Bissinger, Stefan; Langlois, Benoît; Bellotti, Axel; Orend, Gertraud; Ries, Carola H; De Palma, Michele

    2018-03-06

    Resistance to antiangiogenic drugs limits their applicability in cancer therapy. Here, we show that revascularization and progression of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) under extended vascular-endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) blockade are dependent on periostin (POSTN), a matricellular protein expressed by stromal cells. Genetic deletion of Postn in RIP1-Tag2 mice blunted tumor rebounds of M2-like macrophages and αSMA + stromal cells in response to prolonged VEGFA inhibition and suppressed PNET revascularization and progression on therapy. POSTN deficiency also impeded the upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), an adaptive mechanism previously implicated in PNET evasion from antiangiogenic therapy. Higher POSTN expression correlated with markers of M2-like macrophages in human PNETs, and depleting macrophages with a colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) antibody inhibited PNET revascularization and progression under VEGFA blockade despite continued POSTN production. These findings suggest a role for POSTN in orchestrating resistance to anti-VEGFA therapy in PNETs. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Periostin Limits Tumor Response to VEGFA Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Keklikoglou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to antiangiogenic drugs limits their applicability in cancer therapy. Here, we show that revascularization and progression of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs under extended vascular-endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA blockade are dependent on periostin (POSTN, a matricellular protein expressed by stromal cells. Genetic deletion of Postn in RIP1-Tag2 mice blunted tumor rebounds of M2-like macrophages and αSMA+ stromal cells in response to prolonged VEGFA inhibition and suppressed PNET revascularization and progression on therapy. POSTN deficiency also impeded the upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2, an adaptive mechanism previously implicated in PNET evasion from antiangiogenic therapy. Higher POSTN expression correlated with markers of M2-like macrophages in human PNETs, and depleting macrophages with a colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R antibody inhibited PNET revascularization and progression under VEGFA blockade despite continued POSTN production. These findings suggest a role for POSTN in orchestrating resistance to anti-VEGFA therapy in PNETs.

  14. n-Butyrate inhibits Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation and cytokine transcription in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakos, Christos; Prieschl, Eva E.; Saeemann, Marcus D.; Boehmig, Georg A.; Csonga, Robert; Sobanov, Yury; Baumruker, Thomas; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.

    2006-01-01

    Mast cells are well known to contribute to type I allergic conditions but only recently have been brought in association with chronic relapsing/remitting autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease and ulcerative colitis. Since the bacterial metabolite n-butyrate is considered to counteract intestinal inflammation we investigated the effects of this short chain fatty acid on mast cell activation. Using RNAse protection assays and reporter gene technology we show that n-butyrate downregulates TNF-α transcription. This correlates with an impaired activation of the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) but not other MAP kinases such as ERK and p38 that are largely unaffected by n-butyrate. As a consequence, we observed a decreased nuclear activity of AP-1 and NF-AT transcription factors. These results indicate that n-butyrate inhibits critical inflammatory mediators in mast cells by relatively selectively targeting the JNK signalling

  15. Differential effect of conditioning regimens on cytokine responses during allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J; Heilmann, C; Jacobsen, N

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cytokine responses during conditioning in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) with the aim to identify which markers that may reliably reflect inflammatory activity during conditioning. We investigated inflammatory and anti.......002), followed by VP-16 (184%, P=0.03), cyclophosphamide (129%, P=0.03) and total body irradiation (148%, P=0.0005). Administration of i.v. busulfan (Busilvex; BU) was not associated with significant changes in sTNFRI levels. At day 0 (the day of stem cell infusion) the sTNFRI levels were not only elevated...

  16. Nasal Lipopolysaccharide Challenge and Cytokine Measurement Reflects Innate Mucosal Immune Responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep Dhariwal

    Full Text Available Practical methods of monitoring innate immune mucosal responsiveness are lacking. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a component of the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria and a potent activator of Toll-like receptor (TLR-4. To measure LPS responsiveness of the nasal mucosa, we administered LPS as a nasal spray and quantified chemokine and cytokine levels in mucosal lining fluid (MLF.We performed a 5-way cross-over, single blind, placebo-controlled study in 15 healthy non-atopic subjects (n = 14 per protocol. Doses of ultrapure LPS (1, 10, 30 or 100μg/100μl or placebo were administered by a single nasal spray to each nostril. Using the recently developed method of nasosorption with synthetic adsorptive matrices (SAM, a series of samples were taken. A panel of seven cytokines/chemokines were measured by multiplex immunoassay in MLF. mRNA for intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 was quantified from nasal epithelial curettage samples taken before and after challenge.Topical nasal LPS was well tolerated, causing no symptoms and no visible changes to the nasal mucosa. LPS induced dose-related increases in MLF levels of IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL8 (IL-8 and CCL3 (MIP-1α (AUC at 0.5 to 10h, compared to placebo, p<0.05 at 30 and 100μg LPS. At 100μg LPS, IL-10, IFN-α and TNF-α were also increased (p<0.05. Dose-related changes in mucosal ICAM-1 mRNA were also seen after challenge, and neutrophils appeared to peak in MLF at 8h. However, 2 subjects with high baseline cytokine levels showed prominent cytokine and chemokine responses to relatively low LPS doses (10μg and 30μg LPS.Topical nasal LPS causes dose-dependent increases in cytokines, chemokines, mRNA and cells. However, responsiveness can show unpredictable variations, possibly because baseline innate tone is affected by environmental factors. We believe that this new technique will have wide application in the study of the innate immune responses of the respiratory mucosa.Ultrapure LPS was used

  17. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S L; Lye, D J; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 hours after oral infection with an A. caviae strain, provides evidence of a Th1 type immune response. A large number of gamma-interferon (γ-IFN) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) transcripts. A. caviae has always been considered as opportunistic pathogen because it lacks obvious virulence factors. This current effort suggests that an A. caviae strain can colonize the murine intestinal tract and cause what has been described by others as a dysregulatory cytokine response. This response could explain why a number of diarrheal waterborne disease cases have been attributed to A. caviae even though it lacks obvious enteropathogenic properties.

  18. Salivary cytokine response in the aftermath of stress: An emotion regulation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Lyle, Keith B; Szabo, Yvette Z; Miller, James J; Warnecke, Ashlee J

    2017-09-01

    Elevated inflammation in the context of stress has been implicated in mental and physical health. Approaching this from an emotion regulation perspective, we tested whether the salivary cytokine response to stress is dampened by using distraction to minimize opportunity for poststressor rumination. Healthy young adults were randomized to an acute stressor: modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, Study 1) or angry memory retrieval (Study 2). Within each study, participants were randomized to poststressor condition-rest or distraction-at a 3:1 ratio. Saliva, collected before and 40 min after the end of each stressor, was assayed for proinflammatory cytokines (PICs): interleukin-1β (IL-1β), TNF-α, and IL-6. Both stressors increased all PICs, and both provoked negative emotion. At 40 min post-TSST, salivary PIC increases did not differ between distraction and rest, but correlated positively with emotional reactivity to stress. At 40 min after memory retrieval, IL-1β increases and intrusive rumination were lower during distraction than rest, but did not correlate with emotional reactivity. Trait rumination and interference control mechanisms, also measured, played little role in PIC increases. Overall, after some stressors, some salivary cytokine responses are lower during distraction than rest. The roles of specific emotions, emotional intensity, and poststressor timing of saliva collection in this finding require clarification. Furthermore, the possibility of two affective paths to inflammation in the context of stress-one sensitive to opportunities for early occurring emotion regulation (as reflected in emotional reactivity), and one sensitive to late-occurring emotion regulation (as reflected in distraction after stress)-deserves attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Contrasting neural effects of aging on proactive and reactive response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendaal, Mirjam; Zandbelt, Bram; Wegman, Joost; Rest, van de O.; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct forms of response inhibition may underlie observed deficits in response inhibition in aging. We assessed whether age-related neurocognitive impairments in response inhibition reflect deficient reactive inhibition (outright stopping) or also deficient proactive inhibition

  20. Porcine blood mononuclear cell cytokine responses to PAMP molecules: comparison of mRNA and protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are conserved molecules of microorganisms inducing innate immune cells to secrete distinct patterns of cytokines. In veterinary species, due to a lack of specific antibodies, cytokines are often monitored as expressed mRNA only. This study investigated...... the induction of IFN-α, IL-12 p40, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 by PAMP-molecules [CpG oligonucleotide D19 (CpG), peptidoglycan (PGN), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Pam3Cys and poly-U] in porcine blood mononuclear cells (BMC) within a 24h period. As expected, cytokine responses were PAMP-specific, CpG inducing IFN...

  1. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

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    Anastasia V. Ponasenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE.

  2. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkovskaya, Natalia V.; Kondyukova, Natalia V.; Odarenko, Yuri N.; Kazachek, Yana V.; Tsepokina, Anna V.; Barbarash, Leonid S.

    2017-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE. PMID:28659664

  3. PAMs ameliorates the imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin disease in mice by inhibition of translocation of NF-κB and production of inflammatory cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongkun Dou

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic and persistent inflammatory skin disease seriously affecting the quality of human life. In this study, we reported an ancient formula of Chinese folk medicine, the natural plant antimicrobial solution (PAMs for its anti-inflammatory effects and proposed the primary mechanisms on inhibiting the inflammatory response in TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells and imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin disease mouse model. Two main functional components of hydroxysafflor Yellow A and allantoin in PAMs were quantified by HPLC to be 94.2±2.2 and 262.9±12.5 μg/mL respectively. PAMs could significantly reduce the gene expression and inflammatory cytokines production of Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (MDC, IL-8 and IL-6 in TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells. PAMs also significantly ameliorates the psoriatic-like symptoms in a mouse model with the evaluation scores for both the single (scales, thickness, erythema and cumulative features were in the order of blank control < Dexamethasone < PAMs < 50% ethanol < model groups. The results were further confirmed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. The down-regulated gene expression of IL-8, TNF-α, ICAM-1 and IL-23 in mouse tissues was consistent with the results from those of the HaCaT cells. The inhibition of psoriasis-like skin inflammation by PAMs was correlated with the inactivation of the translocation of P65 protein into cellular nucleus, indicating the inhibition of the inflammatory NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that PAMs may be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis.

  4. Response to Dengue virus infections altered by cytokine-like substances from mosquito cell cultures

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    Laosutthipong Chaowanee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With both shrimp and commercial insects such as honey bees, it is known that stable, persistent viral infections characterized by absence of disease can sometimes shift to overt disease states as a result of various stress triggers and that this can result in serious economic losses. The main research interest of our group is to understand the dynamics of stable viral infections in shrimp and how they can be destabilized by stress. Since there are no continuous cell lines for crustaceans, we have used a C6/36 mosquito cell line infected with Dengue virus to test hypotheses regarding these interactions. As a result, we accidentally discovered two new cytokine-like substances in 5 kDa extracts from supernatant solutions of acutely and persistently infected mosquito cells. Results Naïve C6/36 cells were exposed for 48 h to 5 kDa membrane filtrates prepared from the supernatant medium of stable C6/36 mosquito cell cultures persistently-infected with Dengue virus. Subsequent challenge of naïve cells with a virulent stock of Dengue virus 2 (DEN-2 and analysis by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-DEN-2 antibody revealed a dramatic reduction in the percentage of DEN-2 infected cells when compared to control cells. Similar filtrates prepared from C6/36 cells with acute DEN-2 infections were used to treat stable C6/36 mosquito cell cultures persistently-infected with Dengue virus. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed destabilization in the form of an apoptosis-like response. Proteinase K treatment removed the cell-altering activities indicating that they were caused by small polypeptides similar to those previously reported from insects. Conclusions This is the first report of cytokine-like substances that can alter the responses of mosquito cells to Dengue virus. This simple model system allows detailed molecular studies on insect cytokine production and on cytokine activity in a standard insect cell line.

  5. Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 protects beta cells against IL-1beta-mediated toxicity through inhibition of multiple nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated proapoptotic pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Allan Ertman; Heding, P E; Frobøse, H

    2004-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta induces apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells via pathways dependent on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase C. We recently showed suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 to be a natural negative feedback reg...... regulator of IL-1beta- and IFN-gamma-mediated signalling in rat islets and beta cell lines, preventing their deleterious effects. However, the mechanisms underlying SOCS-3 inhibition of IL-1beta signalling and prevention against apoptosis remain unknown....

  6. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists inhibit the release of proinflammatory cytokines from RSV-infected epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Ralf; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The epithelial cells of the airways are the target cells for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and the site of the majority of the inflammation associated with the disease. Recently, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the role of PPARγ agonists (15d-PGJ 2 , ciglitazone and troglitazone) on the synthesis of RSV-induced cytokine release from RSV-infected human lung epithelial cells (A549). We observed that all PPARγ ligands inhibited dose-dependently the release of TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-6 and the chemokines CXCL8 (IL-8) and CCL5 (RANTES) from RSV-infected A549 cells. Concomitantly, the PPARγ ligands diminished the cellular amount of mRNA encoding for IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL5 and the RSV-induced binding activity of the transcription factors NF-κB (p65/p50) and AP-1 (c-fos), respectively. Our data presented herein suggest a potential application of PPARγ ligands in the anti-inflammatory treatment of RSV infection

  7. The Effect of C. burnetii Infection on the Cytokine Response of PBMCs from Pregnant Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerdorffer, Anne; Roest, Hendrik-I J.; Dinkla, Annemieke; Post, Jacob; Schoffelen, Teske; van Deuren, Marcel; Sprong, Tom; Rebel, Johanna M.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, leads to acute or chronic infection, both associated with specific clinical symptoms. In contrast, no symptoms are observed in goats during C. burnetii infection, although infection of the placenta eventually leads to premature delivery, stillbirth and abortion. It is unknown whether these differences in clinical outcome are due to the early immune responses of the goats. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from pregnant goats. In total, 17 goats were included in the study. Six goats remained naive, while eleven goats were infected with C. burnetii. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and cytokine mRNA expression were measured after in vitro stimulation with heat-killed C. burnetii at different time points (prior infection, day 7, 35 and 56 after infection). In naive goats an increased expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA upon C. burnetii stimulation was detected. In addition, TLR2 expression was strongly up-regulated. In goats infected with C. burnetii, PBMCs re-stimulated in vitro with C. burnetii, expressed significantly more TNF-α mRNA and IFN-γ mRNA compared to naive goats. In contrast, IL-10 mRNA production capacity was down-regulated during C. burnetii infection. Interestingly, at day 7 after inoculation a decreased IFN-γ protein level was observed in stimulated leukocytes in whole blood from infected goats, whereas at other time-points increased production of IFN-γ protein was seen. Our study shows that goats initiate a robust pro-inflammatory immune response against C. burnetii in vitro. Furthermore, PBMCs from C. burnetii infected goats show augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine responses compared to PBMCs from non-infected goats. However, despite this pro-inflammatory response, goats are not capable of clearing the C. burnetii infection. PMID:25279829

  8. Psychological stress exerts effects on pathogenesis of hepatitis B via type-1/type-2 cytokines shift toward type-2 cytokine response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YingLi He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological and physical stress has been demonstrated to have an impact on health through modulation of immune function. Despite high prevalence of stress among patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, little is known about whether and how stress exerts an effect on the course of hepatitis B. METHODS: Eighty patients with chronic hepatitis B(CHB completed the Perceived Stress Scale-10(PSS-10 and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI. Fresh whole blood was subject to flow cytometry for lymphocytes count. Plasma samples frozen at -80 °C were thawed for cytokines, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and virus load. These patients were grouped into high or low perceived stress, state anxiety and trait anxiety groups according to the scale score. Sociodemographic, disease-specific characteristics, lymphocytes count and cytokines were compared. RESULTS: Firstly, a negative association between ALT and stress (t =  -4.308; p =  .000, state anxiety (t =  -3.085; p =  .003 and trait anxiety (t =  -4.925; p =  .000 were found. As ALT is a surrogate marker of hepatocytes injury, and liver injury is a consequence of immune responses. Next, we tested the relationship between stress/anxiety and lymphocytes. No statistical significance were found with respect to counts of total T cells, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, NK cell, and B cell count between high and low stress group. Type-2 cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 level was significantly higher in high stress group relative to lower counterpart (t = 6.538; p = 0.000, and type-1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ level shown a decreased tendency in high stress group (t =  -1.702; p = 0.093. Finally, INF-γ:IL-10 ratio displayed significant decrease in high perceived stress(t =  -4.606; p = 0.000, state anxiety(t =  -5.126; p = 0.000 and trait anxiety(t =  -4.670; p = 0.000 groups relative to low counterparts. CONCLUSION: Our data show stress is not related to the lymphocyte cells

  9. Integration of the thiol redox status with cytokine response to physical training in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembron-Lacny, A; Slowinska-Lisowska, M; Ziemba, A

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the plasma markers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and cytokines, and their relationship with thiol redox status of basketball players during training. Sixteen professional players of the Polish Basketball Extraleague participated in the study. The study was performed during the preparatory period and the play-off round. Markers of ROS activity (lipid peroxidation TBARS, protein carbonylation PC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) demonstrated regularity over time, i.e. TBARS, PC and GSH were elevated at the beginning and decreased at the end of training periods. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was not affected by exercise training. Thiol redox status (GSH(total)-2GSSG/GSSG) correlated with TBARS and PC in both training periods. The level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was increased and positively correlated with thiol redox (r=0.423) in the preparatory period, whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) was increased and inversely correlated with thiol redox (r= 0.509) in the play-off round. The present study showed significant shifts in markers of ROS activity, thiol redox status and inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNFalpha) following professional sport training as well as correlation between changes in thiol redox and cytokine response.

  10. The Effectiveness of Reward and Punishment Contingencies on Response Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Arthur F.; Hoving, Kenneth L.

    1973-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of reward and punishment on the development of response inhibition was evaluated developmentally with kindergarteners and second graders. Removal of positive reinforcers was apparently more effective than reward in producing inhibiting at both age levels. Transfer of inhibition training was also evaluated. (DP)

  11. Ureaplasma Species Differentially Modulate Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses in Newborn and Adult Human Monocytes Pushing the State Toward Pro-Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Kirsten; Silwedel, Christine; Fehrholz, Markus; Waaga-Gasser, Ana M.; Henrich, Birgit; Claus, Heike; Speer, Christian P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ureaplasma species have been associated with chorioamnionitis and preterm birth and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neonatal short and long-term morbidity. However, being mostly commensal bacteria, controversy remains on the pro-inflammatory capacity of Ureaplasma. Discussions are ongoing on the incidence and impact of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal infection. The present study addressed the impact of Ureaplasma isolates on monocyte-driven inflammation. Methods: Cord blood monocytes of term neonates and adult monocytes, either native or LPS-primed, were cultured with Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum) serovar 8 (Uu8) and Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 (Up3). Using qRT-PCR, cytokine flow cytometry, and multi-analyte immunoassay, we assessed mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-10, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) as well as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4. Results: Uu8 and Up3 induced mRNA expression and protein release of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 in term neonatal and adult monocytes (p Ureaplasma-stimulated cells paralleled those results. Ureaplasma-induced cytokine levels did not significantly differ from LPS-mediated levels except for lower intracellular IL-1β in adult monocytes (Uu8: p ureaplasmas did not induce IL-12p40 response and promoted lower amounts of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-1ra than LPS, provoking a cytokine imbalance more in favor of pro-inflammation (IL-1β/IL-10, IL-8/IL-10 and IL-8/IL-1ra: p Ureaplasma isolates in human monocytes. Stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokine responses while hardly inducing immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, ureaplasmas might push monocyte immune responses toward pro-inflammation. Inhibition of LPS-induced cytokines in adult monocytes in contrast to sustained inflammation in term neonatal monocytes indicates a differential modulation of host immune responses to a second stimulus. Modification of

  12. Administration of PDE4 Inhibitors Suppressed the Pannus-Like Inflammation by Inhibition of Cytokine Production by Macrophages and Synovial Fibroblast Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Kobayashi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marked proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in joints leads to pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Various kinds of cytokines are produced in the pannus. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 inhibitors in a new animal model for the evaluation of pannus formation and cytokine production in the pannus. Mice sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA were challenged by subcutaneous implantation of a membrane filter soaked in mBSA solution in the back of the mice. Drugs were orally administered for 10 days. The granuloma formed around the filter was collected on day 11. It was chopped into pieces and cultured in vitro for 24 hr. The cytokines were measured in the supernatants. The type of cytokines produced in the granuloma was quite similar to those produced in pannus in RA. Both PDE4 inhibitors, KF66490 and SB207499, suppressed the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12, and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity, a marker enzyme for neutrophils and hydroxyproline content. Compared to leflunomide, PDE4 inhibitors more strongly suppressed IL-12 production and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity. PDE4 inhibitors also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α and IL-12 production from thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages and the proliferation of rat synovial fibroblasts. These results indicate this model makes it easy to evaluate the effect of drugs on various cytokine productions in a granuloma without any purification step and may be a relevant model for evaluating novel antirheumatic drugs on pannus formation in RA. PDE4 inhibitors could have therapeutic effects on pannus formation in RA by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation.

  13. Administration of PDE4 inhibitors suppressed the pannus-like inflammation by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuya; Suda, Toshio; Manabe, Haruhiko; Miki, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    A marked proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in joints leads to pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Various kinds of cytokines are produced in the pannus. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors in a new animal model for the evaluation of pannus formation and cytokine production in the pannus. Mice sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) were challenged by subcutaneous implantation of a membrane filter soaked in mBSA solution in the back of the mice. Drugs were orally administered for 10 days. The granuloma formed around the filter was collected on day 11. It was chopped into pieces and cultured in vitro for 24 hr. The cytokines were measured in the supernatants. The type of cytokines produced in the granuloma was quite similar to those produced in pannus in RA. Both PDE4 inhibitors, KF66490 and SB207499, suppressed the production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-12, and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity, a marker enzyme for neutrophils and hydroxyproline content. Compared to leflunomide, PDE4 inhibitors more strongly suppressed IL-12 production and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity. PDE4 inhibitors also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha and IL-12 production from thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages and the proliferation of rat synovial fibroblasts. These results indicate this model makes it easy to evaluate the effect of drugs on various cytokine productions in a granuloma without any purification step and may be a relevant model for evaluating novel antirheumatic drugs on pannus formation in RA. PDE4 inhibitors could have therapeutic effects on pannus formation in RA by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation.

  14. Agmatine Reverses Sub-chronic Stress induced Nod-like Receptor Protein 3 (NLRP3) Activation and Cytokine Response in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ceren; Albayrak, Ozgur; Akdeniz, Tuğba F; Akbulut, Zeynep; Yanikkaya Demirel, Gulderen; Aricioglu, Feyza

    2016-10-01

    The activation of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) has lately been implicated in stress and depression as an initiator mechanism required for the production of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine widely distributed in mammalian brain, is a novel neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, with antistress, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenously administered agmatine on NLRP3 inflammasome pathway/cytokine responses in rats exposed to restraint stress for 7 days. The rats were divided into three groups: stress, stress+agmatine (40 mg/kg; i.p.) and control groups. Agmatine significantly down-regulated the gene expressions of all stress-induced NLRP3 inflammasome components (NLRP3, NF-κB, PYCARD, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels not only in both brain regions, but also in serum. Stress-reduced levels of IL-4 and IL-10, two major anti-inflammatory cytokines, were restored back to normal by agmatine treatment in the PFC. The findings of the present study suggest that stress-activated NLRP3 inflammasome and cytokine responses are reversed by an acute administration of agmatine. Whether antidepressant-like effect of agmatine can somehow, at least partially, be mediated by the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome cascade and relevant inflammatory responses requires further studies in animal models of depression. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  15. Virulent Type A Francisella tularensis actively suppresses cytokine responses in human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devyn D Gilette

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative bacterium that can cause the disease tularemia, even upon exposure to low numbers of bacteria. One critical characteristic of Francisella is its ability to dampen or subvert the host immune response. Previous work has shown that monocytes infected with highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu S4 responded with a general pattern of quantitatively reduced pro-inflammatory signaling pathway genes and cytokine production in comparison to those infected with the less virulent related F. novicida. However, it has been unclear whether the virulent Schu S4 was merely evading or actively suppressing monocyte responses. By using mixed infection assays with F. tularensis and F. novicida, we show that F. tularensis actively suppresses monocyte pro-inflammatory responses. Additional experiments show that this suppression occurs in a dose-dependent manner and is dependent upon the viability of F. tularensis. Importantly, F. tularensis was able to suppress pro-inflammatory responses to earlier infections with F. novicida. These results lend support that F. tularensis actively dampens human monocyte responses and this likely contributes to its enhanced pathogenicity.

  16. Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianli Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36γ, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future.

  17. Cytokine Gene Expression in Response to SnSAG1 in Horses with Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer A.; Deinnocentes, Patricia; Moyana, Edith M.; Guarino, Anthony J.; Ellison, Siobhan E.; Bird, R. Curtis; Blagburn, Byron L.

    2005-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurologic syndrome seen in horses from the Americas and is mainly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Recently, a 29-kDa surface antigen from S. neurona merozoites was identified as being highly immunodominant on a Western blot. This antigen has been sequenced and cloned, and the expressed protein has been named SnSAG1. In a previous study, cell-mediated immune responses to SnSAG1 were shown to be statistically significantly reduced in horses with EPM in comparison to EPM-negative control horses. It therefore appears as though the parasite is able to induce immunosuppression towards parasite-derived antigens as parasite-specific responses are decreased. Isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes from 21 EPM (cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] Western blot)-negative horses with no clinical signs and 21 horses with clinical signs of EPM (CSF Western blot positive) were cocultured with SnSAG1 for 48 and 72 h, and the effect on cytokine production was investigated by means of reverse transcriptase PCR. Cytokines assayed include gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-6. β-Actin was used as the housekeeping gene. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test of the findings indicated that there was a statistically significant decrease in IFN-γ production after 48 h in culture for samples from horses with clinical disease. There was also a statistically significant increase in IL-4 production after 72 h in culture for samples from horses with EPM. These results further support the notion that this parasite is able to subvert the immune system in horses with clinical disease. PMID:15879026

  18. Association of brain injury and neonatal cytokine response during therapeutic hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, Janet E; Panchapakesan, Karuna; Vezina, Gilbert; Chang, Taeun; Harris, Kari; Wang, Yunfei; Knoblach, Susan; Massaro, An N

    2016-05-01

    Cytokines have been proposed as mediators of neonatal brain injury via neuroinflammatory pathways triggered by hypoxia-ischemia. Limited data are available on cytokine profiles in larger cohorts of newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Serum cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ were measured in newborns with HIE at 24 and 72 h of TH. Differences between infants with favorable (survivors with mild/no magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) injury) vs. adverse outcome (death or moderate/severe MRI injury) were compared using mixed models to adjust for covariates. Data from 36 term newborns with HIE (favorable outcome: n = 20, adverse outcome: n = 16) were evaluated. Cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-13 were elevated in the adverse relative to favorable outcome group at 24 h. IL-6 remained significantly elevated in the adverse outcome group at 72 h. IL-6 and IL-10 remained significantly associated with outcome group after controlling for covariates. Inflammatory cytokines are elevated in HIE newborns with brain injury by MRI. In particular, IL-6 and IL-10 were associated with adverse outcomes after controlling for baseline characteristics and severity of presentation. These data suggest that cytokine response may identify infants in need of additional neuroprotective interventions.

  19. In vitro cytokine responses to periodontal pathogens: generalized aggressive periodontitis is associated with increased IL-6 response to Porphyromonas gingivalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, T S; Holmstrup, Palle; Bendtzen, K

    2010-01-01

    with GAgP and 10 controls stimulated with periodontal pathogens or a control antigen, tetanus toxoid (TT) in the presence of autologous serum. The pathogens used were Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium nucleatum, either as type strains or bacteria isolated from...... the participants' inherent oral flora. The P. gingivalis -induced production of IL-6 was approximately 2.5-fold higher in patients with GAgP than in healthy controls (P gingivalis, as all cytokine...... responses induced by Pr. intermedia, F. nucleatum and TT was similar in the two groups. A reduced IL-12p70 response to Pr. intermedia and F. nucleatum was observed in smokers compared to non-smoking patients (P gingivalis, MNC...

  20. A comparison of cytokine responses during prolonged cycling in normal and hot environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila M Cosio-Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Bhargav V Desai, Petra B Schuler, Lesley Keck, Logan ScheelerDepartment of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USAPurpose: Components of immune function are affected by physical activity in an adverse environment. The purpose of this study was to compare plasma differences in inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6, in addition to the stress hormone cortisol, during prolonged cycling under normal and hot environmental conditions in elite cyclists.Methods and design: Six trained elite male cyclists (27 ± 8 years; 75.5 ± 4 kg; maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 66 ± 6 mL/kg/min, mean ± SD. The cyclists biked for 2.5 h at their prescribed 60% maximum exercise workload (Wmax or 75% VO2max either in an environmental chamber set at 15°C and 40% relative humidity (NEUTRAL or at 35°C and 40% relative humidity (HOT. The cyclists were given 4 mL of water/kg body weight every 15 min under both conditions.Results: Total cortisol concentrations were elevated (P < 0.05 immediately postexercise and 12 h postexercise in both the NEUTRAL and HOT conditions. TNF-α concentrations were only significantly (P = 0.045 elevated postexercise in HOT conditions. During the HOT conditions, a significant (P = 0.006 and 0.007, respectively difference in IL-6 was seen immediately after and 12 h postexercise. During the NEUTRAL condition, IL-6 was only significantly elevated postexercise (P < 0.05.Conclusions: Heat exposure during a long bout of exercise is sufficient to elicit stress response in elite cyclists. However, the degree of release of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines might be related to several factors that include the athlete’s fitness level, hydration status, exercise intensity, and length of exposure to hot environments.Keywords: cytokines, inflammation, heat, exercise, performance 

  1. T cell cytokine responses to stimulation with Ureaplasma parvum in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Yael D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey F; Nathan, Elizabeth A; Watts, Rory; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Payne, Matthew S; Ireland, Demelza J

    2016-08-01

    Ureaplasma spp. are a common vaginal microorganism causally linked to inflammation-driven preterm birth (PTB). The nature of the immune response to Ureaplasma spp. may influence PTB risk. This study sought to define maternal T cell cytokine responses to in vitro stimulation with Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 (UpSV3) in vaginally colonised (UP+) and non-colonised (UP-) pregnant women. Whole blood flow cytometry demonstrated an increase (p=0.027) in the baseline frequency of IFNγ-positive CD3(+)CD4(-)(CD8(+)) T cells in UP+ women. UpSV3 stimulation resulted in a significant and specific increase (p=0.001) in the frequency of IFNγ-positive CD3(+)CD4(-)(CD8(+)) T cells, regardless of vaginal colonisation status. UpSV3 stimulation also increased the frequency of IFNγ-positive CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells, particularly in the UP+ group (p=0.003). This is the first published study to examine T cell responses to Ureaplasma spp. Future appropriately-powered studies are needed to assess whether insufficient priming or a loss of tolerance to Ureaplasma spp. is occurring in UP+ women at risk of PTB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural innate cytokine response to immunomodulators and adjuvants in human precision-cut lung slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switalla, S; Lauenstein, L; Prenzler, F; Knothe, S; Förster, C; Fieguth, H-G; Pfennig, O; Schaumann, F; Martin, C; Guzman, C A; Ebensen, T; Müller, M; Hohlfeld, J M; Krug, N; Braun, A; Sewald, K

    2010-08-01

    Prediction of lung innate immune responses is critical for developing new drugs. Well-established immune modulators like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can elicit a wide range of immunological effects. They are involved in acute lung diseases such as infections or chronic airway diseases such as COPD. LPS has a strong adjuvant activity, but its pyrogenicity has precluded therapeutic use. The bacterial lipopeptide MALP-2 and its synthetic derivative BPPcysMPEG are better tolerated. We have compared the effects of LPS and BPPcysMPEG on the innate immune response in human precision-cut lung slices. Cytokine responses were quantified by ELISA, Luminex, and Meso Scale Discovery technology. The initial response to LPS and BPPcysMPEG was marked by coordinated and significant release of the mediators IL-1β, MIP-1β, and IL-10 in viable PCLS. Stimulation of lung tissue with BPPcysMPEG, however, induced a differential response. While LPS upregulated IFN-γ, BPPcysMPEG did not. This traces back to their signaling pathways via TLR4 and TLR2/6. The calculated exposure doses selected for LPS covered ranges occurring in clinical studies with human beings. Correlation of obtained data with data from human BAL fluid after segmental provocation with endotoxin showed highly comparable effects, resulting in a coefficient of correlation >0.9. Furthermore, we were interested in modulating the response to LPS. Using dexamethasone as an immunosuppressive drug for anti-inflammatory therapy, we found a significant reduction of GM-CSF, IL-1β, and IFN-γ. The PCLS-model offers the unique opportunity to test the efficacy and toxicity of biological agents intended for use by inhalation in a complex setting in humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human leukocyte antigen and cytokine receptor gene polymorphisms associated with heterogeneous immune responses to mumps viral vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Jacobson, Robert M; Dhiman, Neelam; Vierkant, Robert A; Pankratz, V Shane; Poland, Gregory A

    2008-05-01

    Mumps outbreaks continue to occur throughout the world, including in highly vaccinated populations. Vaccination against mumps has been successful; however, humoral and cellular immune responses to mumps vaccines vary significantly from person to person. We set out to assess whether HLA and cytokine gene polymorphisms are associated with variations in the immune response to mumps viral vaccine. To identify genetic factors that might contribute to variations in mumps vaccine-induced immune responses, we performed HLA genotyping in a group of 346 healthy schoolchildren (12-18 years of age) who previously received 2 doses of live mumps vaccine. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (minor allele frequency of >5%) in cytokine and cytokine receptor genes were genotyped for a subset of 118 children. Median values for mumps-specific antibody titers and lymphoproliferative stimulation indices were 729 IU/mL and 4.8, respectively. Girls demonstrated significantly higher mumps antibody titers than boys, indicating gender-linked genetic differences in humoral immune response. Significant associations were found between the HLA-DQB1*0303 alleles and lower mumps-specific antibody titers. An interesting finding was the association of several HLA class II alleles with mumps-specific lymphoproliferation. Alleles of the DRB1 (*0101, *0301, *0801, *1001, *1201, and *1302), DQA1 (*0101, *0105, *0401, and *0501), and DQB1 (*0201, *0402, and *0501) loci were associated with significant variations in lymphoproliferative immune responses to mumps vaccine. Additional associations were observed with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the interleukin-10RA, interleukin-12RB1, and interleukin-12RB2 cytokine receptor genes. Minor alleles for 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within interleukin-10RA and interleukin-12RB genes were associated with variations in humoral and cellular immune responses to mumps vaccination. These data suggest the important role of HLA and immunoregulatory cytokine receptor

  4. Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses in Extra-Respiratory Tissues During Severe Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Short, Kirsty R; Veeris, Rebecca; Leijten, Lonneke M; van den Brand, Judith M; Jong, Victor L; Stittelaar, Koert J; Osterhaus, Ab D M E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074960172; Andeweg, Arno C; van Riel, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Severe influenza is often associated with disease manifestations outside the respiratory tract. While proinflammatory cytokines can be detected in the lungs and blood of infected patients, the role of extra-respiratory organs in the production of proinflammatory cytokines is unknown. Here, we show

  5. Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses in Extra-Respiratory Tissues during Severe Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Short, Kirsty R.; Veeris, Rebecca; Leijten, Lonneke M.; van den Brand, Judith M A; Jong, Victor L.; Stittelaar, Koert; Osterhaus, Ab D.M.E.; Andeweg, Arno C; Van Riel, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Severe influenza is often associated with disease manifestations outside the respiratory tract. While proinflammatory cytokines can be detected in the lungs and blood of infected patients, the role of extra-respiratory organs in the production of proinflammatory cytokines is unknown. Here, we show

  6. In vitro cytokine responses to periodontal pathogens: generalized aggressive periodontitis is associated with increased IL-6 response to Porphyromonas gingivalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, T S; Holmstrup, Palle; Bendtzen, K

    2010-01-01

    the participants' inherent oral flora. The P. gingivalis -induced production of IL-6 was approximately 2.5-fold higher in patients with GAgP than in healthy controls (P production was non-significantly elevated. IL-1beta production induced by P. gingivalis, as all cytokine...... from two donors free of disease were stimulated with this bacterium in the presence of the various patient and control sera. An elevated IL-6 and TNF-alpha response was observed in the presence of patient sera (P production of IL-6......Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) is an inflammatory condition resulting in destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. We examined the production of IL-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-12 and IL-10 in cultures of peripheral mononuclear cells (MNC) from 10 patients...

  7. MW151 Inhibited IL-1β Levels after Traumatic Brain Injury with No Effect on Microglia Physiological Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Bachstetter

    Full Text Available A prevailing neuroinflammation hypothesis is that increased production of proinflammatory cytokines contributes to progressive neuropathology, secondary to the primary damage caused by a traumatic brain injury (TBI. In support of the hypothesis, post-injury interventions that inhibit the proinflammatory cytokine surge can attenuate the progressive pathology. However, other post-injury neuroinflammatory responses are key to endogenous recovery responses. Therefore, it is critical that pharmacological attenuation of detrimental or dysregulated neuroinflammatory processes avoid pan-suppression of inflammation. MW151 is a CNS-penetrant, small molecule experimental therapeutic that restores injury- or disease-induced overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines towards homeostasis without immunosuppression. Post-injury administration of MW151 in a closed head injury model of mild TBI suppressed acute cytokine up-regulation and downstream cognitive impairment. Here, we report results from a diffuse brain injury model in mice using midline fluid percussion. Low dose (0.5-5.0 mg/kg administration of MW151 suppresses interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β levels in the cortex while sparing reactive microglia and astrocyte responses. To probe molecular mechanisms, we used live cell imaging of the BV-2 microglia cell line to demonstrate that MW151 does not affect proliferation, migration, or phagocytosis of the cells. Our results provide insight into the roles of glial responses to brain injury and indicate the feasibility of using appropriate dosing for selective therapeutic modulation of injurious IL-1β increases while sparing other glial responses to injury.

  8. NF-κB Mediates the Stimulation of Cytokine and Chemokine Expression by Human Articular Chondrocytes in Response to Fibronectin Fragments1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulai, Judit I.; Chen, Hong; Im, Hee-Jeong; Kumar, Sanjay; Hanning, Charles; Hegde, Priti S.; Loeser, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Fibronectin fragments (FN-f) that bind to the α5β1 integrin stimulate chondrocyte-mediated cartilage destruction and could play an important role in the progression of arthritis. The objective of this study was to identify potential cytokine mediators of cartilage inflammation and destruction induced by FN-f and to investigate the mechanism of their stimulation. Human articular chondrocytes, isolated from normal ankle cartilage obtained from tissue donors, were treated with a 110-kDa FN-f in serum-free culture, and expression of various cytokine genes was analyzed by cDNA microarray and by a cytokine protein array. Compared with untreated control cultures, stimulation by FN-f resulted in a >2-fold increase in IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and growth-related oncogene β (GRO-β). Constitutive and FN-f-inducible expression of GRO-α and GRO-γ were also noted by RT-PCR and confirmed by immunoblotting. Previous reports of IL-1β expression induced by FN-f were also confirmed, while TNF expression was found to be very low. Inhibitor studies revealed that FN-f-induced stimulation of chondrocyte chemokine expression was dependent on NF-κB activity, but independent of IL-1 autocrine signaling. The ability of FN-f to stimulate chondrocyte expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines suggests that damage to the cartilage matrix is capable of inducing a proinflammatory state responsible for further progressive matrix destruction, which also includes the chemoattraction of inflammatory cells. Targeting the signaling pathways activated by FN-f may be an effective means of inhibiting production of multiple mediators of cartilage destruction. PMID:15843581

  9. Dysregulation of cytokine response in Canadian First Nations communities: is there an association with persistent organic pollutant levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Imbeault

    Full Text Available In vitro and animal studies report that some persistent organic pollutants (POPs trigger the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Whether POP exposure is associated with a dysregulation of cytokine response remains to be investigated in humans. We studied the strength of association between plasma POP levels and circulating cytokines as immune activation markers. Plasma levels of fourteen POPs and thirteen cytokines were measured in 39 Caucasians from a comparator sample in Québec City (Canada and 72 First Nations individuals from two northern communities of Ontario (Canada. Caucasians showed significantly higher levels of organochlorine insecticides (β-HCH, p,p'-DDE and HCB compared to First Nations. Conversely, First Nations showed higher levels of Mirex, Aroclor 1260, PCB 153, PCB 170, PCB 180 and PCB 187 compared to Caucasians. While there was no difference in cytokine levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-22 between groups, First Nations had significantly greater average levels of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17A, TNFα and TNFβ levels compared to Caucasians. Among candidate predictor variables (age, body mass index, insulin resistance and POP levels, high levels of PCBs were the only predictor accounting for a small but significant effect of observed variance (∼7% in cytokine levels. Overall, a weak but significant association is detected between persistent organochlorine pollutant exposure and elevated cytokine levels. This finding augments the already existing information that environmental pollution is related to inflammation, a common feature of several metabolic disorders that are known to be especially prevalent in Canada's remote First Nations communities.

  10. Bojesodok-eum, a Herbal Prescription, Ameliorates Acute Inflammation in Association with the Inhibition of NF-κB-Mediated Nitric Oxide and ProInflammatory Cytokine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kook Ho Sohn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bojesodok-eum (BSE is a herbal prescription consisting of Coptidis Rhizoma and Scutellariae Radix as main components. This paper investigated the effects of BSE on the induction of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and proinflammatory cytokines that are caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in murine macrophage cell line and on the paw edema formation in animals. Administration of BSE (0.3 g/kg and 1 g/kg in rats significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema formation, as did dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory positive control drug. In cell model, treatment of BSE decreased the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS. BSE also inhibited the expression of iNOS and COX-2 protein as well as COX activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, BSE suppressed the ability of LPS to produce TNF-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6. LPS treatment induced nuclear NF-κB level and I-κBα phosphorylation, which were inhibited subsequent treatment of BSE, suggesting its repression of LPS-inducible NF-κB activation. BSE abrogated the induction of NO, PGE2, and proinflammatory cytokines, as well as iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS as mediated with NF-κB inhibition.

  11. Human cytokine response to Texas crotaline envenomation before and after antivenom administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Patrick; Zad, Omid; Milling, Truman; Maxson, Todd; King, Benjamin; Whorton, Elbert

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the human cytokine response to Texas crotaline envenomation before and after antivenom administration. This study enrolled crotaline bite victims presenting to a regional trauma center and children's hospital from March to November 2007 and age-matched unbitten controls. Blood spot cards were obtained from bite victims at presentation and at 1 and 6 hours after antivenom administration. One control sample was drawn from each of the age-matched controls selected from urgent care patients presenting for minor complaints. Samples were delivered to a laboratory using a proprietary method for quantitative evaluation of a large number of biomarkers in parallel with bead-based multiplex immunoassays. After obtaining informed consent, 14 crotaline bite victims (age range, 5-85 years; median age, 45 years; 50% female) (Snakebite Severity Score, 2-7; median, 3) and 14 age-matched controls were enrolled. There were 7 copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) bites, 4 rattlesnake (probably Western Diamondback Crotalus atrox) bites, 2 cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) bites, and 1 bite from a snake that was not identified by the victim. In t tests, the means in the presentation samples for apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), Apo C3, interleukin 4 (IL-4), myeloperoxidase, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), epidermal growth factor, and regulated upon activation, normal t-cell expressed and secreted were significantly lower and Apo H was significantly higher in the bite patients than in the controls. In the 1-hour sample, α(1)-antitrypsin, Apo A-I, Apo C3, eotaxin, IL-4, myeloperoxidase, and PAI-1 levels were lower and prostatic acid phosphatase and cancer antigen 125 levels were higher in the bite patients than in the controls. And in the 6-hour sample, α(1)-antitrypsin, Apo A-I, Apo C3, endothelin-1, IL-4, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β, myeloperoxidase, and epidermal growth factor levels were lower and Apo H level was higher in

  12. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A.; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D.; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D.; Udagama, Preethi V.

    2016-01-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~ 5 ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~ 9360 pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (P < 0.05) was evident in heavy metal exposed frogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P < 0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco

  13. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A.; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D.; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D.; Udagama, Preethi V., E-mail: dappvr@yahoo.com

    2016-10-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~ 5 ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~ 9360 pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (P < 0.05) was evident in heavy metal exposed frogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P < 0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco

  14. Allele-specific cytokine responses at the HLA-C locus, implications for psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhausen, Christian; Bertoni, Anna; Mak, Rose K; Botti, Elisabetta; Di Meglio, Paola; Clop, Alex; Laggner, Ute; Chimenti, Sergio; Hayday, Adrian C; Barker, Jonathan N; Trembath, Richard C; Capon, Francesca; Nestle, Frank O

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disorder that is inherited as a complex trait. Genetic studies have repeatedly highlighted HLA-C as the major determinant for psoriasis susceptibility, with the Cw*0602 allele conferring significant disease risk in a wide-range of populations. Despite the potential importance of HLA-C variation in psoriasis, either via an effect on peptide presentation or immuno-inhibitory activity, allele-specific expression patterns have not been investigated. Here, we used reporter assays to characterize two regulatory variants, which virtually abolished the response to TNF-α (rs2524094) and IFN-γ (rs10657191) in HLA-Cw*0602 and a cluster of related alleles. We validated these findings through the analysis of HLA-Cw*0602 expression in primary keratinocytes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. Finally, we showed that HLA-Cw*0602 transcripts are not increased in psoriatic skin lesions, despite highly elevated TNF-α levels. Thus, our findings demonstrate the presence of allele-specific differences in HLA-C expression and indicate that HLA-Cw*0602 is unresponsive to up-regulation by key pro-inflammatory cytokines in psoriasis. These data pave the way for functional studies into the pathogenic role of the major psoriasis susceptibility allele. PMID:22113476

  15. Allele-specific cytokine responses at the HLA-C locus: implications for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhausen, Christian; Bertoni, Anna; Mak, Rose K; Botti, Elisabetta; Di Meglio, Paola; Clop, Alex; Laggner, Ute; Chimenti, Sergio; Hayday, Adrian C; Barker, Jonathan N; Trembath, Richard C; Capon, Francesca; Nestle, Frank O

    2012-03-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disorder that is inherited as a complex trait. Genetic studies have repeatedly highlighted HLA-C as the major determinant for psoriasis susceptibility, with the Cw*0602 allele conferring significant disease risk in a wide range of populations. Despite the potential importance of HLA-C variation in psoriasis, either via an effect on peptide presentation or immuno-inhibitory activity, allele-specific expression patterns have not been investigated. Here, we used reporter assays to characterize two regulatory variants, which virtually abolished the response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (rs2524094) and IFN-γ (rs10657191) in HLA-Cw*0602 and a cluster of related alleles. We validated these findings through the analysis of HLA-Cw*0602 expression in primary keratinocytes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. Finally, we showed that HLA-Cw*0602 transcripts are not increased in psoriatic skin lesions, despite highly elevated TNF-α levels. Thus, our findings demonstrate the presence of allele-specific differences in HLA-C expression and indicate that HLA-Cw*0602 is unresponsive to upregulation by key proinflammatory cytokines in psoriasis. These data pave the way for functional studies into the pathogenic role of the major psoriasis susceptibility allele.

  16. St. John's wort attenuates irinotecan-induced diarrhea via down-regulation of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zeping; Yang Xiaoxia; Chan Suiyung; Xu Anlong; Duan Wei; Zhu Yizhun; Sheu, F.-S.; Boelsterli, Urs Alex; Chan, Eli; Zhang Qiang; Wang, J.-C.; Ee, Pui Lai Rachel; Koh, H.L.; Huang Min; Zhou Shufeng

    2006-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common dose-limiting toxicity associated with cancer chemotherapy, in particular for drugs such as irinotecan (CPT-11), 5-fluouracil, oxaliplatin, capecitabine and raltitrexed. St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum, SJW) has anti-inflammatory activity, and our preliminary study in the rat and a pilot study in cancer patients found that treatment of SJW alleviated irinotecan-induced diarrhea. In the present study, we investigated whether SJW modulated various pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6), interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and intestinal epithelium apoptosis in rats. The rats were treated with irinotecan at 60 mg/kg for 4 days in combination with oral SJW or SJW-free control vehicle at 400 mg/kg for 8 days. Diarrhea, tissue damage, body weight loss, various cytokines including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α and intestinal epithelial apoptosis were monitored over 11 days. Our studies demonstrated that combined SJW markedly reduced CPT-11-induced diarrhea and intestinal lesions. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α was significantly up-regulated in intestine. In the mean time, combined SJW significantly suppressed the intestinal epithelial apoptosis induced by CPT-11 over days 5-11. In particular, combination of SJW significantly inhibited the expression of TNF-α mRNA in the intestine over days 5-11. In conclusion, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and intestinal epithelium apoptosis partly explained the protective effect of SJW against the intestinal toxicities induced by irinotecan. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential for STW as an agent in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs to lower their dose-limiting toxicities

  17. Proactive modulation of long-interval intracortical inhibition during response inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Matthew J.; MacDonald, Hayley J.; Cirillo, John

    2016-01-01

    Daily activities often require sudden cancellation of preplanned movement, termed response inhibition. When only a subcomponent of a whole response must be suppressed (required here on Partial trials), the ensuing component is markedly delayed. The neural mechanisms underlying partial response inhibition remain unclear. We hypothesized that Partial trials would be associated with nonselective corticomotor suppression and that GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition within primary motor cortex might be responsible for the nonselective corticomotor suppression contributing to Partial trial response delays. Sixteen right-handed participants performed a bimanual anticipatory response inhibition task while single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to elicit motor evoked potentials in the left first dorsal interosseous muscle. Lift times, amplitude of motor evoked potentials, and long-interval intracortical inhibition were examined across the different trial types (Go, Stop-Left, Stop-Right, Stop-Both). Go trials produced a tight distribution of lift times around the target, whereas those during Partial trials (Stop-Left and Stop-Right) were substantially delayed. The modulation of motor evoked potential amplitude during Stop-Right trials reflected anticipation, suppression, and subsequent reinitiation of movement. Importantly, suppression was present across all Stop trial types, indicative of a “default” nonselective inhibitory process. Compared with blocks containing only Go trials, inhibition increased when Stop trials were introduced but did not differ between trial types. The amount of inhibition was positively correlated with lift times during Stop-Right trials. Tonic levels of inhibition appear to be proactively modulated by task context and influence the speed at which unimanual responses occur after a nonselective “brake” is applied. PMID:27281744

  18. Association between cytokine response, the LRINEC score and outcome in patients with necrotising soft tissue infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Svensson, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Early assessment of necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI) is challenging. Analysis of inflammatory markers could provide important information about disease severity and guide decision making. For this purpose, we investigated the association between cytokine levels and the Laboratory Risk...

  19. Regulation of cytokine production in human alveolar macrophages and airway epithelial cells in response to ambient air pollution particles: Further mechanistic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Susanne; Mundandhara, Sailaja; Devlin, Robert B.; Madden, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In order to better understand how ambient air particulate matter (PM) affect lung health, the two main airway cell types likely to interact with inhaled particles, alveolar macrophages (AM) and airway epithelial cells have been exposed to particles in vitro and followed for endpoints of inflammation, and oxidant stress. Separation of Chapel Hill PM 10 into fine and coarse size particles revealed that the main proinflammatory response (TNF, IL-6, COX-2) in AM was driven by material present in the coarse PM, containing 90-95% of the stimulatory material in PM10. The particles did not affect expression of hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), a sensitive marker of oxidant stress. Primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) also responded to the coarse fraction with higher levels of IL-8 and COX-2, than induced by fine or ultrafine PM. All size PM induced oxidant stress in NHBE, while fine PM induced the highest levels of HO-1 expression. The production of cytokines in AM by both coarse and fine particles was blocked by the toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist E5531 involved in the recognition of LPS and Gram negative bacteria. The NHBE were found to recognize coarse and fine PM through TLR2, a receptor with preference for recognition of Gram positive bacteria. Compared to ambient PM, diesel PM induced only a minimal cytokine response in both AM and NHBE. Instead, diesel suppressed LPS-induced TNF and IL-8 release in AM. Both coarse and fine ambient air PM were also found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF release while silica, volcanic ash or carbon black had no inhibitory effect. Diesel particles did not affect cytokine mRNA induction nor protein accumulation but interfered with the release of cytokine from the cells. Ambient coarse and fine PM, on the other hand, inhibited both mRNA induction and protein production. Exposure to coarse and fine PM decreased the expression of TLR4 in the macrophages. Particle-induced decrease in TLR4 and hyporesponsiveness to LPS

  20. Tissue specific distribution of iNKT cells impacts their cytokine response

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, You Jeong; Wang, Haiguang; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Phuong, Vanessa; Jameson, Stephen C.; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Three subsets of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been identified, NKT1, NKT2 and NKT17, which produce distinct cytokines when stimulated, but little is known about their localization. Here, we have defined the anatomic localization and systemic distribution of these subsets and measured their cytokine production. Thymic NKT2 cells that produced interleukin-4 (IL-4) at steady state were located in the medulla and conditioned medullary thymocytes. NKT2 cells were abundant in the me...

  1. Cytokine modulation by stress hormones and antagonist specific hormonal inhibition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) head kidney primary cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Ali Reza; Parra, David; Reyes-López, Felipe E; Tort, Lluís

    2017-09-01

    A tight interaction between endocrine and immune systems takes place mainly due to the key role of head kidney in both hormone and cytokine secretion, particularly under stress situations in which the physiological response promotes the synthesis and release of stress hormones which may lead into immunomodulation as side effect. Although such interaction has been previously investigated, this study evaluated for the first time the effect of stress-associated hormones together with their receptor antagonists on the expression of cytokine genes in head kidney primary cell culture (HKPCC) of the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the seawater gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The results showed a striking difference when comparing the response obtained in trout and seabream. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) decreased the expression of immune-related genes in sea bream but not in rainbow trout and this cortisol effect was reverted by the antagonist mifepristone but not spironolactone. On the other hand, while adrenaline reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) in rainbow trout, the opposite effect was observed in sea bream showing an increased expression (IL-1β, IL-6). Interestingly, this effect was reverted by antagonist propranolol but not phentolamine. Overall, our results confirm the regional interaction between endocrine and cytokine messengers and a clear difference in the sensitivity to the hormonal stimuli between the two species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A synthetic peptide blocking TRPV1 activation inhibits UV-induced skin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, So Min; Han, Sangbum; Oh, Jang-Hee; Lee, Young Mee; Park, Chi-Hyun; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Transient receptor potential type 1 (TRPV1) can be activated by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and mediates UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and proinflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes. Various chemicals and compounds targeting TRPV1 activation have been developed, but are not in clinical use mostly due to their safety issues. We aimed to develop a novel TRPV1-targeting peptide to inhibit UV-induced responses in human skin. We designed and generated a novel TRPV1 inhibitory peptide (TIP) which mimics the specific site in TRPV1 (aa 701-709: Gln-Arg-Ala-Ile-Thr-Ile-Leu-Asp-Thr, QRAITILDT), Thr 705 , and tested its efficacy of blocking UV-induced responses in HaCaT, mouse, and human skin. TIP effectively inhibited capsaicin-induced calcium influx and TRPV1 activation. Treatment of HaCaT with TIP prevented UV-induced increases of MMP-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In mouse skin in vivo, TIP inhibited UV-induced skin thickening and prevented UV-induced expression of MMP-13 and MMP-9. Moreover, TIP attenuated UV-induced erythema and the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, IL-6, and IL-8 in human skin in vivo. The novel synthetic peptide targeting TRPV1 can ameliorate UV-induced skin responses in vitro and in vivo, providing a promising therapeutic approach against UV-induced inflammation and photoaging. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactions between cytokines and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, F Y

    1995-01-01

    There is now an impressive range of evidence supporting the important role of cytokines in sleep regulation (see Krueger et al., 1995; De Simoni et al., 1995). It has also been reported that inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis suppresses sleep in rabbits (Kapás et al., 1994). This is not surprising, since NO is closely involved in neurotransmission (Garthwaite, 1991; Schuman and Madison, 1994) and cytokines are the major inducers of NO synthesis (Hibbs et al., 1990). Further, it is now clear that NO plays an important role in modulating immune responses, possibly through the differential regulation of cytokine synthesis (Taylor-Robinson et al., 1994). In this article, I will provide evidence for the interactions between cytokines and nitric oxide, and discuss their implications in the regulation of immune responses. I shall illustrate these mainly with results from my coworkers and I, from our laboratory rather than attempting an exhaustive review of the subject.

  4. Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Response and Genetic Diversity in Merozoite Surface Protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibaye, Olusola; Osuntoki, Akinniyi A; Ebuehi, Albert Ot; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Balogun, Emmanuel O; Egbuna, Kathleen N

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-2 ( msp -2) and associated parasite genetic diversity which varies between malaria-endemic regions remain a limitation in malaria vaccine development. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important in immunity against malaria, understanding the influence of genetic diversity on cytokine response is important for effective vaccine design. P. falciparum isolates obtained from 300 Nigerians with uncomplicated falciparum malaria at Ijede General Hospital, Ijede (IJE), General Hospital Ajeromi, Ajeromi (AJE) and Saint Kizito Mission Hospital, Lekki, were genotyped by nested polymerase chain reaction of msp -2 block 3 while ELISA was used to determine the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to describe the genetic diversity of P. falciparum . Eighteen alleles were observed for msp -2 loci. Of the 195 isolates, 61 (31.0%) had only FC27-type alleles, 38 (19.7%) had only 3D7-type alleles, and 49.3% had multiple parasite lines with both alleles. Band sizes were 275-625 bp for FC27 and 150-425 bp for 3D7. Four alleles were observed from LEK, 2 (375-425 bp) and 2 (275-325 bp) of FC27-and 3D7-types, respectively; 12 alleles from AJE, 9 (275-625 bp) and 3 (325-425 bp) of FC27-types and 3D7-types, respectively; while IJE had a total of 12 alleles, 9 (275-625 bp) and 3 (325-425 bp) of FC27-types and 3D7-types, respectively. Mean multiplicity of infection (MOI) was 1.54. Heterozygosity ( H E ) ranged from 0.77 to 0.87 and was highest for IJE (0.87). Cytokine response was higher among 0.05) but with neither parasite density nor infection type. P. falciparum genetic diversity is extensive in Nigeria, protection via pro-inflammatory cytokines have little or no interplay with infection multiplicity.

  5. Suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 inhibits Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced apoptosis and signalling in beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Christine; Heding, Peter E; Rønn, Sif G

    2009-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). TNFalpha in combination with interleukin-1-beta (IL-1beta) and/or interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) induces specific destruction...

  6. Comparison of cytokine immune responses to Brucella abortus and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 infections in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenpeng; Wang, Xin; Qiu, Haiyan; Cui, Buyun; Zhao, Shiwen; Zheng, Han; Xiao, Yuchun; Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Jing, Huaiqi

    2013-12-01

    Brucella abortus and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 serologically cross-react in the immune response with the host; therefore, our aim was to compare the immune responses to these two pathogens. We selected typical B. abortus and Y. enterocolitica O:9 strains to study the cytokine immune response and the histopathological changes in livers and spleens of BALB/c mice. The data showed the cytokine responses to the two strains of pathogens were different, where the average levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were higher with B. abortus infections than with Y. enterocolitica O:9 infections, especially for IFN-γ, while the IL-10 level was lower and the levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 were similar. The histopathological effects in the livers and spleens of the BALB/c mice with B. abortus and Y. enterocolitica O:9 infections were similar; however, the pathological changes in the liver were greater with B. abortus infections, while damage in the spleen was greater with Y. enterocolitica O:9 infections. These observations show that different cytokine responses and histopathological changes occur with B. abortus and Y. enterocolitica O:9 infections.

  7. Transcriptome dynamics of the microRNA inhibition response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Jiayu; Leucci, Elenora; Vendramin, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We report a high-resolution time series study of transcriptome dynamics following antimiR-mediated inhibition of miR-9 in a Hodgkin lymphoma cell-line-the first such dynamic study of the microRNA inhibition response-revealing both general and specific aspects of the physiological response. We show...... validate the key observations with independent time series qPCR and we experimentally validate key predicted miR-9 targets. Methodologically, we developed sensitive functional data analytic predictive methods to analyse the weak response inherent in microRNA inhibition experiments. The methods...... of this study will be applicable to similar high-resolution time series transcriptome analyses and provides the context for more accurate experimental design and interpretation of future microRNA inhibition studies....

  8. Neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine responses towards low IL-12p70 and high IL-10 production via distinct factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E Belderbos

    Full Text Available Human neonates are highly susceptible to infection, which may be due in part to impaired innate immune function. Neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR responses are biased against the generation of pro-inflammatory/Th1-polarizing cytokines, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine production. When exposed to cord blood plasma, mononuclear cells (MCs produced significantly lower TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 and higher IL-10 compared to MC exposed to adult plasma. Suppression by neonatal plasma of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production, but not induction of TLR4-mediated IL-10 production, was maintained up to the age of 1 month. Cord blood plasma conferred a similar pattern of MC cytokine responses to TLR3 and TLR8 agonists, demonstrating activity towards both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent agonists. The factor causing increased TLR4-mediated IL-10 production by cord blood plasma was heat-labile, lost after protein depletion and independent of lipoprotein binding protein (LBP or soluble CD14 (sCD14. The factor causing inhibition of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production by cord blood plasma was resistant to heat inactivation or protein depletion and was independent of IL-10, vitamin D and prostaglandin E2. In conclusion, human neonatal plasma contains at least two distinct factors that suppress TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production or induce IL-10 or production. Further identification of these factors will provide insight into the ontogeny of innate immune development and might identify novel targets for the prevention and treatment of neonatal infection.

  9. Neonatal Plasma Polarizes TLR4-Mediated Cytokine Responses towards Low IL-12p70 and High IL-10 Production via Distinct Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderbos, Mirjam E.; Levy, Ofer; Stalpers, Femke; Kimpen, Jan L.; Meyaard, Linde; Bont, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Human neonates are highly susceptible to infection, which may be due in part to impaired innate immune function. Neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses are biased against the generation of pro-inflammatory/Th1-polarizing cytokines, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine production. When exposed to cord blood plasma, mononuclear cells (MCs) produced significantly lower TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 and higher IL-10 compared to MC exposed to adult plasma. Suppression by neonatal plasma of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production, but not induction of TLR4-mediated IL-10 production, was maintained up to the age of 1 month. Cord blood plasma conferred a similar pattern of MC cytokine responses to TLR3 and TLR8 agonists, demonstrating activity towards both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent agonists. The factor causing increased TLR4-mediated IL-10 production by cord blood plasma was heat-labile, lost after protein depletion and independent of lipoprotein binding protein (LBP) or soluble CD14 (sCD14). The factor causing inhibition of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production by cord blood plasma was resistant to heat inactivation or protein depletion and was independent of IL-10, vitamin D and prostaglandin E2. In conclusion, human neonatal plasma contains at least two distinct factors that suppress TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production or induce IL-10 or production. Further identification of these factors will provide insight into the ontogeny of innate immune development and might identify novel targets for the prevention and treatment of neonatal infection. PMID:22442690

  10. Cytokines in the host response to Candida vaginitis: Identifying a role for non-classical immune mediators, S100 alarmins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junko; Noverr, Mairi C.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, affects a significant number of women during their reproductive years. More than two decades of research have been focused on the mechanisms associated with susceptibility or resistance to symptomatic infection. Adaptive immunity by Th1-type CD4+ T cells and downstream cytokine responses are considered the predominant host defense mechanisms against mucosal Candida infections. However, numerous clinical and animal studies have indicated no or limited protective role of cells and cytokines of the Th1 or Th2 lineage against vaginal infection. The role for Th17 is only now begun to be investigated in-depth for VVC with results already showing significant controversy. On the other hand, a clinical live-challenge study and an established animal model have shown that a symptomatic condition is intimately associated with the vaginal infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) but with no effect on vaginal fungal burden. Subsequent studies identified S100A8 and S100A9 Alarmins as key chemotactic mediators of the acute PMN response. These chemotactic danger signals appear to be secreted by vaginal epithelial cells upon interaction and early adherence of Candida. Thus, instead of a putative immunodeficiency against Candida involving classical immune cells and cytokines of the adaptive response, the pathological inflammation in VVC is now considered a consequence of a non-productive innate response initiated by non-classical immune mediators. PMID:22182685

  11. Response inhibition under alcohol: effects of cognitive and motivational conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, M T; Vogel-Sprott, M

    2000-03-01

    This experiment tested the effect of cognitive and motivational conflict on response inhibition under alcohol. Fifty-six male social drinkers were randomly assigned to one of eight groups (n = 8). Four pairs of groups received 0.62 g/kg of alcohol, or a placebo, and each pair performed a go/stop choice reaction time task under one of four conflict conditions. One condition (C) produced cognitive conflict by presenting "go" and "stop" signals in the task. Another condition (IR) added motivational conflict by administering an equal monetary reward for inhibiting responses to stop-signals, and for responding to go-signals. The remaining two conditions resolved the motivational conflict by administering the monetary reward only for inhibitions (I), or only for responses (R). Compared with placebo, alcohol reduced inhibitions (i.e., impaired inhibitory control) under cognitive conflict (C; p = .041) and under motivational conflict (IR; p = .012). No significant effect of alcohol on inhibitions was observed in conditions where conflict was resolved (i.e., I and R). The study shows that alcohol can reduce the ability to inhibit a response. However, impaired inhibitory control is not an inevitable outcome of the drug action, because it can be counteracted by the consequences of behavior in the situation.

  12. Expression of IL-23/Th17-related cytokines in basal cell carcinoma and in the response to medical treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pellegrini

    Full Text Available Several immune-related markers have been implicated in basal cell carcinoma (BCC pathogenesis. The BCC inflammatory infiltrate is dominated by Th2 cytokines, suggesting a specific state of immunosuppression. In contrast, regressing BCC are characterized by a Th1 immune response with IFN-γ promoting a tumor suppressive activity. IL-23/Th17-related cytokines, as interleukin (IL-17, IL-23 and IL-22, play a significant role in cutaneous inflammatory diseases, but their involvement in skin carcinogenesis is controversial and is poorly investigated in BCC. In this study we investigated the expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-22 cytokines in BCC at the protein and mRNA level and their modulation during imiquimod (IMQ treatment or photodynamic therapy (PDT. IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-22 levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative Real Time PCR in 41 histopathologically-proven BCCs (28 superficial and 13 nodular from 39 patients. All BCC samples were analyzed at baseline and 19 of 41 also during medical treatment (9 with IMQ 5% cream and 10 with MAL-PDT. Association between cytokines expression and clinico-pathological variables was evaluated. Higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-22 were found in BCCs, mainly in the peritumoral infiltrate, compared to normal skin, with the expression being correlated to the severity of the inflammatory infiltrate. IFN-γ production was higher in superficial BCCs compared to nodular BCCs, while IL-17 was increased in nodular BCCs. A significant correlation was found between IFN-γ and IL-17 expression with both cytokines expressed by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. An increase of all cytokines occurred during the inflammatory phase induced by IMQ and at the early time point of PDT treatment, with significant evidence for IFN-γ, IL-23, and IL-22. Our results confirm the role of IFN-γ and support the involvement of IL-23/Th17-related cytokines in BCC pathogenesis and in the inflammatory response

  13. The Neural Basis of Cognitive Control: Response Selection and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M.; MacDonald, Angus W., III

    2009-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of tasks that recruit different forms of response selection and inhibition has to our knowledge, never been directly addressed in a single fMRI study using similar stimulus-response paradigms where differences between scanning time and sequence, stimuli, and experimenter instructions were minimized. Twelve right-handed…

  14. Inhibition of host cell translation elongation by Legionella pneumophila blocks the host cell unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempstead, Andrew D; Isberg, Ralph R

    2015-12-08

    Cells of the innate immune system recognize bacterial pathogens by detecting common microbial patterns as well as pathogen-specific activities. One system that responds to these stimuli is the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of IRE1, in the context of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, induces strong proinflammatory cytokine induction. We show here that Legionella pneumophila, an intravacuolar pathogen that replicates in an ER-associated compartment, blocks activation of the IRE1 pathway despite presenting pathogen products that stimulate this response. L. pneumophila TLR ligands induced the splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1s, the main target of IRE1 activity. L. pneumophila was able to inhibit both chemical and bacterial induction of XBP1 splicing via bacterial translocated proteins that interfere with host protein translation. A strain lacking five translocated translation elongation inhibitors was unable to block XBP1 splicing, but this could be rescued by expression of a single such inhibitor, consistent with limitation of the response by translation elongation inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of translation elongation blocked pattern recognition receptor-mediated XBP1 splicing, mimicking the effects of the bacterial translation inhibitors. In contrast, host cell-promoted inhibition of translation initiation in response to the pathogen was ineffective in blocking XBP1 splicing, demonstrating the need for the elongation inhibitors for protection from the UPR. The inhibition of host translation elongation may be a common strategy used by pathogens to limit the innate immune response by interfering with signaling via the UPR.

  15. Sex differences in emotional contexts modulation on response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; Angulo-Chavira, Armando; Llamas-Alonso, Luis A; González-Garrido, Andrés A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore sex differences in the effects that emotional contexts exert on the temporal course of response inhibition using event-related potentials (ERP). Participants performed a Go-NoGo response inhibition task under 3 context conditions: with 1) neutral background stimuli, and 2) pleasant, and 3) unpleasant emotional contexts. No sex differences were found in relation to accuracy. Women showed higher N2NoGo amplitudes than men in both emotional contexts; whereas during inhibition men tended to show higher P3NoGo amplitudes than women in the unpleasant context. Both groups experienced a relevant effect of the presence of the unpleasant context during inhibition processing, as shown by the enhancement of the N2NoGo amplitudes in frontal regions compared to results from the neutral and pleasant conditions. In addition, women showed differences between the pleasant and unpleasant contexts, with the latter inducing higher amplitude values. Only in men did inhibition accuracy correlate with higher N2NoGo and lower P3NoGo amplitudes in the emotional context conditions. These findings suggest that when an inhibition task is performed in an emotionally-neutral background context no sex differences are observed in either accuracy or ERP components. However, when the emotional context was introduced -especially the unpleasant one- some gender differences did become evident. The higher N2NoGo amplitude at the presence of the unpleasant context may reflect an effect on attention and conflict monitoring. In addition, results suggest that during earlier processing stages, women invested more resources to process inhibition than men. Furthermore, men who invested more neural resources during earlier stages showed better response inhibition than those who did it during later processing stages, more closely-related to cognitive and motor inhibition processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytokines as a predictor of clinical response following hip arthroscopy: minimum 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lauren M; Safran, Marc R; Maloney, William J; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Bellino, Michael J; Scuderi, Gaetano J; Abrams, Geoffrey D

    2016-08-01

    Hip arthroscopy in patients with osteoarthritis has been shown to have suboptimal outcomes. Elevated cytokine concentrations in hip synovial fluid have previously been shown to be associated with cartilage pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentration and clinical outcomes at a minimum of 2 years following hip arthroscopy. Seventeen patients without radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis had synovial fluid aspirated at time of portal establishment during hip arthroscopy. Analytes included fibronectin-aggrecan complex as well as a multiplex cytokine array. Patients completed the modified Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and the International Hip Outcomes Tool pre-operatively and at a minimum of 2 years following surgery. Pre and post-operative scores were compared with a paired t-test, and the association between cytokine values and clinical outcome scores was performed with Pearson's correlation coefficient with an alpha value of 0.05 set as significant. Sixteen of seventeen patients completed 2-year follow-up questionnaires (94%). There was a significant increase in pre-operative to post-operative score for each clinical outcome measure. No statistically significant correlation was seen between any of the intra-operative cytokine values and either the 2-year follow-up scores or the change from pre-operative to final follow-up outcome values. No statistically significant associations were seen between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentrations and 2-year follow-up clinical outcome assessment scores for those undergoing hip arthroscopy.

  17. Tanshinone IIA attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibiting glial activation and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fa-Le; Xu, Min; Wang, Yan; Gong, Ke-Rui; Zhang, Jin-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia, is a devastating neurological disease that seriously affects patients' quality of life. We have previously shown that tanshinone IIA (TIIA), an important lipophilic component of Danshen, had significant anti-nociceptive effect in somatic and visceral pain, it is surprisingly noted that few pharmacological studies have been carried out to explore the possible analgesic action of TIIA on neuropathic pain and the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, by using spinal nerve ligation (SNL) pain model, the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of TIIA on neuropathic pain were evaluated by intraperitoneal administration in rats. The results indicated that TIIA dose-dependently inhibited SNL-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. As revealed by OX42 levels, TIIA effectively repressed the activation of spinal microglial activation in SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Meanwhile, TIIA also decreased the expressions of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in the spinal cord. Furthermore, TIIA inhibited oxidative stress by significantly rescuing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, TIIA depressed SNL-induced MAPKs activation in spinal cord. Taken together, our study provides evidence that TIIA inhibited SNL-induced neuropathic pain through depressing microglial activation and immune response by the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways. Our findings suggest that TIIA might be a promising agent in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytokines, Chaperones and Neuroinflammatory Responses in Heroin-Related Death: What Can We Learn from Different Patterns of Cellular Expression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Fineschi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine has various effects on the central nervous system with several neuropathological alterations including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage from respiratory depressing effects and neuroinflammatory response. Both of these mechanisms induce the release of cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators by the activation of many cell types such as leucocytes and endothelial and glial cells, especially microglia, the predominant immunocompetent cell type within the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to clarify the correlation between intravenous heroin administration in heroin related death and the neuroinflammatory response. We selected 45 cases among autopsies executed for heroin-related death (358 total cases; immunohistochemical studies and Western blotting analyses were used to investigate the expression of brain markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α, oxygen-regulated protein 150, (interleukins IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, and CD68 (MAC387. Findings demonstrated that morphine induces inflammatory response and cytokine release. In particular, oxygen-regulated protein 150, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, IL-6 and IL-15 cytokines were over-expressed with different patterns of cellular expression.

  19. Andrographolide Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokines Secretion in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells through Suppression of NF-κB/MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; He, Shengnan; Tang, Jishun; Ding, Nana; Chu, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lianping; Ding, Xuedong; Liang, Ting; Feng, Shibin; Rahman, Sajid Ur; Wang, Xichun; Wu, Jinjie

    2017-01-01

    Andrographolide, the main active component extracted from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees, exerts anti-inflammatory effects; however, the principal molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of Andrographolide in modifying lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells. An in vitro model of inflammation was induced by LPS in mouse RAW264.7 cells in the presence of Andrographolide. The concentration and expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively. The nuclear level of NF- κ B was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The expression levels of NF- κ B, p38, ERK, and JNK were determined by western blot. Andrographolide dose-dependently inhibited the release and mRNA expression of TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-1 β in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The nuclear level of p65 protein was decreased in Andrographolide treatment group. Western blot analysis showed that Andrographolide suppressed LPS-induced NF- κ B activation and the phosphorylation of IkBa, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. These results suggest that Andrographolide exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activation of NF- κ B/MAPK signaling pathway and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines.

  20. Andrographolide Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokines Secretion in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells through Suppression of NF-κB/MAPK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide, the main active component extracted from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Wall. ex Nees, exerts anti-inflammatory effects; however, the principal molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of Andrographolide in modifying lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells. An in vitro model of inflammation was induced by LPS in mouse RAW264.7 cells in the presence of Andrographolide. The concentration and expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, respectively. The nuclear level of NF-κB was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The expression levels of NF-κB, p38, ERK, and JNK were determined by western blot. Andrographolide dose-dependently inhibited the release and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The nuclear level of p65 protein was decreased in Andrographolide treatment group. Western blot analysis showed that Andrographolide suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation and the phosphorylation of IkBa, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. These results suggest that Andrographolide exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines.

  1. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS genes are silenced by DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation and regulate response to radiotherapy in cervical cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Hong Kim

    Full Text Available Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS family is an important negative regulator of cytokine signaling and deregulation of SOCS has been involved in many types of cancer. All cervical cancer cell lines tested showed lower expression of SOCS1, SOCS3, and SOCS5 than normal tissue or cell lines. The immunohistochemistry result for SOCS proteins in human cervical tissue also confirmed that normal tissue expressed higher level of SOCS proteins than neighboring tumor. Similar to the regulation of SOCS in other types of cancer, DNA methylation contributed to SOCS1 downregulation in CaSki, ME-180, and HeLa cells. However, the expression of SOCS3 or SOCS5 was not recovered by the inhibition of DNA methylation. Histone deacetylation may be another regulatory mechanism involved in SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression, however, SOCS5 expression was neither affected by DNA methylation nor histone deacetylation. Ectopic expression of SOCS1 or SOCS3 conferred radioresistance to HeLa cells, which implied SOCS signaling regulates the response to radiation in cervical cancer. In this study, we have shown that SOCS expression repressed by, in part, epigenetically and altered SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression could contribute to the radiosensitive phenotype in cervical cancer.

  2. Response inhibition signals and miscoding of direction in dorsomedial striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Bryden

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to inhibit action is critical for everyday behavior and is affected by a variety of disorders. Behavioral control and response inhibition is thought to depend on a neural circuit that includes the dorsal striatum, yet the neural signals that lead to response inhibition and its failure are unclear. To address this issue, we recorded from neurons in rat dorsomedial striatum (mDS in a novel task in which rats responded to a spatial cue that signaled that reward would be delivered either to the left or to the right. On 80% of trials rats were instructed to respond in the direction cued by the light (GO. On 20% of trials a second light illuminated instructing the rat to refrain from making the cued movement and move in the opposite direction (STOP. Many neurons in mDS encoded direction, firing more or less strongly for GO movements made ipsilateral or contralateral to the recording electrode. Neurons that fired more strongly for contralateral GO responses were more active when rats were faster, showed reduced activity on STOP trials, and miscoded direction on errors, suggesting that when these neurons were overly active, response inhibition failed. Neurons that decreased firing for contralateral movement were excited during trials in which the rat was required to stop the ipsilateral movement. For these neurons activity was reduced when errors were made and was negatively correlated with movement time suggesting that when these neurons were less active on STOP trials, response inhibition failed. Finally, the activity of a significant number of neurons represented a global inhibitory signal, firing more strongly during response inhibition regardless of response direction. Breakdown by cell type suggests that putative medium spiny neurons tended to fire more strongly under STOP trials, whereas putative interneurons exhibited both activity patterns. 

  3. Placental-mediated increased cytokine response to lipopolysaccharides: a potential mechanism for enhanced inflammation susceptibility of the preterm fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross MG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Julie L Boles,1 Michael G Ross,1 Ron Beloosesky,2 Mina Desai,1 Louiza Belkacemi11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, Torrance, CA, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, IsraelBackground: Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive motor impairment syndrome that has no effective cure. The etiology of most cases of cerebral palsy remains unknown; however, recent epidemiologic data have demonstrated an association between fetal neurologic injury and infection/inflammation. Maternal infection/inflammation may be associated with the induction of placental cytokines that could result in increased fetal proinflammatory cytokine exposure, and development of neonatal neurologic injury. Therefore, we sought to explore the mechanism by which maternal infection may produce a placental inflammatory response. We specifically examined rat placental cytokine production and activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 pathway in response to lipopolysaccharide exposure at preterm and near-term gestational ages.Methods: Preterm (e16 or near-term (e20 placental explants from pregnant rats were treated with 0, 1, or 10 µg/mL lipopolysaccharide. Explant integrity was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis alpha levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. TLR4 and phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB protein expression levels were determined by Western blot analysis.Results: At both e16 and e20, lactate dehydrogenase levels were unchanged by treatment with lipopolysaccharide. After exposure to lipopolysaccharide, the release of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis alpha from e16 placental explants increased by 4-fold and 8–9-fold, respectively (P < 0.05 versus

  4. CD83 Antibody Inhibits Human B Cell Responses to Antigen as well as Dendritic Cell-Mediated CD4 T Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kuan Y; Baron, Rebecca; Seldon, Therese A; Jones, Martina L; Rice, Alison M; Munster, David J

    2018-05-15

    Anti-CD83 Ab capable of Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity can deplete activated CD83 + human dendritic cells, thereby inhibiting CD4 T cell-mediated acute graft-versus-host disease. As CD83 is also expressed on the surface of activated B lymphocytes, we hypothesized that anti-CD83 would also inhibit B cell responses to stimulation. We found that anti-CD83 inhibited total IgM and IgG production in vitro by allostimulated human PBMC. Also, Ag-specific Ab responses to immunization of SCID mice xenografted with human PBMC were inhibited by anti-CD83 treatment. This inhibition occurred without depletion of all human B cells because anti-CD83 lysed activated CD83 + B cells by Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and spared resting (CD83 - ) B cells. In cultured human PBMC, anti-CD83 inhibited tetanus toxoid-stimulated B cell proliferation and concomitant dendritic cell-mediated CD4 T cell proliferation and expression of IFN-γ and IL-17A, with minimal losses of B cells (80% of B cells but had no effect on CD4 T cell proliferation and cytokine expression. By virtue of the ability of anti-CD83 to selectively deplete activated, but not resting, B cells and dendritic cells, with the latter reducing CD4 T cell responses, anti-CD83 may be clinically useful in autoimmunity and transplantation. Advantages might include inhibited expansion of autoantigen- or alloantigen-specific B cells and CD4 T cells, thus preventing further production of pathogenic Abs and inflammatory cytokines while preserving protective memory and regulatory cells. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Short communication: Cytokine profiles from blood mononuclear cells of dairy cows classified with divergent immune response phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C E; Paibomesai, M A; Emam, S M; Gallienne, J; Hine, B C; Thompson-Crispi, K A; Mallard, B A

    2016-03-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced immune response has been shown to decrease disease occurrence in dairy cattle. Cows can be classified as high (H), average, or low responders based on antibody-mediated immune response (AMIR), predominated by type-2 cytokine production, and cell-mediated immune response (CMIR) through estimated breeding values for these traits. The purpose of this study was to identify in vitro tests that correlate with in vivo immune response phenotyping in dairy cattle. Blood mononuclear cells (BMC) isolated from cows classified as H-AMIR and H-CMIR through estimated breeding values for immune response traits were stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA; Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and gene expression, cytokine production, and cell proliferation was determined at multiple time points. A repeated measures model, which included the effects of immune response group, parity, and stage of lactation, was used to compare differences between immune response phenotype groups. The H-AMIR cows produced more IL-4 protein than H-CMIR cows at 48 h; however, no difference in gene expression of type-2 transcription factor GATA3 or IL4 was noted. The BMC from H-CMIR cows had increased production of IFN-γ protein at 48, 72, and 96 h compared with H-AMIR animals. Further, H-CMIR cows had increased expression of the IFNG gene at 16, 24, and 48 h post-treatment with ConA, although expression of the type-1 transcription factor gene TBX21 did not differ between immune response groups. Although proliferation of BMC increased from 24 to 72 h after ConA stimulation, no differences were found between the immune response groups. Overall, stimulation of H-AMIR and H-CMIR bovine BMC with ConA resulted in distinct cytokine production profiles according to genetically defined groups. These distinct cytokine profiles could be used to define disease resistance phenotypes in dairy cows according to stimulation in vitro; however, other immune response phenotypes should be assessed

  6. Longitudinal monitoring of bottlenose dolphin leukocyte cytokine mRNA responsiveness by qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both veterinarians caring for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in managed populations and researchers monitoring wild populations use blood-based diagnostics to monitor bottlenose dolphin health. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to assess cytokine expression patterns of peripheral blood m...

  7. Induction of Chemokine Secretion and Monocyte Migration by Human Choroidal Melanocytes in Response to Proinflammatory Cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jehs, Tina; Faber, Carsten; Udsen, Maja S.

    2016-01-01

    of 10 HCM donors induced a high initial level of monocyte migration, which decreased upon stimulation with either TCM or IFN-γ and TNF-α. The supernatants from three HCM donors initially showed a low level of monocyte attraction, which increased after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines. Direct...

  8. Inflammatory cytokine response and reduced heart rate variability in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shargabi, T; Govindan, R B; Dave, R; Metzler, M; Wang, Y; du Plessis, A; Massaro, A N

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether systemic inflammation-modulating cytokine expression is related to heart rate variability (HRV) in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The data from 30 newborns with HIE were analyzed. Cytokine levels (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-λ) were measured either at 24 h of cooling (n=5), 72 h of cooling (n=4) or at both timepoints (n=21). The following HRV metrics were quantified in the time domain: alpha_S, alpha_L, root mean square (RMS) at short time scales (RMS_S), RMS at long time scales (RMS_L), while low-frequency power (LF) and high-frequency power (HF) were quantified in the frequency domain. The relationships between HRV metrics and cytokines were evaluated using mixed-models. IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-13 levels were inversely related to selected HRV metrics. Inflammation-modulating cytokines may be important mediators in the autonomic dysfunction observed in newborns with HIE.

  9. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian

    2014-01-01

    with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or purified protein derivative (PPD). The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined. RESULTS: Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate...... (MR) was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO)). Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%). In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated...

  10. Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and inflammatory cytokine production through β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Ming; Zhang, You-Yi; He, Bei

    2015-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is involved in regulating inflammation in several cell lines. We reported that fenoterol, a β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 -AR) agonist, had anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells, a monocytic cell line. Whether the fenoterol anti-inflammatory effect involves the AMPK pathway is unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanism of β 2 -AR stimulation with fenoterol in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells. We studied whether fenoterol and β-arrestin-2 or AMPKα1 subunit knockdown could affect LPS-induced AMPK activation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release were reduced with fenoterol pretreatment of THP-1 cells. SiRNA knockdown of β-arrestin-2 abolished the fenoterol inhibition of LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release, thus β-arrestin-2 mediated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenoterol on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. In addition, siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β release, so AMPKα1 was a key signaling molecule involved in LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production. These results suggested the β 2 -AR agonist fenoterol inhibited LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β release via β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cells. The exploration of these mechanisms may help optimize therapeutic agents targeting these pathways in inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • β 2 -AR agonist fenoterol exerts its protective effect on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. • Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β production. • β-arrestin2 mediates fenoterol-inhibited AMPK activation and IL-1β release. • AMPKα1 is involved in LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β production

  11. Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and inflammatory cytokine production through β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yuan [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Xu, Ming; Zhang, You-Yi [Department of Institute of Vascular Medicine and Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Receptors Research, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); He, Bei, E-mail: puh3_hb@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-26

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is involved in regulating inflammation in several cell lines. We reported that fenoterol, a β{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor (β{sub 2}-AR) agonist, had anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells, a monocytic cell line. Whether the fenoterol anti-inflammatory effect involves the AMPK pathway is unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanism of β{sub 2}-AR stimulation with fenoterol in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells. We studied whether fenoterol and β-arrestin-2 or AMPKα1 subunit knockdown could affect LPS-induced AMPK activation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release were reduced with fenoterol pretreatment of THP-1 cells. SiRNA knockdown of β-arrestin-2 abolished the fenoterol inhibition of LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release, thus β-arrestin-2 mediated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenoterol on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. In addition, siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β release, so AMPKα1 was a key signaling molecule involved in LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production. These results suggested the β{sub 2}-AR agonist fenoterol inhibited LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β release via β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cells. The exploration of these mechanisms may help optimize therapeutic agents targeting these pathways in inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • β{sub 2}-AR agonist fenoterol exerts its protective effect on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. • Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β production. • β-arrestin2 mediates fenoterol-inhibited AMPK activation and IL-1β release. • AMPKα1 is involved in LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β production.

  12. Response inhibition is associated with white matter microstructure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William; Vestergaard, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive control of thoughts, actions and emotions is important for normal behaviour and the development of such control continues throughout childhood and adolescence. Several lines of evidence suggest that response inhibition is primarily mediated by a right-lateralized network involving...... to the prediction of performance variability. Observed associations may be related to variation in phase of maturation, to activity-dependent alterations in the network subserving response inhibition, or to stable individual differences in underlying neural system connectivity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  13. Beneficial effects of cytokine induced hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, K R; Hardardóttir, I; Grunfeld, C

    1998-01-01

    Infection, inflammation and trauma induce marked changes in the plasma levels of a wide variety of proteins (acute phase response), and these changes are mediated by cytokines. The acute phase response is thought to be beneficial to the host. The host's response to injury also results in dramatic alterations in lipid metabolism and circulating lipoprotein levels which are mediated by cytokines. A large number of cytokines including TNF, the interleukins, and the interferons increase serum triglyceride levels. This rapid increase (1-2 h) is predominantly due to an increase in hepatic VLDL secretion while the late increase may be due to a variety of factors including increased hepatic production of VLDL or delayed clearance secondary to a decrease in lipoprotein lipase activity and/or apolipoprotein E levels on VLDL. In animals other than primates, cytokines also increase serum cholesterol levels, most likely by increasing hepatic cholesterol. Cytokines increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis by stimulating HMG CoA reductase gene expression and decrease hepatic cholesterol catabolism by inhibiting cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis. Injury and/or cytokines also decrease HDL cholesterol levels and induce alterations in the composition of HDL. The content of SAA and apolipoprotein J increase, apolipoprotein A1 may decrease, and the cholesterol ester content decreases while free cholesterol increases. Additionally, key proteins involved in HDL metabolism are altered by cytokines; LCAT activity, hepatic lipase activity, and CETP levels decrease. These changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism may be beneficial in a number of ways including: lipoproteins competing with viruses for cellular receptors, apolipoproteins neutralizing viruses, lipoproteins binding and targeting parasites for destruction, apolipoproteins lysing parasites, redistribution of nutrients to cells involved in the immune response and/or tissue repair, and

  14. Susceptibility to Lower Respiratory Infections in Childhood is Associated with Perturbation of the Cytokine Response to Pathogenic Airway Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Brix, Susanne; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal colonization of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood. Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. The objective was to characterize in vitro the early life systemic immune response to pathogenic bacteria and study the possible association with incidence of LRI during the first 3 years of life. The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000) is a clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born of mothers with asthma. LRI incidence was prospectively captured from 6-monthly planned visits and visits at acute respiratory episodes. The in vitro systemic immune response to Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae was characterized by the production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-17 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated at age 6 months from 291 infants. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression against incidence of LRI in infancy. A multivariable model including all cytokine responses from the 3 different bacterial stimulations significantly identified children at risk of LRI (P = 0.006). The immune response pattern associated with LRI was characterized by perturbed production of several cytokines rather than production of one specific cytokine, and was independent of concurrent asthma. TNF-α and IL-5 were key drivers but did not explain the entire variation in LRI susceptibility. Children at risk of future LRI present a perturbed systemic immune response upon exposure to common airway pathogens in early life.

  15. Factor XI Deficiency Alters the Cytokine Response and Activation of Contact Proteases during Polymicrobial Sepsis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E Bane

    Full Text Available Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is often accompanied by abnormalities of blood coagulation. Prior work with a mouse model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP suggested that the protease factor XIa contributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC and to the cytokine response during sepsis. We investigated the importance of factor XI to cytokine and coagulation responses during the first 24 hours after CLP. Compared to wild type littermates, factor XI-deficient (FXI-/- mice had a survival advantage after CLP, with smaller increases in plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-10 and delayed IL-1β and IL-6 responses. Plasma levels of serum amyloid P, an acute phase protein, were increased in wild type mice 24 hours post-CLP, but not in FXI-/- mice, supporting the impression of a reduced inflammatory response in the absence of factor XI. Surprisingly, there was little evidence of DIC in mice of either genotype. Plasma levels of the contact factors factor XII and prekallikrein were reduced in WT mice after CLP, consistent with induction of contact activation. However, factor XII and PK levels were not reduced in FXI-/- animals, indicating factor XI deficiency blunted contact activation. Intravenous infusion of polyphosphate into WT mice also induced changes in factor XII, but had much less effect in FXI deficient mice. In vitro analysis revealed that factor XIa activates factor XII, and that this reaction is enhanced by polyanions such polyphosphate and nucleic acids. These data suggest that factor XI deficiency confers a survival advantage in the CLP sepsis model by altering the cytokine response to infection and blunting activation of the contact (kallikrein-kinin system. The findings support the hypothesis that factor XI functions as a bidirectional interface between contact activation and thrombin generation, allowing the two processes to influence each other.

  16. Cardiorespiratory control and cytokine profile in response to heat stress, hypoxia, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure during early neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Fiona B; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Wilson, Richard J A; Hasan, Shabih U

    2016-02-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is one of the most common causes of postneonatal infant mortality in the developed world. An insufficient cardiorespiratory response to multiple environmental stressors (such as prone sleeping positioning, overwrapping, and infection), during a critical period of development in a vulnerable infant, may result in SIDS. However, the effect of multiple risk factors on cardiorespiratory responses has rarely been tested experimentally. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the independent and possible interactive effects of infection, hyperthermia, and hypoxia on cardiorespiratory control in rats during the neonatal period. We hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration will negatively impact cardiorespiratory responses to increased ambient temperature and hypoxia in neonatal rats. Sprague-Dawley neonatal rat pups were studied at postnatal day 6-8. Rats were examined at an ambient temperature of 33°C or 38°C. Within each group, rats were allocated to control, saline, or LPS (200 μg/kg) treatments. Cardiorespiratory and thermal responses were recorded and analyzed before, during, and after a hypoxic exposure (10% O2). Serum samples were taken at the end of each experiment to measure cytokine concentrations. LPS significantly increased cytokine concentrations (such as TNFα, IL-1β, MCP-1, and IL-10) compared to control. Our results do not support a three-way interaction between experimental factors on cardiorespiratory control. However, independently, heat stress decreased minute ventilation during normoxia and increased the hypoxic ventilatory response. Furthermore, LPS decreased hypoxia-induced tachycardia. Herein, we provide an extensive serum cytokine profile under various experimental conditions and new evidence that neonatal cardiorespiratory responses are adversely affected by dual interactions of environmental stress factors. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

  17. Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1: Impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissonnier, Guylaine M.; Pinton, Philippe; Laffitte, Joelle; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Gong, Yun Yun; Wild, Christopher P.; Bertin, Gerard; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or A. parasiticus, is a frequent contaminant of food and feed. This toxin is hepatotoxic and immunotoxic. The present study analyzed in pigs the influence of AFB1 on humoral and cellular responses, and investigated whether the immunomodulation observed is produced through interference with cytokine expression. For 28 days, pigs were fed a control diet or a diet contaminated with 385, 867 or 1807 μg pure AFB1/kg feed. At days 4 and 15, pigs were vaccinated with ovalbumin. AFB1 exposure, confirmed by an observed dose-response in blood aflatoxin-albumin adduct, had no major effect on humoral immunity as measured by plasma concentrations of total IgA, IgG and IgM and of anti-ovalbumin IgG. Toxin exposure did not impair the mitogenic response of lymphocytes but delayed and decreased their specific proliferation in response to the vaccine antigen, suggesting impaired lymphocyte activation in pigs exposed to AFB1. The expression level of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was assessed by real-time PCR in spleen. A significant up-regulation of all 5 cytokines was observed in spleen from pigs exposed to the highest dose of AFB1. In pigs exposed to the medium dose, IL-6 expression was increased and a trend towards increased IFN-γ and IL-10 was observed. In addition we demonstrate that IL-6 impaired in vitro the antigenic- but not the mitogenic-induced proliferation of lymphocytes from control pigs vaccinated with ovalbumin. These results indicate that AFB1 dietary exposure decreases cell-mediated immunity while inducing an inflammatory response. These impairments in the immune response could participate in failure of vaccination protocols and increased susceptibility to infections described in pigs exposed to AFB1

  18. Susceptibility to Lower Respiratory Infections in Childhood is Associated with Perturbation of the Cytokine Response to Pathogenic Airway Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-01-01

    of 411 children born of mothers with asthma. LRI incidence was prospectively captured from 6-monthly planned visits and visits at acute respiratory episodes. The in vitro systemic immune response to H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae was characterized by the production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2......, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-17 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated at age 6 months from 291 infants. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression against incidence of LRI in infancy. RESULTS:: A multivariable model including all cytokine responses from the three different bacterial stimulations...

  19. Association of O-Antigen Serotype with the Magnitude of Initial Systemic Cytokine Responses and Persistence in the Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Dennis J; Patel, Ashay S; Mohamed, Ahmad; Storm, Douglas W; Singh, Chandra; Li, Birong; Zhang, Jingwen; Koff, Stephen A; Jayanthi, Venkata R; Mason, Kevin M; Justice, Sheryl S

    2016-01-11

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common ailments requiring both short-term and prophylactic antibiotic therapies. Progression of infection from the bladder to the kidney is associated with more severe clinical symptoms (e.g., fever and vomiting) as well as with dangerous disease sequelae (e.g., renal scaring and sepsis). Host-pathogen interactions that promote bacterial ascent to the kidney are not completely understood. Prior studies indicate that the magnitude of proinflammatory cytokine elicitation in vitro by clinical isolates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) inversely correlates with the severity of clinical disease. Therefore, we hypothesize that the magnitude of initial proinflammatory responses during infection defines the course and severity of disease. Clinical UPEC isolates obtained from patients with a nonfebrile UTI elicited high systemic proinflammatory responses early during experimental UTI in a murine model and were attenuated in bladder and kidney persistence. Conversely, UPEC isolates obtained from patients with febrile UTI elicited low systemic proinflammatory responses early during experimental UTI and exhibited prolonged persistence in the bladder and kidney. Soluble factors in the supernatant from saturated cultures as well as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serotype correlated with the magnitude of proinflammatory responses in vitro. Our data suggest that the structure of the O-antigen sugar moiety of the LPS may determine the strength of cytokine induction by epithelial cells. Moreover, the course and severity of disease appear to be the consequence of the magnitude of initial cytokines produced by the bladder epithelium during infection. The specific host-pathogen interactions that determine the extent and course of disease are not completely understood. Our studies demonstrate that modest changes in the magnitude of cytokine production observed using in vitro models of infection translate into significant

  20. Association of O-Antigen Serotype with the Magnitude of Initial Systemic Cytokine Responses and Persistence in the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Dennis J.; Patel, Ashay S.; Mohamed, Ahmad; Storm, Douglas W.; Singh, Chandra; Li, Birong; Zhang, Jingwen; Koff, Stephen A.; Jayanthi, Venkata R.; Mason, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common ailments requiring both short-term and prophylactic antibiotic therapies. Progression of infection from the bladder to the kidney is associated with more severe clinical symptoms (e.g., fever and vomiting) as well as with dangerous disease sequelae (e.g., renal scaring and sepsis). Host-pathogen interactions that promote bacterial ascent to the kidney are not completely understood. Prior studies indicate that the magnitude of proinflammatory cytokine elicitation in vitro by clinical isolates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) inversely correlates with the severity of clinical disease. Therefore, we hypothesize that the magnitude of initial proinflammatory responses during infection defines the course and severity of disease. Clinical UPEC isolates obtained from patients with a nonfebrile UTI elicited high systemic proinflammatory responses early during experimental UTI in a murine model and were attenuated in bladder and kidney persistence. Conversely, UPEC isolates obtained from patients with febrile UTI elicited low systemic proinflammatory responses early during experimental UTI and exhibited prolonged persistence in the bladder and kidney. Soluble factors in the supernatant from saturated cultures as well as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serotype correlated with the magnitude of proinflammatory responses in vitro. Our data suggest that the structure of the O-antigen sugar moiety of the LPS may determine the strength of cytokine induction by epithelial cells. Moreover, the course and severity of disease appear to be the consequence of the magnitude of initial cytokines produced by the bladder epithelium during infection. IMPORTANCE The specific host-pathogen interactions that determine the extent and course of disease are not completely understood. Our studies demonstrate that modest changes in the magnitude of cytokine production observed using in vitro models of infection translate into

  1. Male Seminal Relaxin Contributes to Induction of the Post-mating Cytokine Response in the Female Mouse Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle J. Glynn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hormone relaxin is important in female reproduction for embryo implantation, cardiovascular function, and during labor and lactation. Relaxin is also synthesized in males by organs of the male tract. We hypothesized that relaxin might be one component of seminal plasma responsible for eliciting the female cytokine response induced in the uterus at mating. When recombinant relaxin was injected into the uterus of wild-type (Rln+/+ mice at estrus, it evoked the production of Cxcl1 mRNA and its secreted protein product CXCL1 in four of eight animals. Mating experiments were then conducted using mice with a null mutation in the relaxin gene (Rln−/− mice. qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression in wild-type females showed diminished uterine expression of several cytokine and chemokine genes in the absence of male relaxin. Similar differences were also noted comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated to wild-type males. Quantification of uterine luminal fluid cytokine content confirmed that male relaxin provokes the production of CXCL10 and CSF3 in Rln+/+ females. Differences were also seen comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated with Rln−/− males for CXCL1, CSF3, and CCL5, implying that endogenous relaxin in females might prime the uterus to respond appropriately to seminal fluid at coitus. Finally, pan-leukocyte CD45 mRNA was increased in wild-type matings compared to other combinations, implying that male and female relaxin may trigger leukocyte expansion in the uterus. We conclude that male and/or female relaxin may be important in activating the uterine cytokine/chemokine network required to initiate maternal immune adaptation to pregnancy.

  2. Serrulatane Diterpenoid from Eremophila neglecta Exhibits Bacterial Biofilm Dispersion and Inhibits Release of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines from Activated Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Htwe H; Christo, Susan N; Ndi, Chi P; Jasieniak, Marek; Rickard, Heather; Hayball, John D; Griesser, Hans J; Semple, Susan J

    2015-12-24

    The purpose of this study was to assess the biofilm-removing efficacy and inflammatory activity of a serrulatane diterpenoid, 8-hydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (1), isolated from the Australian medicinal plant Eremophila neglecta. Biofilm breakup activity of compound 1 on established Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms was compared to the antiseptic chlorhexidine and antibiotic levofloxacin. In a time-course study, 1 was deposited onto polypropylene mesh to mimic a wound dressing and tested for biofilm removal. The ex-vivo cytotoxicity and effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release were studied in mouse primary bone-marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) cells. Compound 1 was effective in dispersing 12 h pre-established biofilms with a 7 log10 reduction of viable bacterial cell counts, but was less active against 24 h biofilms (approximately 2 log10 reduction). Compound-loaded mesh showed dosage-dependent biofilm-removing capability. In addition, compound 1 displayed a significant inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion from BMDM cells, but interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) secretion was not significant. The compound was not cytotoxic to BMDM cells at concentrations effective in removing biofilm and lowering cytokine release. These findings highlight the potential of this serrulatane diterpenoid to be further developed for applications in wound management.

  3. Two novel functions of hyaluronidase from Streptococcus agalactiae are enhanced intracellular survival and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaofei; Guo, Changming; Xu, Yannan; Liu, Guangjin; Lu, Chengping; Liu, Yongjie

    2014-06-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the causative agent of septicemia and meningitis in fish. Previous studies have shown that hyaluronidase (Hyl) is an important virulence factor in many Gram-positive bacteria. To investigate the role of S. agalactiae Hyl during interaction with macrophages, we inactivated the gene encoding extracellular hyaluronidase, hylB, in a clinical Hyl(+) isolate. The isogenic hylb mutant (Δhylb) displayed reduced survival in macrophages compared to the wild type and stimulated a significantly higher release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), than the wild type in macrophages as well as in mice. Furthermore, only Hyl(+) strains could grow utilizing hyaluronic acid (HA) as the sole carbon source, suggesting that Hyl permits the organism to utilize host HA as an energy source. Fifty percent lethal dose (LD50) determinations in zebrafish demonstrated that the hylb mutant was highly attenuated relative to the wild-type strain. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice revealed that bacterial loads in the blood, spleen, and brain at 16 h postinfection were significantly reduced in the ΔhylB mutant compared to those in wild-type-infected mice. In conclusion, hyaluronidase has a strong influence on the intracellular survival of S. agalactiae and proinflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting that it plays a key role in S. agalactiae pathogenicity.

  4. Prepotent response inhibition predicts treatment outcome in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oord, S.; Geurts, H.M.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inhibition deficits, including deficits in prepotent response inhibition and interference control, are core deficits in ADHD. The predictive value of prepotent response inhibition and interference control was assessed for outcome in a 10-week treatment trial with methylphenidate. Methods:

  5. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK–PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PTEN was induced by metformin and inhibited by compound C and AMPK siRNA. ► Metformin suppressed TNF-α-induced COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. ► Compound C and bpv (pic) increased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. ► NF-κB activation was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. ► AMPK and PTEN regulated TNF-α-induced ROS production in VSMCs. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK–PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2 mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 μM) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-κB activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Inhibiting AMPK and PTEN restored ROS levels stimulated with TNF-α. Taken together, PTEN could be a possible downstream regulator of AMPK, and the

  6. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK-PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Ae [Department of Pharmacology, Aging-Associated Vascular Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyoung Chul, E-mail: hcchoi@med.yu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Aging-Associated Vascular Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN was induced by metformin and inhibited by compound C and AMPK siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound C and bpv (pic) increased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B activation was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AMPK and PTEN regulated TNF-{alpha}-induced ROS production in VSMCs. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK-PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2 mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 {mu}M) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-{kappa}B activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting AMPK

  7. Cytokine response patterns in severe pandemic 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza among hospitalized adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studying cytokine/chemokine responses in severe influenza infections caused by different virus subtypes may improve understanding on pathogenesis. METHODS: Adults hospitalized for laboratory-confirmed seasonal and pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 (pH1N1 influenza were studied. Plasma concentrations of 13 cytokines/chemokines were measured at presentation and then serially, using cytometric-bead-array with flow-cytometry and ELISA. PBMCs from influenza patients were studied for cytokine/chemokine expression using ex-vivo culture (Whole Blood Assay,±PHA/LPS stimulation. Clinical variables were prospectively recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: 63 pH1N1 and 53 seasonal influenza patients were studied. pH1N1 patients were younger (mean±S.D. 42.8±19.2 vs 70.5±16.7 years, and fewer had comorbidities. Respiratory/cardiovascular complications were common in both groups (71.4% vs 81.1%, although severe pneumonia with hypoxemia (54.0% vs 28.3% and ICU admissions (25.4% vs 1.9% were more frequent with pH1N1. Hyperactivation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, CXCL8/IL-8, CCL2/MCP-1 and sTNFR-1 was found in pH1N1 pneumonia (2-15 times normal and in complicated seasonal influenza, but not in milder pH1N1 infections. The adaptive-immunity (Th1/Th17-related CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL9/MIG and IL-17A however, were markedly suppressed in severe pH1N1 pneumonia (2-27 times lower than seasonal influenza; P-values<0.01. This pattern was further confirmed with serial measurements. Hypercytokinemia tended to be sustained in pH1N1 pneumonia, associated with a slower viral clearance [PCR-negativity: day 3-4, 55% vs 85%; day 6-7, 67% vs 100%]. Elevated proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-6, predicted ICU admission (adjusted OR 12.6, 95%CI 2.6-61.5, per log(10unit increase; P = 0.002, and correlated with fever, tachypnoea, deoxygenation, and length-of-stay (Spearman's rho, P-values<0.01 in influenza infections. PBMCs in seasonal influenza patients were activated and

  8. The neural markers of an imminent failure of response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengson, Jesse J; Mangun, George R; Mazaheri, Ali

    2012-01-16

    In his novel Ulysses, James Joyce wrote that mistakes are the "…portals of discovery". The present study investigated the pre-stimulus oscillatory EEG signatures of selective attention and motor preparation that predicted failures of overt response inhibition. We employed a trial-by-trial spatial cueing task using a go/no-go response paradigm with bilateral target stimuli. Subjects were required to covertly attend to the spatial location cued on each trial and respond to most of the number targets (go trials) at that location while withholding responses for one designated number (no-go trials). We analyzed the post-cue/pre-target spectral patterns comparing no-go trials in which a response occurred in error (False Alarms, FA) with trials in which participants correctly withheld a response (Correct Rejections, CR). We found that cue-induced occipital alpha (8-12 Hz) lateralization and inter-frequency anti-correlations between the motor beta (18-24 Hz) and pre-frontal theta (3-5 Hz) bands each independently predicted subsequent failures of response inhibition. Based on these findings, we infer that independent perceptual and motor mechanisms operate in parallel to contribute to failures of response inhibition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene Expression Profile of Human Cytokines in Response to B.pseudomallei Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-19

    and tested by serial dilution from 1/10 to 149 1/10,240 with sensitized sheep erythrocytes and the reciprocal of the highest dilution 150 at which...tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. It reduces IL-4 mediated suppression of IFN-γ. IL15 Interleukin 15 Pro...inflammatory cytokine which regulates T and natural killer (NK) cell activation and proliferation. TR-17-135 Distribution Statement A: Approved

  10. The neural markers of an imminent failure of response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bengson, Jesse J.; Mangun, George R.; Mazaheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In his novel Ulysses, James Joyce wrote that mistakes are the "...portals of discovery". The present study investigated the pre-stimulus oscillatory EEG signatures of selective attention and motor preparation that predicted failures of overt response inhibition. We employed a trial-by-trial spatial

  11. Response Inhibition Is Associated with White Matter Microstructure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baare, William F. C.; Vestergaard, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold; Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Ramsoy, Thomas Z.; Gerlach, Christian; Akeson, Per; Paulson, Olaf B.; Jernigan, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive control of thoughts, actions and emotions is important for normal behaviour and the development of such control continues throughout childhood and adolescence. Several lines of evidence suggest that response inhibition is primarily mediated by a right-lateralized network involving inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), presupplementary motor…

  12. Maturation of cognitive control: delineating response inhibition and interference suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Brydges

    Full Text Available Cognitive control is integral to the ability to attend to a relevant task whilst suppressing distracting information or inhibiting prepotent responses. The current study examined the development of these two subprocesses by examining electrophysiological indices elicited during each process. Thirteen 18 year-old adults and thirteen children aged 8-11 years (mean=9.77 years completed a hybrid Go/Nogo flanker task while continuous EEG data were recorded. The N2 topography for both response inhibition and interference suppression changed with increasing age. The neural activation associated with response inhibition became increasingly frontally distributed with age, and showed decreases of both amplitude and peak latency from childhood to adulthood, possibly due to reduced cognitive demands and myelination respectively occurring during this period. Interestingly, a significant N2 effect was apparent in adults, but not observed in children during trials requiring interference suppression. This could be due to more diffuse activation in children, which would require smaller levels of activation over a larger region of the brain than is reported in adults. Overall, these results provide evidence of distinct maturational processes occurring throughout late childhood and adolescence, highlighting the separability of response inhibition and interference suppression.

  13. Inhibition of the immune response to experimental fresh osteoarticular allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, J.J.; Schnaser, A.M.; Reynolds, H.M. Jr.; Biggart, J.M. III; Leathers, M.W.; Chism, S.E.; Thorson, E.; Grotz, T.; Yang, Q.M.

    1989-01-01

    The immune response to osteoarticular allografts is capable of destroying the cartilage--a tissue that has antigens on its cells identical to those on the bone and marrow cells. Osteoarticular allografts of the distal femur were performed in rats using various methods to attempt to temporarily inhibit the antibody response. The temporary systemic immunosuppressant regimens investigated were cyclophosphamide, azathioprine and prednisolone, cyclosporine A, and total lymphoid irradiation. The most successful appeared to be cyclosporine A, but significant side effects were observed. To specifically inhibit the immune response in the allograft antigens without systemically inhibiting the entire immune system, passive enhancement and preadministration of donor blood were tried. Neither was as effective as coating the donor bone with biodegradable cements, a method previously found to be successful. Cyclosporine A was investigated in dogs in a preliminary study of medial compartmental knee allografts and was found to be successful in inhibiting the antibody response and in producing a more successful graft; however, some significant side effects were similarly observed

  14. Cross-regulation of cytokine signalling: pro-inflammatory cytokines restrict IL-6 signalling through receptor internalisation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Simone; Wüller, Stefan; Yang, Xiang-ping; Lippok, Barbara E; Mütze, Barbara; Mais, Christine; de Leur, Hildegard Schmitz-Van; Bode, Johannes G; Gaestel, Matthias; Heinrich, Peter C; Behrmann, Iris; Schaper, Fred; Hermanns, Heike M

    2010-03-15

    The inflammatory response involves a complex interplay of different cytokines which act in an auto- or paracrine manner to induce the so-called acute phase response. Cytokines are known to crosstalk on multiple levels, for instance by regulating the mRNA stability of targeted cytokines through activation of the p38-MAPK pathway. In our study we discovered a new mechanism that answers the long-standing question how pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress restrict immediate signalling of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines. We show that p38, activated by IL-1beta, TNFalpha or environmental stress, impairs IL-6-induced JAK/STAT signalling through phosphorylation of the common cytokine receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent internalisation and degradation. We identify MK2 as the kinase that phosphorylates serine 782 in the cytoplasmic part of gp130. Consequently, inhibition of p38 or MK2, deletion of MK2 or mutation of crucial amino acids within the MK2 target site or the di-leucine internalisation motif blocks receptor depletion and restores IL-6-dependent STAT activation as well as gene induction. Hence, a novel negative crosstalk mechanism for cytokine signalling is described, where cytokine receptor turnover is regulated in trans by pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress stimuli to coordinate the inflammatory response.

  15. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea Bissau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Andersen

    Full Text Available The mechanisms behind heterologous immunity and non-specific effects of vaccines on mortality are not well understood. We examined associations between cytokine responses and subsequent mortality in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau.A low-birth-weight trial randomized children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, or purified protein derivative (PPD. The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined.Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate (MR was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO. Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%. In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with better survival (MR ratio = 0.43 (0.24-0.77.Data presented a rare opportunity to explore associations between cytokine responses and mortality. Both low and high cytokine responses were associated with high mortality; a balanced response to invading pathogens seems preferable.

  16. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian; Ravn, Henrik; Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Sartono, Erliyani; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Benn, Christine S

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms behind heterologous immunity and non-specific effects of vaccines on mortality are not well understood. We examined associations between cytokine responses and subsequent mortality in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau. A low-birth-weight trial randomized children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or purified protein derivative (PPD). The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined. Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate (MR) was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO)). Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%). In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with better survival (MR ratio = 0.43 (0.24-0.77)). Data presented a rare opportunity to explore associations between cytokine responses and mortality. Both low and high cytokine responses were associated with high mortality; a balanced response to invading pathogens seems preferable.

  17. Norepinephrine transporter inhibition alters the hemodynamic response to hypergravitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strempel, Sebastian; Schroeder, Christoph; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Boese, Andrea; Tank, Jens; Diedrich, André; Heer, Martina; Luft, Friedrich C; Jordan, Jens

    2008-03-01

    Sympathetically mediated tachycardia and vasoconstriction maintain blood pressure during hypergravitational stress, thereby preventing gravitation-induced loss of consciousness. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition prevents neurally mediated (pre)syncope during gravitational stress imposed by head-up tilt testing. Thus it seems reasonable that NET inhibition could increase tolerance to hypergravitational stress. We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in 11 healthy men (26 +/- 1 yr, body mass index 24 +/- 1 kg/m2), who ingested the selective NET inhibitor reboxetine (4 mg) or matching placebo 25, 13, and 1 h before testing on separate days. We monitored heart rate, blood pressure, and thoracic impedance in three different body positions (supine, seated, standing) and during a graded centrifuge run (incremental steps of 0.5 g for 3 min each, up to a maximal vertical acceleration load of 3 g). NET inhibition increased supine blood pressure and heart rate. With placebo, blood pressure increased in the seated position and was well maintained during standing. However, with NET inhibition, blood pressure decreased in the seated and standing position. During hypergravitation, blood pressure increased in a graded fashion with placebo. With NET inhibition, the increase in blood pressure during hypergravitation was profoundly diminished. Conversely, the tachycardic responses to sitting, standing, and hypergravitation all were greatly increased with NET inhibition. In contrast to our expectation, short-term NET inhibition did not improve tolerance to hypergravitation. Redistribution of sympathetic activity to the heart or changes in baroreflex responses could explain the excessive tachycardia that we observed.

  18. Curative Effects of Thiacremonone against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Hepatic Failure via Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokines Production and Infiltration of Cytotoxic Immune Cells and Kupffer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ri Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High doses of acetaminophen (APAP; N-acetyl-p-aminophenol cause severe hepatotoxicity after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 2E1. This study was undertaken to examine the preventive effects of thiacremonone, a compound extracted from garlic, on APAP-induced acute hepatic failure in male C57BL/6J. Mice received with 500 mg/kg APAP after a 7-day pretreatment with thiacremonone (10–50 mg/kg. Thiacremonone inhibited the APAP-induced serum ALT and AST levels in a dose-dependent manner, and markedly reduced the restricted area of necrosis and inflammation by administration of APAP. Thiacremonone also inhibited the APAP-induced depletion of intracellular GSH, induction of nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation as well as expression of P450 2E1. After APAP injection, the numbers of Kupffer cells, natural killer cells, and cytotoxic T cells were elevated, but the elevated cell numbers in the liver were reduced in thiacremonone pretreated mice. The expression levels of I-309, M-CSF, MIG, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-7, and IL-17 were increased by APAP treatment, which were inhibited in thiacremonone pretreated mice. These data indicate that thiacremonone could be a useful agent for the treatment of drug-induced hepatic failure and that the reduction of cytotoxic immune cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine production may be critical for the prevention of APAP-induced acute liver toxicity.

  19. Vinpocetine reduces diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury through inhibition of oxidative stress, apoptosis, cytokine production, and NF-κB activation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattori, Victor; Borghi, Sergio M; Guazelli, Carla F S; Giroldo, Andressa C; Crespigio, Jefferson; Bussmann, Allan J C; Coelho-Silva, Letícia; Ludwig, Natasha G; Mazzuco, Tânia L; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a complex clinical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately, 19-33% AKI episodes in hospitalized patients are related to drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Although, considered safe, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac have received special attention in the past years due to the potential risk of renal damage. Vinpocetine is a nootropic drug known to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanisms of vinpocetine in a model of diclofenac-induced AKI. We observed that diclofenac increased proteinuria and blood urea, creatinine, and oxidative stress levels 24h after its administration. In renal tissue, diclofenac also increased oxidative stress and induced morphological changes consistent with renal damage. Moreover, diclofenac induced kidney cells apoptosis, up-regulated proinflammatory cytokines, and induced the activation of NF-κB in renal tissue. On the other hand, vinpocetine reduced diclofenac-induced blood urea and creatinine. In the kidneys, vinpocetine inhibited diclofenac-induced oxidative stress, morphological changes, apoptosis, cytokine production, and NF-κB activation. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that diclofenac-induced AKI increases NF-κB activation, and that vinpocetine reduces the nephrotoxic effects of diclofenac. Therefore, vinpocetine is a promising molecule for the treatment of diclofenac-induced AKI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intraglomerular inhibition maintains mitral cell response contrast across input frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Shipley, Michael T

    2013-11-01

    Odor signals are transmitted to the olfactory bulb by olfactory nerve (ON) synapses onto mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs); ETCs provide additional feed-forward excitation to MTCs. Both are strongly regulated by intraglomerular inhibition that can last up to 1 s and, when blocked, dramatically increases ON-evoked MC spiking. Intraglomerular inhibition thus limits the magnitude and duration of MC spike responses to sensory input. In vivo, sensory input is repetitive, dictated by sniffing rates from 1 to 8 Hz, potentially summing intraglomerular inhibition. To investigate this, we recorded MTC responses to 1- to 8-Hz ON stimulation in slices. Inhibitory postsynaptic current area (charge) following each ON stimulation was unchanged from 1 to 5 Hz and modestly paired-pulse attenuated at 8 Hz, suggesting there is no summation and only limited decrement at the highest input frequencies. Next, we investigated frequency independence of intraglomerular inhibition on MC spiking. MCs respond to single ON shocks with an initial spike burst followed by reduced spiking decaying to baseline. Upon repetitive ON stimulation peak spiking is identical across input frequencies but the ratio of peak-to-minimum rate before the stimulus (max-min) diminishes from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 15:1 at 8 Hz. When intraglomerular inhibition is selectively blocked, peak spike rate is unchanged but trough spiking increases markedly decreasing max-min firing ratios from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 2:1 at 8 Hz. Together, these results suggest intraglomerular inhibition is relatively frequency independent and can "sharpen" MC responses to input across the range of frequencies. This suggests that glomerular circuits can maintain "contrast" in MC encoding during sniff-sampled inputs.

  1. Response Inhibition and Internet Gaming Disorder: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Evangelia; Davison, Christopher B; Lee, Tayla T C

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has multiple negative effects in psychological functioning and health. This makes the identification of its underpinnings, such as response inhibition, essential for the development of relevant interventions that target these core features of the disorder resulting in more effective treatment. Several empirical studies have evaluated the relationship between response inhibition deficits and IGD using neurocognitive tasks, but provided mixed results. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies using three neurocognitive tasks, the Go/No Go, the Stroop, and the Stop-Signal tasks, to integrate existing research and estimate the magnitude of this relationship. We found a medium overall effect size (d=0.56, 95% CI [0.32, 0.80]) indicating that compared with healthy individuals, individuals with IGD are more likely to exhibit impaired response inhibition. This finding is in alignment with literature on inhibition and addictive and impulsive behaviors, as well as with neuroimaging research. Theoretical implications regarding the conceptualization of IGD as a clinical disorder, shared commonalities with externalizing psychopathology, and clinical implications for treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional neural networks underlying response inhibition in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael C; Kiehl, Kent A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2007-07-19

    This study provides the first description of neural network dynamics associated with response inhibition in healthy adolescents and adults. Functional and effective connectivity analyses of whole brain hemodynamic activity elicited during performance of a Go/No-Go task were used to identify functionally integrated neural networks and characterize their causal interactions. Three response inhibition circuits formed a hierarchical, inter-dependent system wherein thalamic modulation of input to premotor cortex by fronto-striatal regions led to response suppression. Adolescents differed from adults in the degree of network engagement, regional fronto-striatal-thalamic connectivity, and network dynamics. We identify and characterize several age-related differences in the function of neural circuits that are associated with behavioral performance changes across adolescent development.

  3. Prednisolone phosphate-containing TRX-20 liposomes inhibit cytokine and chemokine production in human fibroblast-like synovial cells: a novel approach to rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigai, Takashi; Hagiwara, Hitomi; Ogawa, Yumi; Ishizuka, Takanobu; Kaneda, Shinichi; Kimura, Junji

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of using prednisolone phosphate (PSLP)-containing 3,5-dipentadecyloxybenzamidine hydrochloride (TRX-20) liposomes to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we examined their ability to bind human fibroblast-like synovial (HFLS) cells and their effects in these cells. To test for binding, Lissamine rhodamine B-1, 2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (rhodamine)-labelled PSLP-containing TRX-20 liposomes were added to HFLS cells, and the fluorescence intensity of the rhodamine bound to the cells was evaluated. Rhodamine-labelled PSLP-containing liposomes without TRX-20 were used as a negative control. To evaluate the uptake of liposomes by the HFLS cells, we used TRX-20 liposomes containing 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (HPTS) and p-xylene-bis-pyridinium bromide (DPX), and observed the cells by fluorescence microscopy. The effects of the PSLP in TRX-20 liposomes on HFLS cells were assessed by the inhibition of the production of two inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) and one inflammatory chemokine (interleukin 8). The interaction of the PSLP-containing TRX-20 liposomes with HFLS cells was approximately 40 times greater than that of PSLP-containing liposomes without TRX-20. PSLP-containing TRX-20 liposomes bound to HFLS cells primarily via chondroitin sulfate. TRX-20 liposomes taken up by the cell were localized to acidic compartments. Furthermore, the PSLP-containing TRX-20 liposomes inhibited the production of the inflammatory cytokines and the chemokine more effectively than did the PSLP-containing liposomes without TRX-20. These results indicate that PSLP-containing TRX-20 liposomes show promise as a novel drug delivery system that could enhance the clinical use of glucocorticoids for treating RA.

  4. N-acetylcysteine attenuates hexavalent chromium-induced hypersensitivity through inhibition of cell death, ROS-related signaling and cytokine expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lee

    Full Text Available Chromium hypersensitivity (chromium-induced allergic contact dermatitis is an important issue in occupational skin disease. Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI can activate the Akt, Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, and Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways and induce cell death, via the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Recently, cell death stimuli have been proposed to regulate the release of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 (IL-1. However, the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules and cytotoxicity involved in Cr(VI-induced hypersensitivity have not yet been fully demonstrated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC could increase glutathione levels in the skin and act as an antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the effects of NAC on attenuating the Cr(VI-triggered ROS signaling in both normal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT cells and a guinea pig (GP model. The results showed the induction of apoptosis, autophagy and ROS were observed after different concentrations of Cr(VI treatment. HaCaT cells pretreated with NAC exhibited a decrease in apoptosis and autophagy, which could affect cell viability. In addition, Cr (VI activated the Akt, NF-κB and MAPK pathways thereby increasing IL-1α and TNF-α production. However, all of these stimulation phenomena could be inhibited by NAC in both of in vitro and in vivo studies. These novel findings indicate that NAC may prevent the development of chromium hypersensitivity by inhibiting of ROS-induced cell death and cytokine expression.

  5. Improving Response Inhibition in Parkinson’s Disease with Atomoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng; Altena, Ellemarije; Nombela, Cristina; Housden, Charlotte R.; Maxwell, Helen; Rittman, Timothy; Huddleston, Chelan; Rae, Charlotte L.; Regenthal, Ralf; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Barker, Roger A.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Rowe, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dopaminergic drugs remain the mainstay of Parkinson’s disease therapy but often fail to improve cognitive problems such as impulsivity. This may be due to the loss of other neurotransmitters, including noradrenaline, which is linked to impulsivity and response inhibition. We therefore examined the effect of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine on response inhibition in a stop-signal paradigm. Methods This pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study used a double-blinded randomized crossover design with low-frequency inhibition trials distributed among frequent Go trials. Twenty-one patients received 40 mg atomoxetine or placebo. Control subjects were tested on no-drug. The effects of disease and drug on behavioral performance, regional brain activity, and functional connectivity were analyzed using general linear models. Anatomical connectivity was examined using diffusion-weighted imaging. Results Patients with Parkinson’s disease had longer stop-signal reaction times, less stop-related activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and weaker functional connectivity between the RIFG and striatum compared with control subjects. Atomoxetine enhanced stop-related RIFG activation in proportion to disease severity. Although there was no overall behavioral benefit from atomoxetine, analyses of individual differences revealed that enhanced response inhibition by atomoxetine was associated with increased RIFG activation and functional frontostriatal connectivity. Improved performance was more likely in patients with higher structural frontostriatal connectivity. Conclusions This study suggests that enhanced prefrontal cortical activation and frontostriatal connectivity by atomoxetine may improve response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease. These results point the way to new stratified clinical trials of atomoxetine to treat impulsivity in selected patients with Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24655598

  6. Improving response inhibition in Parkinson's disease with atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng; Altena, Ellemarije; Nombela, Cristina; Housden, Charlotte R; Maxwell, Helen; Rittman, Timothy; Huddleston, Chelan; Rae, Charlotte L; Regenthal, Ralf; Sahakian, Barbara J; Barker, Roger A; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2015-04-15

    Dopaminergic drugs remain the mainstay of Parkinson's disease therapy but often fail to improve cognitive problems such as impulsivity. This may be due to the loss of other neurotransmitters, including noradrenaline, which is linked to impulsivity and response inhibition. We therefore examined the effect of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine on response inhibition in a stop-signal paradigm. This pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study used a double-blinded randomized crossover design with low-frequency inhibition trials distributed among frequent Go trials. Twenty-one patients received 40 mg atomoxetine or placebo. Control subjects were tested on no-drug. The effects of disease and drug on behavioral performance, regional brain activity, and functional connectivity were analyzed using general linear models. Anatomical connectivity was examined using diffusion-weighted imaging. Patients with Parkinson's disease had longer stop-signal reaction times, less stop-related activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and weaker functional connectivity between the RIFG and striatum compared with control subjects. Atomoxetine enhanced stop-related RIFG activation in proportion to disease severity. Although there was no overall behavioral benefit from atomoxetine, analyses of individual differences revealed that enhanced response inhibition by atomoxetine was associated with increased RIFG activation and functional frontostriatal connectivity. Improved performance was more likely in patients with higher structural frontostriatal connectivity. This study suggests that enhanced prefrontal cortical activation and frontostriatal connectivity by atomoxetine may improve response inhibition in Parkinson's disease. These results point the way to new stratified clinical trials of atomoxetine to treat impulsivity in selected patients with Parkinson's disease. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prepulse inhibition of auditory change-related cortical responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui Koji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle response is an important tool to investigate the biology of schizophrenia. PPI is usually observed by use of a startle reflex such as blinking following an intense sound. A similar phenomenon has not been reported for cortical responses. Results In 12 healthy subjects, change-related cortical activity in response to an abrupt increase of sound pressure by 5 dB above the background of 65 dB SPL (test stimulus was measured using magnetoencephalography. The test stimulus evoked a clear cortical response peaking at around 130 ms (Change-N1m. In Experiment 1, effects of the intensity of a prepulse (0.5 ~ 5 dB on the test response were examined using a paired stimulation paradigm. In Experiment 2, effects of the interval between the prepulse and test stimulus were examined using interstimulus intervals (ISIs of 50 ~ 350 ms. When the test stimulus was preceded by the prepulse, the Change-N1m was more strongly inhibited by a stronger prepulse (Experiment 1 and a shorter ISI prepulse (Experiment 2. In addition, the amplitude of the test Change-N1m correlated positively with both the amplitude of the prepulse-evoked response and the degree of inhibition, suggesting that subjects who are more sensitive to the auditory change are more strongly inhibited by the prepulse. Conclusions Since Change-N1m is easy to measure and control, it would be a valuable tool to investigate mechanisms of sensory gating or the biology of certain mental diseases such as schizophrenia.

  8. Cytokine Response, Tract-Specific Fractional Anisotropy, and Brain Morphometry in Post-Stroke Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesh, Aleksey; Drobakha, Viktor; Kuklina, Elena; Nekrasova, Irina; Shestakov, Vladimir

    2018-07-01

    Post-stroke cognitive impairment is a clinically heterogeneous condition and its types have a different course and prognosis. The aim of the present study is to address the roles of inflammation, white matter pathology, and brain atrophy in different neuropsychological types of cognitive impairment in the acute period of ischemic stroke. In 92 patients, we performed an assessment of the cognitive status and measured concentrations of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-10) in liquor and serum, as well as a number of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric parameters and fractional anisotropy. The control group consisted of 14 individuals without cerebrovascular disease. All patients had a higher level of IL-10 in serum than the control group. Patients with dysexecutive cognitive impairment had a higher concentration of IL-1β and IL-10 in liquor, IL-6 level in serum, and a lower fractional anisotropy of the ipsilateral thalamus than patients with normal cognition. Patients with mixed cognitive impairment were characterized by a lower fractional anisotropy of contralateral fronto-occipital fasciculus, compared with patients with dysexecutive cognitive impairment. Patients with both dysexecutive and mixed cognitive deficit had a wide area of leukoaraiosis and a reduced fractional anisotropy of the contralateral cingulum, compared with patients without cognitive impairment. Also, we found numerous correlations between cognitive status and levels of cytokines, MRI morphometric parameters, and fractional anisotropy of certain regions of the brain. The concentrations of cytokines in serum and cerebrospinal fluid studied in combination with MRI morphometric parameters and fractional anisotropy appear to be informative biomarkers of clinical types of post-stroke cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    1999-01-01

    following LPS stimulation, representing an ex vivo model of sepsis. Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 beta and IL-6 in whole blood supernatants were measured after in vitro LPS stimulation for 24 h in 168 elderly humans aged 81 years from the 1914 cohort in Glostrup, Denmark and in 91...... of proinflammatory cytokines compared with young men, but this difference was blurred by ageing. No relation was found between circulating plasma levels of TNF-alpha and levels after in vitro LPS stimulation. In conclusion, decreased production of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta after exposure to LPS may reflect impaired...

  10. CCR-2 neutralization augments murine fresh BMC activation by Staphylococcus aureus via two distinct mechanisms: at the level of ROS production and cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2017-05-01

    CCR-2 signaling regulates recruitment of monocytes from the bone marrow into the bloodstream and then to sites of infection. We sought to determine whether CCL-2/CCR-2 signaling is involved in the killing of Staphylococcus aureus by murine bone marrow cells (BMCs). The intermittent link of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-NF-κB/p38-MAPK-mediated CCL-2 production in CCR-2 signaling prompted us to determine whether neutralization of CCR-2 augments the response of murine fresh BMCs (FBMCs) after S. aureus infection. It was observed that anti-CCR-2 Ab-treated FBMCs released fewer ROS on encountering S. aureus infection than CCR-2 non-neutralized FBMCs, also correlating with reduced killing of S. aureus in CCR-2 neutralized FBMCs. Staphylococcal catalase and SOD were also found to play a role in protecting S. aureus from the ROS-mediated killing of FBMC. S. aureus infection of CCR-2 intact FBMCs pre-treated with either NF-κB or p-38-MAPK blocker induced less CCL-2, suggesting that NF-κB or p-38-MAPK is required for CCL-2 production by FBMCs. Moreover, blocking of CCR-2 along with NF-κB or p-38-MAPK resulted in elevated CCL-2 production and reduced CCR-2 expression. Inhibition of CCR-2 impairs the response of murine BMCs to S. aureus infection by attenuation ROS production and modulating the cytokine response.

  11. Single cell analysis of innate cytokine responses to pattern recognition receptor stimulation in children across four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Kinga K; Cai, Bing; Fortuno, Edgardo S; Gelinas, Laura; Larsen, Martin; Speert, David P; Chamekh, Mustapha; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, and suppression of innate immunity is associated with increased risk for infection. We had previously shown that whole blood cellular components from a cohort of South African children secreted significantly lower levels of most cytokines following stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) as compared to whole blood from cohorts of Ecuadorian, Belgian, or Canadian children. To begin dissecting the responsible molecular mechanisms, we now set out to identify the relevant cellular source of these differences. Across the four cohorts represented in our study, we identified significant variation in the cellular composition of whole blood; however, significant reduction of the intracellular cytokine production on the single cell level was only detected in South African childrens’ monocytes, cDC, and pDC. We also uncovered a marked reduction in polyfunctionality for each of these cellular compartments in South African children as compared to children from other continents. Together our data identify differences in cell composition as well as profoundly lower functional responses of innate cells in our cohort of South African children. A possible link between altered innate immunity and increased risk for infection or lower response to vaccines in South African infants needs to be explored. PMID:25135829

  12. Enhanced Medial Collateral Ligament Healing using Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Dosage Effects on Cellular Response and Cytokine Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Erin E.; Chamberlain, Connie S.; Leiferman, Ellen M.; Kondratko-Mittnacht, Jaclyn R.; Li, Wan Ju; Brickson, Stacey L.; Vanderby, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential therapeutic applications for musculoskeletal injuries due to their ability to differentiate into several tissue cell types and modulate immune and inflammatory responses. These immune-modulatory properties were examined in vivo during early stage rat medial collateral ligament healing. Two different cell doses (low dose 1×106 or high dose 4×106 MSCs) were administered at the time of injury and compared with normal ligament healing at days 5 and 14 post-injury. At both times, the high dose MSC group demonstrated a significant decrease in M2 macrophages compared to controls. At day 14, fewer M1 macrophages were detected in the low dose group compared to the high dose group. These results, along with significant changes in procollagen I, proliferating cells, and endothelialization suggest that MSCs can alter the cellular response during healing in a dose-dependent manner. The higher dose ligaments also had increased expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines at day 5 (IL-1β, IFNγ, IL-2) and increased expression of IL-12 at day 14. Mechanical testing at day 14 revealed increased failure strength and stiffness in low dose ligaments compared to controls. Based on these improved mechanical properties, MSCs enhanced functional healing when applied at a lower dose. Different doses of MSCs uniquely affected the cellular response and cytokine expression in healing ligaments. Interestingly, the lower dose of cells proved to be most effective in improving functional properties. PMID:24174129

  13. Cytokine responses to Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection differ between patient cohorts that have different clinical courses of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Sinead; Talento, Alida Fe; O'Gorman, Joanne; Hannan, Margaret M; Lynch, Maureen; Greene, Catherine M; Humphreys, Hilary; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre

    2014-11-15

    The clinical course of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection is unpredictable and bacterial virulence, host immune response and patient characteristics are among the factors that contribute to the clinical course of infection. To investigate the relationship between cytokine response and clinical outcome, circulating cytokine levels were investigated in response to S. aureus bloodstream infection in patients with different clinical courses of infection. A prospective study was carried out in 61 patients with S. aureus bloodstream infection and circulating levels of IL-6, GRO-γ, RANTES and leptin were assessed over the course of the infection. Levels were compared in patients with complicated courses of infection (e.g. infective endocarditis) versus uncomplicated courses of S. aureus bloodstream infection and methicillin-resistant S. aureus Vs methicillin-susceptible S. aureus infection. Significantly lower leptin levels (p < 0.05) and significantly higher IL-6 levels (p < 0.05) were detected at laboratory diagnosis in patients with complicated compared to uncomplicated S. aureus bloodstream infection. Significantly higher levels of GRO-γ were associated with MRSA infection compared to MSSA infection. IL-6 may be an early inflammatory marker of complicated S. aureus bloodstream infection. Leptin may be protective against the development of a complicated S. aureus bloodstream infection.

  14. Atomoxetine restores the response inhibition network in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Charlotte L; Nombela, Cristina; Rodríguez, Patricia Vázquez; Ye, Zheng; Hughes, Laura E; Jones, P Simon; Ham, Timothy; Rittman, Timothy; Coyle-Gilchrist, Ian; Regenthal, Ralf; Sahakian, Barbara J; Barker, Roger A; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease impairs the inhibition of responses, and whilst impulsivity is mild for some patients, severe impulse control disorders affect ∼10% of cases. Based on preclinical models we proposed that noradrenergic denervation contributes to the impairment of response inhibition, via changes in the prefrontal cortex and its subcortical connections. Previous work in Parkinson's disease found that the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine could improve response inhibition, gambling decisions and reflection impulsivity. Here we tested the hypotheses that atomoxetine can restore functional brain networks for response inhibition in Parkinson's disease, and that both structural and functional connectivity determine the behavioural effect. In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 19 patients with mild-to-moderate idiopathic Parkinson's disease underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a stop-signal task, while on their usual dopaminergic therapy. Patients received 40 mg atomoxetine or placebo, orally. This regimen anticipates that noradrenergic therapies for behavioural symptoms would be adjunctive to, not a replacement for, dopaminergic therapy. Twenty matched control participants provided normative data. Arterial spin labelling identified no significant changes in regional perfusion. We assessed functional interactions between key frontal and subcortical brain areas for response inhibition, by comparing 20 dynamic causal models of the response inhibition network, inverted to the functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared using random effects model selection. We found that the normal interaction between pre-supplementary motor cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus was absent in Parkinson's disease patients on placebo (despite dopaminergic therapy), but this connection was restored by atomoxetine. The behavioural change in response inhibition (improvement indicated by reduced stop-signal reaction

  15. Pubertal-related changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity and cytokine secretion in response to an immunological stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, K H; Bain, Z A; Padow, V A; Lui, P; Klein, Z A; Romeo, R D

    2011-02-01

    Pubertal development is marked by profound changes in stress reactivity. For example, following a brief stressor, such as foot shock, ether inhalation or restraint, prepubertal rats display a prolonged adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone response that takes twice as long to return to baseline compared to adults. Pubertal-related differences in the recovery of the hormonal stress response following a more protracted systemic stressor, such as an immunological challenge, have not yet been investigated. Moreover, it is unclear whether an immunological stressor leads to a differential cytokine response in animals before and after pubertal maturation. To examine these issues, we used a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.1 mg/kg) to induce a hormonal stress and innate immune response and measured plasma ACTH, corticosterone, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in prepubertal and adult male rats 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 24 h after LPS exposure. In a follow-up experiment, we assessed neural activation, as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in prepubertal and adult males 0, 4, 8, or 24 h after a 0.1 mg/kg injection of LPS. By contrast to the prolonged response observed in prepubertal animals following a variety of acute stressors, we found that corticosterone and IL-6 responses induced by LPS recover toward baseline faster in prepubertal compared to adult rats. Along with these different peripheral responses, we also found that LPS-induced neural activation in the PVN of prepubertal animals showed a faster return to baseline compared to adults. Together, these data indicate that prepubertal and adult animals react in distinct ways, both peripherally and centrally, to an immunological stressor. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting Th1/Th17 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Guo, Lele; Gu, Yanhong; Cai, Peifen; Xie, Ning; Yang, Xiaoling; Shu, Yongqian; Wu, Xuefeng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing and remitting condition of inflammation involves overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and excessive functions of inflammatory cells. However, current treatments for IBD may have potential adverse effects including steroid dependence, infections and lymphoma. Therefore new therapies for the treatment of IBD are desperately needed. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection), on murine experimental colitis induced by 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Andrographolide sulfonate was administrated through intraperitoneal injection to mice with TNBS-induced colitis. TNBS-induced body weight loss, myeloperoxidase activity, shortening of the colon and colonic inflammation were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. Both the mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate administration. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly suppressed the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase as well as p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Furthermore, CD4(+) T cell infiltration as well as the differentiation of Th1 (CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)) and Th17 (CD4(+)IL17A(+)) subset were inhibited by andrographolide sulfonate. In summary, these results suggest that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis in mice through inhibiting Th1/Th17 response. Our study shows that water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Memory, verbal fluency, and response inhibition in normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Thapliyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concepts of aging-related cognitive changes have appeared to be a major challenge in the society. In this context, the present study was planned to find out the functioning of aging population on different neurocognitive measures. Aims: The aim of the study was to find out the neurocognitive functioning, namely memory, verbal fluency, and response inhibition of normal aging population. Materials and Methods: Following purposive sampling technique, a total of 50 healthy subjects (30 males and 20 females in the age range of 60-70 years were recruited from Jaipur city of Rajasthan. Mini-mental state Examination, PGI memory scale, animal names test, and Stroop test were administered. Results: The findings reveal dysfunction in almost all the domains of memory, namely mental balance, attention and concentration, delayed recall, verbal retention for dissimilar pairs, visual retention and recognition, immediate recall, verbal retention for similar pairs, and visual retention. In domain of verbal fluency, all subjects gave low responses on the animal names test. In domain of response inhibition, all the subjects took less time in color test as compared to color word test on the Stroop task. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there are dysfunction in the area of memory, verbal fluency, and response inhibition in persons aged 60-70 years. However, recent and remote memory were found to be intact.

  18. Improving response inhibition systems in frontotemporal dementia with citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Laura E; Rittman, Timothy; Regenthal, Ralf; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2015-07-01

    Disinhibition is a cardinal feature of the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia, presenting as impulsive and impetuous behaviours that are often difficult to manage. The options for symptomatic treatments are limited, but a potential target for therapy is the restoration of serotonergic function, which is both deficient in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and closely associated with inhibitory control. Based on preclinical studies and psychopharmacological interventions in other disorders, we predicted that inhibition would be associated with the right inferior frontal gyrus and dependent on serotonin. Using magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography of a Go-NoGo paradigm, we investigated the neural basis of behavioural disinhibition in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibition on the neural systems for response inhibition. In a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover design study, 12 patients received either a single 30 mg dose of citalopram or placebo. Twenty age-matched healthy controls underwent the same magnetoencephalography/electroencephalography protocol on one session without citalopram, providing normative data for this task. In the control group, successful NoGo trials evoked two established indices of successful response inhibition: the NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3. Both of these components were significantly attenuated by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. Cortical sources associated with successful inhibition in control subjects were identified in the right inferior frontal gyrus and anterior temporal lobe, which have been strongly associated with behavioural inhibition in imaging and lesion studies. These sources were impaired by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. Critically, citalopram enhanced the NoGo-P3 signal in patients, relative to placebo treatment, and increased the evoked response in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Voxel

  19. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. ► Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. ► Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. ► Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-κB dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  20. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Boyaka, Prosper N. [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle, E-mail: Estelle.boyaka@osumc.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-{kappa}B dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  1. JAK inhibition induces silencing of T Helper cytokine secretion and a profound reduction in T regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Clodagh; Kordasti, Shahram; Seidl, Thomas; Perez Abellan, Pilar; Thomas, Nicholas S B; Harrison, Claire N; McLornan, Donal P; Mufti, Ghulam J

    2015-10-01

    CD4(+) T cells maintain cancer surveillance and immune tolerance. Chronic inflammation has been proposed as a driver of clonal evolution in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), suggesting that T cells play an important role in their pathogenesis. Treatment with JAK inhibitors (JAKi) results in improvements in MPN-associated constitutional symptoms as well as reductions in splenomegaly. However, effects of JAKi on T cells in MPN are not well established and the baseline immune signature remains unclear. We investigated the frequency and function of CD4(+) T cell subsets in 50 MPN patients at baseline as well as during treatment with either ruxolitinib or fedratinib in a subset. We show that CD4(+)  CD127(low)  CD25(high)  FOXP3(+) T regulatory cells are reduced in MPN patients compared to healthy controls and that this decrease is even more pronounced following JAKi therapy. Moreover, we show that after 6 months of treatment the number of T helper (Th)-17 cells increased. We also describe a functional 'silencing' of T helper cells both in vivo and in vitro and a blockade of pro-inflammatory cytokines from these cells. This profound effect of JAKi on T cell function may underlay augmented rates of atypical infections that have been reported with use of these drugs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The galactose-binding lectin isolated from Bauhinia bauhinioides Mart seeds inhibits neutrophil rolling and adhesion via primary cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girão, Deysen Kerlla Fernandes Bezerra; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; de Freitas Pires, Alana; Martins, Timna Varela; Franco, Álvaro Xavier; Morais, Cecília Mendes; Santiago do Nascimento, Kyria; Delatorre, Plinio; da Silva, Helton Colares; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Soares, Pedro Marcos Gomes

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the amino acid sequence and anti-inflammatory effect of Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL) lectin were evaluated. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed that BBL possesses 86 amino acid residues. BBL (1 mg/kg) intravenously injected in rats 30 min prior to inflammatory stimuli inhibited the cellular edema induced by carrageenan in only the second phase (21% - 3 h, 19% - 4 h) and did not alter the osmotic edema induced by dextran. BBL also inhibited carrageenan peritoneal neutrophil migration (51%), leukocyte rolling (58%) and adhesion (68%) and the neutrophil migration induced by TNF-α (64%). These effects were reversed by the association of BBL with galactose, demonstrating that the carbohydrate-binding domain is essential for lectin activity. In addition, BBL reduced myeloperoxidase activity (84%) and TNF-α (68%) and IL1-β (47%) levels. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that BBL contains highly homologous isolectins, resulting in a total of 86 amino acid residues, and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting neutrophil migration by reducing TNF-α and IL1-β levels via the lectin domain. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. On the automaticity of response inhibition in individuals with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Xavier; Brevers, Damien; Hanak, Catherine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2016-06-01

    Response inhibition is usually considered a hallmark of executive control. However, recent work indicates that stop performance can become associatively mediated ('automatic') over practice. This study investigated automatic response inhibition in sober and recently detoxified individuals with alcoholism.. We administered to forty recently detoxified alcoholics and forty healthy participants a modified stop-signal task that consisted of a training phase in which a subset of the stimuli was consistently associated with stopping or going, and a test phase in which this mapping was reversed. In the training phase, stop performance improved for the consistent stop stimuli, compared with control stimuli that were not associated with going or stopping. In the test phase, go performance tended to be impaired for old stop stimuli. Combined, these findings support the automatic inhibition hypothesis. Importantly, performance was similar in both groups, which indicates that automatic inhibitory control develops normally in individuals with alcoholism.. This finding is specific to individuals with alcoholism without other psychiatric disorders, which is rather atypical and prevents generalization. Personalized stimuli with a stronger affective content should be used in future studies. These results advance our understanding of behavioral inhibition in individuals with alcoholism. Furthermore, intact automatic inhibitory control may be an important element of successful cognitive remediation of addictive behaviors.. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Swart, Jennifer C; Schmidt, Kristin; Fekkes, Durk; Geurts, Dirk E M; Cools, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas, however, has been mixed. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of serotonin (5HT) in behavioural vigour as a function of incentive motivation. We employed dietary acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower the 5HT precursor tryptophan during the performance of a speeded visual discrimination task. Feedback valence and feedback probability were manipulated independently and cued prior to target onset. On feedback trials, fast correct responses led to either reward or avoidance of punishment, while slow or incorrect responses led to reward omission or punishment. We show that behavioural responding is inhibited under high incentive motivation (i.e. high-feedback probability) at baseline 5HT levels and that lowering these leads to behavioural disinhibition, while leaving accuracy unaffected. Surprisingly, there were no differential effects of motivational valence, with 5HT depletion releasing behavioural inhibition under both appetitive and aversive motivation. Our findings extend current theories on the role of 5HT in behavioural inhibition by showing that reductions in serotonin lead to increased behavioural vigour only if there is a motivational drive to inhibit behaviour at baseline.

  5. Xanomeline suppresses excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine responses through neural signal-mediated pathways and improves survival in lethal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Ferrer, Sergio Valdés; Dancho, Meghan; Ochani, Mahendar; Katz, David; Cheng, Kai Fan; Olofsson, Peder S.; Chavan, Sangeeta S.; Al-Abed, Yousef; Tracey, Kevin J.; Pavlov, Valentin A.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions characterized by excessive immune cell activation and cytokine release, are associated with bidirectional immune system-brain communication, underlying sickness behavior and other physiological responses. The vagus nerve has an important role in this communication by conveying sensory information to the brain, and brain-derived immunoregulatory signals that suppress peripheral cytokine levels and inflammation. Brain muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR)-mediated cholinergic signaling has been implicated in this regulation. However, the possibility of controlling inflammation by peripheral administration of centrally-acting mAChR agonists is unexplored. To provide insight we used the centrally-acting M1 mAChR agonist xanomeline, previously developed in the context of Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia. Intraperitoneal administration of xanomeline significantly suppressed serum and splenic TNF levels, alleviated sickness behavior, and increased survival during lethal murine endotoxemia. The anti-inflammatory effects of xanomeline were brain mAChR-mediated and required intact vagus nerve and splenic nerve signaling. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of xanomeline was retained for at least 20h, associated with alterations in splenic lymphocyte, and dendritic cell proportions, and decreased splenocyte responsiveness to endotoxin. These results highlight an important role of the M1 mAChR in a neural circuitry to spleen in which brain cholinergic activation lowers peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines to levels favoring survival. The therapeutic efficacy of xanomeline was also manifested by significantly improved survival in preclinical settings of severe sepsis. These findings are of interest for strategizing novel therapeutic approaches in inflammatory diseases. PMID:25063706

  6. Oral administration of Saccharomyces boulardii alters duodenal morphology, enzymatic activity and cytokine production response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yajing; Rajput, Imran Rashid; Arain, Muhammad Asif; Li, Yanfei; Baloch, Dost Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on duodenal digestive enzymes, morphology and cytokine induction response in broiler chicken. A total of 200 birds were allotted into two groups (n = 100) and each group divided into five replications (n = 20). The control group was fed basal diet in addition to antibiotic (virginiamycin 20 mg/kg), and treatment group received (1 × 10 8  colony-forming units/kg feed) S. boulardii in addition to basal diet lasting for 72 days. The results compared to control group revealed that adenosine triphosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, lipase and trypsin activities were higher, while, no significant improvement was observed in amylase activities in the duodenum of the treatment group. Moreover, morphological findings showed that villus height, width and number of goblet cells markedly increased. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy visualized that villus height, width and structural condensation significantly increased in the treatment group. The immunohistological observations showed increased numbers of immunoglobulin A (IgA)-positive cells in the duodenum of the treatment group. Meanwhile, cytokine production levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor-β and secretory IgA markedly increased, and IL-6 statistically remained unchanged as compared to the control group. These findings illustrated that initial contact of S. boulardii to the duodenum has significant impact in improving enzymatic activity, intestinal morphology and cytokine response in broiler chicken. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Learning to inhibit the response during instrumental (operant) extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Trask, Sydney; Carranza-Jasso, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    Five experiments tested implications of the idea that instrumental (operant) extinction involves learning to inhibit the learned response. All experiments used a discriminated operant procedure in which rats were reinforced for lever pressing or chain pulling in the presence of a discriminative stimulus (S), but not in its absence. In Experiment 1, extinction of the response (R) in the presence of S weakened responding in S, but equivalent nonreinforced exposure to S (without the opportunity to make R) did not. Experiment 2 replicated that result and found that extinction of R had no effect on a different R that had also been reinforced in the stimulus. In Experiments 3 and 4, rats first learned to perform several different stimulus and response combinations (S1R1, S2R1, S3R2, and S4R2). Extinction of a response in one stimulus (i.e., S1R1) transferred and weakened the same response, but not a different response, when it was tested in another stimulus (i.e., S2R1 but not S3R2). In Experiment 5, extinction still transferred between S1 and S2 when the stimuli set the occasion for R's association with different types of food pellets. The results confirm the importance of response inhibition in instrumental extinction: Nonreinforcement of the response in S causes the most effective suppression of responding, and response suppression is specific to the response but transfers and influences performance of the same response when it is occasioned by other stimuli. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Learning to inhibit the response during instrumental (operant) extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E.; Trask, Sydney; Carranza-Jasso, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Five experiments tested implications of the idea that instrumental (operant) extinction involves learning to inhibit the learned response. All experiments used a discriminated operant procedure in which rats were reinforced for lever pressing or chain pulling in the presence of a discriminative stimulus (S), but not in its absence. In Experiment 1, extinction of the response (R) in the presence of S weakened responding in S, but equivalent nonreinforced exposure to S (without the opportunity to make R) did not. Experiment 2 replicated that result and found that extinction of R had no effect on a different R that had also been reinforced in the stimulus. In Experiments 3 and 4, rats first learned to perform several different stimulus and response combinations (S1R1, S2R1, S3R2, and S4R2). Extinction of a response in one stimulus (i.e., S1R1) transferred and weakened the same response, but not a different response, when it was tested in another stimulus (i.e., S2R1 but not S3R2). In Experiment 5, extinction still transferred between S1 and S2 when the stimuli set the occasion for R's association with different types of food pellets. The results confirm the importance of response inhibition in instrumental extinction: Nonreinforcement of the response in S causes the most effective suppression of responding, and response suppression is specific to the response but transfers and influences performance of the same response when it is occasioned by other stimuli. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27379715

  9. Emotion potentiates response activation and inhibition in masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotion can have 2-fold effects on perception. At the object-level, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific boost in visual attention at the relative expense of competing stimuli. At the visual feature-level, recent findings indicate that emotion may inhibit the processing of small visual details and facilitate the processing of coarse visual features. In the present study, we investigated whether emotion can boost the activation and inhibition of automatic motor responses that are generated prior to overt perception. To investigate this, we tested whether an emotional cue affects covert motor responses in a masked priming task. We used a masked priming paradigm in which participants responded to target arrows that were preceded by invisible congruent or incongruent prime arrows. In the standard paradigm, participants react faster, and commit fewer errors responding to the directionality of target arrows, when they are preceded by congruent vs. incongruent masked prime arrows (positive congruency effect, PCE). However, as prime-target SOAs increase, this effect reverses (negative congruency effect, NCE). These findings have been explained as evidence for an initial activation and a subsequent inhibition of a partial response elicited by the masked prime arrow. Our results show that the presentation of fearful face cues, compared to neutral face cues, increased the size of both the PCE and NCE, despite the fact that the primes were invisible. This is the first demonstration that emotion prepares an individual's visuomotor system for automatic activation and inhibition of motor responses in the absence of visual awareness.

  10. Acute LSD effects on response inhibition neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A; Müller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; Schmid, Y; Zanchi, D; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S

    2017-10-02

    Recent evidence shows that the serotonin 2A receptor (5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor, 5-HT2AR) is critically involved in the formation of visual hallucinations and cognitive impairments in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced states and neuropsychiatric diseases. However, the interaction between 5-HT2AR activation, cognitive impairments and visual hallucinations is still poorly understood. This study explored the effect of 5-HT2AR activation on response inhibition neural networks in healthy subjects by using LSD and further tested whether brain activation during response inhibition under LSD exposure was related to LSD-induced visual hallucinations. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, LSD (100 µg) and placebo were administered to 18 healthy subjects. Response inhibition was assessed using a functional magnetic resonance imaging Go/No-Go task. LSD-induced visual hallucinations were measured using the 5 Dimensions of Altered States of Consciousness (5D-ASC) questionnaire. Relative to placebo, LSD administration impaired inhibitory performance and reduced brain activation in the right middle temporal gyrus, superior/middle/inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex and in the left superior frontal and postcentral gyrus and cerebellum. Parahippocampal activation during response inhibition was differently related to inhibitory performance after placebo and LSD administration. Finally, activation in the left superior frontal gyrus under LSD exposure was negatively related to LSD-induced cognitive impairments and visual imagery. Our findings show that 5-HT2AR activation by LSD leads to a hippocampal-prefrontal cortex-mediated breakdown of inhibitory processing, which might subsequently promote the formation of LSD-induced visual imageries. These findings help to better understand the neuropsychopharmacological mechanisms of visual hallucinations in LSD-induced states and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Inhibition of cathepsin X enzyme influences the immune response of THP-1 cells and dendritic cells infected with Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvarc, Miha; Stubljar, David; Kopitar, Andreja Natasa; Jeverica, Samo; Tepes, Bojan; Kos, Janko; Ihan, Alojz

    2013-01-01

    The immune response to Helicobacter pylori importantly determines the outcome of infection as well as the success of eradication therapy. We demonstrate the role of a cysteine protease cathepsin X in the immune response to H. pylori infection. We analysed how the inhibition of cathepsin X influenced the immune response in experiments when THP-1 cells or dendritic cells isolated from patients were stimulated with 48 strains of H. pylori isolated from gastric biopsy samples of patients which had problems with the eradication of bacteria. The experiments, performed with the help of a flow cytometer, showed that the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR-4 molecules, on the membranes of THP-1 cells or dendritic cells was higher when we stimulated cells with H. pylori together with inhibitor of cathepsin X 2F12 compared to THP-1 cells or dendritic cells stimulated with H. pylori only, and also in comparison with negative control samples. We also demonstrated that when we inhibited the action of cathepsin X in THP-1 cells, the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines were lower than when THP-1 cell were stimulated with H. pylori only. We demonstrated that inhibition of cathepsin X influences the internalization of TLR-2 and TLR-4. TLR-2 and TLR-4 redistribution to intra-cytoplasmic compartments is hampered if cathepsin X is blocked. The beginning of a successful immune response against H. pylori in the case of inhibition of cathepsin X is delayed

  12. Cornuside inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic response by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liangchang [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002 (China); Jin, Guangyu [Yanbian University Hospital, Medicine College, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133000 (China); Jiang, Jingzhi [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002 (China); Zheng, Mingyu; Jin, Yan [College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002 (China); Lin, Zhenhua [Department of Pathology & Cancer Research Center, Yanbian University Medical College, Yanji, 133002 (China); Li, Guangzhao [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002 (China); Choi, Yunho, E-mail: why76@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yan, Guanghai, E-mail: ghyan2015@sina.com [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Aims: The present study is to investigate the effect of cornuside on mast cell-mediated allergic response, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. Methods: To test the anti-allergic effects of cornuside in vivo, local extravasation was induced by local injection of anti-dinitrophenyl immunoglobulin E (IgE) followed by intravenous antigenic challenge in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model rats. Mast cell viability was determined using MTT assay. Histamine content from rat peritoneal mast cells was measured by the radioenzymatic method. To investigate the mechanisms by which cornuside affects the reduction of histamine release, the levels of calcium uptake were measured. To examine whether cornuside affects the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Western blotting and ELISA were carried out. Results: Oral administration of cornuside inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats. Presence of cornuside attenuated IgE-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. The inhibitory effect of cornuside on histamine release was mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, cornuside decreased phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of cornuside on pro-inflammatory cytokines was dependent on nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that cornuside inhibits mast cell-derived inflammatory allergic reactions by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic effects of cornuside suggest a possible therapeutic application of this agent in inflammatory allergic diseases.

  13. Cornuside inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic response by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liangchang; Jin, Guangyu; Jiang, Jingzhi; Zheng, Mingyu; Jin, Yan; Lin, Zhenhua; Li, Guangzhao; Choi, Yunho; Yan, Guanghai

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The present study is to investigate the effect of cornuside on mast cell-mediated allergic response, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. Methods: To test the anti-allergic effects of cornuside in vivo, local extravasation was induced by local injection of anti-dinitrophenyl immunoglobulin E (IgE) followed by intravenous antigenic challenge in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model rats. Mast cell viability was determined using MTT assay. Histamine content from rat peritoneal mast cells was measured by the radioenzymatic method. To investigate the mechanisms by which cornuside affects the reduction of histamine release, the levels of calcium uptake were measured. To examine whether cornuside affects the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Western blotting and ELISA were carried out. Results: Oral administration of cornuside inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats. Presence of cornuside attenuated IgE-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. The inhibitory effect of cornuside on histamine release was mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, cornuside decreased phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of cornuside on pro-inflammatory cytokines was dependent on nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that cornuside inhibits mast cell-derived inflammatory allergic reactions by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic effects of cornuside suggest a possible therapeutic application of this agent in inflammatory allergic diseases.

  14. Hypothermia Modulates Cytokine Responses After Neonatal Rat Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury and Reduces Brain Damage

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    Xiangpeng Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While hypothermia (HT is the standard-of-care for neonates with hypoxic ischemic injury (HII, the mechanisms underlying its neuroprotective effect are poorly understood. We examined ischemic core/penumbra and cytokine/chemokine evolution in a 10-day-old rat pup model of HII. Pups were treated for 24 hr after HII with HT (32℃; n = 18 or normothermia (NT, 35℃; n = 15. Outcomes included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, neurobehavioral testing, and brain cytokine/chemokine profiling (0, 24, 48, and 72 hr post-HII. Lesion volumes (24 hr were reduced in HT pups (total 74%, p < .05; penumbra 68%, p < .05; core 85%, p = .19. Lesion volumes rebounded at 72 hr (48 hr post-HT with no significant differences between NT and HT pups. HT reduced interleukin-1β (IL-1β at all time points (p < .05; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 trended toward being decreased in HT pups (p = .09. The stem cell signaling molecule, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 was not altered by HT. Our data demonstrate that HT reduces total and penumbral lesion volumes (at 24 and 48 hr, potentially by decreasing IL-1β without affecting SDF-1. Disassociation between the increasing trend in HII volumes from 48 to 72 hr post-HII when IL-1β levels remained low suggests that after rewarming, mechanisms unrelated to IL-1β expression are likely to contribute to this delayed increase in injury. Additional studies should be considered to determine what these mechanisms might be and also to explore whether extending the duration or degree of HT might ameliorate this delayed increase in injury.

  15. Longer period of oral administration of aspartame on cytokine response in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Sheela Devi, Rathinasamy

    2015-03-01

    Aspartame is a non-nutritive sweetener particularly used in 'diet' and 'low calorie' products and also in a variety of foods, drugs and hygiene products. Aspartame is metabolized by gut esterases and peptidases to three common chemicals: the amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, and small amounts of methanol. The aim of the present study was to assess potential changes in molecular mediators of aspartame as a chemical stressor in rats. The effects of long-term administration of aspartame (40 mg/kg body weight/day) were tested in Wistar Albino rats. The treatment effects were assessed in different conditions, including control groups. After 90 days of treatment, circulating concentrations of different parameters were assessed: corticosterone, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione and cytokines (interleukin 2, interleukin 4, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ). The results show that there was a significant increase in plasma corticosterone, serum lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide level along with a decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant as well as significant decrease in interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ. There was also a significant increase in interleukin 4 irrespective of whether the animals were immunized or not. The findings clearly point out that aspartame acts as a chemical stressor because of increased corticosterone level and increased lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide level induce generation of free radicals in serum which may be the reason for variation of cytokine level and finally results in alteration of immune function. Aspartame metabolite methanol or formaldehyde may be the causative factors behind the changes observed. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. T-helper cell-mediated proliferation and cytokine responses against recombinant Merkel cell polyomavirus-like particles.

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    Arun Kumar

    Full Text Available The newly discovered Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV resides in approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC. Causal role of MCPyV for this rare and aggressive skin cancer is suggested by monoclonal integration and truncation of large T (LT viral antigen in MCC cells. The mutated MCPyV has recently been found in highly purified leukemic cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, suggesting a pathogenic role also in CLL. About 50-80% of adults display MCPyV-specific antibodies. The humoral immunity does not protect against the development of MCC, as neutralizing MCPyV antibodies occur in higher levels among MCC patients than healthy controls. Impaired T-cell immunity has been linked with aggressive MCC behavior. Therefore, cellular immunity appears to be important in MCPyV infection surveillance. In order to elucidate the role of MCPyV-specific Th-cell immunity, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of healthy adults were stimulated with MCPyV VP1 virus-like particles (VLPs, using human bocavirus (HBoV VLPs and Candida albicans antigen as positive controls. Proliferation, IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-10 responses were examined in 15 MCPyV-seropositive and 15 seronegative volunteers. With the MCPyV antigen, significantly stronger Th-cell responses were found in MCPyV-seropositive than MCPyV-seronegative subjects, whereas with the control antigens, the responses were statistically similar. The most readily detectable cytokine was IFN-γ. The MCPyV antigen tended to induce stronger IFN-γ responses than HBoV VLP antigen. Taken together, MCPyV-specific Th-cells elicit vigorous IFN-γ responses. IFN-γ being a cytokine with major antiviral and tumor suppressing functions, Th-cells are suggested to be important mediators of MCPyV-specific immune surveillance.

  17. Withaferin A Associated Differential Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines

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    Seema Dubey

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A role of inflammation-associated cytokines/chemokines has been implicated in a wide variety of human diseases. Here, we investigated the regulation of inflammatory cytokines released by monocyte-derived THP-1 cells following treatment with the dietary agent withaferin A (WFA. Membrane-based cytokine array profiling of the culture supernatant from adenosine triphosphate-stimulated WFA-treated THP-1 cells showed differential regulation of multiple cytokines/chemokines. A selected group of cytokines/chemokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, CCL2/MCP-1, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, PDGF-AA, PTX3, cystatin-3, relaxin-2, TNFRSF8/CD30, and ACRP30] was validated at the transcription level using qPCR. In silico analysis for transcriptional binding factors revealed the presence of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in a group of downregulated cytokine gene promoters. WFA treatment of THP-1 cells blocks the nuclear translocation of NF-kB and corresponds with the reduced levels of cytokine secretion. To further understand the differential expression of cytokines/chemokines, we showed that WFA alters the nigericin-induced co-localization of NLRP3 and ASC proteins, thereby inhibiting caspase-1 activation, which is responsible for the cleavage and maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. These data suggest that dietary agent WFA concurrently targets NF-κB and the inflammasome complex, leading to inhibition of IL-1β and IL-18, respectively, in addition to differential expression of multiple cytokines/chemokines. Taken together, these results provide a rationale for using WFA to further explore the anti-inflammatory mechanism of cytokines/chemokines associated with inflammatory diseases.

  18. Proinflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α Increased Telomerase Activity through NF-κB/STAT1/STAT3 Activation, and Withaferin A Inhibited the Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Cells

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    Seyung S. Chung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing evidences of proinflammatory cytokine involvement in cancer development. Here, we found that two cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, activated colorectal cancer cells to be more invasive and stem-like. Combined treatment of IL-6 and TNF-α phosphorylated transcription factors STAT3 in a synergistic manner. STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB physically interacted upon the cytokine stimulation. STAT3 was bound to the promoter region of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT. IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation further enhanced STAT3 binding affinity. Stem cell marker Oct-4 was upregulated in colorectal cancer cells upon IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation. Withaferin A, an anti-inflammatory steroidal lactone, inhibited the IL-6- and TNF-α-induced cancer cell invasion and decreased colonosphere formation. Notably, withaferin A inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and abolished the STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB interactions. Oct-4 expression was also downregulated by withaferin A inhibition. The binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter region and telomerase activity showed reduction with withaferin A treatments. Proinflammatory cytokine-induced cancer cell invasiveness is mediated by a STAT3-regulated mechanism in colorectal cancer cells. Our data suggest that withaferin A could be a promising anticancer agent that effectively inhibits the progression of colorectal cancer.

  19. Cytokines and Liver Diseases

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    Herbert Tilg

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are pleiotropic peptides produced by virtually every nucleated cell in the body. In most tissues, including the liver, constitutive production of cytokines is absent or minimal. There is increasing evidence that several cytokines mediate hepatic inflammation, apoptosis and necrosis of liver cells, cholestasis and fibrosis. Interestingly, the same mediators also mediate the regeneration of liver tissue after injury. Among the various cytokines, the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a has emerged as a key factor in various aspects of liver disease, such as cachexia and/or cholestasis. Thus, antagonism of TNF-a and other injury-related cytokines in liver diseases merits evaluation as a treatment of these diseases. However, because the same cytokines are also necessary for the regeneration of the tissue after the liver has been injured, inhibition of these mediators might impair hepatic recovery. The near future will bring the exiting clinical challenge of testing new anticytokine strategies in various liver diseases.

  20. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau extracts: inhibition of cytokine production and Toll-like receptor-4 activation

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    Chun Wai eMai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans has had a long history of use in folk medicine in Malaysia and Southeast Asia; mostly in the relief of inflammatory conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of different extracts of C. nutans upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced inflammation in order to identify its mechanism of action. Extracts of leaves and stem bark of C. nutans were prepared using polar and non-polar solvents to produce four extracts, namely polar leaf extract (LP, non-polar leaf extract (LN, polar stem extract (SP and non-polar stem extracts (SN. The extracts were standardized by determining its total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. Its anti-inflammatory effects were assessed on LPS induced nitrite release in RAW264.7 macrophages and Toll-like receptor (TLR-4 activation in TLR-4 transfected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-BlueTM-hTLR4 cells. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40 and IL-17 in treated RAW264.7 macrophages were quantified to verify its anti-inflammatory effects. Western blotting was used to investigate the effect of the most potent extract (LP on TLR-4 related inflammatory proteins (p65, p38, ERK, JNK, IRF3 in RAW264.7 macrophages. All four extracts produced a significant, concentration-dependent reduction in LPS-stimulated nitric oxide, LPS-induced TLR-4 activation in HEK-BlueTM-hTLR4 cells and LPS-stimulated cytokines production in RAW264.7 macrophages. The most potent extract, LP, also inhibited all LPS-induced TLR-4 inflammatory proteins. These results provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms underlying the previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity of C. nutans extracts.

  1. Sodium methyldithiocarbamate inhibits MAP kinase activation through toll-like receptor 4, alters cytokine production by mouse peritoneal macrophages, and suppresses innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Stephen B; Zheng, Qiang; Schwab, Carlton; Fan, Ruping

    2005-09-01

    Sodium methyldithiocarbamate (SMD; trade name, Metam Sodium) is an abundantly used soil fumigant that can cause adverse health effects in humans, including some immunological manifestations. The mechanisms by which SMD acts, and its targets within the immune system are not fully understood. Initial experiments demonstrated that SMD administered by oral gavage substantially decreased IL-12 production and increased IL-10 production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. The present study was conducted to further characterize these effects and to evaluate our working hypothesis that the mechanism for these effects involves alteration in signaling through toll-like receptor 4 and that this would suppress innate immunity to infection. SMD decreased the activation of MAP kinases and AP-1 but not NF-kappaB in peritoneal macrophages. The expression of mRNA for IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-18, IFN-gamma, IL-12 p35, IL-12 p40, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was inhibited by SMD, whereas mRNA for IL-10 was increased. SMD increased the IL-10 concentration in the peritoneal cavity and serum and decreased the concentration of IL-12 p40 in the serum, peritoneal cavity, and intracellularly in peritoneal cells (which are >80% macrophages). Similar effects on LPS-induced cytokine production were observed following dermal administration of SMD. The major breakdown product of SMD, methylisothiocyanate (MITC), caused similar effects on cytokine production at dosages as low as 17 mg/kg, a dosage relevant to human exposure levels associated with agricultural use of SMD. Treatment of mice with SMD decreased survival following challenge with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli within 24-48 h, demonstrating suppression of innate immunity.

  2. Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G(αi PCR, inhibits bile acid- and cytokine-induced apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes.

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    Golnar Karimian

    Full Text Available Excessive hepatocyte apoptosis is a common event in acute and chronic liver diseases leading to loss of functional liver tissue. Approaches to prevent apoptosis have therefore high potential for the treatment of liver disease. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR play crucial roles in cell fate (proliferation, cell death and act through heterotrimeric G-proteins. G(αiPCRs have been shown to regulate lipoapoptosis in hepatocytes, but their role in inflammation- or bile acid-induced apoptosis is unknown. Here, we analyzed the effect of inhibiting G(αiPCR function, using pertussis toxin (PT, on bile acid- and cytokine-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Primary rat hepatocytes, HepG2-rNtcp cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma cells or H-4-II-E cells (rat hepatoma cells were exposed to glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα/actinomycin D (ActD. PT (50-200 nmol/L was added 30 minutes prior to the apoptotic stimulus. Apoptosis (caspase-3 activity, acridine orange staining and necrosis (sytox green staining were assessed. PT significantly reduced GCDCA- and TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes (-60%, p<0.05 in a dose-dependent manner (with no shift to necrosis, but not in HepG2-rNtcp cells or rat H-4-II-E cells. The protective effect of pertussis toxin was independent of the activation of selected cell survival signal transduction pathways, including ERK, p38 MAPK, PI3K and PKC pathways, as specific protein kinase inhibitors did not reverse the protective effects of pertussis toxin in GCDCA-exposed hepatocytes.Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G(αiPCRs, protects hepatocytes, but not hepatocellular carcinoma cells, against bile acid- and cytokine-induced apoptosis and has therapeutic potential as primary hepatoprotective drug, as well as adjuvant in anti-cancer therapy.

  3. Interactive effects of maternal cigarette smoke, heat stress, hypoxia, and lipopolysaccharide on neonatal cardiorespiratory and cytokine responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Fiona B.; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Wilson, Richard J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure exhibits a strong epidemiological association with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, but other environmental stressors, including infection, hyperthermia, and hypoxia, have also been postulated as important risk factors. This study examines whether maternal CS exposure causes maladaptations within homeostatic control networks by influencing the response to lipopolysaccharide, heat stress, and/or hypoxia in neonatal rats. Pregnant dams were exposed to CS or parallel sham treatments daily for the length of gestation. Offspring were studied at postnatal days 6–8 at ambient temperatures (Ta) of 33°C or 38°C. Within each group, rats were allocated to control, saline, or LPS (200 µg/kg) treatments. Cardiorespiratory patterns were examined using head-out plethysmography and ECG surface electrodes during normoxia and hypoxia (10% O2). Serum cytokine concentrations were quantified from samples taken at the end of each experiment. Our results suggest maternal CS exposure does not alter minute ventilation (V̇e) or heart rate (HR) response to infection or high temperature, but independently increases apnea frequency. CS also primes the inflammatory system to elicit a stronger cytokine response to bacterial insult. High Ta independently depresses V̇e but augments the hypoxia-induced increase in V̇e. Moreover, higher Ta increases HR during normoxia and hypoxia, and in the presence of an immune challenge, increases HR during normoxia, and reduces the increase normally associated with hypoxia. Thus, while most environmental risk factors increase the burden on the cardiorespiratory system in early life, hyperthermia and infection blunt the normal HR response to hypoxia, and gestational CS independently destabilizes breathing by increasing apneas. PMID:27733384

  4. Differential responsiveness of obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/Fa) Zucker rats to cytokine-induced anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Salamán, C R; Vasselli, J R; Sonti, G

    1997-01-01

    Pathophysiological and pharmacological concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) induce anorexia in normal rats. Obesity in humans and rodents is associated with increased TNF-alpha messenger RNA and protein levels in various cell types. This suggests that obese individuals may have differential regulation of cytokine production and dissimilar responsiveness to cytokines. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinfusion of TNF-alpha (50, 100, and 500 ng/rat), IL-1 beta (1.0, 4.0, and 8.0 ng), and TNF-alpha (100 ng) plus IL-1 beta (1.0 ng) on obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/Fa) Zucker rats. The results show that: TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, and the concomitant administration of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta decreased the short-term (4 hours), nighttime (12 hours), and total daily food intakes in obese and lean rats; IL-1 beta was more potent relative to TNF-alpha; obese rats showed greater responsiveness to IL-1 beta: 8.0 ng IL-1 beta, for example, decreased the 12-hour food intake by 52% in obese and 22% in lean rats. On the other hand, obese and lean rats did not exhibit a significantly different responsiveness to the anorexia induced by 50, 100, or 500 ng TNF-alpha at the 4-hour period; and the concomitant ICV administration of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta induced anorexia with additive (4-hour period) or synergistic (12-hour and 24-hour periods) effects in obese rats. The effect of TNF-alpha plus IL-1 beta in lean rats was greater than additive for the 12-hour and 24-hour periods. The difference in suppression of total daily food intake by TNF-alpha plus IL-1 beta in obese (-43%) versus lean (-23%) rats was significantly different (p < 0.01). The results show that obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/Fa) Zucker rats have differential responsiveness to the ICV microinfusion of two different classes of cytokines.

  5. No effects of bilateral tDCS over inferior frontal gyrus on response inhibition and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambacher, F.; Schuhmann, T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Sack, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression.

  6. The immunological response and post-treatment survival of DC-vaccinated melanoma patients are associated with increased Th1/Th17 and reduced Th3 cytokine responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Aniotz, Claudia; Segal, Gabriela; Salazar, Lorena; Pereda, Cristián; Falcón, Cristián; Tempio, Fabián; Aguilera, Raquel; González, Rodrigo; Pérez, Claudio; Tittarelli, Andrés; Catalán, Diego; Nervi, Bruno; Larrondo, Milton; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio; López, Mercedes N

    2013-04-01

    Immunization with autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with a heat shock-conditioned allogeneic melanoma cell lysate caused lysate-specific delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in a number of patients. These responses correlated with a threefold prolonged long-term survival of DTH(+) with respect to DTH(-) unresponsive patients. Herein, we investigated whether the immunological reactions associated with prolonged survival were related to dissimilar cellular and cytokine responses in blood. Healthy donors and melanoma patient's lymphocytes obtained from blood before and after vaccinations and from DTH biopsies were analyzed for T cell population distribution and cytokine release. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from melanoma patients have an increased proportion of Th3 (CD4(+) TGF-β(+)) regulatory T lymphocytes compared with healthy donors. Notably, DTH(+) patients showed a threefold reduction of Th3 cells compared with DTH(-) patients after DCs vaccine treatment. Furthermore, DCs vaccination resulted in a threefold augment of the proportion of IFN-γ releasing Th1 cells and in a twofold increase of the IL-17-producing Th17 population in DTH(+) with respect to DTH(-) patients. Increased Th1 and Th17 cell populations in both blood and DTH-derived tissues suggest that these profiles may be related to a more effective anti-melanoma response. Our results indicate that increased proinflammatory cytokine profiles are related to detectable immunological responses in vivo (DTH) and to prolonged patient survival. Our study contributes to the understanding of immunological responses produced by DCs vaccines and to the identification of follow-up markers for patient outcome that may allow a closer individual monitoring of patients.

  7. Acrolein and thiol-reactive electrophiles suppress allergen-induced innate airway epithelial responses by inhibition of DUOX1 and EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyal, Karamatullah; de Jong, Willem; O'Brien, Edmund; Bauer, Robert A; Heppner, David E; Little, Andrew C; Hristova, Milena; Habibovic, Aida; van der Vliet, Albert

    2016-11-01

    Acrolein is a major thiol-reactive component of cigarette smoke (CS) that is thought to contribute to increased asthma incidence associated with smoking. Here, we explored the effects of acute acrolein exposure on innate airway responses to two common airborne allergens, house dust mite and Alternaria alternata, and observed that acrolein exposure of C57BL/6 mice (5 ppm, 4 h) dramatically inhibited innate airway responses to subsequent allergen challenge, demonstrated by attenuated release of the epithelial-derived cytokines IL-33, IL-25, and IL-1α. Acrolein and other anti-inflammatory thiol-reactive electrophiles, cinnamaldehyde, curcumin, and sulforaphane, similarly inhibited allergen-induced production of these cytokines from human or murine airway epithelial cells in vitro. Based on our previous observations indicating the importance of Ca 2+ -dependent signaling, activation of the NADPH oxidase DUOX1, and Src/EGFR-dependent signaling in allergen-induced epithelial secretion of these cytokines, we explored the impact of acrolein on these pathways. Acrolein and other thiol-reactive electrophiles were found to dramatically prevent allergen-induced activation of DUOX1 as well as EGFR, and acrolein was capable of inhibiting EGFR tyrosine kinase activity via modification of C797. Biotin-labeling strategies indicated increased cysteine modification and carbonylation of Src, EGFR, as well as DUOX1, in response to acrolein exposure in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that direct alkylation of these proteins on accessible cysteine residues may be responsible for their inhibition. Collectively, our findings indicate a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of CS-derived acrolein and other thiol-reactive electrophiles, by directly inhibiting DUOX1- and EGFR-mediated airway epithelial responses to airborne allergens. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Variability in tuberculosis granuloma T cell responses exists, but a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is associated with sterilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung granulomas are the pathologic hallmark of tuberculosis (TB. T cells are a major cellular component of TB lung granulomas and are known to play an important role in containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. We used cynomolgus macaques, a non-human primate model that recapitulates human TB with clinically active disease, latent infection or early infection, to understand functional characteristics and dynamics of T cells in individual granulomas. We sought to correlate T cell cytokine response and bacterial burden of each granuloma, as well as granuloma and systemic responses in individual animals. Our results support that each granuloma within an individual host is independent with respect to total cell numbers, proportion of T cells, pattern of cytokine response, and bacterial burden. The spectrum of these components overlaps greatly amongst animals with different clinical status, indicating that a diversity of granulomas exists within an individual host. On average only about 8% of T cells from granulomas respond with cytokine production after stimulation with Mtb specific antigens, and few "multi-functional" T cells were observed. However, granulomas were found to be "multi-functional" with respect to the combinations of functional T cells that were identified among lesions from individual animals. Although the responses generally overlapped, sterile granulomas had modestly higher frequencies of T cells making IL-17, TNF and any of T-1 (IFN-γ, IL-2, or TNF and/or T-17 (IL-17 cytokines than non-sterile granulomas. An inverse correlation was observed between bacterial burden with TNF and T-1/T-17 responses in individual granulomas, and a combinatorial analysis of pair-wise cytokine responses indicated that granulomas with T cells producing both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-10 and IL-17 were associated with clearance of Mtb. Preliminary evaluation suggests that systemic responses in the blood do not

  9. Estradiol and Progesterone Strongly Inhibit the Innate Immune Response of Mononuclear Cells in Newborns ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Eric; Guignard, Laurence; Knaup Reymond, Marlies; Perreau, Matthieu; Roth-Kleiner, Matthias; Calandra, Thierry; Roger, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Newborns are particularly susceptible to bacterial infections due to qualitative and quantitative deficiencies of the neonatal innate immune system. However, the mechanisms underlying these deficiencies are poorly understood. Given that fetuses are exposed to high concentrations of estradiol and progesterone during gestation and at time of delivery, we analyzed the effects of these hormones on the response of neonatal innate immune cells to endotoxin, bacterial lipopeptide, and Escherichia coli and group B Streptococcus, the two most common causes of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Here we show that at concentrations present in umbilical cord blood, estradiol and progesterone are as powerful as hydrocortisone for inhibition of cytokine production by cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and newborn monocytes. Interestingly, CBMCs and newborn monocytes are more sensitive to the effects of estradiol and progesterone than adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes. This increased sensitivity is associated with higher expression levels of estrogen and membrane progesterone receptors but is independent of a downregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in newborn cells. Estradiol and progesterone mediate their anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway but not the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in CBMCs. Altogether, these results suggest that elevated umbilical cord blood concentrations of estradiol and progesterone acting on mononuclear cells expressing high levels of steroid receptors contribute to impair innate immune responses in newborns. Therefore, intrauterine exposure to estradiol and progesterone may participate in increasing susceptibility to infection during the neonatal period. PMID:21518785

  10. Sex differences in the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to endotoxin unfold in vivo but not ex vivo in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Alexander; Benson, Sven; Rebernik, Laura; Spreitzer, Ingo; Jäger, Marcus; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Engler, Harald

    2017-07-01

    Clinical data indicate that inflammatory responses differ across sexes, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, we assessed in vivo and ex vivo cytokine responses to bacterial endotoxin in healthy men and women to elucidate the role of systemic and cellular factors underlying sex differences in inflammatory responses. Participants received an i.v. injection of low-dose endotoxin (0.4 ng/kg body mass), and plasma TNF-α and IL-6 responses were analyzed over a period of 6 h. In parallel, ex vivo cytokine production was measured in endotoxin-stimulated blood samples obtained immediately before in vivo endotoxin administration. As glucocorticoids (GCs) play an important role in the negative feedback regulation of the inflammatory response, we additionally analyzed plasma cortisol concentrations and ex vivo GC sensitivity of cytokine production. Results revealed greater in vivo pro-inflammatory responses in women compared with men, with significantly higher increases in plasma TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations. In addition, the endotoxin-induced rise in plasma cortisol was more pronounced in women. In contrast, no sex differences in ex vivo cytokine production and GC sensitivity were observed. Together, these findings demonstrate major differences in in vivo and ex vivo responses to endotoxin and underscore the importance of systemic factors underlying sex differences in the inflammatory response.

  11. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis pannus have similar qualitative metabolic characteristics and pro-inflammatory cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuzawa-Carballeda, J; Macip-Rodríguez, P M; Cabral, A R

    2008-01-01

    Pannus in osteoarthritis (OA) has only recently been characterized. Little is known, however, regarding the behavior of OA pannus in vitro compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pannus. The purpose of our study was to compare OA with RA pannus. Pannus and synovial tissue co-cultures from 5 patients with OA and 5 patients with RA obtained during arthroplasty were studied. Pannus was defined as the microscopic invasive granulation tissue covering the articular surface. Tissues were cultured for 7 days and stained with Alcian Blue technique. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were also determined in supernatants by ELISA. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), type II collagen, TNF-alpha, IL-10 and Ki-67 expression were also detected by immunohistochemistry. All patients had vascular or fibrous pannus. Synovial proliferation, inflammatory infiltrates and a decrease of extracellular matrix proteins were observed in all tissue samples. Chondrocyte proliferation was lower in OA than RA cartilage. OA synovial tissue expressed lower levels of proteoglycans than RA synoyium. Type II collagen levels were lower in OA than in RA cartilage. Significantly higher levels of IL-1beta were found in the supernatants of RA pannus compared to OA pannus (ppannus supernatants. IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-gamma were undetectable. RA and OA pannus had similar pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine profile expression. OA cartilage, synovial tissue and pannus had lower production of proteoglycans, type II collagen and IL-1beta. It remains to be elucidated why OA pannus invades the cartilage surface but does not cause the marginal erosions typically seen in RA.

  12. Maysin and Its Flavonoid Derivative from Centipedegrass Attenuates Amyloid Plaques by Inducting Humoral Immune Response with Th2 Skewed Cytokine Response in the Tg (APPswe, PS1dE9 Alzheimer's Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuno Song

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a slow, progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia in the elderly. The etiology of AD and its underlying mechanism are still not clear. In a previous study, we found that an ethyl acetate extract of Centipedegrass (CG (i.e., EA-CG contained 4 types of Maysin derivatives, including Luteolin, Isoorientin, Rhamnosylisoorientin, and Derhamnosylmaysin, and showed protective effects against Amyloid beta (Aβ by inhibiting oligomeric Aβ in cellular and in vitro models. Here, we examined the preventative effects of EA-CG treatment on the Aβ burden in the Tg (Mo/Hu APPswe PS1dE9 AD mouse model. We have investigated the EA-CG efficacy as novel anti-AD likely preventing amyloid plaques using immunofluorescence staining to visually analyze Aβ40/42 and fibril formation with Thioflavin-S or 6E10 which are the profile of immunoreactivity against epitope Aβ1-16 or neuritic plaque, the quantitation of humoral immune response against Aβ, and the inflammatory cytokine responses (Th1 and Th2 using ELISA and QRT-PCR. To minimize the toxicity of the extracted CG, we addressed the liver toxicity in response to the CG extract treatment in Tg mice using relevant markers, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST/ alanine aminotransferase (ALT measurements in serum. The EA-CG extract significantly reduced the Aβ burden, the concentration of soluble Aβ40/42 protein, and fibril formation in the hippocampus and cortex of the Tg mice treated with EA-CG (50 mg/kg BW/day for 6 months compared with the Tg mice treated with a normal diet. Additionally, the profile of anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed that the levels of Th2 (interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-10 (IL-10 cytokines are more significantly increased than Th1 (interferon-γ (IFN-γ, interleukin-2(IL-2 in the sera. These results suggest that the EA-CG fraction induces IL-4/IL-10-dependent anti-inflammatory cytokines (Th2 rather than pro

  13. Vitamin D receptor agonists inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production from the respiratory epithelium in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2011-07-22

    BACKGROUND: 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) has been shown to mitigate epithelial inflammatory responses after antigen exposure. Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at particular risk for vitamin D deficiency. This may contribute to the exaggerated inflammatory response to pulmonary infection in CF. METHODS: CF respiratory epithelial cell lines were exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pseudomonas conditioned medium (PCM) in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or a range of vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists. Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were measured in cell supernatants, and cellular total and phosphorylated IκBα were determined. Levels of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP18) mRNA and protein were measured in cells after treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). RESULTS: Pretreatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was associated with significant reductions in IL-6 and IL-8 protein secretion after antigen exposure, a finding reproduced with a range of low calcaemic VDR agonists. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment led to a decrease in IκBα phosphorylation and increased total cellular IκBα. Treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was associated with an increase in hCAP18\\/LL-37 mRNA and protein levels. CONCLUSIONS: Both 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and other VDR agonists significantly reduce the pro-inflammatory response to antigen challenge in CF airway epithelial cells. VDR agonists have significant therapeutic potential in CF.

  14. Direct contact between dendritic cells and bronchial epithelial cells inhibits T cell recall responses towards mite and pollen allergen extracts in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Wagtmann, Valery R; Hansen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    (DCs), we have investigated recall T cell responses in allergic patients sensitized to house dust mite, grass, and birch pollen. Conclusions: Using allergen extract-loaded DCs to stimulate autologous allergen-specific T cell lines, we show that AEC-imprinted DCs inhibit T cell proliferation...... production of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines upon re-challenge. The inhibitory effects of AECs' contact with DCs were absent when allergen extract-loaded DCs had only been exposed to AECs supernatants, but present after direct contact with AECs. We conclude that direct contact between DCs and AECs inhibits T...

  15. Immune response to snake envenoming and treatment with antivenom; complement activation, cytokine production and mast cell degranulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley F Stone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities worldwide. In addition to the clinical effects of envenoming, treatment with antivenom frequently causes serious adverse reactions, including hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylaxis and pyrogenic reactions. We aimed to investigate the immune responses to Sri Lankan snake envenoming (predominantly by Russell's viper and antivenom treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma concentrations of Interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI, anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a, C5a; markers of complement activation, mast cell tryptase (MCT, and histamine were measured in 120 Sri Lankan snakebite victims, both before and after treatment with antivenom. Immune mediator concentrations were correlated with envenoming features and the severity of antivenom-induced reactions including anaphylaxis. Envenoming was associated with complement activation and increased cytokine concentrations prior to antivenom administration, which correlated with non-specific systemic symptoms of envenoming but not with coagulopathy or neurotoxicity. Typical hypersensitivity reactions to antivenom occurred in 77/120 patients (64%, satisfying criteria for a diagnosis of anaphylaxis in 57/120 (48%. Pyrogenic reactions were observed in 32/120 patients (27%. All patients had further elevations in cytokine concentrations, but not complement activation, after the administration of antivenom, whether a reaction was noted to occur or not. Patients with anaphylaxis had significantly elevated concentrations of MCT and histamine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated that Sri Lankan snake envenoming is characterized by significant complement activation and release of inflammatory mediators. Antivenom treatment further enhances the release of inflammatory mediators in all patients, with anaphylactic reactions characterised by high

  16. Thunbergia alata inhibits inflammatory responses through the inactivation of ERK and STAT3 in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Chang; Kim, Ye Rang; Kim, Ba Reum; Bach, Tran The; Cho, Sayeon

    2016-11-01

    Thunbergia alata (Acanthaceae) has been used traditionally to treat various inflammatory diseases such as fever, cough and diarrhea in East African countries including Uganda and Kenya. However, systemic studies elucidating the anti-inflammatory effects and precise mechanisms of action of T. alata have not been conducted, to the best of our knowledge. To address these concerns, we explored the anti-inflammatory effects of a methanol extract of T. alata (MTA) in macrophages. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of MTA (≤300 µg/ml) inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by transcriptional regulation of inducible NO synthase in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandin E2, was unchanged by MTA at the mRNA and protein levels. MTA treatment inhibited interleukin (IL)-6 production and decreased the mRNA expression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-1β. Tumor necrosis factor-α production and mRNA expression were not regulated by MTA treatment. The decreased production of inflammatory mediators by MTA was followed by the reduced phosphorylation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). MTA treatment had no effect on activity of other mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). These results indicate that MTA selectively inhibits the excessive production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages by reducing the activity of ERK and STAT3, suggesting that MTA plays an important inhibitory role in the modulation of severe inflammation.

  17. Cytokine responses to novel antigens in an Indian population living in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Om Prakash; Stober, Carmel B; Singh, Abhishek Kr; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    There are no effective vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected parasitic disease second only to malaria in global mortality. We previously identified 14 protective candidates in a screen of 100 Leishmania antigens as DNA vaccines in mice. Here we employ whole blood assays to evaluate human cytokine responses to 11 of these antigens, in comparison to known defined and crude antigen preparations. Whole blood assays were employed to measure IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 responses to peptide pools of the novel antigens R71, Q51, L37, N52, L302.06, J89, M18, J41, M22, M63, M57, as well as to recombinant proteins of tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP), Leishmania homolog of the receptor for activated C kinase (LACK) and to crude soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), in Indian patients with active (n = 8) or cured (n = 16) VL, and in modified Quantiferon positive (EHC(+ve), n = 20) or modified Quantiferon negative (EHC(-ve), n = 9) endemic healthy controls (EHC). Active VL, cured VL and EHC(+ve) groups showed elevated SLA-specific IFN-γ, but only active VL patients produced IL-10 and EHC(+ve) did not make TNF-α. IFN-γ to IL-10 and TNF-α to IL-10 ratios in response to TRYP and LACK antigens were higher in cured VL and EHC(+ve) exposed individuals compared to active VL. Five of the eleven novel candidates (R71, L37, N52, J41, and M22) elicited IFN-γ and TNF-α, but not IL-10, responses in cured VL (55-87.5% responders) and EHC(+ve) (40-65% responders) subjects. Our results are consistent with an important balance between pro-inflammatory IFNγ and TNFγ cytokine responses and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in determining outcome of VL in India, as highlighted by response to both crude and defined protein antigens. Importantly, cured VL patients and endemic Quantiferon positive individuals recognise 5 novel vaccine candidate antigens, confirming our recent data for L. chagasi in Brazil, and their potential as cross-species vaccine candidates.

  18. Cytokine responses to novel antigens in an Indian population living in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Singh

    Full Text Available There are no effective vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis (VL, a neglected parasitic disease second only to malaria in global mortality. We previously identified 14 protective candidates in a screen of 100 Leishmania antigens as DNA vaccines in mice. Here we employ whole blood assays to evaluate human cytokine responses to 11 of these antigens, in comparison to known defined and crude antigen preparations.Whole blood assays were employed to measure IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 responses to peptide pools of the novel antigens R71, Q51, L37, N52, L302.06, J89, M18, J41, M22, M63, M57, as well as to recombinant proteins of tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP, Leishmania homolog of the receptor for activated C kinase (LACK and to crude soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA, in Indian patients with active (n = 8 or cured (n = 16 VL, and in modified Quantiferon positive (EHC(+ve, n = 20 or modified Quantiferon negative (EHC(-ve, n = 9 endemic healthy controls (EHC.Active VL, cured VL and EHC(+ve groups showed elevated SLA-specific IFN-γ, but only active VL patients produced IL-10 and EHC(+ve did not make TNF-α. IFN-γ to IL-10 and TNF-α to IL-10 ratios in response to TRYP and LACK antigens were higher in cured VL and EHC(+ve exposed individuals compared to active VL. Five of the eleven novel candidates (R71, L37, N52, J41, and M22 elicited IFN-γ and TNF-α, but not IL-10, responses in cured VL (55-87.5% responders and EHC(+ve (40-65% responders subjects.Our results are consistent with an important balance between pro-inflammatory IFNγ and TNFγ cytokine responses and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in determining outcome of VL in India, as highlighted by response to both crude and defined protein antigens. Importantly, cured VL patients and endemic Quantiferon positive individuals recognise 5 novel vaccine candidate antigens, confirming our recent data for L. chagasi in Brazil, and their potential as cross-species vaccine candidates.

  19. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri; Ryu, Shi Yong; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. ► 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. ► 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-κB-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. ► MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-β gene and IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  20. The guanylhydrazone CNI-1493: an inhibitor with dual activity against malaria-inhibition of host cell pro-inflammatory cytokine release and parasitic deoxyhypusine synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Sabine; Sarite, Salem Ramadan; Hauber, Ilona; Hauber, Joachim; Görbig, Ulf F; Meier, Chris; Bevec, Dorian; Hoerauf, Achim; Kaiser, Annette

    2008-05-01

    Malaria is still a major cause of death in the tropics. There is an urgent need for new anti-malarial drugs because drug-resistant plasmodia frequently occur. Over recent years, we elucidated the biosynthesis of hypusine, a novel amino acid contained in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) in Plasmodium. Hypusine biosynthesis involves catalysis of deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) in the first step of post-translational modification. In a screen for new inhibitors of purified plasmodium DHS, CNI-1493, a novel selective pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitor used in clinical phase II for the treatment of Crohn's disease, inhibited the enzyme of the parasite 3-fold at a concentration of 2 microM. In vitro experiments with 200 microM CNI-1493 in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes, which lack nuclei and DHS protein, showed a parasite clearance within 2 days. This can presumably be attributed to an anti-proliferating effect because of the inhibition of DHS by the parasite. The determined IC50 of CNI-1493 was 135.79 microM after 72 h. In vivo application of this substance in Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected C57BL/6 mice significantly reduced parasitemia after dosage of 1 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg/body weight and prevented death of mice with cerebral malaria. This effect was paralleled by a decrease in serum TNF levels of the mice. We suggest that the new mechanism of CNI-1493 is caused by a decrease in modified eIF-5A biosynthesis with a downstream effect on the TNF synthesis of the host. From the current data, we consider CNI-1493 to be a promising drug for anti-malarial therapy because of its combined action, i.e., the decrease in eIF-5A biosynthesis of the parasite and host cell TNF biosynthesis.

  1. Picfeltarraenin IA inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production by the nuclear factor-κB pathway in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong; Wang, Qing; Ouyang, Yang; Wang, Qian; Xiong, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of picfeltarraenin IA (IA) on respiratory inflammation by analyzing its effect on interleukin (IL)-8 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells in culture was also examined. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells and the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line were used in the current study. Cell viability was measured using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The production of IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of COX2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-p65 was examined using western blot analysis. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg/ml) resulted in the increased production of IL-8 and PGE2, and the increased expression of COX2 in the A549 cells. Furthermore, IA (0.1-10 µmol/l) significantly inhibited PGE2 production and COX2 expression in cells with LPS-induced IL-8, in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that IA downregulates LPS-induced COX2 expression, and inhibits IL-8 and PGE2 production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Additionally, IA was observed to suppress the expression of COX2 in THP-1 cells, and also to regulate the expression of COX2 via the NF-κB pathway in the A549 cells, but not in the THP-1 cells. These results indicate that IA regulates LPS-induced cytokine release in A549 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  2. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Shi Yong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Bae [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsoo, E-mail: youngsoo@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-{kappa}B-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1{beta}, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-{beta} gene and IFN-{gamma} inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  3. Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines in oral lichen planus by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanni; Zhang, Han; Du, Guanhuan; Wang, Yufeng; Cao, Tianyi; Luo, Qingqiong; Chen, Junjun; Chen, Fuxiang; Tang, Guoyao

    2016-07-01

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a bioactive compound extracted from paeony roots and has been widely used to ameliorate inflammation in several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of TGP on oral lichen planus (OLP), a chronic inflammatory oral condition characterized by T-cell infiltration and abnormal epithelial keratinization cycle remains unclear. In this study, we found that TLR4 was highly expressed and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway was obviously observed in the OLP tissues. Moreover, there was significant higher mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in OLP keratinocytes than normal oral epithelial keratinocytes. With the help of the cell culture model by stimulating the keratinocyte HaCaT cells with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), we mimicked the local inflammatory environment of OLP. And we further confirmed that TGP could inhibit LPS-induced production of IL-6 and TNF-α in HaCaT cells via a dose-dependent manner. TGP treatment decreased the phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB p65 proteins, thus leading to less nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in HaCaT cells. Therefore, our data suggested that TGP may be a new potential candidate for the therapy of OLP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Ameliorates Seawater Aspiration-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Regulating Inflammatory Cytokines and Inhibiting JAK/STAT1 Pathway in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Dong, Mingqing; Bo, Liyan; Li, Congcong; Liu, Qingqing; Li, Yanyan; Ma, Lijie; Xie, Yonghong; Fu, Enqing; Mu, Deguang; Pan, Lei; Jin, Faguang; Li, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcriptions 1 (STAT1) play an important role in the inflammation process of acute lung injury (ALI). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) exhibits a specific and strong anti-STAT1 activity. Therefore, our study is to explore whether EGCG pretreatment can ameliorate seawater aspiration-induced ALI and its possible mechanisms. We detected the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, lung wet/dry weight ratios, protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the histopathologic and ultrastructure staining of the lung. The levels of IL-1, TNF-α, and IL-10 and the total and the phosphorylated protein level of STAT1, JAK1, and JAK2 were assessed in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that EGCG pretreatment significantly improved hypoxemia and histopathologic changes, alleviated pulmonary edema and lung vascular leak, reduced the production of TNF-α and IL-1, and increased the production of IL-10 in seawater aspiration-induced ALI rats. EGCG also prevented the seawater aspiration-induced increase of TNF-α and IL-1 and decrease of IL-10 in NR8383 cell line. Moreover, EGCG pretreatment reduced the total and the phosphorylated protein level of STAT1 in vivo and in vitro and reduced the phosphorylated protein level of JAK1 and JAK2. The present study demonstrates that EGCG ameliorates seawater aspiration-induced ALI via regulating inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting JAK/STAT1 pathway in rats. PMID:24692852

  5. Oenothera laciniata inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and proinflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Weon-Jong; Ham, Young Min; Yoo, Byoung-Sam; Moon, Ji-Young; Koh, Jaesook; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2009-04-01

    We elucidated the pharmacological and biological effects of Oenothera laciniata extracts on the production of inflammatory mediators in macrophages. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction of O. laciniata extract effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO, PGE(2), and proinflammatory cytokine production in RAW264.7 cells. These inhibitory effects of the CH(2)Cl(2) fraction of O. laciniata were accompanied by decreases in the expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins and iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 mRNA. Asiatic acid and quercetin were present in the HPLC fingerprint of the O. laciniata extract. We tested the potential application of O. laciniata extract as a cosmetic material by performing primary skin irritation tests. In New Zealand white rabbits, primary irritation tests revealed that application of O. laciniata extracts (1%) did not induce erythema or edema formation. Human skin primary irritation tests were performed on the normal skin (upper back) of 30 volunteers to determine if any material in O. laciniata extracts had irritation or sensitization potential. In these assays, O. laciniata extracts did not induce any adverse reactions. Based on these results, we suggest that O. laciniata extracts be considered possible anti-inflammatory candidates for topical application.

  6. Severe Malaria Infections Impair Germinal Center Responses by Inhibiting T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ryg-Cornejo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops only after years of repeated exposure to Plasmodium parasites. Despite the key role antibodies play in protection, the cellular processes underlying the slow acquisition of immunity remain unknown. Using mouse models, we show that severe malaria infection inhibits the establishment of germinal centers (GCs in the spleen. We demonstrate that infection induces high frequencies of T follicular helper (Tfh cell precursors but results in impaired Tfh cell differentiation. Despite high expression of Bcl-6 and IL-21, precursor Tfh cells induced during infection displayed low levels of PD-1 and CXCR5 and co-expressed Th1-associated molecules such as T-bet and CXCR3. Blockade of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IFN-γ or T-bet deletion restored Tfh cell differentiation and GC responses to infection. Thus, this study demonstrates that the same pro-inflammatory mediators that drive severe malaria pathology have detrimental effects on the induction of protective B cell responses.

  7. Amino acid substitutions in the melanoma antigen recognized by T cell 1 peptide modulate cytokine responses in melanoma-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M B; Kirkin, A F; Loftus, D

    2000-01-01

    enhances the production of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, and interferon-gamma and significantly enhances release of IL-13 and IL-10 from anti-MART-1 cytotoxic T cells. Another heteroclitic peptide, 1L, with an A to L substitution in MART-1(27-35), also enhances the tyrosine...... phosphorylation response in anti-MART-1 cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Yet, 1L does not enhance the production of T helper cell type 2-like cytokines (IL-10 and IL-13). Together these data show that minor amino acid modifications of immunodominant melanoma peptides profoundly influence the cytokine response in melanoma...

  8. Plasma cytokines, chemokines and cellular immune responses in pre-school Nigerian children infected with Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noone Cariosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with over one million deaths annually, particularly in children under five years. This study was the first to examine plasma cytokines, chemokines and cellular immune responses in pre-school Nigerian children infected with Plasmodium falciparum from four semi-urban villages near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods Blood was obtained from 231 children (aged 39–73 months who were classified according to mean P. falciparum density per μl of blood (uninfected (n = 89, low density (10,000, n = 22. IL-12p70, IL-10, Nitric oxide, IFN-γ, TNF, IL-17, IL-4 and TGF-β, C-C chemokine RANTES, MMP-8 and TIMP-1 were measured in plasma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained and examined markers of innate immune cells (CD14, CD36, CD56, CD54, CD11c AND HLA-DR. T-cell sub-populations (CD4, CD3 and γδTCR were intracellularly stained for IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF following polyclonal stimulation or stimulated with malaria parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides was endemic in these villages and all data were analysed taking into account the potential impact of bystander helminth infection. All data were analysed using SPSS 15 for windows and in all tests, p Results The level of P. falciparum parasitaemia was positively associated with plasma IL-10 and negatively associated with IL-12p70. The percentage of monocytes was significantly decreased in malaria-infected individuals while malaria parasitaemia was positively associated with increasing percentages of CD54+, CD11c+ and CD56+ cell populations. No association was observed in cytokine expression in mitogen-activated T-cell populations between groups and no malaria specific immune responses were detected. Although A. lumbricoides is endemic in these villages, an analysis of the data showed no impact of this helminth infection on P. falciparum parasitaemia or on immune responses associated with P. falciparum infection

  9. Soluble β-(1,3)-glucans enhance LPS-induced response in the monocyte activation test, but inhibit LPS-mediated febrile response in rabbits: Implications for pyrogenicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Ruiz, Zenia; Menéndez-Sardiñas, Dalia E; Pacios-Michelena, Anabel; Gabilondo-Ramírez, Tatiana; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of β-(1,3)-d-glucans on the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine response in the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) for pyrogens, and on the LPS-induced febrile response in the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT), thus evaluating the resulting effect in the outcome of each test. It was found that β-(1,3)-d-glucans elicited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, also known as endogenous pyrogens, but not enough to classify them as pyrogenic according to MAT. The same β-(1,3)-d-glucans samples were non-pyrogenic by RPT. However, β-(1,3)-d-glucans significantly enhanced the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines response in MAT, insomuch that samples containing non-pyrogenic concentrations of LPS become pyrogenic. On the other hand, β-(1,3)-d-glucans had no effect on sub-pyrogenic LPS doses in the RPT, but surprisingly, inhibited the LPS-induced febrile response of pyrogenic LPS concentrations. Thus, while β-(1,3)-d-glucans could mask the LPS pyrogenic activity in the RPT, they exerted an overstimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the MAT. Hence, MAT provides higher safety since it evidences an unwanted biological response, which is not completely controlled and is overlooked by the RPT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Myxovirus resistance, osteopontin and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 polymorphisms predict hepatitis C virus therapy response in an admixed patient population: comparison with IL28B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Ana Luiza Dias; Cavalcante, Lourianne Nascimento; Abe-Sandes, Kiyoko; Machado, Taísa Bonfim; Lemaire, Denise Carneiro; Malta, Fernanda; Pinho, João Renato; Lyra, Luiz Guilherme Costa; Lyra, Andre Castro

    2013-10-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, myxovirus resistance protein and osteopontin gene polymorphisms may influence the therapeutic response in patients with chronic hepatitis C, and an association with IL28 might increase the power to predict sustained virologic response. Our aims were to evaluate the association between myxovirus resistance protein, osteopontin and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 gene polymorphisms in combination with IL28B and to assess the therapy response in hepatitis C patients treated with pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin. Myxovirus resistance protein, osteopontin, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and IL28B polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, direct sequencing and real-time PCR. Ancestry was determined using genetic markers. We analyzed 181 individuals, including 52 who were sustained virologic responders. The protective genotype frequencies among the sustained virologic response group were as follows: the G/G suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (rs4969170) (62.2%); T/T osteopontin (rs2853744) (60%); T/T osteopontin (rs11730582) (64.3%); and the G/T myxovirus resistance protein (rs2071430) genotype (54%). The patients who had ≥3 of the protective genotypes from the myxovirus resistance protein, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and osteopontin had a greater than 90% probability of achieving a sustained response (pC/C IL28B genotype was present in 58.8% of the subjects in this group. The sustained virological response rates increased to 85.7% and 91.7% by analyzing C/C IL28B with the T/T osteopontin genotype at rs11730582 and the G/G suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 genotype, respectively. Genetic ancestry analysis revealed an admixed population. Hepatitis C genotype 1 patients who were responders to interferon-based therapy had a high frequency of multiple protective polymorphisms in the myxovirus resistance protein, osteopontin and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 genes. The combined

  11. Inflammatory cytokines in the brain: does the CNS shape immune responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, T; Renno, T; Taupin, V; Krakowski, M

    1994-12-01

    Immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS) have traditionally been regarded as representing the intrusion of an unruly, ill-behaved mob of leukocytes into the well-ordered and organized domain of thought and reason. However, results accumulated over the past few years suggest that, far from being an immunologically privileged organ, T lymphocytes may be regular and frequent visitors to the CNS, for purposes of immune surveillance. Here, Trevor Owens and colleagues propose that the brain itself can regulate or shape immune responses therein. Furthermore, given that the immune cells may be subverted to autoimmunity, they suggest that the study of inflammatory autoimmune disease in the brain may shed light on the ability of the local environment to regulate immune responses.

  12. Association of CD30 transcripts with Th1 responses and proinflammatory cytokines in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Sonia Y; Opelz, Gerhard; Rojas, Mauricio; Süsal, Caner; Alvarez, Cristiam M

    2016-05-01

    High serum sCD30 levels are associated with inflammatory disorders and poor outcome in renal transplantation. The contribution to these phenomena of transcripts and proteins related to CD30-activation and -cleavage is unknown. We assessed in peripheral blood of end-stage renal disease patients (ESRDP) transcripts of CD30-activation proteins CD30 and CD30L, CD30-cleavage proteins ADAM10 and ADAM17, and Th1- and Th2-type immunity-related factors t-bet and GATA3. Additionally, we evaluated the same transcripts and release of sCD30 and 32 cytokines after allogeneic and polyclonal T-cell activation. In peripheral blood, ESRDP showed increased levels of t-bet and GATA3 transcripts compared to healthy controls (HC) (both PCD30, CD30L, ADAM10 and ADAM17 transcripts were similar. Polyclonal and allogeneic stimulation induced higher levels of CD30 transcripts in ESRDP than in HC (both PsCD30, the Th-1 cytokine IFN-γ, MIP-1α, RANTES, sIL-2Rα, MIP-1β, TNF-β, MDC, GM-CSF and IL-5, and another one consisting of CD30 and t-bet transcripts, IL-13 and proinflammatory proteins IP-10, IL-8, IL-1Rα and MCP-1. Reflecting an activated immune state, ESRDP exhibited after allostimulation upregulation of CD30 transcripts in T cells, which was associated with Th1 and proinflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise Performed in the Morning and Evening on Inflammatory Cytokine and Metabolic Hormone Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ki Kim

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of endurance exercise performed in the morning and evening on inflammatory cytokine responses in young men.Fourteen healthy male participants aged 24.3 ± 0.8 years (mean ± standard error performed endurance exercise in the morning (0900-1000 h on one day and then in the evening (1700-1800 h on another day with an interval of at least 1 week between each trial. In both the morning and evening trials, the participants walked for 60 minutes at approximately 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max on a treadmill. Blood samples were collected to determine hormones and inflammatory cytokines at pre-exercise, immediately post exercise, and 2 h post exercise.Plasma interleukin (IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations were significantly higher immediately after exercise in the evening trial than in the morning trial (P < 0.01, both. Serum free fatty acids concentrations were significantly higher in the evening trial than in the morning trial at 2 h after exercise (P < 0.05. Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the levels of IL-6 immediately post-exercise and free fatty acids 2 h post-exercise in the evening (r = 0.68, P < 0.01.These findings suggest that the effect of acute endurance exercise in the evening enhances the plasma IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations compared to that in the morning. In addition, IL-6 was involved in increasing free fatty acids, suggesting that the evening is more effective for exercise-induced lipolysis compared with the morning.

  14. IFN-γ fails to overcome inhibition of selected macrophage activation events in response to pathogenic mycobacteria.

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    Shyamala Thirunavukkarasu

    Full Text Available According to most models of mycobacterial infection, inhibition of the pro-inflammatory macrophage immune responses contributes to the persistence of bacteria. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is a highly successful pathogen in cattle and sheep and is also implicated as the causative agent of Crohn's disease in humans. Pathogenic mycobacteria such as MAP have developed multiple strategies to evade host defence mechanisms including interfering with the macrophages' capacity to respond to IFN-γ, a feature which might be lacking in non-pathogenic mycobacteria such as M. smegmatis. We hypothesized that pre-sensitisation of macrophages with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ would help in overcoming the inhibitory effect of MAP or its antigens on macrophage inflammatory responses. Herein we have compared a series of macrophage activation parameters in response to MAP and M. smegmatis as well as mycobacterial antigens. While IFN-γ did overcome the inhibition in immune suppressive mechanisms in response to MAP antigen as well as M. smegmatis, we could not find a clear role for IFN-γ in overcoming the inhibition of macrophage inflammatory responses to the pathogenic mycobacterium, MAP. We demonstrate that suppression of macrophage defence mechanisms by pathogenic mycobacteria is unlikely to be overcome by prior sensitization with IFN-γ alone. This indicates that IFN-γ signaling pathway-independent mechanisms may exist for overcoming inhibition of macrophage effector functions in response to pathogenic mycobacteria. These findings have important implications in understanding the survival mechanisms of pathogenic mycobacteria directed towards finding better therapeutics and vaccination strategies.

  15. Cytokine modulation by glucocorticoids: mechanisms and actions in cellular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsand, R; Linden, M

    1996-01-01

    Glucocorticoids inhibit the expression and action of most cytokines. This is part of the in vivo feed-back system between inflammation-derived cytokines and CNS-adrenal produced corticosteroids with the probable physiological relevance to balance parts of the host defence and anti-inflammatory systems of the body. Glucocorticoids modulate cytokine expression by a combination of genomic mechanisms. The activated glucocorticoid-receptor complex can (i) bind to and inactivate key proinflammatory transcription factors (e.g. AP-1, NF kappa B). This takes place at the promotor responsive elements of these factors, but has also been reported without the presence of DNA; (ii) via glucocorticoid responsive elements (GRE), upregulate the expression of cytokine inhibitory proteins, e.g. I kappa B, which inactivates the transcription factor NF kappa B and thereby the secondary expression of a series of cytokines; (iii) reduce the half-life time and utility of cytokine mRNAs. In studies with triggered human blood mononuclear cells in culture, glucocorticoids strongly diminish the production of the 'initial phase' cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha and the 'immunomodulatory' cytokines IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-gamma, as well as of IL-6, IL-8 and the growth factor GM-CSF. While steroid treatment broadly attenuates cytokine production, it cannot modulate it selectively, e.g. just the TH0, the TH1 or the TH2 pathways. The production of the 'anti-inflammatory' IL-10 is also inhibited. The exceptions of steroid down-regulatory activity on cytokine expression seem to affect 'repair phase' cytokines like TGF-beta and PDGF. These are even reported to be upregulated, which may explain the rather weak steroid dampening action on healing and fibrotic processes. Some growth factors, e.g. G-CSF and M-CSF, are only weakly affected. In addition to diminishing the production of a cytokine, steroids can also often inhibit its subsequent actions. Because cytokines work in

  16. Inflammation in the CNS and Th17 Responses Are Inhibited by IFN-{gamma}-Induced IL-18 Binding Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millward, Jason M; Pedersen, Morten Løbner; Wheeler, Rachel D

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory responses are essential for immune protection but may also cause pathology and must be regulated. Both Th1 and Th17 cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. We show in this study that IL-18-binding protein (IL-18bp......), the endogenous inhibitor of the Th1-promoting cytokine IL-18, is upregulated by IFN-gamma in resident microglial cells in the CNS during multiple sclerosis-like disease in mice. Test of function by overexpression of IL-18bp in the CNS using a viral vector led to marked reduction in Th17 responses and robust...... inhibition of incidence, severity, and histopathology of disease, independently of IFN-gamma. The disease-limiting action of IL-18bp included suppression of APC-derived Th17-polarizing cytokines. IL-18bp thus acts as a sensor for IFN-gamma and can regulate both Th1 and Th17 responses in the CNS....

  17. CD4 T-helper cell cytokine phenotypes and antibody response following tetanus toxoid booster immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routine methods for enumerating antigen-specific T-helper cells may not identify low-frequency phenotypes such as Th2 cells. We compared methods of evaluating such responses to identify tetanus toxoid- (TT) specific Th1, Th2, Th17 and IL10+ cells. Eight healthy subjects were given a TT booster vacci...

  18. Dissecting the T Cell Response: Proliferation Assays vs. Cytokine Signatures by ELISPOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Tary-Lehmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft rejection is in part mediated by host T cells that recognize allogeneic antigens on transplanted tissue. One factor that determines the outcome of a T cell response is clonal size, while another is the effector quality. Studies of alloimmune predictors of transplant graft survival have most commonly focused on only one measure of the alloimmune response. Because differing qualities and frequencies of the allospecific T cell response may provide distinctly different information we analyzed the relationship between frequency of soluble antigen and allo-antigen specific memory IFN-g secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells, their ability to secrete IL-2, and their proliferative capacity, while accounting for cognate and bystander proliferation. The results show proliferative responses primarily reflect on IL-2 production by antigen-specific T cells, and that proliferating cells in such assays entail a considerable fraction of bystander cells. On the other hand, proliferation (and IL-2 production did not reflect on the frequency of IFN-γ producing memory cells, a finding particularly accentuated in the CD8 T cell compartment. These data provide rationale for considering both frequency and effector function of pre-transplant T cell reactivity when analyzing immune predictors of graft rejection.

  19. Dissecting the T Cell Response: Proliferation Assays vs. Cytokine Signatures by ELISPOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Donald D.; Milkovich, Kimberly A.; Zhang, Wenji; Rodriguez, Benigno; Yonkers, Nicole L.; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena; Lehmann, Paul V.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic allograft rejection is in part mediated by host T cells that recognize allogeneic antigens on transplanted tissue. One factor that determines the outcome of a T cell response is clonal size, while another is the effector quality. Studies of alloimmune predictors of transplant graft survival have most commonly focused on only one measure of the alloimmune response. Because differing qualities and frequencies of the allospecific T cell response may provide distinctly different information we analyzed the relationship between frequency of soluble antigen and allo-antigen specific memory IFN-γ secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells, their ability to secrete IL-2, and their proliferative capacity, while accounting for cognate and bystander proliferation. The results show proliferative responses primarily reflect on IL-2 production by antigen-specific T cells, and that proliferating cells in such assays entail a considerable fraction of bystander cells. On the other hand, proliferation (and IL-2 production) did not reflect on the frequency of IFN-γ producing memory cells, a finding particularly accentuated in the CD8 T cell compartment. These data provide rationale for considering both frequency and effector function of pre-transplant T cell reactivity when analyzing immune predictors of graft rejection. PMID:24710419

  20. Inflammatory cytokines in the brain: does the CNS shape immune responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Renno, T; Taupin, V

    1994-01-01

    Immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS) have traditionally been regarded as representing the intrusion of an unruly, ill-behaved mob of leukocytes into the well-ordered and organized domain of thought and reason. However, results accumulated over the past few years suggest that, far ...

  1. Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes modulating the cytokine response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, Saskia; Meijerink, Marjolein; Molenaar, Douwe; Bron, Peter A.; de Vos, Paul; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wells, Jerry M.; Marco, Maria L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Modulation of the immune system is one of the most plausible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria on human health. Presently, the specific probiotic cell products responsible for immunomodulation are largely unknown. In this study, the genetic and phenotypic

  2. Antigen-Specific Interferon-Gamma Responses and Innate Cytokine Balance in TB-IRIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goovaerts, Odin; Jennes, Wim; Massinga-Loembé, Marguerite; Ceulemans, Ann; Worodria, William; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Colebunders, Robert; Kestens, Luc; Loembé, Marguerite Massinga; Mayanja, Harriet; Mascart, Francoise; van den Bergh, Rafael; Locht, Camille; Reiss, Peter; Cobelens, Frank; Ondoa, Pascale; Pakker, Nadine; Mugerwa, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) remains a poorly understood complication in HIV-TB patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). TB-IRIS could be associated with an exaggerated immune response to TB-antigens. We compared the recovery of

  3. Acute and chronic cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training in people with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Dalgas, Ulrik; Brolin Gade, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is a well-established part of rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), and it has been hypothesized to stimulate an anti-inflammatory environment that might be disease modifying. Yet, investigations on exercise-induced immune responses are scarce and generally not paying...

  4. Pre-existing adenovirus immunity modifies a complex mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response to an Ad5/HIV-1 vaccine candidate in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O Pine

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the recent Step Study highlight a need to clarify the effects of pre-existing natural immunity to a vaccine vector on vaccine-induced T-cell responses. To investigate this interaction, we examined the relationship between pre-existing Ad5 immunity and T-cell cytokine response profiles in healthy, HIV-uninfected recipients of MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine (HVTN 050, ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00849732. Participants were grouped by baseline Ad5 neutralizing antibody titer as either Ad5-seronegative (titer ≤18; n = 36 or Ad5-seropositive (titer >200; n = 34. Samples from vaccine recipients were analyzed for immune responses to either HIV-1 Gag peptide pools or Ad5 empty vector using an ex vivo assay that measures thirty cytokines in the absence of long-term culture. The overall profiles of cytokine responses to Gag and Ad5 had similar combinations of induced Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IP-10, IL-13, and IL-10, although the Ad5-specific responses were uniformly higher than the Gag-specific responses (p<0.0001 for 9 out of 11 significantly expressed analytes. At the peak response time point, PBMC from Ad5-seronegative vaccinees secreted significantly more IP-10 in response to Gag (p = 0.008, and significantly more IP-10 (p = 0.0009, IL-2 (p = 0.006 and IL-10 (p = 0.05 in response to Ad5 empty vector than PBMC from Ad5-seropositive vaccinees. Additionally, similar responses to the Ad5 vector prior to vaccination were observed in almost all subjects, regardless of Ad5 neutralizing antibody status, and the levels of secreted IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1Ra and GM-CSF were blunted following vaccination. The cytokine response profile of Gag-specific T cells mirrored the Ad5-specific response present in all subjects before vaccination, and included a number of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines not routinely assessed in current vaccine trials, such as IP-10, IL-10, IL-13, and GM-CSF. Together, these

  5. Acrolein inhibits cytokine gene expression by alkylating cysteine and arginine residues in the NF-kappaB1 DNA binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Cherie; Li, Jimei; Jonscher, Karen; Yang, Teng-Chieh; Reigan, Philip; Quintana, Megan; Harvey, Jean; Freed, Brian M

    2007-07-06

    Cigarette smoke is a potent inhibitor of pulmonary T cell responses, resulting in decreased immune surveillance and an increased incidence of respiratory tract infections. The alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes in cigarette smoke (acrolein and crotonaldehyde) inhibited production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by human T cells but did not inhibit production of IL-8. The saturated aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde) in cigarette smoke were inactive. Acrolein inhibited induction of NF-kappaB DNA binding activity after mitogenic stimulation of T cells but had no effect on induction of NFAT or AP-1. Acrolein inhibited NF-kappaB1 (p50) binding to the IL-2 promoter in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay by >99%. Using purified recombinant p50 in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we demonstrated that acrolein was 2000-fold more potent than crotonaldehyde in blocking DNA binding to an NF-kappaB consensus sequence. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated that acrolein alkylated two amino acids (Cys-61 and Arg-307) in the DNA binding domain. Crotonaldehyde reacted with Cys-61, but not Arg-307, whereas the saturated aldehydes in cigarette smoke did not react with p50. These experiments demonstrate that aldehydes in cigarette smoke can regulate gene expression by direct modification of a transcription factor.

  6. Hepcidin mediates transcriptional changes that modulate acute cytokine-induced inflammatory responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Ivana; Zhang, Tian Y; Koening, Curry L; Branch, Ryan W; London, Nyall; Lo, Eric; Daynes, Raymond A; Kushner, James P; Li, Dean; Ward, Diane M; Kaplan, Jerry

    2010-07-01

    Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that regulates iron homeostasis and acts as an antimicrobial peptide. It is expressed and secreted by a variety of cell types in response to iron loading and inflammation. Hepcidin mediates iron homeostasis by binding to the iron exporter ferroportin, inducing its internalization and degradation via activation of the protein kinase Jak2 and the subsequent phosphorylation of ferroportin. Here we have shown that hepcidin-activated Jak2 also phosphorylates the transcription factor Stat3, resulting in a transcriptional response. Hepcidin treatment of ferroportin-expressing mouse macrophages showed changes in mRNA expression levels of a wide variety of genes. The changes in transcript levels for half of these genes were a direct effect of hepcidin, as shown by cycloheximide insensitivity, and dependent on the presence of Stat3. Hepcidin-mediated transcriptional changes modulated LPS-induced transcription in both cultured macrophages and in vivo mouse models, as demonstrated by suppression of IL-6 and TNF-alpha transcript and secreted protein. Hepcidin-mediated transcription in mice also suppressed toxicity and morbidity due to single doses of LPS, poly(I:C), and turpentine, which is used to model chronic inflammatory disease. Most notably, we demonstrated that hepcidin pretreatment protected mice from a lethal dose of LPS and that hepcidin-knockout mice could be rescued from LPS toxicity by injection of hepcidin. The results of our study suggest a new function for hepcidin in modulating acute inflammatory responses.

  7. Celastrol Alleviates Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inhibits Th17 Responses in Obese Asthmatic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR is a clinical feature of asthma, which has been associated with obesity and has shown a poor response to standard asthma treatments such as glucocorticoids. Numerous studies have shown that Interleukin (IL-17 producing CD4+T cells (Th17 cells, which could be inhibited by celastrol, is essential in mediating steroid-resistant AHR. The following study investigates the impact of celastrol and its mechanism on the regulation of AHR in murine model of obesity and asthma. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA on day 1 and 13 starting from 12th week, which was followed by aerosol OVA challenge that lasted for 30 min per daily for 7 consecutive days starting from 16th week. Diet-induced obesity (DIO mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD for 16 weeks. Celastrol was administrated orally for 7 consecutive days, 30 min before every challenge in DIO-OVA-induced mice. Lung functions were analyzed by measuring the airway resistance (Rn and methacholine (MCh AHR, while H&E staining was used to examine histological changes in the lungs. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe IL-17A protein in lung tissues; flow cytometry to detect the proportion of Th17 cells in CD4+T cells. The concentration of cytokines IL-17A in serum was assessed by standardized sandwich ELISA, while the expression of IL-17A mRNA in lung was examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Briefly, our data indicated that celastrol reduced body mass in DIO-OVA-induced obesity and asthma. Both baseline Rn and MCh AHR were significantly lower in celastrol group. Moreover, celastrol treatment decreased the frequency of Th17 cell expansion and reduced the production of IL-17A in both lung and serum. To sum up, our findings indicated that Th17 and its cytokine measured in the spleen and lung were closely associated with AHR. In addition, celastrol has shown the ability to suppress AHR through Th17 inhibition in obese asthmatic

  8. MicroRNA-146a modulates human bronchial epithelial cell survival in response to the cytokine-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiangde; Nelson, Amy; Wang Xingqi; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Kim, Miok; Sato, Tadashi; Nakanishi, Masanori; Li Yingji; Sun Jianhong; Michalski, Joel; Patil, Amol; Basma, Hesham; Rennard, Stephen I.

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNA plays an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation and cell death. The current study found that miRNA-146a was up-regulated in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in response to stimulation by TGF-ss1 plus cytomix (a mixture of IL-1ss, IFN-γ and TNF-α). TGF-ss1 plus cytomix (TCM) induced apoptosis in HBECs (3.4 ± 0.6% of control vs 83.1 ± 4.0% of TCM treated cells, p < 0.01), and this was significantly blocked by the miRNA-146a mimic (8.8 ± 1.5%, p < 0.01). In contrast, a miRNA-146a inhibitor had only a modest effect on cell survival but appeared to augment the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to the cytokines. The MicroRNA-146a mimic appears to modulate HBEC survival through a mechanism of up-regulating Bcl-XL and STAT3 phosphorylation, and by this mechanism it could contribute to tissue repair and remodeling.

  9. Canonical and Non-Canonical Aspects of JAK-STAT Signaling: Lessons from Interferons for Cytokine Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majoros, Andrea; Platanitis, Ekaterini; Kernbauer-Hölzl, Elisabeth; Rosebrock, Felix; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signal transduction mediates cytokine responses. Canonical signaling is based on STAT tyrosine phosphorylation by activated JAKs. Downstream of interferon (IFN) receptors, activated JAKs cause the formation of the transcription factors IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), a heterotrimer of STAT1, STAT2 and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) subunits, and gamma interferon-activated factor (GAF), a STAT1 homodimer. In recent years, several deviations from this paradigm were reported. These include kinase-independent JAK functions as well as extra- and intranuclear activities of U-STATs without phosphotyrosines. Additionally, transcriptional control by STAT complexes resembling neither GAF nor ISGF3 contributes to transcriptome changes in IFN-treated cells. Our review summarizes the contribution of non-canonical JAK-STAT signaling to the innate antimicrobial immunity imparted by IFN. Moreover, we touch upon functions of IFN pathway proteins beyond the IFN response. These include metabolic functions of IRF9 as well as the regulation of natural killer cell activity by kinase-dead TYK2 and different phosphorylation isoforms of STAT1.

  10. Canonical and Non-Canonical Aspects of JAK–STAT Signaling: Lessons from Interferons for Cytokine Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majoros, Andrea; Platanitis, Ekaterini; Kernbauer-Hölzl, Elisabeth; Rosebrock, Felix; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signal transduction mediates cytokine responses. Canonical signaling is based on STAT tyrosine phosphorylation by activated JAKs. Downstream of interferon (IFN) receptors, activated JAKs cause the formation of the transcription factors IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), a heterotrimer of STAT1, STAT2 and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) subunits, and gamma interferon-activated factor (GAF), a STAT1 homodimer. In recent years, several deviations from this paradigm were reported. These include kinase-independent JAK functions as well as extra- and intranuclear activities of U-STATs without phosphotyrosines. Additionally, transcriptional control by STAT complexes resembling neither GAF nor ISGF3 contributes to transcriptome changes in IFN-treated cells. Our review summarizes the contribution of non-canonical JAK–STAT signaling to the innate antimicrobial immunity imparted by IFN. Moreover, we touch upon functions of IFN pathway proteins beyond the IFN response. These include metabolic functions of IRF9 as well as the regulation of natural killer cell activity by kinase-dead TYK2 and different phosphorylation isoforms of STAT1. PMID:28184222

  11. High Sensitivity of Aged Mice to Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)-Induced Anorexia Corresponds to Elevated Proinflammatory Cytokine and Satiety Hormone Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erica S; Flannery, Brenna M; Gardner, Elizabeth M; Pestka, James J

    2015-10-19

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal grains, is a public health concern because of its adverse effects on the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The objective of this study was to compare effects of DON on anorectic responses in aged (22 mos) and adult (3 mos) mice. Aged mice showed increased feed refusal with both acute i.p. (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and dietary (1, 2.5, 10 ppm) DON exposure in comparison to adult mice. In addition to greater suppression of food intake from dietary DON exposure, aged mice also exhibited greater but transient body weight suppression. When aged mice were acutely exposed to 1 mg/kg bw DON i.p., aged mice displayed elevated DON and DON3GlcA tissue levels and delayed clearance in comparison with adult mice. Acute DON exposure also elicited higher proinflammatory cytokine and satiety hormone responses in the plasma of the aged group compared with the adult group. Increased susceptibility to DON-induced anorexia in aged mice relative to adult mice suggests that advanced life stage could be a critical component in accurate human risk assessments for DON and other trichothecenes.

  12. High Sensitivity of Aged Mice to Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin-Induced Anorexia Corresponds to Elevated Proinflammatory Cytokine and Satiety Hormone Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. Clark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, a trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal grains, is a public health concern because of its adverse effects on the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The objective of this study was to compare effects of DON on anorectic responses in aged (22 mos and adult (3 mos mice. Aged mice showed increased feed refusal with both acute i.p. (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg and dietary (1, 2.5, 10 ppm DON exposure in comparison to adult mice. In addition to greater suppression of food intake from dietary DON exposure, aged mice also exhibited greater but transient body weight suppression. When aged mice were acutely exposed to 1 mg/kg bw DON i.p., aged mice displayed elevated DON and DON3GlcA tissue levels and delayed clearance in comparison with adult mice. Acute DON exposure also elicited higher proinflammatory cytokine and satiety hormone responses in the plasma of the aged group compared with the adult group. Increased susceptibility to DON-induced anorexia in aged mice relative to adult mice suggests that advanced life stage could be a critical component in accurate human risk assessments for DON and other trichothecenes.

  13. Cytokine responses to novel antigens in a peri-urban population in Brazil exposed to Leishmania infantum chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, Carmel B; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Pontes, Nubia N; Miller, E Nancy; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2012-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if untreated, and there are no vaccines for this disease. High levels of CD4-derived interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the presence of low levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) predicts vaccine success. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is also important in this process. We characterized human immune responses in three groups exposed to Leishmania infantum chagasi in Brazil: 1) drug-cured VL patients (recovered VL); 2) asymptomatic persons with positive Leishmania-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions (DTH+); and 3) DTH-negative household contacts. Magnitude of DTH correlated with crude Leishmania antigen-driven IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-5, but not IL-10. DTH+ persons showed equivalent levels of IFN-γ, but higher levels of IL-10, to tryparedoxin peroxidase and Leishmania homolog of receptor for activated C kinase compared with recovered VL patients. The IFN-γ:IL-10 and TNF-α:IL-10 ratios were higher in recovered VL patients than in DTH+ persons. Seven of 11 novel candidates (R71, L37, N52, L302.06, M18, J41, and M22) elicited cytokine responses (36-71% of responders) in recovered VL patients and DTH+ persons. This result confirmed their putative status as cross-species vaccine/immunotherapeutic candidates.

  14. A novel immune-to-CNS communication pathway: cells of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord CSF space produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to an inflammatory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieseler-Frank, Julie; Jekich, Brian M; Mahoney, John H; Bland, Sondra T; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2007-07-01

    Pain is enhanced in response to elevations of proinflammatory cytokines in spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), following either intrathecal injection of these cytokines or intrathecal immune challenge with HIV-1 gp120 that induces cytokine release. Spinal cord glia have been assumed to be the source of endogenous proinflammatory cytokines that enhance pain. However, assuming that spinal cord glia are the sole source of CSF cytokines may be an underestimate, as the cellular composition of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord CSF space includes several cell types known to produce proinflammatory cytokines. The present experiments provide the first investigation of the immunocompetent nature of the spinal cord meninges. Here, we explore whether rat meninges are responsive to intrathecal gp120. These studies demonstrate that: (a) intrathecal gp120 upregulates meningeal gene expression of proinflammatory signals, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and (b) intrathecal gp120 induces meningeal release of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6. In addition, stimulation of isolated meninges in vitro with gp120 induced the release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, indicating that the resident cells of the meninges are able to respond without immune cell recruitment. Taken together, these data document that the meninges are responsive to immunogenic stimuli in the CSF and that the meninges may be a source of immune products detected in CSF. The ability of the meninges to release to proinflammatory signals suggests a potential role in the modulation of pain.

  15. Effect of nutrient deficiencies on in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Plasmodium falciparum infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbugi, E.V.; Meijerink, M.; Veenemans, J.; Jeurink, P.V.; McCall, M.; Olomi, R.M.; Shao, J.F.; Chilongola, J.; Verhoef, H.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - An appropriate balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that mediate innate and adaptive immune responses is required for effective protection against human malaria and to avoid immunopathology. In malaria endemic countries, this immunological balance may be

  16. Heterogeneity in both cytokine production and responsiveness of a panel of monoclonal human Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochems, G. J.; Klein, M. R.; Jordens, R.; Pascual-Salcedo, D.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; van Lier, R. A.; Zeijlemaker, W. P.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize growth and Ig production of in vitro-cultured Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cells, a panel of six monoclonal EBV B-cell lines was analyzed for autocrine growth factor production and responsiveness to various cytokines. Three cell lines produced Il-I and four produced Il-6,

  17. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Ingmer, Hanne; Madsen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhoea in humans and is considered a commensal of the gastroenteric tract of the avian host. However, little is known about the interaction between C. jejuni and the avian host including the cytokine responses and the expression...

  18. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Nederkoorn, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking

  19. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Chisato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Sato, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru.sato@affrc.go.jp [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Oshima, Takuma [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Takenouchi, Takato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Chiba, Joe [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Kitani, Hiroshi [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies.

  20. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Chisato; Sato, Mitsuru; Oshima, Takuma; Takenouchi, Takato; Chiba, Joe; Kitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies

  1. IRAK-M expression limits dendritic cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine production in response to Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Shiu

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infects the gastric mucosa and persists for the life of the host. Bacterial persistence may be due to the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs whichmay have protective effects against other diseases such as asthma. It has been shown that H. pylori modulates the T cell response through dendritic cell reprogramming but the molecular pathways involved are relatively unknown. The goal of this study was to identify critical elements of dendritic cell (DC activation and evaluate potential influence on immune activation. Microarray analysis was used to demonstrate limited gene expression changes in H. pylori stimulated bone marrow derived DCs (BMDCs compared to the BMDCs stimulated with E. coli. IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, was upregulated and we selectedit for investigation of its role in modulating the DC and T cell responses. IRAK-M(-/- and wild type BMDC were compared for their response to H. pylori. Cells lacking IRAK-M produced significantly greater amounts of proinflammatory MIP-2 and reduced amounts of immunomodulatory IL-10 than wild type BMDC. IRAK-M(-/- cells also demonstrated increased MHC II expression upon activation. However, IRAK-M(-/- BMDCs were comparable to wild type BMDCs in inducing T-helper 17 (TH17 and Treg responses as demonstrated in vitro using BMDC CD4+ T cells co-culture assays,and in vivo though the adoptive transfer of CD4(+ FoxP3-GFP T cells into H. pylori infected IRAK-M(-/- mice. These results suggest that H. pylori infection leads to the upregulation of anti-inflammatory molecules like IRAK-M and that IRAK-M has a direct impact on innate functions in DCs such as cytokine and costimulation molecule upregulation but may not affect T cell skewing.

  2. Modulation of radiation response by histone deacetylase inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Vallabhaneni, Geetha; Armstrong, Eric M.S.; Huang, Shyh-Min; Harari, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which modulate chromatin structure and gene expression, represent a class of anticancer agents that hold particular potential as radiation sensitizers. In this study, we examine the capacity of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) to modulate radiation response in human tumor cell lines and explore potential mechanisms underlying these interactions. Methods and materials: Cell proliferation: Exponentially growing tumor cells were incubated in medium containing 0-10 μM of SAHA for 72 h. Cells were fixed/stained with crystal violet to estimate cell viability. Apoptosis: Caspase activity was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy using a fluorescein labeled pan-caspase inhibitor. Cells were harvested after 48 h of exposure to SAHA (1.0 μM), radiation (6 Gy), or the combination. Whole cell lysates were evaluated for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage by western blot analysis. Radiation survival: Cells were exposed to varying doses of radiation ± 3 days pretreatment with SAHA (0.75-1.0 μM). After incubation intervals of 14-21 days, colonies were stained with crystal violet and manually counted. Immunocytochemistry: Cells were grown and treated in chamber slides. At specified times after treatment with SAHA, cells were fixed in paraformaldehyde, permeabilized in methanol, and probed with primary and secondary antibody solutions. Slides were analyzed using an epifluorescent microscope. Results: SAHA induced a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in human prostate (DU145) and glioma (U373vIII) cancer cell lines. Exposure to SAHA enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis as measured by caspase activity (p < 0.05) and PARP cleavage. The impact of SAHA on radiation response was further characterized using clonogenic survival analysis, which demonstrated that treatment with SAHA reduced tumor survival after radiation exposure. We identified several oncoproteins and DNA damage repair proteins

  3. Erythropoietin augments the cytokine response to acute endotoxin-induced inflammation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Taudorf, Sarah; Lundby, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    in a human in vivo model of acute systemic low-grade inflammation, we measured circulating inflammatory mediators after intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS) bolus injection (0.1 ng/kg of body weight) in young healthy male subjects. The subjects were divided into three groups...... receiving either (1) LPS alone, (2) EPO alone (15,000 IE of rHuEPO) or (3) EPO and LPS. Endotoxin administration alone induced a 3-, 12- and 5-fold increase in plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10, respectively, 3h after LPS challenge. When EPO was given prior to a bolus injection...... with endotoxin, the levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were enhanced by 5- and 40-fold, respectively, whereas the endotoxin-induced increase in IL-10 response was not influenced by EPO. In contrast to our hypothesis, we find that EPO augments the acute inflammatory effect....

  4. Naja naja atra venom ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting inflammatory response and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kui; Kou, Jian-Qun; Gu, Jin-Hua; Han, Rong; Wang, Guanghui; Zhen, Xuechu; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2014-12-02

    Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) displays diverse pharmacological actions including analgesia, anti-inflammation and immune regulation.In this study, we investigated the effects of NNAV on pulmonary fibrosis and its mechanisms of action. To determine if Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) can produce beneficial effects on pulmonary fibrosis, two marine models of pulmonary fibrosis were produced with bleomycin (BLM) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). NNAV (30, 90, 270 μg/kg) was orally administered once a day started five days before BLM and LPS until to the end of experiment. The effects of NNAV treatment on pulmonary injury were evaluated with arterial blood gas analysis, hydroxyproline (HYP) content assessment and HE/Masson staining. The effects of NNAV treatment on inflammatory related cytokines, fibrosis related TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway and oxidative stress were examined. The results showed that NNAV improved the lung gas-exchange function and attenuated the fibrotic lesions in lung. NNAV decreased IL-1β and TNF-α levels in serum in both pulmonary fibrosis models. NNAV inhibited the activation of NF-κB in LPS-induced and TGF-β/Smad pathway in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Additionally, NNAV also increased the levels of SOD and GSH and reduced the levels of MDA in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis model. The present study indicates that NNAV attenuates LPS- and BLM-induced lung fibrosis. Its mechanisms of action are associated with inhibiting inflammatory response and oxidative stress. The study suggests that NNAV might be a potential therapeutic drug for treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Cigarette smoke alters the invariant natural killer T cell function and may inhibit anti-tumor responses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Andrew E

    2011-09-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a minor subset of human T cells which express the invariant T cell receptor Vα24 Jα18 and recognize glycolipids presented on CD1d. Invariant NKT cells are important immune regulators and can initiate anti-tumor responses through early potent cytokine production. Studies show that iNKT cells are defective in certain cancers. Cigarette smoke contains many carcinogens and is implicated directly and indirectly in many cancers. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke on the circulating iNKT cell number and function. We found that the iNKT cell frequency is significantly reduced in cigarette smoking subjects. Invariant NKT cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) showed significant defects in cytokine production and the ability to kill target cells. CSE inhibits the upregulation of CD107 but not CD69 or CD56 on iNKT cells. These findings suggest that CSE has a specific effect on iNKT cell anti-tumor responses, which may contribute to the role of smoking in the development of cancer.

  6. Inhibition of EGF processing in responsive and nonresponsive human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudies, R.P.; Wray, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the proteolytic processing of radiolabeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) in EGF growth-responsive human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) versus EGF nonresponsive human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL). Previous studies have shown that both cell lines demonstrate similar binding affinities and numbers of binding sites, as well as similar rates of internalization and degradation of the bound, radiolabeled hormone. We have used nondenaturing electrophoresis to compare how these two cell lines process EGF at its carboxy terminus. EGF lacking either one [des-(53)-EGF] or six [des (48-53)-EGF] carboxy terminal amino acids could be distinguished by this method. Chloroquine or leupeptin were added to the incubation system in an attempt to accentuate potential differences in hormonal processing between the responsive and nonresponsive cell lines. In the absence of inhibitors, the responsive and nonresponsive cells generated similar distributions of processed forms of EGF after 30-minutes incubation. However, after 4-hours incubation in the constant presence of 125I-EGF, the electrophoretic profiles of extracted hormone were substantially different. The radiolabel within the responsive cells, as well as that released from them, migrated predominantly at the dye front, indicating complete degradation of EGF. In contrast, the majority of the radiolabel within the nonresponsive cells migrated as partially processed forms of hormone, while the released radiolabel migrated at the dye front. Addition of chloroquine to either cell line inhibited processing of EGF beyond removal of the carboxyl terminal arginine residue. Both intact 125I-EGF, and 125I-EGF lacking the carboxyl terminal arginine were released from chloroquine-treated cells in a ratio equal to that present in the intact cells

  7. Cytokine responses to the anti-schistosome vaccine candidate antigen glutathione-S-transferase vary with host age and are boosted by praziquantel treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire D Bourke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Improved helminth control is required to alleviate the global burden of schistosomiasis and schistosome-associated pathologies. Current control efforts rely on the anti-helminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ, which enhances immune responses to crude schistosome antigens but does not prevent re-infection. An anti-schistosome vaccine based on Schistosoma haematobium glutathione-S-transferase (GST is currently in Phase III clinical trials, but little is known about the immune responses directed against this antigen in humans naturally exposed to schistosomes or how these responses change following PZQ treatment.Blood samples from inhabitants of a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area were incubated for 48 hours with or without GST before (n = 195 and six weeks after PZQ treatment (n = 107. Concentrations of cytokines associated with innate inflammatory (TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, type 1 (Th1; IFNγ, IL-2, IL-12p70, type 2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, type 17 (IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23p19 and regulatory (IL-10 responses were quantified in culture supernatants via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to analyse multiple cytokines simultaneously.A combination of GST-specific type 2 (IL-5 and IL-13 and regulatory (IL-10 cytokines was significantly lower in 10-12 year olds, the age group at which S. haematobium infection intensity and prevalence peak, than in 4-9 or 13+ year olds. Following PZQ treatment there was an increase in the number of participants producing detectable levels of GST-specific cytokines (TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-13 and IL-23p19 and also a shift in the GST-specific cytokine response towards a more pro-inflammatory phenotype than that observed before treatment. Participant age and pre-treatment infection status significantly influenced post-treatment cytokine profiles.In areas where schistosomiasis is endemic host age, schistosome infection status and PZQ treatment affect the

  8. Cytokine Response to Diet and Exercise Affects Atheromatous Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/9 Activity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Soo-Min; Jang, Hee Jeong; Schellingerhout, Dawid; Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Jiwon; Park, Jin-Yong; Oh, Ji Hye; Kang, Jeong Wook; Je, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jung E; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Lee, Juneyoung; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Park, Jong-Ho; Kim, Dong-Eog

    2017-09-25

    The aim of this study is to identify the principal circulating factors that modulate atheromatous matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in response to diet and exercise.Methods and Results:Apolipoprotein-E knock-out (ApoE -/- ) mice (n=56) with pre-existing plaque, fed either a Western diet (WD) or normal diet (ND), underwent either 10 weeks of treadmill exercise or had no treatment. Atheromatous MMP activity was visualized using molecular imaging with a MMP-2/9 activatable near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) probe. Exercise did not significantly reduce body weight, visceral fat, and plaque size in either WD-fed animals or ND-fed animals. However, atheromatous MMP-activity was different; ND animals that did or did not exercise had similarly low MMP activities, WD animals that did not exercise had high MMP activity, and WD animals that did exercise had reduced levels of MMP activity, close to the levels of ND animals. Factor analysis and path analysis showed that soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was directly positively correlated to atheromatous MMP activity. Adiponectin was indirectly negatively related to atheromatous MMP activity by way of sVCAM-1. Resistin was indirectly positively related to atheromatous MMP activity by way of sVCAM-1. Visceral fat amount was indirectly positively associated with atheromatous MMP activity, by way of adiponectin reduction and resistin elevation. MMP-2/9 imaging of additional mice (n=18) supported the diet/exercise-related anti-atherosclerotic roles for sVCAM-1. Diet and exercise affect atheromatous MMP activity by modulating the systemic inflammatory milieu, with sVCAM-1, resistin, and adiponectin closely interacting with each other and with visceral fat.

  9. Inhibition of the Unfolded Protein Response Mechanism Prevents Cardiac Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Groenendyk

    Full Text Available Cardiac fibrosis attributed to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins is a major cause of heart failure and death. Cardiac fibrosis is extremely difficult and challenging to treat in a clinical setting due to lack of understanding of molecular mechanisms leading to cardiac fibrosis and effective anti-fibrotic therapies. The objective in this study was to examine whether unfolded protein response (UPR pathway mediates cardiac fibrosis and whether a pharmacological intervention to modulate UPR can prevent cardiac fibrosis and preserve heart function.We demonstrate here that the mechanism leading to development of fibrosis in a mouse with increased expression of calreticulin, a model of heart failure, stems from impairment of endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis, transient activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR pathway and stimulation of the TGFβ1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Remarkably, sustained pharmacologic inhibition of the UPR pathway by tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA is sufficient to prevent cardiac fibrosis, and improved exercise tolerance.We show that the mechanism leading to development of fibrosis in a mouse model of heart failure stems from transient activation of UPR pathway leading to persistent remodelling of cardiac tissue. Blocking the activation of the transiently activated UPR pathway by TUDCA prevented cardiac fibrosis, and improved prognosis. These findings offer a window for additional interventions that can preserve heart function.

  10. Human bladder uroepithelial cells synergize with monocytes to promote IL-10 synthesis and other cytokine responses to uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Duell

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are a major source of morbidity for women and the elderly, with Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC being the most prevalent causative pathogen. Studies in recent years have defined a key anti-inflammatory role for Interleukin-10 (IL-10 in urinary tract infection mediated by UPEC and other uropathogens. We investigated the nature of the IL-10-producing interactions between UPEC and host cells by utilising a novel co-culture model that incorporated lymphocytes, mononuclear and uroepithelial cells in histotypic proportions. This co-culture model demonstrated synergistic IL-10 production effects between monocytes and uroepithelial cells following infection with UPEC. Membrane inserts were used to separate the monocyte and uroepithelial cell types during infection and revealed two synergistic IL-10 production effects based on contact-dependent and soluble interactions. Analysis of a comprehensive set of immunologically relevant biomarkers in monocyte-uroepithelial cell co-cultures highlighted that multiple cytokine, chemokine and signalling factors were also produced in a synergistic or antagonistic fashion. These results demonstrate that IL-10 responses to UPEC occur via multiple interactions between several cells types, implying a complex role for infection-related IL-10 during UTI. Development and application of the co-culture model described in this study is thus useful to define the degree of contact dependency of biomarker production to UPEC, and highlights the relevance of histotypic co-cultures in studying complex host-pathogen interactions.

  11. Synergistic immune responses induced by endogenous retrovirus and herpesvirus antigens result in increased production of inflammatory cytokines in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, T; Christensen, T; Hansen, H J

    2008-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) and herpesviruses are increasingly associated with the pathogenesis of the neurological inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Herpesviruses are capable of HERV activation and simultaneous presence of HERV and herpesvirus antigens have a synergistic...... effect on cell-mediated immune responses, which tend to be higher in MS patients in comparison with healthy individuals. Here, we investigate whether these synergistic immune responses are reflected in changes in the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...

  12. Effects of temperature-humidity index and chromium supplementation on antioxidant capacity, heat shock protein 72, and cytokine responses of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F J; Weng, X G; Wang, J F; Zhou, D; Zhang, W; Zhai, C C; Hou, Y X; Zhu, Y H

    2014-07-01

    Heat stress adversely affects the productivity and immune status of dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is commonly used to indicate the degree of heat stress on dairy cattle. We investigated the effects of different THI and Cr supplementation on the antioxidant capacity, the levels of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72), and cytokine responses of lactating cows. The study used a total of 24 clinically healthy uniparous midlactation Holstein cows, which were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 12 per group), and was conducted in 3 designated THI periods: low THI period (LTHI; THI = 56.4 ± 2.5), moderate THI period (MTHI; THI = 73.9 ± 1.7), and high THI period (HTHI; THI = 80.3 ± 1.0). The 2 groups of cows were fed corn and corn silage based basal diet supplemented chromium picolinate to provide 3.5 mg of Cr/cow daily (Cr+) or basal diet with no Cr (Cr-). The experiment was a 3 × 2 factorial design. The numbers of leukocytes (P Cows supplemented with Cr had lower (P = 0.009) serum concentrations of cholesterol but greater (P cows supplemented with Cr had greater (P = 0.038) expression of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B α (IκBα) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) compared with those without Cr supplementation in the HTHI, whereas the expression of Hsp72 in PBMC was unaltered. Data indicate that there is a decrease in glucose and increases in BUN and creatinine in the serum of midlactation cows under hot conditions during the summer and that these cows have a lowered oxidative capacity but an elevated antioxidant capacity. In addition, Cr may play an anti-inflammatory role in lactating cows by promoting the release of Hsp72, increasing the production of IL-10, and inhibiting the degradation of IκBα under hot conditions during the summer.

  13. The effect of methylphenidate on three forms of response inhibition in boys with AD/HD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, A.; Oosterlaan, J.; Swanson, J.; Morein-Zamir, S.; Meiran, N.; Schut, H.; Vlasveld, L.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The current study was aimed at (a) investigating the effect of three doses methylphenidate (MPH) and placebo on inhibition of a prepotent response, inhibition of an ongoing response, and interference control in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), and (b) studying dose-response

  14. Behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta is related to the airways response, but not immune measures, commonly associated with asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Chun

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition reflects a disposition to react warily to novel situations, and has been associated with atopic diseases such as asthma. Retrospective work established the relationship between behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and airway hyperresponsiveness, but not atopy, and the suggestion was made that behavioral inhibition might index components of asthma that are not immune-related. In the present study, we prospectively examined the relationship between behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and whether hormonal and immune measures often associated with asthma were associated with behavioral inhibition and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. In a sample of 49 yearling rhesus monkeys (mean=1.25 years, n=24 behaviorally inhibited animals, we measured in vitro cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ in response to stimulation, as well as peripheral blood cell percentages, cortisol levels, and percentage of regulatory T-cells (CD3+CD4+CD25+FOXP3+. Airway reactivity was assessed using an inhaled methacholine challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the proportion of immune cells was determined. Behaviorally inhibited monkeys had airway hyperresponsiveness as indicated by the methacholine challenge (p=0.031, confirming our earlier retrospective result. Airway hyperresponsiveness was also associated with lower lymphocyte percentages in lavage fluid and marginally lower plasma cortisol concentrations. However, none of the tested measures was significantly related to both behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and so could not mediate their relationship. Airway hyperresponsiveness is common to atopic and non-atopic asthma and behavioral inhibition has been related to altered autonomic activity in other studies. Our results suggest that behavioral inhibition might index an autonomically mediated reactive airway phenotype, and that a variety of stimuli (including inflammation within

  15. NNZ-2566 treatment inhibits neuroinflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression induced by experimental penetrating ballistic-like brain injury in rats

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    Tortella Frank C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI, exerting either deleterious effects on the progression of tissue damage or beneficial roles during recovery and repair. NNZ-2566, a synthetic analogue of the neuroprotective tripeptide Glypromate®, has been shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of brain injury. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of NNZ-2566 on inflammatory cytokine expression and neuroinflammation induced by penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI in rats. Methods NNZ-2566 or vehicle (saline was administered intravenously as a bolus injection (10 mg/kg at 30 min post-injury, immediately followed by a continuous infusion of NNZ-2566 (3 mg/kg/h, or equal volume of vehicle, for various durations. Inflammatory cytokine gene expression from the brain tissue of rats exposed to PBBI was evaluated using microarray, quantitative real time PCR (QRT-PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA array. Histopathology of the injured brains was examined using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and immunocytochemistry of inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Results NNZ-2566 treatment significantly reduced injury-mediated up-regulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, E-selectin and IL-6 mRNA during the acute injury phase. ELISA cytokine array showed that NZ-2566 treatment significantly reduced levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ in the injured brain, but did not affect anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 levels. Conclusion Collectively, these results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of NNZ-2566 may, in part, be functionally attributed to the compound's ability to modulate expression of multiple neuroinflammatory mediators in the injured brain.

  16. Illicium verum Extract and Trans-Anethole Attenuate Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation via Enhancement of Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells and Inhibition of Th2 Cytokines in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Young Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Illicium verum is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. The study investigates the effects of IVE and its component, trans-anethole (AET, on airway inflammation in ovalbumin- (OVA- induced asthmatic mice. Asthma was induced in BALB/c mice by systemic sensitization to OVA, followed by intratracheal, intraperitoneal, and aerosol allergen challenges. IVE and AET were orally administered for four weeks. We investigated the effects of treatment on airway hyperresponsiveness, IgE production, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, immune cell phenotypes, Th2 cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage, Th1/Th2 cytokine production in splenocytes, forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3 expression, and lung histology. IVE and AET ameliorated OVA-driven airway hyperresponsiveness (p<0.01, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration (p<0.05, mucus hypersecretion (p<0.01, and IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and CCR3 production (p<0.05, as well as IgE levels (p<0.01. IVE and AET increased Foxp3 expression in lungs (p<0.05. IVE and AET reduced IL-4 and increased IFN-γ production in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures (p<0.05. Histological studies showed that IVE and AET inhibited eosinophilia and lymphocyte infiltration in lungs (p<0.01. These results indicate that IVE and AET exert antiasthmatic effects through upregulation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and inhibition of Th2 cytokines, suggesting that IVE may be a potential therapeutic agent for allergic lung inflammation.

  17. Aloin Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis by Inhibiting the Activation of NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous herbal-derived natural products are excellent anti-inflammatory agents. Several studies have reported that aloin, the major anthraquinone glycoside obtained from the Aloe species, exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism of this activity is not well understood. In this report, we found that aloin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and nitric oxide production, and downregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Aloin inhibits the phosphorylation and acetylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit by suppressing the upstream kinases p38 and Msk1, preventing LPS-induced p65 translocation to the nucleus. We have also shown that aloin inhibits LPS-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these findings suggest that aloin effectively suppresses the inflammatory response, primarily through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling.

  18. High dose of plasmid IL-15 inhibits immune responses in an influenza non-human primates immunogenicity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jiangmei; Dai Anlan; Laddy, Dominick J.; Yan Jian; Arango, Tatiana; Khan, Amir S.; Lewis, Mark G.; Andersen, Hanne; Kutzler, Michele A.; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Weiner, David B.; Boyer, Jean D.

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15, is a cytokine that is important for the maintenance of long-lasting, high-avidity T cell response to invading pathogens and has, therefore, been used in vaccine and therapeutic platforms as an adjuvant. In addition to pure protein delivery, plasmids encoding the IL-15 gene have been utilized. However, it is critical to determine the appropriate dose to maximize the adjuvanting effects. We immunized rhesus macaques with different doses of IL-15 expressing plasmid in an influenza non-human primate immunogenicity model. We found that co-immunization of rhesus macaques with a Flu DNA-based vaccine and low doses of plasmid encoding macaque IL-15 enhanced the production of IFN-γ (0.5 mg) and the proliferation of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, as well as T CM levels in proliferating CD8 + T cells (0.25 mg). Whereas, high doses of IL-15 (4 mg) decrease the production of IFN-γ and the proliferation of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and T CM levels in the proliferating CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. In addition, the data of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer suggest that although not significantly different, there appears to be a slight increase in antibodies at lower doses of IL-15. Importantly, however, the higher doses of IL-15 decrease the antibody levels significantly. This study demonstrates the importance of optimizing DNA-based cytokine adjuvants.

  19. Training and Transfer Effects of Response Inhibition Training in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Chen, Ling; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2018-01-01

    Response inhibition is crucial for mental and physical health but studies assessing the trainability of this type of inhibition are rare. Thirty-nine children aged 10-12 years and 46 adults aged 18-24 years were assigned to an adaptive go/no-go inhibition training condition or an active control condition. Transfer of training effects to…

  20. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A Sharafeldin

    Full Text Available Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain. Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi. Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  1. Reinforcement and stimulant medication ameliorate deficient response inhibition in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, Keri S.; Fosco, Whitney D.; Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Bubnik, Michelle G.; Hawk, Larry W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which reinforcement, stimulant medication, and their combination impact response inhibition in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Across three studies, participants with ADHD (n=111, 25 girls) and typically-developing (TD) controls (n=33, 6 girls) completed a standard version of the stop signal task (SST) and/or a reinforcement-manipulation SST with performance-contingent points. In two of these studies, these tasks were performed under placebo or 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH) conditions. Cross-study comparisons were conducted to test hypotheses regarding the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and methylphenidate on response inhibition among children with ADHD relative to TD controls. Baseline response inhibition was worse among children with ADHD compared to controls. MPH produced dose-related improvements in response inhibition in children with ADHD; compared to non-medicated TD controls, 0.3 mg/kg MPH normalized deficient response inhibition, and 0.6 mg/kg MPH resulted in better inhibition in children with ADHD. Reinforcement improved response inhibition to a greater extent for children with ADHD than for TD children, normalizing response inhibition. The combination of MPH and reinforcement improved response inhibition among children with ADHD compared to reinforcement alone and MPH alone, also resulting in normalization of response inhibition despite repeated task exposure. Deficient response inhibition commonly observed in children with ADHD is significantly improved with MPH and/or reinforcement, normalizing inhibition relative to TD children tested under standard conditions. PMID:25985978

  2. Frontal White Matter Damage Impairs Response Inhibition in Children Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipszyc, Jonathan; Levin, Harvey; Hanten, Gerri; Hunter, Jill; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition, the ability to suppress inappropriate cognitions or behaviors, can be measured using computer tasks and questionnaires. Inhibition depends on the frontal cortex, but the role of the underlying white matter (WM) is unclear. We assessed the specific impact of frontal WM damage on inhibition in 29 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (15 with and 14 without frontal WM damage), 21 children with orthopedic injury, and 29 population controls. We used the Stop Signal Task to measure response inhibition, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function to assess everyday inhibition, and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging to identify lesions. Children with frontal WM damage had impaired response inhibition compared with all other groups and poorer everyday inhibition than the orthopedic injury group. Frontal WM lesions most often affected the superior frontal gyrus. These results provide evidence for the critical role of frontal WM in inhibition. PMID:24618405

  3. Human metapneumovirus M2-2 protein inhibits innate immune response in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Ren

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Repeated hMPV infections occur throughout life. However, immune evasion mechanisms of hMPV infection are largely unknown. Recently, our group has demonstrated that hMPV M2-2 protein, an important virulence factor, contributes to immune evasion in airway epithelial cells by targeting the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS. Whether M2-2 regulates the innate immunity in human dendritic cells (DC, an important family of immune cells controlling antigen presenting, is currently unknown. We found that human DC infected with a virus lacking M2-2 protein expression (rhMPV-ΔM2-2 produced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and IFNs, compared to cells infected with wild-type virus (rhMPV-WT, suggesting that M2-2 protein inhibits innate immunity in human DC. In parallel, we found that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, an essential adaptor for Toll-like receptors (TLRs, plays a critical role in inducing immune response of human DC, as downregulation of MyD88 by siRNA blocked the induction of immune regulatory molecules by hMPV. Since M2-2 is a cytoplasmic protein, we investigated whether M2-2 interferes with MyD88-mediated antiviral signaling. We found that indeed M2-2 protein associated with MyD88 and inhibited MyD88-dependent gene transcription. In this study, we also identified the domains of M2-2 responsible for its immune inhibitory function in human DC. In summary, our results demonstrate that M2-2 contributes to hMPV immune evasion by inhibiting MyD88-dependent cellular responses in human DC.

  4. Clinical signs and hematologic, cytokine, and plasma nitric oxide alterations in response to Strongylus vulgaris infection in helminth-naïve ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jeremy D; Seahorn, Thomas L; Klei, Thomas R; Hosgood, Giselle; Horohov, David W; Moore, Rustin M

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of infection with Strongylus vulgaris on serum cytokines and plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in helminth-naive ponies. Group 1 (n = 21) was given 500 S. vulgaris L3 larvae and group 2 (n = 7) received a saline control. Ponies were monitored daily for clinical signs, and blood was collected for complete blood cell counts and serum cytokines (TNF, IL-1, IL-6) quantification. Group 1 ponies were depressed, anorexic, and febrile for variable periods of time. Plasma NO was increased on day 21 in group 1 and on days 9 and 21 in group 2. Significant increases in total white blood cell counts, fibrinogen, and plasma protein concentrations in group 1 were found. Significant decreases in red blood cell counts and packed cell volume were also noted in group 1. There were no differences in serum cytokines across time in either group of ponies. Despite the lack of proinflammatory cytokine induction with the apparent inflammatory response to S. vulgaris there is evidence of a potential role of NO.

  5. Distinctive in vitro effects of T-cell growth cytokines on cytomegalovirus-stimulated T-cell responses of HIV-infected HAART recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Julie; Jesser, Renee; Weinberg, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Functional immune reconstitution is limited after HAART, maintaining the interest in adjunctive immune-modulators. We compared in vitro the effects of the γ-chain T-cell growth cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-7 and IL-15 on cytomegalovirus-stimulated cell-mediated immunity. IL-2 and IL-15 increased cytomegalovirus-specific lymphocyte proliferation in HAART recipients, whereas IL-4 and IL-7 did not. The boosting effect of IL-2 and IL-15 on proliferation correlated with their ability to prevent late apoptosis. However, IL-2 increased the frequency of cells in early apoptosis, whereas IL-15 increased the frequency of fully viable cells. Both IL-2 and IL-15 increased cytomegalovirus-induced CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell proliferation and the synthesis of Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, only IL-2 increased the frequency of regulatory T cells and Th2 cytokine production, both of which have the potential to attenuate antiviral immune responses. Overall, compared to other γ-chain cytokines, IL-15 had the most favorable profile for boosting antiviral cell-mediated immunity

  6. Atractylenolide I restores HO-1 expression and inhibits Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammatory responses in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liwf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhi, Wenbing; Liu, Fang; He, Zehong; Wang, Xiuei; Niu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: niuxf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2017-04-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is characterized by the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and inflammatory lesions. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of atractylenolide I (AO-I) on smooth muscle cell inflammation, proliferation and migration induced by oxidized modified low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL). Here, We found that atractylenolide I inhibited Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines and the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in VSMCs. The study also identified that AO-I prominently inhibited p38-MAPK and NF-κB activation. More importantly, the specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) IX partially abolished the beneficial effects of atractylenolide I on Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs. Furthermore, atractylenolide I blocked the foam cell formation in macrophages induced by Ox-LDL. In summary, inhibitory roles of AO-I in VSMCs proliferation and migration, lipid peroxidation and subsequent inflammatory responses might contribute to the anti-atherosclerotic property of AO-I. - Highlights: • AO-I inhibited Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration. • AO-I alleviated inflammatory response via inhibiting TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production. • AO-I restored HO-1 expression and down-regulated PCNA expression. • MCP-1 overexpression is potentially regulated by NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathway. • AO-I possesses strong anti-lipid peroxidation effect.

  7. Toll-Like Receptors and Cytokines as Surrogate Biomarkers for Evaluating Vaginal Immune Response following Microbicide Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana M. Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical microbicides are intended for frequent use by women in reproductive age. Hence, it is essential to evaluate their impact on mucosal immune function in the vagina. In the present study, we evaluated nisin, a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide (AMP, for its efficacy as an intravaginal microbicide. Its effect on the vaginal immune function was determined by localizing Toll-like receptors (TLRs-3, 9 and cytokines (IL-4, 6 , 10 and TNF-α in the rabbit cervicovaginal epithelium following intravaginal administration of high dose of nisin gel for 14 consecutive days. The results revealed no alteration in the expression of TLRs and cytokines at both protein and mRNA levels. However, in SDS gel-treated group, the levels were significantly upregulated with the induction of NF-κB signalling cascade. Thus, TLRs and cytokines appear as sensitive indicators for screening immunotoxic potential of candidate microbicides.

  8. Toll-like receptors and cytokines as surrogate biomarkers for evaluating vaginal immune response following microbicide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sadhana M; Aranha, Clara C; Mohanty, Madhu C; Reddy, K V R

    2008-01-01

    Topical microbicides are intended for frequent use by women in reproductive age. Hence, it is essential to evaluate their impact on mucosal immune function in the vagina. In the present study, we evaluated nisin, a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide (AMP), for its efficacy as an intravaginal microbicide. Its effect on the vaginal immune function was determined by localizing Toll-like receptors (TLRs-3, 9) and cytokines (IL-4, 6 , 10 and TNF-alpha) in the rabbit cervicovaginal epithelium following intravaginal administration of high dose of nisin gel for 14 consecutive days. The results revealed no alteration in the expression of TLRs and cytokines at both protein and mRNA levels. However, in SDS gel-treated group, the levels were significantly upregulated with the induction of NF-kappaB signalling cascade. Thus, TLRs and cytokines appear as sensitive indicators for screening immunotoxic potential of candidate microbicides.

  9. A role for autoantibodies in enhancement of pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to a self-antigen, thyroid peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Brix, Thomas H; Leslie, R Graham Q

    2009-01-01

    The role of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies (TPOAbs) in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease is unclear. We selected sera with a high concentration of TPOAbs from eleven patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), ten healthy monozygotic co-twins to HT patients, and twelve healthy...... individuals with no familiar disposition to AITD, and mixed each serum with normal mononuclear cells (MNCs). Following challenge with TPO, the MNCs' production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IFN-gamma, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, correlated with the TPOAb content...

  10. Zinc and Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines: Implications for Cardiometabolic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Samman, Samir

    2012-01-01

    In atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, the concomitant presence of low-grade systemic inflammation and mild zinc deficiency highlights a role for zinc nutrition in the management of chronic disease. This review aims to evaluate the literature that reports on the interactions of zinc and cytokines. In humans, inflammatory cytokines have been shown both to up- and down-regulate the expression of specific cellular zinc transporters in response to an increased demand for zinc in inflammatory conditions. The acute phase response includes a rapid decline in the plasma zinc concentration as a result of the redistribution of zinc into cellular compartments. Zinc deficiency influences the generation of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, and in response to zinc supplementation plasma cytokines exhibit a dose-dependent response. The mechanism of action may reflect the ability of zinc to either induce or inhibit the activation of NF-κB. Confounders in understanding the zinc-cytokine relationship on the basis of in vitro experimentation include methodological issues such as the cell type and the means of activating cells in culture. Impaired zinc homeostasis and chronic inflammation feature prominently in a number of cardiometabolic diseases. Given the high prevalence of zinc deficiency and chronic disease globally, the interplay of zinc and inflammation warrants further examination. PMID:22852057

  11. Examination of epithelial tissue cytokine response to natural peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection in sheep and goats by immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, H T; Kul, O

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate expression of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and iNOS in lingual, buccal mucosa and lung epithelial tissue using immunoperoxidase technique and to compare with the tissues of control animals. The tissues used in the study were collected from 17 PPRV-affected and 5 healthy sheep and goats. In PPRV positive animals, the lungs, lingual and buccal mucosa had significantly higher iNOS, IFN-γ and TNF-α expressions compared to control group animals. There was no significant difference between PPRV positive and control groups for IL-4 and IL-10 expressions of epithelial tissues. In conclusion, the epithelial tissues infected by PPRV showed significant iNOS, IFN-γ and TNF-α expressions and they might play an important role in the initiation and regulation of cytokine response, as they take place in the first host barrier to be in contact with PPRV. It is suggested that the more epithelial damage produced by PPRV the more cytokine response may result in the infected epithelial cells. The first demonstration of iNOS expression and epithelial cytokine response to PPRV in natural cases is important because it may contribute to an early initiation of systemic immunity against PPRV infection, in addition to direct elimination of the virus during the initial epithelial phase of the infection.

  12. Bronchial and nasal responsiveness in atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis patients: Relationship of local responsiveness to cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Maeda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between local responsiveness and allergic symptoms, bronchial and nasal responsiveness were measured in the following four groups of subjects: (i bronchial asthma patients with serum house dust mite (HDM-specific IgE antibody; (ii allergic rhinitis patients with serum HDM-specific IgE antibody; (iii normal control subjects with HDM-specific IgE antibody; and (iv normal control subjects without IgE antibody specific for 10 common aero-allergens. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was detected in all subjects with asthma (group 1 and in some subjects from groups 2 and 3, but not in subjects from group 4. Nasal hyperresponsiveness was found in all subjects with allergic rhinitis (group 2 and in some subjects from groups 1 and 3, but not in subjects from group 4. These findings indicate that local hyperresponsiveness of the non-diseased organ is influenced by an individual's atopic status. Interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was measured after stimulation with HDM in groups 1, 2 and 3 and was found to be similar in all three groups. A correlation between bronchial hyperresponsiveness and in vitro cytokine production was noted in asthma patients. These results suggest that the capacity of IL-4 or IL-5 production by PBMC may reflect local hyperresponsiveness in case of asthma.

  13. Genome-wide association study of genetic variants in LPS-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNF-α cytokine response in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Albrechtsen, Anders; Thørner, Lise Wegner

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine response plays a vital role in various human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infectious and inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to find genetic variants that might affect the levels of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokine production....

  14. Influence of norepinephrine transporter inhibition on hemodynamic response to hypergravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Strempel, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sympathetically-mediated tachycardia and vasoconstriction maintain blood pressure during hypergravitational stress, thereby preventing gravitation-induced loss of consciousness (g-LOC). Norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition prevents neurally-mediated (pre)syncope during gravitational stress imposed by head-up tilt testing. Thus, it seems reasonable that NET inhibition could increase tolerance to hypergravitational stress. Methods. We performed a double-blind, randomized...

  15. Lipophilic fractions from the marine sponge Halichondria sitiens decrease secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and decrease their ability to induce a Th1 type response by allogeneic CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiaxia; Oskarsson, Jon T; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Freysdottir, Jona; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2017-12-01

    Halichondria (Halichondriidae) marine sponges contain components possessing various biological activities, but immunomodulation is not among the ones reported. This study evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of fractions/compounds from Halichondria sitiens Schmidt. Crude dichloromethane/methanol extracts of H. sitiens were subjected to various chromatographic techniques to obtain fractions/compounds with immunomodulatory activity, using bioassay-guided isolation. The effects of the fractions/compounds were determined by measuring secretion of cytokines and expression of surface molecules by dendritic cells (DCs) and their ability to stimulate and modify cytokine secretion by allogeneic CD4 + T cells. The bioactive fractions were chemically analyzed to identify the immunomodulatory constituents by 1D, 2D NMR, and HRMS data. Several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens at 10 μg/mL decreased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12p40 and IL-6 by the DCs, with maximum inhibition being 64% and 25%, respectively. In addition, fractions B3b3F and B3b3J decreased the ability of DCs to induce T cell secretion of IFN-γ. Fraction B3b3 induced morphological changes in DCs, characterized by extreme elongation of dendrites and cell clustering. Chemical screening revealed the presence of glycerides and some minor unknown constituents in the biologically active fractions. One new glyceride, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl 2-methylhexadecanoate (1), was isolated from one fraction and two known compounds, 3-[(1-methoxyhexadecyl)oxy]propane-1,2-diol (2) and monoheptadecanoin (3), were identified in another, but none of them had immunomodulatory activity. These results demonstrate that several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens have anti-inflammatory effects on DCs and decrease their ability to induce a Th1 type immune response.

  16. Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on response inhibition in humans: an ERP investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronk, D.B.; De Bruijn, E.R.; van Wel, J.H.; Ramaekers, J.G.; Verkes, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with alterations in response inhibition in humans. Not much research has examined how the acute effects of drugs modify the neurophysiological correlates of response inhibition, or how these effects interact with individual variation in trait levels of

  17. Modulation of Female Genital Tract-Derived Dendritic Cell Migration and Activation in Response to Inflammatory Cytokines and Toll-Like Receptor Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shey, Muki S; Maharaj, Niren; Archary, Derseree; Ngcapu, Sinaye; Garrett, Nigel; Abdool Karim, Salim; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2016-01-01

    HIV transmission across the genital mucosa is a major mode of new HIV infections in women. The probability of infection may be influenced by several factors including recruitment and activation of HIV target cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs) and cytokine production, associated with genital inflammation. We evaluated the role of inflammatory cytokines and TLR signaling in migration and activation of genital tract DCs in the human cervical explant model. Hysterectomy tissues from 10 HIV-negative and 7 HIV-positive donor women were separated into ecto- and endocervical explants, and incubated with inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, MIP-1β) or agonists for TLR4 (LPS), TLR2/1 (PAM3) and TLR7/8 (R848). Migration (frequency) and activation (HLA-DR expression) of myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs and Langerhans cells were measured by flow cytometry. We observed that cytokines, LPS and PAM3 induced activation of migrating myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs. LPS induced a 3.6 fold lower levels of migration of plasmacytoid DCs from HIV-infected women compared with HIV-uninfected women (median activation indices of 2.932 vs 0.833). There was however a 4.5 fold increase in migration of Langerhans cells in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected women in response to cytokines (median activation indices of 3.539 vs 0.77). Only TLR agonists induced migration and activation of DCs from endocervical explants. Hormonal contraception use was associated with an increase in activation of DC subsets in the endo and ectocervical explants. We conclude that inflammatory signals in the female genital tract induced DC migration and activation, with possible important implications for HIV susceptibility of cervical tissues.

  18. Modulation of Female Genital Tract-Derived Dendritic Cell Migration and Activation in Response to Inflammatory Cytokines and Toll-Like Receptor Agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muki S Shey

    Full Text Available HIV transmission across the genital mucosa is a major mode of new HIV infections in women. The probability of infection may be influenced by several factors including recruitment and activation of HIV target cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs and cytokine production, associated with genital inflammation. We evaluated the role of inflammatory cytokines and TLR signaling in migration and activation of genital tract DCs in the human cervical explant model. Hysterectomy tissues from 10 HIV-negative and 7 HIV-positive donor women were separated into ecto- and endocervical explants, and incubated with inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, MIP-1β or agonists for TLR4 (LPS, TLR2/1 (PAM3 and TLR7/8 (R848. Migration (frequency and activation (HLA-DR expression of myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs and Langerhans cells were measured by flow cytometry. We observed that cytokines, LPS and PAM3 induced activation of migrating myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs. LPS induced a 3.6 fold lower levels of migration of plasmacytoid DCs from HIV-infected women compared with HIV-uninfected women (median activation indices of 2.932 vs 0.833. There was however a 4.5 fold increase in migration of Langerhans cells in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected women in response to cytokines (median activation indices of 3.539 vs 0.77. Only TLR agonists induced migration and activation of DCs from endocervical explants. Hormonal contraception use was associated with an increase in activation of DC subsets in the endo and ectocervical explants. We conclude that inflammatory signals in the female genital tract induced DC migration and activation, with possible important implications for HIV susceptibility of cervical tissues.

  19. The SaeR/S gene regulatory system induces a pro-inflammatory cytokine response during Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Watkins

    Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus accounts for a large portion of the increased staphylococcal disease incidence and can cause illness ranging from mild skin infections to rapidly fatal sepsis syndromes. Currently, we have limited understanding of S. aureus-derived mechanisms contributing to bacterial pathogenesis and host inflammation during staphylococcal disease. Herein, we characterize an influential role for the saeR/S two-component gene regulatory system in mediating cytokine induction using mouse models of S. aureus pathogenesis. Invasive S. aureus infection induced the production of localized and systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-6 and IL-2. In contrast, mice infected with an isogenic saeR/S deletion mutant demonstrated significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Additionally, secreted factors influenced by saeR/S elicited pro-inflammatory cytokines in human blood ex vivo. Our study further demonstrated robust saeR/S-mediated IFN-γ production during both invasive and subcutaneous skin infections. Results also indicated a critical role for saeR/S in promoting bacterial survival and enhancing host mortality during S. aureus peritonitis. Taken together, this study provides insight into specific mechanisms used by S. aureus during staphylococcal disease and characterizes a relationship between a bacterial global regulator of virulence and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.

  20. Modulation of murine cellular immune response and cytokine production by salivary gland lysate of three sand fly species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohoušová, Iva; Volf, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 27 (2005), s. 469-473 ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA310/03/1381 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : cytokine production * Lutzomyia * Phlebotomus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.445, year: 2005

  1. Tat-CBR1 inhibits inflammatory responses through the suppressions of NF-κB and MAPK activation in macrophages and TPA-induced ear edema in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Nam [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Won [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Research Institute of Oral Sciences, College of Dentistry, Kangnung-Wonju National University, Kangneung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyo Sang; Shin, Min Jea; Ahn, Eun Hee; Ryu, Eun Ji; Yong, Ji In; Cha, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sang Jin; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Youn, Jong Kyu; Hwang, Jae Hyeok [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji-Heon; Kim, Duk-Soo [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan-Si 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Woo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Eum, Won Sik, E-mail: wseum@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young, E-mail: sychoi@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) plays a crucial role in cell survival and protects against oxidative stress response. However, its anti-inflammatory effects are not yet clearly understood. In this study, we examined whether CBR1 protects against inflammatory responses in macrophages and mice using a Tat-CBR1 protein which is able to penetrate into cells. The results revealed that purified Tat-CBR1 protein efficiently transduced into Raw 264.7 cells and inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) expression levels. In addition, Tat-CBR1 protein leads to decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression through suppression of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Furthermore, Tat-CBR1 protein inhibited inflammatory responses in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation when applied topically. These findings indicate that Tat-CBR1 protein has anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK activation, suggesting that Tat-CBR1 protein may have potential as a therapeutic agent against inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • Transduced Tat-CBR1 reduces LPS-induced inflammatory mediators and cytokines. • Tat-CBR1 inhibits MAPK and NF-κB activation. • Tat-CBR1 ameliorates inflammation response in vitro and in vivo. • Tat-CBR1 may be useful as potential therapeutic agent for inflammation.

  2. Circulating cytokines and procalcitonin in acute Q fever granulomatous hepatitis with poor response to antibiotic and short-course steroid therapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Lin-Li

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Q fever is a zoonosis distributed worldwide that is caused by Coxiella burnetii infection and the defervescence usually occurs within few days of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Whether the changes of cytokine levels are associated with acute Q fever with persistent fever despite antibiotic therapy had not been investigated before. Case Presentation We report a rare case of acute Q fever granulomatous hepatitis remained pyrexia despite several antibiotic therapy and 6-day course of oral prednisolone. During the 18-month follow-up, the investigation of the serum cytokines profile and procalcitonin (PCT revealed that initially elevated levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, and PCT decreased gradually, but the IL-6 remained in low titer. No evidence of chronic Q fever was identified by examinations of serum antibodies against C. burnetii and echocardiography. Conclusions The changes of cytokine levels may be associated with acute Q fever with poor response to treatment and PCT may be an indicator for monitoring the response to treatment.

  3. Depressive-like behavior, its sensitization, social buffering, and altered cytokine responses in rhesus macaques moved from outdoor social groups to indoor housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; Chun, Katie; Capitanio, John P

    2017-02-01

    Psychosocial stressors appear to promote the onset of depressive illness through activation and sensitization of inflammatory mechanisms. Here, adult male rhesus monkeys brought from large outdoor social groups to indoor housing for 8 days reliably exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. When rehoused indoors a second 8 days about 2 weeks later, monkeys housed alone, but not those with an affiliative partner, showed sensitization of the depressive-like hunched posture. Housing indoors also affected circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-1β showed increased responsiveness to immune challenge, and IL-1β and TNF-α showed reduced suppression by dexamethasone. Sensitivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 to immune challenge exhibited a relative increase from the first to the second round of indoor housing in animals housed in pairs, and a relative decrease in animals housed alone. Cytokine levels during indoor housing were positively correlated with duration of depressive-like behavior. Plasma cortisol levels increased but did not differentiate housing conditions or rounds. Results demonstrate a rapid induction and sensitization of depressive-like behavior to indoor individual housing, social buffering of sensitization, and associated inflammatory responses. This paradigm may provide a practical nonhuman primate model for examining inflammatory-mediated consequences of psychosocial stressors on depression and possible social buffering of these effects.

  4. HMGB1/RAGE Signaling and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses in Non-HIV Adults with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Lui

    Full Text Available We aimed to study the pathogenic roles of High-Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1 / Receptor-for-Advanced-Glycation-End-products (RAGE signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB.A prospective study was conducted among non-HIV adults newly-diagnosed with active PTB at two acute-care hospitals (n = 80; age-and-sex matched asymptomatic individuals (tested for latent TB were used for comparison (n = 45. Plasma concentrations of 8 cytokines/chemokines, HMGB1, soluble-RAGE, and transmembrane-RAGE expressed on monocytes/dendritic cells, were measured. Gene expression (mRNA of HMGB1, RAGE, and inflammasome-NALP3 was quantified. Patients' PBMCs were stimulated with recombinant-HMGB1 and MTB-antigen (lipoarabinomannan for cytokine induction ex vivo.In active PTB, plasma IL-8/CXCL8 [median(IQR, 6.0(3.6-15.1 vs 3.6(3.6-3.6 pg/ml, P<0.001] and IL-6 were elevated, which significantly correlated with mycobacterial load, extent of lung consolidation (rs +0.509, P<0.001, severity-score (rs +0.317, P = 0.004, and fever and hospitalization durations (rs +0.407, P<0.001. IL-18 and sTNFR1 also increased. Plasma IL-8/CXCL8 (adjusted OR 1.12, 95%CI 1.02-1.23 per unit increase, P = 0.021 and HMGB1 (adjusted OR 1.42 per unit increase, 95%CI 1.08-1.87, P = 0.012 concentrations were independent predictors for respiratory failure, as well as for ICU admission/death. Gene expression of HMGB1, RAGE, and inflammasome-NALP3 were upregulated (1.2-2.8 fold. Transmembrane-RAGE was increased, whereas the decoy soluble-RAGE was significantly depleted. RAGE and HMGB1 gene expressions positively correlated with cytokine levels (IL-8/CXCL8, IL-6, sTNFR1 and clinico-/radiographical severity (e.g. extent of consolidation rs +0.240, P = 0.034. Ex vivo, recombinant-HMGB1 potentiated cytokine release (e.g. TNF-α when combined with lipoarabinomannan.In patients with active PTB, HMGB1/RAGE signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokines may play important

  5. Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition and Conflict Control on Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongran Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition and conflict control on affective information can be regarded as two important emotion regulation and cognitive control processes. The emotional Go/Nogo flanker paradigm was adopted and participant’s event-related potentials (ERPs were analyzed to investigate how response inhibition and conflict control interplayed. The behavioral findings revealed that participants showed higher accuracy to identify happy faces in congruent condition relative to that in incongruent condition. The electrophysiological results manifested that response inhibition and conflict control interplayed during the detection/conflict monitoring stage, and Nogo-N2 was more negative in the incongruent trials than the congruent trials. With regard to the inhibitory control/conflict resolution stage, Nogo responses induced greater frontal P3 and parietal P3 responses than Go responses did. The difference waveforms of N2 and parietal P3 showed that response inhibition and conflict control had distinct processes, and the multiple responses requiring both conflict control and response inhibition processes induced stronger monitoring and resolution processes than conflict control. The current study manifested that response inhibition and conflict control on emotional information required separable neural mechanisms during emotion regulation processes.

  6. Deletion of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 from Forebrain Neurons Delays Infertility and Onset of Hypothalamic Leptin Resistance in Response to a High Caloric Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Hayden J L; Inglis, Megan A; Quennell, Janette H; Grattan, David R; Anderson, Greg M

    2016-07-06

    The cellular processes that cause high caloric diet (HCD)-induced infertility are poorly understood but may involve upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-3) proteins that are associated with hypothalamic leptin resistance. Deletion of SOCS-3 from brain cells is known to protect mice from diet-induced obesity, but the effects on HCD-induced infertility are unknown. We used neuron-specific SOCS3 knock-out mice to elucidate this and the effects on regional hypothalamic leptin resistance. As expected, male and female neuron-specific SOCS3 knock-out mice were protected from HCD-induced obesity. While female wild-type mice became infertile after 4 months of HCD feeding, infertility onset in knock-out females was delayed by 4 weeks. Similarly, knock-out mice had delayed leptin resistance development in the medial preoptic area and anteroventral periventricular nucleus, regions important for generation of the surge of GnRH and LH that induces ovulation. We therefore tested whether the suppressive effects of HCD on the estradiol-induced GnRH/LH surge were overcome by neuron-specific SOCS3 knock-out. Although only 20% of control HCD-mice experienced a preovulatory-like LH surge, LH surges could be induced in almost all neuron-specific SOCS3 knock-out mice on this diet. In contrast to females, HCD-fed male mice did not exhibit any fertility decline compared with low caloric diet-fed males despite their resistance to the satiety effects of leptin. These data show that deletion of SOCS3 delays the onset of leptin resistance and infertility in HCD-fed female mice, but given continued HCD feeding this state does eventually occur, presumably in response to other mechanisms inhibiting leptin signal transduction. Obesity is commonly associated with infertility in humans and other animals. Treatments for human infertility show a decreased success rate with increasing body mass index. A hallmark of obesity is an increase in circulating leptin levels; despite this, the

  7. Response inhibition and measures of psychopathology: a dimensional analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijmans, R.; Scheres, A.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of Quay's (1988a, 1988b, 1993, 1997) model in which the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) are linked to various forms of child psychopathology, predictions were made regarding the relation between inhibitory control and two dimensions of

  8. Response inhibition and measures of psychopathology: A dimensional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijmans, R.; Scheres, A.P.J.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of Quay's (1988a, 1988b, 1993, 1997) model in which the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) are Linked to various forms of child psychopathology, predictions were made regarding the relation between inhibitory control and two dimensions of

  9. No Effects of Bilateral tDCS over Inferior Frontal Gyrus on Response Inhibition and Aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Dambacher

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression. While response inhibition is mostly associated with predominantly right prefrontal activity, the neural components underlying aggression seem to be left-lateralized. These differences in hemispheric dominance are conceptualized in cortical asymmetry theories on motivational direction, which assign avoidance motivation (relevant to inhibit responses to the right and approach motivation (relevant for aggressive actions to the left prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed to directly address the inverse relationship between response inhibition and aggression by assessing them within one experiment. Sixty-nine healthy participants underwent bilateral transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS to the inferior frontal cortex. In one group we induced right-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined right prefrontal anodal and left prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. In a second group we induced left-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined left prefrontal anodal and right prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. A control group received sham stimulation. Response inhibition was assessed with a go/no-go task (GNGT and aggression with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP. We revealed that participants with poorer performance in the GNGT displayed more aggression during the TAP. No effects of bilateral prefrontal tDCS on either response inhibition or aggression were observed. This is at odds with previous brain stimulation studies applying unilateral protocols. Our results failed to provide evidence in support of the prefrontal cortical asymmetry model in the domain of response inhibition and aggression. The absence of t

  10. Topoisomerase 1 Inhibition Promotes Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase-Dependent Antiviral Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Pépin, Geneviève; Nejad, Charlotte; Ferrand, Jonathan; Thomas, Belinda J.; Stunden, H. James; Sanij, Elaine; Foo, Chwan-Hong; Stewart, Cameron R.; Cain, Jason E.; Bardin, Philip G.; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Gantier, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammatory responses, while essential for pathogen clearance, can also be deleterious to the host. Chemical inhibition of topoisomerase 1 (Top1) by low-dose camptothecin (CPT) can suppress transcriptional induction of antiviral and inflammatory genes and protect animals from excessive and damaging inflammatory responses. We describe the unexpected finding that minor DNA damage from topoisomerase 1 inhibition with low-dose CPT can trigger a strong antiviral immune response through c...

  11. Lithocholic acid controls adaptive immune responses by inhibition of Th1 activation through the Vitamin D receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Thijs W H; Puchner, Teresa; Korkmaz, H Inci; Vos, Mariska; Soeters, Maarten R; de Vries, Carlie J M

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are established signaling molecules next to their role in the intestinal emulsification and uptake of lipids. We here aimed to identify a potential interaction between bile acids and CD4+ Th cells, which are central in adaptive immune responses. We screened distinct bile acid species for their potency to affect T cell function. Primary human and mouse CD4+ Th cells as well as Jurkat T cells were used to gain insight into the mechanism underlying these effects. We found that unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) impedes Th1 activation as measured by i) decreased production of the Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNFαα, ii) decreased expression of the Th1 genes T-box protein expressed in T cells (T-bet), Stat-1 and Stat4, and iii) decreased STAT1α/β phosphorylation. Importantly, we observed that LCA impairs Th1 activation at physiological relevant concentrations. Profiling of MAPK signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells uncovered an inhibition of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation upon LCA exposure, which could provide an explanation for the impaired Th1 activation. LCA induces these effects via Vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling since VDR RNA silencing abrogated these effects. These data reveal for the first time that LCA controls adaptive immunity via inhibition of Th1 activation. Many factors influence LCA levels, including bile acid-based drugs and gut microbiota. Our data may suggest that these factors also impact on adaptive immunity via a yet unrecognized LCA-Th cell axis.

  12. Infant milk formulas differ regarding their allergenic activity and induction of T-cell and cytokine responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochwallner, H; Schulmeister, U; Swoboda, Ines

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several hydrolyzed cow's milk (CM) formulas are available for avoidance of allergic reactions in CM-allergic children and for prevention of allergy development in high-risk infants. Our aim was to compare CM formulas regarding the presence of immunoreactive CM components, IgE reactivity......, allergenic activity, ability to induce T-cell proliferation, and cytokine secretion. METHODS: A blinded analysis of eight CM formulas, one nonhydrolyzed, two partially hydrolyzed (PH), four extensively hydrolyzed (EH), and one amino acid formula, using biochemical techniques and specific antibody probes...... was conducted. IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of the formulas were tested with sera from CM-allergic patients (n = 26) in RAST-based assays and with rat basophils transfected with the human FcεRI, respectively. The induction of T-cell proliferation and the secretion of cytokines in Peripheral blood...

  13. How Do Parameters of Motor Response Influence Selective Inhibition? Evidence from the Stop-Signal Paradigm

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    Chien Hui Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to selectively inhibit the execution of an action while performing other ones is crucial in humans' multitasking daily life. The current study aims to compare selective inhibition for choice reaction involving two effectors or response directions. We adopted a variation of the stop-signal paradigm to examine how selective inhibition is modulated by the way potential motor responses are combined and inhibited. Experiment 1 investigated selective inhibition under different combinations of effectors, namely “index and middle fingers” versus “hand and foot”. The results showed SSRT of the index finger was longer when the other response option was the foot than the middle finger. Experiment 2 examined how selective inhibition differs between selective stopping of effectors and movement directions, and that for most of the situations SSRT is longer for stopping a response based on its direction than effector. After equating complexity of response mapping between direction and effector conditions in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 still showed that SSRT differs between selecting direction or effectors. To summarize, SSRT varies depending on the way response effectors are paired and selectively stopped. Selective inhibition is thus likely not amodal and may involve different inhibitory mechanisms depending on parameters specifying the motor response.

  14. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii induce distinct levels of dendritic cell cytokine secretion and significantly different T cell responses In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Ida Mosbech; Baker, Adam; Christensen, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    induction of a Treg response characterized by robust IL-10 secretion. In addition, we blocked relevant DC surface receptors and investigated the stimulating properties of β-glucan containing yeast cell wall extracts. K. marxianus and S. boulardii induced distinct levels of DC cytokine secretion, primarily...... driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic...... of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii...

  15. Impaired right inferior frontal gyrus response to contextual cues in male veterans with PTSD during response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Sanne J H; Rademaker, Arthur R; Kennis, Mitzy; Vink, Matthijs; Kahn, René S; Geuze, Elbert

    2014-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with impaired fear inhibition and decreased safety cue processing; however, studies capturing the cognitive aspect of inhibition and contextual cue processing are limited. In this fMRI study, the role of contextual cues in response inhibition was investigated. Male medication-naive war veterans with PTSD, male control veterans (combat controls) and healthy nonmilitary men (healthy controls) underwent fMRI while performing the stop-signal anticipation task (SSAT). The SSAT evokes 2 forms of response inhibition: reactive inhibition (outright stopping) and proactive inhibition (anticipation of stopping based on contextual cues). We enrolled 28 veterans with PTSD, 26 combat controls and 25 healthy controls in our study. Reduced reactive inhibition was observed in all veterans, both with and without PTSD, but not in nonmilitary controls, whereas decreased inhibition of the left pre/postcentral gyrus appeared to be specifically associated with PTSD. Impaired behavioural proactive inhibition was also specific to PTSD. Furthermore, the PTSD group showed a reduced right inferior frontal gyrus response during proactive inhibition compared with the combat control group. Most patients with PTSD had comorbid psychiatric disorders, but such comorbidity is common in patients with PTSD. Also, the education level (estimate of intelligence) of participants, but not of their parents, differed among the groups. Our findings of reduced proactive inhibition imply that patients with PTSD show reduced contextual cue processing. These results complement previous findings on fear inhibition and demonstrate that contextual cue processing in patients with PTSD is also reduced during cognitive processes, indicating a more general deficit.

  16. Cytokine and clinical response to Saccharomyces boulardii therapy in diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Zaigham; Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Ahmad, Zubair; Azam, Zahid; Usman, Muhammad W; Shamim, Sara; Islam, Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    This preliminary study aimed to investigate the effects of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii on proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients with diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). The other objectives were to document any clinical improvement as judged by symptoms, quality of life, and histology. This was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial in which S. boulardii, 750 mg/day, or placebo was administered for 6 weeks in IBS-D patients, in addition to ispaghula husk standard treatment. Thirty-seven patients received S. boulardii and 35 patients received the placebo. As compared with placebo, the S. boulardii group showed a significant decrease in blood and tissue levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (PS. boulardii group. Although baseline histological findings were mild, an improvement was observed in the probiotic group in the lymphocyte and neutrophil infiltrates (P=0.017 and 0.018), epithelial mitosis (P=0.003), and intraepithelial lymphocytes (P=0.024). No serious adverse events were found in either group. S. boulardii with ispaghula husk was superior to placebo with ispaghula husk in improving the cytokine profile, histology, and quality of life of patients with IBS-D. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in a well-powered trial.

  17. Cord Blood Cells Responses to IL2, IL7 and IL15 Cytokines for mTOR Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Mohammadian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORis important in hematopoiesis and affect cell growth,differentiation and survival. Although previous studies were identified the effect of cytokines on the mononuclear cells development however the cytokines effect on mTOR in cord blood mononuclear cells was unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate mTOR expression in cord blood mononuclear and cord blood stem cells (CD34+ cells in culture conditions for lymphoid cell development. Methods: Isolation of The mononuclear cells (MNCs from umbilical cord blood were done with use of Ficollpaque density gradient. We evaluated cultured cord blood mononuclear and CD34+ cells in presece of IL2, IL7 and IL15 at distinct time points during 21 days by using flow cytometry. In this study, we presented the role of IL2, IL7 and IL15 on the expression of mTOR in cord blood cells. Results: mTOR expression were increased in peresence of IL2, IL7 and IL15 in day 14 and afterword reduced. However in persence of IL2 and IL15 expression of mTOR significantly reduced. mTOR expression in CD34+ cells decreased significantly from day7 to day 21 in culture. Conclusion: cytokines play important role in mTOR expression during hematopoiesis and development of cord blood mononuclear cells.

  18. Difference in Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses Induced in THP1 Cells by Particulate Matter Collected on Days with and without ASIAN Dust Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The associations between particulate matter from Asian dust storms (ADS and health disorders differ among studies, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, ADS and non-ADS particles were tested for their potential to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with adverse respiratory effects. Particulate matter was collected in Japan during four periods in 2013 (2 × ADS periods; 2 × non-ADS. THP1 cells were exposed to this particulate matter, and the levels of various interleukins (ILs, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured. Levels of IL-2 increased significantly following exposure to all particulate matter samples (compared to levels in a solvent control. Increased levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were also observed following exposure to particles collected during three (one ADS and two non-ADS and two (one ADS and one non-ADS collection periods, respectively. Thus, the effects of particulate matter on cytokine responses differed according to collection period, and the effects of ADS particles differed for each ADS event. Additionally, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by ADS particles were not always higher than those induced by non-ADS particles.

  19. Cytokine response during non-cerebral and cerebral malaria: evidence of a failure to control inflammation as a cause of death in African adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakhya Dieye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. With 214 million cases and 438,000 deaths in 2015, malaria remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases in tropical countries. Several species of the protozoan Plasmodium cause malaria. However, almost all the fatalities are due to Plasmodium falciparum, a species responsible for the severest cases including cerebral malaria. Immune response to Plasmodium falciparum infection is mediated by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors whose actions are crucial for the control of the parasites. Following this response, the induction of anti-inflammatory immune mediators downregulates the inflammation thus preventing its adverse effects such as damages to various organs and death. Methods. We performed a retrospective, nonprobability sampling study using clinical data and sera samples from patients, mainly adults, suffering of non-cerebral or cerebral malaria in Dakar, Sénégal. Healthy individuals residing in the same area were included as controls. We measured the serum levels of 29 biomarkers including growth factors, chemokines, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Results. We found an induction of both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune mediators during malaria. The levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers were higher in the cerebral malaria than in the non-cerebral malaria patients. In contrast, the concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines were comparable in these two groups or lower in CM patients. Additionally, four pro-inflammatory biomarkers were significantly increased in the deceased of cerebral malaria compared to the survivors. Regarding organ damage, kidney failure was significantly associated with death in adults suffering of cerebral malaria. Conclusions. Our results suggest that a poorly controlled inflammatory response determines a bad outcome in African adults suffering of cerebral malaria.

  20. Changes in cerebro-cerebellar interaction during response inhibition after performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Satoshi; Jimura, Koji; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyashita, Yasushi; Konishi, Seiki

    2014-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that motor learning is supported by the cerebellum and the cerebro-cerebellar interaction. Response inhibition involves motor responses and the higher-order inhibition that controls the motor responses. In this functional MRI study, we measured the cerebro-cerebellar interaction during response inhibition in two separate days of task performance, and detected the changes in the interaction following performance improvement. Behaviorally, performance improved in the second day, compared to the first day. The psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed the interaction decrease from the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) to the cerebellum (lobule VII or VI). It was also revealed that the interaction increased from the same cerebellar region to the primary motor area. These results suggest the involvement of the cerebellum in response inhibition, and raise the possibility that the performance improvement was supported by the changes in the cerebro-cerebellar interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene expression of hematoregulatory cytokines is elevated endogenously after sublethal gamma irradiation and is differentially enhanced by therapeutic administration of biologic response modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.M.; Adamovicz, J.J.; Madonna, G.S.; Gause, W.C.; Elliott, T.B.; Moore, M.M.; Ledney, G.D.; Jackson, W.E. III

    1994-01-01

    Prompt, cytokine-mediated restoration of hematopoiesis is a prerequisite for survival after irradiation. Therapy with biologic response modifiers (BRMs), such as LPS, 3D monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), and synthetic trehalose dicrynomycolate (S-TDCM) presumably accelerates hematopoietic recovery after irradiation are poorly defined. One hour after sublethal (7.0 Gy) 60 Co gamma irradiation, B6D2F1/J female mice received a single i.p. injection of LPS, MPL, S-TDCM, an extract from Serratia marcescens (Sm-BRM), or Tween 80 in saline (TS). Five hours later, a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay demonstrated marked splenic gene expression for IL-1β, IL-3, IL-6, and granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF). Enhanced gene expression for TNF-α, macrophage-CSF (M-CSF), and stem cell factor (SCF) was not detected. Injection of any BRM further enhanced cytokine gene expression and plasma levels of CSF activity within 24 h after irradiation and hastened bone marrow recovery. Mice injected with S-TDCM or Sm-BRM sustained expression of the IL-6 gene for at least 24 h after irradiation. Sm-BRM-treated mice exhibited greater gene expression for IL-1β, IL-3, TNF-α, and G-CSF at day 1 than any other BRM. When challenged with 2 LD 50/30 of Klebsiella pneumoniae 4 days after irradiation, 100% of Sm-BRM-treated mice and 70% of S-TDCM-treated mice survived, whereas ≤30% of mice treated with LPS, MPL, or TS survived. Thus, sublethal irradiation induces transient, splenic cytokine gene expression that can be differentially amplified and prolonged by BRMs. BRMs that sustained and/or enhanced irradiation-induced expression of specific cytokine genes improved survival after experimental infection. 67 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  2. Elevated cytokine responses to Vibrio harveyi infection in the Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) treated with Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei (06TCa22) isolated from the Mongolian dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, G; Korenaga, H; Nagamine, R; Kawahara, S; Takeda, S; Kikuchi, Y; Dashnyam, B; Yoshida, T; Kono, T; Sakai, M

    2013-09-01

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of a Mongolian dairy product derived Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei (strain 06TCa22) (Lpp) on the cytokine-mediated immune responses to Vibrio harveyi infection, we examined 16 cytokine expressions in the Japanese pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes. Fish were orally treated with the heat-killed Lpp at 1 mg g(-1) body weight d(-1) for 3 days. At 24 h posttreatment, fish were infected by an intramuscular injection of 0.1 mL V. harveyi bacterial suspension (10(8) cfu mL(-1)). Additionally, superoxide anion production (SAP) and phagocytic activity (PA) of head kidney cells were assessed during 120 h postinfection period. Significant up-regulation of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A/F-3, TNF-α and TNF-N), cell-mediated immune inducing (IL-12p35, IL-12p40 and IL-18), antiviral/intra-cellular pathogen killing (I-IFN-1 and IFN-γ), anti-inflammatory (IL-10) and lymphocyte agonistic (IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, IL-21 and TGF-β1) cytokines was observed in the treated fish compared to control ones during the pathogen infection. Furthermore, significantly increased SAP and PA (P < 0.01; 0.05) were recorded in the treated fish compared to untreated fish. These results suggest the beneficial role of Lpp in enhancement of cytokine-mediated immunity in the Japanese pufferfish against V. harveyi infection and application of this product as a potential fish immunostimulant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative study of the cytokine/chemokine response in children with differing disease severity in enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection can lead to a rapidly progressing, life-threatening, and severe neurological disease in young children, including the development of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. This study aims to further characterize the specific immunological features in EV71-mediated HFMD patients presenting with differing degrees of disease severity. METHODOLOGY: Comprehensive cytokine and chemokine expression were broadly evaluated by cytokine antibody array in EV71-infected patients hospitalized for HFMD compared to Coxsackievirus A16-infected patients and age-matched healthy controls. More detailed analysis using Luminex-based cytokine bead array was performed in EV71-infected patients stratified into diverse clinic outcomes. Additionally, immune cell frequencies in peripheral blood and EV71-specific antibodies in plasma were also examined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expression of several cytokines and chemokines were significantly increased in plasma from EV71-infected patients compared to healthy controls, which further indicated that: (1 GM-CSF, MIP-1β, IL-2, IL-33, and IL-23 secretion was elevated in patients who rapidly developed disease and presented with uncomplicated neurological damage; (2 G-CSF and MCP-1 were distinguishably secreted in EV71 infected very severe patients presenting with acute respiratory failure; (3 IP-10, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF levels were much higher in cerebrospinal fluid than in plasma from patients with neurological damage; (4 FACS analysis revealed that the frequency of CD19(+HLADR(+ mature B cells dynamically changed over time during the course of hospitalization and was accompanied by dramatically increased EV71-specific antibodies. Our data provide a panoramic view of specific immune mediator and cellular immune responses of HFMD and may provide useful immunological profiles for monitoring the progress of EV71-induced fatal neurological symptoms with acute respiratory failure.

  4. CR3 and Dectin-1 Collaborate in Macrophage Cytokine Response through Association on Lipid Rafts and Activation of Syk-JNK-AP-1 Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juin-Hua Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration between heterogeneous pattern recognition receptors (PRRs leading to synergistic coordination of immune response is important for the host to fight against invading pathogens. Although complement receptor 3 (CR3 and Dectin-1 are major PRRs to detect fungi, crosstalk between these two receptors in antifungal immunity is largely undefined. Here we took advantage of Histoplasma capsulatum which is known to interact with both CR3 and Dectin-1 and specific particulate ligands to study the collaboration of CR3 and Dectin-1 in macrophage cytokine response. By employing Micro-Western Array (MWA, genetic approach, and pharmacological inhibitors, we demonstrated that CR3 and Dectin-1 act collaboratively to trigger macrophage TNF and IL-6 response through signaling integration at Syk kinase, allowing subsequent enhanced activation of Syk-JNK-AP-1 pathway. Upon engagement, CR3 and Dectin-1 colocalize and form clusters on lipid raft microdomains which serve as a platform facilitating their cooperation in signaling activation and cytokine production. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that CR3 and Dectin-1 cooperatively participate in host defense against disseminated histoplasmosis and instruct adaptive immune response. Taken together, our findings define the mechanism of receptor crosstalk between CR3 and Dectin-1 and demonstrate the importance of their collaboration in host defense against fungal infection.

  5. Response Inhibition in Adults and Teenagers: Spatiotemporal Differences in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Julie; Mills, Travis; Pang, Elizabeth W.; Taylor, Margot J.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition is a core executive function reliant on the frontal lobes that shows protracted maturation through to adulthood. We investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of response inhibition during a visual go/no-go task in 14 teenagers and 14 adults using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a contrast between two no-go experimental conditions…

  6. Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a slow but more sustained chemokine and cytokine response in naïve foetal enterocytes compared to commensal Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellemann Christine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first exposure to microorganisms at mucosal surfaces is critical for immune maturation and gut health. Facultative anaerobic bacteria are the first to colonise the infant gut, and the impact of these bacteria on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC may be determinant for how the immune system subsequently tolerates gut bacteria. Results To mirror the influence of the very first bacterial stimuli on infant IEC, we isolated IEC from mouse foetuses at gestational day 19 and from germfree neonates. IEC were stimulated with gut-derived bacteria, Gram-negative Escherichia coli Nissle and Gram-positive Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and expression of genes important for immune regulation was measured together with cytokine production. E. coli Nissle and L. acidophilus NCFM strongly induced chemokines and cytokines, but with different kinetics, and only E. coli Nissle induced down-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 2. The sensitivity to stimulation was similar before and after birth in germ-free IEC, although Toll-like receptor 2 expression was higher before birth than immediately after. Conclusions In conclusion, IEC isolated before gut colonisation occurs at birth, are highly responsive to stimulation with gut commensals, with L. acidophilus NCFM inducing a slower, but more sustained response than E. coli Nissle. E. coli may induce intestinal tolerance through very rapid up-regulation of chemokine and cytokine genes and down-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4, while regulating also responsiveness to Gram-positive bacteria.

  7. Unique proliferation response in odontoblastic cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells by cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Kawai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki; Kondo, Ayami; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Mogi, Makio

    2015-01-01

    A pro-inflammatory cytokine mixture (CM: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 activity have been shown to increase the proliferation of rat dental pulp cells and murine stem cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. This suggests that MMP-3 may regulate wound healing and regeneration in the odontoblast-rich dental pulp. Here, we determined whether these results can be extrapolated to human dental pulp by investigating the effects of CM-induced MMP-3 up-regulation on the proliferation and apoptosis of purified odontoblast-like cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells. We used siRNA to specifically reduce MMP-3 expression. We found that CM treatment increased MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels as well as MMP-3 activity. Cell proliferation was also markedly increased, with no changes in apoptosis, upon treatment with CM and following the application of exogenous MMP-3. Endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases were constitutively expressed during all experiments and unaffected by MMP-3. Although treatment with MMP-3 siRNA suppressed cell proliferation, it also unexpectedly increased apoptosis. This siRNA-mediated increase in apoptosis could be reversed by exogenous MMP-3. These results demonstrate that cytokine-induced MMP-3 activity regulates cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in human odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induce MMP-3 activity in human odontoblast-like cells. • Increased MMP-3 activity can promote cell proliferation in odontoblasts. • Specific loss of MMP-3 increases apoptosis in odontoblasts. • MMP-3 has potential as a promising new target for pupal repair and regeneration

  8. Unique proliferation response in odontoblastic cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells by cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Kawai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, 2-11 Suemori-dori, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8651, Aichi (Japan); Kondo, Ayami [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan); Nakata, Kazuhiko [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, 2-11 Suemori-dori, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8651, Aichi (Japan); Mogi, Makio, E-mail: makio@dpc.agu.ac.jp [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    A pro-inflammatory cytokine mixture (CM: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 activity have been shown to increase the proliferation of rat dental pulp cells and murine stem cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. This suggests that MMP-3 may regulate wound healing and regeneration in the odontoblast-rich dental pulp. Here, we determined whether these results can be extrapolated to human dental pulp by investigating the effects of CM-induced MMP-3 up-regulation on the proliferation and apoptosis of purified odontoblast-like cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells. We used siRNA to specifically reduce MMP-3 expression. We found that CM treatment increased MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels as well as MMP-3 activity. Cell proliferation was also markedly increased, with no changes in apoptosis, upon treatment with CM and following the application of exogenous MMP-3. Endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases were constitutively expressed during all experiments and unaffected by MMP-3. Although treatment with MMP-3 siRNA suppressed cell proliferation, it also unexpectedly increased apoptosis. This siRNA-mediated increase in apoptosis could be reversed by exogenous MMP-3. These results demonstrate that cytokine-induced MMP-3 activity regulates cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in human odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induce MMP-3 activity in human odontoblast-like cells. • Increased MMP-3 activity can promote cell proliferation in odontoblasts. • Specific loss of MMP-3 increases apoptosis in odontoblasts. • MMP-3 has potential as a promising new target for pupal repair and regeneration.

  9. TLR4 Gene Expression and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Alzheimer's Disease and in Response to Hippocampal Deafferentation in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Justin; Picard, Cynthia; Frappier, Josée; Dea, Doris; Théroux, Louise; Poirier, Judes

    2018-01-01

    One important aspect in Alzheimer's disease pathology is the presence of chronic inflammation. Considering its role as a key receptor in the microglial innate immune system, TLR4 was shown to regulate the binding and phagocytosis of amyloid plaques by microglia in several mouse models of amyloidosis, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. To our knowledge, TLR4 and its association with cytokines have not been thoroughly examined in the brains of subjects affected with Alzheimer's disease. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in postmortem human brains, we observed increased expression for the TLR4 and TNF genes (p = 0.001 and p = 0.025, respectively), as well as a trend for higher IL6 gene expression in the frontal cortex of AD subjects when compared to age-matched controls. Similarly, using a mouse model of hippocampal deafferentation without amyloidosis, (i.e., the entorhinal cortex lesioned mouse), we observed significant increases in the expression of both the Tlr4 (p = 0.0367 and p = 0.0193 compared to sham-lesioned mice or to the contralateral side, respectively) and Il1b (p = 0.0055 and p = 0.0066 compared to sham-lesioned mice or to the contralateral side, respectively) genes in the deafferentation phase, but not during the ensuing reinnervation process. In conclusion, we suggest that the modulation of cytokines by TLR4 is differentially regulated whether by the presence of amyloid plaques or by the ongoing deafferentation process.

  10. Long-term sex-differential effects of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on in vitro cytokine responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Søndergaard, Mia J.; Andersen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    derivative (PPD), tetanus toxoid and lipopolysaccharide. There were no differences between the two doses of NVAS, and thus they were analysed combined as NVAS (any dose) v. placebo. All analyses were performed unstratified and by sex. NVAS increased the chance of having a scar after BCG vaccination...... in females (NVAS v. placebo: 96 v. 71 %, proportion ratio: 1·24; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·42), but not in males (Pfor interaction=0·012). NVAS was associated with significant sex-differential effects on the pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios (TNF-α:IL-10) to PPD, tetanus toxoid and medium alone, which were...

  11. Divalent metal transporter 1 regulates iron-mediated ROS and pancreatic ß cell fate in response to cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Tonnesen, Morten Fog; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to target-cell damage in inflammatory and iron-overload diseases. Little is known about iron transport regulation during inflammatory attack. Through a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1ß induces...... knockout islets is defective, highlighting a physiological role of iron and ROS in the regulation of insulin secretion. Dmt1 knockout mice are protected against multiple low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance, models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Thus, ß cells...

  12. Brain microvascular pericytes are immunoactive in culture: cytokine, chemokine, nitric oxide, and LRP-1 expression in response to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erickson Michelle A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain microvascular pericytes are important constituents of the neurovascular unit. These cells are physically the closest cells to the microvascular endothelial cells in brain capillaries. They significantly contribute to the induction and maintenance of the barrier functions of the blood-brain barrier. However, very little is known about their immune activities or their roles in neuroinflammation. Here, we focused on the immunological profile of brain pericytes in culture in the quiescent and immune-challenged state by studying their production of immune mediators such as nitric oxide (NO, cytokines, and chemokines. We also examined the effects of immune challenge on pericyte expression of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1, a protein involved in the processing of amyloid precursor protein and the brain-to-blood efflux of amyloid-β peptide. Methods Supernatants were collected from primary cultures of mouse brain pericytes. Release of nitric oxide (NO was measured by the Griess reaction and the level of S-nitrosylation of pericyte proteins measured with a modified "biotin-switch" method. Specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway inhibitors were used to determine involvement of these pathways on NO production. Cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by multianalyte technology. The expression of both subunits of LRP-1 was analyzed by western blot. Results Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced release of NO by pericytes in a dose-dependent manner that was mediated through MAPK pathways. Nitrative stress resulted in S-nitrosylation of cellular proteins. Eighteen of twenty-three cytokines measured were released constitutively by pericytes or with stimulation by LPS, including interleukin (IL-12, IL-13, IL-9, IL-10, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, eotaxin, chemokine (C-C motif ligand (CCL-3, and CCL-4. Pericyte expressions of both subunits of

  13. Inhibition of inflammatory and proliferative responses of human keratinocytes exposed to the sesquiterpene lactones dehydrocostuslactone and costunolide.

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    Claudia Scarponi

    Full Text Available The imbalance of the intracellular redox state and, in particular, of the glutathione (GSH/GSH disulfide couple homeostasis, is involved in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. In many skin diseases, including psoriasis, oxidative stress plays an important role, as demonstrated by the observation that treatments leading to increase of the local levels of oxidant species ameliorate the disease. Recently, dehydrocostuslactone (DCE and costunolide (CS, two terpenes naturally occurring in many plants, have been found to exert various anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic effects on different human cell types. These compounds decrease the level of the intracellular GSH by direct interaction with it, and, therefore, can alter cellular redox state. DCE and CS can trigger S-glutathionylation of various substrates, including the transcription factor STAT3 and JAK1/2 proteins. In the present study, we investigated on the potential role of DCE and CS in regulating inflammatory and proliferative responses of human keratinocytes to cytokines. We demonstrated that DCE and CS decreased intracellular GSH levels in human keratinocytes, as well as inhibited STAT3 and STAT1 phosphorylation and activation triggered by IL-22 or IFN-γ, respectively. Consequently, DCE and CS decreased the IL-22- and IFN-γ-induced expression of inflammatory and regulatory genes in keratinocytes, including CCL2, CXCL10, ICAM-1 and SOCS3. DCE and CS also inhibited proliferation and cell-cycle progression-related gene expression, as well as they promoted cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In parallel, DCE and CS activated the anti-inflammatory EGFR and ERK1/2 molecules in keratinocytes, and, thus, wound healing in an in vitro injury model. In light of our findings, we can hypothesize that the employment of DCE and CS in psoriasis could efficiently counteract the pro-inflammatory effects of IFN-γ and IL-22 on keratinocytes, revert the apoptosis-resistant phenotype, as well as inhibit

  14. Lactococcus lactis carrying a DNA vaccine coding for the ESAT-6 antigen increases IL-17 cytokine secretion and boosts the BCG vaccine immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, V B; da Cunha, V P; Preisser, T M; Souza, B M; Turk, M Z; De Castro, C P; Azevedo, M S P; Miyoshi, A

    2017-06-01

    A regimen utilizing Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and another vaccine system as a booster may represent a promising strategy for the development of an efficient tuberculosis vaccine for adults. In a previous work, we confirmed the ability of Lactococcus lactis fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA+) (pValac:ESAT-6), a live mucosal DNA vaccine, to produce a specific immune response in mice after oral immunization. In this study, we examined the immunogenicity of this strain as a booster for the BCG vaccine in mice. After immunization, cytokine and immunoglobulin profiles were measured. The BCG prime L. lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:ESAT-6) boost group was the most responsive group, with a significant increase in splenic pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α compared with the negative control. Based on the results obtained here, we demonstrated that L. lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:ESAT-6) was able to increase the BCG vaccine general immune response. This work is of great scientific and social importance because it represents the first step towards the development of a booster to the BCG vaccine using L. lactis as a DNA delivery system. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Inhibits the RANKL Pathway and Impacts on the Production of Pathway-Associated Cytokines in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Jing Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D3 on RANKL signaling pathway and pathway-associated cytokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-4 were examined in 54 patients with incipient RA using a cytometric bead array (CBA or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. After 72 hours of incubation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with 1,25(OH2D3 in RA patients, the levels of RANKL, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-6 significantly decreased compared to those of the control. 1,25(OH2D3 had no significantly impact on the levels of OPG, RANKL/OPG, and IL-4. Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that 1,25(OH2D3 reduced the production of RANKL and the secretion of TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-6 in PBMCs of RA patients, which indicated that 1,25(OH2D3 might be able to decrease damage of cartilage and bone in RA patients by regulating the expression of RANKL signaling pathway and pathway-associated cytokines.

  16. Cytokine-Modulating Strategies and Newer Cytokine Targets for Arthritis Therapy

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    Shivaprasad H. Venkatesha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are the key mediators of inflammation in the course of autoimmune arthritis and other immune-mediated diseases. Uncontrolled production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and IL-17 can promote autoimmune pathology, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-10, and IL-27 can help control inflammation and tissue damage. The pro-inflammatory cytokines are the prime targets of the strategies to control rheumatoid arthritis (RA. For example, the neutralization of TNFα, either by engineered anti-cytokine antibodies or by soluble cytokine receptors as decoys, has proven successful in the treatment of RA. The activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines can also be downregulated either by using specific siRNA to inhibit the expression of a particular cytokine or by using small molecule inhibitors of cytokine signaling. Furthermore, the use of anti-inflammatory cytokines or cytokine antagonists delivered via gene therapy has proven to be an effective approach to regulate autoimmunity. Unexpectedly, under certain conditions, TNFα, IFN-γ, and few other cytokines can display anti-inflammatory activities. Increasing awareness of this phenomenon might help develop appropriate regimens to harness or avoid this effect. Furthermore, the relatively newer cytokines such as IL-32, IL-34 and IL-35 are being investigated for their potential role in the pathogenesis and treatment of arthritis.

  17. Serum Cytokine Responses over the Entire Clinical-Immunological Spectrum of Human Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi Infection

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    Patrícia Karla Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical-immunological spectrum of human Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi infection in Amazonian Brazil was recently reviewed based on clinical, DTH, and IFAT (IgG evaluations that identified five profiles: three asymptomatic (asymptomatic infection, AI; subclinical resistant infection, SRI; and indeterminate initial infection, III and two symptomatic (symptomatic infection, SI; American visceral leishmaniasis, AVL; and subclinical oligosymptomatic infection, SOI. TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 serum cytokines were analyzed using multiplexed Cytometric Bead Array in 161 samples from endemic areas in the Brazilian Amazon: SI [AVL] (21 cases, III (49, SRI (19, SOI (12, AI (36, and a control group [CG] (24. The highest IL-6 serum levels were observed in the SI profile (AVL; higher IL-10 serum levels were observed in SI than in SOI or CG and in AI and III than in SOI; higher TNF-α serum levels were seen in SI than in CG. Positive correlations were found between IL-6 and IL-10 serum levels in the SI and III profiles and between IL-6 and TNF-α and between IL-4 and TNF-α in the III profile. These results provide strong evidence for associating IL-6 and IL-10 with the immunopathogenesis of AVL and help clarify the role of these cytokines in the infection spectrum.

  18. TNF-driven adaptive response mediates resistance to EGFR inhibition in lung cancer.

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    Gong, Ke; Guo, Gao; Gerber, David E; Gao, Boning; Peyton, Michael; Huang, Chun; Minna, John D; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Kernstine, Kemp; Cai, Ling; Xie, Yang; Zhu, Hong; Fattah, Farjana J; Zhang, Shanrong; Takahashi, Masaya; Mukherjee, Bipasha; Burma, Sandeep; Dowell, Jonathan; Dao, Kathryn; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A; Olivas, Victor; Bivona, Trever G; Zhao, Dawen; Habib, Amyn A

    2018-06-01

    Although aberrant EGFR signaling is widespread in cancer, EGFR inhibition is effective only in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR activating mutations. A majority of NSCLCs express EGFR wild type (EGFRwt) and do not respond to EGFR inhibition. TNF is a major mediator of inflammation-induced cancer. We find that a rapid increase in TNF level is a universal adaptive response to EGFR inhibition in NSCLC, regardless of EGFR status. EGFR signaling actively suppresses TNF mRNA levels by inducing expression of miR-21, resulting in decreased TNF mRNA stability. Conversely, EGFR inhibition results in loss of miR-21 and increased TNF mRNA stability. In addition, TNF-induced NF-κB activation leads to increased TNF transcription in a feed-forward loop. Inhibition of TNF signaling renders EGFRwt-expressing NSCLC cell lines and an EGFRwt patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model highly sensitive to EGFR inhibition. In EGFR-mutant oncogene-addicted cells, blocking TNF enhances the effectiveness of EGFR inhibition. EGFR plus TNF inhibition is also effective in NSCLC with acquired resistance to EGFR inhibition. We suggest concomitant EGFR and TNF inhibition as a potentially new treatment approach that could be beneficial for a majority of lung cancer patients.

  19. Generalized Liver- and Blood-Derived CD8+ T-Cell Impairment in Response to Cytokines in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

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    Stephanie C Burke Schinkel

    Full Text Available Generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and the contribution of liver-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells to the immunopathogenesis of this infection remain poorly understood. It is hypothesized that this impairment is partially due to reduced CD8+ T-cell activity in response to cytokines such as IL-7, particularly within the liver. To investigate this, the phenotype and cytokine responsiveness of blood- and liver-derived CD8+ T-cells from healthy controls and individuals with HCV infection were compared. In blood, IL-7 receptor α (CD127 expression on bulk CD8+ T-cells in HCV infection was no different than controls yet was lower on central memory T-cells, and there were fewer naïve cells. IL-7-induced signalling through phosphorylated STAT5 was lower in HCV infection than in controls, and differed between CD8+ T-cell subsets. Production of Bcl-2 following IL-7 stimulation was also lower in HCV infection and inversely related to the degree of liver fibrosis. In liver-derived CD8+ T-cells, STAT5 activation could not be increased with cytokine stimulation and basal Bcl-2 levels of liver-derived CD8+ T-cells were lower than blood-derived counterparts in HCV infection. Therefore, generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in HCV infection is characterized, in part, by impaired IL-7-mediated signalling and survival, independent of CD127 expression. This impairment is more pronounced in the liver and may be associated with an increased potential for apoptosis. This generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment represents an important immune dysfunction in chronic HCV infection that may alter patient health.

  20. Immune response against the irradiated Bothropstoxin-1 with 60Co: identification of main cytokines involved and the participation of scavengers substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Janaina Baptista

    2009-01-01

    Considering the effects of gamma radiation on proteins and the ability of immune system to recognize modified macromolecules, we have identified the major cytokines involved in immune response of B10.PL, BALB/c and Knockout- IFNγ mice exposed to native or irradiated bothropstoxin-1 (BTHX-1), in the presence and absence of scavengers substances. In order to evaluate possible molecule structural modifications after being irradiated ( 60 Co gamma rays), bothropstoxin-1 was submitted to SDS-PAGE analyses. Our results indicated that irradiation process has promoted modifications in the BTHX-1 molecule, however, in the presence of scavengers and even after irradiation process, the main band of toxin was preserved (14 kDa). Sera of animals immunized with the native or irradiated toxin, in the presence or not of scavengers, were analyzed in order to quantify specific isotopes. While the native BTHX-1 induced a predominant Th2 response, the irradiated toxin apparently promoted a switch towards a Th1 pattern. The toxin, when irradiated in the presence of t-butanol, induced to a lower production of IgG2b (Th1 response) if compared with the irradiated toxin without scavengers. We also performed a Real-time PCR to quantify the expression of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in spleen cells from mice. The cells of B10.PL and BALB/c mice immunized with native BTHX-1 and in vitro stimulated with irradiated toxin, showed higher expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 (Th1 response) than the control sample. The cells of Knockout-IFNγ mice immunized with native BTHX-1 showed higher expression of IL-4 (Th2 response). The cells obtained of B10.PL and BALB/c mice immunized with BTHX-1 + t-butanol, showed higher expression of IL-4 and IL-10, respectively. These facts reinforce the involvement of OH in the modulation of immune response against the irradiated toxin. (author)

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