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Sample records for inhaled fungal antigens

  1. Generation and Characterization of Indoor Fungal Aerosols for Inhalation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Larsen, Søren T; Koponen, Ismo K; Kling, Kirsten I; Barooni, Afnan; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Tendal, Kira; Wolkoff, Peder

    2016-04-01

    In the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. Evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. To examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. The aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. Indoor airborne fungi were sampled and cultivated on gypsum boards. Aerosols were characterized and compared with aerosols in homes. Aerosols containing 10(7)CFU of fungi/m(3)air were generated repeatedly from fungus-infested gypsum boards in a mouse exposure chamber. Aerosols contained Aspergillus nidulans,Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ustus, Aspergillus versicolor,Chaetomium globosum,Cladosporium herbarum,Penicillium brevicompactum,Penicillium camemberti,Penicillium chrysogenum,Penicillium commune,Penicillium glabrum,Penicillium olsonii,Penicillium rugulosum,Stachybotrys chartarum, and Wallemia sebi They were all among the most abundant airborne species identified in 28 homes. Nine species from gypsum boards and 11 species in the homes are associated with water damage. Most fungi were present as single spores, but chains and clusters of different species and fragments were also present. The variation in exposure level during the 60 min of aerosol generation was similar to the variation measured in homes. Through aerosolization of fungi from the indoor environment, cultured on gypsum boards, it was possible to generate realistic aerosols in terms of species composition, concentration, and particle sizes. The inhalation-exposure system can be used to study responses to indoor fungi associated with water damage and the importance of fungal species composition.

  2. Tea tree oil nanoemulsions for inhalation therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Lifei; Liu, Boming; Du, Lina; Jia, Xiaodong; Han, Li; Jin, Yiguang

    2016-05-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a natural essential oil with strong antimicrobial efficacy and little drug resistance. However, the biomedical applications of TTO are limited due to its hydrophobicity and formulation problems. Here, we prepared an inhalable TTO nanoemulsion (nanoTTO) for local therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia. The optimal formulation of nanoTTOs consisted of TTO/Cremophor EL/water with a mean size of 12.5nm. The nanoTTOs showed strong in vitro antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. After inhalation to the lung, the nanoTTOs had higher anti-fungal effect than fluconazole on the fungal pneumonia rat models with reduced lung injury, highly microbial clearance, blocking of leukocyte recruitment, and decrease of pro-inflammatory mediators. In the case of rat bacterial pneumonia, the nanoTTOs showed slightly lower therapeutic efficacy than penicillin though at a much lower dose. Taken together, our results show that the inhalable nanoTTOs are promising nanomedicines for local therapies of fungal and bacterial pneumonia with no obvious adverse events.

  3. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which open the breathing passages. Inhalers are very safe when used as prescribed by doctors. Inhalants, on the other hand, are common household chemicals that contain a volatile component which can be ...

  4. Job categories and their effect on exposure to fungal alpha-amylase and inhalable dust in the U.K. baking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, Joanne; Beckett, Paul; Griffin, Peter; Evans, Paul; Sams, Craig; Roff, Martin; Curran, Andrew D

    2003-01-01

    Enzymes in flour improver, in particular fungal alpha-amylase, are known to be a significant cause of respiratory allergy in the baking industry. This study measured total inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase exposures in U.K. bakeries, mills, and a flour improver production and packing facility and determined whether assignment of job description could identify individuals with the highest exposures to fungal alpha-amylase and inhalable dust. A total of 117 personal samples were taken for workers in 19 bakeries, 2 mills, and a flour improver production and packing facility and were analyzed using a monoclonal based immunoassay. Occupational hygiene surveys were undertaken for each site to assign job description and identify individuals who worked directly with flour improvers. Analysis of exposure data identified that mixers and weighers from large bakeries had the highest exposures to both inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase among the different categories of bakery workers (p<.01). Currently, the maximum exposure limit for flour dust in the United Kingdom is 10 mg/m(3) (8-hour time-weighted average reference period). In this study 25% of the total dust results for bakers exceeded 10 mg/m(3), and interestingly, 63% of the individuals with exposure levels exceeding 10 mg/m(3) were weighers and mixers. Individuals who worked directly with flour improvers were exposed to higher levels of both inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase (p<.01) than those who were not directly handling these products. Before sensitive immunoassays were utilized for the detection of specific inhalable allergens, gravimetric analysis was often used as a surrogate. There was a weak relationship between inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase exposures; however, inhalable dust levels could not be used to predict amylase exposures, which highlights the importance of measuring both inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase exposures.

  5. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : ... get treatment for addiction to inhalants? Some people seeking treatment for ... for positive behaviors such as staying drug-free. More research is ...

  6. Role of TLR-2 and fungal surface antigens on innate immune response against Sporothrix schenckii.

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    Negrini, Thais de C; Ferreira, Lucas S; Alegranci, Pâmela; Arthur, Rodrigo A; Sundfeld, Pedro P; Maia, Danielle C G; Spolidorio, Luis C; Carlos, Iracilda Z

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in immunity, since they bind to pathogen surface antigens and initiate the immune response. However, little is known about the role of TLR-2 and fungal surface antigens in the recognition of S. schenckii and in the subsequent immune response. This study aimed to evaluate the involvement of TLR-2 and fungal surface soluble (SolAg) and lipidic (LipAg) antigens in phagocytosis of S. schenckii and production of immune mediators by macrophages obtained from WT and TLR-2(-/-) animals. The results showed that TLR-2(-/-) animals had had statistical lower percentage of macrophages with internalized yeasts compared to WT. SolAg and LipAg impaired phagocytosis and immunological mediator production for both WT and TLR-2(-/-). The absence of TLR-2 led to lower production of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 compared to WT animals. These results suggest a new insight in relation to how the immune system, through TLR-2, recognizes and induces the production of mediators in response to the fungus S. schenckii.

  7. Presensitization to Ascaris antigens promotes induction of mite-specific IgE upon mite antigen inhalation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Suzuki

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrated that the immunization of naïve mice with Ascaris antigens induced production of antibodies and differentiation of Th2 cells, which were cross-reactive to HDM antigens, and accelerated induction of serum HDM-specific IgE upon subsequent airway exposure to HDM antigens in mice. These results suggest that sensitization to HDM towards IgE-mediated allergic diseases is faster in individuals with a previous history of Ascaris infection than in those without presensitization to Ascaris.

  8. Protective-antigen (PA) based anthrax vaccines confer protection against inhalation anthrax by precluding the establishment of a systemic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Tod J; Perera, Pin-Yu; Lee, Gloria M; Verma, Anita; Hiroi, Toyoko; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Waldmann, Thomas A; Perera, Liyanage P

    2013-09-01

    An intense effort has been launched to develop improved anthrax vaccines that confer rapid, long lasting protection preferably with an extended stability profile amenable for stockpiling. Protective antigen (PA)-based vaccines are most favored as immune responses directed against PA are singularly protective, although the actual protective mechanism remains to be unraveled. Herein we show that contrary to the prevailing view, an efficacious PA-based vaccine confers protection against inhalation anthrax by preventing the establishment of a toxin-releasing systemic infection. Equally importantly, antibodies measured by the in vitro lethal toxin neutralization activity assay (TNA) that is considered as a reliable correlate of protection, especially for PA protein-based vaccines adjuvanted with aluminum salts appear to be not absolutely essential for this protective immune response.

  9. Advax-adjuvanted recombinant protective antigen provides protection against inhalational anthrax that is further enhanced by addition of murabutide adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita; Merkel, Tod J

    2014-04-01

    Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax adjuvant afforded significantly greater protection against aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain 7702 than three immunizations with PA alone. Murabutide had a weaker adjuvant effect than Advax when used alone, but when murabutide was formulated together with Advax, an additive effect on immunogenicity and protection was observed, with complete protection after just two doses. The combined adjuvant formulation stimulated a robust, long-lasting B-cell memory response that protected mice against an aerosol challenge 18 months postimmunization with acceleration of the kinetics of the anamnestic IgG response to B. anthracis as reflected by ∼4-fold-higher anti-PA IgG titers by day 2 postchallenge versus mice that received PA with Alhydrogel. In addition, the combination of Advax plus murabutide induced approximately 3-fold-less inflammation than Alhydrogel as measured by in vivo imaging of cathepsin cleavage resulting from injection of ProSense 750. Thus, the combination of Advax and murabutide provided enhanced protection against inhalational anthrax with reduced localized inflammation, making this a promising next-generation anthrax vaccine adjuvanting strategy.

  10. Advax-Adjuvanted Recombinant Protective Antigen Provides Protection against Inhalational Anthrax That Is Further Enhanced by Addition of Murabutide Adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax adjuvant afforded significantly greater protection against aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain 7702 than three immunizations with PA alone. Murabutide had a weaker adjuvant effect than Advax when used alone, but when murabutide was formulated together with Advax, an additive effect on immunogenicity and protection was observed, with complete protection after just two doses. The combined adjuvant formulation stimulated a robust, long-lasting B-cell memory response that protected mice against an aerosol challenge 18 months postimmunization with acceleration of the kinetics of the anamnestic IgG response to B. anthracis as reflected by ∼4-fold-higher anti-PA IgG titers by day 2 postchallenge versus mice that received PA with Alhydrogel. In addition, the combination of Advax plus murabutide induced approximately 3-fold-less inflammation than Alhydrogel as measured by in vivo imaging of cathepsin cleavage resulting from injection of ProSense 750. Thus, the combination of Advax and murabutide provided enhanced protection against inhalational anthrax with reduced localized inflammation, making this a promising next-generation anthrax vaccine adjuvanting strategy. PMID:24554695

  11. Specificity of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody screening in patients with haematological malignancies at risk for fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duettmann, Wiebke; Koidl, Christoph; Krause, Robert; Lackner, Gertrude; Woelfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Combination of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody (Mn/A-Mn) testing has been reported a useful and specific strategy for diagnosis of invasive Candida infections (ICIs). We evaluated Mn/A-Mn as a screening tool in patients with haematological malignancies. This clinical prospective study was performed at the Division of Hematology, Medical University Graz, Austria between July and December 2012. Patients at risk for fungal infection were included into the study and twice weekly screened by Mn/A-Mn testing, yielding 650 samples. Of overall 67 patients 66 had no evidence for ICI. From those, 153/640 serum samples (23.9%) were positive for mannan Ab, and nine (1.4%) for Ag. Most false positive Ab results were observed among 375 samples from patients without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (34.9% resulted positive). Combined specificity of Mn/A-Mn was 74.8%. Of 10 samples obtained in the single patient with candidemia, five were positive for mannan Ag (from the day of diagnosis up to 40 days after detection of candidemia) and none for Ab. In conclusion, mannan Ab screening yielded a high number of false positive results. While mannan Ag was found to be highly specific and may have potential for diagnostic driven testing, mannan Ab testing cannot be recommended based on our study results. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. 自制大蒜液吸入在COPD继发肺部真菌感染中的应用%Application of the Inhalation of Self-produced Garlic Solution on Secondary Pulmonary Fungal Infection from COPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the application and treatment ef ect of inhalation of garlic solution on secondary pulmonary fungal infection from COPD .Methods To compare the 20 patients suf ering secondary pulmonary fungal infection from COPD treated by inhalation of garlic solution and 16 untreated patients (control group). Results The ef iciency of the treatment group is 85%and that of the control group is 62.5%. Conclusion Inhalation of self-produced garlic solution can significantly improve the treatment rate of secondary pulmonary fungal infection from COPD.%目的探讨大蒜液吸入在COPD继发肺部真菌感染中的应用及疗效观察。方法对2010年10月~2013年10月我院收治COPD继发肺部真菌感染患者中20例加用大蒜液吸入治疗与16例未用者(对照组)进行比较。结果治疗组总有效率85%,对照组总有效率62.5%,差异具有统计学意义(<0.01)。结论自制大蒜液吸入能有效提高COPD继发肺部真菌感染的治疗率。

  13. Fungal allergens.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immuno...

  14. Modulation of innate and antigen-specific immune functions directed against Listeria monocytogenes by fungal toxins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, I; Geginat, G; Hof, H; Kupfahl, C

    2014-05-01

    Mycotoxins, a large group of secondary fungal metabolites, are ubiquitously present in the environment and are potentially harmful to exposed humans and animals. Despite increasing interest in this group of fungal metabolites it is still difficult to estimate the relative toxic potential of one individual mycotoxin compared with others. We therefore compared the effects of some of the most important mycotoxins on effector cells of the innate and adaptive immune system in an in vitro model. Our data show clear differences of various mycotoxins in regard of their immunotoxic potential on mouse macrophages and T cells. Our results also indicate differences in the susceptibility of specific immune effector functions of macrophages and T cells exposed to mycotoxins. Thus, our results enhance the understanding of role of mycotoxins in the pathogenesis of human and animal diseases.

  15. Improved Detection of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Arising during Leukemia Treatment Using a Panel of Host Response Proteins and Fungal Antigens.

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    Allan R Brasier

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is an opportunistic fungal infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or other forms of immunosuppression. In this group, Aspergillus infections account for the majority of deaths due to mold pathogens. Although early detection is associated with improved outcomes, current diagnostic regimens lack sensitivity and specificity. Patients undergoing chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation and lung transplantation were enrolled in a multi-site prospective observational trial. Proven and probable IPA cases and matched controls were subjected to discovery proteomics analyses using a biofluid analysis platform, fractionating plasma into reproducible protein and peptide pools. From 556 spots identified by 2D gel electrophoresis, 66 differentially expressed post-translationally modified plasma proteins were identified in the leukemic subgroup only. This protein group was rich in complement components, acute-phase reactants and coagulation factors. Low molecular weight peptides corresponding to abundant plasma proteins were identified. A candidate marker panel of host response (9 plasma proteins, 4 peptides, fungal polysaccharides (galactomannan, and cell wall components (β-D glucan were selected by statistical filtering for patients with leukemia as a primary underlying diagnosis. Quantitative measurements were developed to qualify the differential expression of the candidate host response proteins using selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assays, and then applied to a separate cohort of 57 patients with leukemia. In this verification cohort, a machine learning ensemble-based algorithm, generalized pathseeker (GPS produced a greater case classification accuracy than galactomannan (GM or host proteins alone. In conclusion, Integration of host response proteins with GM improves the diagnostic detection of probable IPA in patients

  16. Inhalation Injuries

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    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  17. Fungal Sinusitis

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    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Fungal Sinusitis Fungal Sinusitis Patient Health Information News media interested ... sinusitis results. There Are Four Types Of Fungal Sinusitis: Mycetoma Fungal Sinusitis produces clumps of spores, a " ...

  18. Inhaler technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, M L; Dekhuijzen, P R N; Barnes, P J

    2016-01-01

    of this process: the use of inhalers is bewildering enough, particularly with regular introduction of new drugs, devices and ancillary equipment, without unnecessary and pointless adages. We review the evidence, or lack thereof, underlying ten items of inhaler 'lore' commonly passed on by health professionals...

  19. Fungal arthritis

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000444.htm Fungal arthritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fungal arthritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of a joint ...

  20. Fungal Meningitis

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    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  1. [Clinically documented fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Proven fungal infections are diagnosed by histological/microbiological evidence of fungi at the site of infection and positive blood culture (fungemia). However, invasive diagnosing examinations are not always applied for all of immunocompromised patients. Clinically documented invasive fungal infections are diagnosed by typical radiological findings such as halo sign on chest CT plus positive serological/molecular evidence of fungi. Serological tests of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen and beta-glucan for aspergillosis and cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antigen for cryptococcosis are useful. Hence, none of reliable serological tests for zygomycosis are available so far. In this article, risk factors, sign and symptoms, and diagnostic methods for clinically documented cases of invasive aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis, and zygomycosis with diabates, are reviewed.

  2. Inhaled Corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Barnes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS are the most effective controllers of asthma. They suppress inflammation mainly by switching off multiple activated inflammatory genes through reversing histone acetylation via the recruitment of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2. Through suppression of airway inflammation ICS reduce airway hyperresponsiveness and control asthma symptoms. ICS are now first-line therapy for all patients with persistent asthma, controlling asthma symptoms and preventing exacerbations. Inhaled long-acting β2-agonists added to ICS further improve asthma control and are commonly given as combination inhalers, which improve compliance and control asthma at lower doses of corticosteroids. By contrast, ICS provide much less clinical benefit in COPD and the inflammation is resistant to the action of corticosteroids. This appears to be due to a reduction in HDAC2 activity and expression as a result of oxidative stress. ICS are added to bronchodilators in patients with severe COPD to reduce exacerbations. ICS, which are absorbed from the lungs into the systemic circulation, have negligible systemic side effects at the doses most patients require, although the high doses used in COPD has some systemic side effects and increases the risk of developing pneumonia.

  3. Fungal endocarditis: current challenges.

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    Tattevin, Pierre; Revest, Matthieu; Lefort, Agnès; Michelet, Christian; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Whilst it used to affect mostly intravenous drug users and patients who underwent valvular surgery with suboptimal infection control procedures, fungal endocarditis is now mostly observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency (onco-haematology), in association with chronic central venous access and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. The incidence of fungal endocarditis has probably decreased in most developed countries with access to harm-reduction policies (i.e. needle exchange programmes) and with improved infection control procedures during cardiac surgery. Use of specific blood culture bottles for diagnosis of fungal endocarditis has decreased due to optimisation of media and automated culture systems. Meanwhile, the advent of rapid techniques, including fungal antigen detection (galactomannan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies and β-1,3-d-glucans) and PCR (e.g. universal fungal PCR targeting 18S rRNA genes), shall improve sensitivity and reduce diagnostics delays, although limited data are available on their use for the diagnosis of fungal endocarditis. New antifungal agents available since the early 2000s may represent dramatic improvement for fungal endocarditis: (i) a new class, the echinocandins, has the potential to improve the management of Candida endocarditis owing to its fungicidal effect on yeasts as well as tolerability of increased dosages; and (ii) improved survival in patients with invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole compared with amphotericin B, and this may apply to Aspergillus sp. endocarditis as well, although its prognosis remains dismal. These achievements may allow selected patients to be cured with prolonged medical treatment alone when surgery is considered too risky.

  4. [Fungal keratitis].

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    Bourcier, T; Sauer, A; Letscher-Bru, V; Candolfi, E

    2011-10-01

    Fungal keratitis (keratomycosis) is a rare but severe cause of infectious keratitis. Its incidence is constant, due to steroids or immunosuppressive treatments and contact lenses. Pathogens often invade corneas with chronic diseases of the ocular surface but fungal keratitis is also observed following injuries with plant foreign objects. The poor prognosis of these infections is related both to fungal virulence, decreased host defense, as well as delays in diagnosis. However, new antimycotic treatments allow better management and prognosis.

  5. Development of allergic airway disease in mice following antibiotic therapy and fungal microbiota increase: role of host genetics, antigen, and interleukin-13.

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    Noverr, Mairi C; Falkowski, Nicole R; McDonald, Rod A; McKenzie, Andrew N; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2005-01-01

    Lending support to the hygiene hypothesis, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that allergic disease correlates with widespread use of antibiotics and alterations in fecal microbiota ("microflora"). Antibiotics also lead to overgrowth of the yeast Candida albicans, which can secrete potent prostaglandin-like immune response modulators, from the microbiota. We have recently developed a mouse model of antibiotic-induced gastrointestinal microbiota disruption that is characterized by stable increases in levels of gastrointestinal enteric bacteria and Candida. Using this model, we have previously demonstrated that microbiota disruption can drive the development of a CD4 T-cell-mediated airway allergic response to mold spore challenge in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice without previous systemic antigen priming. The studies presented here address important questions concerning the universality of the model. To investigate the role of host genetics, we tested BALB/c mice. As with C57BL/6 mice, microbiota disruption promoted the development of an allergic response in the lungs of BALB/c mice upon subsequent challenge with mold spores. In addition, this allergic response required interleukin-13 (IL-13) (the response was absent in IL-13(-/-) mice). To investigate the role of antigen, we subjected mice with disrupted microbiota to intranasal challenge with ovalbumin (OVA). In the absence of systemic priming, only mice with altered microbiota developed airway allergic responses to OVA. The studies presented here demonstrate that the effects of microbiota disruption are largely independent of host genetics and the nature of the antigen and that IL-13 is required for the airway allergic response that follows microbiota disruption.

  6. Fungal rhinosinusitis.

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    Netkovski, J; Shirgoska, B

    2012-01-01

    Fungi are a major part of the ecosystem. In fact, over 250 fungal species have been reported to produce human infections. More than ever, fungal diseases have emerged as major challenges for physicians and clinical microbiologists. The aim of this study was to summarize the diagnostic procedures and endoscopic surgical treatment of patients with fungal rhinosinusitis. Eleven patients, i.e. 10% of all cases with chronic inflammation of paranasal sinuses, were diagnosed with fungal rhinosinusitis. Ten of them were patients with a noninvasive form, fungus ball, while only one patient was classified in the group of chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis which was accompanied with diabetes mellitus. All patients underwent nasal endoscopic examination, skin allergy test and had preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans of the sinuses in axial and coronal plane. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in 10 patients with fungus ball, while a combined approach, endoscopic and external, was done in the immunocompromised patient with the chronic invasive form of fungal rhinosinusitis. Most cases (9/11) had unilateral infection. In 9 cases infection was restricted to a single sinus, and here the maxillary sinus was most commonly affected (8/9) with infections in other patients being restricted to the sphenoid sinus (1/9). Two patients had infections affecting two or more sinuses. In patients with an invasive form of the fungal disease there was involvement of the periorbital and orbital tissues. In patients with fungus ball the mycelia masses were completely removed from the sinus cavities. Long-term outcome was positive in all the operated patients and no recurrence was detected. The most frequent fungal agent that caused rhinosinusitis was Aspergillus. Mucor was identified in the patient with the invasive form. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity and CT scanning of paranasal sinuses followed by endoscopic sinus surgery were represented as valuable

  7. Substance use -- inhalants

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    ... rags or toilet paper soaked with the chemical. Effects of Inhalants on the Brain When inhaled, the chemicals are absorbed by the ... to replace the ones that involved inhalant use. Exercise and eat healthy ... the harmful effects of inhalants. Avoid triggers. These triggers can be ...

  8. Different types of fungal sinusitis occurring concurrently: implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupa, V; Thomas, Meera

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and histopathological features, management and outcome of a series of patients with simultaneous occurrence of invasive and non-invasive fungal sinusitis (mixed fungal sinusitis). The histopathological records of patients with fungal sinusitis seen over the last 6 years were reviewed. The clinical, histopathological, treatment and follow up details of all cases with mixed fungal sinusitis were noted. Six cases of mixed fungal sinusitis with concurrent occurrence of chronic granulomatous fungal sinusitis and allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) were seen during the study period. Most (83.3 %) had bilateral disease. All patients had undergone prior endoscopic sinus surgery at least once within the previous 2 years. Histopathological features showed predominance of invasive disease in half the patients. Except for one patient who did not report for follow up, all patients with predominant chronic granulomatous fungal sinusitis received systemic antifungal therapy and inhaled steroids. Those with predominant features of AFS received oral and inhaled steroids. Five patients with mixed fungal sinusitis who had follow up ranging from 6 months to 5 years were disease free following treatment. Mixed fungal sinusitis should be recognized by the surgeon and pathologist as a separate category of fungal sinusitis whose treatment depends on accurate histological diagnosis. A good outcome may be expected with appropriate therapy.

  9. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  10. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  11. Fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  12. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

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    ... for inhaling powder) and five Rotadisks (circular foil blister packs each containing four blisters of medication). Zanamivir powder ... put a hole in or open any medication blister pack until inhaling a dose with the Diskhaler.Carefully ...

  13. Fungal prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Gemma L; Tuite, Mick F

    2012-01-01

    For both mammalian and fungal prion proteins, conformational templating drives the phenomenon of protein-only infectivity. The conformational conversion of a protein to its transmissible prion state is associated with changes to host cellular physiology. In mammals, this change is synonymous with disease, whereas in fungi no notable detrimental effect on the host is typically observed. Instead, fungal prions can serve as epigenetic regulators of inheritance in the form of partial loss-of-function phenotypes. In the presence of environmental challenges, the prion state [PRION(+)], with its resource for phenotypic plasticity, can be associated with a growth advantage. The growing number of yeast proteins that can switch to a heritable [PRION(+)] form represents diverse and metabolically penetrating cellular functions, suggesting that the [PRION(+)] state in yeast is a functional one, albeit rarely found in nature. In this chapter, we introduce the biochemical and genetic properties of fungal prions, many of which are shared by the mammalian prion protein PrP, and then outline the major contributions that studies on fungal prions have made to prion biology.

  14. Fungal Entomopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal entomopathogens are important biological control agents worldwide and have been the subject of intense research for more than100 years. They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction and produce different types of infective propagules. Their mode of action against insects involves attachme...

  15. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  16. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment & Outcomes Statistics More Resources Fungal Nail Infections Histoplasmosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ... CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal Meningitis Histoplasmosis ... Resistance Resources Laboratory Submission Information Reportable Fungal ...

  17. Reasons for Inhalant Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents in a Texas drug abuse program, initial use of toxicant inhalants was related to availability and sensation-seeking, followed by psychological problems, parental and home problems, and peer influence. Quitting inhalant use was related to social pressures, attitude change, and perceived health risks. (Author/SV)

  18. Inhalants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  19. Invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2011-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a significant and often lethal problem in transplant patients. Infections caused by geographically limited endemic fungi are infrequent, and Aspergillus species, Mucorales species, Candida species, and Cryptococcus neoformans are the opportunistic fungi responsible for most such infections. The symptoms of systemic fungal infections are nonspecific, particularly in their early stages. The high rates of mortality and graft loss owing to fungal infections render early diagnosis and treatment imperative in immunosuppressed patients. Current methods for the diagnosis of systemic fungal infections include imaging procedures, endoscopic methods and biopsies, microscopic and culture techniques, antibody and antigen-based serologic testing, and the detection (via polymerase chain reaction) of fungal deoxyribonucleic acid in blood or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as the careful analysis of signs and symptoms. Antifungal therapy should be initiated early in patients with a suspected fungal infection (even before laboratory findings have confirmed that diagnosis) and should be administered with appropriate adjustment of immunosuppressive regimens. To manage fungal infections in patients with renal failure, optimizing the pharmacokinetics of antifungal drugs to reduce the risk of nephrotoxicity is crucial.

  20. Formoterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of lung diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema) in adults. Formoterol inhalation powder is also used with another medication to treat asthma and to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise in ...

  1. Indacaterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indacaterol inhalation is used to control wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Indacaterol is in a class of medications called long- ...

  2. Pentamidine Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentamidine is an anti-infective agent that helps to treat or prevent pneumonia caused by the organism ... Pentamidine comes as a solution to be inhaled using a nebulizer. It usually is used once every ...

  3. Insulin Human Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar ...

  4. Generation and characterization of indoor fungal aerosols for inhalation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Larsen, Søren T.; Koponen, Ismo K.

    2016-01-01

    , Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium commune, Penicilliumglabrum, Penicillium olsonii, Penicillium rugulosum, Stachybotrys chartarum, and Wallemia sebi. They were all amongthe most abundant airborne species identified in 28 homes. Nine species from gypsum boards and 11 species...

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 260 KB] Using a metered dose inhaler (inhaler in mouth) Your browser does not support iframes Using a metered dose inhaler (inhaler in mouth) [PDF - 370 KB] Your browser does not ...

  6. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...

  7. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Manuel Flores, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. ...... interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases....... tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen...

  8. Inhaled dust and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following: the respiratory system; respirable dust; the fate of inhaled dust; translocation and some general effects of inhaled dust; silicosis; experimental research on silica-related disease; natural fibrous silicates; asbestos dust levels and dust sources; asbestos-related diseases - asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma and other diseases, cancers at sites other than lung and pleura; experimental research relating to asbestos-related diseases; asbestos hazard - mineral types and hazardous occupations, neighbourhood and domestic hazard; silicates other than asbestos-man-made mineral fibres, mineral silicates and cement; metals; coal mine dust, industrial carbon and arsenic; natural and synthetic organic substances; dusts that provoke allergic alveolitis; tobacco smoke.

  9. Relevance of inhalant and food allergens to the etiology and management of patients with atopic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.; Mitchell, E.B.; Rowntree, S.; Heymann, P.W.; Chapman, M.D.

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have IgE antibodies to common environmental antigens, both foods and inhalants. Such antibodies are probably relevant and exposure to the corresponding antigens can give rise to eczema. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved and the role of other etiologies, e.g. contact reactions, remain to be elucidated. Patients with atopic dermatitis should have comprehensive evaluations to determine the role of environmental antigens.

  10. Fungal infections in burns: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capoor Malini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn wound infection (BWI is a major public health problem and the most devastating form of trauma worldwide. Fungi cause BWI as part of monomicrobial or polymicrobial infection, fungaemia, rare aggressive soft tissue infection and as opportunistic infections. The risk factors for acquiring fungal infection in burns include age of burns, total burn size, body surface area (BSA (30-60%, full thickness burns, inhalational injury, prolonged hospital stay, late surgical excision, open dressing, artificial dermis, central venous catheters, antibiotics, steroid treatment, long-term artificial ventilation, fungal wound colonisation (FWC, hyperglycaemic episodes and other immunosuppressive disorders. Most of the fungal infections are missed owing to lack of clinical awareness and similar presentation as bacterial infection coupled with paucity of mycology laboratories. Expedient diagnosis and treatment of these mycoses can be life-saving as the mortality is otherwise very high. Emergence of resistance in non-albicans Candida spp., unusual yeasts and moulds in fungal BWI, leaves very few fungi susceptible to antifungal drugs, leaving many patients susceptible. There is a need to speciate fungi as far as the topical and systemic antifungal is concerned. Deep tissue biopsy and other relevant samples are processed by standard mycological procedures using direct microscopy, culture and histopathological examination. Patients with FWC should be treated by aggressive surgical debridement and, in the case of fungal wound infection (FWI, in addition to surgical debridement, an intravenous antifungal drug, most commonly amphotericin B or caspofungin, is prescribed followed by de-escalating with voriconazole or itraconazole, or fluconazole depending upon the species or antifungal susceptibility, if available. The propensity for fungal infection increases, the longer the wound is present. Therefore, the development of products to close the wound more rapidly

  11. Vaccination approaches against opportunistic fungal infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Utz; Herrmann, Sahra; Asif, Abdul R

    2014-01-01

    Although innate immunity primarily combats systemic infections of opportunistic fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida spp., acquired and protective immunoreactions were observed long ago in animal trials following sublethal systemic infections caused by viable fungi or after challenging animals with inactivated fungal cells. Based on these observations, fungal antigens should exist which mediate such protective immunoreactions and have in part already been identified. In this context, this review focuses primarily on the various approaches that have been used to identify protection-mediating Aspergillus-antigens and their rationale. Emphasis is placed on screening methods that have exploited genetic or proteomic approaches on the basis of the corresponding fungal genome projects. Thereby, a survey and description is given of the antigens so far known to be capable of inducing immune responses that protect animals against acquiring lethal systemic aspergillosis.

  12. [Inhaled corticosteroids for COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2003-01-01

    Over 60% of patients with COPD are treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), even though their use is still subject to debate. The inflammatory process in the lungs of patients with COPD is dominated by macrophages, CD8+ T-lymphocytes, neutrophilic granulocytes and mast cells, as well as an increa

  13. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns…

  14. Inhalational Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kowsarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become apparent several years after exposure to the particles. However, for certain types of dusts, e.g., silicone dioxide crystal and beryllium, heavy exposure within a short period can cause an acute disease. Pulmonary involvement in asbestosis is usually in the lower lobes. On the contrary, in silicosis and coal worker pneumoconiosis, the upper lobes are involved predominantly. For imaging evaluation of pneumoconiosis, high-resolution computed tomography (CT is superior to conventional chest x-ray. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET scan are helpful in those with suspected tumoral lesions. In this essay, we reviewed the imaging aspects of inhalational lung disease.

  15. Immunoglobulins in defense, pathogenesis, and therapy of fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Pirofski, Liise-Anne

    2012-05-17

    Only two decades ago antibodies to fungi were thought to have little or no role in protection against fungal diseases. However, subsequent research has provided convincing evidence that certain antibodies can modify the course of fungal infection to the benefit or detriment of the host. Hybridoma technology was the breakthrough that enabled the characterization of antibodies to fungi, illuminating some of the requirements for antibody efficacy. As discussed in this review, fungal-specific antibodies mediate protection through direct actions on fungal cells and through classical mechanisms such as phagocytosis and complement activation. Although mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection are often species-specific, numerous fungal antigens can be targeted to generate vaccines and therapeutic immunoglobulins. Furthermore, the study of antibody function against medically important fungi has provided fresh immunological insights into the complexity of humoral immunity that are likely to apply to other pathogens.

  16. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  17. Who Can Use an Inhaler?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a bit harder. Any kid, even a baby, can use a metered dose inhaler with a spacer and a mask. Once a kid is 5 or 6 years old, he or she can learn to use a metered dose inhaler with just a spacer. Most kids that age are also able to use a dry powder inhaler. Your doctor will help you decide what ...

  18. Preparation of Somatic Antigen from Fusarium Solani for Serological Diagnosis of Fusariosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Aghamirian

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fusariosis is one of the most important systemic mycosis, often caused by Fusarium Solani and resist to antifungal drugs. The appropriate F. Solani antigen preparation could be useful in serodiagnosis of fusariosis. Materials & Methods : The extraction procedure was preformed using F.Solani strain 7419 UAMH. The antigenic extract was obtained through grinding of fungal mass yielding from broth culture medium. Results : Following fractionation of somatic antigen, two different component, that is, crude antigen as well as antigenic fractions (12,28 were collected. The antigenic fractions in comparison with the crude antigen, demonstrated more effective antibody responses using ELISA method. Conclusion: Availability of a suitable antigenic source could play a key role for serologic detecting of opportunistic fungal disease including fusariosis. Injection of this antigenic preparation in Rabbit resulted antibody response.

  19. Inhaled therapeutics for prevention and treatment of pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Amar; Shelburne, Samuel A; Evans, Scott E; Dickey, Burton F

    2009-07-01

    The lungs are the most common site of serious infection owing to their large surface area exposed to the external environment and minimum barrier defense. However, this architecture makes the lungs readily available for topical therapy. Therapeutic aerosols include those directed towards improving mucociliary clearance of pathogens, stimulation of innate resistance to microbial infection, cytokine stimulation of immune function and delivery of antibiotics. In our opinion inhaled antimicrobials are underused, especially in patients with difficult-to-treat lung infections. The use of inhaled antimicrobial therapy has become an important part of the treatment of airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis and the prevention of invasive fungal infection in patients undergoing heart and lung transplantation. Cytokine inhaled therapy has also been explored in the treatment of neoplastic and infectious disease. The choice of pulmonary drug delivery systems remains critical as air-jet and ultrasonic nebulizer may deliver sub-optimum drug concentration if not used properly. In future development of this field, we recommend an emphasis on the study of the use of aerosolized hypertonic saline solution to reduce pathogen burden in the airways of subjects infected with microbes of low virulence, stimulation of innate resistance to prevent pneumonia in immunocompromised subjects using cytokines or synthetic pathogen-associated molecular pattern analogues and more opportunities for the use of inhaled antimicrobials. These therapeutics are still in their infancy but show great promise.

  20. Role of inhaled amphotericin in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I S Sehgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is an immunological pulmonary disorder caused by immune reactions mounted against the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The disease clinically manifests with poorly controlled asthma, hemoptysis, systemic manifestations like fever, anorexia and weight loss, fleeting pulmonary opacities and bronchiectasis. The natural course of the disease is characterized by repeated episodes of exacerbations. Almost 30-40% of the patients require prolonged therapy, which currently consists of corticosteroids and anti-fungal azoles; both these agents have significant adverse reactions. Amphotericin B administered via the inhaled route can achieve a high concentration in the small airways with minimal systemic side-effects. Nebulized amphotericin B has been used in the management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The aim of this review is to study the utility of inhaled amphotericin in ABPA.

  1. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  2. Fungal DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in both natural and human-made environments. They play important roles in the health of plants, animals, and humans, and in broad ecosystem functions. Thus, having an efficient species-level identification system could significantly enhance our ability to treat fungal diseases and to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of fungal distributions and migrations. DNA barcoding is a potent approach for rapid identification of fungal specimens, generating novel species hypothesis, and guiding biodiversity and ecological studies. In this mini-review, I briefly summarize (i) the history of DNA sequence-based fungal identification; (ii) the emergence of the ITS region as the consensus primary fungal barcode; (iii) the use of the ITS barcodes to address a variety of issues on fungal diversity from local to global scales, including generating a large number of species hypothesis; and (iv) the problems with the ITS barcode region and the approaches to overcome these problems. Similar to DNA barcoding research on plants and animals, significant progress has been achieved over the last few years in terms of both the questions being addressed and the foundations being laid for future research endeavors. However, significant challenges remain. I suggest three broad areas of research to enhance the usefulness of fungal DNA barcoding to meet the current and future challenges: (i) develop a common set of primers and technologies that allow the amplification and sequencing of all fungi at both the primary and secondary barcode loci; (ii) compile a centralized reference database that includes all recognized fungal species as well as species hypothesis, and allows regular updates from the research community; and (iii) establish a consensus set of new species recognition criteria based on barcode DNA sequences that can be applied across the fungal kingdom.

  3. Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Rakhi; Hadley, Susan

    2005-12-01

    Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis are uncommon diseases and generally present in an indolent fashion. The incidence of fungal bone and joint dis-ease is increasing with an increase in the prevalence of factors predisposing to invasive fungal disease, such as the use of central venous catheters, broad spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppression, and abdominal surgery. Definitive diagnosis relies on bone or synovial culture or biopsy. Successful management has traditionally consisted of amphotericin B in combination with surgical debridement. Given the rarity of this disease, treatment is not well defined, but reports of success with the use of azole antifungal agents, including itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, are promising.

  4. Iloprost inhalation in mild asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeski, Elizabeth; Hoskins, Aimee; Dworski, Ryszard; Sheller, James R

    2012-11-01

    To determine the feasibility of administering iloprost by inhalation in patients with mild atopic asthma. Volunteers underwent supervised inhalation of iloprost in the clinic with measurement of spirometry and blood pressure for 2 hours. The volunteers then inhaled iloprost four times daily at a dose of 2.5 or 5 μg for 14 days. Spirometry, asthma questionnaires, peak flow diaries, measurement of methacholine responsiveness, and exhaled nitric oxide concentrations were obtained prior to and after the treatment period. Chronic inhalation of iloprost (2.5-5 μg) did not alter spirometry or methacholine responsiveness. Inhaled iloprost in carefully selected volunteers with mild asthma appears to be a suitable intervention to explore the effects of prostacyclin in human asthma.

  5. Insect pathology and fungal entomopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi that occur inside asymptomatic plant tissues are known as fungal endophytes. Different genera of fungal entomopathogens have been reported as naturally occurring fungal endophytes, and it has been shown that it is possible to inoculate plants with fungal entomopathogens, making them endophytic...

  6. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  7. The protective role of immunoglobulins in fungal infections and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elluru, Sri Ramulu; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2015-03-01

    Increased incidence of fungal infections in the immunocompromised individuals and fungi-mediated allergy and inflammatory conditions in immunocompetent individuals is a cause of concern. Consequently, there is a need for efficient therapeutic alternatives to treat fungal infections and inflammation. Several studies have demonstrated that antibodies or immunoglobulins have a role in restricting the fungal burden and their clearance. However, based on the data from monoclonal antibodies, it is now evident that the efficacy of antibodies in fungal infections is dependent on epitope specificity, abundance of protective antibodies, and their isotype. Antibodies confer protection against fungal infections by multiple mechanisms that include direct neutralization of fungi and their antigens, inhibition of growth of fungi, modification of gene expression, signaling and lipid metabolism, causing iron starvation, inhibition of polysaccharide release, and biofilm formation. Antibodies promote opsonization of fungi and their phagocytosis, complement activation, and antibody-dependent cell toxicity. Passive administration of specific protective monoclonal antibodies could also prove to be beneficial in drug resistance cases, to reduce the dosage and associated toxic symptoms of anti-fungal drugs. The longer half-life of the antibodies and flexibilities to modify their structure/forms are additional advantages. The clinical data obtained with two monoclonal antibodies should incite interests in translating pre-clinical success into the clinics. The anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory role of antibodies in fungal inflammation could be exploited by intravenous immunoglobulin or IVIg.

  8. Modulation of host-cell MAPkinase signaling during fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Osherov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections contribute substantially to human suffering and mortality. The interaction between fungal pathogens and their host involves the invasion and penetration of the surface epithelium, activation of cells of the innate immune system and the generation of an effective response to block infection. Numerous host-cell signaling pathways are activated during fungal infection. This review will focus on the main fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans and their ability to activate the host MAP-kinase signaling pathways leading to cytokine secretion, increased cell motility and killing of the pathogen. Both epithelial and innate immune cells specifically recognize fungal antigens and in particular cell surface polysaccharides such as β-glucans and react to them by activating multiple signaling pathways, including those containing MAP-kinase modules. Recent findings suggest that the host response to fungal infection utilizes the MAP-kinase pathway to differentiate between commensal and pathogenic fungi to selectively react only to the pathogenic forms. However, the paucity of relevant publications strongly emphasize that our understanding of host MAP-kinase signaling in response to fungal infection is still at a very early stage. It is clear, based on studies of host MAP-kinase signaling during viral and bacterial infections, that in fungi as well, a wealth of exciting findings await us.

  9. Exubera. Inhale therapeutic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Sanjit; Cefalu, William T

    2002-05-01

    Inhale, in colaboration with Pfizer and Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel; HMR), is developing an insulin formulation utilizing its pulmonary delivery technology for macromolecules for the potential treatment of type I and II diabetes. By July 2001, the phase III program had been completed and the companies had begun to assemble data for MAA and NDA filings; however, it was already clear at this time that additional data might be required for filing. By December 2001, it had been decided that the NDA should include an increased level of controlled, long-term pulmonary safety data in diabetic patients and a major study was planned to be completed in 2002, with the NDA filed thereafter (during 2002). US-05997848 was issued to Inhale Therapeutic Systems in December 1999, and corresponds to WO-09524183, filed in February 1995. Equivalent applications have appeared to date in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Europe, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. This family of applications is specific to pulmonary delivery of insulin. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers gave this inhaled insulin a 60% probability of reaching market, with a possible launch date of 2001. The analysts estimated peak sales at $3 billion in 2011. In May 2000, Aventis predicted that estimated peak sales would be in excess of $1 billion. In February 2000, Merrill Lynch expected product launch in 2002 and predicted that it would be a multibillion-dollar product. Analysts Merril Lynch predicted, in September and November 2000, that the product would be launched by 2002, with sales in that year of e75 million, rising to euro 500 million in 2004. In April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted that filing for this drug would occur in 2001. Following the report of the potential delay in regulatory filing, issued in July 2001, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a filing would take place in the fourth quarter of 2002 and launch would take place in the first

  10. [Pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Carratalà, Jordi

    2012-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections remain a life-threatening disease. The development of invasive fungal disease is dependent on multiple factors, such us colonization and efficient host immune response. We aimed to review the pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections, in particular, those caused by Candida and Aspergillus. For this we propose, to describe the fungal characteristics, to detail the host defence mechanisms against fungus and to analyse the host risk factors for invasive fungal infection.

  11. Inhalation delivery of asthma drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, H

    1990-01-01

    In the immediate future, metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) with spacers remain the aerosol application of choice for topical steroids, mainly to reduce side effects. For beta 2-agonist, anticholinergics and prophylactic drugs, MDI (with or without demand valve), dry powder inhalers (multidose inhalers), ultrasonic or jet aerosol generators (with or without mechanical breathing assistance [IPPB]) are chosen according to the preference or the ability of the patients to perform the necessary breathing maneuvers as well as the availability of different products in different countries.

  12. Fluticasone and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... it from the foil overwrap or after every blister has been used (when the dose indicator reads ...

  13. Applicability of a modified MCE filter method with Button Inhalable Sampler for monitoring personal bioaerosol inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Xu, Hong; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-05-01

    In this study, a "modified" mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter culturing method (directly placing filter on agar plate for culturing without extraction) was investigated in enumerating airborne culturable bacterial and fungal aerosol concentration and diversity both in different environments. A Button Inhalable Sampler loaded with a MCE filter was operated at a flow rate of 5 L/min to collect indoor and outdoor air samples using different sampling times: 10, 20, and 30 min in three different time periods of the day. As a comparison, a BioStage impactor, regarded as the gold standard, was operated in parallel at a flow rate of 28.3 L/min for all tests. The air samples collected by the Button Inhalable Sampler were directly placed on agar plates for culturing, and those collected by the BioStage impactor were incubated directly at 26 °C. The colony forming units (CFUs) were manually counted and the culturable concentrations were calculated both for bacterial and fungal aerosols. The bacterial CFUs developed were further washed off and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for diversity analysis. For fungal CFUs, microscopy method was applied to studying the culturable fungal diversity obtained using different methods. Experimental results showed that the performance of two investigated methods varied with sampling environments and microbial types (culturable bacterial and fungal aerosols). For bacterial aerosol sampling, both methods were shown to perform equally well, and in contrast the "modified" MCE filter method was demonstrated to enumerate more culturable fungal aerosols than the BioStage impactor. In general, the microbial species richness (number of gel bands) was observed to increase with increasing collection time. For both methods, the DGGE gel patterns were observed to vary with sampling time and environment despite of similar number of gel bands. In addition, an increase in sampling time from 20 to 30 min

  14. Potent Inhalational Anesthetics for Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satuito, Mary; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings.

  15. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Flores, José Manuel; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Palacio, María Alejandra; Spivak, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. that are rarely observed, so the impact on colony health is not very well understood. A major concern with the presence of Aspergillus in honey bees is the production of airborne conidia, which can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary aspergilloma, or even invasive aspergillosis in lung tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases.

  16. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research.

  17. Indoor emissions as a primary source of airborne allergenic fungal particles in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Hospodsky, Denina; Dannemiller, Karen C; Nazaroff, William W; Peccia, Jordan

    2015-04-21

    This study quantifies the influence of ventilation and indoor emissions on concentrations and particle sizes of airborne indoor allergenic fungal taxa and further examines geographical variability, each of which may affect personal exposures to allergenic fungi. Quantitative PCR and multiplexed DNA sequencing were employed to count and identify allergenic fungal aerosol particles indoors and outdoors in seven school classrooms in four different countries. Quantitative diversity analysis was combined with building characterization and mass balance modeling to apportion source contributions of indoor allergenic airborne fungal particles. Mass balance calculations indicate that 70% of indoor fungal aerosol particles and 80% of airborne allergenic fungal taxa were associated with indoor emissions; on average, 81% of allergenic fungi from indoor sources originated from occupant-generated emissions. Principal coordinate analysis revealed geographical variations in fungal communities among sites in China, Europe, and North America (p < 0.05, analysis of similarity), demonstrating that geography may also affect personal exposures to allergenic fungi. Indoor emissions including those released with occupancy contribute more substantially to allergenic fungal exposures in classrooms sampled than do outdoor contributions from ventilation. The results suggest that design and maintenance of buildings to control indoor emissions may enable reduced indoor inhalation exposures to fungal allergens.

  18. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  19. Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Summerell, B.A.; Swart, L.; Denman, S.; Taylor, J.E.; Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Palm, M.E.; Marincowitz, S.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study

  20. Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Summerell, B.A.; Swart, L.; Denman, S.; Taylor, J.E.; Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Palm, M.E.; Marincowitz, S.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study

  1. Health effects from the inhalation of oxidant air pollutants as related to the immune system. Final report. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osebold, J.W.; Zee, Y.C.

    1985-07-01

    The investigations dealt with links between ozone inhalation and lung diseases. Mice exposed to ozone both continuously and intermittently in four-day cycles showed allergic sensitization to the test antigen (ovalbumin) when compaired to mice maintained in ambeint air. An adjuvant (inactivated Bordetella pertussis cells) administered to mice augmented the immunological response to the test antigen with periodic exposure to ozone. Guinea pigs were tested for allergic sensitization from ozone exposure similar to human asthma, but this trial was not definitive. Ozone inhalation reduced the severity of pneumonia in mice from influenza virus infection, even when ozone and virus exposures were timed to produce maximal edema in the lung.

  2. Fungal central nervous system infections: prevalence and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourbeti, Irene S; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2014-02-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare but they pose a significant challenge. Their prevalence spans a wide array of hosts including immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals, patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures and those carrying implantable CNS devices. Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus spp. remain the most common pathogens. Magnetic resonance imaging can help localize the lesions, but diagnosis is challenging since invasive procedures may be needed for the retrieval of tissue, especially in cases of fungal abscesses. Antigen and antibody tests are available and approved for use in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PCR-based techniques are promising but they are not validated for use in the CSF. This review provides an overview on the differential diagnosis of the fungal CNS disease based on the host and the clinical syndrome and suggests the optimal use of diagnostic techniques. It also summarizes the emergence of Cryptococcus gatti and an unanticipated outbreak caused by Exserohilum rostratum.

  3. Autoimmune diseases and fungal infections: immunological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Autoimmune disease represents a breakdown of natural tolerance to autoreactive antigens.Pemphigus and lupus erythematosus are common autoimmune diseases either skin-specific or with predominant skin involvement. During the past decades,much progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of autoimmune diseases and the immunological mechanism in some infectious diseases such as fungal infections. Various novel approaches have been developed in the treatment of these diseases.

  4. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Ross

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl 2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection.

  5. B-Glucan exacerbates allergic asthma independent of fungal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundAllergic sensitization to fungi has been associated with asthma severity. As a result, it has been largely assumed that the contribution of fungi to allergic disease is mediated through their potent antigenicity.ObjectiveWe sought to determine the mechanism by which fungi affect asthma development and severity.MethodsWe integrated epidemiologic and experimental asthma models to explore the effect of fungal exposure on asthma development and severity.ResultsWe report that fungal exposure enhances allergen-driven TH2 responses, promoting severe allergic asthma. This effect is independent of fungal sensitization and can be reconstituted with β-glucan and abrogated by neutralization of IL-17A. Furthermore, this severe asthma is resistant to steroids and characterized by mixed TH2 and TH17 responses, including IL-13+IL-17+CD4+ double-producing effector T cells. Steroid resistance is dependent on fungus-induced TH17 responses because steroid sensitivity was restored in IL-17rc−/− mice. Similarly, in children with asthma, fungal exposure was associated with increased serum IL-17A levels and asthma severity.ConclusionOur data demonstrate that fungi are potent immunomodulators and have powerful effects on asthma independent of their potential to act as antigens. Furthermore, our results provide a strong rationale for combination treatment strategies targeting IL-17A for this subgroup of fungus-exposed patients with difficult-to-treat asthma. To describe th

  6. Evaluation and a predictive model of airborne fungal concentrations in school classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Karen H; Kennedy, Susan M; Brauer, Michael; Van Netten, Chris; Dill, Barbara

    2004-08-01

    Exposure to airborne fungal products may be associated with health effects ranging from non-specific irritation of the respiratory tract or mucus membranes to inflammation provoked by specific fungal antigens. While concentrations of airborne fungi are frequently measured in indoor air quality investigations, the significance of these measurements in the absence of visual mold colonization is unclear. This study was undertaken to evaluate concentrations of airborne fungal concentrations in school classrooms within a defined geographic location in British Columbia, Canada, and to build a model to clarify determinants of airborne fungal concentration. All elementary schools within one school district participated in the study. Classrooms examined varied by age, construction and presence or absence of mechanical ventilation. Airborne fungal propagules were collected inside classrooms and outdoors. Variables describing characteristics of the environment, buildings and occupants were measured and used to construct a predictive model of fungal concentration. The classrooms studied were not visibly contaminated by fungal growth. The data were evaluated using available guidelines. However, the published guidelines did not take into account significant aspects of the local environment. For example, there was a statistically significant effect of season on the fungal concentrations and on the proportional representation of fungal genera. Rooms ventilated by mechanical means had significantly lower geometric mean concentrations than naturally ventilated rooms. Environmental (temperature, outdoor fungal concentration), building (age) and ventilation variables accounted for 58% of the variation in the measured fungal concentrations. A methodology is proposed for the evaluation of airborne fungal concentration data which takes into account local environmental conditions as an aid in the evaluation of fungal bioaerosols in public buildings.

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KB] Using a metered dose inhaler one to two inches from mouth Your browser does not support iframes Using a metered dose inhaler one to two inches from mouth [PDF - 356 KB] Your browser ...

  8. Inhalant Abuse: Is Your Child at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be valuable as well. With help, your child can end inhalant abuse and learn how to make healthy choices for a lifetime. References Baydala L. Inhalant abuse. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2010;15:443. Results from the 2013 ...

  9. Isolation and purification of antigenic components of Cryptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Karen L; Levitz, Stuart M

    2009-01-01

    The encapsulated fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are significant agents of life-threatening infections, particularly in persons with suppressed cell-mediated immunity. This chapter provides detailed methodology for the purification of two of the major antigen fractions of C. neoformans: glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and mannoprotein (MP). GXM is the primary component of the polysaccharide capsule, which is the major cryptococcal virulence factor. In contrast, MPs have been identified as key antigens that stimulate T-cell responses. Purification of GXM and MP should assist investigators studying the antigenic, biochemical, and virulence properties of Cryptococcus species.

  10. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  11. Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 μm utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for

  12. Fungal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariteau, Jason T; Waryasz, Gregory R; McDonnell, Matthew; Fischer, Staci A; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T

    2014-06-01

    Management of fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis is challenging, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency and conditions that require immunosuppression. Because fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis are rare conditions, study of their pathophysiology and treatment has been limited. In the literature, evidence-based treatment is lacking and, historically, outcomes have been poor. The most common offending organisms are Candida and Aspergillus, which are widely distributed in humans and soil. However, some fungal pathogens, such as Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Sporothrix, have more focal areas of endemicity. Fungal bone and joint infections result from direct inoculation, contiguous infection spread, or hematogenous seeding of organisms. These infections may be difficult to diagnose and eradicate, especially in the setting of total joint arthroplasty. Although there is no clear consensus on treatment, guidelines are available for management of many of these pathogens.

  13. Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Godara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same.

  14. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  15. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.; Marks, V.

    1984-09-01

    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  16. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  17. Inhalation therapy in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P L

    2000-03-01

    Current consensus guidelines advocate the use of inhalation therapy for all children with asthma. In this paper, the published evidence on technical and practical aspects of inhalation therapy in children with asthma is reviewed. For children under 6 yr of age, nebulizers and metered dose inhaler (MDI)/spacer combinations can be used. Nebulizers are cumbersome, bulky, and difficult to operate. They require technical and hygienic maintenance. A number of studies has shown that nebulizers are no more effective in delivering bronchodilator therapy than MDI/spacer combinations. Thus, for young children with asthma, MDI/spacer combinations are the device of choice for inhalation therapy. Due to static charge, the output from plastic spacers is lower than that from metal spacers. Static charge on plastic spacers can be reduced by washing the spacer in detergent and allow it to drip dry. Most children aged 6 yr or over can use a dry powder inhaler (DPI) reliably. Modern DPIs require relatively low inspiratory flow rates for proper operation. Lung deposition from the Turbuhaler is twice as high as that from the Diskus, but the former device is slightly more difficult to operate than the latter. Many children with asthma have a poor inhalation technique. Because a reliable inhalation technique is the key to successful inhalation therapy, inhalation technique should be instructed carefully and checked repeatedly in every asthmatic child using an inhaler device.

  18. Managing acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyhalo, Kristina M; Donald, Carrlene; Mendez, Anthony; Hoxworth, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis and can be fatal, especially in patients who are immunosuppressed. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial and potentially lifesaving, so primary care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion for this disease. Patients may need to be admitted to the hospital for IV antifungal therapy and surgical debridement.

  19. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  20. The evolution of fungal epiphytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hongsanan, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, S.; Crous, P.W.; Ariyawansa, H.A.; Zhao, R.L.; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal epiphytes are a polyphyletic group found on the surface of plants, particularly on leaves, with a worldwide distribution. They belong in the phylum Ascomycota, which contains the largest known number of fungal genera. There has been little research dating the origins of the common ancestors o

  1. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled generics, inhaled antidotes, the future of anti-infectives and the indications of inhaled pentamidine. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, N; Le Guen, P; Andrieu, V; Bardot, S; Ravilly, S; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-12-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de pneumologie de langue française (SPLF) organized its third "Aerosolstorming" in 2012. During the course of one day, different aspects of inhaled therapy were discussed, and these will be treated separately in two articles, this one being the first. Inhaled products represent a large volume of prescriptions both in the community and in hospital settings and they involve various specialties particularly ENT and respiratory care. Technical aspects of the development of these products, their mode of administration and compliance with their indications are key elements for the effective therapeutic use of inhaled treatments. In this first article, we will review issues concerning generic inhaled products, the existence of inhaled antidotes, new anti-infective agents and indications for inhaled pentamidine.

  2. Evaluating Common Humoral Responses against Fungal Infections with Yeast Protein Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Paulo S R; Im, Hogune; Clemons, Karl V; Snyder, Michael P; Stevens, David A

    2015-09-04

    We profiled the global immunoglobulin response against fungal infection by using yeast protein microarrays. Groups of CD-1 mice were infected systemically with human fungal pathogens (Coccidioides posadasii, Candida albicans, or Paracoccidioides brasiliensis) or inoculated with PBS as a control. Another group was inoculated with heat-killed yeast (HKY) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After 30 days, serum from mice in the groups were collected and used to probe S. cerevisiae protein microarrays containing 4800 full-length glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion proteins. Antimouse IgG conjugated with Alexafluor 555 and anti-GST antibody conjugated with Alexafluor 647 were used to detect antibody-antigen interactions and the presence of GST-fusion proteins, respectively. Serum after infection with C. albicans reacted with 121 proteins: C. posadasii, 81; P. brasiliensis, 67; and after HKY, 63 proteins on the yeast protein microarray, respectively. We identified a set of 16 antigenic proteins that were shared across the three fungal pathogens. These include retrotransposon capsid proteins, heat shock proteins, and mitochondrial proteins. Five of these proteins were identified in our previous study of fungal cell wall by mass spectrometry (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2012, 1273, 44-51). The results obtained give a comprehensive view of the immunological responses to fungal infections at the proteomic level. They also offer insight into immunoreactive protein commonality among several fungal pathogens and provide a basis for a panfungal vaccine.

  3. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations, improve lung function, and reduce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity more effectively than other treatments. However, inhaled corticosteroids may be unable to return lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity...... of the disease. Therefore, a change in treatment strategy toward earlier introduction of corticosteroids may impede airway remodeling, bronchial hyperreactivity, and airway damage. No other treatment has been found to affect the course of the disease. Systemic side-effects, particularly inhibition of growth...... in asthmatic children using inhaled corticosteroids, do not seem to be cause for concern. Growth retardation has not been reported when inhaled corticosteroid doses of

  4. Distinct galactofuranose antigens in the cell wall and culture supernatants as a means to differentiate Fusarium from AspergillusspeciesAnnegret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiedemann, Annegret; Kakoschke, Tamara Katharina; Speth, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    tDetection of carbohydrate antigens is an important means for diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. Fordiagnosis of systemic Aspergillus infections, galactomannan is commonly used, the core antigenic struc-ture of which consists of chains of several galactofuranose moieties. In this study, we ...

  5. Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with fungal contamination of indoor hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Steffen; Rietschel, Ernst; Exner, Martin; Lange, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is often associated with exposure to antigens in the home environment. We describe a case of HP associated with indoor hydroponics in a 14-year-old girl. Water samples from hydroponics revealed Aureobasidium pullulans as the dominant fungal micro-organism (10(4)CFU/ml). The diagnosis is supported by the existence of serum precipitating antibodies against A. pullulans, lymphocytic alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, a corresponding reaction on a lung biopsy, and the sustained absence of clinical symptoms following the removal of hydroponics from the home. We conclude that hydroponics should be considered as potential sources of fungal contaminants when checking for indoor health complaints.

  6. Nanobiotechnological approaches to delivery of DNA vaccine against fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A M; Souza, A C O; Amaral, A C; Vasconcelos, N M; Jeronimo, M S; Carneiro, F P; Faccioli, L H; Felipe, M S S; Silva, C L; Bocca, A L

    2013-02-01

    Vaccines play an essential role in keeping humans healthy. Innovative approaches to their use include the utilization of plasmid DNA encoding sequences to express foreign antigens. DNAhsp65 from Mycobacterium leprae is suitable for this purpose due to its ability to elicit a powerful immune response. Controlled release systems represent a promising approach to delivering vaccines. In this work, we used liposomes or PLGA systems to deliver DNAhsp65 to treat the pulmonary fungal infection Paracoccidioidomycosis. Both formulations modulated a protective immune response and reduced the pulmonary fungal burden even in the groups receiving less than four times the amount of the DNAhps65 entrapped within the nanoparticles. Although both systems had the same effective therapeutic results, the advantage of the liposome formulation was that it was administered intranasally, which may be more easily accepted by patients. These systems are a great alternative to be considered as adjuvant vaccine therapy for systemic mycosis.

  7. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and characterization of antigens from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, C A; Jesuino, R S; Felipe, M S; Cunha, D A; Brito, W A; Soares, C M

    2001-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a fungal pathogen of humans. To identify antigens from P. brasiliensis we fractionated a crude preparation of proteins from the fungus and detected the IgG reactive proteins by immunoblot assays of yeast cellular extracts with sera of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). We identified and characterized six new antigens by amino acid sequencing and homology search analyses with other proteins deposited in a database. The newly characterized antigens were highly homologous to catalase, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase (aldolase), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and triosephosphate isomerase from several sources. The characterized antigens presented preferential synthesis in yeast cells, the host fungus phase.

  8. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinustis%变应性真菌性鼻窦炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玲; 徐睿; 许庚

    2011-01-01

    变应性真菌性鼻窦炎(allergic fungal rhinosinusitis,AFRS)是一种由真菌作为抗原引起、嗜酸性粒细胞激发的持续性级联变态反应.其有别于其他真菌性鼻窦炎,有其独特的病理生理学特征,本文主要从其命名、流行病学、诊断和治疗方面进行综述.%Allergic fungal rhinosinustis is a persistent allergic casade, which is caused by fungal antigen and stimulated by the eosinophils. It' s different from the other kinds of fungal sinusitises, which has a unique pathophysiological feature. Nomenclature, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of AFRS were reviewed in this article.

  9. Use of Recombinant Antigens for the Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is a frequent and often fatal complication in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains difficult due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and a definitive diagnostic method. The detection of antibodies against different Candida antigens may help in the diagnosis. However, the methods traditionally used for the detection of antibodies have been based on crude antigenic fungal extracts, which usually show low-reproducibility and cross-reactivity problems. The development of molecular biology techniques has allowed the production of recombinant antigens which may help to solve these problems. In this review we will discuss the usefulness of recombinant antigens in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  10. Inhalation anaesthetics and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Sander, S P; Nielsen, O J

    2010-01-01

    Although the increasing abundance of CO(2) in our atmosphere is the main driver of the observed climate change, it is the cumulative effect of all forcing agents that dictate the direction and magnitude of the change, and many smaller contributors are also at play. Isoflurane, desflurane......, and sevoflurane are widely used inhalation anaesthetics. Emissions of these compounds contribute to radiative forcing of climate change. To quantitatively assess the impact of the anaesthetics on the forcing of climate, detailed information on their properties of heat (infrared, IR) absorption and atmospheric...

  11. Use of portable microbial samplers for estimating inhalation exposure to viable biological agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Maosheng; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2007-01-01

    Portable microbial samplers are being increasingly used to determine the presence of microbial agents in the air; however, their performance characteristics when sampling airborne biological agents are largely unknown. In addition, it is unknown whether these samplers could be used to assess microbial inhalation exposure according to the particle sampling conventions. This research analyzed collection efficiencies of MAS-100, Microflow, SMA MicroPortable, Millipore Air Tester, SAS Super 180, BioCulture, and RCS High Flow portable microbial samplers when sampling six bacterial and fungal species ranging from 0.61 to 3.14 microm in aerodynamic diameter. The efficiencies with which airborne microorganisms were deposited on samplers' collection medium were compared to the particle inhalation and lung deposition convention curves. When sampling fungi, RCS High Flow and SAS Super 180 deposited 80%-90% of airborne spores on agar - highest among investigated samplers. Other samplers showed collection efficiencies of 10%-60%. When collecting bacteria, RCS High Flow and MAS-100 collected 20%-30%, whereas other samplers collected less than 10% of these bioparticles. Comparison of samplers' collection efficiencies with particle inhalation convention curves showed that RCS High Flow and SAS Super 180 could be used to assess inhalation exposure to particles larger than 2.5 microm, such as fungal spores. Performance of RCS High Flow sampler was also reflective of the particle lung deposition pattern when sampling both bacteria and fungi. MAS-100 and SAS Super 180 matched the total deposition curve fairly well when collecting bacterial and fungi species, respectively. For other tested samplers, we observed substantial discrepancies between their performances and particle deposition efficiencies in the lung. The results show that feasibility of applying portable microbial samplers for exposure assessment depends on a particular sampler model and microbial species.

  12. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These types of infections are called healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Hospital staff and healthcare providers do everything they can ... IV tube) can increase your risk for fungal infection. During your hospital stay you may need a central venous catheter, ...

  13. Fungal Entomopathogens in the Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic fungi are found in a wide variety of fungal groups. The order Hypocreales contains the largest number of entomogenous fungi, including two of the most widely studied, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorok...

  14. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the a......Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...... that the application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  15. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  16. Demographic Variability of Inhalation Mechanics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    discussion of findings from the literature review and recommendations for inhalation modeling conclude the section. 4.1. OVERVIEW Gender is an important ...roughly equal between the two genders . Additionally, the literature indicates that there are significant differences in the trachea between women and...influencing inhalation mechanics considered are age, gender , body size and height, ethnicity, smoking, altitude exposure, pregnancy, and lung

  17. Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Harry; Leducq, Valentin; Aschard, Hugues; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Jegou, Sarah; Landman, Cecilia; Cohen, David; Liguori, Giuseppina; Bourrier, Anne; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Cosnes, Jacques; Seksik, Philippe; Langella, Philippe; Skurnik, David; Richard, Mathias L; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Objective The bacterial intestinal microbiota plays major roles in human physiology and IBDs. Although some data suggest a role of the fungal microbiota in IBD pathogenesis, the available data are scarce. The aim of our study was to characterise the faecal fungal microbiota in patients with IBD. Design Bacterial and fungal composition of the faecal microbiota of 235 patients with IBD and 38 healthy subjects (HS) was determined using 16S and ITS2 sequencing, respectively. The obtained sequences were analysed using the Qiime pipeline to assess composition and diversity. Bacterial and fungal taxa associated with clinical parameters were identified using multivariate association with linear models. Correlation between bacterial and fungal microbiota was investigated using Spearman's test and distance correlation. Results We observed that fungal microbiota is skewed in IBD, with an increased Basidiomycota/Ascomycota ratio, a decreased proportion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an increased proportion of Candida albicans compared with HS. We also identified disease-specific alterations in diversity, indicating that a Crohn's disease-specific gut environment may favour fungi at the expense of bacteria. The concomitant analysis of bacterial and fungal microbiota showed a dense and homogenous correlation network in HS but a dramatically unbalanced network in IBD, suggesting the existence of disease-specific inter-kingdom alterations. Conclusions Besides bacterial dysbiosis, our study identifies a distinct fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD characterised by alterations in biodiversity and composition. Moreover, we unravel here disease-specific inter-kingdom network alterations in IBD, suggesting that, beyond bacteria, fungi might also play a role in IBD pathogenesis. PMID:26843508

  18. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinsasser, N. H.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects.The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases.Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction.

  19. Inhalant Dependence and its Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hamid Boztaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The term of inhalants is used for matters easily vapors. Inhalants are preferred for rapid, positive reinforcement and mild high effects. Products including inhalants are cheap, accessible, legal substances and are prevalently used in community. The prevalence of inhalant use in secondary schools in Turkey is about 5.1%. Inhalant substance dependence is generally observed within 14-15 age group. Age at first use could be as low as 5 to 6 years of age. Substance dependence is more probable in adults working in substance existing places. Inhalant usage is common in disadvantaged groups, children living in street, people with history of crimes, prison, depression, suicide, antisocial attitudes and conflict of family, history of abuse, violence and any other drug dependence and isolated populations. Inhalants are absorbed from lungs, after performing their quick and short effect metabolized by cytochrom P450 enzyme system except inhalant nitrites group which has a depressing effect like alcohol. In chronic use general atrophy, ventricular dilatation and wide sulcus were shown in cerebrum, cerebellum and pons by monitoring brain. Defects are mostly in periventricular, subcortical regions and in white matter. Demyelinization, hyperintensity, callosal slimming and wearing off in white and gray matter margins was also found. Ravages of brain shown by brain monitorisation are more and serious in inhalant dependence than in other dependences. It is important to decrease use of inhalants. Different approaches should be used for subcultures and groups in prevention. Prohibiting all the matters including inhalant is not practical as there are too many substances including inhalants. Etiquettes showing harmful materials can be used but this approach can also lead the children and adolescents recognize these substances easily.. Despite determintal effects of inhalant dependence, there are not yet sufficient number of studies conducted on prevention and

  20. The Ozone Layer and Metered Dose Inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting living organisms against ultraviolet radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC contained in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs contribute to ozone depletion and in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer established 10 years ago, phase-out strageies have been developed worldwide for this category of agents. Alternatives to CFC-containing inhalers have been developed, such as powder inhalers and those using hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs as propellants, which have been shown to be as safe and effective as CFC-containing inhalers and even offer interesting advantages over older inhalers. The transition to non-CFC MDIs requires a major effort to make the new products available and to ensure adequate comparision with the previous ones. It also requires a harmonization of actions taken by industry, government, licencing bodies and patients or health professional associations to ensure adequate information and education to the public and respiratory care providers.

  1. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... Health Effects Statistics and Trends Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  2. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lack of coordination, euphoria (a feeling of intense happiness), and dizziness. Some users also experience lightheadedness, hallucinations ( ... opioid abuse, cigarette and alcohol use among the nation’s youth. This publication is available for your use ...

  3. Standardization of fungal polymerase chain reaction for the early diagnosis of invasive fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Deshpande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An early initiation of antifungal therapy in invasive fungal infections (IFIs is critical in reducing the high mortality rate. Current diagnosis of fungal infection relies on microscopy, culture, antigen, antibody specific tests and histological diagnosis. However, these tests either lack sensitivity or specificity. There is thus the need for a rapid, specific and accurate diagnostic method. Objective: The aim of our study was to establish PCR for the rapid detection of Candida and Aspergillus species in clinical specimens with improved sensitivity and specificity. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 proven cases of IFI (confirmed by culture were collected. A total of 15 healthy, 15 patients suffering from bacterial sepsis and 15 patients with HIV, HBV viral infections were included as controls. Clinical specimens were subjected to a standardized nested amplification to produce Round I (504 bp and Round II (150 bp amplicons. Restriction digestion was performed on these products for further identification. Results: Analytical sensitivity was determined using 10 6 -10 CFU/ml of cell suspension. The lower detection limit of the assay was 10 CFU/ml of blood. This test was 100% sensitive and specific with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 96.7%. Conclusion: The assay was found to be effective for the rapid detection of Candida and Aspergillus in clinical specimens.

  4. Inhaler device preferences in older adults with chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazala L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient preferences are important for medication adherence and patient satisfaction, but little is known about older adult preferences for inhaler devices. Methods: We developed a 25-item written self-administered questionnaire assessing experience with inhalers, prior inhaler education, and preferences with respect to inhaler device features and inhaler device teaching. We then conducted a cross-sectional survey of patients at least 65 years of age with chronic lung disease who had experience using inhaler devices for at least six months in the ambulatory setting. Results: Fifty participants completed the questionnaire. The majority of participants (80% reported prior experience with a metered dose inhaler (MDI, but only 26% used an MDI with a spacer. Most patients (76% had received formal instruction regarding proper use of the inhaler, but only 34% had ever been asked to demonstrate their inhaler technique. Physician recommendation for an inhaler, cost of the inhaler device, and inhaler features related to convenience were important with respect to patient preferences. With regard to inhaler education, participants prefer verbal instruction and/or hands-on demonstration at the time a new inhaler is prescribed in the setting of the prescribing provider’s office. Conclusion: Patient preferences for inhaler devices and inhaler education among older adults indicate physician recommendation, cost, and convenience are important. The impact of patient preferences on inhaler adherence and clinical outcomes remains unknown.

  5. Allergic fungal rhino sinusitis with granulomas: A new entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rijuneeta; Gupta, Ashok K; Patro, Sourabha Kumar; Yadav, Jagveer; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Das, Ashim; Chatterjee, Debajyoti

    2015-08-01

    Allergic fungal rhino sinusitis (AFS) is classically described as allergic manifestation to the fungal antigen present in sinuses with no evidence of invasion. Granulomas in histopathology, suspicious of invasion, are occasionally observed in AFS and the disease in these patients behaves like invasive fungal sinusitis even without histologic evidence of invasion. We retrospectively studied AFS patients to analyze whether AFS should be continued to be designated as an allergic entity. AFS patients operated from January 2009 to July 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the total 57 cases operated in last 4 years, nine showing presence of granuloma in histology were included in the AFS with granuloma Group (group 1) and the rest 48 were included in the AFS group (group 2). Both the groups were compared in terms of various parameters at presentation, treatment course and rate of recurrence. Group 1 had significantly high rates of orbital erosion (P = .000), with positive association of skull base erosion (P = .092) and high rates of telecanthus (P = .000), diplopia (P = .000), proptosis (P = .161) and facial pain. Recurrent surgery was needed in 8 of 9 patients in the group 1 as compared to 1 of 48 patients group 2. Granulomas suggests a more severe disease with a trend toward the invasive fungal sinusitis and alerts the clinician regarding the nature of progression. AFS seems to be a part of a continuous spectrum of fungal sinusitis rather than an allergic form as a distinct entity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. T cell immunity and vaccines against invasive fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, James Isami

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades much has been learned about the immunology of invasive fungal infection, especially invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Although quite different in their pathogenesis, the major common protective host response is Th1 mediated. It is through Th1 cytokine production that the effector cells, phagocytes, are activated to kill the fungus. A more thorough understanding of the pathogenesis of disease, the elicited protective Th1 immune response, the T cell antigen(s) which elicit this response, and the mechanism(s) whereby one can enhance, reconstitute, or circumvent the immunosuppressed state will, hopefully, lead to the development of a vaccine(s) capable of protecting even the most immunocompromised of hosts.

  7. Fungal-Fungal Interactions in Leaf-Cutting Ant Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunshine A. Van Bael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many organisms participate in symbiotic relationships with other organisms, yet studies of symbioses typically have focused on the reciprocal costs and benefits within a particular host-symbiont pair. Recent studies indicate that many ecological interactions involve alliances of symbionts acting together as mutualistic consortia against other consortia. Such interacting consortia are likely to be widespread in nature, even if the interactions often occur in a cryptic fashion. Little theory and empirical data exist concerning how these complex interactions shape ecological outcomes in nature. Here, we review recent work on fungal-fungal interactions between two consortia: (i leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungi (the latter grown as a food crop by the former and (ii tropical plants and their foliar endophytes (the cryptic symbiotic fungi within leaves of the former. Plant characteristics (e.g., secondary compounds or leaf physical properties of leaves are involved in leaf-cutting ant preferences, and a synthesis of published information suggests that these plant traits could be modified by fungal presence. We discuss potential mechanisms for how fungal-fungal interactions proceed in the leaf-cutting ant agriculture and suggest themes for future research.

  8. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (<200 CD4 cell counts) is ∼10,000, with a rate of 11.1% (1100) of histoplasma, 7% (700) of cryptococcal meningitis, and 11% (1070) of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The burden of candidemia is 1037. Recurrent Candida vaginitis (≥4 episodes per year) affects 307,593 women aged 15-50 years. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects ∼476 patients following tuberculosis (TB). Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 748 patients (∼5.5/100,000). In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) were estimated to affect 26,642 and 45,013 people, respectively. Our estimates indicate that 433,856 (3%) of the population in Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  9. AntigenMap 3D: an online antigenic cartography resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J Lamar; Yang, Jialiang; Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2012-05-01

    Antigenic cartography is a useful technique to visualize and minimize errors in immunological data by projecting antigens to 2D or 3D cartography. However, a 2D cartography may not be sufficient to capture the antigenic relationship from high-dimensional immunological data. AntigenMap 3D presents an online, interactive, and robust 3D antigenic cartography construction and visualization resource. AntigenMap 3D can be applied to identify antigenic variants and vaccine strain candidates for pathogens with rapid antigenic variations, such as influenza A virus. http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap3D

  10. Development and validation of a monoclonal based immunoassay for the measurement of fungal alpha-amylase: focus on peak exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, J; Denniss, S; Smith, M; Evans, P G; Wiley, K; Griffin, P; Curran, A D

    2001-03-01

    The inhalation of flour dust has been implicated in the induction of sensitisation and elicitation of respiratory symptoms, such as asthma in bakers. In addition to the cereal allergens present in wheat flour, enzymes in flour improvers, in particular fungal alpha-amylase, are now known to be a significant cause of respiratory allergy in the baking industry.A monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed using two monoclonal antibodies that recognised two distinct epitopes of the fungal alpha-amylase enzyme. The ELISA had an inter-assay variation of 12.0% at 1360 pg/ml and 12.8% at 564 pg/ml and intra-assay variation of 4.9% at 1340 pg/ml and 6.1% at 504 pg/ml. The assay had a sensitivity of 200 pg/ml. Competitive inhibition assays confirmed that the monoclonal antibodies had no cross reactivity with other enzymes used in the baking industry and could distinguish added fungal alpha-amylase from cereal amylase. We assessed the levels of exposure to dust, total protein and fungal alpha-amylase in four UK bakeries ranging in size and technical capabilities. Within the bakeries we surveyed, workers were exposed to variable levels of inhalable dust (0.8-39.8 mg/m3), total protein (0-5.7 mg/m3) and fungal alpha-amylase (0-29.8 ng/m3). Consecutive 15 min personal samples taken over a 1 h period demonstrated that the ELISA could measure fungal alpha-amylase exposure in such a 15 min period. Short term peak exposures to fungal alpha-amylase could be identified which may contribute to the sensitisation in individuals who appear to have low exposure levels if measured over a full shift period.

  11. Inhalation devices and patient interface: human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Stefan; Parkins, David; Lastow, Orest

    2015-03-01

    The development of any inhalation product that does not consider the patient needs will fail. The needs of the patients must be identified and aligned with engineering options and physical laws to achieve a robust and intuitive-to-use inhaler. A close interaction between development disciplines and real-use evaluations in clinical studies or in human factor studies is suggested. The same holds true when a marketed product needs to be changed. Caution is warranted if an inhaler change leads to a change in the way the patient handles the device. Finally, the article points out potential problems if many inhaler designs are available. Do they confuse the patients? Can patients recall the correct handling of each inhaler they use? How large is the risk that different inhaler designs pose to the public health? The presentations were given at the Orlando Inhalation Conference: Approaches in International Regulation co-organised by the University of Florida and the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation & Science (IPAC-RS) in March 2014.

  12. Emerging inhaled bronchodilators: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, M; Matera, M G

    2009-09-01

    Bronchodilators remain central to the symptomatic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and, for this reason and also because the patent protection of many bronchodilators has expired, several companies have reinitiated research into the field. The only limits set for the development of a long-lasting bronchodilator with a new product profile are medical needs and marketing opportunities. The incorporation of once-daily dose administration is an important strategy for improving adherence and is a regimen preferred by most patients. A variety of beta(2)-agonists and antimuscarinic agents with longer half-lives and inhalers containing a combination of several classes of long-acting bronchodilator are currently under development. The present article reviews all of the most important compounds under development, describing what has been done and discussing their genuine advantage.

  13. Prevalence of IgE reactivities in mold-allergic subjects to commercially available fungal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, W Elliott; Armstrong, Maricelis; El-Dahr, Jane; McCants, Marjorie; Reese, Gerald; Kobernick, Aaron K; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2008-01-01

    Fungi are important aeroallergens. However, fungal allergen sources of consistent quality for clinical testing are not readily available. Because some allergens have been identified as enzymes, we assessed the prevalence of IgE reactivity to commercially available fungal enzymes. The purpose of this study was to determine IgE antibody reactivity by radioallergosorbent assay (RAST) to commercially available fungal enzymes in mold-allergic individuals. Sera from 20 subjects with symptoms of respiratory allergies and skin test reactivity to 2 or more fungal allergens (4 conidial [imperfecti] fungi and/or 8 basidiomycetes) were selected. Controls were six atopic individuals with neither history of fungal allergy nor skin test reactivity to fungi. Seventeen commercial fungal enzymes were used as antigens to evaluate the subjects' IgE antibody reactivity by RAST. Sera from most fungus-allergic individuals showed substantial IgE antibody reactivity to enzymes; control sera showed little or no reactivity. The mean reactivity to all commercial enzymes of all subjects tested was RAST > or = 3% with only one exception. The most reactive fungal enzymes were invertase (bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae), cellulase (Trichoderma viride), and glucosidase (brewers yeast, S. cerevisiae) with mean binding of 14.6, 9.5, and 8.8%, respectively. Using RAST results with a combination of four enzymes from S. cerevisiae (brewers yeast glucosidase, bakers' yeast maltase, invertase, and invertase V), a sensitivity of 100% was shown for detecting mold-allergic patients. The studies suggest that fungal enzymes may be useful source materials for the identification of fungal allergens and may also provide readily available source materials to produce improved diagnostic and therapeutic reagents.

  14. Fungal artificial chromosomes for mining of the fungal secondary metabolome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background With thousands of fungal genomes being sequenced, each genome containing up to 70 secondary metabolite (SM) clusters 30–80 kb in size, breakthrough techniques are needed to characterize this SM wealth. Results Here we describe a novel system-level methodology for unbiased cloning of intact large SM clusters from a single fungal genome for one-step transformation and expression in a model host. All 56 intact SM clusters from Aspergillus terreus were individually captured in self-rep...

  15. Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jennie; Indugula, Reshmi; Vesper, Stephen; Zhu, Zheng; Jandarov, Roman; Reponen, Tiina

    2017-08-31

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48 hour indoor air sample collected with a Button™ inhalable aerosol sampler and four types of dust samples: a vacuumed floor dust sample, newly settled dust collected for four weeks onto two types of electrostatic dust cloths (EDCs) in trays, and a wipe sample of dust from above floor surfaces. The samples were obtained in the bedrooms of asthmatic children (n = 14). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to analyze the dust and air samples for the 36 fungal species that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The results from the samples were compared by four matrices: total concentration of fungal cells, concentration of fungal species associated with indoor environments, concentration of fungal species associated with outdoor environments, and ERMI values (or ERMI-like values for air samples). The ERMI values for the dust samples and the ERMI-like values for the 48 hour air samples were not significantly different. The total cell concentrations of the 36 species obtained with the four dust collection methods correlated significantly (r = 0.64-0.79, p sampling methods (r = 0.68-0.86, p samples primarily because of differences in concentrations of Cladosporium cladosporioides Type 1 and Epicoccum nigrum. A representative type of dust sample and a 48 hour air sample might both provide useful information about fungal exposures.

  16. Fungal infection following renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallis, H A; Berman, R A; Cate, T R; Hamilton, J D; Gunnells, J C; Stickel, D L

    1975-09-01

    Twenty-seven deep fungal infections developed in 22 of 171 patients following renal transplantation. These infections included cryptococcosis (ten), nocardiosis (seven), candidiasis (four), aspergillosis (two), phycomycosis (two), chromomycosis (one), and subcutaneous infection with Phialophora gougeroti (one). Twelve infections occurred in living-related and ten in cadaveric recipients. Nineteen of the 22 patients were male. Infections occurred from 0 to 61 months after transplantation. Complicating non-fungal infections were present concomitantly in 15 patients. Thirteen patients died, eight probably as a result of fungal infection. Appropriate diagnostic procedures yielded a diagnosis in 20 of 27 infections, and therapy was begun in 18 patients. Serologic, culture, and biopsy procedures useful in making rapid diagnoses are advocated in the hope of increasing survival.

  17. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  18. Eosinofil Sel Penyaji Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Wahyu Jatmiko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sel eosinofil merupakan jenis sel lekosit yang terlibat dalam berbagai patogenesis penyakit. Sel eosinofil pada awalnya dikenal sebagai sel efektor  dari sistem imunitas alamiah. Akan tetapi, kemampuan sel eosinofil dalam memfagositosis patogen menimbulkan dugaan bahwa sel eosinofil ikut berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen. Hal ini dianalogikan dengan sel makrofag dan sel dendritik yang bisa memfagositosis dan menyajikan antigen sebagai hasil dari degradasi patogen yang difagositosis. Untuk menjawab permasalahan ini, penulis melakukan penelusuran artikel tentang eosinofil sebagai sel penyaji antigen melalui US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Healthdengan kata kunci eoshinophil dan antigen presenting cell. Hasil penelusuran adalah ditemukannya 10 artikel yang relevan dengan topik. Hasil dari sintesis kesepuluh jurnal tersebut adalah sel eosinofil mampu berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen yang profesional (professionalantigenpresentng cell

  19. Fungal laryngitis in immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, A; Prasanna Kumar, S; Somu, L; Sudhir, B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of fungal laryngitis is often overlooked in immunocompetent patients because it is commonly considered a disease of the immunocompromised. Further confusion is caused by clinical and histological similarity to more common conditions like Leukoplakia. Demonstration of hyperkeratosis particularly if associated with intraepithelial neutrophils on biopsy should trigger a search for fungus using specialized stains. These patients usually present with hoarseness of voice. Pain is present inconsistently along with dysphagia and odynophagia. We present three cases of fungal laryngitis in immunocompetent patients out of which one underwent microlaryngeal surgery with excision biopsy. All these patients responded well with oral antifungal therapy.

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On: Walking Through the Steps and Standards 2. Getting Started 3. Describing and Focusing 3A. Focus On: ... a video to follow along with the correct way to use your metered dose inhaler. Print the ...

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... things that can cause an attack. Watch a video to follow along with the correct way to use your metered dose inhaler. Print the step-by-step instructions and keep them with your Asthma Action Plan. ...

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical ... Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer [ PDF - 377 KB] Your browser does not support iframes ...

  3. Inhaled iloprost for sarcoidosis associated pulmonary hypertension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baughman, R P; Judson, M A; Lower, E E; Highland, K; Kwon, S; Craft, N; Engel, P J

    2009-01-01

    .... To determine the rate of response to inhaled prostacyclin, iloprost, in SAPH. Sarcoidosis patients with pulmonary hypertension and no evidence for left ventricular dysfunction were enrolled in an open label, prospective study...

  4. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Mixed Methods 5. Purpose Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia ... USA.gov Top

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... avoid an attack by taking your medicine exactly as your doctor or other medical professional tells you ... keep them with your Asthma Action Plan. Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer Your browser ...

  6. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Mixed Methods 5. Purpose Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia ... USA.gov Top

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... avoid an attack by taking your medicine exactly as your doctor or other medical professional tells you ... keep them with your Asthma Action Plan. Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer Your browser ...

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most ... control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL ...

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  10. Inhalation anthrax in a home craftsman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffin, S C; Carnes, W H; Kaufmann, A F

    1978-09-01

    Inhalation anthrax with complicating subarachnoid hemorrhage due to simultaneous infection with two capsular biotypes of Bacillus anthracis of different virulence for the mouse is reported. The patient, a home craftsman, acquired his infection from imported animal-origin yarn.

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by ... you to do and by avoiding things that can cause an attack. Watch a video to follow ...

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among persons with active asthma Uncontrolled ...

  13. Inhalation anesthesia. What to learn from modelisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriaz, H

    1997-01-01

    Models describing pharmacokinetics of inhalational anesthetic agents have been developed, usually on Mapleson's description of the body as a collection of tissues characterised by their volume, local blood flow and anesthetic solubility. Such models are very useful to understand the use of inhalation agents and circle circuit, to compare consumption of different agents in different anesthetic practices, and to prepare the anesthetist to administer new products safely.

  14. Inhaler devices - from theory to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis, Joaquin; Corrigan, Chris; Levy, Mark L;

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of the factors determining lung deposition of aerosols provides background information required by health care providers when instructing patients to use their prescribed inhalers. We discuss differences in the optimal inhalation manoeuvres for each type of aerosol generator a...... and the difficulties patients face. Provision of short, clear instructions with demonstration of critical steps and checking technique during later clinical visits are necessary if these aerosolised medications are to be fully beneficial....

  15. Inhalational Monkeypox Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eBarnewall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An inhalation exposure system was characterized to deliver aerosolized monkeypox virus (MPXV, and a nonhuman primate (NHP inhalation monkeypox model was developed in cynomologus macaques. A head-only aerosol exposure system was characterized, and two sampling methods were evaluated: liquid impingement via an impinger and impaction via a gelatin filter. The aerosol concentrations obtained with the gelatin filter and impinger were virtually identical, indicating that either method is acceptable for sampling aerosols containing MPXV. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD was for individual aerosol tests in the aerosol system characterization and the NHP study ranged from 1.08 to 1.15 µm, indicating that the aerosol particles were of a sufficient size to reach the alveoli. Six cynomolgus macaques (four male and two female were used on study. The animals were aerosol exposed with MPXV and received doses between 2.51 x 104 to 9.28 x 105 plaque forming units (pfu inhaled. Four of the six animals died or were euthanized due to their moribund conditions. Both animals that received the lowest exposure doses survived to the end of the observation period. The inhalation LD50 was determined to be approximately 7.8 x 104 pfu inhaled. These data demonstrate that an inhalation MPXV infection model has been developed in the cynomolgus macaque with disease course and lethal dose similar to previously published data.

  16. Protective immune responses to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of fungal infections has been on the rise over several decades. Fungal infections threaten animals, plants and humans alike and are thus of significant concern to scientists across disciplines. Over the last decade, significant advances on fungal immunology have lead to a better understanding of important mechanisms of host protection against fungi. In this article, I review recent advances of relevant mechanisms of immune-mediated protection to fungal infections.

  17. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  18. Microbiology of systemic fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of systemic fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Earlier, it was pathogenic dimorphic fungi, which were known to cause systemic infections. However, starting from the 1960s, opportunistic fungi started causing more number of infections, especially in the immunocompromised host. More recently, newer and less common fungal agents are being increasingly associated with infection in immunosuppressed hosts. Amongst dimorphic fungi, infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are increasingly reported in patients with AIDS in India. H. capsulatum is found country wide, but P. marneffei remains restricted to Manipur state. Although both varieties of C. neoformans , C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A & D, and C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B & C are reported in India, most of the cases reported are of serotype A. Increased incidence of cryptococcosis is reported from all centers with the emergence of AIDS. Systemic infection due to species under Candida , Aspergillus and zygomycetes is widely prevalent in nosocomial setting, and outbreaks due to unusual fungi are reported occasionally from tertiary care centers. This global change in systemic fungal infections has emphasized the need to develop good diagnostic mycology laboratories in this country and to recognize this increasingly large group of potential fungal pathogens.

  19. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  20. (Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, M.; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functio

  1. [Evoked potentials and inhalation anesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A; Russ, W; Hempelmann, G

    1988-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of evoked potentials can be affected by various factors including volatile anaesthetics. These effects have to be considered in order to give correct interpretations of the obtained data. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and auditory evoked potentials (AEP) will show strong alterations under general anaesthesia whereas brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are slightly affected. The effects of nitrous oxide, halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) after median nerve stimulation were studied in 35 healthy adult patients. pCO2 and tympanic membrane temperature were held constant. Simultaneous cervical and cortical SEP recording was performed using surface electrodes. After induction of anaesthesia SEP were recorded during normoventilation with 100% oxygen and after inhalation of 66.6% nitrous oxide. 10 patients received halothane at inspired concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%. After nitrous oxide had been replaced by oxygen, halothane was reduced in steps of 0.5%. SEP were recorded at the end of each period (15 min). Equipotent doses of enflurane or isoflurane were administered to 15 and 10 patients, respectively. Nitrous oxide depressed early cortical SEP amplitude. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane caused dose dependent increases of latencies. Reduction of amplitude was most pronounced with isoflurane. Using high doses of enflurane in oxygen cortical SEP showed unusual high amplitudes associated with marked increases of latencies. Even under high concentrations of volatile anaesthetics cervical SEP were minimally affected. The effects of anaesthetic gases have to be considered when SEP are recorded intraoperatively.

  2. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  3. Antigen specificity of invariant natural killer T-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysia M. Birkholz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer T-cells, with an invariant T-cell antigen receptor α-chain (iNKT cells, are unique and conserved subset of lymphocytes capable of altering the immune system through their rapid and potent cytokine responses. They are reactive to lipid antigens presented by the CD1d molecule, an antigen-presenting molecule that is not highly polymorphic. iNKT cell responses frequently involve mixtures of cytokines that work against each other, and therefore attempts are underway to develop synthetic antigens that elicit only strong interferon-gamma (IFNγ or only strong interleukin-4 responses but not both. Strong IFNγ responses may correlate with tighter binding to CD1d and prolonged stimulation of iNKT cells, and this may be useful for vaccine adjuvants and for stimulating anti-tumor responses. iNKT cells are self-reactive although the structure of the endogenous antigen is controversial. By contrast, bacterial and fungal lipids that engage the T-cell receptor and activate IFNγ from iNKT cells have been identified from both pathogenic and commensal organisms and the responses are in some cases highly protective from pathogens in mice. It is possible that the expanding knowledge of iNKT cell antigens and iNKT cell activation will provide the basis for therapies for patients suffering from infectious and immune diseases and cancer.

  4. Antigen specificity of invariant natural killer T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Alysia M; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer T-cells, with an invariant T-cell antigen receptor α-chain (iNKT cells), are unique and conserved subset of lymphocytes capable of altering the immune system through their rapid and potent cytokine responses. They are reactive to lipid antigens presented by the CD1d molecule, an antigen-presenting molecule that is not highly polymorphic. iNKT cell responses frequently involve mixtures of cytokines that work against each other, and therefore attempts are underway to develop synthetic antigens that elicit only strong interferon-gamma (IFNγ) or only strong interleukin-4 responses but not both. Strong IFNγ responses may correlate with tighter binding to CD1d and prolonged stimulation of iNKT cells, and this may be useful for vaccine adjuvants and for stimulating anti-tumor responses. iNKT cells are self-reactive although the structure of the endogenous antigen is controversial. By contrast, bacterial and fungal lipids that engage the T-cell receptor and activate IFNγ from iNKT cells have been identified from both pathogenic and commensal organisms and the responses are in some cases highly protective from pathogens in mice. It is possible that the expanding knowledge of iNKT cell antigens and iNKT cell activation will provide the basis for therapies for patients suffering from infectious and immune diseases and cancer.

  5. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.

    2012-09-01

    The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50-200 µm in diameter) body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter) are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  6. Adhesive mixtures for inhalation : the cohesion between formulation variables, inhalation variables and dispersion performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, Floris

    2014-01-01

    Powdery drugs for inhalation to treat asthma and COPD are often mixed with lactose to enable their accurate dosing. However, because the drug particles adhere strongly to the lactose particles, they are difficult to disperse with the aid of a dry powder inhaler. As a result, over half the dose usual

  7. Conference report: 2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastow, Orest

    2014-02-01

    2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium 16 October 2013, Lund, Sweden The 2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium was arranged by the Medicon Valley Inhalation Consortium. It was held at the Medicon Village, which is the former AstraZeneca site in Lund, Sweden. It was a 1 day symposium focused on inhaled drug delivery and inhalation product development. 120 delegates listened to 11 speakers. The program was organized to follow the value chain of an inhalation product development. This year there was a focus on inhaled biomolecules. The inhaled delivery of insulin was covered by two presentations and a panel discussion. The future of inhaled drug delivery was discussed together with an overview of the current market situation. Two of the inhalation platforms, capsule inhalers and metered-dose inhalers, were discussed in terms of the present situation and the future opportunities. Much focus was on the regulatory and intellectual aspects of developing inhalation products. The manufacturing of a dry powder inhaler requires precision filling of powder, and the various techniques were presented. The benefits of nebulization and nasal delivery were illustrated with some case studies and examples. The eternal challenge of poor compliance was addressed from an industrial design perspective and some new approaches were introduced.

  8. CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: CEA Formal name: Carcinoembryonic Antigen Related tests: Tumor Markers , CSF Analysis , Body Fluid Analysis , CA 19-9 , Calcitonin , AFP Tumor Markers All content on Lab Tests Online has been ...

  9. Effect of Disease Severity in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Inhaler-Specific Inhalation Profiles Through the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, David; de Backer, Wilfried; Hamilton, Melanie; Cahn, Anthony; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis; Baines, Amanda; Moore, Alison; Brealey, Noushin; Moynihan, Jackie

    2015-12-01

    Two studies were undertaken to characterize the maximal effort inhalation profiles of healthy subjects and patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a moderate-resistance dry powder inhaler (DPI). Correlations between inhaler-specific inhalation characteristics and inhaler-independent lung function parameters were investigated. Healthy subjects (n = 15), patients with mild, moderate, or severe asthma (n = 45), and patients with mild, moderate, severe, or very-severe COPD (n = 60) were included in the studies. Inhalation pressure drop versus time profiles were recorded using an instrumented ELLIPTA® DPI or bespoke resistor component with equivalent resistivity. Inhaler-independent lung function assessments included pharyngometry, spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion. For the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles, the mean maximal effort peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFRs) varied across the subgroups from 65.8-110.6 L/min (range: 41.6-142.9). Peak pressure drop, PIFR, inhaled volume, and average inhalation flow rate (primary endpoints) did not differ markedly between healthy subjects and patients with asthma or mild COPD. Moderate, severe, and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated lower mean peak pressure drops, PIFRs and inhaled volumes, which tended to decrease with increasing COPD severity. Severe and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated shorter mean inhalation times compared with all other participants. Inhaler-independent lung function parameters were consistent with disease severity, and statistically significant (p  0.7) with components of the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles were observed in the COPD cohort; correlations in the asthma cohort tended to be weaker. All participants achieved a maximal effort PIFR ≥ 41.6 L/min through the moderate resistance of the ELLIPTA inhaler. Patients with asthma achieved similar inhalation profiles to healthy subjects, but increasing COPD severity

  10. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanizaki S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Tanizaki Department of Emergency Medicine, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui, Japan Abstract: Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. Keywords: inhalation injury, burn, carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning

  11. The Chemical Basis of Fungal Bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Konstantin V; Petushkov, Valentin N; Baranov, Mikhail S; Mineev, Konstantin S; Rodionova, Natalja S; Kaskova, Zinaida M; Tsarkova, Aleksandra S; Petunin, Alexei I; Bondar, Vladimir S; Rodicheva, Emma K; Medvedeva, Svetlana E; Oba, Yuichi; Oba, Yumiko; Arseniev, Alexander S; Lukyanov, Sergey; Gitelson, Josef I; Yampolsky, Ilia V

    2015-07-06

    Many species of fungi naturally produce light, a phenomenon known as bioluminescence, however, the fungal substrates used in the chemical reactions that produce light have not been reported. We identified the fungal compound luciferin 3-hydroxyhispidin, which is biosynthesized by oxidation of the precursor hispidin, a known fungal and plant secondary metabolite. The fungal luciferin does not share structural similarity with the other eight known luciferins. Furthermore, it was shown that 3-hydroxyhispidin leads to bioluminescence in extracts from four diverse genera of luminous fungi, thus suggesting a common biochemical mechanism for fungal bioluminescence.

  12. Fungal rhinosinusitis: what every allergist should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas, C A; Douglas, R G

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between fungi and the sinonasal tract results in a diverse range of diseases with an equally broad spectrum of clinical severity. The classification of these interactions has become complex, and this review seeks to rationalize and simplify the approach to fungal diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses. These conditions may be discussed under two major headings: non-invasive disease (localized fungal colonization, fungal ball and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis) and invasive disease (acute invasive rhinosinusitis, chronic invasive rhinosinusitis and granulomatous invasive rhinosinusitis). A diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis is established by combining findings on history, clinical examination, laboratory testing, imaging and histopathology. The immunocompetence of the patient is of great importance, as invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is uncommon in immunocompetent patients. With the exception of localized fungal colonization, treatment of all forms of fungal rhinosinusitis relies heavily on surgery. Systemic antifungal agents are a fundamental component in the treatment of invasive forms, but are not indicated for the treatment of the non-invasive forms. Antifungal drugs may have a role as adjuvant therapy in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, but evidence is poor to support recommendations. Randomized controlled trials need to be performed to confirm the benefit of immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. In this article, we will summarize the current literature, addressing the controversies regarding the diagnosis and management of fungal rhinosinusitis, and focussing on those aspects which are important for clinical immunologists and allergists.

  13. [Health significance of inhaled particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillissen, A; Gessner, C; Hammerschmidt, S; Hoheisel, G; Wirtz, H

    2006-03-24

    Particulates refer to particles, dust, dirt, soot and aerosol mists that has suspended in the surrounding air. They may consist of solids of various forms including fibres or liquids. Long term exposure to silicon dioxide containing dusts (crystalline silica: quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite) may cause pneumoconiosis in the form of acute or/either chronic silicosis. Asbestos refers to a divers family of crystalline hydrated fibrous siliates typically exhibiting a greater tha 3:1 length ot diameter ratio. It is subdivided into serpentine (Chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite). Exposure to asbestos fibres may cause lung fibrosis and promote cancer of the lung or the pleura. Besides the induction of malignant diseases dust exposure may result in obstructive as well as restrictive lung diseases which may be compensate in case of the recognition as a occupational diseases. Other occupational exposures leading to pneumoconiosis are caused be talc, or metals including aluminium containing dusts. Also the group of man-made mineral (MMMFs) or vitreous fibres (MMVFs), including glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments, microfibres, refractory ceramic fibres are bioactive under certain experimental conditions. Although it has been shown that MMMFs may cause malignancies when injected intraperitoneally in high quantities in rodents, inhalation trials and human studies could not reproduce these results in the same precision. Fine particles (particulate matter = PM) comprise one of the most widespread and harmful air pollutants in the industrialized world. PM may cause worsening of asthma and other respiratory diseases, reduce lung function development in children, potentially increased the risk of premature death in the elderly and enhance mortality from cardiac diseases. Because of the small size PM2.5 is seen to be even more hazardous than PM10.

  14. Biological Function and Molecular Mapping of M Antigen in Yeast Phase of Histoplasma capsulatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Allan Jefferson; Hamilton, Andrew John; de M. Guedes, Herbert Leonel

    2008-01-01

    Histoplasmosis, due to the intracellular fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, can be diagnosed by demonstrating the presence of antibodies specific to the immunodominant M antigen. However, the role of this protein in the pathogenesis of histoplasmosis has not been elucidated. We sought to structurally and immunologically characterize the protein, determine yeast cell surface expression, and confirm catalase activity. A 3D-rendering of the M antigen by homology modeling revealed that the structures and domains closely resemble characterized fungal catalases. We generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the protein and determined that the M antigen is present on the yeast cell surface and in cell wall/cell membrane preparations. Similarly, we found that the majority of catalase activity was in extracts containing fungal surface antigens and that the M antigen is not significantly secreted by live yeast cells. The mAbs also identified unique epitopes on the M antigen. The localization of the M antigen to the cell surface of H. capsulatum yeast and the characterization of the protein's major epitopes have important implications since it demonstrates that although the protein may participate in protecting the fungus against oxidative stress it is also accessible to host immune cells and antibody. PMID:18927619

  15. Deposition and biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreyling Wolfgang G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Particle biokinetics is important in hazard identification and characterization of inhaled particles. Such studies intend to convert external to internal exposure or biologically effective dose, and may help to set limits in that way. Here we focus on the biokinetics of inhaled nanometer sized particles in comparison to micrometer sized ones. The presented approach ranges from inhaled particle deposition probability and retention in the respiratory tract to biokinetics and clearance of particles out of the respiratory tract. Particle transport into the blood circulation (translocation, towards secondary target organs and tissues (accumulation, and out of the body (clearance is considered. The macroscopically assessed amount of particles in the respiratory tract and secondary target organs provides dose estimates for toxicological studies on the level of the whole organism. Complementary, microscopic analyses at the individual particle level provide detailed information about which cells and subcellular components are the target of inhaled particles. These studies contribute to shed light on mechanisms and modes of action eventually leading to adverse health effects by inhaled nanoparticles. We review current methods for macroscopic and microscopic analyses of particle deposition, retention and clearance. Existing macroscopic knowledge on particle biokinetics and microscopic views on particle organ interactions are discussed comparing nanometer and micrometer sized particles. We emphasize the importance for quantitative analyses and the use of particle doses derived from real world exposures.

  16. Deposition and biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Particle biokinetics is important in hazard identification and characterization of inhaled particles. Such studies intend to convert external to internal exposure or biologically effective dose, and may help to set limits in that way. Here we focus on the biokinetics of inhaled nanometer sized particles in comparison to micrometer sized ones. The presented approach ranges from inhaled particle deposition probability and retention in the respiratory tract to biokinetics and clearance of particles out of the respiratory tract. Particle transport into the blood circulation (translocation), towards secondary target organs and tissues (accumulation), and out of the body (clearance) is considered. The macroscopically assessed amount of particles in the respiratory tract and secondary target organs provides dose estimates for toxicological studies on the level of the whole organism. Complementary, microscopic analyses at the individual particle level provide detailed information about which cells and subcellular components are the target of inhaled particles. These studies contribute to shed light on mechanisms and modes of action eventually leading to adverse health effects by inhaled nanoparticles. We review current methods for macroscopic and microscopic analyses of particle deposition, retention and clearance. Existing macroscopic knowledge on particle biokinetics and microscopic views on particle organ interactions are discussed comparing nanometer and micrometer sized particles. We emphasize the importance for quantitative analyses and the use of particle doses derived from real world exposures. PMID:20205860

  17. Fungal keratitis in Lattice dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Samrat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fungal keratitis occurring in a patient with lattice dystrophy. A 57-year-old farmer presented with a corneal ulcer following probable entry of paddy husk in the right eye, of one month duration. Corneal scraping revealed pigmented fungal filaments while culture grew Alternaria alternata. Treatment with 5% natamycin eye drops and 1% atropine healed the infection in four weeks. We would like to draw attention to the fact that the cornea in lattice dystrophy is prone to frequent erosions and is a compromised epithelial barrier to invasion by microorganisms. Patients must be made aware of this fact and should seek attention at the earliest following any trivial trauma. Management of minor corneal abrasions in them should be directed at healing the epithelium with adequate lubricants and preventing infection with topical antibiotic prophylaxis.

  18. Structural aspects of fungal allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing number of solved crystal structures of allergens, the key question why some proteins are allergenic and the vast majority is not remains unanswered. The situation is not different for fungal allergens which cover a wide variety of proteins with different chemical properties and biological functions. They cover enzymes, cell wall, secreted, and intracellular proteins which, except cross-reactive allergens, does not show any evidence for structural similarities at least at the three-dimensional level. However, from a diagnostic point of view, pure allergens biotechnologically produced by recombinant technology can provide us, in contrast to fungal extracts which are hardly producible as standardized reagents, with highly pure perfectly standardized diagnostic reagents.

  19. Fungal metabolites with anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Lefranc, Florence; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Covering: 1964 to 2013. Natural products from bacteria and plants have played a leading role in cancer drug discovery resulting in a large number of clinically useful agents. In contrast, the investigations of fungal metabolites and their derivatives have not led to a clinical cancer drug in spite of significant research efforts revealing a large number of fungi-derived natural products with promising anticancer activity. Many of these natural products have displayed notable in vitro growth-inhibitory properties in human cancer cell lines and select compounds have been demonstrated to provide therapeutic benefits in mouse models of human cancer. Many of these compounds are expected to enter human clinical trials in the near future. The present review discusses the reported sources, structures and biochemical studies aimed at the elucidation of the anticancer potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  20. Nattrassia mangiferae causing fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindo A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fungal keratitis caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae in a 70 year old gentleman, agriculturist by occupation, with a history of injury to his right eye. The scraping showed narrow septate fungal hyphae on a KOH mount, isolation of a fast growing black mould, which demonstrated hyphae and arthroconidia of varying widths typical of the Scytalidium synanamorph (S. dimidiatum. The formation of the pycnidia, which at maturity, expressed conidia. The patient was started on topical itraconazole one hourly and topical atropine thrice a day. The patient was lost to follow up hence we are not able to comment on the final outcome of the patient.

  1. Fungal contaminants in cytopathology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo-epidemic of environmental fungi, most likely by Fusarium spp., leading to inappropriate investigations for disseminated systemic mycosis is described. Subtle diagnostic clues, including the specimens affected, the nature of the host response, and the type of fungal elements noted helped to determine the nature of contaminants. The potential pitfall can be avoided by the knowledge of pertinent disease biology, prompt consultation for infectious diseases, and investigations of the potential environmental sources followed by source control.

  2. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  3. Fungal genome resources at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B; Tatusova, T

    2011-09-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools.

  4. An official American Thoracic Society statement: Treatment of fungal infections in adult pulmonary and critical care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limper, Andrew H; Knox, Kenneth S; Sarosi, George A; Ampel, Neil M; Bennett, John E; Catanzaro, Antonino; Davies, Scott F; Dismukes, William E; Hage, Chadi A; Marr, Kieren A; Mody, Christopher H; Perfect, John R; Stevens, David A

    2011-01-01

    With increasing numbers of immune-compromised patients with malignancy, hematologic disease, and HIV, as well as those receiving immunosupressive drug regimens for the management of organ transplantation or autoimmune inflammatory conditions, the incidence of fungal infections has dramatically increased over recent years. Definitive diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections has also been substantially assisted by the development of newer diagnostic methods and techniques, including the use of antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction, serologies, computed tomography and positron emission tomography scans, bronchoscopy, mediastinoscopy, and video-assisted thorascopic biopsy. At the same time, the introduction of new treatment modalities has significantly broadened options available to physicians who treat these conditions. While traditionally antifungal therapy was limited to the use of amphotericin B, flucytosine, and a handful of clinically available azole agents, current pharmacologic treatment options include potent new azole compounds with extended antifungal activity, lipid forms of amphotericin B, and newer antifungal drugs, including the echinocandins. In view of the changing treatment of pulmonary fungal infections, the American Thoracic Society convened a working group of experts in fungal infections to develop a concise clinical statement of current therapeutic options for those fungal infections of particular relevance to pulmonary and critical care practice. This document focuses on three primary areas of concern: the endemic mycoses, including histoplasmosis, sporotrichosis, blastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis; fungal infections of special concern for immune-compromised and critically ill patients, including cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, candidiasis, and Pneumocystis pneumonia; and rare and emerging fungal infections.

  5. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations, improve lung function, and reduce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity more effectively than other treatments. However, inhaled corticosteroids may be unable to return lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity...... to normal when introduced for moderately severe asthma. This finding highlights the need to improve treatment strategy in pediatric asthma. The natural progression of persistent asthma may lead to loss of lung function and chronic bronchial hyperreactivity for children and adults. There is evidence...... to suggest that asthma acts via a chronic inflammatory process that causes remodeling of the airways with mucosal thickening and smooth muscle hypertrophy. An optimal treatment strategy would be one aimed at reducing the ongoing airway inflammation. Inhaled steroids ameliorate the inflammation, whereas...

  6. Allergen Immunotherapy in an HIV+ Patient with Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Patients with HIV/AIDS can present with multiple types of fungal rhinosinusitis, fungal balls, granulomatous invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, acute or chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, or allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). Given the variable spectrum of immune status and susceptibility to severe infection from opportunistic pathogens it is extremely important that clinicians distinguish aggressive fungal invasive fungal disease from the much milder forms such as AFRS. Here we descr...

  7. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  8. [Elimination of secretions in CF patients under amiloride inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, H; Becker, T; Bittner, P; Boldt, A; Hofmann, T; Schwandt, H J

    1990-10-01

    Inhaled amiloride reduces active absorption of sodium of respiratory epithelium in CF patients and so, transiently, diminishes loss of water. 10 CF patients, 8 to 28 years of age, were examined on two days. First day, they inhaled in a randomised order isotonic saline and a solution of amiloride hydrochloride (0.3 mg/ml) one after another, each inhalation taking twenty minutes. Second day, inhalations were performed in an inverse order. To intensify the effect of inhalation, the inhalation procedure was combined with "autogenic drainage", a special kind of physiotherapy. Main criterion for evaluation was the amount of expectorated sputum. Mean increase of sputum during amiloride inhalation in comparison to saline was +50.4%. Patients and physiotherapist observed a liquefaction of secretion and a decrease of coughing by amiloride and a support of physiotherapy. These results suggest a beneficial clinical effect of regular amiloride inhalation in CF patients.

  9. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  10. Phylogenetic Distribution of Fungal Sterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, John D.; Abril, Maritza; Blackwell, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Background Ergosterol has been considered the “fungal sterol” for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. Methodology/Principal Findings The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Δ5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Δ5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade), and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28)-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. Conclusions/Significance Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol), and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles) target reactions in the synthesis of

  11. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  12. Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis: A European consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijerman, Harry; Westerman, Elsbeth; Conway, Steven;

    2009-01-01

    , mucolytics/mucous mobilizers, anti-inflammatory drugs, bronchodilators and combinations of solutions. Additionally, we review the current knowledge on devices for inhalation therapy with regard to optimal particle sizes and characteristics of wet nebulisers, dry powder and metered dose inhalers. Finally, we...... review the current status of inhaled medication in CF, including the mechanisms of action of the various drugs, their modes of administration and indications, their effects on lung function, exacerbation rates, survival and quality of life, as well as side effects. Specifically we address antibiotics...

  13. Transcutaneous antigen delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous immunization refers to the topical applicationof antigens onto the epidermis. Transcutaneous immunizationtargeting the Langerhans cells of the skin has received muchattention due to its safe, needle-free, and noninvasive antigendelivery. The skin has important immunological functions withunique roles for antigen-presenting cells such as epidermalLangerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. In recent years,novel vaccine delivery strategies have continually beendeveloped; however, transcutaneous immunization has not yetbeen fully exploited due to the penetration barrier representedby the stratum corneum, which inhibits the transport ofantigens and adjuvants. Herein we review recent achievementsin transcutaneous immunization, focusing on the variousstrategies for the enhancement of antigen delivery andvaccination efficacy. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 17-24

  14. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis and the Unified Airway: the Role of Antifungal Therapy in AFRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew W; Clark, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) or rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is a form of polypoid chronic rhinosinusitis that is believed to be due to hypersensitivity to fungal antigens. The disease is characterized by type 1 hypersensitivity to fungal allergens, dramatically elevated total serum IgE, accumulation of thick eosinophil-laden mucin with non-invasive fungal hyphae within the paranasal sinuses, nasal polyposis, and sinus bony remodeling. Because of many clinicopathologic similarities to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), these conditions can be considered analogous examples of disease in the unified airway. However, these conditions rarely occur together and their treatment differs. The treatment of AFRS relies upon surgical removal of fungal hyphae in eosinophilic mucin, while antifungal therapy is used to clear fungi from the airways in ABPA. Several uncontrolled studies suggest there may be some benefit to antifungal agents in AFRS, but randomized trials of topical and systemic antifungal therapies have not shown beneficial results in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Antifungal treatment within the sinonasal cavities does not appear to be an effective approach for most chronic sinusitis, and antifungal therapy for AFRS is unproven.

  15. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungeun Lee

    Full Text Available Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air.

  16. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air.

  17. The ADMIT series - Issues in inhalation therapy. 4) How to choose inhaler devices for the treatment of COPD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, W.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Barnes, P.

    2010-01-01

    For patients with COPD, inhalation is the preferred route of administration of respiratory drugs for both maintenance and acute treatment. Numerous inhaler types and devices have been developed, each with their own particularities, advantages and disadvantages. Nevertheless, published COPD managemen

  18. Resistivities of placebo and active Diskus inhalers compared.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, M.E.A.C.; Molema, J.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Verbal instruction and demonstration of inhalation technique are essential to enhance the effectiveness of inhalation therapy. Placebo devices are commonly used to instruct patients. It is not obvious that patients, who inhale with an adequate flow through an empty placebo Diskus, would

  19. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  20. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  1. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  2. Inhaled iloprost suppresses the cardinal features of asthma via inhibition of airway dendritic cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzko, Marco; Hammad, Hamida; van Nimwegen, Menno; Kool, Mirjam; Vos, Nanda; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Lambrecht, Bart N.

    2007-01-01

    Inhalation of iloprost, a stable prostacyclin (PGI2) analog, is a well-accepted and safe treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Although iloprost mainly acts as a vasodilator by binding to the I prostanoid (IP) receptor, recent evidence suggests that signaling via this receptor also has antiinflammatory effects through unclear mechanisms. Here we show in a murine model of asthma that iloprost inhalation suppressed the cardinal features of asthma when given during the priming or challenge phase. As a mechanism of action, iloprost interfered with the function of lung myeloid DCs, critical antigen-presenting cells of the airways. Iloprost treatment inhibited the maturation and migration of lung DCs to the mediastinal LNs, thereby abolishing the induction of an allergen-specific Th2 response in these nodes. The effect of iloprost was DC autonomous, as iloprost-treated DCs no longer induced Th2 differentiation from naive T cells or boosted effector cytokine production in primed Th2 cells. These data should pave the way for a clinical effectiveness study using inhaled iloprost for the treatment of asthma. PMID:17273558

  3. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  4. Blocking anthrax lethal toxin at the protective antigen channel by using structure-inspired drug design

    OpenAIRE

    Karginov, Vladimir A.; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.; Moayeri, Mahtab; Leppla, Stephen H.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis secretes three polypeptides: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF), which interact at the surface of mammalian cells to form toxic complexes. LF and EF are enzymes that target substrates within the cytosol; PA provides a heptameric pore to facilitate LF and EF transport into the cytosol. Other than administration of antibiotics shortly after exposure, there is currently no approved effective treatment for inhalational anthrax. Here we demonstrat...

  5. Performance of the Button Personal Inhalable Sampler for the measurement of outdoor aeroallergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Atin; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Zhong, Wei; Levin, Linda; Kelley, Anna L.; St. Clair, Harry G.; LeMasters, Grace

    No personal aerosol sampler has been evaluated for monitoring aeroallergens in outdoor field conditions and compared to conventional stationary aerobiological samplers. Recently developed Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler has demonstrated high sampling efficiency for non-biological particles and low sensitivity to the wind direction and velocity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Button Sampler for the measurement of outdoor pollen grains and fungal spores side-by-side with the widely used Rotorod Sampler. The sampling was performed for 8 months (spring, summer and fall) at a monitoring station on the roof of a two-storied office building located in the center of the city of Cincinnati. Two identical Button Samplers, one oriented towards the most prevalent wind and the other towards the opposite wind and a Rotorod Sampler were placed side-by-side. The total fungal spore concentration ranged from 129 to 12,980 spores m -3 (number per cubic meter of air) and the total pollen concentration from 4 to 4536 pollen m -3. The fungal spore concentrations obtained with the two Button Samplers correlated well ( r=0.95; pbiological aerosol particles, which demonstrated a low wind dependence of the performance of the Button Sampler compared to other samplers. The Button Sampler's inlet efficiency was found to be more dependent on wind direction when sampling larger sized Pinaceae pollen grains (aerodynamic diameter ≈65 μm). Compared to Rotorod, both Button Samplers measured significantly higher total fungal spore concentrations. For total pollen count, the Button Sampler facing the prevalent wind showed concentrations levels comparable to that of the Rotorod, but the Button Sampler oriented opposite to the prevalent wind demonstrated lower concentration levels. Overall, it was concluded that the Button Sampler is efficient for the personal sampling of outdoor aeroallergens, and is especially beneficial for aeroallergens of small particle size.

  6. Prevalence and clinical profile of fungal rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are only a few landmark studies from the Indian subcontinent on fungal rhinosinusitis. The lack of awareness among clinicians regarding the varying clinical presentations of fungal rhinosinusitis prompted us to undertake this study. Objective: To determine the prevalence, etiologic basis, clinical features, radiologic features, and microscopic features of fungal rhinosinusitis, and to evaluate the various treatment modalities available. Methods: This was a prospective study ...

  7. Reconstructing fungal natural product biosynthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, C M; Williams, K; Bailey, A M

    2014-10-01

    Large scale fungal genome sequencing has revealed a multitude of potential natural product biosynthetic pathways that remain uncharted. Here we describe some of the methods that have been used to explore them via heterologous gene expression. We focus on filamentous fungal hosts and discuss the technological challenges and successes behind the reconstruction of fungal natural product pathways. Optimised, efficient heterologous expression of reconstructed biosynthetic pathways promises progress in the discovery of novel compounds that could be utilised by the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries.

  8. Fine particle mass from the Diskus inhaler and Turbuhaler inhaler in children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B; Sumby, B S;

    1998-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate dose consistency and particle distribution from the dry powder inhalers Diskus and Turbuhaler. Full profiles of inhalation pressure versus time were recorded in 18 4 yr old and 18 8 yr old asthmatic children through Diskus and Turbuhaler inhalers. These data were used...... is a determinant of the quality of the aerosol. The mean (SD) amount of drug in large particles (>4.7 microm), fine particles (children and 71 (3), 18 (2) and 2...... (1) from the 8 yr old children, respectively. Similar particle fractions from the Budesonide Turbuhaler were 35 (9), 21 (10) and 7 (5) from 4 yr old children and 30 (7), 32 (9) and 12 (6) from 8 yr old children. In conclusion, the Diskus inhaler provides an improved dose consistency through...

  9. Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis: A European consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijerman, Harry; Westerman, Elsbeth; Conway, Steven; Touw, Daan; Döring, Gerd

    2009-09-01

    In cystic fibrosis inhalation of drugs for the treatment of CF related lung disease has been proven to be highly effective. Consequently, an increasing number of drugs and devices have been developed for CF lung disease or are currently under development. In this European consensus document we review the current status of inhaled medication in CF, including the mechanisms of action of the various drugs, their modes of administration and indications, their effects on lung function, exacerbation rates, survival and quality of life, as well as side effects. Specifically we address antibiotics, mucolytics/mucous mobilizers, anti-inflammatory drugs, bronchodilators and combinations of solutions. Additionally, we review the current knowledge on devices for inhalation therapy with regard to optimal particle sizes and characteristics of wet nebulisers, dry powder and metered dose inhalers. Finally, we address the subject of testing new devices before market introduction.

  10. Inhaled surfactant in the treatment of accidental talc powder inhalation: a new case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matina, Federico; Collura, Mirella; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Lo Piparo, Caterina; Corsello, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    .... Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported...

  11. Inhalation drug delivery devices: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Ibrahim, Rahul Verma, Lucila Garcia-ContrerasDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USAAbstract: The pulmonary route of administration has proven to be effective in local and systemic delivery of miscellaneous drugs and biopharmaceuticals to treat pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. A successful pulmonary administration requires a harmonic interaction between the drug formulation, the inhaler device, and the patient. However, the biggest single problem that accounts for the lack of desired effect or adverse outcomes is the incorrect use of the device due to lack of training in how to use the device or how to coordinate actuation and aerosol inhalation. This review summarizes the structural and mechanical features of aerosol delivery devices with respect to mechanisms of aerosol generation, their use with different formulations, and their advantages and limitations. A technological update of the current state-of-the-art designs proposed to overcome current challenges of existing devices is also provided.Keywords: pulmonary delivery, asthma, nebulizers, metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler

  12. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate for asthma in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Uijen, Johannes H. J. M.; Bernsen, Roos M. D.; Tasche, Marjolein J. A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Ducharme, Francine

    2008-01-01

    Background Sodium cromoglycate has been recommended as maintenance treatment for childhood asthma for many years. Its use has decreased since 1990, when inhaled corticosteroids became popular, but it is still used in many countries. Objectives To determine the efficacy of sodium cromoglycate compare

  13. Computational modelling for dry-powder inhalers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröger, Ralf; Woolhouse, Robert; Becker, Michael; Wachtel, Herbert; de Boer, Anne; Horner, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a simulation tool used for modelling powder flow through inhalers to allow optimisation both of device design and drug powder. Here, Ralf Kröger, Consulting Senior CFD Engineer, ANSYS Germany GmbH; Marc Horner, Lead Technical Services Engineer, Healthcare, ANSYS

  14. Behavioral changes in mice following benzene inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H L; Dempster, A M; Snyder, C A

    1981-01-01

    Although benzene is an important occupational health hazard and a carcinogen, the possibility that behavioral changes may forewarn of the later-occurring hematological changes has not been investigated. A time-sampling protocol was used to quantify the occurrence of 7 categories of behavior in the homecage following daily 6-hr exposures to two strains of adult mice (CD1 and C57BL/6J). The behavioral categories were stereotypic behavior, sleeping, resting, eating, grooming, locomotion, and fighting. The inhalation exposures were designed to reflect occupational exposure. Dynamic vapor exposure techniques in standard inhalation chambers were employed. Exposure to 300 or 900 ppm benzene increased the occurrence of eating and grooming and reduced the number of mice that were sleeping or resting. The responses to benzene of both the CD1 and the C57 strains were similar. The positive findings with benzene inhalation indicate the utility of behavioral investigations into the toxicology of inhaled organic solvents. The methods described herein illustrate an objective observation of animal behavior that is capable of documenting toxicity and of guiding detailed follow-up studies aimed at mechanism of action.

  15. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  16. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Arts, J.H.E.; Kuper, C.F.; Slootweg, P.J.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and me

  17. Inhalation of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Brimicombe, R W; Hodson, M E; Heijerman, H G; Bakker, W

    Aerosol administration of antipseudomonal antibiotics is commonly used in cystic fibrosis. However, its contribution to the improvement of lung function, infection and quality of life is not well-established. All articles published from 1965 until the present time concerning the inhalation of

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ...

  19. Ozone inhalation modifies the rat liver proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney S. Theis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 is a serious public health concern. Recent findings indicate that the damaging health effects of O3 extend to multiple systemic organ systems. Herein, we hypothesize that O3 inhalation will cause downstream alterations to the liver. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5 ppm O3 for 8 h/day for 5 days. Plasma liver enzyme measurements showed that 5 day O3 exposure did not cause liver cell death. Proteomic and mass spectrometry analysis identified 10 proteins in the liver that were significantly altered in abundance following short-term O3 exposure and these included several stress responsive proteins. Glucose-regulated protein 78 and protein disulfide isomerase increased, whereas glutathione S-transferase M1 was significantly decreased by O3 inhalation. In contrast, no significant changes were detected for the stress response protein heme oxygenase-1 or cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2B in liver of O3 exposed rats compared to controls. In summary, these results show that an environmentally-relevant exposure to inhaled O3 can alter the expression of select proteins in the liver. We propose that O3 inhalation may represent an important unrecognized factor that can modulate hepatic metabolic functions.

  20. Pneumonitis after Inhalation of Mercury Vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Glezos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old man presented to hospital with pneumonia but only after discharge from hospital did he admit to deliberate prior inhalation of mercury. His pulmonary involvement appeared to resolve almost completely with antibiotics and supportive care. Nevertheless, persisting elevated urinary excretion of mercury required two courses of chelation therapy. No serious systemic sequelae were observed.

  1. Inhalation of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Brimicombe, R W; Hodson, M E; Heijerman, H G; Bakker, W

    1995-01-01

    Aerosol administration of antipseudomonal antibiotics is commonly used in cystic fibrosis. However, its contribution to the improvement of lung function, infection and quality of life is not well-established. All articles published from 1965 until the present time concerning the inhalation of antibi

  2. Inhaled corticosteroids do not affect behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, T. W.; van Roon, E. N.; Duiverman, E. J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether children with asthma and on inhaled corticosteroids have more behavioural problems, such as aggressiveness and hyperactivity, as compared with healthy controls and with children under medical care because of other disorders. Methods: Questionnaires were given to three group

  3. Computational modelling for dry-powder inhalers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröger, Ralf; Woolhouse, Robert; Becker, Michael; Wachtel, Herbert; de Boer, Anne; Horner, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a simulation tool used for modelling powder flow through inhalers to allow optimisation both of device design and drug powder. Here, Ralf Kröger, Consulting Senior CFD Engineer, ANSYS Germany GmbH; Marc Horner, Lead Technical Services Engineer, Healthcare,

  4. Asthma Inhalers: Which One's Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it seems like you're not getting enough medication. Replace your inhaler if it has passed its expiration date or it shows that all the doses have been used. References Scichilone N. Asthma control: The right ... asthma medications. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. http:// ...

  5. Dry powder inhalers for pulmonary drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; De Boer, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    The pulmonary route is an interesting route for drug administration, both for effective local therapy (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis) and for the systemic administration of drugs (e.g., peptides and proteins). Well-designed dry powder inhalers are highly efficient

  6. Fungal Endocarditis: Update on Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Ahmed Khurshid; Lee, Justin Z; Low, See-Wei; Desai, Hem; Lee, Kwan S; Al Mohajer, Mayar

    2016-10-01

    Fungal endocarditis is an extremely debilitating disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. are the most common isolated organisms in fungal endocarditis. It is most prevalent in patients who are immunosuppressed and intravenous drug users. Most patients present with constitutional symptoms, which are indistinguishable from bacterial endocarditis, hence a high index of suspicion is required for pursuing diagnosis. Diagnosis of fungal endocarditis can be very challenging: most of the time, blood cultures are negative or take a long time to yield growth. Fungal endocarditis mandates an aggressive treatment strategy. A medical and surgical combined approach is the cornerstone of therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Piparo Caterina; Vitulo Patrizio; Maggio Maria; Collura Mirella; Matina Federico; Corsello Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the bene...

  8. Regulation of the fungal secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Sean W; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W

    2016-08-01

    The ability of countless representatives of the Kingdom Fungi to adapt to and proliferate in diverse environments is facilitated by regulation of their secretomes to respond to changes in environmental conditions and to mediate interactions with other organisms. Secretome changes often fulfill common functions of nutrient acquisition, facilitation of host/symbiont interactions, cell wall modification, and optimization of the enzyme suite to adapt to new environmental resources. In this review, we expand on our recent work on signaling and the secretome in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to consider a range of selected examples of regulation of fungal secretomes. These examples include the impact of carbon source and aspects of the response to plant and animal hosts. Additionally, the influence of key protein kinases (e.g., Pka1, Snf1) and transcription factors (e.g., Rim101/PacC) is highlighted to illustrate some underlying regulatory factors influencing the secretome. Although there is a wealth of information about fungal secretomes from both experimentation and genome sequence mining, there are also major gaps in our knowledge about the complete composition of fungal secretomes and mechanisms of dynamic change. For example, a more comprehensive understanding of the composition and regulation of the secretome will require consideration of the emerging roles of unconventional secretion and extracellular vesicles in delivering proteins outside the cell. Overall, changes in the secretome are well documented in diverse fungi and the underlying mechanisms are currently under investigation; however, there remain unknown steps in the regulation of secretory pathways and gaps in understanding the regulation of unconventional secretion, which warrant further research.

  9. Relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate inhaled products using urinary drug excretion post inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswania, Osama; Chrystyn, Henry

    2002-05-01

    The relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate following inhalation by different methods have been determined using a urinary excretion pharmacokinetic method. On three separate randomised study days, 7 days apart, subjects inhaled (i) 4x5 mg from an Intal metered dose inhaler (MDI), (ii) 4x5 mg from an MDI attached to a large volume spacer (MDI+SP) and (iii) 20 mg from an Intal Spinhaler (DPI). Urine samples were provided at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 24 h post dose. The mean (S.D.) amount of sodium cromoglycate excreted in the urine during the first 30 min post inhalation was 38.1 (27.5), 222.3 (120.3) and 133.1 (92.2) microg following MDI, MDI+SP and DPI, respectively. The mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of these amounts excreted in the urine over the first 30 min for MDI+SP vs. MDI, DPI vs. MDI and MDI+SP vs. DPI was 801.0 (358.0, 1244; psodium cromoglycate excreted over the 24 h post inhalation the ratios were 375.4 (232.9, 517.9; psodium cromoglycate from a metered dose inhaler attached to a large volume spacer.

  10. 5.5.Fungal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930234 Penicilliosis marneffei report of a caseand review of literatures.KANG Xiaoming (康晓明),et al.Nanjing Army General Hosp,210002.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1992;15(6):336—338.Penicilliosis marneffei is a rare deep fungal in-fection.Southeast Asia is the endemic area.Inthe literatures before 1990,29 cases were re-ported and most of them were diagnosed patho-logically from autopsy.Since 1989 there havebeen more reports of P.marneffei in the HIV in-fected individuals or graft recipient,so far as

  11. Immune response to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jose L; Garcia, Marta E

    2008-09-15

    The immune mechanisms of defence against fungal infections are numerous, and range from protective mechanisms that were present early in evolution (innate immunity) to sophisticated adaptive mechanisms that are induced specifically during infection and disease (adaptive immunity). The first-line innate mechanism is the presence of physical barriers in the form of skin and mucous membranes, which is complemented by cell membranes, cellular receptors and humoral factors. There has been a debate about the relative contribution of humoral and cellular immunity to host defence against fungal infections. For a long time it was considered that cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was important, but humoral immunity had little or no role. However, it is accepted now that CMI is the main mechanism of defence, but that certain types of antibody response are protective. In general, Th1-type CMI is required for clearance of a fungal infection, while Th2 immunity usually results in susceptibility to infection. Aspergillosis, which is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus, has been the subject of many studies, including details of the immune response. Attempts to relate aspergillosis to some form of immunosuppression in animals, as is the case with humans, have not been successful to date. The defence against Aspergillus is based on recognition of the pathogen, a rapidly deployed and highly effective innate effector phase, and a delayed but robust adaptive effector phase. Candida albicans, part of the normal microbial flora associated with mucous surfaces, can be present as congenital candidiasis or as acquired defects of cell-mediated immunity. Resistance to this yeast is associated with Th1 CMI, whereas Th2 immunity is associated with susceptibility to systemic infection. Dermatophytes produce skin alterations in humans and other animals, and the essential role of the CMI response is to destroy the fungi and produce an immunoprotective status against re-infection. The resolution

  12. Diagnosis of invasive fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Barbui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper diagnostic strategy of invasive fungal infections (IFI is a very important component in the management of infectious complications in hematological patients. A good diagnostic approach should be adapted to the patient in relation to the underlying disease, stage of disease, localization of infection and immune status. None of the diagnostic markers can be entirely adopted for medical decision making, and sometimes it’s useful to use the combination of several microbiological tests.The diagnosis of IFI must therefore have a multidisciplinary approach that includes clinical suspicion, microbiological results and radiological evidence.

  13. Workplace Inhalant Abuse in Adult Female: Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse is the purposeful inhalation of intoxicating gases and vapors for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. With its propensity for being yet an under-recognized form of substance use, being gateway to hard substances, cross-cultural penetration crossing socioeconomic boundaries, and causing significant morbidity and mortality in early ages, the prevention of inhalant misuse is a highly pertinent issue. This clinical report identifies a newer perspective in the emergence of inhalant abuse initiation. We report a case of an adult female with late onset of inhalant dependence developing at workplace and recommend for greater awareness, prevention, and management of this expanding substance abuse problem.

  14. Pediatric severe asthma with fungal sensitization is mediated by steroid-resistant IL-33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanhinha, Susana; Sherburn, Rebekah; Walker, Simone; Gupta, Atul; Bossley, Cara J.; Buckley, James; Ullmann, Nicola; Grychtol, Ruth; Campbell, Gaynor; Maglione, Marco; Koo, Sergio; Fleming, Louise; Gregory, Lisa; Snelgrove, Robert J.; Bush, Andrew; Lloyd, Clare M.; Saglani, Sejal

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanism underlying severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) is unknown. IL-33 is important in fungus-induced asthma exacerbations, but its role in fungal sensitization is unexplored. Objective We sought to determine whether fungal sensitization in children with severe therapy-resistant asthma is mediated by IL-33. Methods Eighty-two children (median age, 11.7 years; 63% male) with severe therapy-resistant asthma were included. SAFS (n = 38) was defined as specific IgE or skin prick test response positivity to Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, or Cladosporium herbarum. Clinical features and airway immunopathology were assessed. Chronic exposure to house dust mite and A alternata were compared in a neonatal mouse model. Results Children with SAFS had earlier symptom onset (0.5 vs 1.5 years, P = .006), higher total IgE levels (637 vs 177 IU/mL, P = .002), and nonfungal inhalant allergen-specific IgE. Significantly more children with SAFS were prescribed maintenance oral steroids (42% vs 14%, P = .02). SAFS was associated with higher airway IL-33 levels. In neonatal mice A alternata exposure induced higher serum IgE levels, pulmonary IL-33 levels, and IL-13+ innate lymphoid cell (ILC) and TH2 cell numbers but similar airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) compared with those after house dust mite exposure. Lung IL-33 levels, IL-13+ ILC numbers, TH2 cell numbers, IL-13 levels, and AHR remained increased with inhaled budesonide during A alternata exposure, but all features were significantly reduced in ST2−/− mice lacking a functional receptor for IL-33. Conclusion Pediatric SAFS was associated with more oral steroid therapy and higher IL-33 levels. A alternata exposure resulted in increased IL-33–mediated ILC2 numbers, TH2 cell numbers, and steroid-resistant AHR. IL-33 might be a novel therapeutic target for SAFS. PMID:25746970

  15. A Review of Electronic Devices to Assess Inhaler Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Roberts, Courtney A; Sage, Adam J; George, Johnson; Horne, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Multiple electronic devices exist that provide feedback on the accuracy of patient inhaler technique. Our purpose is to describe the inhaler technique feedback provided by these devices, including specific technique steps measured, how feedback is displayed, target of feedback (patient, provider, researcher), and compatibility with inhaler type (metered-dose inhaler [MDI], diskus, etc.). We identified eight devices that provide feedback on inhaler technique. Only one device assessed all evidence-based MDI technique steps. Most devices provide limited real-time feedback to patients, if any feedback at all. Technologies to assess inhaler technique are advancing and hold great potential for improving patient inhaler technique. Many devices are limited in their ability to detect all evidence-based technique steps and provide real-time user-friendly feedback to patients and providers. Usability tests with patients and providers could identify ways to improve these devices to improve their utility in clinical settings.

  16. Optimal Fungal Space Searching Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenova, Elitsa; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Fu, Eileen; Nicolau, Dan V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2016-10-01

    Previous experiments have shown that fungi use an efficient natural algorithm for searching the space available for their growth in micro-confined networks, e.g., mazes. This natural "master" algorithm, which comprises two "slave" sub-algorithms, i.e., collision-induced branching and directional memory, has been shown to be more efficient than alternatives, with one, or the other, or both sub-algorithms turned off. In contrast, the present contribution compares the performance of the fungal natural algorithm against several standard artificial homologues. It was found that the space-searching fungal algorithm consistently outperforms uninformed algorithms, such as Depth-First-Search (DFS). Furthermore, while the natural algorithm is inferior to informed ones, such as A*, this under-performance does not importantly increase with the increase of the size of the maze. These findings suggest that a systematic effort of harvesting the natural space searching algorithms used by microorganisms is warranted and possibly overdue. These natural algorithms, if efficient, can be reverse-engineered for graph and tree search strategies.

  17. Fungal infections of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients.

  18. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled corticosteroids in ENT, development and technical challenges of powder inhalers, nebulisers synchronized with breathing and aerosol size distribution. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, P; Peron, N; Durand, M; Pourchez, J; Cavaillon, P; Reychler, G; Vecellio, L; Dubus, J-C

    2013-10-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF) has organized its third Aerosolstorming in 2012. During one single day, different aspects of inhaled therapies have been treated and are detailed in two articles, this one being the second. This text deals with the indications of inhaled corticosteroids in ENT, the development and technical challenges of powder inhalers, the advantages and disadvantages of each type of technologies to measure the particle sizes of inhaled treatments.

  19. Inhaled insulin--does it become reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmeier, R; Scheuch, G

    2008-12-01

    After more than 80 years of history the American and European Drug Agencies (FDA and EMEA) approved the first pulmonary delivered version of insulin (Exubera) from Pfizer/Nektar early 2006. However, in October 2007, Pfizer announced it would be taking Exubera off the market, citing that the drug had failed to gain market acceptance. Since 1924 various attempts have been made to get away from injectable insulin. Three alternative delivery methods where always discussed: Delivery to the upper nasal airways or the deep lungs, and through the stomach. From these, the delivery through the deep lungs is the most promising, because the physiological barriers for the uptake are the smallest, the inspired aerosol is deposited on a large area and the absorption into the blood happens through the extremely thin alveolar membrane. However, there is concern about the long-term effects of inhaling a growth protein into the lungs. It was assumed that the large surface area over which the insulin is spread out would minimize negative effects. But recent news indicates that, at least in smokers, the bronchial tumour rate under inhaled insulin seems to be increased. These findings, despite the fact that they are not yet statistical significant and in no case found in a non-smoker, give additional arguments to stop marketing this approach. Several companies worked on providing inhalable insulin and the insulin powder inhalation system Exubera was the most advanced technology. Treatment has been approved for adults only and patients with pulmonary diseases (e.g., asthma, emphysema, COPD) and smokers (current smokers and individuals who recently quitted smoking) were excluded from this therapy. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Exubera are similar to those found with short-acting subcutaneous human insulin or insulin analogs. It is thus possible to use Exubera as a substitute for short-acting human insulin or insulin analogs. Typical side effects of inhaled insulin were coughing

  20. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heshof, R.; Jylhä, S.; Haarmann, T.; Jørgensen, A.L.W.; Dalsgaard, T.K.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database an

  1. Invasive Fungal Infections Acquired from Contaminated Food or Nutritional Supplements: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Chiller, Tom M; Mody, Rajal K

    2016-07-01

    Fungi are an integral part of the natural environment and, therefore, play many roles in relation to food: some fungi are used in food production, some are food sources themselves, and some are agents of food spoilage. Some fungi that contaminate food can also be harmful to human health. The harmful but noninfectious health consequences of mycotoxins have been well-characterized, but the extent to which fungi in food pose a risk for invasive infections is unknown. We conducted a literature review to identify cases of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) believed to have resulted from ingestion or inhalation of food, beverages, or dietary supplements (excluding Saccharomyces infections). We identified 11 publications describing cases or small outbreaks of IFIs related to foods or beverages and three describing IFIs related to dietary supplements. These food-associated IFIs were predominantly mold infections, and the few yeast infections were associated with dairy products. Suspected foodborne IFIs appear to be rare, but are increasingly described in the electronically searchable literature. They are associated with a variety of foods, are due to a variety of fungal pathogens, and primarily occur in persons with immunosuppressive conditions or other predisposing factors. Various guidelines for high-risk patients recommend avoidance of certain food products that may contain high levels of fungi, but further work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these restrictive diets in preventing fungal infections. The relationships between food spoilage, food insecurity, and IFI risk are another area that may warrant further exploration.

  2. Fungal Opportunistic Pneumonias in HIV/AIDS Patients: An Indian Tertiary Care Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Bhanu; Dhakad, Megh Singh; Goyal, Ritu; Bhalla, Preena; Dewan, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Opportunistic pneumonias are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) reactive patients. Despite the significant role that fungi play in causation of this opportunistic mycoses, very few Indian studies have attempted to investigate the burden and aetiological spectrum of HIV/AIDS-associated fungal pneumonias. Aim To document the prevalence of fungal aetiology in HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic pneumonias in an Indian setting; and to elucidate the various fungal opportunists responsible for the same. Materials and Methods The present study was a prospective, cross-sectional analysis conducted at Maulana Azad Medical College and associated Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi from October 2008 to September 2011. Expectorated sputa were collected from 71 HIV reactive patients with a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia and subjected to direct microscopic examination employing Gram stain, 10% KOH wet mount and India ink preparation. In addition, direct immunofluorescence of sputum samples was performed for detection of cysts and trophozoites of Pneumocystis carinii. Also, each sputum sample was inoculated in duplicate onto Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) for culture. A blood sample was drawn from each patient and a battery of serological tests was performed, including Cryptococcal Antigen Latex Agglutination System (CALASTM) for detection of cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen; Platelia™ Aspergillus EIA for detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen; SERION ELISA antigen Candida for detection of Candida antigen and Histoplasma DxSelect™ for detecting antibodies to Histoplasma species. Descriptive statistics were employed to depict results as proportions and figures. Further, arithmetic mean and standard deviation were calculated for central tendencies and median for non-normal/skewed distributions. Results A definite fungal aetiology was established in 25 (35.2%) of 71 HIV reactive patients with pneumonic involvement

  3. Allergic fungal sinusitis causing nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charles; Kacker, Ashutosh; Chee, Ru-Ik; Lelli, Gary J

    2013-04-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis is thought to represent a chronic autoimmune reaction directed against fungal elements within the sinuses, and is commonly seen in individuals with a history of chronic sinusitis that is refractory to medical therapy. The authors present a case of allergic fungal sinusitis involving the lacrimal drainage system. A 54-year-old woman initially presented with recurrent erythema and induration of the left nasolacrimal sac due to dacryocystitis, which was unresponsive to treatment with topical and systemic antibiotics. Radiological evaluation demonstrated the presence of multiple soft tissue masses along the medial canthi. During subsequent endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, significant amounts of allergic mucin were found within the sinuses and marked eosinophilia was present within tissue obtained from the lacrimal sac, findings highly suggestive of allergic fungal sinusitis. A diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis should be considered in patients presenting with epiphora in the appropriate clinical context. However, involvement of the lacrimal drainage system is an exceedingly unusual presentation.

  4. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  5. Fungal Adaptations to Mutualistic Life with Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus

    . However, in rare occasions fungal symbionts might come into contact with symbionts from other colonies. I showed that in both leaf-cutting ant genera incompatibility reactions between fungal strains can avoid intermixing of different strains, and that these reactions strengthen when genetic distance...... successful. To understand the evolutionary development of domestication of the fungus over the phylogeny of the Attine ants, I compared the average number of nuclei per cell for the fungal symbionts, for each of the different groups of fungus-growing ants. I found that the fungal symbionts of the paleo...... is increased. This pattern, however, becomes distorted when fungal symbionts are contested across ant genera. The most important mechanism in the succession of this mutualism of leaf-cutting ants is the controlled degradation of plant material. I show that in the area of Gamboa, Panama, the two leaf...

  6. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... and nutrient availability and storage. By combining molecular methods such as 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of fungal ITS amplicons with analyses of soil enzymes, nutrient pools of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus we were able to characterize soil fungal communities as well as their impact on nutrient...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...

  7. Insulin inhalation for diabetic patients: Nursing considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Mohammed Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific knowledge has advanced to enable the development of inhaled insulin. It is a form of diabetes medication administered via the pulmonary system that studies have shown to be efficacious in the treatment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Inhaled insulin is a new, safe means to deliver insulin that may increase patient compliance with insulin therapy, helping them to achieve optimal glycemic control and possibly reducing their risk of developing cardiovascular complications. However, diabetes is a chronic illness requiring lifetime intervention. Empowering patients with the knowledge of the diabetes disease process may give them the confidence to be more autonomous in managing their diabetes. HIIP gives nurse practitioners a new option that may improve their patients’ acceptance of insulin therapy, and improve glycemic control.

  8. Evaluating inhaler use technique in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk, Sangnual Pisalthanapuna, Nonglak Chetsadaphan, Woranoot Choomuang Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Poor inhalation techniques are associated with decreased medication delivery and poor disease control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate techniques for using inhaler devices in COPD patients.Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted to assess patient compliance with correct techniques for using inhaler devices across four regimens, ie, the pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI, the pMDI with a spacer, the Accuhaler®, and the Handihaler®. The percentage of compliance with essential steps of correct device usage for each regimen was recorded without prior notification when COPD patients presented for a routine visit, and 1 month after receiving face-to-face training. We compared the percentage of compliance between the devices and risk factors related to incorrect techniques using logistic regression analysis. Percentage of patient compliance with correct techniques was compared between the two visits using the chi-square test. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.Results: A total of 103 COPD patients (mean age 71.2±9.2 years, males 64.1%, low education level 82.5%, and percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second 51.9±22.5 were evaluated. Seventy-seven patients (74.8% performed at least one step incorrectly. Patients using the Handihaler had the lowest compliance failure (42.5%, and the odds ratio for failure with the other devices compared with the Handihaler were 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–11.8 for the pMDI, 3.1 (95% CI 1.2–8.2 for the pMDI with a spacer, and 2.4 (95% CI 1.1–5.2 for the Accuhaler. Low education level was the single most important factor related

  9. Interspecies modeling of inhaled particle deposition patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martonen, T.B.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, Y.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxic effects of ambient contaminants or therapeutic effects of airborne drugs, inhalation exposure experiments can be performed with surrogate laboratory animals. Herein, an interspecies particle deposition theory is presented for physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. It is derived to improve animal testing protocols. The computer code describes the behavior and fate of particles in the lungs of human subjects and a selected surrogate, the laboratory rat. In the simulations CO2 is integrated with exposure chamber atmospheres, and its concentrations regulated to produce rat breathing profiles corresponding to selected levels of human physical activity. The dosimetric model is used to calculate total, compartmental (i.e., tracheobronchial and pulmonary), and localized distribution patterns of inhaled particles in rats and humans for comparable ventilatory conditions. It is demonstrated that the model can be used to predetermine the exposure conditions necessary to produce deposition patterns in rats that are equivalent to those in humans at prescribed physical activities.

  10. Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk.

  11. Systematic Review of Errors in Inhaler Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis, Joaquin; Gich, Ignasi; Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    A systematic search for articles reporting direct observation of inhaler technique by trained personnel covered the period from 1975 to 2014. Outcomes were the nature and frequencies of the three most common errors; the percentage of patients demonstrating correct, acceptable, or poor technique; and variations...... were extracted from 144 articles reporting on a total number of 54,354 subjects performing 59,584 observed tests of technique. The most frequent MDI errors were in coordination (45%; 95% CI, 41%-49%), speed and/or depth of inspiration (44%; 40%-47%), and no postinhalation breath-hold (46%; 42...... no significant differences between the first and second 20-year periods of scrutiny. Conclusions Incorrect inhaler technique is unacceptably frequent and has not improved over the past 40 years, pointing to an urgent need for new approaches to education and drug delivery. © 2016 The Authors...

  12. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  13. Scabies, lice, and fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, D; Meinking, T L

    1989-09-01

    Scabies and pediculosis capitis are frequent and often unrecognized causes of multiple streptococcal and staphylococcal pyodermas. Permethrin 1 per cent creme rinse (NIX) for head lice, and permethrin 5 per cent topical cream for scabies are new, highly effective, safe, and cosmetically elegant treatments which have shown superiority over older remedies. In populations in which pediculosis and scabies have resisted traditional lindane therapy, patients promptly responded to these permethrin products. Scabies in nursing homes is a persistent and expanding problem which demands a high level of diagnostic suspicion and an integrated approach to management. For fungal infections, several new broad-spectrum oral and topical agents have been introduced. Their successful use is enhanced by appropriate diagnostic tests which can be performed in the office setting. Recommendations and references are given to assist the physician in diagnosis and choice of therapy.

  14. Innate Defense against Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rebecca A; Gaffen, Sarah L; Hise, Amy G; Brown, Gordon D

    2014-11-10

    Human fungal infections have been on the rise in recent years and proved increasingly difficult to treat as a result of the lack of diagnostics, effective antifungal therapies, and vaccines. Most pathogenic fungi do not cause disease unless there is a disturbance in immune homeostasis, which can be caused by modern medical interventions, disease-induced immunosuppression, and naturally occurring human mutations. The innate immune system is well equipped to recognize and destroy pathogenic fungi through specialized cells expressing a broad range of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This review will outline the cells and PRRs required for effective antifungal immunity, with a special focus on the major antifungal cytokine IL-17 and recently characterized antifungal inflammasomes.

  15. [Ventricular fibrillation following deodorant spray inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, F; Le Tacon, S; Maria, M; Pierrard, O; Monin, P

    2008-01-01

    We report one case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation following butane poisoning after inhalation of antiperspiration aerosol. An early management using semi-automatic defibrillator explained the success of the resuscitation. The mechanism of butane toxicity could be an increased sensitivity of cardiac receptors to circulating catecholamines, responsible for cardiac arrest during exercise and for resuscitation difficulties. The indication of epinephrine is discussed.

  16. Inflammatory Mediators in Smoke Inhalation Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of arte- rial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen ( PFR ) until a certain “threshold” smoke dose has been delivered; thereaf- ter, decreases in... PFR are steep [11, 16]. Pathologically, these models demonstrate evidence of tracheal and lobar bronchial mucosal sloughing with pseudomembrane...during an inhalation injury [31]. Initial animal research on six sheep given intravenous heparin improved PFR , improved peak airway pressures and

  17. Oxidative stress effects of thinner inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Thinners are chemical mixtures used as industrial solvents. Humans can come into contact with thinner by occupational exposure or by intentional inhalation abuse. Thinner sniffing causes damage to the brain, kidney, liver, lung, and reproductive system. We discuss some proposed mechanism by which thinner induces damage. Recently, the induction of oxidative stress has been suggested as a possible mechanism of damage. This paper reviews the current evidence for oxidative stress effects induced ...

  18. Acute myocardial involvement after heroin inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Karoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the illicit drugs cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis have been studied and documented well to cause myocardial infarction by different mechanisms but there is very sparse data available on myocardial involvement after heroin abuse. We report a young man who developed acute myocardial injury after heroin inhalation and alcohol binge drinking. Heroin induced cardio toxic effect and vasospasm compounded by alcohol were suspected to be the cause of this.

  19. Electrostatics in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip

    2013-08-01

    Electrostatics continues to play an important role in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation. Despite its ubiquitous nature, the charging process is complex and not well understood. Nonetheless, significant advances in the past few years continue to improve understanding and lead to better control of electrostatics. The purpose of this critical review is to present an overview of the literature, with an emphasis on how electrostatic charge can be useful in improving pulmonary drug delivery.

  20. Inhalation toxicity of high flash aromatic naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D G; Butterworth, S T; Martin, J G; Roderick, H R; Bird, M G

    1989-05-01

    A petroleum distillate--a high aromatic naphtha--consisting of a 50/50 blended mixture of equivalent products. SHELLSOL A* and SOLVESSO 100**, containing C9 isomers (75 percent) particularly trimethyl benzenes, was examined for systemic toxicity in rats by inhalation exposure. A preliminary 13-week inhalation study with SHELLSOL A had resulted in liver and kidney weight increases in female rats at the high (7400 mg/m3) and medium (3700 mg/m3) exposure levels, and a low grade anaemia in females at all exposure levels (7400, 3700 and 1800 mg/m3). The follow-up 12-month inhalation study in rats described here used atmosphere generated from the SHELLSOL A/SOLVESSO 100 blend of 1800, 900 and 450 mg/m3. Initial reduction in body weight gain occurred in both male and female rats at the higher exposures. Various statistically significant haematological changes were transiently seen in males up to six months, but were not considered biologically significant. High exposure male liver and kidney weights were increased at 6 and 12 months but, in the absence of histopathological changes, were considered to be physiological adaptive responses. No treatment-related histopathological abnormalities were found. It is concluded that chronic exposure to this high aromatic naphtha is without systemic toxicity in rats under the conditions of these studies.

  1. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment.

  2. The nasal distribution of metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S P; Morén, P F; Clarke, S W

    1987-02-01

    The intranasal distribution of aerosol from a metered dose inhaler has been assessed using a radiotracer technique. Inhalers were prepared by adding 99Tcm-labelled Teflon particles (simulating the drug particles) to chlorofluorocarbon propellants, and scans of the head (and chest) taken with a gamma camera. Ten healthy subjects (age range 19-29 years) each performed two radioaerosol studies with the inhaler held in two different ways: either in a single position (vial pointing upwards) or in two positions (vial pointing upwards and then tilted by 30 degrees in the sagittal plane). The vast majority of the dose (82.5 +/- 2.8 (mean +/- SEM) per cent and 80.7 +/- 3.1 per cent respectively for one-position and two-position studies) was deposited on a single localized area in the anterior one-third of the nose, the initial distribution pattern being identical for each study. No significant radioaerosol was detected in the lungs. Only 18.0 +/- 4.7 per cent and 15.4 +/- 4.1 per cent of the dose had been removed by mucociliary action after 30 minutes, and it is probable that the remainder had not penetrated initially beyond the vestibule. Since the deposition pattern was highly localized and more than half the dose probably failed to reach the turbinates it is possible that the overall effect of nasal MDIs is suboptimal for the treatment of generalized nasal disorders.

  3. Comparison of three antigenic extracts of Eurotium amstelodami in serological diagnosis of farmer's lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sandrine; Reboux, Gabriel; Rognon, Bénédicte; Monod, Michel; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Quadroni, Manfredo; Fellrath, Jean-Marc; Aubert, John-David; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Millon, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    In France and Finland, farmer's lung disease (FLD), a hypersensitivity pneumonitis common in agricultural areas, is mainly caused by Eurotium species. The presence of antibodies in patients' serum is an important criterion for diagnosis. Our study aimed to improve the serological diagnosis of FLD by using common fungal particles that pollute the farm environment as antigens. Fungal particles of the Eurotium species were observed in handled hay. A strain of Eurotium amstelodami was grown in vitro using selected culture media; and antigen extracts from sexual (ascospores), asexual (conidia), and vegetative (hyphae) forms were made. Antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to test for immunoglobulin G antibodies from the sera of 17 FLD patients, 40 healthy exposed farmers, and 20 nonexposed controls. The antigens were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and a threshold was then established. The ascospores contained in asci enclosed within cleistothecia were present in 38% of the hay blades observed; conidial heads of aspergillus were less prevalent. The same protocol was followed to make the three antigen extracts. A comparison of the results for FLD patients and exposed controls showed the area under the curve to be 0.850 for the ascospore antigen, 0.731 for the conidia, and 0.690 for the hyphae. The cutoffs that we determined, with the standard deviation for measures being taken into account, showed 67% for sensitivity and 92% for specificity with the ascospore antigen. In conclusion, the serological diagnosis of FLD by ELISA was improved by the adjunction of ascospore antigen.

  4. Comparison of Three Antigenic Extracts of Eurotium amstelodami in Serological Diagnosis of Farmer's Lung Disease▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sandrine; Reboux, Gabriel; Rognon, Bénédicte; Monod, Michel; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Quadroni, Manfredo; Fellrath, Jean-Marc; Aubert, John-David; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Millon, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    In France and Finland, farmer's lung disease (FLD), a hypersensitivity pneumonitis common in agricultural areas, is mainly caused by Eurotium species. The presence of antibodies in patients' serum is an important criterion for diagnosis. Our study aimed to improve the serological diagnosis of FLD by using common fungal particles that pollute the farm environment as antigens. Fungal particles of the Eurotium species were observed in handled hay. A strain of Eurotium amstelodami was grown in vitro using selected culture media; and antigen extracts from sexual (ascospores), asexual (conidia), and vegetative (hyphae) forms were made. Antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to test for immunoglobulin G antibodies from the sera of 17 FLD patients, 40 healthy exposed farmers, and 20 nonexposed controls. The antigens were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and a threshold was then established. The ascospores contained in asci enclosed within cleistothecia were present in 38% of the hay blades observed; conidial heads of aspergillus were less prevalent. The same protocol was followed to make the three antigen extracts. A comparison of the results for FLD patients and exposed controls showed the area under the curve to be 0.850 for the ascospore antigen, 0.731 for the conidia, and 0.690 for the hyphae. The cutoffs that we determined, with the standard deviation for measures being taken into account, showed 67% for sensitivity and 92% for specificity with the ascospore antigen. In conclusion, the serological diagnosis of FLD by ELISA was improved by the adjunction of ascospore antigen. PMID:19906892

  5. Dose of house dust mite antigen (P1) inhaled by infants aged one month

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carswell, F.; Clark, J.; Robinson, P.; Platts-Mills, T.A.

    1983-11-01

    A survey of the habitats occupied by 12 infants of one month of age revealed that approximately 10% of their day was spent in conditions of potential exposure to the major (P1) allergen of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. A respiratory pump which reproduced the minute ventilation of an infant was placed in representative infant habitats. The P1 allergen trapped by the filter in this pump was measured as an estimate of infants' allergen intake. Detectable P1 intake was only present when there was active air disturbance (bed making and vacuuming). The average P1 intake was approximately 3 ng P1/24 hours. Comparison of this P1 intake with that which sensitizes in other situations suggests that it is usually inadequate to sensitize infants.

  6. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshof, Ruud; Jylhä, Sirpa; Haarmann, Thomas; Jørgensen, Ann Louise Worsøe; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; de Graaff, Leo H

    2014-02-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database and to align the sequences obtained using Multiple Sequence Comparison by Log-Expectation. We constructed a phylogenetic tree with the use of Quicktree to visualize the relation of fungal LOXs towards other LOXs. These sequences were analyzed with respect to the signal sequence, C-terminal amino acid, the stereochemistry of the formed oxylipin, and the metal ion cofactor usage. This study shows fungal LOXs are divided into two groups, the Ile- and the Val-groups. The Ile-group has a conserved WRYAK sequence that appears to be characteristic for fungal LOXs and has as a C-terminal amino acid Ile. The Val-group has a highly conserved WL-L/F-AK sequence that is also found in LOXs of plant and animal origin. We found that fungal LOXs with this conserved sequence have a Val at the C-terminus in contrast to other LOXs of fungal origin. Also, these LOXs have signal sequences implying these LOXs will be expressed extracellularly. Our results show that in this group, in addition to the Gaeumannomyces graminis and the Magnaporthe salvinii LOXs, the Aspergillus fumigatus LOX uses manganese as a cofactor.

  7. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research.

  8. Isolated secondary fungal infections of pleural cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Ergin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pleural fungal infections are rare, but the incidence has been increasing with immunosuppressant diseases and use of immunosuppressive medications. In this report, we present 6 patients with pleural effusions that have been determined fungal infection. Methods: The medical records of patients with followed and treated due to fungal infection of the pleural were retrospectively reviewed. Result: The 6 cases whom was 58 of the value median for age were treated as surgical and medical due to fungal infection of the pleural cavity. Dyspnea, cough and chest pain were the most common symptoms. Fever, night sweats and expectoration are relatively rare. In 4 patients, the infections of pleural cavity developed on the bases of rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, pleural mesothelioma and esophagopleural fistula. In two patients had isolated fungal infections. Cultural positivity was seen in 5 patients. Fungal hyphae were determined by cytopathology in all of the patients. As a surgical procedure, all of the patients underwent decortication or pleural biopsy and pleural irrigation. In all patients, antifungal agents were added to surgical procedures. Full recovery of infection was seen in 5 patients. One patient died. Conclusion: In immunosuppressive patients, the incidence of pleural effusions due to or associated with fungal infections are more common. Addition to culture of pleural fluid, histopathological evaluation of pleura will aid diagnosis. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 443-446

  9. Fungal symbionts alter plant drought response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worchel, Elise R; Giauque, Hannah E; Kivlin, Stephanie N

    2013-04-01

    Grassland productivity is often primarily limited by water availability, and therefore, grasslands may be especially sensitive to climate change. Fungal symbionts can mediate plant drought response by enhancing drought tolerance and avoidance, but these effects have not been quantified across grass species. We performed a factorial meta-analysis of previously published studies to determine how arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and endophytic fungal symbionts affect growth of grasses under drought. We then examined how the effect of fungal symbionts on plant growth was influenced by biotic (plant photosynthetic pathway) and abiotic (level of drought) factors. We also measured the phylogenetic signal of fungal symbionts on grass growth under control and drought conditions. Under drought conditions, grasses colonized by AM fungi grew larger than those without mycorrhizal symbionts. The increased growth of grasses conferred from fungal symbionts was greatest at the lowest soil moisture levels. Furthermore, under both drought and control conditions, C3 grasses colonized by AM fungi grew larger than C3 grasses without symbionts, but the biomass of C4 grasses was not affected by AM fungi. Endophytes did not increase plant biomass overall under any treatment. However, there was a phylogenetically conserved increase in plant biomass in grasses colonized by endophytes. Grasses and their fungal symbionts seem to interact within a context-dependent symbiosis, varying with biotic and abiotic conditions. Because plant-fungal symbioses significantly alter plant drought response, including these responses could improve our ability to predict grassland functioning under global change.

  10. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪微; 温海; 廖万清

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation.Data sources An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990-2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles.Study selection Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: ① disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; ② opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient ’s conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. Conclusions It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  11. Diagnostic strategies for invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, Maxim; Wingard, John R

    2013-08-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) frequently occur and are associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Early diagnosis of IFI in these patients facilitates prompt institution of therapy and leads to improved clinical outcomes. This article reviews widely used methodologies for diagnosing IFIs in patients with HM and HSCT recipients. Advantages and limitations of radiologic studies; microbiologic and histopathologic techniques; fungal biomarker assays, including those for galactomannan antigen and β-(1-3)-D-glucan; and molecular assays that are available to establish an early diagnosis of clinically relevant invasive fungal infections are discussed. Recommendations are provided regarding effective use of these methodologies in clinical practice.

  12. Latex agglutination: diagnose the early cryptococcus neoformans test of capsular polysaccharide antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanrong; Yuan, Xueqian; Zhang, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the early diagnosis value of latex agglutination test in Cryptococcal meningitis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 112 patients with definite Cryptococcal meningitis and 26 patients with tubercular meningitis and virus meningitis were collected, latex agglutination test is adopted to detect Cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen. Then it was compared with fungal culture and direct microscopy method for evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis. The sensitivity of three methods including latex agglutination test, fungal culture and direct microscopy was 91.1%,69.6% and 73.2% respectively. The specificity of latex agglutination test was 96.0%, 100% and 100% respectively. That latex agglutination test to detect Cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen could be taken as the early diagnostic method of Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis.

  13. Inhalant abuse by adolescents: A new challenge for Indian physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Debasish

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse has been commonly reported especially in the young during the last decades globally. The reason for the relative paucity of literature from India may be attributed to a lack of knowledge about this growing problem among health professionals. A series of five cases of inhalant abuse is described in order to understand this growing public health concern. Most of the cases started inhalant abuse during adolescence. All patients except one abused typewriter erasing fluid and thinner which contains toluene. All the patients reported using inhalants as addictive substance because of their easy accessibility, cheap price, their faster onset of action and the regular ′high′ that it provided. Whereas several features of inhalant dependence were fulfilled, no physical withdrawal signs were observed. The diagnosis of inhalant abuse can be difficult and relies almost entirely on clinical judgment. Treatment is generally supportive.

  14. Inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin for the maintenance treatment of bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Manjit K; Hill, Adam T

    2017-09-01

    Inhaled or nebulised antibiotics are a major topic of ongoing research interest in reducing exacerbations in bronchiectasis. There are no licenced inhaled or nebulised antibiotics currently in bronchiectasis. Areas covered: Inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin as a long-term treatment in bronchiectasis. Expert opinion: Results from the Phase III ongoing trials on inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin will be key for the outcome of the drugs but additionally, cost-effectiveness and longer-term studies will be necessary to determine the viability of the drug. Head to head studies are needed to decide on the optimum inhaled or nebulised antibiotic and their place with or without long term macrolide therapy. It is also important to determine what treatment is viable for acute exacerbations due to P. aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin is the only currently available oral agent for exacerbations due to P. aeruginosa. The concern is that using inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin will prevent the use and efficacy of its oral equivalent, by developing resistance.

  15. Rapid transition from inhaled iloprost to inhaled treprostinil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourge, Robert C; Tapson, Victor F; Safdar, Zeenat; Benza, Raymond L; Channick, Richard N; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Shapiro, Shelley; White, R James; McSwain, Christopher Shane; Gotzkowsky, Stephen Karl; Nelsen, Andrew C; Rubin, Lewis J

    2013-02-01

    Inhaled treprostinil is a prostacyclin analog approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that may provide a more convenient treatment option for patients receiving inhaled iloprost while maintaining the clinical benefit of inhaled prostacyclin therapy. In this open-label safety study, 73 PAH patients were enrolled with primarily World Health Organization Class II (56%) or III (42%) symptoms. At baseline, most patients (93%) were receiving 5 μg of iloprost per dose but 38% of patients reported a dosing frequency below the labeled rate of 6-9 times daily. Patients initiated inhaled treprostinil at 3 breaths four times daily (qid) at the immediate next scheduled iloprost dose. The primary objective was to assess the safety of rapid transition from iloprost to inhaled treprostinil; clinical status and quality of life were also assessed. Most patients (84%) achieved the target treprostinil dose of 9 breaths qid and remained on study until transition to commercial therapy (89%). The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were cough (74%), headache (44%), and nausea (30%), and five patients prematurely discontinued study drug due to AE (n = 3), disease progression (n = 1), or death (n = 1). At week 12, the time spent on daily treatment activities was reduced compared to baseline, with a mean total savings of 1.4 h per day. Improvements were also observed at week 12 for 6-min walk distance (+16.0; P iloprost to inhaled treprostinil while maintaining clinical status. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. NO2 inhalation induces maturation of pulmonary CD11c+ cells that promote antigenspecific CD4+ T cell polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suratt Benjamin T

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is an air pollutant associated with poor respiratory health, asthma exacerbation, and an increased likelihood of inhalational allergies. NO2 is also produced endogenously in the lung during acute inflammatory responses. NO2 can function as an adjuvant, allowing for allergic sensitization to an innocuous inhaled antigen and the generation of an antigen-specific Th2 immune response manifesting in an allergic asthma phenotype. As CD11c+ antigen presenting cells are considered critical for naïve T cell activation, we investigated the role of CD11c+ cells in NO2-promoted allergic sensitization. Methods We systemically depleted CD11c+ cells from transgenic mice expressing a simian diphtheria toxin (DT receptor under of control of the CD11c promoter by administration of DT. Mice were then exposed to 15 ppm NO2 followed by aerosolized ovalbumin to promote allergic sensitization to ovalbumin and were studied after subsequent inhaled ovalbumin challenges for manifestation of allergic airway disease. In addition, pulmonary CD11c+ cells from wildtype mice were studied after exposure to NO2 and ovalbumin for cellular phenotype by flow cytometry and in vitro cytokine production. Results Transient depletion of CD11c+ cells during sensitization attenuated airway eosinophilia during allergen challenge and reduced Th2 and Th17 cytokine production. Lung CD11c+ cells from wildtype mice exhibited a significant increase in MHCII, CD40, and OX40L expression 2 hours following NO2 exposure. By 48 hours, CD11c+MHCII+ DCs within the mediastinal lymph node (MLN expressed maturation markers, including CD80, CD86, and OX40L. CD11c+CD11b- and CD11c+CD11b+ pulmonary cells exposed to NO2 in vivo increased uptake of antigen 2 hours post exposure, with increased ova-Alexa 647+ CD11c+MHCII+ DCs present in MLN from NO2-exposed mice by 48 hours. Co-cultures of ova-specific CD4+ T cells from naïve mice and CD11c+ pulmonary cells from NO2

  17. Fungal glycans and the innate immune recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tinoco Figueiredo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides such as α- and β-glucans, chitin and glycoproteins extensively modified with both N- and O-linked carbohydrates are the major components of fungal surfaces. The fungal cell wall is an excellent target for the action of antifungal agents, since most of its components are absent from mammalian cells. Recognition of these carbohydrate-containing molecules by the innate immune system triggers inflammatory responses and activation of microbicidal mechanisms by leukocytes. This review will discuss the structure of surface fungal glycoconjugates and polysaccharides and their recognition by innate immune receptors.

  18. Fungal Mating Pheromones: Choreographing the Dating Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen K.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence from this model system is compared amongst the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, which reveals the wealth of information that has been gleaned from studying pheromone-driven processes across a wide spectrum of the fungal kingdom. PMID:21496492

  19. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  20. Fungal mating pheromones: choreographing the dating game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen K; Bennett, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence from this model system is compared amongst the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, which reveals the wealth of information that has been gleaned from studying pheromone-driven processes across a wide spectrum of the fungal kingdom.

  1. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Piparo Caterina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  2. Inhaled surfactant in the treatment of accidental talc powder inhalation: a new case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matina, Federico; Collura, Mirella; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Lo Piparo, Caterina; Corsello, Giovanni

    2011-09-27

    The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  3. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity caused by Streptomyces albus antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Ogawa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman is reported with atopic cough, in whom bronchoprovocation with Streptomyces albus antigen induced cough and bronchoscopic biopsy revealed eosinophilic tracheobronchitis. She was admitted for the diagnosis and treatment of severe non-productive cough. Although her induced sputum contained 8% eosinophils of nucleated cells and bronchoscopic biopsy specimens revealed eosinophil infiltration in both tracheal and bronchial wall, she did not have bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine or heightened bronchomotor tone. Bronchodilator therapy was not effective for her coughing. Her symptoms worsened on returning home, suggesting the existence of some etiologic agents in her house. Streptomyces albus was isolated from her house. A high titer of anti-S. albus antibody was detected in her serum and the bronchoprovocation test with S. albus antigen was positive: development of coughing 15 min later and decrease in cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin 24 h later (3.9 μmol/L from 31.3 μmol/L prechallenge. This is the first report on eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity caused by allergic reaction to S. albus antigen.

  4. Expanding Fungal Diets Through Synthetic Algal-Fungal Mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alaisha; Galazka, Jonathan (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    Fungi can synthesize numerous molecules with important properties, and could be valuable production platforms for space exploration and colonization. However, as heterotrophs, fungi require reduced carbon. This limits their efficiency in locations such as Mars, where reduced carbon is scarce. We propose a system to induce mutualistic symbiosis between the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa. This arrangement would mimic natural algal-fungal relationships found in lichens, but have added advantages including increased growth rate and genetic tractability. N. crassa would metabolize citrate (C6H5O7 (sup -3)) and release carbon dioxide (CO2) that C. reinhardtii would assimilate into organic sugars during photosynthesis. C. reinhardtii would metabolize nitrate (NO3-) and release ammonia (NH3) as a nitrogen source for N. crassa. A N. crassa mutant incapable of reducing nitrate will be used to force this interaction. This system eliminates the need to directly supply its participants with carbon dioxide and ammonia. Furthermore, the release of oxygen by C. reinhardtii via photosynthesis would enable N. crassa to respire. We hope to eventually create a system closer to lichen, in which the algae transfers not only nitrogen but reduced carbon, as organic sugars, to the fungus for growth and production of valuable compounds.

  5. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  6. The Advantages of Low-Flow Inhalational Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Torok

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the economical and ecological use of inhalation anesthetics in low-flow anesthesia (LFA, 1—0.5 l/ min and high-flow anesthesia (HFA, more than 2—6 l/min. Four hundred and ninety six inhalational anesthesias lasting at least 80 minutes were analyzed in each group under consideration. The concentration of inhalation anesthetics was measures in the atmosphere of an operative theatre if inhalational anesthesia lasted more than 4 hours. There is evidence for the economical and ecological benefits in the use of LFA in terms of the availability of appropriate anesthesiological equipment, monitoring, and a highly skilled anesthesiologist.

  7. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  8. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fungal endophyte test. 201.58d Section 201.58d... REGULATIONS Examinations in the Administration of the Act § 201.58d Fungal endophyte test. A fungal endophyte test may be used to determine the amount of fungal endophyte (Acremonium spp.) in certain grasses....

  9. Patient preferences for inhaler devices in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: experience with Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hodder

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Richard Hodder,1 David Price21Divisions of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, ScotlandAbstract: Current guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD recommend the regular use of inhaled bronchodilator therapy in order to relieve symptoms and prevent exacerbations. A variety of inhaler devices are currently available to COPD patients, and the choice of device is an important consideration because it can influence patients’ adherence to treatment, and thus potentially affect the long-term outcome. The Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI generates a slow-moving aerosol with a high fine particle fraction, resulting in deposition of a higher proportion of the dose in the lungs than pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs or some dry powder inhalers (DPIs. We review clinical studies of inhaler satisfaction and preference comparing Respimat® SMI against other inhalers in COPD patients. Using objective and validated patient satisfaction instruments, Respimat® SMI was consistently shown to be well accepted by COPD patients, largely due to its inhalation and handling characteristics. In comparative studies with pMDIs, the patient total satisfaction score with Respimat® SMI was statistically and clinically significantly higher than with the pMDI. In comparative studies with DPIs, the total satisfaction score was statistically significantly higher than for the Turbuhaler® DPI, but only the performance domain of satisfaction was clinically significantly higher for Respimat® SMI. Whether the observed higher levels of patient satisfaction reported with Respimat® SMI might be expected to result in improved adherence to therapy and thus provide benefits consistent with those recently shown to be associated with sustained bronchodilator treatment in patients with COPD remains to be proven

  10. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M, Practice ASTIDCo. Endemic fungal infections in solid organ transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation 2013;13 Suppl 4: ... Michaels MG. Strategies for safe living after solid organ transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation 2013;13 Suppl 4: ...

  11. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  12. Foreword: Special issue on fungal grapevine diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    An impressively large proportion of fungicides applied in European, North American and Australian agriculture has been used to manage grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator), grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), and botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea). These fungal and oomycetous plan...

  13. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... composition of fungi, but the effects were generally limited to the litter layer and the uppermost humus layer (0-5 cm), which was unexpected considering the ecosystem had been manipulated for 18 years. Taken together the global change experiments altered the soil fungal communities and thereby highlight...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...

  14. postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    the effect of some fungal species on the nutritional worth of tomatoes .... flask and then boiled for another 30minutes under the cold-finger condenser rotating the ..... mycotoxicoses, liver damage, suppression of the immune system and death ...

  15. (Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, Miaomiao

    2014-11-01

    To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functional studies beyond genomes are required. Thanks to the developments of current -omics techniques, it is possible to produce large amounts of fungal functional data in a high-throughput fashion (e.g. transcriptome, proteome, etc.). The increasing ease of creating -omics data has also created a major challenge for downstream data handling and analysis. Numerous databases, tools and software have been created to meet this challenge. Facing such a richness of techniques and information, hereby we provide a brief roadmap on current wet-lab and bioinformatics approaches to study functional genomics in fungi.

  16. The structure and function of fungal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and function of fungal cell walls were studied with particular emphasis on dermatophytes. Extraction, isolation, analysis, and observation of the cell wall structure and function were performed. The structure is described microscopically and chemically.

  17. Fungal contaminants observed during micropropagation of Lilium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micropropagation is a rapid propagation technique, but the greatest problem is contamination with fungi and bacteria. ... Fungal contaminants formed during the culture were determined. ... Bulb scales rinsed in water were surface sterilized, then solutions containing chemotherapeutic substances (Benomyl, ... Article Metrics.

  18. Fungal rhino sinusitisin in tehran, iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeri, M.; Hashemi, S.J.; Ardehali, M.; Rezaei, S.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zareei, M.; Hosseinjani, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fungal rhino sinusitis (FRS) is an important infection of para nasal sinuses, which encompasses two main categories; invasive and noninvasive forms according to histopathological findings. Aspergillus spp are the most common species isolated from noninvasive form, while Mucorales are

  19. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  20. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  1. Spontaneous course of an untreated fungal spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, C.; Mueller, R.T.; Konermann, H.

    1989-06-09

    After 29 known cases in the world, we report another case of fungal spondylitis being not yet treated. Within four months with increasing clinical complaints and without neurological defects the disease led to a complete involvement of two vertebras and their partial resorption. An early radiologic hint in fungal spondylitis is possible, a sure diagnosis, however, depends on puncture. Pathogenetic aspects and the importance of a new method to identify candida infection in blood-sample are discussed. (orig.).

  2. Fungal Endophthalmitis Associated with Compounded Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mikosz, Christina A.; Rachel M. Smith; Kim, Moon; Tyson, Clara; Lee, Ellen H.; Adams, Eleanor; Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Sowadsky, Rick; Arroyo, Shannon; Grant-Greene, Yoran; Duran, Julie; Vasquez, Yvonne; Robinson, Byron F.; Harris, Julie R.; Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare but serious infection. In March 2012, several cases of probable and laboratory-confirmed fungal endophthalmitis occurring after invasive ocular procedures were reported nationwide. We identified 47 cases in 9 states: 21 patients had been exposed to the intraocular dye Brilliant Blue G (BBG) during retinal surgery, and the other 26 had received an intravitreal injection containing triamcinolone acetonide. Both drugs were produced by Franck’s Compounding Lab (Oc...

  3. Prospects for the development of fungal vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Deepe, G S

    1997-01-01

    In an era that emphasizes the term "cost-effective," vaccines are the ideal solution to preventing disease at a relatively low cost to society. Much of the previous emphasis has been on childhood scourges such as measles, mumps, rubella, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. The concept of vaccines for fungal diseases has had less impact because of the perceived limited problem. However, fungal diseases have become increasingly appreciated as serious medical problems that require ...

  4. Fungal infections of the oral mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    P Anitha Krishnan

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic fa...

  5. Association of fungal sepsis and galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjay; Bharti, Bhavneet; Inusha, P

    2010-06-01

    Galactosemia is one of the rare inborn errors of metabolism, which if detected early can be treated effectively. Galactosemic infants have a significant increased risk of developing sepsis. E. coli sepsis is a known entity, and also an important cause of early mortality in these children. But fungal sepsis in these patients is rarely reported. Here is a case of 45 day-old child who presented with fungal sepsis, which on investigation turned out to be galactosemia.

  6. Fungal Mating Pheromones: Choreographing the Dating Game

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence fro...

  7. Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis : A European consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijerman, Harry; Westerman, Elsbeth; Conway, Steven; Touw, Daan; Döring, Gerd; Frijlink, Henderik

    In cystic fibrosis inhalation of drugs for the treatment of CF related lung disease has been proven to be highly effective. Consequently, an increasing number of drugs and devices have been developed for CF lung disease or are currently under development. In this European consensus document we

  8. Low flow and economics of inhalational anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odin, I; Feiss, P

    2005-09-01

    Even when anaesthesia does not represent a major part of the expense of a given surgical operation, reducing costs is not negligible because the large number of patients passing through a department of anaesthesia accounts for a huge annual budget. Volatile anaesthetics contribute 20% of the drug expenses in anaesthesia, coming just behind the myorelaxants; however, the cost of halogenated agents has potential for savings because a significant part of the delivered amount is wasted when a non- or partial-rebreathing system is used. The cost of inhaled agents is related to more than the amount taken up; it also depends on their market prices, their relative potencies, the amount of vapour released per millilitre of liquid, and last but not least the fresh-gas flow rate (FGF) delivered to the vaporizer--the most important factor determining the cost of anaesthesia. Poorly soluble agents like desflurane and sevoflurane facilitate the control of low-flow anaesthesia and reduce the duration of temporary high-flow phases to rapidly wash in or adjust the circuit gas concentrations. Modelling low-flow or minimal-flow anaesthesia will help anaesthetists to understand the kinetics of inhaled agents in those circumstances and to design their own clinical protocols. The monitoring facilities present on modern anaesthesia machines should convince clinicians that low- or even minimal-flow anaesthesia would not jeopardize the safety of their patients. Cost containment requires primarily a decrease in FGFs, but it may also be influenced by a rational use of the available halogenated agents. Isoflurane, the cheapest generic agent, might be advantageous for maintenance of anaesthesia of less than 3 hours. Sevoflurane is the agent of choice for inhalational induction and might also be used for maintenance. Desflurane might be preferred for long anaesthetics where rapid recovery will generate savings in the PACU.

  9. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies.

  10. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies.

  11. Structure and biological functions of fungal cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto-Bergter Eliana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophobic ceramide linked to one sugar unit. In fungal cells, CMHs are very conserved molecules consisting of a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic or 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids, and a carbohydrate portion consisting of one residue of glucose or galactose. 9-Methyl 4,8-sphingadienine-containing ceramides are usually glycosylated to form fungal cerebrosides, but the recent description of a ceramide dihexoside (CDH presenting phytosphingosine in Magnaporthe grisea suggests the existence of alternative pathways of ceramide glycosylation in fungal cells. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. In Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune, CMHs are apparently involved in morphological transitions and fungal growth. The elucidation of structural and functional aspects of fungal cerebrosides may therefore contribute to the design of new antifungal agents inhibiting growth and differentiation of pathogenic species.

  12. Fungal Keratitis - Improving Diagnostics by Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Nielsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12-69, 6 out of 17 (35% cultures were positive and a total of 6/7 (86% IVCM scans were positive. Three different categories of IVCM results for the grading of diagnostic certainty were formed. Conclusion: IVCM is a valuable tool for diagnosing filamentous fungal keratitis. In order to improve the reliability of IVCM, we suggest implementing a simple and clinically applicable grading system for aiding the interpretation of IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis.

  13. Inhibition of Haemonchus contortus larval development by fungal lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Christian; Hertzberg, Hubertus; Butschi, Alex; Bleuler-Martinez, Silvia; Aebi, Markus; Deplazes, Peter; Künzler, Markus; Štefanić, Saša

    2015-08-19

    development while 40 μg/ml were needed to achieve the same inhibition by CCL2 lectin. MOA was the only lectin tested that caused larval death while other toxic lectins had larvistatic effect manifesting as L1 growth arrest. Using lectin histochemistry we demonstrate that of all lectins tested, only the four toxic ones displayed binding to the larvae's gut and likewise were found to interact with glycans localized to the gastrodermal tissue of adults. The results of our study suggest a correlation between the presence of target glycans of lectins in the digestive tract and the lectin-mediated toxicity in Haemonchus contortus. We demonstrate that binding to the structurally conserved glycan structures found in H. contortus gastrodermal tissue by the set of fungal lectins has detrimental effect on larval development. Some of these glycan structures might represent antigens which are not exposed to the host immune system (hidden antigens) and thus have a potential for vaccine or drug development. Nematotoxic fungal lectins prove to be a useful tool to identify such targets in parasitic nematodes.

  14. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  15. Distinct galactofuranose antigens in the cell wall and culture supernatants as a means to differentiate Fusarium from Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Annegret; Kakoschke, Tamara Katharina; Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter; Ensinger, Christian; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Ebel, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Detection of carbohydrate antigens is an important means for diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. For diagnosis of systemic Aspergillus infections, galactomannan is commonly used, the core antigenic structure of which consists of chains of several galactofuranose moieties. In this study, we provide evidence that Fusarium produces at least two distinct galactofuranose antigens: Smaller amounts of galactomannan and larger quantities of a novel antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody AB135-8. In A. fumigatus, only minor amounts of the AB135-8 antigen are found in supernatants and in the apical regions of hyphae. A galactofuranose-deficient A. fumigatus mutant lacks the AB135-8 antigen, which strongly suggests that galactofuranose is an essential constituent of this antigen. Using a combination of AB135-8 and a galactomannan-specific antibody, we were able to unambiguously differentiate A. fumigatus and Fusarium hyphae in immunohistology. Moreover, since Fusarium releases the AB135-8 antigen, it appears to be a promising target antigen for a serological detection of Fusarium infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi: circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bongertz

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available Circulating antigens were detected in sera of mice experimentally infected with a high close of Trypanosoma cruzi by reaction with sera from chronically infected mice. The immunodiffusion reaction between homologous acute and chronic sera produced four precipitation lines. By reaction with chronic mouse serum, circulating antingens were detected in sera from heavily infected hamsters, dogs, rabbits and in sera from chagasic patients. A reaction was also found in urine from acutely infected mice and dogs. Trypanosoma cruzi exoantigen was detected in trypanosome culture medium and in the supernatant of infected cell cultures. Attempts to isolate the antigens are described.Antígenos circulantes foram detectados em soros de camundongos infectados experimentalmente com elevadas doses de Trypanosoma cruzi pela reação com soros obtidos de camundongos em fase crônica de infecção. A reação de imunodifusão entre soros homólogos agudo e crônico produziu quatro linhas de precipitação. Por reação com soro crônico de camundongo antígenos circulantes foram detectados em soros de crícetos, cães e coelhos infectados com doses elevadas de Trypanosoma cruzi e em soros de pacientes chagásicos. Uma reação foi também observada com urina de camundongos e cães infectados de forma aguda. Exoantígeno de Trypanosoma cruzi foi detectado em meio de cultura de tripanosomas e em sobrenadantes de culturas de células infectadas. Tentativas de isolamento dos antigenos são descritas.

  17. Efficacy Projection of Obiltoxaximab for Treatment of Inhalational Anthrax across a Range of Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Brent J; Shadiack, Annette M; Carpenter, Sarah; Sanford, Daniel; Henning, Lisa N; O'Connor, Edward; Gonzales, Nestor; Mondick, John; French, Jonathan; Stark, Gregory V; Fisher, Alan C; Casey, Leslie S; Serbina, Natalya V

    2016-10-01

    Inhalational anthrax has high mortality even with antibiotic treatment, and antitoxins are now recommended as an adjunct to standard antimicrobial regimens. The efficacy of obiltoxaximab, a monoclonal antibody against anthrax protective antigen (PA), was examined in multiple studies conducted in two animal models of inhalational anthrax. A single intravenous bolus of 1 to 32 mg/kg of body weight obiltoxaximab or placebo was administered to New Zealand White rabbits (two studies) and cynomolgus macaques (4 studies) at disease onset (significant body temperature increase or detection of serum PA) following lethal challenge with aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores. The primary endpoint was survival. The relationship between efficacy and disease severity, defined by pretreatment bacteremia and toxemia levels, was explored. In rabbits, single doses of 1 to 16 mg/kg obiltoxaximab led to 17 to 93% survival. In two studies, survival following 16 mg/kg obiltoxaximab was 93% and 62% compared to 0% and 0% for placebo (P = 0.0010 and P = 0.0013, respectively). Across four macaque studies, survival was 6.3% to 78.6% following 4 to 32 mg/kg obiltoxaximab. In two macaque studies, 16 mg/kg obiltoxaximab reduced toxemia and led to survival rates of 31%, 35%, and 47% versus 0%, 0%, and 6.3% with placebo (P = 0.0085, P = 0.0053, P = 0.0068). Pretreatment bacteremia and toxemia levels inversely correlated with survival. Overall, obiltoxaximab monotherapy neutralized PA and increased survival across the range of disease severity, indicating clinical benefit of toxin neutralization with obiltoxaximab in both early and late stages of inhalational anthrax. Copyright © 2016 Yamamoto et al.

  18. Hypopyon in patients with fungal keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling-juan; SONG Xiu-sheng; ZHAO Jing; SUN Shi-ying; XIE Li-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypopyon is common in eyes with fungal keratitis.The evaluation of the clinical features,culture results and the risk factors for hypopyon and of the possible correlation between hypopyon and the treatment outcome could be helpful for making treatment decisions.Methods The medical records of 1066 inpatients (1069 eyes) with fungal keratitis seen at the Shandong Eye Institute from January 2000 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively for demographic features,risk factors,clinical characteristics,laboratory findings and treatment outcomes.The incidence of hypopyon,the fungal culture positivity for hypopyon,risk factors for hypopyon and the effect of hypopyon on the treatment and prognosis were determined.Results We identified 1069 eyes with fungal keratitis.Of the 850 fungal culture-positive eyes,the Fusarium species was the most frequent (73.6%),followed by Altemaria (10.0%) and Aspergillus (9.0%).Upon admission,562 (52.6%)eyes with hypopyon were identified.The hypopyon of 66 eyes was evaluated via fungal culturing,and 31 eyes (47.0%)were positive.A total of 194 eyes had ocular hypertension,and 172 (88.7%) of these eyes had hypopyon (P <0.001).Risk factors for incident hypopyon included long duration of symptoms (P <0.001),large lesion size (P <0.001) and infection caused by the Fusarium and Aspergillus species (P <0.001).The positivity of fungal culture for hypopyon was associated with duration of symptoms and lesion size.Surgical intervention was more common in cases with hypopyon (P <0.001).Hypopyon was a risk factor for the recurrence of fungal keratitis after corneal transplantation (P=0.002).Conclusions Hypopyon is common in patients with severe fungal keratitis and can cause ocular hypertension.About half of the hypopyon cases were positive based on fungal culture.Long duration of symptoms,large lesion size and infection with the Fusarium and Aspergillus species were risk factors for hypopyon.The presence of hypopyon

  19. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  20. Inhaled analgesia for pain management in labour (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, T.; Poppel, M. van; Jones, L.; Lazet, J.; Nisio, M. Di; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many women would like to have a choice in pain relief during labour and also would like to avoid invasive methods of pain management in labour. Inhaled analgesia during labour involves the self-administered inhalation of sub-anaesthetic concentrations of agents while the mother remains a

  1. Conceptual model for assessment of inhalation exposure: Defining modifying factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, E.; Schneider, T.; Goede, H.; Tischer, M.; Warren, N.; Kromhout, H.; Tongeren, M. van; Hemmen, J. van; Cherrie, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper proposes a source-receptor model to schematically describe inhalation exposure to help understand the complex processes leading to inhalation of hazardous substances. The model considers a stepwise transfer of a contaminant from the source to the receptor. The conceptual model is c

  2. A review of inhalability fraction models: discussion and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millage, Kyle K; Bergman, Josh; Asgharian, Bahman; McClellan, Gene

    2010-02-01

    The first step in mathematically modeling the mechanics of respiratory deposition of particles is to estimate the ability of a particle to enter the head, either through the mouth or nose. Models of the biological effects from inhaled particles are commonly, albeit incorrectly, simplified by making an assumption that the only particles of concern are those that can readily penetrate to the pulmonary region of the lung: typically particles less than 5microm in aerodynamic diameter. Inhalability for particles of this size is effectively 100%, so there is little need to develop a mathematical representation of the phenomenon. However, chemical irritants, biological agents, or radioactive material, in the form of large particles or droplets, can cause adverse biological responses by simply being taken into the head and depositing in the extrathoracic area. As a result, it is important to understand the inhalability of both small and large particles. The concept of particle inhalability received little consideration until the 1970s; since then it has been the subject of many experiments with a fairly wide disparity of results, in part due to the variety of dependent variables and the difficulty in adequate measurement methods. This article describes the currently utilized models of inhalability, recommends specific methods for implementing inhalability into mathematical models of respiratory deposition, and identifies outstanding issues and limitations. In this article, we describe inhalability as it applies to particulate matter and liquid droplets; modeling the inhalability of fibers is a work in progress and is not addressed.

  3. Inhalation characteristics and their effects on in vitro drug delivery from dry powder inhalers .1. Inhalation characteristics, work of breathing and volunteers' preference in dependence of the inhaler resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBoer, AH; Winter, H.M.I.; Lerk, CF

    1996-01-01

    A test inhaler with exchangeable air flow resistances encompassing the range of commercial DPIs has been used to study the inspiratory flow curves of 39 healthy adult volunteers. A strong increase in mean Peak Inspiratory Flow Rate (PIFR) has been obtained with decreasing inhaler resistance, varying

  4. Inhaled analgesia for pain management in labour (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, T.; Poppel, M. van; Jones, L.; Lazet, J.; Nisio, M. Di; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many women would like to have a choice in pain relief during labour and also would like to avoid invasive methods of pain management in labour. Inhaled analgesia during labour involves the self-administered inhalation of sub-anaesthetic concentrations of agents while the mother remains

  5. Unintended effects of inhaled corticosteroids : disease or drugs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, F. de

    2007-01-01

    Patients with asthma or COPD are often treated with inhaled corticosteroids. These drugs reduce the inflammation in the lungs and patients suffer fewer exacerbations. In the late nineties, a tendency to treat patients in general with higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids was accompanied with an in

  6. Inhalation of Budesonide/Formoterol Increases Diaphragm Muscle Contractility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyohiko Shindoh

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: BUD/FORM inhalation has an inotropic effect on diaphragm muscle, protects diaphragm muscle deterioration after endotoxin injection, and inhibits NO production. Increments in muscle contractility with BUD/FORM inhalation are induced through a synergistic effect of an anti-inflammatory agent and 02-agonist.

  7. Technological and practical challenges of dry powder inhalers and formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppentocht, M.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H.W.; de Boer, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    In the 50 years following the introduction of the first dry powder inhaler to the market, several developments have occurred. Multiple-unit dose and multi-dose devices have been introduced, but first generation capsule inhalers are still widely used for new formulations. Many new particle engineerin

  8. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neurath, A.R. (Lindsley F. Kimbell Research Inst., New York, NY); Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-07-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure.

  9. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, A R; Strick, N; Baker, L; Krugman, S

    1982-01-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bond adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure. Images PMID:6956871

  10. Antigenic Variation in Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Guy H; Bankhead, Troy; Seifert, H Steven

    2016-02-01

    Antigenic variation is a strategy used by a broad diversity of microbial pathogens to persist within the mammalian host. Whereas viruses make use of a minimal proofreading capacity combined with large amounts of progeny to use random mutation for variant generation, antigenically variant bacteria have evolved mechanisms which use a stable genome, which aids in protecting the fitness of the progeny. Here, three well-characterized and highly antigenically variant bacterial pathogens are discussed: Anaplasma, Borrelia, and Neisseria. These three pathogens display a variety of mechanisms used to create the structural and antigenic variation needed for immune escape and long-term persistence. Intrahost antigenic variation is the focus; however, the role of these immune escape mechanisms at the population level is also presented.

  11. Alveolar proteinosis associated with aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, R; Nigam, S; Sivakumaran, P

    2016-08-01

    Secondary alveolar proteinosis is a rare lung disease which may be triggered by a variety of inhaled particles. The diagnosis is made by detection of anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which appears milky white and contains lamellar bodies. Aluminium has been suggested as a possible cause, but there is little evidence in the literature to support this assertion. We report the case of a 46-year-old former boilermaker and boat builder who developed secondary alveolar proteinosis following sustained heavy aluminium exposure. The presence of aluminium was confirmed both by histological examination and metallurgical analysis of a mediastinal lymph node. Despite cessation of exposure to aluminium and treatment with whole-lung lavage which normally results in improvements in both symptoms and lung function, the outcome was poor and novel therapies are now being used for this patient. It may be that the natural history in aluminium-related alveolar proteinosis is different, with the metal playing a mediating role in the disease process. Our case further supports the link between aluminium and secondary alveolar proteinosis and highlights the need for measures to prevent excessive aluminium inhalation in relevant industries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Etiological Analysis of Fungal Keratitis and Rapid Identification of Predominant Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Hao, Jilong; Gao, Song; Wan, Xue; Wang, Wanting; Shan, Qiushi; Wang, Li

    2016-02-01

    Fungal keratitis is a worldwide-distributed refractory and potentially blinding ocular infection caused by various fungi. It is necessary to investigate the etiological and epidemiological characteristics of this disease and establish a rapid and specific pathogenic identification method. Here, we isolated and identified fungal pathogens of 275 patients with presumed fungal keratitis from Jilin Province, China, and conducted statistical analyses of epidemiological information. The positive rate of fungal culture was 72.0 %. Fusarium sp. was the most common genus among 210 fungal isolates. The predominant species were Fusarium solani, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida glabrata, which accounted for over 50 % of the isolated organisms. Corneal trauma and previous use of drugs were the most important predisposing factors. In addition, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was designed with species-specific primers of the three species that could identify them with amplicons of approximately 330 bp from F. solani, 275 bp from A. fumigatus, and 230 bp from C. glabrata. Additionally, PCR with fungal universal primers and multiplex PCR were performed using DNA prepared by an improved DNA extraction method from corneal scrapings. With this method, fungal pathogens from corneal scrapings could be specifically and rapidly identified within 8 h. The culture-independent rapid identification of corneal scrapings may have great significance for the early diagnosis and treatment of fungal keratitis.

  13. Design and evaluation of a new dry powder inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Rouholamini Najafabadi AH

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Three versions of a new dry powder inhaler (DPI, RG-haler, were designed using two kinds of grid inserts. Salbutamol sulfate/lactose blend (Ventolin Rotacaps® was selected as a model formulation to analyze the performance of all inhalers and compare their efficiency with three marketed devices (Rotahaler®, Spinhaler® and ISF inhalator® using the twin impinger (TI. Deposition of the drug in device was significantly (P<0.05 lower for ISF inhalator® and all kinds of RG-halers in comparison with those of Rotahaler® and Spinhaler®. The amount of drug deposited in the stage 2 and the respirable dose for RG-halers were similar to those of ISF inhalator® and significantly (P<0.05 higher than those of Rotahaler® and Spinhaler®. The results suggest efficient aerosol generating capability of the RG-haler.

  14. Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanfang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Cen, Kai; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-05-12

    Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen-host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus-animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  15. Scavenger Receptors and Resistance to Inhaled Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    directs mod- ified proteins to antigen presentation. Eur. J. Immunol. 29: 512–521. 30. Granucci, F., F. Petralia, M. Urbano , S. Citterio, F. Di Tota, L...11 Suppl:S32-6. 50. Granucci F, Petralia F, Urbano M, Citterio S, Di Tota F, Santambrogio L, Ricciardi-Castagnoli P: The scavenger receptor MARCO

  16. Epitope-focused peptide immunogens in human use adjuvants protect rabbits from experimental inhalation anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscherwitz, Jon; Feldman, Daniel; Yu, Fen; Cease, Kemp B

    2015-01-09

    Anthrax represents a formidable bioterrorism threat for which new, optimized vaccines are required. We previously demonstrated that epitope-focused multiple antigenic peptides or a recombinant protein in Freund's adjuvant can elicit Ab against the loop neutralizing determinant (LND), a cryptic linear neutralizing epitope in the 2ß2-2ß3 loop of protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, which mediated protection of rabbits from inhalation challenge with B. anthracis Ames strain. However, demonstration of efficacy using human-use adjuvants is required before proceeding with further development of an LND vaccine for testing in non-human primates and humans. To optimize the LND immunogen, we first evaluated the protective efficacy and immune correlates associated with immunization of rabbits with mixtures containing two molecular variants of multiple antigenic peptides in Freunds adjuvant, termed BT-LND(2) and TB-LND(2). TB-LND(2) was then further evaluated for protective efficacy in rabbits employing human-use adjuvants. Immunization of rabbits with TB-LND(2) in human-use adjuvants elicited protection from Ames strain spore challenge which was statistically indistinguishable from that elicited through immunization with protective antigen. All TB-LND(2) rabbits with any detectable serum neutralization prior to challenge were protected from aerosolized spore exposure. Remarkably, rabbits immunized with TB-LND(2) in Alhydrogel/CpG had significant anamnestic increases in post-challenge LND-specific Ab and neutralization titers despite little evidence of spore germination in these rabbits. An LND-specific epitope-focused vaccine may complement PA-based vaccines and may represent a complementary stand-alone vaccine for anthrax. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and its cement content. Exposure variability was modelled with linear mixed models.Results- Inhalable dust concentrations at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m(3), with a mean of 1.0 mg/m(3). Average concentration for inhalable cement dust was 0.3 mg/m(3) (GM; range 0.02-17 mg/m(3)). Levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were on average 0.5 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable dust and 0.2 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable cement dust. Highest concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM = 55 mg/m(3); inhalable cement dust GM = 33 mg/m(3)) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages during reinforcement work and pouring. Most likely other sources were contributing to dust concentrations, particularly at the construction site. Within job groups, temporal variability in exposure concentrations generally outweighed differences in average concentrations between workers. 'Using a broom', 'outdoor wind speed' and 'presence of rain' were overall the most influential factors affecting inhalable (cement) dust exposure.Conclusion- Job type appeared to be the main predictor of exposure to inhalable (cement) dust at the construction site. Inhalable dust concentrations in cement production plants, especially during cleaning tasks, are usually considerably higher than at the construction site.

  18. Syringe, pen, inhaler - the evolution of insulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, I A; Hahn, E G; Konturek, P C

    2001-01-01

    The therapy with inhalable insulin can be expected to change the present concepts and the market of subcutaneous insulin dramatically within the next years. Several companies are currently developing formulations of inhalable insulin. In the most advanced concept, insulin is delivered as a dry-powder insulin formulation via a special aerosol device system. The phase III studies evaluating the efficiency of the inhaled insulin are already on their way. The recent phase II studies have shown, that the lung is capable of absorbing new insulin formulation in a dose-dependent and reproducible manner. However, a relatively small number of diabetic patients have been included in these studies, yet. The therapeutic efficacy and safety of the inhaled insulin is comparable to that of the usual subcutaneous insulin treatment regimens. The most important advantage of the new therapy is the enhanced therapeutic comfort of the patient who does not need to inject insulin for meal time glucose control. Generally, in terms of glycemic control, inhalable insulin offers no advantages in type 1 diabetics in comparison to an intensified conventional insulin therapy. However, before a large-scale marketing, several open questions have to be carefully investigated, the most important being the possible long-term effects of insulin inhalation for the lung, since insulin is known to have growth-promoting properties. There is still no available clinical data concerning the efficiency of the inhaled insulin in patients with pulmonary diseases which may cause problems in absorption of inhaled insulin due to the smaller cumulative alveolar surface. In smokers without pulmonary disease seems the inhaled insulin to act stronger and faster. Since therapy with inhalable insulin requires larger doses of insulin in comparison to subcutaneous insulin to achieve the same systemic effect, the costs of this therapy need to be clarified, too.

  19. Burden of serious fungal infections in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrou, Katrien; Maertens, Johan; Van Even, Ellen; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to estimate the total number of serious fungal infections occurring yearly in Belgium. The number of cryptococcal infections was retrieved from the National Reference Center for Mycosis. Populations at risk and fungal infections frequencies in these populations were used to estimate incidence or prevalence of other fungal infections. The Belgian population consists of 11.10 million people. Cryptococcal meningitis is rare. In all, 15 of the 1227 newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases presented with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. This accounts for ±14% of total PCP cases (n = 120). The incidence of candidaemia is estimated as 5/100,000 resulting in 555 cases and 213 deaths. A total number of 675 invasive aspergillosis cases and ≥169 deaths attributed to this infection were calculated. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is estimated to be prevalent in 662 cases. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis cases were estimated to be 23,119 applying a 2.5% and 15% rate in adult asthma and cystic fibrosis patients respectively. Severe asthma with fungal sensitisation cases was estimated to be 30,402. There were 174,760 women with recurrent Candida vaginitis assuming a 6% rate in women aged between 15 and 50. Approximately 233,000 people of the Belgian population (2.1%) are estimated to suffer from a fungal infection on a yearly basis.

  20. Burden of fungal infections in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekiri-Talbi, M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-21

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the National Office of Statistics (Office National des Statistiques: ONS), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. Algeria has 40.4 million inhabitants, and probably at least 568,900 (1.41%) of Algerians have a serious fungal infection each year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (485,000) and fungal asthma (72,000) are probably the commonest problems, as there are over 1 million adult asthmatics. Candidaemia is estimated in 2,020 people, invasive aspergillosis in 2,865 people, and intra-abdominal candidiasis in 303 people; these are the most common life-threatening problems. AIDS is uncommon, but cancer is not (45,000 new cases of cancer including 1,500 in children), nor is COPD (an estimated 317,762 patients, of whom 20.3% are admitted to hospital each year). A focus on improving the diagnosis and epidemiological data related to fungal infection is necessary in Algeria.

  1. Fungal infections in severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Rakesh; Noor, Mohd Talha; Wig, Jaidev

    2011-06-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The majority of deaths related to SAP are the result of infectious complications. Although bacterial infections are most commonly encountered, fungal infections are increasingly being recognized. Candida is the most common fungal infection. The occurrence of fungal infection in patients with acute pancreatitis adversely affects the clinical course, leading to a higher incidence of systemic complications, and possibly mortality as well. Important risk factors for fungal infection in patients with acute pancreatitis include broad-spectrum antibiotics, prolonged hospitalization and surgical/endoscopic interventions, use of total parenteral nutrition, and mechanical ventilation. Patients with higher severity of pancreatitis are at a greater risk. The pathogenesis of fungal infection in patients with acute pancreatitis is multifactorial. Translocation of microorganisms across the gut epithelium, lymphocyte dysfunction, and the virulence of the invading microorganisms play important roles. Histological demonstration of fungi remains the gold standard of diagnosis, but a positive biopsy is rarely obtained. The role of biomarkers in the diagnosis is being investigated. As early diagnosis and treatment can lead to improved outcome, a high index of suspicion is required for prompt diagnosis. Limiting the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, early introduction of enteral nutrition, and timely change of vascular catheters are important preventive strategies. The role of antifungal prophylaxis remains controversial. Surgical necrosectomy with antifungal therapy is the most widely used treatment approach. Clinical trials on antifungal prophylaxis are needed, and indications for surgical intervention need to be clearly defined.

  2. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  3. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  4. [Pulmonary fungal infection in patients with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, B; Lortholary, O

    2013-10-01

    Fungal infections are the most common opportunistic infections (OI) occurring during the course of HIV infection, though their incidence has decreased dramatically with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART). Most cases occur in untreated patients, noncompliant patients or patients whose multiple antiretroviral regimens have failed and they are a good marker of the severity of cellular immunodepression. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is the second most frequent OI in France and cryptococcosis remains a major problem in the Southern Hemisphere. With the increase in travel, imported endemic fungal infection can occur and may mimic other infections, notably tuberculosis. Fungal infections often have a pulmonary presentation but an exhaustive search for dissemination should be made in patients infected with HIV, at least those at an advanced stage of immune deficiency. Introduction of cART in combination with anti-fungal treatment depends on the risk of AIDS progression and on the risk of cumulative toxicity and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) if introduced too early. Fungal infections in HIV infected patients remain a problem in the cART era. IRIS can complicate the management and requires an optimised treatment regime. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Fungal keratitis associated with ocular rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Shome, Debraj; Sajnani, Manoj; Natarajan, Sundaram

    2010-06-01

    In order to report fungal keratitis in patients of ocular rosacea, a retrospective review of all cases of fungal keratitis was undertaken. Cases in which ocular rosacea coexisted were identified and included in the study. The clinical course of patients thus identified was studied from the medical records and outcomes were evaluated. A total of three cases of fungal keratitis with coexisting ocular rosacea were identified. All three patients were known cases of acne rosacea with an intermittent, irregular treatment for the same. Previous history of contact lens use, ocular surgery or trauma was not present in any of the cases. Microbiological evaluation revealed Aspergillus flavus as the causative organism in two patients and an unidentified hyaline fungus in the third. Patients received simultaneous therapy for fungal keratitis and ocular rosacea. The ocular surface completely stabilized and the infiltrate resolved in all three cases. The chronic ocular surface changes and induced inflammation in ocular rosacea, along with the instillation of topical steroids for therapy, may create an environmental milieu favorable for fungal keratitis. Microbiological evaluation should be considered, even in cases of suspected sterile keratitis, prior to treatment with topical steroids, so as to prevent the possible worsening of an associated infective corneal condition.

  6. Fungal Involvement in Patients with Paranasal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kordbacheh

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal involvement of the paranasal sinuses is frequently observed in the immunocompromised host and it can become lifethreatening if it is not diagnosed. Definitive diagnosis is made by tissue biopsy and culture. In this study biopsy materials of maxillary, ethmoidal and frontal sinuses of 60 patients with clinical manifestation of sinusitis and no response to medical therapy were assessed by mycological and pathological methods for the presence of fungi. Invasive fungal sinusitis was diagnosed in 3 patients and etiologic agents were Candida albicans, Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus fumigatus. Predisposing factors in these patients were leukemia, diabetes mellitus and previous sinus and polyp surgery, respectively. Allergic fungal sinusitis also was seen in one patient and Alternaria sp. isolated from the biopsy material. Only the patient with allergic form of disease survived but all the patients with invasive form of fungal infection were expired. This clearly underscores the need of early recognition of fungal sinusitis in at risk population in order to start urgent treatment. In this study Nocardia asteroids also was isolated from the biopsy sample in a patient with sinunasal adenocarcinoma.

  7. Modelling combat strategies in fungal mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Graeme P

    2012-07-07

    Fungal mycelia have a well-established role in nutrient cycling and are widely used as agents in biological control and in the remediation of polluted landscapes. Competition and combat between different fungal communities is common in these contexts and its outcome impacts on local biodiversity and the success of such biotechnological applications. In this investigation a mathematical model representing mycelia as a system of partial differential equations is used to simulate combat between two fungal colonies growing into a nutrient-free domain. The resultant equations are integrated numerically and the model simulates well-established outcomes of combat between fungal communities. The outcome of pairwise combat is shown to depend on numerous factors including the suppression of advancing hyphae in rivals, the degradation of a rival's established biomass and the utilization and redistribution of available nutrient resources. It is demonstrated how non-transitive hierarchies in fungal communities can be established through switching mechanisms, mirroring observations reported in experimental studies, and how specialized defensive structures can emerge through changes in the redistribution of internal resources.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Arnold JM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. Results We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Conclusions Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  9. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  10. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  11. Cohort Study of Airway Mycobiome in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients: Differences in Community Structure between Fungi and Bacteria Reveal Predominance of Transient Fungal Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer-Heilborn, Annette; Welte, Tobias; Guzman, Carlos A.; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Höfle, Manfred G.

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory mycobiome is an important but understudied component of the human microbiota. Like bacteria, fungi can cause severe lung diseases, but their infection rates are much lower. This study compared the bacterial and fungal communities of sputum samples from a large cohort of 56 adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) during nonexacerbation periods and under continuous antibiotic treatment. Molecular fingerprinting based on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis revealed fundamental differences between bacterial and fungal communities. Both groups of microorganisms were taxonomically classified by identification of gene sequences (16S rRNA and internal transcript spacer), and prevalences of single taxa were determined for the entire cohort. Major bacterial pathogens were frequently observed, whereas fungi of known pathogenicity in CF were detected only in low numbers. Fungal species richness increased without reaching a constant level (saturation), whereas bacterial richness showed saturation after 50 patients were analyzed. In contrast to bacteria, a large number of fungal species were observed together with high fluctuations over time and among patients. These findings demonstrated that the mycobiome was dominated by transient species, which strongly suggested that the main driving force was their presence in inhaled air rather than colonization. Considering the high exposure of human airways to fungal spores, we concluded that fungi have low colonization abilities in CF, and colonization by pathogenic fungal species may be considered a rare event. A comprehensive understanding of the conditions promoting fungal colonization may offer the opportunity to prevent colonization and substantially reduce or even eliminate fungus-related disease progression in CF. PMID:26135861

  12. Fungal infection after a tragedy: a report of three cases of candidosis in a fire accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wei-hua; XIA Zhao-fan; SHAN Hong-wei; CHEN Min; LIAO Wan-qing

    2012-01-01

    Patients who suffer severe bums are at increased risk for local and systemic infections.The incidence of fungal infections has increased in recent years,and these infections represent a major issue in bum intensive care units.Herein,we report three cases of fungal infection due to Candida species occurring in patients undergoing supportive therapy and antibiotic treatment during their hospitalization.Two of these patients were infected with Candida parapsilosis,and one was infected with Candida albicans.The risk factors for these patients' Candida infections were multiple and prolonged courses of antimicrobial treatment,steroid treatment,tracheal intubation and smoke inhalation.Susceptibility testing of nine antifungal compounds was performed,and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of all isolated strains were lower than the breakpoint MIC value for resistance of the relevant drug.All three patients were cured by treatment with antifungal agents.Candida infection may occur 1-3 weeks after thermal injury,and the prompt recognition and treatment of such infections with antifungal therapies may result in decreased morbidity and mortality associated with these infections in burn patients.

  13. Prospects for the development of fungal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepe, G S

    1997-10-01

    In an era that emphasizes the term "cost-effective," vaccines are the ideal solution to preventing disease at a relatively low cost to society. Much of the previous emphasis has been on childhood scourges such as measles, mumps, rubella, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. The concept of vaccines for fungal diseases has had less impact because of the perceived limited problem. However, fungal diseases have become increasingly appreciated as serious medical problems that require recognition and aggressive management. The escalation in the incidence and prevalence of infection has prompted a renewed interest in vaccine development. Herein, I discuss the most recent developments in the search for vaccines to combat fungal infections. Investigators have discovered several inert substances from various fungi that can mediate protection in animal models. The next challenge will be to find the suitable mode of delivery for these immunogens.

  14. EPICHLOE SPECIES: fungal symbionts of grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, C L

    1996-01-01

    Epichloë species and their asexual descendants (Acremonium endophytes) are fungal symbionts of C3 grasses that span the symbiotic continuum from antagonism to mutualism depending on the relative importance, respectively, of horizontal transmission of sexual spores versus vertical clonal transmission in healthy grass seeds. At least seven sexual Epichloë species are identifiable by mating tests, and many asexual genotypes are interspecific hybrids. Benefits conferred by the symbionts on host plants include protection from biotic factors and abiotic stresses such as drought. Four classes of beneficial alkaloids are associated with the symbionts: ergot alkaloids, indolediterpenes (lolitrems), peramine, and saturated aminopyrrolizidines (lolines). These alkaloids protect host plants from insect and vertebrate herbivores, including livestock. Genetic engineering of the fungal symbionts as more suitable biological protectants for forage grasses requires identification of fungal genes for alkaloid biosynthesis, and DNA-mediated transformation of the fungi.

  15. Marsupialized fungal mycetoma masquerading as conjunctival melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyad, Fouad E; Karp, Carol L; Wong, James R; Weiss, Matthew J; Bermudez-Magner, J Antonio; Dubovy, Sander

    2014-07-01

    To report a case of a fungal mass misdiagnosed as a pigmented conjunctival melanoma. Case report. A 38-year-old woman was referred for a pigmented conjunctival lesion that was diagnosed as a melanoma. She had a history of a scleral buckle in that eye for retinal detachment 2 years before presentation. Slit-lamp examination revealed a pigmented mass from the 11- to 2-o'clock position. This was noted to be imbricated within the invagination of a conjunctival fold from the previous surgery. The mass was removed, cultured, and confirmed to be a fungal infection from Scytalidium sp. Scleral buckles can cause folds in the conjunctiva, which can be foci for fungal infection.

  16. Immunological Consequences of Intestinal Fungal Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Matthew L; Limon, Jose J; Bar, Agnieszka S; Leal, Christian A; Gargus, Matthew; Tang, Jie; Brown, Jordan; Funari, Vincent A; Wang, Hanlin L; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe; Underhill, David M; Iliev, Iliyan D

    2016-06-08

    Compared to bacteria, the role of fungi within the intestinal microbiota is poorly understood. In this study we investigated whether the presence of a "healthy" fungal community in the gut is important for modulating immune function. Prolonged oral treatment of mice with antifungal drugs resulted in increased disease severity in acute and chronic models of colitis, and also exacerbated the development of allergic airway disease. Microbiota profiling revealed restructuring of fungal and bacterial communities. Specifically, representation of Candida spp. was reduced, while Aspergillus, Wallemia, and Epicoccum spp. were increased. Oral supplementation with a mixture of three fungi found to expand during antifungal treatment (Aspergillus amstelodami, Epicoccum nigrum, and Wallemia sebi) was sufficient to recapitulate the exacerbating effects of antifungal drugs on allergic airway disease. Taken together, these results indicate that disruption of commensal fungal populations can influence local and peripheral immune responses and enhance relevant disease states.

  17. Overview: fungal infections in the transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A

    2002-01-01

    Fungal infection remains a major hurdle in solid organ transplantation. A variety of new antifungal agents have become available and new diagnostic tools are in development. This conference was convened to review current approaches to the prevention and treatment of fungal infection in transplantation. Among the keys to successful management of fungal infection are identification of patients at risk for infection (stratification), eradication or control of established infection in advance of transplantation, the demonstration of cure by radiologic and histopathologic means, and the use of surgical debridement, reduction in immune suppression, and fungicidal therapies whenever possible. The absence of sensitive diagnostic tools and standardization of antifungal susceptibility testing for the filamentous fungi are identified as major impediments to care in this area.

  18. Evolutionary and structural diversity of fungal laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Brenda; Oliver, Patricia; Medrano-Soto, Arturo; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Fungal laccases have been extensively exploited for industrial purposes and there is a wealth of information available regarding their reaction mechanism, biological role and several molecular aspects, including cloning, heterologous expression and transcriptional analyses. Here we present the reconstruction of the fungal laccase loci evolution inferred from the comparative analysis of 48 different sequences. The topology of the phylogenetic trees indicate that a single monophyletic branch exists for fungal laccases and that laccase isozyme genes may have evolved independently, possibly through duplication-divergence events. Laccases are copper-containing enzymes generally identified by the utilization of substituted p-diphenol substrates. Interestingly, our approach permitted the assignment of two copper-containing oxidases, preliminarily catalogued as laccases, to a different evolutionary group, distantly related to the main branch of bona fide laccases.

  19. [Fungal infections in children with malignant disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, G

    2011-05-01

    Intensified chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation result in severe and prolonged granulocytopenia with an increased risk of invasive fungal infections. The major fungal species that cause serious infections in cancer patients are Candida species and Aspergillus species. The main features of Candida infection in this context are oropharyngeal candidiasis and Candida esophagitis, chronic disseminated candidiasis, also known as hepatosplenic candidiasis, and candidemia. Aspergillus can cause severe lung infection but also sinusal or CNS infection. Because invasive fungal infections are severe and often life-threatening, preventive and empirical managements have become standard practice. An increasing number of antifungal drugs is now available, notably lipid formulations of amphotericin B (liposomal amphotericin B), new azoles with broad spectrum of activity and echinocandin.

  20. Effect of 4% lidocaine inhalation in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, G S; Sharma, S K; Pande, J N

    1990-01-01

    The effect of 4% lidocaine inhalation was studied in a single-blind fashion in 18 patients with chronic stable asthma. Inhalation of normal saline solution was used as placebo. None of the parameters except flow rate at 50% of vital capacity (V50) showed any statistically significant change from baseline values. V50 at 15 min was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) after 4% lidocaine inhalation. Considering more than 10% change from the baseline value as significant, 8 of 15 patients showed decrease in airway resistance (Raw) and 7 of the 15 patients showed an increase in specific airway conductance (SGaw) after 15 min of inhalation. However, V50 (8/18 patients), flow rate at 25% vital capacity [V25 (6/15 patients], and forced expiratory flow rate at 25-75% of the vital capacity (FEF25-75) (5/15 patients) showed a decrease after 15 min of 4% lidocaine inhalation. No change in pulmonary function was noted after 30 min of lidocaine inhalation. It is concluded from this study that lidocaine produces a small bronchodilatory effect on the large airways and a bronchoconstrictor effect on the small airways after 15 min of inhalation, but this effect is not statistically significant. It can be safely used as topical agent for bronchoscopy in patients with bronchial asthma.

  1. Asthma and Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bårnes, Camilla Boslev; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of maintenance asthma therapy. However, in spite of this, adherence to ICS remains low. The aim of this systematic literature review was to provide an overview of the current knowledge of adherence to ICS, effects of poor adherence, and means...... was found to be between 22 and 63%, with improvement up to and after an exacerbation. Poor adherence was associated with youth, being African-American, having mild asthma, ... prescribed fixed-combination therapy (ICS and long-acting β2 agonists). Good adherence was associated with higher FEV1, a lower percentage of eosinophils in sputum, reduction in hospitalizations, less use of oral corticosteroids, and lower mortality rate. Overall, 24% of exacerbations and 60% of asthma...

  2. Toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after inhaling heroin vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.; Henkes, H.; Kuehne, D. [Klinik fuer Allgemeine Roentgendiagnostik und Neuroradiologie, Alfried-Krupp-Krankenhaus, Alfried Krupp Strasse 21, D-45117, Essen (Germany); Moeller, P.; Bade, K. [Neurologische Klinik, Knappschafts-Krankenhaus, D-45657 Recklinghausen (Germany)

    1998-06-02

    This is a report of clinical, CT and MRI findings in a patient with toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after heroin ingestion. The disease is observed in drug addicts who inhale pre-heated heroin. The clinical onset, which usually occurs some days or even longer after the last heroin consumption, is characterized by a cerebellar syndrome. The cerebellar hemispheres, the cerebellar and cerebral peduncles and the pyramidal tract may be affected. Spongiform demyelination is the morphological substrate of the lesions, which are not contrast enhancing, hypodense on CT and hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI. The frequently perfect symmetry of the affection of functional systems points to a toxic and/or metabolic pathophysiological mechanism. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 26 refs.

  3. Survivor from asphyxiation due to helium inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Etteri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this rare case report we describe a 27- year-old white man survived to suicide by asphyxiation using the so-called suicide bag (or exit bag filled with helium supplied through a plastic tube. He had no previous psychiatric or organic illnesses. At the time of presentation to our Emergency Department he was awake and reported severe dyspnea with a clinical pattern of acute respiratory failure. Imaging studies showed pulmonary edema and the patient was treated with non-invasive ventilation in Intensive Care Unit. After 15 days the patient was discharged from hospital in optimal conditions. These rare cases of survivor might suggest the possible causes of death from inhaling helium.

  4. [Wood dust as inhalative noxious agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, D; Liebetrau, G; Meister, W

    1985-01-01

    Wood dust is known as a cause of asthma and chronic bronchitis. From 1979 to 1983 we observed 115 patients with chronic lung diseases, who were exposed to wood dust during many years. We found an irritative pathogenesis in 101 patients with asthma or bronchitis. Twenty nine patients had got a positive skin test, especially with makoré, beech, koto, ash, pine. The inhalation test was positive in 7 of them. The occupational etiology was verified in 5 patients. Besides wood dust itself chemicals for wood protection or wood adhesives can have importance in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fourteen patients had got alveolitis or lung fibrosis after wood-dust exposition. In each case we found precipitating antibodies against moulds, which could be cultivated from wood dust to which the patients were exposed.

  5. Pulmonary cystic keratinizing squamous cell lesions of rats after inhalation/instillation of different particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittinghausen, S; Mohr, U; Dungworth, D L

    1997-12-01

    Cystic keratinizing squamous cell lesions from three inhalation studies (Study A, B, C) and one intratracheal instillation study (Study D) in rats were reclassified and a certain number of lesions examined immunohistochemically for PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) as a marker of cellular proliferation. The following classification was used: squamous cell metaplasia with marked keratinization, keratinizing cyst, cystic keratinizing epithelioma, cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. In study A (inhalation of coal oven exhaust and subcutaneous injection of a high dose of DB (ah)A) 49.3% of rats developed cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas. Inhalation of coal oven exhaust gas together with intratracheal instillation of crocidolite or subcutaneous injection of a low dose DB(ah)A (dibenz(ah)anthracene) resulted in cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas in 23% to 24% of the rats. High incidences of cystic squamous cell carcinomas in the range of 31.9% to 76.4% were observed in rats of Study B1 after a 10-months exposure to tar/pitch condensation aerosol (different B(a)P (benzo(a)pyrene) concentrations) with added carbon black in some groups. After a 20-months exposure period to the same inhalation atmospheres (Study B2) the incidence of squamous cell carcinomas was increased up to 95.8%. Exposure of rats to various concentrations of unfiltered diesel exhaust (Study C) resulted in incidences of cystic keratinizing epitheliomas ranging from 2.5% (2.5 mg/m3) to 10.7% (7.5 mg/m3). Epitheliomas were also observed in 16.2% of carbon black and 16.0% of titanium dioxide exposed rats. Only a few cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas occurred. In the intratrachel instillation study (Study D) increased incidences of cystic keratinizing epitheliomas occurred in rats exposed to native diesel exhaust particles (16.7%), high dose of extracted diesel exhaust particles

  6. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  7. Fractal dimension based corneal fungal infection diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Perkins, A. Louise; Beuerman, Roger W.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    2006-08-01

    We present a fractal measure based pattern classification algorithm for automatic feature extraction and identification of fungus associated with an infection of the cornea of the eye. A white-light confocal microscope image of suspected fungus exhibited locally linear and branching structures. The pixel intensity variation across the width of a fungal element was gaussian. Linear features were extracted using a set of 2D directional matched gaussian-filters. Portions of fungus profiles that were not in the same focal plane appeared relatively blurred. We use gaussian filters of standard deviation slightly larger than the width of a fungus to reduce discontinuities. Cell nuclei of cornea and nerves also exhibited locally linear structure. Cell nuclei were excluded by their relatively shorter lengths. Nerves in the cornea exhibited less branching compared with the fungus. Fractal dimensions of the locally linear features were computed using a box-counting method. A set of corneal images with fungal infection was used to generate class-conditional fractal measure distributions of fungus and nerves. The a priori class-conditional densities were built using an adaptive-mixtures method to reflect the true nature of the feature distributions and improve the classification accuracy. A maximum-likelihood classifier was used to classify the linear features extracted from test corneal images as 'normal' or 'with fungal infiltrates', using the a priori fractal measure distributions. We demonstrate the algorithm on the corneal images with culture-positive fungal infiltrates. The algorithm is fully automatic and will help diagnose fungal keratitis by generating a diagnostic mask of locations of the fungal infiltrates.

  8. Rapid transepithelial transport of prions following inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Anthony E; Hudson, Kathryn F; Richey, Matthew W; Bartz, Jason C

    2012-12-01

    Prion infection and pathogenesis are dependent on the agent crossing an epithelial barrier to gain access to the recipient nervous system. Several routes of infection have been identified, but the mechanism(s) and timing of in vivo prion transport across an epithelium have not been determined. The hamster model of nasal cavity infection was used to determine the temporal and spatial parameters of prion-infected brain homogenate uptake following inhalation and to test the hypothesis that prions cross the nasal mucosa via M cells. A small drop of infected or uninfected brain homogenate was placed below each nostril, where it was immediately inhaled into the nasal cavity. Regularly spaced tissue sections through the entire extent of the nasal cavity were processed immunohistochemically to identify brain homogenate and the disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (PrP(d)). Infected or uninfected brain homogenate was identified adhering to M cells, passing between cells of the nasal mucosa, and within lymphatic vessels of the nasal cavity at all time points examined. PrP(d) was identified within a limited number of M cells 15 to 180 min following inoculation, but not in the adjacent nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). While these results support M cell transport of prions, larger amounts of infected brain homogenate were transported paracellularly across the respiratory, olfactory, and follicle-associated epithelia of the nasal cavity. These results indicate that prions can immediately cross the nasal mucosa via multiple routes and quickly enter lymphatics, where they can spread systemically via lymph draining the nasal cavity.

  9. [Severe burns related to steam inhalation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, J A; Domínguez-Sampedro, P; Pérez, E; Suelves, J M; Collado, J M

    2015-02-01

    Despite lack of proven effectiveness and its potential to cause severe burns, steam inhalation therapy (SIT) is still used as a treatment for benign respiratory conditions. To characterize cases of burns related to steam inhalation therapy (BRSIT) in order to formulate appropriate preventive criteria. A review was conducted on cases of BRSIT admitted to a Burns Unit between 2006 and 2012, analysing epidemiological data, clinical aspects, severity and course. A total of 530 patients were admitted; 375 (70%) with scalds, and 15 with BRSIT (2.8% of burns; 4% of scalds). SIT was indicated in most cases for mild upper airway infections. The median age of patients was 7 years (2.5m-14 y). The burned area (BA) was ≥10% in 60% of cases (max. BA 22%). Injuries involved trunk, genital area, and extremities; only in one case was the face affected. The mean hospital length-of-stay was 14 days (3-30 d). Five patients (33%) were admitted to the PICU, most of them (60%) younger than 3 years. Eight patients (53%) underwent surgical treatment (skin grafting). In a 12-year-old patient whooping cough was diagnosed in the Burns Unit, and a 2.5-year-old patient developed staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. No patient died. The final course was satisfactory in all patients. BRSIT can be severe and cause significant use of health resources. Professionals caring for children, particularly paediatricians, should seriously consider their prevention, avoiding treatments with SIT, and educating parents in order not to use it on their own. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [New technical developments for inhaled sedation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, A; Bomberg, H; Volk, T; Groesdonk, H V

    2017-01-31

    The circle system has been in use for more than 100 years, whereas the first clinical application of an anaesthetic reflector was reported just 15 years ago. In the circle system, all breathing gas is rebreathed after carbon dioxide absorption. A reflector, on the other hand, with the breathing gas flowing to and fro, specifically retains the anaesthetic during expiration and resupplies it during the next inspiration. A high reflection efficiency (number of molecules resupplied/number of molecules exhaled, RE 80-90%) decreases consumption. In analogy to the fresh gas flow of a circle system, pulmonary clearance ((1-RE) × minute ventilation) defines the opposition between consumption and control of the concentration.It was not until reflection systems became available that volatile anaesthetics were used routinely in some intensive care units. Their advantages, such as easy handling, and better ventilatory capabilities of intensive care versus anaesthesia ventilators, were basic preconditions for this. Apart from AnaConDa™ (Sedana Medical, Uppsala, Sweden), the new MIRUS™ system (Pall Medical, Dreieich, Germany) represents a second, more sophisticated commercially available system.Organ protective effects, excellent control of sedation, and dose-dependent deep sedation while preserving spontaneous breathing with hardly any accumulation or induction of tolerance, make volatile anaesthetics an interesting alternative, especially for patients needing deep sedation or when intravenous drugs are no longer efficacious.But obviously, the outcome is most important. We know that deep intravenous sedation increases mortality, whereas inhalational sedation could prove beneficial. We now need prospective clinical trials examining mortality, but also the psychological outcome of those most critically ill patients sedated by inhalation or intravenously.

  11. Mitochondrial H2O2 in Lung Antigen-Presenting Cells Blocks NF-κB Activation to Prevent Unwarranted Immune Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Anupriya; Raundhal, Mahesh; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Das, Sudipta; Corey, Catherine; Kamga, Christelle K; Quesnelle, Kelly; St Croix, Claudette; Watkins, Simon C; Morse, Christina; Oriss, Timothy B; Huff, Rachael; Hannum, Rachel; Ray, Prabir; Shiva, Sruti; Ray, Anuradha

    2016-05-24

    Inhalation of environmental antigens such as allergens does not always induce inflammation in the respiratory tract. While antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells and macrophages, take up inhaled antigens, the cell-intrinsic molecular mechanisms that prevent an inflammatory response during this process, such as activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, are not well understood. Here, we show that the nuclear receptor PPARγ plays a critical role in blocking NF-κB activation in response to inhaled antigens to preserve immune tolerance. Tolerance induction promoted mitochondrial respiration, generation of H2O2, and suppression of NF-κB activation in WT, but not PPARγ-deficient, APCs. Forced restoration of H2O2 in PPARγ-deficient cells suppressed IκBα degradation and NF-κB activation. Conversely, scavenging reactive oxygen species from mitochondria promoted IκBα degradation with loss of regulatory and promotion of inflammatory T cell responses in vivo. Thus, communication between PPARγ and the mitochondria maintains immune quiescence in the airways.

  12. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  13. Tropospheric ozone as a fungal elicitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paolo Zuccarini

    2009-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone has been proven to trigger biochemical plant responses that are similar to the ones induced by an attack of fungal pathogens, i.e. it resembles fungal elicitors. This suggests that ozone can represent a valid tool for the study of stress responses and induction of resistance to pathogens. This review provides an overview of the implications of such a phenomenon for basic and applied research. After an introduction about the environmental implications of tropospheric ozone and plant responses to biotic stresses, the biochemistry of ozone stress is analysed, pointing out its similarities with plant responses to pathogens and its possible applications.

  14. Fungal outbreak in a show cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, V; Porca, E; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Sanchez-Moral, S; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-08-01

    Castañar de Ibor Cave (Spain) was discovered in 1967 and declared a Natural Monument in 1997. In 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. Despite of extensive control, on 26 August 2008 the cave walls and sediments appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. This event was the result of an accidental input of detritus on the afternoon of 24 August 2008. We report here a fungal outbreak initiated by Mucor circinelloides and Fusarium solani and the methods used to control it.

  15. Fungal and bacterial killing by neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermert, David; Zychlinsky, Arturo; Urban, Constantin

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils are professional phagocytes of the innate immune system that are essential to control bacterial and fungal infections. These cells engulf and kill invading microbes. Additionally, activated neutrophils are able to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These fibers consist of chromatin decorated with antimicrobial proteins to trap and kill microbes. Appropriate quantitative methods are required to understand the nature of interactions of neutrophils with pathogens. Here we present assays to measure killing mediated by phagocytosis, by NETs, by a combination of both, and by granular extract. As examples, we use Candida albicans for fungal and Shigella flexneri for bacterial pathogens.

  16. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  17. British Society for Medical Mycology best practice recommendations for the diagnosis of serious fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelenz, Silke; Barnes, Rosemary A; Barton, Richard C; Cleverley, Joanne R; Lucas, Sebastian B; Kibbler, Christopher C; Denning, David W

    2015-04-01

    Invasive fungal diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in a wide range of patients, and early diagnosis and management are a challenge. We therefore did a review of the scientific literature to generate a series of key recommendations for the appropriate use of microbiological, histological, and radiological diagnostic methods for diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases. The recommendations emphasise the role of microscopy in rapid diagnosis and identification of clinically significant isolates to species level, and the need for susceptibility testing of all Aspergillus spp, if treatment is to be given. In this Review, we provide information to improve understanding of the importance of antigen detection for cryptococcal disease and invasive aspergillosis, the use of molecular (PCR) diagnostics for aspergillosis, and the crucial role of antibody detection for chronic and allergic aspergillosis. Furthermore, we consider the importance of histopathology reporting with a panel of special stains, and emphasise the need for urgent (<48 hours) and optimised imaging for patients with suspected invasive fungal infection. All 43 recommendations are auditable and should be used to ensure best diagnostic practice and improved outcomes for patients.

  18. Four inhalation devices for salbutamol : in vivo and in vitro comparison in asthma and COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, M.E.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Inhalation therapy with bronchodilators is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several inhalation drug-device combinations are available. Multiple factors, like the inhalation device and the inhalation technique influence the depositio

  19. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  20. The Chemo and the Mona: Inhalants, devotion and street youth in Mexico City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigengack, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper understands inhalant use – the deliberate inhalation of volatile solvents or glues with intentions of intoxication – as a socially and culturally constituted practice. It describes the inhalant use of young street people in Mexico City from their perspective (“the vicioso or inhalant fien

  1. Effectiveness and success factors of educational inhaler technique interventions in asthma & COPD patients : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Sven L; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia M A A; Román-Rodríguez, Miguel; van der Molen, Thys; van Boven, Job F M

    2017-01-01

    With the current wealth of new inhalers available and insurance policy driven inhaler switching, the need for insights in optimal education on inhaler use is more evident than ever. We aimed to systematically review educational inhalation technique interventions, to assess their overall effectivenes

  2. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest...

  3. Epicutaneous sensitization with protein antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Lin Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades there has been a progressive understanding that epicutaneous sensitization with protein antigen is an important sensitization route in patients with atopic dermatitis. A murine protein-patch model has been established, and an abundance of data has been obtained from experiments using this model. This review discusses the characteristics of epicutaneous sensitization with protein antigen, the induced immune responses, the underlying mechanisms, and the therapeutic potential.

  4. Fungal aerosol in public utility buildings in the city of Kraków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lenart-Boroń

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of indoor air is one of the most important factors affecting health and well-being of people, who inhale 10 m3 of air every day and spend 80–95% of life indoors. The aim of this research was to evaluate the occurrence of airborne fungi, along with assessment of air pollution and microbiological hazard for humans, in 45 public utility buildings in Cracow. Material and methods. The study was carried out in four groups of buildings, including teaching facilities of the University of Agriculture and Jagiellonian University, churches, shopping malls and hospitals with outpatient clinics. Four sites located in the open air were chosen as control. The air sampling was carried out with MAS-100 impactor. Fungi were enumerated on Malt Extract Agar and the results were expressed as colony forming units (CFU per m3 of air. The isolated fungi were identified by comparing macroscopic and microscopic observations with taxonomic monographs. Results. Mean concentration of airborne fungi was highest in the teaching facilities (1970 CFU/m3. These were also the sites where the largest range of fungal concentration was observed, i.e. from 0 to 23,300 CFU/m3. The lowest mean concentration (99 CFU/m3 including range was observed in hospitals (from 0 to 327 CFU/m3. Species identification of the fungal isolates revealed the presence of allergenic fungi (Alternaria and Cladosporium in the examined spaces. Moreover, some strains were also identified as potentially toxigenic species, such as Penicillium expansum or Aspergillus niger. Conclusions. The concentration range of airborne fungi varied significantly between the tested spaces. Although the observed concentration of airborne fungi in the majority of buildings was quite low, detection of potentially toxigenic fungi indicates the need for monitoring of both concentration and composition of fungal aerosol in public utility buildings.

  5. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  6. evaluation of indigenous fungal isolates and metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    native fungal isolates against the lesser wax moth and assessing non target effect of one isolate of. Beauveria (IITA 18) and five ... widely distributed and devastating insect pest to ..... Non-Target. Invertebrates of Fungal Biocontrol Agents, PP.

  7. Modulation of host-cell MAPkinase signaling during fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections contribute substantially to human suffering and mortality. The interaction between fungal pathogens and their host involves the invasion and penetration of the surface epithelium, activation of cells of the innate immune system and the generation of an effective response to block infection. Numerous host-cell signaling pathways are activated during fungal infection. This review will focus on the main fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus n...

  8. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U;

    2013-01-01

    -69), 6 out of 17 (35%) cultures were positive and a total of 6/7 (86%) IVCM scans were positive. Three different categories of IVCM results for the grading of diagnostic certainty were formed. Conclusion: IVCM is a valuable tool for diagnosing filamentous fungal keratitis. In order to improve...

  9. Fungal infections in corn picker hand injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Tomašev Milana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hand injuries caused by corn pickers are relatively rare but in most cases extensive, with massive tissue destruction. Severe wounds sustained during agricultural work are contaminated, with high incidence of infection. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and type of fungal infection in corn picker injuries and their impact on the course and outcome of treatment. Methods. Corn picker hand injuries for the period 2006-2012 were analyzed. After setting up clinical suspicion, direct examination of repeated swabs and histopathological analysis of biopsy material were done in order to detect fungi. Results. From the total number of 60 patients, there was a fungal infection in nine of them (which makes 15% of the total number of patients. Aspergillus spp. was isolated in seven patients, Candida spp. in three, and Mucor spp. in one patient. None of the patients had increased risk factors for developing a fungal infection. In most cases, there was loss of graft and tissue necrosis in previously normally looking wound, after seven or more days. All patients were treated with repeated surgical debridement and concomitant parenteral and topical application of appropriate antifungal agents. There was no need for reamputation in any patient. Conclusion. A high degree of suspicion and a multidisciplinary approach are needed for early diagnosis of fungal infection. Confirmation of diagnosis and the initiation of surgical and appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for a successful outcome.

  10. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573 month

  11. FUNGAL ASSOCIATION WITH SESSILE MARINE INVERTEBRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded eYarden

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence and association of fungi with sessile marine animals such as coral and sponges has been well established, yet information on the extent of diversity of the associated fungi is still in its infancy. Culture- as well as metagenomic- and transcriptomic-based analyses have shown that fungal presence in association with these animals can be dynamic and can include core residents as well as shifts in fungal communities. Evidence for detrimental and beneficial interactions between fungi and their marine hosts is accumulating and current challenges include the elucidation of the chemical and cellular crosstalk between fungi and their associates within the holobionts. The ecological function of fungi in association with sessile marine animals is complex and is founded on a combination of factors such as fungal origin, host health, environmental conditions and the presence of other resident or invasive microorganisms in the host. Based on evidence from the much more studied terrestrial systems, the evaluation of marine animal-fungal symbioses under varying environmental conditions may well prove to be critical in predicting ecosystem response to global change, including effects on the health of sessile marine animals.

  12. Meeting report : fungal its workshop (october 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bates, Scott T; Ahrendt, Steven; Bik, Holly M; Bruns, Thomas D; Caporaso, J Gregory; Cole, James; Dwan, Michael; Fierer, Noah; Gu, Dai; Houston, Shawn; Knight, Rob; Leff, Jon; Lewis, Christopher; Maestre, Juan P; McDonald, Daniel; Nilsson, R Henrik; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Robert, Vincent; Schoch, Conrad; Scott, James; Taylor, D Lee; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Stajich, Jason E

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held in Boulder, CO USA (19-20 October 2012) on fungal community analyses using ultra-high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The meeting was organized as a two-day workshop, with the prima

  13. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to

  14. Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, M.D.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, fungi have adapted to occupy specific niches, from symbiotically inhabiting the flora of the intestinal tract of mammals to saprophytic growth on leaf litter resting on the forest floor. In Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field d

  15. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  16. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  17. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  18. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  19. Genetics of fungal resistance to systemic fungicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Since the introduction of the systemic fungicides, fungicide resistance has become a serious problem in plant disease control. This study was carried out in order to contribute to the knowledge about the genetics of fungal resistance to fungicides both from a practical and a fundamental point of vie

  20. Pulmonary fungal infections after bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, B.T.; Patton, D.; Ramsey, N.K.C.; Day, D.L.

    1988-02-01

    Of 319 pediatric patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during a 10-year period, 27 developed pulmonary fungal infections (PFI). Only 2 patients (7%) survived. Twenty-three patients (85%) had been treated with systemic anti-fungal therapy immediately before or at the time of diagnosis. Nineteen patients (70%) were neutropenic, and 4 of the 8 patients who were not neutropenic were being treated with systemic steroids for graft vs. host disease (GVHD). Seven patients (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. The diagnosis was made ante-mortem in 9 patients (33%). Radiographic abnormalities were variable. At the onset of chest X-ray (CXR) change, the pulmonary infiltrates were unilateral in 14 patients (52%) and, at diagnosis, bilateral in 18 (66%). At diagnosis the infiltrates were interstitial in 3 patients (11%), alveolar in 20 (74%) and mixed in 4 (15%). Six patients (22%) developed cavitary lesions. The infecting agents were Aspergillus in 21 patients (78%), Candida in 7 (26%), Mucormycosis in 3 (11%), and Fusarium in 1 (4%). Five patients (19%) had mixed fungal infections and 7 (26%) had concurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) pulmonary infections. Although the radiographic changes are often nonspecific in PFI, alveolar or nodular infiltrates in neutropenic patients or in those being treated for GVHD should strongly suggest a fungal etiology.

  1. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  2. Fungal infections of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P Anitha

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa.

  3. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573 month

  4. Invasive fungal infections in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Vijaya R; Viola, George M; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is among the leading causes for morbidity, mortality, and economic burden for patients with acute leukemia. In the past few decades, the incidence of IFI has increased dramatically. The certainty of diagnosis of IFI is based on host factors, clinical evidence, and microbiological examination. Advancement in molecular diagnostic modalities (e.g. non-culture-based serum biomarkers such as β-glucan or galactomannan assays) and high-resolution radiological imaging has improved our diagnostic approach. The early use of these diagnostic tests assists in the early initiation of preemptive therapy. Nonetheless, the complexity of IFI in patients with leukemia and the limitations of these diagnostic tools still mandate astute clinical acumen. Its management has been further complicated by the increasing frequency of infection by non-Aspergillus molds (e.g. zygomycosis) and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal pathogens. In addition, even though the antifungal armamentarium has expanded rapidly in the past few decades, the associated mortality remains high. The decision to initiate antifungal treatment and the choice of anti-fungal therapy requires careful consideration of several factors (e.g. risk stratification, local fungal epidemiologic patterns, concomitant comorbidities, drug-drug interactions, prior history of antifungal use, overall cost, and the pharmacologic profile of the antifungal agents). In order to optimize our diagnostic and therapeutic management of IFI in patients with acute leukemia, further basic research and clinical trials are desperately needed.

  5. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  6. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O; Ebbole, D J; Freeman, S; Rodriguez, R J; Dickman, M B

    2003-10-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  7. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  8. The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.; Crous, P.W.; Redhead, S.A.; Reynolds, D.R.; Samson, R.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Taylor, J.E.; Wingfield, M.J.; Abaci, Ö.; Aime, C.; Asan, A.; Bai, F.H.; de Beer, Z.W.; Begerow, D.; Berikten, D.; Boekhout, T.; Buchanan, P.K.; Burgess, T.I.; Buzina, W.; Cai, L.; Cannon, P.F.; Crane, J.L.; Damm, U.; Daniel, H.M.; van Diepeningen, A.D.; Druzhinina, I.; Dyer, P.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Fell, J.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Geiser, D.M.; Geml, J.; Glienke, C.; Gräfenhan, T.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; de Gruyter, J.; Guého-Kellermann, E.; Guo, L-D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Hong, S.B.; de Hoog, G.S.; Houbraken, J.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Hyde, K.D.; Ismail, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Kadaifciler, D.G.; Kirk, P.M.; Kõljalg, U.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Lagneau, P-E.; Lévesque, C.A.; Liu, X.S.; Lombard, L.; Meyer, W.; Miller, A.N.; Minter, D.W.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Norvell, L.L.; Ozerskaya, S.M.; Öziç, R.; Pennycook, S.R.; Peterson, S.W.; Pettersson, O.V.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Robert, V.; Ruibal, C.; Schnürer, J.; Schroers, H.J.; Shivas, R.G.; Slippers, B.; Spierenburg, H.; Takashima, M.; Taşkın, E.; Thines, M.; Thrane, U.; Uztan, A.H.; van Raak, M.; Varga, J.; Vasco, A.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Videira, S.I.R.; de Vries, R.P.; Weir, B.S.; Yilmaz, N.; Yurkov, A.; Zhang, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current

  9. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...

  10. Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

  11. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Manuel Flores, Jose;

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. ...

  12. Metabolic priming by a secreted fungal effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamei, Armin; Schipper, Kerstin; Rabe, Franziska; Ghosh, Anupama; Vincon, Volker; Kahnt, Jörg; Osorio, Sonia; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R; Feussner, Ivo; Feussner, Kirstin; Meinicke, Peter; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Schwarz, Heinz; Macek, Boris; Mann, Matthias; Kahmann, Regine

    2011-10-05

    Maize smut caused by the fungus Ustilago maydis is a widespread disease characterized by the development of large plant tumours. U. maydis is a biotrophic pathogen that requires living plant tissue for its development and establishes an intimate interaction zone between fungal hyphae and the plant plasma membrane. U. maydis actively suppresses plant defence responses by secreted protein effectors. Its effector repertoire comprises at least 386 genes mostly encoding proteins of unknown function and expressed exclusively during the biotrophic stage. The U. maydis secretome also contains about 150 proteins with probable roles in fungal nutrition, fungal cell wall modification and host penetration as well as proteins unlikely to act in the fungal-host interface like a chorismate mutase. Chorismate mutases are key enzymes of the shikimate pathway and catalyse the conversion of chorismate to prephenate, the precursor for tyrosine and phenylalanine synthesis. Root-knot nematodes inject a secreted chorismate mutase into plant cells likely to affect development. Here we show that the chorismate mutase Cmu1 secreted by U. maydis is a virulence factor. The enzyme is taken up by plant cells, can spread to neighbouring cells and changes the metabolic status of these cells through metabolic priming. Secreted chorismate mutases are found in many plant-associated microbes and might serve as general tools for host manipulation.

  13. Meeting report : fungal its workshop (october 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bates, Scott T; Ahrendt, Steven; Bik, Holly M; Bruns, Thomas D; Caporaso, J Gregory; Cole, James; Dwan, Michael; Fierer, Noah; Gu, Dai; Houston, Shawn; Knight, Rob; Leff, Jon; Lewis, Christopher; Maestre, Juan P; McDonald, Daniel; Nilsson, R Henrik; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Robert, Vincent; Schoch, Conrad; Scott, James; Taylor, D Lee; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Stajich, Jason E

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held in Boulder, CO USA (19-20 October 2012) on fungal community analyses using ultra-high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The meeting was organized as a two-day workshop, with the

  14. Thigmo Responses: The Fungal Sense of Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mariana Cruz; Brand, Alexandra C

    2017-04-01

    The growth and development of most fungi take place on a two-dimensional surface or within a three-dimensional matrix. The fungal sense of touch is therefore critical for fungi in the interpretation of their environment and often signals the switch to a new developmental state. Contact sensing, or thigmo-based responses, include thigmo differentiation, such as the induction of invasion structures by plant pathogens in response to topography; thigmonasty, where contact with a motile prey rapidly triggers its capture; and thigmotropism, where the direction of hyphal growth is guided by physical features in the environment. Like plants and some bacteria, fungi grow as walled cells. Despite the well-demonstrated importance of thigmo responses in numerous stages of fungal growth and development, it is not known how fungal cells sense contact through the relatively rigid structure of the cell wall. However, while sensing mechanisms at the molecular level are not entirely understood, the downstream signaling pathways that are activated by contact sensing are being elucidated. In the majority of cases, the response to contact is complemented by chemical cues and both are required, either sequentially or simultaneously, to elicit normal developmental responses. The importance of a sense of touch in the lifestyles and development of diverse fungi is highlighted in this review, and the candidate molecular mechanisms that may be involved in fungal contact sensing are discussed.

  15. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  16. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550...

  17. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...

  18. The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.; Crous, P.W.; Redhead, S.A.; Reynolds, D.R.; Samson, R.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Taylor, J.E.; Wingfield, M.J.; Abaci, Ö.; Aime, C.; Asan, A.; Bai, F.H.; de Beer, Z.W.; Begerow, D.; Berikten, D.; Boekhout, T.; Buchanan, P.K.; Burgess, T.I.; Buzina, W.; Cai, L.; Cannon, P.F.; Crane, J.L.; Damm, U.; Daniel, H.M.; van Diepeningen, A.D.; Druzhinina, I.; Dyer, P.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Fell, J.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Geiser, D.M.; Geml, J.; Glienke, C.; Gräfenhan, T.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; de Gruyter, J.; Guého-Kellermann, E.; Guo, L-D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Hong, S.B.; de Hoog, G.S.; Houbraken, J.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Hyde, K.D.; Ismail, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Kadaifciler, D.G.; Kirk, P.M.; Kõljalg, U.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Lagneau, P-E.; Lévesque, C.A.; Liu, X.S.; Lombard, L.; Meyer, W.; Miller, A.N.; Minter, D.W.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Norvell, L.L.; Ozerskaya, S.M.; Öziç, R.; Pennycook, S.R.; Peterson, S.W.; Pettersson, O.V.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Robert, V.; Ruibal, C.; Schnürer, J.; Schroers, H.J.; Shivas, R.G.; Slippers, B.; Spierenburg, H.; Takashima, M.; Taşkın, E.; Thines, M.; Thrane, U.; Uztan, A.H.; van Raak, M.; Varga, J.; Vasco, A.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Videira, S.I.R.; de Vries, R.P.; Weir, B.S.; Yilmaz, N.; Yurkov, A.; Zhang, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current

  19. Fiber inhalability and head deposition in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their dimensions and long durability, inhaled asbestos fibers clear slowly from lung airways. Retained fibers may injure the epithelium, interact with macrophages, or translocate to the interstitium to result in various respiratory diseases. Therefore, calculations of fibe...

  20. Triple inhaled therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuschi, Paolo; Malerba, Mario; Macis, Giuseppe; Mores, Nadia; Santini, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    Combining individual drugs in a single inhaler is the most convenient way to deliver triple therapy. A long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (LAMA) added to an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) fixed-dose combination (FDC) can improve efficacy of pharmacological treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). New inhaled ICS/LABA/LAMA FDCs, including fluticasone furoate/vilanterol/umeclidinium, budesonide/formoterol/glycopyrronium and beclometasone/formoterol/glycopyrronium, are in Phase III of clinical development for COPD. Triple inhaled therapy might be particularly useful in patients with severe to very severe COPD, above all in those with peripheral blood or sputum eosinophilia, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) or frequent exacerbators. Future prospective studies should assess efficacy and safety of triple ICS/LABA/LAMA therapy in selected COPD phenotypes.

  1. [Inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis: what's new in 2013?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubus, J-C; Bassinet, L; Chedevergne, F; Delaisi, B; Desmazes-Dufeu, N; Reychler, G; Vecellio, L

    2014-04-01

    In the past few years some new inhaled drugs and inhalation devices have been proposed for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Breath-controlled nebulizers allow increased pulmonary deposition, with a lower variability and a shorter delivery time. The new dry powder formulations of tobramycin, colistine and mannitol require a change in the inhalation technique which must be slow and deep. In the field of the inhaled mucolytic drugs, hypertonic saline and mannitol have an indication in some patients. With regard to antibiotics, dry-powder tobramycin and colistine can be substituted for the same drug delivered by nebulization. Nebulized aztreonam needs more studies to determine its place. These new treatments represent a definite advance for cystic fibrosis patients and need to be known by all practitioners. Their position in our therapeutic arsenal remains to be accurately defined. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhaled therapy for the management of perioperative pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C A Thunberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH are at high risk for complications in the perioperative setting and often receive vasodilators to control elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP. Administration of vasodilators via inhalation is an effective strategy for reducing PAP while avoiding systemic side effects, chiefly hypotension. The prototypical inhaled pulmonary-specific vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO, has a proven track record but is expensive and cumbersome to implement. Alternatives to NO, including prostanoids (such as epoprostenol, iloprost, and treprostinil, NO-donating drugs (sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, and nitrite, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (milrinone, sildenafil may be given via inhalation for the purpose of treating elevated PAP. This review will focus on the perioperative therapy of PH using inhaled vasodilators.

  3. Development of an intelligent adapter for metered dose inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To better coordinate the interaction of inhalation and aerosol release, an intelligent adapter (IA was developed for metered dose inhalers (MDIs. The adapter included three main units: a signal acquisition device, a micro-control-unit (MCU, and an actuation mechanism. To fully study the effectiveness of the intelligent adapter, an inhalation simulation experiment was done, and two bands of MDI were used for the experiment. The results indicated that, when inhalation, the intelligent adapter can press down the MDI automatically; moreover, this intelligent adapter could achieve an aerosol-release time Tr of 0.4 s for MDI A and 0.60 s for MDI B, which compares very well with the existing pure mechanical systems at 0.8 s and 1.0 s.

  4. Interactions between diltiazem and inhalation anaesthetics in the isolated heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, M D; Miralles, F S; Laorden, M L; Hernandez, J

    1989-09-01

    It has been postulated that inhalation anaesthetics may interfere with calcium movement across cell membranes. We have evaluated the interaction between diltiazem and the inhalation anaesthetics halothane and isoflurane on sinus automaticity in the isolated right atrium (SAIRA). Isoflurane significantly reduced atrial rate at all concentrations tested. However, halothane produced only a small but significant decrease at the higher concentrations used (1-2 v/v%). Diltiazem modified the maximal negative chronotropic response to inhalation anaesthetics. Maximum depression of SAIRA was significantly greater in the presence of two different doses of diltiazem compared with exposure to halothane and isoflurane alone. These results suggest that inhalation anaesthetics may block the influx of extracellular calcium through voltage-dependent calcium channels inhibited by diltiazem.

  5. Urine and serum concentrations of inhaled and oral terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Hostrup, Morten; Pedersen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    We examined urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic use of single and repetitive doses of inhaled and supratherapeutic oral use of terbutaline. We compared the concentrations in 10 asthmatics and 10 healthy subjects in an open-label, cross-over study with 2 mg inhaled and 10 mg oral....... Median (IQR) urine concentrations peaked in the period 0-4 h after inhalation with Cmax 472 (324) ng/mL in asthmatics and 661 (517) ng/mL in healthy subjects, and 4-8 h after oral use with Cmax 666 (877) ng/mL in asthmatic and 402 (663) ng/mL in healthy subjects. In conclusion we found no significant...... differences in urine and serum concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We compared urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic inhaled doses and supratherapeutic oral doses and observed significant statistical differences in both groups but found it impossible to distinguish between...

  6. Inhaled insulin: overview of a novel route of insulin administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy D Mastrandrea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lucy D MastrandreaDepartment of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by inadequate insulin secretion with resulting hyperglycemia. Diabetes complications include both microvascular and macrovascular disease, both of which are affected by optimal diabetes control. Many individuals with diabetes rely on subcutaneous insulin administration by injection or continuous infusion to control glucose levels. Novel routes of insulin administration are an area of interest in the diabetes field, given that insulin injection therapy is burdensome for many patients. This review will discuss pulmonary delivery of insulin via inhalation. The safety of inhaled insulin as well as the efficacy in comparison to subcutaneous insulin in the various populations with diabetes are covered. In addition, the experience and pitfalls that face the development and marketing of inhaled insulin are discussed.Keywords: glycemic control, hemoglobin A1c, inhalation, insulin, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes

  7. Breath-synchronized plume-control inhaler for pulmonary delivery of fluticasone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Stephen B; Armer, Thomas A; Newman, Stephen P; Pitcairn, Gary

    2008-05-22

    A novel breath-synchronized, plume-control inhaler (Tempo inhaler) was developed to overcome limitations of a pressurized metered-dose inhaler. This report compared the Tempo inhaler and a commercial inhaler for fine particle distribution and lung deposition of fluticasone propionate. In vitro fine particle distribution was determined using the Andersen Cascade Impactor at inspiration rates of 28.3 and 45L/min. In vivo lung deposition was assessed in a randomized, two-arm, crossover study of (99m)Tc-radiolabeled fluticasone propionate in 12 healthy adult subjects, analyzed by gamma scintigraphy. In vitro: fine particle fractions at 28.3 and 45L/min were 88.6+/-3.6% and 89.2+/-3.0% (Tempo inhaler) versus 40.4+/-4.7% and 43.1+/-4.4% (commercial inhaler). In vivo: lung deposition was 41.5+/-9.8% (Tempo inhaler) versus 13.8+/-7.4% (commercial inhaler) and oropharyngeal deposition was 18.3+/-7.7% (Tempo inhaler) versus 76.8+/-7.1% (commercial inhaler). Variability of lung deposition was reduced from 55% (commercial inhaler) to 24% (Tempo inhaler) of the delivered dose. The Tempo inhaler produced significantly higher fine particle fraction values, reduced oropharyngeal deposition by 75%, and increased whole, central, intermediate, and peripheral lung delivery by more than 200%. Thus, the Tempo inhaler enhances efficient drug delivery to the lungs.

  8. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guto, John Abuga; Bii, Christine C; Denning, David W

    2016-08-31

    Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009. Of Kenya's population of ~40 million, 43% are under 15 years old and approximately 594,660 Kenyan women get >4 episodes Candida vulvovaginitis annually (2,988/100,000). The HIV/AIDS population at risk of opportunistic infections (OI) is 480,000 and the OI estimates include 306,000 patients with oral thrush (768/100,000), 114,000 with oesophageal candidiasis (286/100,000), 11,900 with cryptococcal meningitis (29/100,000) and 17,000 patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (42/100,000). Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis following TB has a prevalence of 10,848 cases (32/100,000). The adult asthma prevalence is 3.1% and assuming 2.5% have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis then 17,696 (44/100,000) are affected.  Invasive aspergillosis, candidaemia and Candida peritonitis are probably uncommon. Tinea capitis infects 9.6% of children in Kenya, while fungal keratitis and otomycoses are difficult to estimate. At any one time, about 7% of the Kenyan population suffers from a significant fungal infection, with recurrent vaginitis and tinea capitis accounting for 82% of the infections. These estimates require further epidemiological studies for validation.

  9. Engineering of an Inhalable DDA/TDB Liposomal Adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Yang, Mingshi; Mulvad, Helle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB).......The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB)....

  10. Use of sevoflurane inhalation sedation for outpatient third molar surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzberg, S.; Weaver, J.; Beck, F. M.; McCaffrey, G

    1999-01-01

    This study attempted to determine if sevoflurane in oxygen inhaled via a nasal hood as a sole sedative agent would provide an appropriate level of deep sedation for outpatient third molar surgery. Twenty-four patients scheduled for third molar removal were randomly assigned to receive either nasal hood inhalation sevoflurane or an intravenous deep sedation using midazolam and fentanyl followed by a propofol infusion. In addition to measuring patient, surgeon, and dentist anesthesiologist subj...

  11. Acute chemical pneumonitis caused by nitric acid inhalation: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Hyung Shim; Lee, In Jae; Ko, Eun Young; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation is a rare clinical condition. The previously reported radiologic findings of this disease include acute permeability pulmonary edema, delayed bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiectasis. In very few published rare radiologic reports has this disease manifested as acute alveolar injury; we report a case of acute chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation which at radiography manifested as bilateral perihilar consolidation and ground-glass attenuation, suggesting acute alveolar injury.

  12. Select human anthrax protective antigen (PA) epitope-specific antibodies provide protection from lethal toxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sherry R.; Ash, Linda L.; Engler, Renata J. M.; Ballard, Jimmy D.; Harley, John B.; Farris, A. Darise; James, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis remains a serious bioterrorism concern, and the currently licensed vaccine remains an incomplete solution for population protection from inhalation anthrax and has been associated with concerns regarding efficacy and safety. Thus, understanding how to generate long lasting protective immunity with reduced immunizations or providing protection through post exposure immunotherapeutics are long sought goals. Through evaluation of a large military cohort, we characterized the levels of antibodies against protective antigen and found that over half of anthrax vaccinees had low levels of in vitro toxin neutralization capacity in their sera. Using solid phase epitope mapping and confirmatory assays, we identified several neutralization-associated humoral epitopes and demonstrated that select anti-peptide responses mediated protection in vitro. Finally, passively transferred antibodies specific for select epitopes provided protection in an in vivo lethal toxin mouse model. Identification of these antigenic regions has important implications for vaccine design and the development of directed immunotherapeutics. PMID:20533877

  13. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. Results The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males and 145 g (females, were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group: fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3, middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3, and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3. The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue

  14. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jae Hyuck; Ji, Jun Ho; Park, Jung Duck; Song, Moon Yong; Song, Kyung Seuk; Ryu, Hyeon Ryol; Yoon, Jin Uk; Jeon, Ki Soo; Jeong, Jayoung; Han, Beom Seok; Chung, Yong Hyun; Chang, Hee Kyung; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dong Won; Kelman, Bruce J; Yu, Il Je

    2011-05-14

    Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males) and 145 g (females), were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group): fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3), middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3), and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3). The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm) for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue distribution of gold nanoparticles showed a dose

  15. Radioaerosol Inhalation Imaging in Bronchial Asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Young Ha; Park, Jeong Mi; Chung, Myung Hee; Chung, Soo Kyo; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) has been used in radionuclide pulmonary studies for the past 20 years. The method is well accepted for assessing regional ventilation because of its usefulness, easy fabrication and simple application system. To evaluate its clinical utility in the study of impaired regional ventilation in bronchial asthma, we obtained and analysed RIIs in 31 patients (16 women and 15 men; age ranging 21-76 years) with typical bronchial asthma at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical college, from January, 1988 to August, 1989. Scintiscans were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a HARC(Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India) nebulizer with 15 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate. The scanning was performed in anterior, posterior and lateral projections following 5-minute inhalation of radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analysed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function study and the findings of chest radiography. Fifteen patients had concomitant lung perfusion image with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. Follow-up scans were obtained in 5 patients after bronchodilator therapy. 1 he patients were divided into (1) attack type (4 patients), (2) resistant type (5 patients), (3) remittent type (10 patients) and (4) bronchitic type (12 patients). Chest radiography showed hyperinflation, altered pulmonary vascularity, thickening of the bronchial wall and accentuation of hasal interstitial markings in 26 of the 31 patients. Chest radiographs were normal in the remaining 5 patients. Regardless of type, the findings of RII were basically the same, and characterized by the deposition of radioaerosol in the central parts or in the main respiratory air ways along with mottled nonsegmental ventilation defects in the periphery. Peripheral parenchymal defects were more extensive than that of expected findings from clinical symptoms, pulmonary function test and chest radiograph. Broomstick sign was present

  16. Inhalers and nebulizers: which to choose and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, S

    1996-02-01

    It is obvious that many factors should be considered when an inhaler is prescribed. Based upon the information discussed above, a rational inhaler strategy could be as follows: (1) Children valve system (and a face mask for the children) for the delivery of all drugs. When they are severely obstructed, some may need a nebulizer. If the patient cannot be taught the correct use of a spacer, a nebulizer should be prescribed. (2) Children > or = 5 years and adults are prescribed a spacer or a Turbuhaler for the administration of inhaled corticosteroids and a dry powder inhaler (preferably multiple dose) or a breath-actuated MDI for other drugs. If these alternatives are not available or the patient prefers, a conventional MDI can be used (preferably not for other corticosteroids than fluticasone propionate) provided that careful tuition is given. Fluticasone dipropionate may be given by DPI, Spacer or MDI. (3) Nebulizers are mainly reserved for severe acute attacks of bronchoconstriction. With this approach, most patients can be taught effective inhaler use with a minimum of instructional time. Finally, it must always be remembered to consider the patient's wish, since prescription of an inhaler which the physician likes but the patient does not is likely to reduce compliance.

  17. Inhalable dust and protein exposure in soybean processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Adri; Rees, David; Fourie, Anna M; Wilson, Kerry S; Harris-Roberts, Joanne; Robinson, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about inhalable dust concentrations in soybean processing plants in southern Africa. This project measured inhalable dust in soybean plants in the region and correlated dust measurements with total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor. Sixty-four personal inhalable dust measurements were taken in three processing plants. Levels of total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor were determined in only two of the three plants. Correlations between inhalable dust, total protein and trypsin inhibitor were determined for 44 of 64 samples. In plants' production areas, inhalable dust levels were 0.24-35.02 mg/m3 (median 2.58 mg/m3). Total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor levels were 29.41-448.82 microg/m3 (median 90.09 microg/m3) and 0.05-2.58 microg/m3 (median 0.07 microg/m3), respectively. No statistically significant correlations between presence of inhalable dust and soy trypsin inhibitor were found. Total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor were better correlated. This study indicates that total protein might be a good proxy for soybean specific protein concentrations in soybean processing plants.

  18. Hepatotoxic Alterations Induced by Inhalation of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most potent organic unsaturated solvents being used in dry cleaning, metal degreasing, thinner for paints varnishes and electroplating, etc. and has been reported to be a hepatotoxicant through oral and dermal exposure. However, its inhalation toxicity data is very limited in the literature due to the fact that the exposure levels associated with these effects were usually not reported. Hence, inhalation toxicity study was carried out for hepatotoxic studies. Method Inhalation toxicity studies was carried out by exposing rats to TCE for 8, 12 and 24 weeks in a dynamically operated whole body inhalation chamber. Sham treated control rats were exposed to compressed air in the inhalation chamber for the same period. Results Significant increase in liver weight (liver enlargement) appearance of necrotic lesions with fatty changes and marked necrosis were observed after longer duration (12 and 24 weeks) of TCE exposure. The lysosomal rupture resulted in increased activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase alongwith reduced glutathione content and total increased sulfhydryl content in liver tissue. Conclusion TCE exposure through Inhalation route induces hepatotoxicity in terms of marked necrosis with fatty changes and by modulating the lysosomal enzymes.

  19. From inhaler to lung: clinical implications of the formulations of ciclesonide and other inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nave R

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruediger Nave, Helgert Mueller Nycomed: a Takeda Company, Nycomed GmbH, Konstanz, Germany Abstract: Asthma continues to be a global health problem and currently available treatments such as corticosteroids can cause unwanted side effects. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS are recommended as first-line therapy for reducing airway inflammation and have a distinct advantage over oral preparations as they provide a direct route of delivery to the lungs. However, local deposition of ICS in the oropharynx can lead to oral candidiasis, dysphonia, and pharyngitis. The pharmaceutical quality is a primary concern of any ICS asthma treatment, with a higher quality product resulting in improved efficacy and safety profiles. The particle size distribution and the spray force velocity of an ICS may directly influence lung deposition, and the spray duration of a device is another important factor when coordinating inhalation. Recent advances in ICS device and formulation technology have resulted in significant improvements in the efficacy of available asthma treatments. In particular, hydrofluoroalkane (HFA solution technology and the development of smaller particle sizes have resulted in the production of new ICS formulations that have the ability to directly target drug delivery to the site of airway inflammation. Both the ICS formulation and the pressurized metered-dose inhaler device used to administer ciclesonide (CIC HFA have been developed to treat the underlying chronic inflammation associated with asthma. CIC is administered as a prodrug which is activated in the lungs, leading to minimal oropharyngeal deposition. The small particle size of CIC results in the delivery of a high fraction of respirable particles to the small airways of the lungs, resulting in high lung deposition and continual dose consistency. This review summarizes how CIC administered as an HFA formulation is an effective treatment for asthma. Keywords: ciclesonide, asthma, small airways

  20. Hazard identification of inhaled nanomaterials: making use of short-term inhalation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christoph L; Wiench, Karin; Wiemann, Martin; Ma-Hock, Lan; van Ravenzwaay, Ben; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-07-01

    A major health concern for nanomaterials is their potential toxic effect after inhalation of dusts. Correspondingly, the core element of tier 1 in the currently proposed integrated testing strategy (ITS) is a short-term rat inhalation study (STIS) for this route of exposure. STIS comprises a comprehensive scheme of biological effects and marker determination in order to generate appropriate information on early key elements of pathogenesis, such as inflammatory reactions in the lung and indications of effects in other organs. Within the STIS information on the persistence, progression and/or regression of effects is obtained. The STIS also addresses organ burden in the lung and potential translocation to other tissues. Up to now, STIS was performed in research projects and routine testing of nanomaterials. Meanwhile, rat STIS results for more than 20 nanomaterials are available including the representative nanomaterials listed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) working party on manufactured nanomaterials (WPMN), which has endorsed a list of representative manufactured nanomaterials (MN) as well as a set of relevant endpoints to be addressed. Here, results of STIS carried out with different nanomaterials are discussed as case studies. The ranking of different nanomaterials potential to induce adverse effects and the ranking of the respective NOAEC are the same among the STIS and the corresponding subchronic and chronic studies. In another case study, a translocation of a coated silica nanomaterial was judged critical for its safety assessment. Thus, STIS enables application of the proposed ITS, as long as reliable and relevant in vitro methods for the tier 1 testing are still missing. Compared to traditional subacute and subchronic inhalation testing (according to OECD test guidelines 412 and 413), STIS uses less animals and resources and offers additional information on organ burden and progression or regression of potential effects.

  1. Electrostatics and inhaled medications: influence on delivery via pressurized metered-dose inhalers and add-on devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Jolyon P; Coppolo, Dominic P; Nagel, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    .... Spacers and valved holding chambers used with pressurized metered-dose inhalers to treat obstructive lung diseases are particularly prone to this behavior, which increases variability in the amount...

  2. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications.

  3. The pattern of methacholine responsiveness in mice is dependent on antigen challenge dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosky, Graeme R; von Garnier, Christophe; Stumbles, Philip A; Holt, Patrick G; Sly, Peter D; Turner, Debra J

    2004-01-01

    Background Considerable variation exists in the protocols used to induce hyperresponsiveness in murine models of allergic sensitisation. We examined the effect of varying the number of antigen exposures at challenge on the development of methacholine responsiveness in systemically sensitised mice. Methods BALB/c mice were sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA), challenged with 1, 3 or 6 OVA aerosols. Lung function was measured using low frequency forced oscillations and partitioned into components representing the airways (Raw) and lung parenchyma (tissue damping (G) and tissue elastance (H)). Responsiveness to inhaled methacholine (MCh), inflammatory cell profile and circulating IgE were assessed 24 and 48 hours after challenge. The threshold dose of MCh required to elicit a detectable response (sensitivity) and response to 30 mg.mL-1 (maximal response) were determined for each compartment. Results Sensitivity; All three OVA protocols resulted in an increased sensitivity to MCh in Raw but not in G or H. These responses where present at 24 and 48 hrs, except 1 OVA aerosol in which changes had resolved by 48 hrs. Maximal response; 1 OVA aerosol increased maximal responses in Raw, G and H at 24 hrs, which was gone by 48 hrs. Three OVA aerosols increased responses in H at 48 hrs only. Six OVA challenges caused increases in Raw, G and H at both 24 and 48 hrs. Eosinophils increased with increasing antigen challenges. IgE was elevated by OVA sensitisation but not boosted by OVA aerosol challenge. Conclusions The pattern of eosinophilia, IgE and MCh responsiveness in mice was determined by antigen dose at challenge. In this study, increased sensitivity to MCh was confined to the airways whereas increases in maximal responses occurred in both the airway and parenchymal compartments. The presence of eosinophilia and IgE did not always coincide with increased responsiveness to inhaled MCh. These findings require further systematic study to determine whether different mechanisms

  4. [Modern inhalational anesthesia in pediatric maxillofacial surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonin, D V; Afonina, N V; Marusev, D L; Petrova, L L

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the use of sevoflurane and isoflurane in elective pediatric maxillofacial surgery. Having outlined the major features of anesthesia in this category of patients, the authors emphasize the application of the conception of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and its derivatives (MAC bar and MAC awake) reflecting the analgesic and hypnotic power of an inhalational anesthetic, respectively, and theoretically substantiate the use of certain anesthetic concentrations at particular stages of surgery. The technique described in the paper was used in 82 patients aged 1.5 months to 18 years, undergoing cleft lip and cleft palate repair, residual lip and nose deformation repair, and other elective maxillofacial procedures. The interventions lasted 40 minutes to 8 hours. Sevoflurane was commonly used as an induction agent while isoflurane was applied to maintain anesthesia. The anesthetics were administered at 1 to 1.3 and 0.8 MAC at traumatic and low traumatic stages of surgery, respectively. During the first traumatic period, the dose of fentanyl was not greater than 1.5 and 2.5 microg/kg in old and young children, respectively. Hemodynamics was characterized by moderate controlled hypotension with an average decrease in mean blood pressure by 30% of the age-related value. Emergence occurred 5-15 min after an anesthetic was discontinued. By and large, the technique demonstrated its efficiency and safety in this group of patients.

  5. Translocation pathways for inhaled asbestos fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantegazza F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We discuss the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers based on pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics. Fibers can pass the alveolar barrier and reach the lung interstitium via the paracellular route down a mass water flow due to combined osmotic (active Na+ absorption and hydraulic (interstitial pressure is subatmospheric pressure gradient. Fibers can be dragged from the lung interstitium by pulmonary lymph flow (primary translocation wherefrom they can reach the blood stream and subsequently distribute to the whole body (secondary translocation. Primary translocation across the visceral pleura and towards pulmonary capillaries may also occur if the asbestos-induced lung inflammation increases pulmonary interstitial pressure so as to reverse the trans-mesothelial and trans-endothelial pressure gradients. Secondary translocation to the pleural space may occur via the physiological route of pleural fluid formation across the parietal pleura; fibers accumulation in parietal pleura stomata (black spots reflects the role of parietal lymphatics in draining pleural fluid. Asbestos fibers are found in all organs of subjects either occupationally exposed or not exposed to asbestos. Fibers concentration correlates with specific conditions of interstitial fluid dynamics, in line with the notion that in all organs microvascular filtration occurs from capillaries to the extravascular spaces. Concentration is high in the kidney (reflecting high perfusion pressure and flow and in the liver (reflecting high microvascular permeability while it is relatively low in the brain (due to low permeability of blood-brain barrier. Ultrafine fibers (length

  6. Sevoflurane: a new inhalational anesthetic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, R F; Regan, B M; Napoli, M D; Stern, I J

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory screening of a series of halogenated methyl isopropyl ethers revealed sevoflurane (fluoromethyl-1,1,1,3,3,3,-hexafluroro-2-propyl ether) as a potent nonexplosive inhalational anesthetic agent. Sevoflurance, a pleasant-smelling liquid, boils at 58.5 degrees C at 760 torr and has a vapor pressure of 200 torr at 25 degrees C. It is nonflammable in air and has lower flammability limits of 11 vols percent in O2 and 10 vols percent in N2O. Sevoflurane exhibits limited chemical reactivity in vitro; it is subject to slight but measurable hydrolysis, and reacts with soda lime to form traces of related ethers. It provides rapid anesthetic induction and recovery consistent with its low distribution coefficients (blood:gas, 0.6; corn oil:gas, 41.6; olive oil:gas, 53.4). In dogs, anesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane did not produce spontaneous cardiac arrhythmias and did not sensitize the heart to epinephrine. Electroencephalographic patterns were similar to those observed during anesthesia with halothane. In rats, small increases in the urinary excretion of inorganic fluoride ion occurred during the first 24 hours after anesthesia. Subacute studies in dogs and rats, using closed-circle absorption with soda lime, revealed no toxicologically significant changes in animals anesthetized frequently for 2 weeks. Sevoflurane appears to be a unique volatile anesthetic agent worthy of further study.

  7. Seasonal inhalant insect allergy: Harmonia axyridis ladybug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, David W

    2009-08-01

    The exotic Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, has become a prominent cause of seasonal inhalant allergy (allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria) in the last two decades in North America and Europe after being introduced into the environment as an agricultural pest-control predator. Seeking winter hibernation sites, ladybug swarms will invade human habitats in the fall. Large fall swarms and smaller spring dispersions produce corresponding peaks in ladybug allergy. Ladybug allergy prevalence in endemic areas has been reported as high as 10%. For some individuals ladybug allergy is their first expression of allergic disease. Exposures at home, work, school, and in other settings may be sensitizing. Ladybug hemolymph is the primary source of allergens. Har a 1 and Har a 2 major ladybug allergens have been characterized. 'Reflex bleeding' from tibiofemoral joints (for communication and during alarm) disperses these allergens. Ladybug skin testing should be routine in endemic areas. Avoidance continues to be the first step in treatment. Allergen vaccine therapy may be effective, but a commercial extract of H. axyridis is needed.

  8. Inhalation of baby talc powder by hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Zwicker, G.M.; Cannon, W.C.; Watson, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Groups of 50 male and 50 female Syrian golden hamsters are being exposed to baby talc powder aerosol 3 min/day, 30 min/day, and 150 min/day, respectively, for 30 exposure days, and for 30 min/day and 150 min/day, respectively, for 300 exposure days. Mean total aerosol concentration is approximately 28 ..mu..g/l, mean respirable fraction of the aerosol is approximately 8 ..mu..g/l. Two groups of 25 male and 25 female control hamsters are receiving sham exposures 150 min/day for 30 and 300 exposure days, respectively. After the 30- and 300-day exposures the hamsters are being maintained for life span observations. At death, lung, trachea, larynx, liver, kidneys, adrenals, heart, stomach, ovaries and uterus, or testicles, and tissues showing gross lesions, are collected for histopathologic examination. Evaluative criteria are histopathologic findings, life span and body weights. Experimental data and results are incomplete at this time. Final results will be available by spring 1975. Preliminary pathologic evaluation indicates that systemic amyloidosis is the major cause of death in the exposed as well as in the control animals. Kidneys, adrenal glands, and liver are most frequently involved. Inhalation of baby talc powder has caused no obvious pulmonary lesions and no decreased life span in the exposed hamsters evaluated to date as compared with their controls.

  9. Early interventions in asthma with inhaled corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, L A; Altraja, A; Karjalainen, E M; Laitinen, A

    2000-02-01

    We have earlier shown epithelial damage in the airway mucosa in patients with asthma. Later other structural changes have been recognized in asthma, such as deposition of collagen and tenascin in the subepithelial basement membrane and changes in the laminin subchain composition. These processes are modified by an inflammatory process in the airways. Both the United States National Institutes of Health and the British Thoracic Society guidelines on the management of asthma emphasize the need for early use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Many clinical studies that used airway biopsy specimens have shown a decrease in airway inflammatory cell numbers after inhaled corticosteroid therapy. However, there is very little information on the effects of asthma medication on the structural components of the airways. Both the synthesis and degradation of many extracellular matrix components may be affected by the disease process and the drugs resulting in altered remodeling and gene expression in the airways. Because there are only a few studies that try to identify early changes in asthma, it is not known whether the anti-inflammatory treatment of asthma proposed by the guidelines is started early enough.

  10. Systems Level Dissection of Candida Recognition by Dectins: A Matter of Fungal Morphology and Site of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Rizzetto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an ubiquitous fungal commensal of human skin and mucosal surfaces, and at the same time a major life-threatening human fungal pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Host defense mechanisms rely on the capacity of professional phagocytes to recognize Candida cell wall antigens. During the past decade, the host immune response to Candida was dissected in depth, highlighting the essential role of C-type lectin receptors, especially regarding the power of the Dectins’ family in discriminating between the tolerated yeast-like form of Candida and its invading counterpart, the hyphae. This review focuses on the immuno-modulatory properties of the Candida morphologies and their specific interactions with the host innate immune system in different body surfaces.

  11. Fungal atopy in adult cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, M

    2012-02-03

    This study set out to estimate the prevalence of atopy to a variety of common ubiquitous fungi, including A. fumigatus, in cystic fibrosis (CF), and to evaluate the investigations by which the diagnosis was made. Particular attention was paid to the usefulness of skin testing and immunoassays in detecting which patients had simple fungal atopy, and which patients were at high risk of developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses. This cross-sectional study included 21 adult CF patients and 20 matched controls. Serum samples were taken for the measurement of total serum IgE and specific serum IgE to nine common fungi. Immediate hypersensitivity skin prick testing to each of the fungi was also performed. Simple fungal atopy was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 100 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 1 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 3 mm to the same fungus. \\'High risk\\' for developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 200 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 2 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 6 mm to the same fungus. The adult CF group had a significantly higher total SPT score (P=0.005) and mean total serum IgE (P<0.05) than controls. Forty-three percent of CF patients fulfilled the criteria for fungal atopy to at least a single fungus. Over half this group had an atopic tendency to more than one fungus. Nineteen percent of the CF group were at least \\'high risk\\' of developing ABPM. Skin prick testing is a better marker of fungal atopy and a better predictor of those adult CF patients at higher risk of developing ABPM than specific radioimmunoassay serum testing. There is a high prevalence of fungal atopy in the adult CF population. Total serum IgE and skin prick testing are good predictors of fungal atopy and help predict those at

  12. Novolizer: how does it fit into inhalation therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Helgo

    2005-01-01

    Inhalation therapy is the preferred route of administration of anti-asthmatic drugs to the lungs. However, the vast majority of patients cannot use their inhalers correctly, particularly pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). The actual proportion of patients who do not use their inhalers correctly may even be under-estimated as GPs tend to over-estimate correct inhalation technique. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have many advantages over pMDIs. Unlike pMDIs, they are environmentally-friendly, contain no propellant gases and, more importantly, they are breath-activated, so that the patient does not need to coordinate actuation of the inhaler with inspiration. Three key parameters for correct inhaler use should be considered when evaluating existing or future DPI devices and especially when choosing the appropriate device for the patient: (1) usability, (2) particle size distribution of the emitted drug and (3) intrinsic airflow resistance of the device. The Novolizer is a breath-activated, multidose, refillable DPI. It is easy to use correctly, has multiple feedback and control mechanisms which guide the patient through the correct inhalation manoeuvre. In addition, the Novolizer has an intelligent dose counter, which resets only after a correct inhalation and may help to monitor patient compliance. The Novolizer has a comparable or better lung deposition than the Turbuhaler at similar or higher peak inspiratory flow (PIF) rates. A flow trigger valve system ensures a clinically effective fine particle fraction (FPF) and sufficient drug delivery, which is important for a good lung deposition. The FPF produced through the Novolizer is also relatively independent of flow rate and the device shows better reproducibility of metering and delivery performance compared to the Turbuhaler. The low-to-medium airflow resistance means that the Novolizer is easy for patients to use correctly. Even children, patients with severe asthma and patients with moderate

  13. Researches regarding the Morton ether inhaler at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, Rajesh P; Mifflin, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-01

    The Morton ether inhaler in the possession of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, was traced back to 1906 when the earliest known photograph of it was published. The authors believe that the inhaler was given by William T. G. Morton, MD, to J. Mason Warren, MD, in January 1847. The inhaler was acquired by the Warren Anatomical Museum at an unknown date, loaned to Massachusetts General Hospital in October 1946, and placed on permanent loan to Massachusetts General Hospital in April 1948. Many documents relating to the inhaler have disappeared, and it was only identified in 2009 as the inhaler that probably belonged to J. Mason Warren, MD. The inhaler is not believed to be the one that Morton used on October 16, 1846, at Massachusetts General Hospital. It is the only known example of a Morton ether inhaler with valves (excluding replicas or reproduction inhalers) and is probably of similar design to the inhaler that Morton used on October 16, 1846.

  14. Indicators of airborne fungal concentrations in urban homes: understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Judith A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Anagnost, Susan E; Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L

    2015-06-01

    Indoor fungal exposure can compromise respiratory health. Low-income urban areas are of concern because of high asthma and allergy rates and housing disrepair. Understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures is important for assessing health risks and for developing mitigation strategies. We examined the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside of homes in low-income areas of Syracuse, NY as well as the effect of snow cover on fungal levels. At 103 homes, air samples for viable fungi were collected, occupants were interviewed and homes were inspected for visible mold, musty odors, water problems and other factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to relate high fungal levels to home conditions. Predominant indoor fungi included Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and hyaline unknowns. Basidiomycetes and an uncommon genus Acrodontium were also found frequently due to analysis methods developed for this project. With snow cover, outdoor total fungal levels were depressed and indoor concentrations were three times higher than outdoor on average with a maximum of 29 times higher. Visible mold was related to elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 4.11 95% CI 1.37-14.0) and bacteria (OR 3.79 95% CI 1.41-11.2). Musty, moldy odors were associated with elevated concentrations of total fungi (OR 3.48 95% CI 1.13-11.6) and basidiomycetes. Cockroaches, an indicator of moisture, were associated with elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 3.66 95% CI 1.16-13.1) and Aspergillus (OR 4.36 95% CI 1.60-13.4). Increasing relative humidity was associated with higher concentrations of Penicillium, yeasts and basidiomycetes. Visible mold, musty odors, indoor humidity and cockroaches are modifiable factors that were important determinants of indoor fungal exposures. Indoor air investigators should interpret indoor:outdoor fungal ratios cautiously when snow cover is present.

  15. A New Quantitative Method for Evaluating Dry Powder Inhalation Efficiency in Asthma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yasha; Hu, Hefang; Tian, Cuijie; Lei, Yi; Liu, Chuntao; Luo, Fengming

    2016-10-01

    Many methods have been developed to evaluate dry powder inhalation techniques and their efficiency for disease control in asthma patients. However, it is difficult to apply these methods to clinical practice and research. In this study, we introduce a simple new method that can be applied to dry powder inhalation techniques to evaluate their efficiency in clinical practice. Twenty volunteers were recruited to evaluate the reliability of this new method. One hundred one asthma patients who met the inclusion criteria participated in this study. A dark cloth covered the outlet of the inhaler during dry powder inhalation. The image formed by the inhalation process was evaluated using analysis software and converted into integrated optical density (IOD). Inhalation techniques were scored before and after inhalation technique training, and asthma control was evaluated using the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) before inhalation technique training. The relative standard deviation of IOD ranged from 3.8% to 7.8%. In patients with or without inhaler prior use, both the IOD and inhalation technique scores improved significantly after inhalation technique training (p quantitative method is equivalent to traditional methods for dry powder inhalation evaluation. This study also indicated that training significantly improved the inhalation technique and efficiency in asthma patients with or without prior inhaler use.

  16. Long-term effects of aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin; de Klerk, Nicholas; Musk, A W Bill

    2013-12-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, aluminium dust inhalation was used as a potential prophylaxis against silicosis in underground miners, including in Australia. We investigated the association between aluminium dust inhalation and cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's diseases in a cohort of Australian male underground gold miners. We additionally looked at pneumoconiosis mortality to estimate the effect of the aluminium therapy. SMRs and 95% CI were calculated to compare mortality of the cohort members with that of the Western Australian male population (1961-2009). Internal comparisons on duration of aluminium dust inhalation were examined using Cox regression. Aluminium dust inhalation was reported for 647 out of 1894 underground gold miners. During 42 780 person-years of follow-up, 1577 deaths were observed. An indication of increased mortality of Alzheimer's disease among miners ever exposed to aluminium dust was found (SMR=1.38), although it was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.69 to 2.75). Rates for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular death were above population levels, but were similar for subjects with or without a history of aluminium dust inhalation. HRs suggested an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease with duration of aluminium dust inhalation (HR=1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.04, per year of exposure). No difference in the association between duration of work underground and pneumoconiosis was observed between the groups with or without aluminium dust exposure. No protective effect against silicosis was observed from aluminium dust inhalation. Conversely, exposure to aluminium dust may possibly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

  17. Towards the optimisation and adaptation of dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Schmalfuß, S; Zellnitz, S; Sommerfeld, M; Urbanetz, N

    2014-08-15

    Pulmonary drug delivery by dry powder inhalers is becoming more and more popular. Such an inhalation device must insure that during the inhalation process the drug powder is detached from the carrier due to fluid flow stresses. The goal of the project is the development of a drug powder detachment model to be used in numerical computations (CFD, computational fluid dynamics) of fluid flow and carrier particle motion through the inhaler and the resulting efficiency of drug delivery. This programme will be the basis for the optimisation of inhaler geometry and dry powder inhaler formulation. For this purpose a multi-scale approach is adopted. First the flow field through the inhaler is numerically calculated with OpenFOAM(®) and the flow stresses experienced by the carrier particles are recorded. This information is used for micro-scale simulations using the Lattice-Boltzmann method where only one carrier particle covered with drug powder is placed in cubic flow domain and exposed to the relevant flow situations, e.g. plug and shear flow with different Reynolds numbers. Therefrom the fluid forces on the drug particles are obtained. In order to allow the determination of the drug particle detachment possibility by lift-off, sliding or rolling, also measurements by AFM (atomic force microscope) were conducted for different carrier particle surface structures. The contact properties, such as van der Waals force, friction coefficient and adhesion surface energy were used to determine, from a force or moment balance (fluid forces versus contact forces), the detachment probability by the three mechanisms as a function of carrier particle Reynolds number. These results will be used for deriving the drug powder detachment model.

  18. Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    the more basal attine genera use substrates such as flowers, plant debris, small twigs, insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide...... or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls may have functionally co-evolved with the ants in this scenario. We explore this hypothesis with direct measurements of enzyme activity in fungus gardens in 12 species across 8 genera spanning the entire phylogeny...... and diversity of life-styles within the attine clade. We find significant differences in enzyme activity between different genera and life-styles of the ants. How these findings relate to attine ant coevolution and crop optimization are discussed....

  19. Fungal natural products targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Kildgaard, Sara; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults from the western world. No curative treatments of CLL are presently known so the treatment strategy today is primarily to prolong patient survival,1 why we have initiated new activities towards discovery of novel compounds...... with potential tumor specificity. Our starting point is a diverse fungal collection of thousands of Penicillium and Aspergillus species. These fungi have proven to be a very rich source of various bioactive compounds and yet our dereplication investigations have demonstrated that there are still numerous unknown...... compounds to be identified within these species. Until now we have found that 11 out of 289 fungal extracts are active against CLL cells. Using our established chemotaxonomic discovery approach we have dereplicated and fractionated these extracts to track the activity into single fractions/compounds.2...

  20. Nail Histomycology, Onychochromobiology, and Fungal Thigmatropism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald E. Piérard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thigmotropism is a biologic feature coping with the directional growth of cells following topographical guidance cues. This mechanism is involved in the invasive phase of pathogen and opportunistic fungi. It was shown experimentally with fungal hyphae of both dermatophytes and nondermatophyte molds, as well as with the mycelial phase of the dimorphic yeast Candida albicans. Objective: To revisit histomycology in onychomycoses of a diversity of fungal origins. Method: Histopathological section of nails plates were oriented parallel to the nail direction of growth. Result: Thigmotropism in part explains the patterns of orientations and shapes of fungi invading nail plates. It is probably influenced by onychochronobiology (speed of growth of the affected nails, and it governs various clinical presentations of onychomycoses.

  1. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 87-kilodalton antigen, a heat shock protein useful in diagnosis: characterization, purification, and detection in biopsy material via immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Soraya; Gómez, Beatriz L; Restrepo, Angela; Hay, Rod J; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2002-02-01

    The 87-kDa antigen derived from the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis can be detected in the sera of infected patients, and its levels have been shown to correlate well with response to treatment and with clinical cure. Despite its potential importance, the antigen has been poorly characterized. The 87-kDa antigen was purified to homogeneity via preparative gel electrophoresis; N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed substantial homology with heat shock proteins (hsps) from a variety of organisms. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) raised against a Histoplasma capsulatum 80-kDa hsp showed cross-reactivity to the purified 87-kDa antigen via Western blotting, and the 87-kDa-specific MAb P1B demonstrated that the antigen was expressed at higher levels in yeast than in mycelia by the same technique. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence reactivity using P1B confirmed increased expression of the 87-kDa antigen during the temperature-induced transformation of mycelia to yeast. Yeast-to-mycelium transformation was accompanied by a fall in expression, although the 87-kDa antigen was clearly constitutively expressed in both phases. Immunochemical staining of tissues from patients with MAb P1B who were infected with P. brasiliensis confirmed in vivo expression of the 87-kDa antigen by yeasts, and identification of this antigen via this method appears to be a useful adjunct to other methods used to diagnose paracoccidioidomycosis.

  2. Molecular Identification of Human Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    no pigment seen on the hyphal walls on hematoxylin-eosin or melan A staining. The biopsy specimen was sent for bacterial and fungal cul- tures, but the...aim was to design universal primers and then develop a PCR mix, which would be able to reliably amplify template from any specimen, even pigmented ...which if accepted, will result in thirty journal publications. There was also one book chapter published. II. Seventeen abstracts have been

  3. Cunninghamella echinulata causing fatally invasive fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Robert E; Meriden, Zina; Sutton, Deanna A; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Neofytos, Dionissios; Zhang, Sean X

    2013-08-01

    We report a fatal case of invasive fungal sinusitis caused by Cunninghamella echinulata in a febrile, neutropenic 15-year-old male with relapsing acute leukemia. The isolate was recovered from a nasal biopsy from the right middle meatus, and microscopic examination of the tissue revealed angioinvasion and necrosis. Human infection caused by this organism has not been well documented; however, this report alerts us to its life-threatening potential.

  4. Domestic mite antigens in floor and airborne dust at workplaces in comparison to living areas: a new immunoassay to assess personal airborne allergen exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sander

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Allergens produced by domestic mites (DM are among the most common allergic sensitizers and risk factors for asthma. To compare exposure levels between workplaces and living areas a new assay able to measure airborne DM antigen concentrations was developed. METHODS: At workplaces and in living areas, 213 floor dust samples and 92 personal inhalable dust samples were collected. For sensitive quantification of DM antigens, a new enzyme immunoassay (EIA based on polyclonal antibodies to Dermatophagoides farinae extract was developed. Reactivity of five house dust mite and four storage mite species was tested. All dust samples were tested with the new EIA and with the Der f 1 and Der p 1-EIAs (Indoor Biotechnologies, UK which detect major allergens from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus by monoclonal antibodies. Samples below the detection limit in the DM-EIA were retested in an assay variant with a fluorogenic substrate (DM-FEIA. RESULTS: The newly developed DM-EIA detects antigens from all nine tested domestic mite species. It has a lower detection limit of 200 pg/ml of D.farinae protein, compared to 50 pg/ml for the DM-FEIA. DM antigens were detected by DM-EIA/FEIA in all floor dust and 80 (87% of airborne samples. Der f 1 was found in 133 (62% floor dust and in only 6 airborne samples, Der p 1 was found in 70 (33% of floor samples and in one airborne sample. Der f 1 and DM concentrations were highly correlated. DM-antigens were significantly higher in inhalable airborne samples from textile recycling, bed feather filling, feed production, grain storage and cattle stables in comparison to living areas. CONCLUSIONS: A new sensitive EIA directed at DM antigens was developed. DM antigen quantities were well correlated to Der f 1 values and were measurable in the majority (87% of airborne dust samples. Some workplaces had significantly higher DM antigen concentrations than living areas.

  5. Benzene inhalation effects upon tetanus antitoxin. Responses and leukemogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoner, R D; Drew, R T; Bernstein, D M

    1980-01-01

    The effects of inhaled benzene on primary and secondary antibody responses and the incidence of leukemia in mice are reported. Young adult mice were given 5, 12, or 22 exposures to 400 ppM benzene for 6 hrs/day 5 days/week. After the exposure periods, the mice were immunized with absorbed tetanus toxoid (APTT) and/or fluid tetanus toxid (FTT). Exposure to benzene increasingly suppressed primary antibody responses to both antigens. Secondary antibody responses to FTT were nearly normal in animals given 10, 15, or 20 exposures to 400 ppM benzene. Other groups of mice were exposed to either 200 ppM or 50 ppM benzene. Primary antibody responses elicited with FTT and/or APTT were nearly normal in all mice exposed to 50 ppM benzene and in mice exposed to 200 ppM benzene for 5 days. However, 10 and 20 exposures to 200 ppM benzene inhibited antibody production. The effects of chronically inhaled 300 ppM benzene on the time of onset and incidence of leukemia in 400 7-month-old female HRS/J mice were also studied. Two genotypes were used; the (hr/hr) hairless mice are leukemia-prone, whereas the (hr/+) haired mice are more resistant to leukemia. The exposure continued for a period of 6 months. Lymphoid, myeloid, and mixed (lymphoid and myeloid) leukemias were observed. Ninety percent of the (hr/hr) mice exposed to benzene died from leukemia as compared with 91% for the (hr/hr) air control group. Eighty-five percent of the (hr/+) mice exposed to benzene died from leukemia as compared with 81% for the (hr/+) air control group. Exposures to 300 ppM benzene did not alter the time of onset or the incidence of leukemia commonly expected in HRS/J mice.

  6. Effects of antigen presentation of eosinophils on lung Th1/Th2 imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zheng-fu; SHI Huan-zhong; QIN Xue-jun; KANG Lan-fu; HUANG Chun-ping; CHEN Yi-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Background Antigen-loaded eosinophils (EOSs) instilled intratracheally into mice were capable of inducing Th2-type cytokine production in the draining lymph nodes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether EOSs within the tracheobronchial lumen can stimulate Th2 cell expansion in the lung tissues.Methods Airway EOSs were recovered from ovalbumin-sensitized and -challenged BALB/c mice, these EOSs were then cocultured with CD4+ cells isolated from sensitized mice in the absence or presence of anti-CD80 or/and -CD86 monoclonal antibodies. Airway EOSs were instilled into the trachea of sensitized mice. At the day 3 thereafter, the lung tissues were removed and prepared into cell suspensions for culture. Cell-free culture supernatants were collected for detection of cytokines.Results Airway EOSs functioned as CD80- and CD86-dependent antigen-presenting cells to stimulate lung CD4+ lymphocytes to produce interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13, but not interferon-γ in in vitro assay. When instilled intratracheally in sensitized recipient mice, airway EOSs primed lung Th2 cells in vivo for interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13, but not interferon-γ, production during the in vitro culture that was also CD80- and CD86-dependent. Conclusion EOSs within the lumina of airways could process inhaled antigen and function in vitro and in vivo as antigen-presenting cells to promote expansion of Th2 cells in the lungs.

  7. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Coleine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  8. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleine, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Ventura, Stefano; D'Acqui, Luigi Paolo; Onofri, Silvano; Zucconi, Laura

    2015-10-10

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  9. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-02-15

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  10. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    Full Text Available Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae, which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  11. Functional analysis of fungal polyketide biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Isao

    2010-05-01

    Fungal polyketides have huge structural diversity from simple aromatics to highly modified complex reduced-type compounds. Despite such diversty, single modular iterative type I polyketide synthases (iPKSs) are responsible for their carbon skeleton construction. Using heterologous expression systems, we have studied on ATX, a 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase from Aspergillus terreus as a model iPKS. In addition, iPKS functions involved in fungal spore pigment biosynthesis were analyzed together with polyketide-shortening enzymes that convert products of PKSs to shorter ketides by hydrolytic C-C bond cleavage. In our studies on reducing-type iPKSs, we cloned and expressed PKS genes, pksN, pksF, pksK and sol1 from Alternaria solani. The sol gene cluster was found to be involved in solanapyrone biosynthesis and sol5 was identified to encode solanapyrone synthase, a Diels-Alder enzyme. Our fungal PKS studies were further extended to identify the function of PKS-nonribosomal peptide synthase involved in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis.

  12. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes.

  13. Hypoventilation after inhaled anesthesia results in reanesthetization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Stanley; Roberson, Russell S; Philip, James H

    2014-10-01

    ), which reached a value of 0.8 MAC within 4 hours with all drugs and reached a value of 0.75 MAC with desflurane after 2 hours. Fat levels of anesthetic remained less than 0.15 MAC for all drugs up to the 6 hours tested. Reanesthetization from hypoventilation after inhaled anesthesia is possible. After initial emergence, muscle is a source of anesthetic and predisposes to reanesthetization while fat is a sink for anesthetic and fosters continued emergence. Severe hypoventilation will cause some degree of reanesthetization from anesthetic released from muscle after 4 hours of 1 MAC inhaled anesthesia with desflurane, sevoflurane, or isoflurane.

  14. Uncertainties on lung doses from inhaled plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, Matthew; Birchall, Alan; Bull, Richard K

    2011-10-01

    In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian uncertainties on lung doses have been calculated to determine lung cancer risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. These calculations used a revised version of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) published by the ICRP. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, which give probability distributions of doses, point estimates of doses (single estimates without uncertainty) were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66; these are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To infer the differences between the point estimates and Bayesian uncertainty analyses, this paper applies the methodology to former workers of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses are compared with the point estimates obtained for each worker. It is shown that mean posterior lung doses are around two- to fourfold higher than point estimates and that uncertainties on doses vary over a wide range, greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that uncertainties on the parameter values, rather than the model structure, are largely responsible for these effects. Of these it appears to be the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that have the greatest impact on estimates of lung doses from urine bioassay. Therefore, accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled plutonium and the absorption parameter values for these materials is important for obtaining reliable estimates of lung doses and hence risk from occupational exposures to plutonium.

  15. Evaluation of dry powder inhalers with a focus on ease of use and user preference in inhaler-naïve individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schantz, Sofia; Katajavuori, Nina; Antikainen, Osmo; Juppo, Anne

    2016-07-25

    Inhaler errors are common amongst inhaler users. Therefore, in the development work of new inhalation devices, it is important to characterize the ease of use of the inhalers. In this study four dry powder inhalers, Diskus, Easyhaler, Ellipta and Turbuhaler, were evaluated, focusing on ease of use and patient preference. The study used a triangular methodology. The sample consisted of 31 inhaler naïve individuals. Educational videos for all inhalers were watched, and afterwards, the use of all four inhalers was demonstrated in a random order. The demonstrations were videotaped. Thereafter they were checked against a predefined checklist and all mistakes were recorded. Only 33% of inhaler demonstrations were completed without the participants making any mistakes. The proportions of subjects who used the devices correctly were as follows: Diskus 48%, Easyhaler 19%, Ellipta 55% and Turbuhaler 16%. When comparing correct and incorrect inhaler technique for each inhaler pair the following differences were statistically significant: Diskus vs. Easyhaler (pEllipta vs. Easyhaler (pEllipta vs. Turbuhaler (pEllipta, followed by Turbuhaler, were most often ranked as most preferred. Participants' preference of Ellipta over Easyhaler (p<0.01) and over Diskus (p<0.001) were statistically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct determination of cryptococcal antigen in transthoracic needle aspirate for diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Y S; Yang, P C; Yu, C J; Chang, D B; Wang, H J; Lee, L N; Kuo, S H; Luh, K T

    1995-06-01

    Pulmonary cryptococcosis causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Definitive diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis is usually difficult. The use of direct determination of cryptococcal antigen in transthoracic needle aspirate to diagnose pulmonary cryptococcosis was investigated. Over a 2-year period, we studied a total of 41 patients with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary infiltrates of unknown etiology who were suspected of having pulmonary cryptococcosis. Twenty-two patients were immunocompetent patients and 19 patients were immunocompromised. A diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis was based on cytological examination, culture for Cryptococcus neoformans, histopathologic examination, and clinical response to antifungal therapy. All patients underwent chest ultrasound and ultrasound-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration to obtain specimens for cryptococcal antigen determination. The presence of cryptococcal antigen was determined by the latex agglutination system (CALAS; Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, Ohio). An antigen titer equal to or greater than 1:8 was considered positive. The specimens were also sent for cytological examination, fungal culture, and/or histopathologic examination. A final diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis was made in eight patients. Direct determinations of cryptococcal antigen in lung aspirate were positive in all eight patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis (100% sensitivity, 97% specificity, a positive predictive value of 89%, and negative value of 100%), and there was only one false-positive in noncryptococcosis patients. The diagnostic accuracy was 97.5%. Serum cryptococcal antigen was positive in only three patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis (sensitivity, 37.5%). This study showed that direct measurement of cryptococcal antigen in lung aspirate can be a rapid and useful test for diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis.

  17. Inhalability for aerosols at ultra-low windspeeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleeth, Darrah K; Vincent, James H, E-mail: jhv@umich.ed [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Most previous experimental studies of aerosol inhalability were conducted in wind tunnels for windspeeds greater than 0.5 ms-{sup 1}. While that body of work was used to establish a convention for the inhalable fraction, results from studies in calm air chambers (for essentially zero windspeed) are being discussed as the basis of a modified criterion. However, information is lacking for windspeeds in the intermediate range, which - it so happens - pertain to most actual workplaces. With this in mind, we have developed a new experimental system to assess inhalability - and, ultimately, personal sampler performance - for aerosols with particle aerodynamic diameter within the range from about 9 to 90 mum for ultra-low windspeed environments from about 0.1 to 0.5 ms{sup 1}. This new system contains an aerosol test facility, fully described elsewhere, that combines the physical attributes and performance characteristics of moving air wind tunnels and calm air chambers, both of which have featured individually in previous research. It also contains a specially-designed breathing, heated, life-sized mannequin that allows for accurate recovery of test particulate material that has been inhaled. Procedures have been developed that employ test aerosols of well-defined particle size distribution generated mechanically from narrowly-graded powders of fused alumina. Using this new system, we have conducted an extensive set of new experiments to measure the inhalability of a human subject (as represented by the mannequin), aimed at filling the current knowledge gap for conditions that are more realistic than those embodied in most previous research. These data reveal that inhalability throughout the range of interest is significantly different based on windspeed, indicating a rise in aspiration efficiency as windspeed decreases. Breathing flowrate and mode of breathing (i.e. nose versus mouth breathing) did not show significant differences for the inhalability of aerosols. On

  18. Inhalability for aerosols at ultra-low windspeeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeth, Darrah K.; Vincent, James H.

    2009-02-01

    Most previous experimental studies of aerosol inhalability were conducted in wind tunnels for windspeeds greater than 0.5 ms-1. While that body of work was used to establish a convention for the inhalable fraction, results from studies in calm air chambers (for essentially zero windspeed) are being discussed as the basis of a modified criterion. However, information is lacking for windspeeds in the intermediate range, which - it so happens - pertain to most actual workplaces. With this in mind, we have developed a new experimental system to assess inhalability - and, ultimately, personal sampler performance - for aerosols with particle aerodynamic diameter within the range from about 9 to 90 μm for ultra-low windspeed environments from about 0.1 to 0.5 ms1. This new system contains an aerosol test facility, fully described elsewhere, that combines the physical attributes and performance characteristics of moving air wind tunnels and calm air chambers, both of which have featured individually in previous research. It also contains a specially-designed breathing, heated, life-sized mannequin that allows for accurate recovery of test particulate material that has been inhaled. Procedures have been developed that employ test aerosols of well-defined particle size distribution generated mechanically from narrowly-graded powders of fused alumina. Using this new system, we have conducted an extensive set of new experiments to measure the inhalability of a human subject (as represented by the mannequin), aimed at filling the current knowledge gap for conditions that are more realistic than those embodied in most previous research. These data reveal that inhalability throughout the range of interest is significantly different based on windspeed, indicating a rise in aspiration efficiency as windspeed decreases. Breathing flowrate and mode of breathing (i.e. nose versus mouth breathing) did not show significant differences for the inhalability of aerosols. On the whole

  19. Patterns of fungal diversity and composition along a salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Devon J; Martiny, Jennifer BH

    2011-01-01

    Estuarine salinity gradients are known to influence plant, bacterial and archaeal community structure. We sequenced 18S rRNA genes to investigate patterns in sediment fungal diversity (richness and evenness of taxa) and composition (taxonomic and phylogenetic) along an estuarine salinity gradient. We sampled three marshes—a salt, brackish and freshwater marsh—in Rhode Island. To compare the relative effect of the salinity gradient with that of plants, we sampled fungi in plots with Spartina patens and in plots from which plants were removed 2 years prior to sampling. The fungal sediment community was unique compared with previously sampled fungal communities; we detected more Ascomycota (78%), fewer Basidiomycota (6%) and more fungi from basal lineages (16%) (Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and four additional groups) than typically found in soil. Across marshes, fungal composition changed substantially, whereas fungal diversity differed only at the finest level of genetic resolution, and was highest in the intermediate, brackish marsh. In contrast, the presence of plants had a highly significant effect on fungal diversity at all levels of genetic resolution, but less of an effect on fungal composition. These results suggest that salinity (or other covarying parameters) selects for a distinctive fungal composition, and plants provide additional niches upon which taxa within these communities can specialize and coexist. Given the number of sequences from basal fungal lineages, the study also suggests that further sampling of estuarine sediments may help in understanding early fungal evolution. PMID:20882058

  20. Withdrawal of inhaled glucocorticoids and exacerbations of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Helgo; Disse, Bernd; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids in combination with long-acting bronchodilators is recommended in patients with frequent exacerbations of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the benefit of inhaled glucocorticoids in addition to two long-acting bronchod......BACKGROUND: Treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids in combination with long-acting bronchodilators is recommended in patients with frequent exacerbations of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the benefit of inhaled glucocorticoids in addition to two long......-acting bronchodilators has not been fully explored. METHODS: In this 12-month, double-blind, parallel-group study, 2485 patients with a history of exacerbation of COPD received triple therapy consisting of tiotropium (at a dose of 18 μg once daily), salmeterol (50 μg twice daily), and the inhaled glucocorticoid...... fluticasone propionate (500 μg twice daily) during a 6-week run-in period. Patients were then randomly assigned to continued triple therapy or withdrawal of fluticasone in three steps over a 12-week period. The primary end point was the time to the first moderate or severe COPD exacerbation. Spirometric...

  1. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, M R; Benson, M K

    1995-01-07

    Cough is a frequent side-effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. We examined the effects of inhaled sodium cromoglycate in 10 patients with ACE-inhibitor cough in a double-blind crossover study. After a 2-week run-in, patients were randomised to either 2 weeks' inhaled sodium cromoglycate or placebo followed by a further 2 weeks on the other treatment. Patients kept a cough diary during each study period. Cough severity was recorded on a scale from 0 to 12. At the end of each study period the cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin was measured. 9 patients reported a reduction in cough after sodium cromoglycate. Median (range) daily cough scores during run-in and placebo periods were 3.6 (1.9-6.4) and 4.1 (0.6-8.1), respectively (p > 0.05). Median daily cough score after sodium cromoglycate was 1.8 (0.4-3; p sodium cromoglycate; and cough-reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin was significantly reduced. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate is an effective treatment for ACE-inhibitor cough. Its effect may be due to suppression of afferent vagal activity.

  2. A Systematic Review of the Respiratory Effects of Inhalational Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; McGrogan, Jamie B; Maysonet, Alisha

    2016-11-01

    This systematic review focuses on respiratory effects of inhalational marijuana. The systematic review of the literature was conducted using a comparative method between 2 researchers. Abstracts were reviewed for inclusion of respiratory effects related to inhalational marijuana. Relevant abstracts were collected, and full text articles were retrieved for review. Articles were removed if they did not contain burning marijuana; were animal studies; or were editorials, systematic reviews, commentaries, non-English language, or non-respiratory-related articles. Forty-eight articles were collected and categorized by respiratory effects. In particular, lung cancer, bullous emphysema/COPD, and other respiratory symptoms were the primary categories. Articles were noted by study population country, sample size, age distribution, and findings that were pertinent to respiratory health. The research indicates that there is a risk of lung cancer from inhalational marijuana as well as an association between inhalational marijuana and spontaneous pneumothorax, bullous emphysema, or COPD. A variety of symptoms have been reported by inhalational marijuana smokers, including wheezing, shortness of breath, altered pulmonary function tests, cough, phlegm production, bronchodilation, and other symptoms. It is important to stay current with research findings to educate patients on this smoking behavior. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Rethinking the paradigm for the development of inhaled drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, John N

    2015-12-30

    Nebulized treatment is an important delivery option for the young, elderly, and those with severe chronic respiratory disease, but there is a lack of new nebulized drug products being produced for these patients, leading to the potential for under-treatment. This communication describes a new drug development paradigm as a timely solution to this issue. Often, drug development is initiated with nebulizers in the early stages, to provide cheaper and faster drug development, and then switched to inhaler devices in later clinical trials to address the majority of patients. However, the waste of resource on parallel development of the inhaler can be large due to the high early attrition rate of new drug development. The new paradigm uses the nebulizer to continue drug development through to market, and initiates inhaler development after completion of the riskier early phase studies. New drug safety and efficacy can be assessed faster and more efficiently by using a nebulized formulation rather than developing an inhaler. The results of calculations of expected net present value showed that the new paradigm produced higher expected net present values than the conventional model over a range of economic scenarios. This new paradigm could therefore provide improved returns on investments, as well as more modern drugs in nebulized form for those patients unable to use inhalers.

  4. Dry powder inhalable formulations for anti-tubercular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Chang, Rachel Yoon Kyung; Abdelghany, Sharif; Ye, Tian Tian; Britton, Warwick John; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infectious disease caused by the airborne bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite considerable research efforts, the treatment of TB continues to be a great challenge in part due to the requirement of prolonged therapy with multiple high-dose drugs and associated side effects. The delivery of pharmacological agents directly to the respiratory system, following the natural route of infection, represents a logical therapeutic approach for treatment or vaccination against TB. Pulmonary delivery is non-invasive, avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver and enables targeting of therapeutic agents to the infection site. Inhaled delivery also potentially reduces the dose requirement and the accompanying side effects. Dry powder is a stable formulation of drug that can be stored without refrigeration compared to liquids and suspensions. The dry powder inhalers are easy to use and suitable for high-dose formulations. This review focuses on the current innovations of inhalable dry powder formulations of drug and vaccine delivery for TB, including the powder production method, preclinical and clinical evaluations of inhaled dry powder over the last decade. Finally, the risks associated with pulmonary therapy are addressed. A novel dry powder formulation with high percentages of respirable particles coupled with a cost effective inhaler device is an appealing platform for TB drug delivery.

  5. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  6. A case of sinobronchial allergic mycosis; possibility of basidiomycetous fungi as a causative antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    We herein report a case of sinobronchial allergic mycosis (SAM) caused by basidiomycetous (BM) fungi (probably Phanerochaete velutina). The patient with bronchial asthma that accompanied allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) fulfilled all 6 criteria for diagnosing SAM. In this case, the BM fungus may act as an allergen, reacting continually in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. The antifungal drug (itraconazole 50 mg/day) seemed to achieve a partial response. Basidiomycetous fungi may attract attention because of the possibility as a causative antigen in this new clinical concept of SAM.

  7. Influences of gender and anthropometric features on inspiratory inhaler acoustics and peak inspiratory flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Terence E; Holmes, Martin S; Sulaiman, Imran; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Inhalers are hand-held devices used to treat chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Medication is delivered from an inhaler to the user through an inhalation maneuver. It is unclear whether gender and anthropometric features such as age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI) influence the acoustic properties of inspiratory inhaler sounds and peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) in inhalers. In this study, healthy male (n=9) and female (n=7) participants were asked to inhale at an inspiratory flow rate (IFR) of 60 L/min in four commonly used inhalers (Turbuhaler(™), Diskus(™), Ellipta(™) and Evohaler(™)). Ambient inspiratory sounds were recorded from the mouthpiece of each inhaler and over the trachea of each participant. Each participant's PIFR was also recorded for each of the four inhalers. Results showed that gender and anthropometric features have the potential to influence the spectral properties of ambient and tracheal inspiratory inhaler sounds. It was also observed that males achieved statistically significantly higher PIFRs in each inhaler in comparison to females (p<;0.05). Acoustic features were found to be significantly different across inhalers suggesting that acoustic features are modulated by the inhaler design and its internal resistance to airflow.

  8. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  9. Significance of specific IgG against sensitizing antigens in extrinsic allergic alveolitis: serological methods in EAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterclova, M; Vasakova, M; Metlicka, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study is to find differences in IgG in sera of potentially exposed and nonexposed individuals and to detect differences in concentrations of specific serum IgG among subjects with and without EAA. Seventy-two patients being followed for suspected interstitial lung disease were included. Specific IgG in sera were established by ImmunoCAP. Serum concentrations of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans IgG and mixture of moulds IgG were higher in subjects with exposure to relevant inhalation antigens (p<0.05). Patients exposed to parrot and mammal hair mixture had higher serum concentration of specific IgG (p<0.05). Subjects without exposure to mites had lower serum IgG to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides microceras and Glycophagus domesticus (p<0.05). Higher concentration of serum specific IgG may show previous exposure to this antigen. Even though mite specific IgG are not commonly tested in EAA patients, we suggest their immunomodulatory activity may influence susceptibility to other inhalation antigens. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier España.

  10. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of a Unit Dose Dry Powder Inhaler with a Multidose Dry Powder Inhaler for Delivery of Fluticasone Furoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rashmi; Moore, Alison; Riddell, Kylie; Joshi, Shashidhar; Chan, Robert

    2017-05-02

    The unit dose dry powder inhaler (UD-DPI) is being considered as an alternative inhaler platform that, if developed, has the potential to improve access to inhaled respiratory medicines in developing countries. This study compared the systemic exposure of fluticasone furoate after delivery from the UD-DPI with that from the ELLIPTA(®) inhaler. This open-label, five-way cross-over, randomized, single-dose study in healthy subjects evaluated fluticasone furoate systemic exposure of three dose strengths (using four inhalations), 4 × 80 μg [320 μg], 4 × 100 μg [400 μg], and 4 × 140 μg [560 μg]), and two percentages of drug in lactose blends (0.6% and 0.8% by weight) after delivery from the UD-DPI compared with systemic exposures from the ELLIPTA inhaler (4 × 100 μg [400 μg] dose, 0.8% lactose blend). The primary treatment comparisons were area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to 6 hours [AUC0-6] and maximum plasma concentration [Cmax]. After single-dose administration of fluticasone furoate, systemic exposure was lower from all UD-DPI formulations versus the ELLIPTA inhaler in terms of both AUC0-6 [AUC0-6 geometric least squares mean (GLM) ratios confidence interval (90% CI) for: UD-DPI (400 μg 0.8% blend)/ELLIPTA: 0.61 (0.55-0.67) and Cmax GLM (90% CI) for: UD-DPI (400 μg 0.8% blend)/ELLIPTA: 0.56 (0.49-0.64)]. Systemic exposures were ∼10% lower for fluticasone furoate UD-DPI for the 0.8% blend versus the 0.6% blend [GLM ratio (90% CI); 0.90 (0.81-1.00) for AUC0-6 and 0.89 (0.77-1.01) for Cmax], and increasing doses of fluticasone furoate from the UD-DPI showed systemic exposures that were approximately dose proportional. All treatments were well tolerated. Fluticasone furoate systemic exposure was lower from the UD-DPI than from the ELLIPTA inhaler, but the UD-DPI formulations did demonstrate detectable systemic levels and approximate dose proportionality. Together with the good tolerability shown

  11. A perspective on the developmental toxicity of inhaled nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Campagnolo, Luisa; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to clarify whether maternal inhalation of engineered nanoparticles (NP) may constitute a hazard to pregnancy and fetal development, primarily based on experimental animal studies of NP and air pollution particles. Overall, it is plausible that NP may translocate from the respirat......This paper aimed to clarify whether maternal inhalation of engineered nanoparticles (NP) may constitute a hazard to pregnancy and fetal development, primarily based on experimental animal studies of NP and air pollution particles. Overall, it is plausible that NP may translocate from...... the respiratory tract to the placenta and fetus, but also that adverse effects may occur secondarily to maternal inflammatory responses. The limited database describes several organ systems in the offspring to be potentially sensitive to maternal inhalation of particles, but large uncertainties exist about...

  12. Toxic alveolitis after inhalation of a water repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Guido; Van Baarlen, Joop; Van Der Valk, Paul D L P M

    2011-12-01

    Inhalation of fluorocarbon polymers can cause pulmonary toxicity. Although multiple cases of lung injury have been reported, cellular characterization of the associated alveolitis occurring acutely after inhalation is limited. We report the case of a previously healthy woman who presented at our Emergency Department with an acute pneumonitis following inhalation of a fluorocarbon polymer-based rain-proofing spray. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed shortly after the presentation showed an elevated total cell count, with a high proportion of neutrophils (58%) and eosinophils (9%). In addition, a lipid stain (Oil-Red-O-stain) showed a high level of lipid laden macrophages, a marker that could reflect a direct toxic effect of the spray on alveolar cells. The patient made a full recovery after four days of in-hospital observation with supportive care.

  13. Sudden death due to inhalant abuse in youth: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akcan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intentional inhalation or abuse of volatile substances is a common public health problem all over the world. As these substances generate euphoria frequency of use among adolescents and young adults is increasing steadily. In cases using inhalants to achieve a euphoric state -without knowing possible consequences- sudden death may occurdue to acute cardio-pulmonary dysfunction.Here we present a case of sudden death of a nineteen-year-old female due to inhalation of volatile from butane containing lighter gas tube, with the findings of autopsy and death scene investigation.In the context of this case; it was aimed to draw attention to the risk of sudden death and steady increase of frequencyof volatile substance abuse among adolescents and young adults due to various psycho-social factors.

  14. Inhaled formulations and pulmonary drug delivery systems for respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Loh, Zhi Hui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major global health problem. They are often treated by parenteral administrations of antimicrobials. Unfortunately, systemic therapies of high-dose antimicrobials can lead to severe adverse effects and this calls for a need to develop inhaled formulations that enable targeted drug delivery to the airways with minimal systemic drug exposure. Recent technological advances facilitate the development of inhaled anti-microbial therapies. The newer mesh nebulisers have achieved minimal drug residue, higher aerosolisation efficiencies and rapid administration compared to traditional jet nebulisers. Novel particle engineering and intelligent device design also make dry powder inhalers appealing for the delivery of high-dose antibiotics. In view of the fact that no new antibiotic entities against multi-drug resistant bacteria have come close to commercialisation, advanced formulation strategies are in high demand for combating respiratory 'super bugs'.

  15. Effects of intraoperative inhaled iloprost on primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation: A retrospective single center study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Su Hyun; Lee, Jin Gu; Lee, Chang Yeong; Kim, Namo; Chang, Min-Yung; You, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun Joo; Paik, Hyo Chae; Oh, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled iloprost was known to alleviate ischemic-reperfusion lung injury. We investigated whether intraoperative inhaled iloprost can prevent the development of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation...

  16. Challenges in inhaled product development and opportunities for open innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Ben; Asgharian, Bahman; Dailey, Lea Ann; Ferguson, Douglas; Gerde, Per; Gumbleton, Mark; Gustavsson, Lena; Hardy, Colin; Hassall, David; Jones, Rhys; Lock, Ruth; Maas, Janet; McGovern, Tim; Pitcairn, Gary R; Somers, Graham; Wolff, Ron K

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry, safety and the efficacy of drugs in the lungs are critical factors in the development of inhaled medicines. This article considers the challenges in each of these areas with reference to current industry practices for developing inhaled products, and suggests collaborative scientific approaches to address these challenges. The portfolio of molecules requiring delivery by inhalation has expanded rapidly to include novel drugs for lung disease, combination therapies, biopharmaceuticals and candidates for systemic delivery via the lung. For these drugs to be developed as inhaled medicines, a better understanding of their fate in the lungs and how this might be modified is required. Harmonized approaches based on 'best practice' are advocated for dosimetry and safety studies; this would provide coherent data to help product developers and regulatory agencies differentiate new inhaled drug products. To date, there are limited reports describing full temporal relationships between pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) measurements. A better understanding of pulmonary PK and PK/PD relationships would help mitigate the risk of not engaging successfully or persistently with the drug target as well as identifying the potential for drug accumulation in the lung or excessive systemic exposure. Recommendations are made for (i) better industry-academia-regulatory co-operation, (ii) sharing of pre-competitive data, and (iii) open innovation through collaborative research in key topics such as lung deposition, drug solubility and dissolution in lung fluid, adaptive responses in safety studies, biomarker development and validation, the role of transporters in pulmonary drug disposition, target localisation within the lung and the determinants of local efficacy following inhaled drug administration.

  17. Inhalation a significant exposure route for chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreder, Erika D; Uding, Nancy; La Guardia, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (ClOPFRs) are widely used as additive flame retardants in consumer products including furniture, children's products, building materials, and textiles. Tests of indoor media in homes, offices, and other environments have shown these compounds are released from products and have become ubiquitous indoor pollutants. In house dust samples from Washington State, U.S.A., ClOPFRs were the flame retardants detected in the highest concentrations. Two ClOPFRs, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP or TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), have been designated as carcinogens, and there is growing concern about the toxicity of the homologue tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP or TCIPP). In response to concerns about exposure to these compounds, the European Union and a number of U.S. states have taken regulatory action to restrict their use in certain product categories. To better characterize exposure to ClOPFRs, inhalation exposure was assessed using active personal air samplers in Washington State with both respirable and inhalable particulate fractions collected to assess the likelihood particles penetrate deep into the lungs. Concentrations of ∑ClOPFRs (respirable and inhalable) ranged from 97.1 to 1190 ng m(-3) (mean 426 ng m(-3)), with TCPP detected at the highest concentrations. In general, higher levels were detected in the inhalable particulate fraction. Total intake of ClOPFRs via the inhalation exposure route was estimated to exceed intake via dust ingestion, indicating that inhalation is an important route that should be taken into consideration in assessments of these compounds.

  18. Preclinical safety evaluation of inhaled cyclosporine in propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Noonberg, Sarah; Steigerwalt, Ronald; Lynch, Maryellen; Kovelesky, Rosemary A; Rodríguez, Carlos A; Sprugel, Katherine; Turner, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Cyclosporine inhalation solution has the potential to improve outcomes following lung transplantation by delivering high concentrations of an immunosuppressant directly to the allograft while minimizing systemic drug exposure and associated toxicity. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the potential toxicity of aerosolized cyclosporine formulated in propylene glycol when given by inhalation route to rats and dogs for 28 days. Sprague-Dawley rats received total inhaled doses of 0 (air), 0 (vehicle, propylene glycol), 7.4, 24.3, and 53.9 mg cyclosporine/kg/day. In a separate study, beagle dogs were exposed to 0, 4.4, 7.7, and 9.7 mg cyclosporine/kg/day. Endpoints used to evaluate potential toxicity of inhaled cyclosporine were clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, respiratory functions, toxicokinetics, and clinical/anatomic pathology. Daily administration of aerosolized cyclosporine did not result in observable accumulation of cyclosporine in blood or lung tissue. Toxicokinetic analysis from the rat study showed that the exposure of cyclosporine was approximately 18 times higher in the lung tissue compared to the blood. Systemic effects were consistent with those known for cyclosporine. There was no unexpected systemic toxicity or clinically limiting local respiratory toxicity associated with inhalation exposure to cyclosporine inhalation solution at exposures up to 2.7 times the maximum human exposure in either rats or dogs. There were no respiratory or systemic effects of high doses of propylene glycol relative to air controls. These preclinical studies demonstrate the safety of aerosolized cyclosporine in propylene glycol and support its continued clinical investigation in patients undergoing allogeneic lung transplantation.

  19. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Fukutomi

    2015-10-01

    Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  20. Fungal symbionts of grasses: evolutionary insights and agricultural potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, B; Schardl, C

    1993-08-01

    Some filamentous fungal endophytes confer on their grass hosts important biological properties including resistance to grazing herbivores and resistance to nematodes and some fungal pathogens, as well as drought tolerance and greater field persistence. The production of alkaloids toxic to grazing animals is an undesirable aspect of the association in agronomic situations. Consequently, genetic strategies are being pursued to manipulate fungal endophytes and their hosts for agricultural benefit.