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Sample records for inha enoil-acp redutase

  1. Abordagem racional no planejamento de novos tuberculostáticos: inibidores da InhA, enoil-ACP redutase do M. tuberculosis Rational approach in the new antituberculosis agent design: inhibitors of InhA, the enoyl-ACP reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Carolina Horta Andrade

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Associada à disseminação da infecção causada pelo HIV, a tuberculose (TB é considerada, atualmente, problema mundial de saúde pública devido às proporções que vem assumindo. A resistência micobacteriana aos fármacos utilizados na terapêutica é a principal causa da reincidência da TB. Diante deste quadro alarmante, o desenvolvimento de novos e seletivos fármacos anti-TB se faz urgente e necessário. A biossíntese de ácidos graxos é um processo bioquímico realizado por procariotos e eucariotos, o qual fornece precursores essenciais à montagem de componentes celulares importantes, tais como fosfolipídeos, lipoproteínas, lipopolissacarídeos, ácidos micólicos e envelope celular. As diferenças bioquímicas e funcionais entre o mecanismo biossintético de ácidos graxos em bactérias e mamíferos tornam-no alvo relevante ao planejamento de novos antibacterianos, mais seletivos e menos tóxicos. As enoil-ACP redutases são enzimas cruciais à etapa de alongamento de ácidos graxos, considerados produtos intermediários na biossíntese de ácidos micólicos - os principais componentes da parede celular micobacteriana. Portanto, tais enzimas são tidas como alvos moleculares no planejamento racional de novos tuberculostáticos. Avanços recentes no processo de descoberta de novos agentes anti-TB, particularmente os inibidores da enoil-ACP redutase, serão discutidos nesta revisão.In conjunction with the spread of HIV infection, tuberculosis (TB has been among the worldwide health threats. Mycobacteria resistance to the drugs currently used in the therapeutics is the main cause of TB resurgence. In view of this severe situation, the new and selective anti-TB design is of utmost importance. Fatty acid biosynthesis is a prokariontes and eucariontes biochemical process that supplies essential precursors for the assembly of important cellular components, such as phospholipids, lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, mycolic acids and

  2. Atividade da enzima nitrato redutase e crescimento de Swietenia macrophylla king sob efeito de sombreamento

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    Walquíria Fernanda Teixeira

    Full Text Available O mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King possui importância econômica, mas encontra-se em risco de extinção em razão da sua exploração intensiva. Portanto, o cultivo e os estudos que mostrem o comportamento fisiológico dessa espécie tornam-se relevantes. Tendo em vista estes aspectos, foi realizada esta pesquisa com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do sombreamento na atividade da enzima nitrato redutase e no crescimento de mogno em casa de vegetação. O plano para as unidades experimentais foi o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (diferentes níveis de sombreamento e nove repetições. Os dados de fitomassa seca de caule e a atividade da enzima nitrato redutase não diferiram estatisticamente entre os tratamentos. Com relação às raízes e folhas, observou-se um maior acúmulo de fitomassa seca com 20 e 50% de sombreamento. O mogno apresenta menor acúmulo de fitomassa seca sobre 0% de sombreamento; no entanto, a atividade da enzima nitrato redutase não é influenciada pelo sombreamento.

  3. High Affinity Inha Inhibitors with Activity Against Drug-Resistant Strains of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

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    Sullivan,T.; Truglio, J.; Boyne, M.; Novichenok, P.; Zhang, X.; Stratton, C.; Li, H.; Kaur, T.; Amin, A.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Novel chemotherapeutics for treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are required to combat the spread of tuberculosis, a disease that kills more than 2 million people annually. Using structure-based drug design, we have developed a series of alkyl diphenyl ethers that are uncompetitive inhibitors of InhA, the enoyl reductase enzyme in the MTB fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. The most potent compound has a Ki{prime} value of 1 nM for InhA and MIC{sub 99} values of 2-3 {micro}g mL{sup -1} (6-10 {micro}M) for both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of MTB. Overexpression of InhA in MTB results in a 9-12-fold increase in MIC{sub 99}, consistent with the belief that these compounds target InhA within the cell. In addition, transcriptional response studies reveal that the alkyl diphenyl ethers fail to upregulate a putative efflux pump and aromatic dioxygenase, detoxification mechanisms that are triggered by the lead compound triclosan. These diphenyl ether-based InhA inhibitors do not require activation by the mycobacterial KatG enzyme, thereby circumventing the normal mechanism of resistance to the front line drug isoniazid (INH) and thus accounting for their activity against INH-resistant strains of MTB.

  4. Antitubercular drugs for an old target: GSK693 as a promising InhA direct inhibitor

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    María Martínez-Hoyos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being one of the first antitubercular agents identified, isoniazid (INH is still the most prescribed drug for prophylaxis and tuberculosis (TB treatment and, together with rifampicin, the pillars of current chemotherapy. A high percentage of isoniazid resistance is linked to mutations in the pro-drug activating enzyme KatG, so the discovery of direct inhibitors (DI of the enoyl-ACP reductase (InhA has been pursued by many groups leading to the identification of different enzyme inhibitors, active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, but with poor physicochemical properties to be considered as preclinical candidates. Here, we present a series of InhA DI active against multidrug (MDR and extensively (XDR drug-resistant clinical isolates as well as in TB murine models when orally dosed that can be a promising foundation for a future treatment.

  5. Mutações no gene da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase e síndrome de Down

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    Grillo Laura Brunelli das Neves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sindrome de Down (SD é uma alteração genética e metabólica complexa atribuída à presença de três cópias do cromossomo 21. O cromossomo extra em 93% dos casos é de origem materna e é resultante de uma segregação anormal durante a meiose (não-disjunção. Com exceção da idade materna avançada, fatores de risco para a não-disjunção meiótica não estão bem estabelecidos. Um estudo preliminar sugeriu que o metabolismo anormal do folato e a mutação 677 (C->T no gene da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase (MTHFR podem ser fatores de risco maternos para a SD. A freqüência das mutações MTHFR 677 (C->T e 1.298 (A->C foram avaliadas em 36 mães de crianças com SD e em 200 indivíduos-controle. Os resultados demonstraram que as mutações 677 (C->T e 1.298 (A->C são mais prevalentes entre mães de crianças com SD do que nos controles. A heterozigose das duas mutações foi a combinação mais freqüente. O resultado desse estudo inicial sugere que mutações no gene da MTHFR seriam um fator de risco para a SD.

  6. Mutações no gene da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase e síndrome de Down

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    Laura Brunelli das Neves Grillo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Sindrome de Down (SD é uma alteração genética e metabólica complexa atribuída à presença de três cópias do cromossomo 21. O cromossomo extra em 93% dos casos é de origem materna e é resultante de uma segregação anormal durante a meiose (não-disjunção. Com exceção da idade materna avançada, fatores de risco para a não-disjunção meiótica não estão bem estabelecidos. Um estudo preliminar sugeriu que o metabolismo anormal do folato e a mutação 677 (C->T no gene da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase (MTHFR podem ser fatores de risco maternos para a SD. A freqüência das mutações MTHFR 677 (C->T e 1.298 (A->C foram avaliadas em 36 mães de crianças com SD e em 200 indivíduos-controle. Os resultados demonstraram que as mutações 677 (C->T e 1.298 (A->C são mais prevalentes entre mães de crianças com SD do que nos controles. A heterozigose das duas mutações foi a combinação mais freqüente. O resultado desse estudo inicial sugere que mutações no gene da MTHFR seriam um fator de risco para a SD.

  7. Triclosan inhibition of mycobacterial InhA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: yeast mitochondria as a novel platform for in vivo antimycolate assays.

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    Gurvitz, A

    2010-04-01

    To demonstrate the suitability of yeast to act as a novel biotechnological platform for conducting in vivo inhibition assays using drugs with low efficacies towards their mycobacterial targets, such as occurs in the situation with triclosan and InhA. A surrogate yeast host represented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae etr1Delta cells lacking Etr1p, the 2-trans-enoyl-thioester reductase of mitochondrial type 2 fatty acid synthase (FASII), was designed to rely on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis FASII enzyme InhA. Although InhA is 10,000 times less sensitive to the antimicrobial drug triclosan than is bacterial FabI, the respiratory growth of yeast cells depending on InhA was severely affected on glycerol medium containing triclosan. The yeast system could detect enzyme inhibition despite the use of a drug with only low efficacy. Tuberculosis affects a third of the human population, and InhA is a major drug target for combating this disease. InhA is inhibited by isoniazid, but triclosan-derived compounds are presently being developed as antimycolates. A demonstration of triclosan inhibition of InhA in yeast represents a meaningful variation in studying this effect in mycobacteria, because it occurred without the potentially confusing aspects of perturbing protein-protein interactions which are presumed vital to mycobacterial FASII, inactivating other important enzymes or eliciting a dedicated transcriptional response in Myco. tuberculosis.

  8. Multiple receptor conformers based molecular docking study of fluorine enhanced ethionamide with mycobacterium enoyl ACP reductase (InhA).

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    Khan, Akib Mahmud; Shawon, Jakaria; Halim, Mohammad A

    2017-10-01

    A major limitation in current molecular docking method is that of failure to account for receptor flexibility. Herein we report multiple receptor conformers based molecular docking as a practical alternative to account for the receptor flexibility. Multiple (forty) conformers of Mycobacterium Enoyl ACP Reductase (InhA) are generated from Molecular Dynamics simulation and twenty crystallographic structures of InhA bound to different inhibitors are obtained from the Protein Data Bank. Fluorine directed modifications are performed to currently available anti-tuberculosis drug ethionamide. The modified drugs are optimized using B3LYP 6-31G (d,p) level of theory. Dipole moment, frontier orbital gap and thermodynamical properties such as electronic energy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of these optimized drugs are investigated. These drugs are subsequently docked against the conformers of InhA. Molecular docking against multiple InhA conformations show variation in ligand binding affinity and suggest that Ser94, Gly96, Lys165 and Ile194 amino acids play critical role on strong drug-InhA interaction. Modified drug N1 showed greater binding affinity compared to EN in most conformations. Structure of PDB ID: 2NSD and snapshot conformer at 5.5ns show most favorable binding with N1 compared to other conformers. Fluorine participates in forming fluorine bonds and contributes significantly in increasing binding affinity. Our study reveal that addition of trifluoromethyl group explicitly shows promise in improving thermodynamic properties and in enhancing hydrogen bonding and non-bonded interactions. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation show that EN and N1 remained in the binding pocket similar to the docked pose of EN-InhA and E1-InhA complexes and also suggested that InhA binds to its inhibitor in inhibitor-induced folding manner. ADMET calculations predict modified drugs to have improved pharmacokinetic properties. Our study concludes that multiple receptor conformers based

  9. Disruption of key NADH-binding pocket residues of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA affects DD-CoA binding ability.

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    Shaw, Daniel J; Robb, Kirsty; Vetter, Beatrice V; Tong, Madeline; Molle, Virginie; Hunt, Neil T; Hoskisson, Paul A

    2017-07-05

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem that affects over 10 million people. There is an urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial therapies to combat TB. To achieve this, a thorough understanding of key validated drug targets is required. The enoyl reductase InhA, responsible for synthesis of essential mycolic acids in the mycobacterial cell wall, is the target for the frontline anti-TB drug isoniazid. To better understand the activity of this protein a series of mutants, targeted to the NADH co-factor binding pocket were created. Residues P193 and W222 comprise a series of hydrophobic residues surrounding the cofactor binding site and mutation of both residues negatively affect InhA function. Construction of an M155A mutant of InhA results in increased affinity for NADH and DD-CoA turnover but with a reduction in V max for DD-CoA, impairing overall activity. This suggests that NADH-binding geometry of InhA likely permits long-range interactions between residues in the NADH-binding pocket to facilitate substrate turnover in the DD-CoA binding region of the protein. Understanding the precise details of substrate binding and turnover in InhA and how this may affect protein-protein interactions may facilitate the development of improved inhibitors enabling the development of novel anti-TB drugs.

  10. Expression and Cellular Distribution of INHA and INHB before and after In Vitro Cultivation of Porcine Oocytes Isolated from Follicles of Different Size

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    Bartosz Kempisty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs were collected from small (5 mm porcine follicles, and the INHA and INHB expression and cellular localization were studied. Developmentally competent (BCB+ COCs were cultured for 44 h. Samples of mRNA were isolated before and after in vitro maturation (IVM from oocytes collected from follicles of different size for RQ-PCR assay. The INHA and INHB protein distribution within the oocytes was observed by confocal microscopy. INHA mRNA expression was increased in oocytes from large compared to medium and small follicles before IVM (P<0.001, and to oocytes of small follicles after IVM (P<0.001. The INHB expression was not different before IVM, but the IHNB mRNA level was gradually higher in oocytes from large follicles after IVM (P<0.01. INHA was not differently expressed before IVM; however, in large follicle oocytes the protein was distributed in the peripheral area of the cytoplasm; in oocytes from small follicles it was in the entire cytoplasm. After IVM, INHA was strongly expressed in oocytes from small follicles and distributed particularly in the zona pellucida (ZP. Similarly and both before and after IVM, INHB protein was highly expressed in small follicle oocytes and within the cytoplasm. In summary, INHs can be recognized as a marker of porcine oocyte quality.

  11. Obtaining partial purified xylose reductase from Candida guilliermondii Obtenção de xilose redutase de Candida guilliermondii parcialmente purificada

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    Ester Junko Tomotani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic bioconversion of xylose into xylitol by xylose reductase (XR is an alternative for chemical and microbiological processes. The partial purified XR was obtained by using the following three procedures: an agarose column, a membrane reactor or an Amicon Ultra-15 50K Centrifugal Filter device at yields of 40%, 7% and 67%, respectively.A bioconversão enzimática da xilose em xilitol pela xilose redutase (XR é uma alternativa para as vias química e microbiológica. Avaliouse a purificação parcial da XR, utilizando os três seguintes procedimentos: uma coluna de agarose, um reator com membrana ou tubos de ultracentrifugação Amicon Ultra-15 50K, com rendimento de 40%, 7% ou 67%, respectivamente.

  12. Miopatia por deficiência de succinato-citocromo-C-redutase: possível defeito no complexo II da cadeia respiratória

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    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Relato do caso de mulher de 24 anos de idade que apresentava astenia desde a puberdade, com agravamento nos últimos anos, cuja biópsia muscular revelou grande acúmulo de mitocôndrias. As dosagens dos enzimas mitocondriais mostrou importante redução da succinato-citocromo-C-redutase, sugerindo defeito na cadeia respiratória a nível do complexo II. Medicada com altas doses de vitamina C e K, melhorou da força muscular. São feitas considerações a respeito das principais síndromes com miopatias mitocondriais, bem como a respeito dos métodos de investigação em defeitos da cadeia respiratória.

  13. Contribution of katG, ahpC and inhA mutations to the detection of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Lebanon and Syria

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    F Dabboussi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that the pyrosequencing applied to katG, inhA promoter and ahpC-oxyR intergenic region was able to detect a relatively large proportion of Syrian INH-resistant MTB isolates (80.7% in Syria. This strategy may be inappropriate for Lebanese strains, as the genetic mechanisms of resistance remain unidentified for approximately half of the isolates, so it is quite possible to detect the presence of other mechanisms of resistance.

  14. Disruption of key NADH-binding pocket residues of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA affects DD-CoA binding ability

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    Shaw, Daniel J.; Robb, Kirsty; Vetter, Beatrice V.; Tong, Madeline; Molle, Virginie; Hunt, Neil T.; Hoskisson, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem that affects over 10 million people. There is an urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial therapies to combat TB. To achieve this, a thorough understanding of key validated drug targets is required. The enoyl reductase InhA, responsible for synthesis of essential mycolic acids in the mycobacterial cell wall, is the target for the frontline anti-TB drug isoniazid. To better understand the activity of this protein a series of mutants, targeted to t...

  15. Mutations of rpoB, katG, inhA and ahp genes in rifampicin and isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Kyrgyz Republic.

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    Isakova, Jainagul; Sovkhozova, Nurmira; Vinnikov, Denis; Goncharova, Zoy; Talaibekova, Elnura; Aldasheva, Nazira; Aldashev, Almaz

    2018-03-22

    The aim of this study was to identify mutations of rpoB, katG, inhA and ahp-genes associated Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) in Kyrgyz Republic. We studied 633 smear samples from the primary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. We verified Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to RIF and INH using culture method of absolute concentrations, and commercially available test named "TB-BIOCHIP" (Biochip-IMB, Moscow, Russian Federation). For RIF-resistance, TB-BIOCHIP's sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 97%, 84% and 95% for INH-resistance, and 90% and 97% for multi-drug resistance (MDR). In RIF-resistant strains, TB-BIOCHIP showed mutations in codons 531 (64.8%), 526 (17.3%), 516 (8.1%), 511 (5.4%), 533 (3.2%), 522 (0.6%) and 513 (0.6%) of rpoB gene. The most prevalent was Ser531 > Leu mutation (63.7%). 91.2% of mutations entailing resistance to INH were in katG gene, 7% in inhA gene, and 1.8% in ahpC gene. Ser315→Thr (88.6%) was the most prevalent mutation leading to resistance to INH. In Kyrgyz Republic, the most prevalent mutation in RIF-resistant strains was Ser531 → Leu in rpoB gene, as opposed to Ser315 → Thr in katG gene in INH-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In Kyrgyz Republic, the major reservoir of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis were strains with combined mutations Ser531 → Leu in rpoB gene and Ser315 → Thr in katG gene. TB-BIOCHIP has shown moderate sensitivity with the advantage of obtaining results in only two days.

  16. Mutações no gene da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase e síndrome de Down Mutations in the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase gene and Down syndrome

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    Laura Brunelli das Neves Grillo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Sindrome de Down (SD é uma alteração genética e metabólica complexa atribuída à presença de três cópias do cromossomo 21. O cromossomo extra em 93% dos casos é de origem materna e é resultante de uma segregação anormal durante a meiose (não-disjunção. Com exceção da idade materna avançada, fatores de risco para a não-disjunção meiótica não estão bem estabelecidos. Um estudo preliminar sugeriu que o metabolismo anormal do folato e a mutação 677 (C->T no gene da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase (MTHFR podem ser fatores de risco maternos para a SD. A freqüência das mutações MTHFR 677 (C->T e 1.298 (A->C foram avaliadas em 36 mães de crianças com SD e em 200 indivíduos-controle. Os resultados demonstraram que as mutações 677 (C->T e 1.298 (A->C são mais prevalentes entre mães de crianças com SD do que nos controles. A heterozigose das duas mutações foi a combinação mais freqüente. O resultado desse estudo inicial sugere que mutações no gene da MTHFR seriam um fator de risco para a SD.Down syndrome (DS is a complex genetic and metabolic disorder attributed to the presence of three copies of chromosome 21. The extra chromosome derives from the mother in 93% of cases and is due to abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis (nondisjunction. Except for advanced age at conception, maternal risk factors for meiotic nondisjunction are not well established. A recent preliminary study suggested that abnormal folate metabolism and the 677 (C->T mutation in the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene may be maternal risk factors for DS. Frequency of the MTHFR 677 (C->T and 1298 (A->C mutations was evaluated in 36 mothers of children with DS and in 200 controls. The results are consistent with the observation that the MTHFR 677 (C->T and 1298 (A->C mutations are more prevalent among mothers of children with DS than controls. In addition, the most prevalent genotype was the combination of both mutations

  17. N-partitioning, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities in two contrasting varieties of maize Partição de nitrogênio e atividade das enzimas nitrato redutase e glutamina sintetase em duas cultivares contrastantes de milho

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    Altair Toledo Machado

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify useful parameters for maize genetic breeding programs aiming at a more efficient use of N, two maize varieties of contrasting N efficiency, Sol da Manhã NF (efficient and Catetão (inefficient were compared. Experiments were carried out under field and greenhouse conditions, at low and high N levels. The parameters analysed included total and relative plant and grain N content, biomass and the activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in different parts of the plant. It was found that the translocation efficiency of N and photoassimilates to the developing seeds and the source-sink relations were significantly different for the two varieties. N content of the whole plant and grain, cob weight and the relative ear dry weight were useful parameters for characterizing the variety Sol da Manhã NF as to its efficient use of N. Enzymes activity of glutamine synthetase (transferase reaction and nitrate reductase did not differ among the varieties.Com o objetivo de identificar parâmetros que possam ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento genético em milho para uso eficiente de N, duas cultivares de milho contrastantes quanto ao uso deste nutriente, Sol da Manhã NF (eficiente e Catetão (não-eficiente, foram avaliadas em dois experimentos conduzidos no campo e em casa de vegetação, respectivamente, sob nível baixo e alto de N. Os caracteres avaliados foram: teor e conteúdo de N em diferentes partes da planta; massa seca; peso dos grãos e de diferentes partes da planta; biomassa, e atividade das enzimas nitrato redutase e glutamina sintetase. O mecanismo de translocação de N e de fotoassimilados para os grãos e a relação fonte/dreno foram importantes para diferenciar a cultivar eficiente da não-eficiente. Conteúdo de N nos grãos e total das plantas, peso do sabugo e relação peso de espiga/matéria seca foram importantes para caracterizar a cultivar Sol da Manhã NF eficiente no uso do N. A

  18. ACCUMULATION OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS AND NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN LETTUCE CULTIVATED IN DIFFERENT CROP SYSTEMS ACÚMULO DE COMPOSTOS NITROGENADOS E ATIVIDADE DA REDUTASE DO NITRATO EM ALFACE PRODUZIDA EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE CULTIVO

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    Fernanda Nunes Ibrahim

    2008-09-01

    limits recommended by literature.

    KEY-WORDS: Vegetables; quality; nitrite; metabolism of nitrogen.

    O teor de nitrato é um importante índice da qualidade dos alimentos, pois quando ingerido nitrato é reduzido a nitrito, o qual pode gerar compostos prejudiciais ao organismo humano. Diante disso, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o transporte e acúmulo de compostos nitrogenados e a atividade da enzima redutase do nitrato em alface cultivar 'Vera' produzida em Registro (SP em diferentes sistemas de cultivo. Foram coletadas amostras da seiva do xilema, da parte aérea e da raiz das plantas para quantificação de compostos nitrogenados e atividade da redutase do nitrato in vivo. A concentração de nitrato na seiva xilema, os teores de nitrato e aminoácidos, bem como a atividade da redutase do nitrato, demonstraram transporte, acumulação e assimilação mais intensos em plantas cultivadas em hidroponia, seguido do sistema convencional e por último, do orgânico. O caule da planta nos três sistemas de cultivo apresentou capacidade elevada de acumulação e assimilação de compostos nitrogenados. A atividade da redutase do nitrato nas folhas foi superior a da raiz. O teor de nitrato, independente do sistema de cultivo, variou de 24,32 a 800,06 mg Kg-1 de MF nas diferentes partes da planta. Contudo, não excedeu os limites máximos recomendados pela literatura.

  19. Nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity in coffee leaves during fruit development Atividade da redutase do nitrato e glutamina sintetase em folhas de cafeeiro durante o desenvolvimento dos frutos

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    Andre Rodrigues Reis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reductase is the first enzyme in the pathway of nitrate reduction by plants, followed by glutamine synthetase, which incorporates ammonia to glutamine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity, total soluble protein content, N and Ni content in coffee leaves during fruit development under field conditions to establish new informations to help assess the N nutritional status and fertilizer management. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks, arranged in a 3 x 6 factorial design, with five replications. The treatments consisted of 3 N rates (0 - control, 150 and 300 kg ha-1 and six evaluation periods (January, February, March, April, May, and June in six-year-old coffee (Coffea arabica L. plants of Catuaí Vermelho IAC 44 cv. The nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities, leaf soluble protein, and N concentrations increased linearly with the N rates. During fruit development, the enzyme activity, leaf soluble protein and N content decreased, due to the leaf senescence process caused by nutrient mobilization to other organs, e.g, to the berries. Leaf Ni increased during fruit development. Beans and raisin-fruits of plants well-supplied with N had higher Ni contents. Enzyme activities, total leaf N and leaf soluble protein, evaluated during the green fruit stage in March, were significantly correlated with coffee yield. These variables can therefore be useful for an early assessment of the coffee N nutritional status as well as coffee yield and N fertilization management.A redutase do nitrato (RN é a primeira enzima na via de redução de nitrato pelas plantas, seguida da glutamina sintetase (GS, a qual incorpora amônia à glutamina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade dessas enzimas, o teor de proteína solúvel total e a concentração de N e de Ni em folhas e grãos de cafeeiro durante o desenvolvimento dos frutos, em condições de

  20. A conservative region of the mercuric reductase gene (merA as a molecular marker of bacterial mercury resistance Região conservada do gene da mercúrio redutase (merA como marcador molecular da resistência bacteriana ao mercúrio

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    Adriana Sotero-Martins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common bacterial mercury resistance mechanism is based on the reduction of Hg(II to Hg0, which is dependent of the mercuric reductase enzyme (MerA activity. The use of a 431 bp fragment of a conservative region of the mercuric reductase (merA gene was applied as a molecular marker of this mechanism, allowing the identification of mercury resistant bacterial strains.O mecanismo de resistência bacteriana ao mercúrio mais comum é baseada na redução do Hg(II a Hg0, através da atividade da enzima mercúrio redutase (MerA. O uso do fragmento de 431 pb amplificado de uma região conservada do gene merA, que codifica a enzima MerA,foi utilizado como marcador molecular deste mecanismo, permitindo a identificação de bactérias resistentes ao mercúrio.

  1. Avaliação do teste de nitrato redutase para a detecção rápida de resistência aos medicamentos de primeira linha em cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas de pacientes em um hospital geral Evaluation of the nitrate reductase assay for the rapid detection of resistance to first-line medications in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients in a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Filardi Oliveira Mansur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparamos o teste de nitrato redutase com o método de proporções, considerado como padrão ouro, em 57 cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas de pacientes atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Belo Horizonte (MG. A sensibilidade, a especificidade e a acurácia para rifampicina e isoniazida foram de 100% para todas, enquanto essas foram, respectivamente, de 88,9%, 66,7% e 96,5% para estreptomicina e de 98,0%, 100% e 98,2% para etambutol. A média de tempo para a obtenção dos resultados foi de dez dias. Na amostra estudada, o teste de nitrato redutase mostrou grande acurácia e excelente concordância com o padrão ouro.We compared the nitrate reductase assay with the proportion method, which is considered the gold standard, in 57 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients treated at the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. For rifampin and isoniazid, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the nitrate reductase assay were all 100%, whereas they were 100%, 88.9%, and 66.7%, respectively, for streptomycin and 98.0%, 100%, and 98.2%, respectively, for ethambutol. The mean time to results was ten days. In the study sample, the nitrate reductase assay proved highly accurate and showed excellent concordance with the gold standard.

  2. Atividade da enzima nitrato redutase em milho cultivado sob diferentes níveis de adubação nitrogenada e potássica Activity of the enzyme reductase nitrate in corn cultivated under different levels of nitrogen and potassium fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Maria da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Em função de seu uso na alimentação humana e animal e de um elevado potencial produtivo, o milho constitui-se num dos mais importantes cereais cultivados e comercializados no mundo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de nitrogênio e potássio na atividade da enzima redutase do nitrato na cultura do milho em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizadas cinco doses de nitrogênio (0; 50; 100; 150 e 200kg ha-1 e cinco doses de potássio (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160kg ha-1. A atividade da enzima foi estimada in vivo após as plantas atingirem quatro folhas totalmente desdobradas. Utilizou-se o método baseado no princípio de que a quantidade de nitrito liberada por fragmentos de tecidos vivos num tampão, na presença de uma agente permanente e do substrato, reflete a atividade potencial da enzima. A atividade da enzima nitrato redutase sofreu influência significativa da interação das doses de nitrogênio e potássio, já que a interação N=100kg ha-1 e K=40kg ha-1 proporcionou as melhores médias do experimento. A partir dessa dose, o aumento no fornecimento tanto de nitrogênio quanto de potássio promoveu redução da atividade enzimática.Because of the use in human feeding, animal, and high productive potential, corn is considered to be one of the most important cultivated and commercialized cereals in the world. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of different potassium doses and nitrogen in the activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase in the corn culture in a greenhouse environment. Five dosages of nitrogen (0; 50; 100; 150 and 200kg ha-1 and five potassium dosages (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160kg ha-1 were used. The activity of the nitrate reductase was esteemed, in vivo after the plants reached four leaves totally unfolded. The method that was used is based on the principle of the amount of nitrite liberated by fragments of alive tissue in a buffer in the presence of a permanent agent and substrate

  3. Avaliação do polimorfismo no gene da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase e concentração de folato e vitamina B12 em pacientes portadores do HIV-1 em tratamento com anti-retrovirais Evaluation of the polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and the levels of folate and B12 in HIV-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran Malavazi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, investigamos concentração da vitamina B12 e folato, considerando-se a influência dos genótipos da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase, o perfil imunológico e a terapia antiretroviral utilizada na população brasileira portadora do HIV. Um grupo de 86 indivíduos portadores do HIV-1 e 29 doadores de sangue foram recrutados para compor a casuística. Entre os infectados pelo HIV-1, observou-se menor concentração de B12 no grupo com maior número de linfócitos TCD4+. Não encontramos diferença na distribuição genotípica para as mutações MTHFR C677T e A1298C entre infectados e não infectados pelo HIV-1. Indivíduos portadores do HIV, genótipo C677C, apresentaram concentrações menores de B12 em relação ao grupo controle de mesmo genótipo. A terapia antiretroviral não mostrou qualquer influência nos valores de folato e vitamina B12. Estudos adicionais são necessários para reavaliar a prevalência de menores concentrações de B12 e folato e de hiperhomocisteinemia na população portadora do HIV sob a ótica do uso de HAART e da melhoria na sobrevida dos pacientes.In this study we sought to investigate the B12 and folate levels regarding the influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes, immunological profile and antiretroviral therapy in the Brazilian HIV-infected population. The study group comprised 89 HIV-infected individuals and 29 blood donors. There was a decrease in the B12 levels in the HIV-infected group with higher TCD4+ lymphocyte counts. No differences in the genotype distribution for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms between the HIV-infected individuals and the controls were found. HIV-infected individuals carrying the C677C genotype presented lower B12 levels (313.91 ± 154.05 than those with the same genotype in the control group (408.27 ± 207.69. Also, the antiretroviral therapy was not a source of variation of the folate and B12 serum levels. Further studies are

  4. Mecanismos de acción y de resistencia a rifampicina e isoniacida en Mycobacterium tuberculosis: nueva información sobre viejos conocidos Mechanisms of action of and resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: new information on old friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. De la Iglesia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis constituye todavía una de la causas más frecuentes de mortalidad en el mundo. A pesar de la implementación de tratamientos con cuatro drogas antituberculosas, la aparición de cepas resistentes y multirresistentes ha comprometido la eficacia de los mismos. Dos de las drogas en uso, la rifampicina y la isoniacida, recibieron gran atención por su importancia terapéutica, incluso se han identificado los genes involucrados en los mecanismos de resistencia y los que codifican para sus blancos moleculares. La rifampicina es un inhibidor de la subunidad beta de la ARN polimerasa de procariotas, incluido Mycobacterium tuberculosis. La resistencia a esta droga está principalmente mediada por mutaciones agrupadas en una región del gen rpoB. Una pequeña fracción de cepas resistentes no mostró mutaciones en rpoB, lo que sugiere la existencia de otros mecanismos de resistencia, posiblemente eflujo de la droga. La isoniacida es una prodroga que se activa por la catalasa-peroxidasa KatG. Mutaciones en katG son las más comúnmente identificadas en cepas clínicas de M. tuberculosis resistentes a isoniacida, confiriendo altos niveles de resistencia. Sin embargo, el blanco molecular de acción para la isoniacida es la InhA, una enoil-ACP reductasa involucrada en la vía de síntesis de los ácidos micólicos. Otras mutaciones involucradas en la resistencia a la isoniacida afectan al gen ndh, que codifica para la NADH deshidrogenasa.Human tuberculosis is still one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide. Despite the implementation of therapeutic regimes combining four drugs, the rise of resistant and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has compromised their efficacy. Two of the most effective anti-tubercular drugs in use, rifampicin and isoniazid, have been closely studied due to their therapeutic importance. These studies have led to the identification of the genes involved in resistance mechanisms and of those

  5. The frequency of β-globin gene haplotypes, α-thalassemia and genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, factor V Leiden and prothrombin genes in children with sickle cell disease in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Frequência dos haplótipos da globina beta, da talassemia alfa e dos polimorfismos genéticos dos genes da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase, do fator V Leiden e da protrombina em crianças com doença falciforme no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac L. Silva Filho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A freqüência dos haplótipos beta S e beta C do gene da globina e a prevalência de talassemia alfa e de mutações nos genes da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase (MTHFR-C677T, do fator V de Leiden e da protrombina (G20210A foi estudada em crianças com doença falciforme do Rio de Janeiro. O haplótipo Bantu foi o mais freqüente (65,9%, 21,2% das crianças (18% heterozigotas e 3% homozigotas apresentam talassemia com mutação alfa 3.7kb, ao contrário da mutação alfa 4.2kb que não foi encontrada. Os alelos 677CT e 677TT da MTHFR foram observados em 20,2% e 4,8%, respectivamente. Os haplótipos Camarões, Árabe-Indiano e Senegal não foram detectados na amostra estudada, bem como mutações no gene do fator V de Leiden e da protrombina. Somente o haplótipo beta C CI foi observado. Esse é o primeiro estudo realizado em uma amostra proveniente do Programa de Triagem Neonatal para Hemoglobinopatias do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Apesar do Rio de Janeiro ser a segunda maior cidade brasileira e seus habitantes expressarem o elevado grau de miscigenação ocorrida no país, nossos resultados ainda coincidem com os registros históricos dos fluxos migratórios do gene beta S para o Brasil, bem como refletem a forte influência de indivíduos de origem africana na população do Rio de Janeiro.

  6. Biomass accumulation, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, nutrient contents and nitrate reductase activity in young rosewood plants (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke submitted to different NO3-:NH4+ ratios Acúmulo de biomassa, eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II, conteúdo de nutrientes e atividade da redutase do nitrato em plantas jovens de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke submetidas a diferentes relações NO3-:NH4+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Caranhas de Sousa Barreto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke is a native tree species of Amazon rainforest growing naturally in acidic forest soils with reduced redox potential. However, this species can also been found growing in forest gaps containing oxide soils. Variations in the forms of mineral nitrogen (NO3- or NH4+ may be predicted in these different edaphic conditions. Considering that possibility, an experiment was carried out to analyze the effects of different NO3-:NH4+ ratios on the growth performance, mineral composition, chloroplastid pigment contents, photochemical efficiency photosystem II (PSII, and nitrate redutase activity (RN, E.C.1.6.6.1 on A. rosaeodora seedlings. Nine-month-old seedlings were grown in pots with a washed sand capacity of 7.5 kg and submitted to different NO3-:NH4+ ratios (T1 = 0:100%, T2 = 25:75%, T3 = 50:50%, T4 = 75:25%, and T5 = 100:0%. The lowest relative growth rate was observed when the NO3-:NH4+ ratio was equal to 0:100%. In general, high concentrations of NO3- rather than NH4+ favored a greater nutrient accumulation in different parts of the plant. For the chloroplastid pigment, the highest Chl a, Chl b, Chl tot, Chl a/b and Chl tot/Cx+c contents were found in the treatment with 75:25% of NO3-:NH4+, and for Chl b and Cx+c it was observed no difference. In addition, there was a higher photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm when high NO3- concentrations were used. A linear and positive response for the nitrate reductase activity was recorded when the nitrate content increased on the culture substrate. Our results suggest that A. rosaeodora seedlings have a better growth performance when the NO3- concentrations in the culture substrate were higher than the NH4+ concentrations.O pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke habita, naturalmente, solos florestais ácidos com potencial redox reduzido. No entanto, estas espécies têm sido encontradas também em clareiras que, teoricamente, apresentam solos mais oxidados. Nestas diferentes

  7. Papel da redutase do nitrato em soja [Glycine max(L.) Merr. Cv IAC-17] sob condições de hipoxia do sistema radicular

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Dias Brandão

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: A soja [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.] tem sido um dos modelos mais usados entre as plantas cultivadas para estudar os efeitos de tolerância à hipóxia, já que é tida como uma planta com certo grau de tolerância ao estresse de oxigênio e sua importância também tem um caráter econômico bastante relevante. Condições de hipóxia são comuns na natureza, por exemplo em campos alagados onde a difusão de oxigênio para o sistema radicular fica bastante prejudicada. Quando o estresse ocorre em tempo pr...

  8. Mutations In The Methylene-tetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene And Down Syndrome [mutações No Gene Da Metilenotetrahidrofolato Redutase E Síndrome De Down.

    OpenAIRE

    Grillo L.B.; Acacio G.L.; Barini R.; Pinto Jr. W.; Bertuzzo C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a complex genetic and metabolic disorder attributed to the presence of three copies of chromosome 21. The extra chromosome derives from the mother in 93% of cases and is due to abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis (nondisjunction). Except for advanced age at conception, maternal risk factors for meiotic nondisjunction are not well established. A recent preliminary study suggested that abnormal folate metabolism and the 677 (C-->T) mutation in the methylene-tetr...

  9. Avaliação do tempo de secagem e da atividade de óxido-redutases de yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius sob tratamento químico Drying evaluation time and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius enzymatic activity inhibition under chemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne Montarroyos Padilha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidências científicas reconhecem o yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius como fonte promissora de frutanos, tais como inulina e frutooligossacarídeos (FOS. No entanto, a presença de compostos fenólicos torna-o suscetível à reação de escurecimento enzimático. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o emprego de agentes químicos no processamento de yacon, para obtenção de farinha, a fim de inibir o escurecimento enzimático do produto e favorecer o tempo de secagem. Amostras de yacon sem inibição química, de yacon submetido à solução de cloreto de cálcio 1,0g 100g-1 por 30 minutos e de yacon submetido à solução de metabissulfito de potássio 0,5g 100g-1 por 5 minutos foram secas a 55°C, em estufa ventilada, e o teor de água e curvas de secagem foram determinados. As atividades das enzimas peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO foram determinadas antes e após a secagem como um possível marcador bioquímico do escurecimento enzimático desse tubérculo. No parâmetro umidade, os três tratamentos apresentaram-se semelhantes; porém, o tratamento 2 (cloreto de cálcio reduziu a umidade no menor tempo. Antes e após o tratamento térmico, a atividade enzimática foi maior no tratamento 3 (metabissulfito de potássio. As atividades enzimáticas não foram inativadas completamente pela ação térmica. Para a obtenção da farinha de yacon, o tratamento com cloreto de cálcio 1,0g 100g-1 por 30 minutos foi o que apresentou melhor resultado. Apesar de não inibir totalmente a atividade das enzimas POD e PPO foi o melhor tratamento de inativação, propiciando menor tempo de secagem e melhor firmeza da matéria-prima e facilitando o processamento para obtenção da farinha.Scientific evidences acknowledged the yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius like a promise source of fructans, as inulin and fructooligosaccharides - FOS, meanwhile, the presence of phenolic coumpounds became this susceptible to enzimatic browning reaction. This project aimed to evaluate the use of chemical agents in yacon processing to obtain flour in a way that inhibits enzymatic darkening of the product besides determining the enzymatic activity in these treatments. Samples of yacon without chemical inhibitions, yacon treated with 1.0g 100g-1 calcium chloride for 30 seconds and yacon treated with 0.5g 100g-1 potassium metabisulfite for 5 minutes were dried at 55oC in a ventilated greenhouse and the proportions of humidity and drying curves were determined. The peroxidase activities and polyphenol oxidase enzymes were checked before and after being dried with an enzymatic darkening possible biochemist marker of this tubercle. Regarding humidity Parameter all the three treatment were equivalent, but treatment 2 (calcium chloride reduced the humidity in lower time. Before and after the thermal treatment the enzymatic activity was higher in treatment 3 (potassium metabisulfite. The thermal action did not inhibit completely polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase. The treatment with calcium chloride at 1.0g 100g-1 for 30 minutes to obtain yacon flour was the one with better result despite the fact that it did not inhibit completely peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzymes activity, offering a better drying time better material of row firmness , facilitating the process for obtaining the meal.

  10. A conservative region of the mercuric reductase gene (merA) as a molecular marker of bacterial mercury resistance Região conservada do gene da mercúrio redutase (merA) como marcador molecular da resistência bacteriana ao mercúrio

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Sotero-Martins; Michele Silva de Jesus; Michele Lacerda; Josino Costa Moreira; Ana Luzia Lauria Filgueiras; Paulo Rubens Guimarães Barrocas

    2008-01-01

    The most common bacterial mercury resistance mechanism is based on the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg0, which is dependent of the mercuric reductase enzyme (MerA) activity. The use of a 431 bp fragment of a conservative region of the mercuric reductase (merA) gene was applied as a molecular marker of this mechanism, allowing the identification of mercury resistant bacterial strains.O mecanismo de resistência bacteriana ao mercúrio mais comum é baseada na redução do Hg(II) a Hg0, através da ativida...

  11. Estudos cristalográficos em macromoléculas biológicas: Aplicações em calgranulina C de granulócitos porcinos, tripanotiona redutase deTrypanosoma cruzi e fosfolipase A2 extraída do veneno da serpente Bothrops moojeni.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Nonato Costa

    1997-01-01

    A cristalografia de raios-X e um método de singular importância para a determinação da estrutura de macromoléculas. A importância em resolver estruturas de proteínas continua a crescer em campos variando desde a bioquímica e biofísica básicas ate o desenvolvimento farmacêutico e biotecnologia. o presente trabalho esta relacionado com os estudos cristalográficos de três diferentes moléculas biológicas. Calgranulina C de granulócitos porcinos, uma proteína que liga cálcio, supostamente envolvid...

  12. La parenté hagiographique d’après Jacques de Voragine et les manuscrits enluminés de la Légende dorée (c. 1260-1490, thèse de doctorat sous la direction Jean-Claude Schmitt, soutenue le 6 septembre 2010 (INHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Maillet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cette thèse retrace l’histoire d’une parenté déviante et pourtant modélisante, racontée, répétée et représentée inlassablement à la fin du Moyen Âge. Pour tenter de définir la parenté hagiographique médiévale – notion qui s’avère d’emblée paradoxale tant cette l’hagiographie vise à minimiser l’importance des liens de parenté terrestres au profit des liens spirituels – l’enjeu de cette thèse repose sur l’établissement d’une triangulation entre parenté, hagiographie et images. Il y est question...

  13. Farmacocinética, metabolismo e excreção renal da doxorrubicina em pacientes com câncer de mama

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Francisco Pippa

    2016-01-01

    O presente estudo visa descrever a farmacocinética, o metabolismo e a excreção renal da doxorrubicina, uma antraciclina utilizada no tratamento do câncer de mama. A doxorrubicina é biotransformada a doxorrubicinol pelas enzimas carbonil redutase 1 e 3 e aldo-ceto redutase. Foram investigadas 12 pacientes portadoras de câncer de mama no primeiro ciclo de tratamento adjuvante ou neoadjuvante com doxorrubicina (60 mg/m2) administrada por infusão intravenosa durante 30 min. As amostras seriadas d...

  14. Outcomes of cancer surgery after inhalational and intravenous anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltanizadeh, Sinor; Degett, Thea H; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Perioperative factors are probably essential for different oncological outcomes. This systematic review investigates the literature concerning overall mortality and postoperative complications after cancer surgery with inhalational (INHA) and intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). A search was conducted...

  15. DIvERTICULE DE ZENKER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    origine de complications respiratoires aigues (détresse respiratoire aigue, pneumopathie d'inha- lation) ou chronique (bronchite chronique, asthme) qui surviennent dans 20 % des cas [8]. L'examen clinique est souvent normal. Cependant une.

  16. Epidemiology of Isoniazid Resistance Mutations and Their Effect on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyen, Mai N. T.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Buu, Tran N.; Lan, Nguyen T. N.; Dung, Nguyen H.; Kremer, Kristin; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2013-01-01

    Isoniazid resistance is highly prevalent in Vietnam. We investigated the molecular and epidemiological characteristics and the association with first-line treatment outcomes of the main isoniazid resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in codon 315 of the katG and in the promoter region of the inhA gene. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with phenotypic resistance to isoniazid from consecutively diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis patients in rural Vietnam were subjected to Genotype MTBDRplus testing to identify katG and inhA mutations. Treatment failure and relapse were determined by sputum culture. In total, 227 of 251 isoniazid-resistant strains (90.4%) had detectable mutations: 75.3% in katG codon 315 (katG315) and 28.2% in the inhA promoter region. katG315 mutations were significantly associated with pretreatment resistance to streptomycin, rifampin, and ethambutol but not with the Beijing genotype and predicted both unfavorable treatment outcome (treatment failure or death) and relapse; inhA promoter region mutations were only associated with resistance to streptomycin and relapse. In tuberculosis patients, M. tuberculosis katG315 mutations but not inhA mutations are associated with unfavorable treatment outcome. inhA mutations do, however, increase the risk of relapse, at least with treatment regimens that contain only isoniazid and ethambutol in the continuation phase. PMID:23689727

  17. Action mechanism of inhibin α-subunit on the development of Sertoli cells and first wave of spermatogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailai Cai

    Full Text Available Inhibin is an important marker of Sertoli cell (SC activity in animals with impaired spermatogenesis. However, the precise relationship between inhibin and SC activity is unknown. To investigate this relationship, we partially silenced both the transcription and translation of the gene for the α-subunit of inhibin, Inha, using recombinant pshRNA vectors developed with RNAi-Ready pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen Vector (Clontech Laboratories, Mountain View, Calif. We found that Inha silencing suppresses the cell-cycle regulators Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E and up-regulates the cell-cycle inhibitor P21 (as detected by Western blot analysis, thereby increasing the number of SCs in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and decreasing the amount in the S-phase of the cell cycle (as detected by flow cytometry. Inha silencing also suppressed Pdgfa, Igf1, and Kitl mRNA levels and up-regulated Tgfbrs, Inhba, Inhbb, Cyp11a1, Dhh, and Tjp1 mRNA levels (as indicated by real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR] analysis. These findings indicate that Inha has the potential to influence the availability of the ligand inhibin and its antagonist activin in the SC in an autocrine manner and inhibit the progression of SC from G1 to S. It may also participate in the development of the blood-testis barrier, Leydig cells, and spermatogenesis through its effect on Dhh, Tjp1, Kitl, and Pdgfa. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses of Inha, Inhba, and Inhbb mRNA and Inha levels over time show that Inha plays an important role in the formation of round spermatid during the first wave of spermatogenesis in mice.

  18. Preparation of alginate–chitosan–cyclodextrin micro- and nanoparticles loaded with anti-tuberculosis compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Ivancic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and application of alginate–chitosan–cyclodextrin micro- and nanoparticulate systems loaded with isoniazid (INH and isoconazole nitrate (ISN as antimycobacterial compounds. Preparation and morphology of the obtained particles, as well as antimycobacterial activity data of the obtained systems are presented. Docking of isoconazole into the active site of enoyl–acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA of Mycobacetrium tuberculosis was carried out in order to predict the binding affinity and non-covalent interactions stabilizing the InhA–isoconazole complex. To assess these interactions, frontier molecular orbital calculations were performed for the active site of InhA and isoconazole obtained from docking. Isoconazole was predicted to be an active inhibitor of InhA with the analysis of the molecular docking and electron density distribution. It has been detected that alginate–chitosan–cyclodextrin microparticulate systems loaded with INH and ISN are as effective as pure INH applied in higher dosages.

  19. Recognizing Multi-user Activities using Wearable Sensors in a Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Gu, Tao; Tao, Xianping

    2010-01-01

    The advances of wearable sensors and wireless networks oer many opportunities to recognize human activities from sensor readings in pervasive computing. Existing work so far focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user in a home environment. However, there are typically multiple inha...

  20. Investigation of isoniazid and ethionamide cross-resistance by whole genome sequencing and association with poor treatment outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Malinga

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Baseline ETH molecular resistance before second-line treatment is a concern. Unfavorable treatment outcomes of patients with ethA, ethR, and inhA mutations highlight the importance of genotypic testing before initiation of treatment containing ETH. The clinical significance of whole genome analysis for early detection of mutations predictive of treatment failure needs further investigation.

  1. Microbiological characteristics of waters in the major rivers in Kainji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Historical/cultural site viewing, Sport fishing and Recrea- tion. The park workers and thousands of farmers inha- biting the park depend on the waters in the rivers for drinking and domestic use. Thousands of tourists also visit the park annually. Pollution can be defined as the introduction into the environment of substances or ...

  2. Syntheses of copper complexes of nicotinohydroxamic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotinohydroxamic acid (NHA) and isonicotinohydroxamic acid (INHA) were synthesized, characterized by electronic and spectral studies,magnetic measurements and their pKa determined spectrophotometrically as 8.68 ± 0.02 in aqueous medium of 0.1mol dm-3 I=ionic strength. The composition of the complexes was ...

  3. Mn and Btex Reference Value Arrays (Final Reports)

    Science.gov (United States)

    These final reports are a summary of reference value arrays with critical supporting documentation for the chemicals manganese, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. Each chemical is covered in a separate document, and each is a statement of the status of the available inha...

  4. Une esthétique débordée ? : Quand les nouveaux médias mettent le cinéma à l'ouvrage... (à propos de Melancholia de Lars von Trier)

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bihan, Loig

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Communication inédite faite le 18 février 2012 au colloque international "Tout ce que l'esthétique permet !" (organisé à l'INHA par l'université Paris 3, centre de recherche IRCAV (CRECI), dir. Térésa Faucon & Barbara Lemaître) : pas de publication d'actes.

  5. Effect of revaccination with BCG in early childhood on mortality: randomised trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, A.E.; Benn, Christine Stabell; Ravn, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether BCG revaccination at 19 months of age reduces overall child mortality. Design Randomised trial, with follow-up to age 5. Setting A health project in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area with 90 000 inha...

  6. Designing pH-responsive and dielectric hydrogels from cellulose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Xiaoyuan Gao1 Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni1 Hyun-Chan Kim1 Seung-Ki Min1 Jaehwan Kim1. Center for EAPap Actuator, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-Dong, Nam-Ku, Incheon 402-751, South Korea ...

  7. Triclosan Derivatives: Towards Potent Inhibitors of Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freundlich, Joel S.; Wang, Feng; Vilchèze, Catherine; Gulten, Gulcin; Langley, Robert; Schiehser, Guy A.; Jacobus, David P.; Jacobs, Jr., William R.; Sacchettini, James C.; (Einstein); (TAM); (Jacobus)

    2009-06-30

    Isoniazid (INH) is a frontline antitubercular drug that inhibits the enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase InhA. Novel inhibitors of InhA that are not cross-resistant to INH represent a significant goal in antitubercular chemotherapy. The design, synthesis, and biological activity of a series of triclosan-based inhibitors is reported, including their promising efficacy against INH-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Triclosan has been previously shown to inhibit InhA, an essential enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis, the inhibition of which leads to the lysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using a structure-based drug design approach, a series of 5-substituted triclosan derivatives was developed. Two groups of derivatives with alkyl and aryl substituents, respectively, were identified with dramatically enhanced potency against purified InhA. The most efficacious inhibitor displayed an IC{sub 50} value of 21 nM, which was 50-fold more potent than triclosan. X-ray crystal structures of InhA in complex with four triclosan derivatives revealed the structural basis for the inhibitory activity. Six selected triclosan derivatives were tested against isoniazid-sensitive and resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Among those, the best inhibitor had an MIC value of 4.7 {mu}g mL{sup -1} (13 {mu}M), which represents a tenfold improvement over the bacteriocidal activity of triclosan. A subset of these triclosan analogues was more potent than isoniazid against two isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis strains, demonstrating the significant potential for structure-based design in the development of next generation antitubercular drugs.

  8. Efeitos neuromusculares in vitro e in vivo do atracúrio e do rocurônio em ratos submetidos a tratamento de sete dias com carbamazepina

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelos,Caroline Coutinho de; Braga,Angélica de Fátima de Assunção; Braga,Franklin Sarmento da Silva; Potério,Gloria Braga; Fernandes,Samanta Cristina Antoniassi; Franco,Yoko Oshima; Simioni,Léa Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Trata-se de um estudo experimental que investigou in vitro e in vivo o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio e atracúrio em ratos tratados com carbamazepina e determinou as concentrações de citocromo P450 e b5 redutase em microssomos hepáticos. MÉTODO: Ratos foram tratados por sete dias com carbamazepina (CBZ) - 40 mg.kg-1 pelo método de gavagem e sacrificados no oitavo dia sob anestesia com uretana. As preparações in vitro e in vivo foram montadas de acor...

  9. Métodos eletroforéticos e cromatográficos aplicados para a determinação simultânea de fármacos hipolipidêmicos em medicamentos

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Marcos Callejo de Souza

    2015-01-01

    A ezetimiba e a sinvastatina são fármacos hipolipidêmicos. A ezetimiba pertence à nova classe das 2 - azetidinona, inibidores e bloqueadores do colesterol intestinal. A sinvastatina pertence à classe dos inibidores competitivos da hidroxi-3-metilglutarilcoenzima A redutase (HMG-CoA), que é a última etapa regulada na síntese do colesterol. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver e validar métodos por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiência (HPLC) e eletroforese capilar (CE), rápidos, seletivos...

  10. Redução de nitrato em plantas jovens de café cultivadas em diferentes níveis de luz e de nitrogênio Nitrate reduction in young coffee trees grown under different levels of light and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Carvalho Carelli

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito de níveis de luz e de nitrogênio na atividade da enzima redutase de nitrato e nos teores de nitrato e de açúcares nas folhas de plantas jovens de café (Coffea arabica L, assim como as possíveis relações entre a disponibilidade desses compostos e a atividade enzimática. Foram utilizadas plantas de dez meses de idade cultivadas em vasos contendo uma mistura de terra mais composto, e mantidas em condições ambientais em pleno sol e em 50% da luz solar. Metade das plantas de cada tratamento de luz foi suplementada semanalmente com nitrogênio. Os resultados mostraram que a atividade da redutase de nitrato, nos dois tratamentos de luz, foi maior nas plantas suplementadas com nitrogênio. Para um mesmo nível de nitrogênio, as plantas cultivadas em pleno sol apresentaram menor atividade da redutase de nitrato, maiores teores de nitrato e de açúcares e maiores taxas de transpiração, do que as cultivadas na sombra. Tais resultados indicam que a menor atividade da redutase de nitrato nas plantas cultivadas em pleno sol aparentemente não foi devida a limitações na disponibilidade de nitrato e de açúcares para fornecer a energia necessária para a redução de nitrato.The effect of levels of light and nitrogen on the activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase and its relationship with the availability of sugars and nitrate was studied in leaves of coffee plants (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catual. Ten month old plants were grown on pots containing a mixture of soil and compost, and were kept at full or 50% sunlight. Half of the plants of each light treatment received nitrogen supply. The results showed that the activity of nitrate reductase was higher on plants supplied with nitrogen at both light treatments. For the same nitrogen level, plants grown under full sunlight presented lower nitrate reductase activity, higher nitrate and sugars concentrations, and higher transpiration rates than plants kept at 50% sunlight

  11. Characterization of mutations causing rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madania, Ammar; Habous, Maya; Zarzour, Hana; Ghoury, Ifad; Hebbo, Barea

    2012-01-01

    In order to characterize mutations causing rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of M. tuberculosis in Syria, 69 rifampicin resistant (Rif(r)) and 72 isoniazid resistant (Inh(r)) isolates were screened for point mutations in hot spots of the rpoB, katG and inhA genes by DNA sequencing and real time PCR. Of 69 Rif(r) isolates, 62 (90%) had mutations in the rifampin resistance determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene, with codons 531 (61%), 526 (13%), and 516 (8.7%) being the most commonly mutated. We found two new mutations (Asp516Thr and Ser531Gly) described for the first time in the rpoB-RRDR in association with rifampicin resistance. Only one mutation (Ile572Phe) was found outside the rpoB-RRDR. Of 72 Inh(r) strains, 30 (41.6%) had a mutation in katGcodon315 (with Ser315Thr being the predominant alteration), and 23 (32%) harbored the inhA(-15C-->T) mutation. While the general pattern of rpoB-RRDR and katG mutations reflected those found worldwide, the prevalence of the inhA(-15C-->T mutation was above the value found in most other countries, emphasizing the great importance of testing the inhA(-15C-->T) mutation for prediction of isoniazid resistance in Syria. Sensitivity of a rapid test using real time PCR and 3'-Minor groove binder (MGB) probes in detecting Rif(r) and Inh(r) isolates was 90% and 69.4%, respectively. This demonstrates that a small set of MGB-probes can be used in real time PCR in order to detect most mutations causing resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid.

  12. Polymorphisms in Isoniazid and Prothionamide Resistance Genes of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex

    KAUST Repository

    Projahn, M.

    2011-06-27

    Sequence analyses of 74 strains that encompassed major phylogenetic lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex revealed 10 polymorphisms in mshA (Rv0486) and four polymorphisms in inhA (Rv1484) that were not responsible for isoniazid or prothionamide resistance. Instead, some of these mutations were phylogenetically informative. This genetic diversity must be taken into consideration for drug development and for the design of molecular tests for drug resistance.

  13. Mutaciones asociadas con resistencia a rifampicina o isoniazida en aislamientos clínicos de M. tuberculosis de Sonora, México DNA mutations associated to rifampicin or isoniazid resistance in M. tuberculosis clinical isolates from Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Bolado-Martínez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar el análisis de regiones específicas de genes asociados con resistencia a isoniazida o rifampicina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 22 cepas de M. tuberculosis, aisladas en Sonora, México. Se utilizaron iniciadores para regiones específicas de los genes rpoB, katG e inhA y la región ahpC-oxyR. Los productos de PCR se secuenciaron y analizaron. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron mutaciones en la región promotora del gen inhA, región ahpC-oxyR, codón 315 del gen katG y codones 451 ó 456 del gen rpoB. CONCLUSIONES: La identificación de mutaciones no descritas previamente obliga a continuar el análisis genotípico de cepas aisladas en Sonora.OBJECTIVE: To perform the analysis of specific regions of the major genes associated with resistance to isoniazid or rifampin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty two M. tuberculosis strains, isolated from human samples obtained in Sonora, Mexico. Specific primers for hotspots of the rpoB, katG, inhA genes and the ahpC-oxyR intergenic region were used. The purified PCR products were sequenced. RESULTS: Mutations in the promoter of inhA, the ahpC-oxyR region, and codon 315 of katG and in 451 or 456 codons of rpoB, were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of mutations not previously reported requires further genotypic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Sonora.

  14. Study on the Fabrication and Characterization of Piezoelectric Paper Made With Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-07

    alignment of the chiral nematic phase of a cellulose microfibril suspension. Langmuir 21:2034-2037. Bordel D, Putaux JL, Heux L (2006) Orientation of...Final Report: AOARD-07-4073 Study on the Fabrication and Characterization of Piezoelectric Paper made with Cellulose •Prof. Jaehwan Kim...jaehwan@inha.ac.kr, webpage: www.EAPap.com ABSTRACT This report deals piezoelectric paper made with cellulose by mechanically and electrically

  15. A New Paradigm for Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    versus controls. Interestingly, a number of genes are associated with folliculogenesis and oogenesis. Further studies will be focused on exploiting the...ovaries and antibodies directed to inhibin alpha (INHA), forkhead box L2 (FOXL2), and DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 4 (DDX4...not develop ovarian tumors, making them unsuitable for the proposed experiment. Thus, we made a minor modification of the experimental approach to

  16. Análisis del impacto de los principales museos de Asia

    OpenAIRE

    HUA, SAI

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Today, Museum and Institutions have tried to adapt the change of society and technology, and the social networks are the best way to create this environment. In recent years, Western museums and Institutions have been connected with social networks for getting more diffusion. But in Asia, the implementation of these social networks, due to the political, economic and social requirements, Asia has their own social networks, in the interest for increasing the social branch between its inha...

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis Strain 4.0718 at Different Growth Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth process of Bacillus thuringiensis Bt4.0718 strain was studied using proteomic technologies. The proteins of Bt whole cells at three phases—middle vegetative, early sporulation, and late sporulation—were extracted with lysis buffer, followed with separation by 2-DE and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Bioactive factors such as insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs including Cry1Ac(3, Cry2Aa, and BTRX28, immune inhibitor (InhA, and InhA precursor were identified. InhA started to express at the middle vegetative phase, suggesting its contribution to the survival of Bt in the host body. At the early sporulation phase, ICPs started their expression. CotJC, OppA, ORF1, and SpoIVA related to the formation of crystals and spores were identified, the expression characteristics of which ensured the stable formation of crystals and spores. This study provides an important foundation for further exploration of the stable expression of ICPs, the smooth formation of crystals, and the construction of recombinant strains.

  18. Isoniazid acetylating phenotype in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis and its relationship with serum sulfadoxin levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Barraviera

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated the isoniazid acetylating phenotype and measured hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities plus serum sulfadoxin levels in 39 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (33 males and 6 females aged 17 to 58 years. Twenty one (53.84% of the patients presented a slow acetylatingphenotype and 18(46.16% a fast acetylating phenotype. Glucose-6-phosphate- dehydrogenase (G6PD acti vity was decreased in 5(23.80% slow acetylators and in 4(22.22% fast acetylators. Glutathione reductase activity was decreased in 14 (66.66% slow acetylators and in 12 (66.66% fast acetylators. Serum levels of free and total sulfadoxin Were higher in slow acetylator (p Os autores avaliaram o fenótipo acetilador da isoniazida, hematócrito, hemoglobina, atividade da glicose-6- fosfato desidrogenase, glutationa redutase e os níveis séricos de sulfadoxina de 39 doentes com paracoccidíoidomicose, senão 33 do sexo masculino e 6 do feminino, com idades compreendidas entre 17 e 58 anos. Vinte e um (53,84% doentes apresentaram fenótipo acetilador lento e 18 (46,16% rápido. A atividade da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (G6PD esteve diminuída em 5 (23,80% acetiladores lentos e 4 (22,22% rápidos. A atividade da glutationa redutase esteve diminuída em 14 (66,66% acetiladores lentos e 12 (66,66% rápidos. Os níveis séricos de sulfadoxina livre e total foram maiores nos acetiladores lentos (p < 0,02. A análise dos resultados permite concluir que os níveis séricos de sulfadoxina relaciona-se com o fenótipo acetilador. Além disso, os níveis estiveram sempre acima de 50 µg/ml, níveis estes considerados terapêuticos. Por outro lado, a deficiência de glutationa redutase pode estar relacionada com a má absorção intestinal de nutrientes, entre eles riboflavina, vitamina precursora de FAD.

  19. Atividade enzimática em variedades de cana-de-açúcar cultivadas in vitro sob diferentes níveis de nitrogênio Enzymatic activity in sugar cane varieties cultivated in vitro under nitrogen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Maria Tenório Sabino Donato

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available O nitrogênio é considerado o elemento mineral mais abundante nas plantas, sendo componente essencial de biomoléculas e inúmeras enzimas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência no processo de assimilação do nitrogênio e encontrar parâmetros indicativos do potencial de fixação biológica em variedades de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum cultivadas in vitro. Foram utilizadas as variedades de cana-de-açúcar RB 842021, RB 83102, RB 75126, RB 882980 e Co 997, além da Brachiaria arrecta (testemunha, cultivadas in vitro em diferentes níveis de nitrogênio [M1 (9,83 mM, M2 (2,46 mM, M3 (0,49 mM, M4 (0,0 mM]. Todas as variedades e a cultura testemunha (Brachiaria arrecta apresentaram atividade da nitrato redutase (NR constitutiva e também da glutamina sintetase (GS, mesmo na ausência de amônio e nitrato no meio de cultura. A variedade RB 842021 apresentou a maior atividade da nitrato redutase e o maior conteúdo de clorofilas a e b, e a variedade RB 882980 a maior atividade da glutamina sintetase nas mesmas condições de cultivo, o que pode representar maior potencial de assimilação do nitrogênio.Nitrogen is considered the most abundant mineral element in the plants and an essential component to biomolecules and several enzymes. The objective of this work was to estimate nitrogen assimilation efficiency process and to identify biological fixation potential parameters on sugar cane varieties cultivated in vitro. The sugar cane varieties used were RB 842021, RB 83102, RB 75126, RB 882980, CO 997, besides Brachiaria arrecta (witness, cultivated in vitro in different nitrogen levels [M1 (9.83 mM, M2 (2.46 mM, M3 (0.49 mM, M4 (0.0 mM]. All the varieties and plant witness (Brachiaria arrecta exhibited redutase nitrate activity and glutamina sintetase, even in the ammonium and nitrate absence culture media. The RB 842021 variety showed the highest activity of nitrate reductase and the higher chlorophyll a and b contents

  20. Avaliação da qualidade do leite cru e resfriado mediante a aplicação de princípios do APPCC Evaluation of the quality of raw and cool milk using HACCP guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Souza da Rosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade do leite cru e resfriado produzido no município de Canguçu - RS, através da aplicação de princípios do APPCC. Inicialmente, aplicou-se um plano de amostragem simples conforme norma ABC-STD-105, sendo elaboradas cartas controle para os parâmetros redutase, mastite e temperatura. As amostras de leite foram avaliadas quanto aos parâmetros contagem de aeróbios mesófilos, psicrotróficos, redutase, acidez, mastite, índice crioscópico, prova do álcool e resíduos de antibióticos. Os resultados possibilitaram a seleção de quatro rotas de captação do leite e vinte produtores, determinando-se um limite de controle para o parâmetro redutase de 321 minutos, mediante a equação Y = 2,35 x 10(7 - 7,01 x 10(4.X (r = -0,9284. A partir da relação existente entre a contagem de aeróbios mesófilos e psicrotróficos (r = 0,8561, obteve-se, conforme a equação Y = -8,73 x 10(4 + 0,3209 X, um limite de controle para psicrotróficos de 2,33 x 10(5 UFC.mL-1. Em virtude destes resultados, conclui-se que 80,0% das amostras estão acima do limite de controle estabelecido para a redutase, comportamento que se repete em 65,0% das amostras na contagem de psicrotróficos, caracterizando a existência de problemas nas etapas de resfriamento do leite e ordenha, as quais representam dois pontos críticos de controle, contribuindo com a perda de qualidade do leite.The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of raw and cool milk produced in the municipal district of Canguçu - RS by using guidelines of the HACCP system. Initially, a sampling plan according to norm ABC-STD-105 was set up, and letters for the reductase, mastitis and temperature parameters were developed. The milk samples were evaluated in terms of the parameters total count of aerobious mesophiles, psycotrophic, reductase, acidity, mastitis, cryoscopic index, proof of alcohol and antibiotic residues. The results made it possible to

  1. Inibição, por sinvastatina, da respiração mitocondrial de biopsias de musculo esqueletico e figado de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Gadioli La Guardia

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: Inibidores da 3-hidroxi-3-metilglutaril-CoA redutase (estatinas) são fármacos utilizados para diminuir os níveis plasmáticos de colesterol e são, geralmente, seguros e bem tolerados. Ocasionalmente esses fármacos induzem miotoxicidade, como miopatia e rabdomiólise, e hepatotoxicidade. Neste trabalho investigou-se o mecanismo, in vitro e in vivo, pelo qual as estatinas atuam sobre a respiração mitocondrial de biópsias de músculo esquelético e de fígado de ratos. A incubação (1 hora) de...

  2. Acidente Vascular Cerebral Isquémico num Lactente Filho de Mãe Vegana

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Joana; Ezequiel, Marta; Luís, Catarina

    2018-01-01

    O acidente vascular cerebral é uma doença rara na infância (2,7 por 100 000 crianças por ano). A hiperhomocisteinemia é um fator de risco independente para a aterosclerose prematura, sendo habitualmente secundário a mutações na enzima metiltetrahidrofolato redutase ou défice de vitamina B12, na idade pediátrica. Descreve-se o caso clínico de um lactente de 10 meses, observado no serviço de urgência por queda da própria altura, com diminuição dos movimentos espontâneos do hemicorpo esquerdo e ...

  3. Lisotipia Vi e classificação bioquímica de amostras de Salmonella typhi isoladas no Estado da Guanabara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Hofer

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Na presente investigação, os autores estudaram a distribuição dos lisótipos Ví, tipos fermentativos e tetrationato-redutase, em 110 amostras de Salmonella typhi, isoladas no período de 1966-1970, no Estado da Guanabara. Para estabelecer uma melhor configuração epidemiológica dos resultados, fez-se a divisão do Estado em seis regiões, respectivamente as zonas Sul, Centro, Norte, da E. F. Central, da E. F. Leopoldina e rural. Obteve-se no cômputo geral, a prevalência dos lisótipos A (59,09%, E 1a (19,09%, T (7,27% e amostras Vi negativas (4,55%. Verificou-se ainda, que cerca de 70,90% das culturas foram classificadas no tipo fermentativo II, segundo esquema de Kristensen e 95,42% das amostras revelaram-se positivas na prova de detecção da tetrationato-redutase.In the present investigation, the authors have studied the distribution of lysotypes, fermentative types and tetrathionate- reductase in 110 strains of Salmonella typhi, isolated from hemocultures during the period 1966-1970, in the State of Guanabara, Brazil. In order to establish a better epidemiological configuration of the results, this study has been divided and effected in the six following regions: south, middle, north at the Central Railway, the Leopoldina Railway and the rural district. As a general outcome a predomination of the lysotypes A, E 1a, T and negative Vi strains has been obtained. It has stil been verified that 70,90% of the cultures were classified fermentative type Ii and that 95,42% of the strains were tetrathionate-reductase positives.

  4. Synthesis, antimycobacterial activity and docking study of 2-aroyl-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-one derivatives and related hydrazide-hydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Violina T; Valcheva, Violeta; Pencheva, Tania; Voynikov, Yulian; Vassilev, Nikolay; Mihaylova, Rositsa; Momekov, Georgi; Shivachev, Boris

    2017-07-01

    A new convenient method for preparation of 2-aroyl-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-one derivatives 5b-g and coumarin containing hydrazide-hydrazone analogues 4a-e was presented. The antimycobacterial activity against reference strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and cytotoxicity against the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK-293 were tested in vitro. All compounds demonstrated significant minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging 0.28-1.69μM, which were comparable to those of isoniazid. The cytotoxicity (IC 50 >200µM) to the "normal cell" model HEK-293T exhibited by 2-aroyl-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-one derivatives 5b-e, was noticeably milder compared to that of their hydrazone analogues 4a-e (IC 50 33-403µM). Molecular docking studies on compounds 4a-e and 5b-g were also carried out to investigate their binding to the 2-trans-enoyl-ACP reductase (InhA) enzyme involved in M. tuberculosis cell wall biogenesis. The binding model suggested one or more hydrogen bonding and/or arene-H or arene-arene interactions between hydrazones or pyrazole-fused coumarin derivatives and InhA enzyme for all synthesized compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Use of Genotype MTBDRplus Assay for Diagnosis of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Maharjan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aims of this study were to study the patterns of mutations in rpoB, katG, and inhA genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients from Nepal and to evaluate the performance of genotype MTBDRplus assay, taking conventional drug susceptibility testing as gold standard for diagnosis of MDR-TB. A total of 69 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from 73 smear positive sputum samples from patients suspected of suffering from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were used in our study. The drug susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from these sputum specimens was determined by using genotype MTBDRplus assay taking conventional drug susceptibility testing as reference. The sensitivity and specificity of the genotype MTBDRplus assay for the detection of MDR-TB were found to be 88.7% and 100%, respectively. 88.7% of the rifampicin resistant isolates had mutations in rpoB gene. Similarly, 79.7% and 9.4% of isoniazid resistant isolates had mutations in katG and inhA genes, respectively. Genotype MTBDRplus assay was found to be very rapid and highly sensitive and specific method for diagnosis of MDR-TB and will be very helpful for early diagnosis of MDR-TB in high tuberculosis burden countries.

  6. Target Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Phenotypic Hits Using a Concerted Chemogenomic, Biophysical, and Structural Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mugumbate

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium phenotypic hits are a good reservoir for new chemotypes for the treatment of tuberculosis. However, the absence of defined molecular targets and modes of action could lead to failure in drug development. Therefore, a combination of ligand-based and structure-based chemogenomic approaches followed by biophysical and biochemical validation have been used to identify targets for Mycobacterium tuberculosis phenotypic hits. Our approach identified EthR and InhA as targets for several hits, with some showing dual activity against these proteins. From the 35 predicted EthR inhibitors, eight exhibited an IC50 below 50 μM against M. tuberculosis EthR and three were confirmed to be also simultaneously active against InhA. Further hit validation was performed using X-ray crystallography yielding eight new crystal structures of EthR inhibitors. Although the EthR inhibitors attain their activity against M. tuberculosis by hitting yet undefined targets, these results provide new lead compounds that could be further developed to be used to potentiate the effect of EthA activated pro-drugs, such as ethionamide, thus enhancing their bactericidal effect.

  7. Aqueous Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the M. tuberculosis Enoyl-ACP Reductase-NADH System and Its Complex with a Substrate Mimic or Diphenyl Ethers Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Henrique da Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics (MD simulations of 12 aqueous systems of the NADH-dependent enoyl-ACP reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (InhA were carried out for up to 20–40 ns using the GROMACS 4.5 package. Simulations of the holoenzyme, holoenzyme-substrate, and 10 holoenzyme-inhibitor complexes were conducted in order to gain more insight about the secondary structure motifs of the InhA substrate-binding pocket. We monitored the lifetime of the main intermolecular interactions: hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts. Our MD simulations demonstrate the importance of evaluating the conformational changes that occur close to the active site of the enzyme-cofactor complex before and after binding of the ligand and the influence of the water molecules. Moreover, the protein-inhibitor total steric (ELJ and electrostatic (EC interaction energies, related to Gly96 and Tyr158, are able to explain 80% of the biological response variance according to the best linear equation, pKi = 7.772 − 0.1885 × Gly96 + 0.0517 × Tyr158 (R2 = 0.80; n = 10, where interactions with Gly96, mainly electrostatic, increase the biological response, while those with Tyr158 decrease. These results will help to understand the structure-activity relationships and to design new and more potent anti-TB drugs.

  8. Mechanisms of first-line antimicrobial resistance in multi-drug and extensively drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navisha Dookie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, drug resistant tuberculosis is a major public health crisis in the face of the colossal HIV pandemic. Methods In an attempt to understand the distribution of drug resistance in our setting, we analysed the rpoB, katG, inhA, pncA and embB genes associated with resistance to key drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the KwaZulu-Natal province. Results Classical mutations were detected in the katG, inhA and embB genes associated with resistance to isoniazid and ethambutol. Diverse mutations were recorded in the multidrug resistant (MDR and extensively drug resistant (XDR isolates for the rpoB and pncA gene associated with resistance to rifampicin and pyrazinamide. Conclusions M.tuberculosis strains circulating in our setting display a combination of previously observed mutations, each mediating resistance to a different drug. The MDR and XDR TB isolates analysed in this study displayed classical mutations linked to INH and EMB resistance, whilst diverse mutations were linked to RIF and PZA resistance. The similarity of the XDR strains confirms reports of the clonality of the XDR epidemic. The successful dissemination of the drug resistant strains in the province underscores the need for rapid diagnostics to effectively diagnose drug resistance and guide treatment.

  9. Significance of Coexisting Mutations on Determination of the Degree of Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Galbokka Hewage Roshanthi Eranga; Wijesundera, Sandhya Sulochana; Vidanagama, Dhammika; Adikaram, Chamila Priyangani; Perera, Jennifer

    2018-04-23

    The emergence and spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) pose a threat to TB control in Sri Lanka. Isoniazid (INH) is a key element of the first-line anti-TB treatment regimen. Resistance to INH is mainly associated with point mutations in katG, inhA, and ahpC genes. The objective of this study was to determine mutations of these three genes in INH-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) strains in Sri Lanka. Complete nucleotide sequence of the three genes was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to DNA sequencing. Point mutations in the katG gene were identified in 93% isolates, of which the majority (78.6%) were at codon 315. Mutations at codons 212 and 293 of the katG gene have not been reported previously. Novel mutations were recognized in the promoter region of the inhA gene (C deletion at -34), fabG1 gene (codon 27), and ahpC gene (codon 39). Single S315T mutation in the katG gene led to a high level of resistance, while a low level of resistance with high frequency (41%) was observed when katG codon 315 coexisted with the mutation at codon 463. Since most of the observed mutations of all three genes coexisted with the katG315 mutation, screening of katG315 mutations will be a useful marker for molecular detection of INH resistance of MTb in Sri Lanka.

  10. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Sudanese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solima M. A. Sabeel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently, mutations in rpoB, KatG, and rrs genes and inhA promoter were considered to be involved in conferring resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, and streptomycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. Objective. The aims of this study were to detect the prevalence of first-line tuberculosis (TB drug resistance among a group of previously treated and newly detected TB patients, to determine the association between prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR and demographic information (age and sex, to explain genes correlated with MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and to characterize MTB via 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA analysis. Methods. A hundred MTB isolates from Sudanese pulmonary TB patients were included in the study. The proportional method of drug susceptibility test was carried out on Löwenstein-Jensen media. Multiplex PCR of rpoB and KatG genes and inhA promoter was conducted; then rrs genes were amplified by conventional PCR and were sequenced. The sequences of the PCR product were compared with known rrs gene sequences in the GenBank database by multiple sequence alignment tools. Result. The prevalence of MDR was 14.7% among old cases and 5.3% among newly diagnosed cases. Conclusion. Mutations in rrs could be considered as a diagnostic marker.

  11. Caracterização de miopatias mitocondriais através da avaliação das atividades enzimáticas envolvidas no metabolismo energético Characterization of mitochondrial myopathies through the evaluation of the enzymatic activities involved in the energetic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Cesar Pedroso

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinada a atividade das enzimas NADH desidiogenase, NADH citocromo e redutase, succinato desidiogenase, succinato citocromo e redutase, citocromo e oxidase e citrato sintase em mitocôndrias de músculo esquelético humano normal e doente (suspeito de miopatia mitocondrial. O grupo controle foi constituído de 13 indivíduos normais e que não faziam uso contínuo de fárrnacos. O grupo doente era constituído de 10 pacientes cujo diagnóstico anatomopatológico indicava suspeita de miopatia mitocondrial. Observou-se redução na atividade das enzimas em todos os pacientes: 7 com anormalidades em todas as enzimas ensaiadas; 2 com deficiências em todas as enzimas exceto na citocromo e oxidase; e 1 paciente com disfunção apenas na atividade da succinato desidiogenase e succinato citocromo e redutase. Este perfil possibilitou caracterizar múltiplas deficiências ou deficiência combinada da cadeia respiratória, além da disfunção na citrato sintase em 9 pacientes. Um dos casos constituiu exceção, sendo a deficiência enzimática restrita ao complexo II. Foi possível concluir que a metodologia usada é adequada e facilmente aplicável aos objetivos clínicos. Os resultados obtidos possibilitam a caracterização dos complexos enzimáticos mitocondriais deficientes, mostrando que tais enfermidades são originadas de disfunção no metabolismo energético.The activities of the enzymes NADH dehydrogenase, NADH cytochrome e reductase, succinate dehydrogenase, succinate cytochrome e reductase, cytochrome e oxidase and citrate synthase in normal and sick human skeletal muscle mitochondria were determined. A control group was formed by 13 normal people and without using continuous medication. The patient group was formed by 10 people whose pathological diagnosis indicated suspicion of mitochondrial myopathy. A decrease in the activity of the enzymes in all patient was observed: 7 with abnormality in all the tested enzymes; 2 with

  12. Eficiência na absorção e utilização de nitrogênio e atividade enzimática em genótipos de milho Nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency and enzymatic activity in maize genotypes

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    Lucimar Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar o emprego dos componentes da eficiência no uso de nitrogênio e das atividades das enzimas nitrato redutase e glutamina sintetase na seleção de genótipos de milho eficientes no uso de nitrogênio (N. Foram avaliados 10 genótipos de milho em estádio de V4 em condições de alto e baixo N. O experimento foi composto por um fatorial 2 x 10 (dois níveis de N e 10 genótipos de milho em delineamento inteiramente casualizados com três repetições. Os seguintes caracteres foram avaliados: as eficiências na absorção (EAbN, na utilização (EUtN e no uso de N (EUsN e as atividades das enzimas glutamina sintetase (GS e nitrato redutase (NR. Para os caracteres que o efeito de genótipos foi significativo (pThe aim of this study was to investigate the employment of components of the nitrogen efficiency use (NUE, and of the activities of the nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase enzymes in the selection of nitrogen use efficient maize genotypes of maize. Ten maize genotypes at V4 stage were evaluated under high and low N. The experiment consisted of a 2 x 10 factorial (two levels of N and ten maize genotypes, in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The following traits were evaluated: N uptake efficiency (NUpE, N utilization efficiency (NUtE and N use efficiency (NUE, and activities of the glutamine synthetase (GS and nitrate reductase (NR enzymes. For traits which the effect of genotype was significant (p<0.05 in the variance analysis for level of N, the mean were compared using the t test (p<0.05. The indirect gains in NUE and their components with selection over the activities of the enzymes NR and GS were estimated under low N. We conclude that: under high N, NupE is efficient to differentiate nitrogen use efficient maize genotypes; under low N, NupE and NUtE efficient to differentiate nitrogen use efficient maize genotypes, the activity of NR enzyme is not a good physiological

  13. Methemoglobinemia associated with loxoscelism Meta-hemoglobinemia associada ao loxoscelismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando C. de O. Barreto

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available In twenty five patients who presented the cutaneous form of loxoscelism, serum haptoglobin and lactic dehydrogenase, erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, methemoglobin, bilirubin and reticulocytes were investigated after bite. No hemolysis was detected but an increase in methemoglobin was found in 54% of the cases; in 7% it was between 1.1% and 2%, in 27% it ranged from 2.1% to 4%, and in 20% from 4.1% to 8%. Blood samples of a normal, blood group 0 individual and of a patient who exhibited methemoglobinemia after Loxosceles bite were incubated separately with antisera against Loxosceles gaucho, Crotalus terrificus, Bothrops jararaca, with Loxosceles gaucho venom and 0.3% phenol. No methemoglobin was found after 1, 4,8 and 15 days in both sets of samples. At the 25th day all the samples, including the controls, exhibited similar methemoglobin reductase decrease. The data suggest that the methemoglobinemia which occurs in 50% of the patients probably arises from in vivo venom metabolism, inasmuch as the crude venom does not induce methemoglobinemia.Vinte e cinco pacientes que apresentaram a forma cutânea do loxoscelismo foram estudados após a picada, determinando-se a glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase, glutationa redutase e glutationa peroxidase eritrocitárias, haptoglobina e latico desidrogenase séricas, bilirrubina, reticulócitos e meta-hemoglobina. Não foi observada hemólise aumentada, mas foi detectado aumento da meta-hemoglobina em 54% dos casos: em 7% entre 1,1% e 2%, em 27% variou de 2,1% a 4%, e em 20% de 4,1 a 8%. Amostras de sangue de um indivíduo normal do grupo 0 de uma paciente que exibiu meta-hemoglobina após picada por Loxosceles foram incubadas separadamente com anti-soros contra Loxosceles gancho, Crotalus terrificus e Bothrops jararaca, com veneno de Loxosceles gaucho e fenol a 3%, e não se detectou aumento de meta-hemoglobina depois de 1, 4, 8 e 15 dias em todas

  14. Diagnostic moléculaire du complexe Mycobacterium tuberculosis résistant à l'isoniazide et à la rifampicine au Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désire, Ilboudo; Cyrille, Bisseye; Florencia, Djigma; Souba, Diande; Albert, Yonli; Valerie, Bazie Jean Telesphore; Rebecca, Compaore; Charlemagne, Gnoula; Tamboura, Djibril; Rémy, Moret; Virginio, Pietra; Simplice, Karou Damintoti; Martial, Ouedraogo; Jacques, Simpore

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cette étude a eu pour objectifs de diagnostiquer la tuberculose pulmonaire par l'examen microscopique et par la PCR des crachats et de déterminer les bases moléculaires de la résistance à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide. Méthodes Le diagnostic du Complexe Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (CMTB) a été effectué par microscopie après coloration au Ziehl Nielsen et par PCR en temps réel en utilisant le kit d'identification du complexe MTB (Sacace Biotechnologie, Italie). Les résistances à la Rifampicine et à l'Isoniazide ont été étudiées par la technique de la PCR en utilisant le kit MTB résistance 8 (Sacace, Biotechnologie). Résultats Sur les 59 patients diagnostiqués pour la tuberculose pulmonaire, 59,3% étaient positifs en microscopie optique et 44,1% étaient positifs par PCR en Temps réel. Les résistances à la rifampicine (rpoB) et à l'isoniazide (katG et inhA) ont été observées chez 9 patients. La résistance à la rifampicine était due aux mutations (Asp516Val, Ser531Trp, Leu533Pro) et celle à l'isoniazide par les substitutions Ser315Thr du gène katG et C209T du gène inhA. Les multi résistances à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide ont été observées dans 55,5% des échantillons et concernaient les associations: ropBAsp513Val + inhAC209T et rpoBLeu533Pro + katGSer315Thr. Conclusion La PCR en temps réel qui permet l'identification des allèles mutants rpoB, katG et inhA de M. tuberculosis est un outil de diagnostic épidémiologique de grande importance car elle permet de déterminer le niveau de résistance à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide. PMID:26491516

  15. The genotypic study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex resistant to isoniazid: Galicia, Spain (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Del Molino, M L; Barbeito-Castiñeiras, G; Mejuto, B; Alonso, P; Fernández, A; González-Mediero, G

    2016-11-01

    Incorporation of rapid detection systems to identify mutations in M. tuberculosis complex that confer resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin has potentiated the knowledge of their distribution, given the geographical variability. We performed antibiograms of the 2,993 strains isolated in Galicia, Spain (2008-2013). In the strains resistant to isoniazid, a concentration of 0.4 mg/mL and MTBDRplus Genotype test (Hain Lifescience, Germany) were used. We found that 3.64 % of strains were resistant to isoniazid, while 0.43 % were resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin (multidrug resistant, MDR). The MTBDRplus test showed an overall sensitivity of 72.48 %, with 62.5 % sensitivity for non MDR isoniazid-resistant strains and 100 % sensitivity for MDR strains. The katG gene mutation was detected at codon 315 in 38.53 % of strains. The S315T mutation appeared in 61.54 % of MDR strains and 34.38 % of non-MDR strains. The 28.44 % had mutations in inhA, (93.55 % in C15T), and 38.46 % of MDR strains were mutated. In non-MDR strains, 37.50 % were wild-type, 35.42 % and 27.08 % had mutations in katG and inhA, respectively. The most frequent mutation in rpoβ was S531L (46.15 %). The 38.71 % and 41.9 % of strains with resistance to isoniazid and streptomycin had mutations in katG and inhA, respectively (2 strains with mutations in T8C and T8A). The distribution pattern of resistance among strains with high and low concentrations of isoniazid showed statistically significant differences in relation to the mutation in katG and wild-type. The sensitivity of the Genotype MTBDRplus test for non-MDR strains in our area was at the lower threshold described.

  16. Differential Impact of Genetic Loci on Age at Thelarche and Menarche in Healthy Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria

    2018-01-01

    ) were followed through puberty and genotyped for FSHB c.-211G>T (rs10835638), FSHR c.-29G>A (rs1394205), FSHR c.2039A>G (rs6116), LIN28B (rs7759938), INHA (rs4141153), MKRN3 (rs12148769), TMEM38B (rs10453225), and ZNF483 (rs10980921). Main Outcome Measures: Clinical pubertal staging and anthropometric......Context: Recent genetic studies have identified genetic variants associated with age at pubertal onset. Whereas genome-wide association studies reported associations of several hundred genetic variants with timing of self-reported age at menarche, a recent clinical study focused on genetic...... variation affecting follicle-stimulating hormone action and clinically determined age at thelarche. The observations appear to be incongruent, as effect sizes varied substantially among the studies. Alternatively, this may point to a differential impact of specific genetic loci on distinct pubertal events...

  17. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    that augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal...... rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes...... and PDE2A in the corpora lutea. Incubating neonatal rat ovaries with PDE4 inhibitors did not increase primordial follicle activation or change the expression of the developing follicle markers Gdf9, Amh, Inha, the proliferation marker Mki67 or the primordial follicle marker Tmeff2. In addition, the c...

  18. Exploration of freely available web-interfaces for comparative homology modelling of microbial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Vijay; Pal, Sudhir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to find the best suited freely available software for modelling of proteins by taking a few sample proteins. The proteins used were small to big in size with available crystal structures for the purpose of benchmarking. Key players like Phyre2, Swiss-Model, CPHmodels-3.0, Homer, (PS)2, (PS)(2)-V(2), Modweb were used for the comparison and model generation. Benchmarking process was done for four proteins, Icl, InhA, and KatG of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and RpoB of Thermus Thermophilus to get the most suited software. Parameters compared during analysis gave relatively better values for Phyre2 and Swiss-Model. This comparative study gave the information that Phyre2 and Swiss-Model make good models of small and large proteins as compared to other screened software. Other software was also good but is often not very efficient in providing full-length and properly folded structure.

  19. Terbutaline accumulates in blood and urine following daily therapeutic inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Nanna; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Dyreborg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigated pharmacokinetics of terbutaline after single and seven consecutive days of inhalation in exercising trained men. METHODS: Twelve healthy young trained men underwent two pharmacokinetic trials comparing single dose (2 mg) and seven consecutive days (2 mg×d) of inha......PURPOSE: This study investigated pharmacokinetics of terbutaline after single and seven consecutive days of inhalation in exercising trained men. METHODS: Twelve healthy young trained men underwent two pharmacokinetic trials comparing single dose (2 mg) and seven consecutive days (2 mg......×d) of inhaled terbutaline. After inhalation of terbutaline at each trial, subjects performed 90 min of bike ergometer exercise at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption after which they stayed inactive. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after inhalation of terbutaline. Samples were analyzed by high...

  20. Estudio descriptivo del rendimiento académico de los estudiantes en la asignatura de Estadística de la Escuela Profesional de Ingenieria Civil, II ciclo, semestre 2015 II, Uladech Católica

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto Rodríguez, Carmen Rosa; UNIVERSIDAD CATÓLICA LOS ANGELES DE CHIMBOTE

    2017-01-01

    La presenta investigación tuvo como propósito conocer el nivel del rendimiento académico de los estudiantes en la asignatura de Estadística de la Escuela Profesional de Ingeniería Civil, para lo cual se utilizó un diseño no experimental de tipo descriptivo. Como la población fue pequeña, se consideró para el estudio a todos los estudiantes del II Ciclo - Grupos A y B que cursaron la asignatura de Estadística. Se consideró para el estudio los siguientes criterios de exclusión: estudiantes inha...

  1. Phylogeographical analysis reveals multiple conservation units in brook lampreys Lampetra planeri of Portuguese streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A M; Robalo, J I; Freyhof, J; Maia, C; Fonseca, J P; Valente, A; Almada, V C

    2010-08-01

    The populations of brook lamprey Lampetra planeri of Portuguese Rivers were analysed phylogeographically using a fragment of 644 bp of the mitochondrial control region of 158 individuals from six populations. Samples representing L. planeri and migratory lampreys Lampetra fluviatilis of rivers draining to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea were also included to assess the relationships of Portuguese samples. The data support a clear differentiation of all the populations studied. Several populations, which are isolated among themselves and also from the migratory lampreys, proved to be entirely composed of private haplotypes, a finding that supports some time of independent evolutionary history for these populations. This, combined with the geographic confinement to small water bodies, justifies the recognition of at least four conservation units in the Portuguese rivers Sado, São Pedro, Nabão and Inha.

  2. Bacillus anthracis Overcomes an Amino Acid Auxotrophy by Cleaving Host Serum Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Austen; Swick, Michelle C.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Pomerantsev, Andrei; Lyons, C. Rick; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria sustain an infection by acquiring nutrients from the host to support replication. The host sequesters these nutrients as a growth-restricting strategy, a concept termed “nutritional immunity.” Historically, the study of nutritional immunity has centered on iron uptake because many bacteria target hemoglobin, an abundant circulating protein, as an iron source. Left unresolved are the mechanisms that bacteria use to attain other nutrients from host sources, including amino acids. We employed a novel medium designed to mimic the chemical composition of human serum, and we show here that Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, proteolyzes human hemoglobin to liberate essential amino acids which enhance its growth. This property can be traced to the actions of InhA1, a secreted metalloprotease, and extends to at least three other serum proteins, including serum albumin. The results suggest that we must also consider proteolysis of key host proteins to be a way for bacterial pathogens to attain essential nutrients, and we provide an experimental framework to determine the host and bacterial factors involved in this process. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens acquire nutrients during infection are poorly understood. Here we used a novel defined medium that approximates the chemical composition of human blood serum, blood serum mimic (BSM), to better model the nutritional environment that pathogens encounter during bacteremia. Removing essential amino acids from BSM revealed that two of the most abundant proteins in blood—hemoglobin and serum albumin—can satiate the amino acid requirement for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. We further demonstrate that hemoglobin is proteolyzed by the secreted protease InhA1. These studies highlight that common blood proteins can be a nutrient source for bacteria. They also challenge the historical view that hemoglobin is solely an iron source for

  3. Automatic design of decision-tree induction algorithms tailored to flexible-receptor docking data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Rodrigo C; Winck, Ana T; Machado, Karina S; Basgalupp, Márcio P; de Carvalho, André C P L F; Ruiz, Duncan D; de Souza, Osmar Norberto

    2012-11-21

    This paper addresses the prediction of the free energy of binding of a drug candidate with enzyme InhA associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This problem is found within rational drug design, where interactions between drug candidates and target proteins are verified through molecular docking simulations. In this application, it is important not only to correctly predict the free energy of binding, but also to provide a comprehensible model that could be validated by a domain specialist. Decision-tree induction algorithms have been successfully used in drug-design related applications, specially considering that decision trees are simple to understand, interpret, and validate. There are several decision-tree induction algorithms available for general-use, but each one has a bias that makes it more suitable for a particular data distribution. In this article, we propose and investigate the automatic design of decision-tree induction algorithms tailored to particular drug-enzyme binding data sets. We investigate the performance of our new method for evaluating binding conformations of different drug candidates to InhA, and we analyze our findings with respect to decision tree accuracy, comprehensibility, and biological relevance. The empirical analysis indicates that our method is capable of automatically generating decision-tree induction algorithms that significantly outperform the traditional C4.5 algorithm with respect to both accuracy and comprehensibility. In addition, we provide the biological interpretation of the rules generated by our approach, reinforcing the importance of comprehensible predictive models in this particular bioinformatics application. We conclude that automatically designing a decision-tree algorithm tailored to molecular docking data is a promising alternative for the prediction of the free energy from the binding of a drug candidate with a flexible-receptor.

  4. Expression of Iron-Related Proteins Differentiate Non-Cancerous and Cancerous Breast Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pizzamiglio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported hepcidin and ferritin increases in the plasma of breast cancer patients, but not in patients with benign breast disease. We hypothesized that these differences in systemic iron homeostasis may reflect alterations in different iron-related proteins also play a key biochemical and regulatory role in breast cancer. Thus, here we explored the expression of a bundle of molecules involved in both iron homeostasis and tumorigenesis in tissue samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or reverse-phase protein array (RPPA, were used to measure the expression of 20 proteins linked to iron processes in 24 non-cancerous, and 56 cancerous, breast tumors. We found that cancerous tissues had higher level of hepcidin than benign lesions (p = 0.012. The univariate analysis of RPPA data highlighted the following seven proteins differentially expressed between non-cancerous and cancerous breast tissue: signal transducer and transcriptional activator 5 (STAT5, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6, cluster of differentiation 74 (CD74, transferrin receptor (TFRC, inhibin alpha (INHA, and STAT5_pY694. These findings were confirmed for STAT5, STAT3, BMP6, CD74 and INHA when adjusting for age. The multivariate statistical analysis indicated an iron-related 10-protein panel effective in separating non-cancerous from cancerous lesions including STAT5, STAT5_pY694, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88, CD74, iron exporter ferroportin (FPN, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, STAT3_pS727, TFRC, ferritin heavy chain (FTH, and ferritin light chain (FTL. Our results showed an association between some iron-related proteins and the type of tumor tissue, which may provide insight in strategies for using iron chelators to treat breast cancer.

  5. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the Latin American Mediterranean Lineage, Wrongly Identified as Mycobacterium pinnipedii (Spoligotype International Type 863 [SIT863]), Causing Active Tuberculosis in South Brazil

    KAUST Repository

    Dalla Costa, Elis R.

    2015-09-23

    We recently detected the spoligotype patterns of strains of Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, in sputum samples from nine cases with pulmonary tuberculosis residing in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Because this species is rarely encountered in humans, we further characterized these nine isolates by additional genotyping techniques, including 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, verification of the loci TbD1, RD9, pks15/1, RDRio, and fbpC, the insertion of IS6110 at a site specific to the M. tuberculosis Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) lineage, and whole-genome sequencing. The combined analysis of these markers revealed that the isolates are in fact M. tuberculosis and more specifically belong to the LAM genotype. Most of these isolates (n = 8) were shown to be multidrug resistant (MDR), which prompted us to perform partial sequencing of the rpoA, rpoB, rpoC, katG, and inhA genes. Seven isolates (77.8%) carried the S315T mutation in katG, and one of these (11%) also presented the C(−17)T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in inhA. Interestingly, six of the MDR isolates also presented an undescribed insertion of 12 nucleotides (CCA GAA CAA CCC) in codon 516 of rpoB. No putative compensatory mutation was found in either rpoA or rpoC. This is the first report of an M. tuberculosis LAM family strain with a convergent M. pinnipedii spoligotype. These spoligotypes are observed in genotype databases at a modest frequency, highlighting that care must be taken when identifying isolates in the M. tuberculosis complex on the basis of single genetic markers.

  6. Rapid speciation of 15 clinically relevant mycobacteria with simultaneous detection of resistance to rifampin, isoniazid, and streptomycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenai, Shubhada; Rodrigues, Camilla; Mehta, Ajita

    2009-01-01

    To design and standardize an in-house reverse line blot hybridization (RLBH) assay for the accurate identification of 15 clinically relevant species of mycobacteria and for the detection of drug resistance to rifampin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), and streptomycin (STR) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB). Oligonucleotides specific for 15 different species of mycobacteria and wild type and mutant alleles of selected codons in the rpobeta, inhA, katG, rpsL, and rrs genes were designed and immobilized on a membrane. A multiplex PCR was standardized to amplify all target genes. The assay was optimized using ATCC and known mutant strains. Three hundred MTB isolates, 85 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates, and 48 smear-positive specimens were analyzed. Results were confirmed by PCR restriction enzyme assay and sequencing. Upon RLBH analysis, among the NTM, 14% were identified as Mycobacterium fortuitum, 16% were identified as Mycobacterium abscessus, 20% showed 99% homology with Mycobacterium intracellulare, and 31% showed 98% homology with Mycobacterium simiae. Of the 300 MTB isolates analyzed, 75% RIF-resistant isolates had Ser531Leu mutation in the rpobeta gene. Of the INH-resistant isolates, 89% showed Ser315Thr mutation in the katG gene, whereas 16% showed -15 C-->T mutation in the promoter region of the inhA gene. Among STR-resistant isolates, 75% had A-->G mutation in the rpsL gene at codon 43. RLBH results showed 96-99% concordance with phenotypic culture results. This is a first attempt at combining speciation with detection of drug resistance to RIF, INH, and STR in MTB for accurate and rapid management of mycobacterial infections as well as for compiling genotypic epidemiological data.

  7. O nitrato influencia o metabolismo de compostos nitrogenados em calopogônio (Calopogonium mucunoides ao longo do ciclo de vida

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    Regiane Aparecida Canatto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n1p1   Em Calopogonium mucunoides, o metabolismo de nitrogênio foi significativamente alterado entre os diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento das plantas. Ao longo do ciclo de vida, mesmo na presença de nitrato, a planta manteve-se nodulada e altas concentrações de ureídeos foram identificadas nos tecidos e seiva de xilema, evidência de que a espécie é tolerante ao nitrato e que este não afeta a fixação de nitrogênio ao longo do desenvolvimento. A redução bioquímica de nitrato apresenta alterações ao longo do ciclo de vida, com mudança no sítio de redução junto com mudanças na concentração de aminoácidos solúveis totais. No entanto, a atividade de nitrato redutase constitutiva em nódulos desaparece com a exposição ao nitrato.

  8. Surto psicótico pela possível interação medicamentosa de sibutramina com finasterida

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    Sucar Douglas Dogol

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available É descrito um caso de interação medicamentosa em um paciente de 30 anos, que fazia com sucesso um tratamento antiobesidade com sibutramina. Esse medicamento é um saciogênico que inibe a recaptação da serotonina e da noradrenalina. Logo após a introdução da finasterida para tratamento da alopécia androgênica, o paciente passou a apresentar surto psicótico. Esse medicamento é um potente inibidor da 5-alfa-redutase do tipo II. A interação medicamentosa demonstra-se por meio de um rigoroso acompanhamento clínico e de uma aplicação do algoritmo de Naranjo. Também descrevem-se as condições clínicas gerais do paciente e sua evolução. Discutem-se os mecanismos prováveis que levaram à interação medicamentosa, com a conclusão de que a finasterida inibiu o metabolismo hepático da sibutramina. Esta deslocou a finasterida de seus pontos de ligações com as proteínas, aumentando sua fração livre plasmática e inibindo ainda mais o metabolismo da sibutramina. Com aumento de serotonina, noradrenalina e dopamina na fenda sináptica, desencadeia-se o surto psicótico.

  9. Nitrate levels and stages of growth in hypernodulating mutants of Lupinus albus. II. Enzymatic activity and transport of N in the xylem sap Diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágio de crescimento em mutantes hipernodulantes de Lupinus albus II. Atividade enzimática e transporte de N na seiva do xilema

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    Hélio Almeida Burity

    1999-04-01

    decisiva em evitar produtos inibidores da nitrogenase pelo amônio, porém poucas são as informações deste mecanismo com o qual o xilema carrega estes produtos, em compensação, este processo, pode ser a chave da função em evitar acumulação de aminoácidos nas células dos nódulos infectados. O comportamento das enzimas nitrato redutase (NR, fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilase (PEPC, glutamina sintetase (GS e dos compostos nitrogenados derivados da fixação como: N-a-amino, N-ureídos e N-amida em genótipos mutados foi observado. A atividade da enzima nitrato redutase foi altamente inflenciada pela aplicação de nitrato apresentando valores bastante superiores em relação a não aplicação do nitrato, independentemente dos genótipos, sendo que o melhor período de avaliação foi na décima semana. O genótipo L-62, com caracteríticas de resistência ao nitrato, mostrou de forma bem evidenciada que a enzima PEPC é inibida pela presença de nitrato. O genótipo L-135 (nod- fix- apresentou atividade da GS extremamente baixo, mostrando desta forma que a GS é uma enzima altamente correlacionada com a fixação. Em relação ao melhor estágio de crescimento para a GS, o Lupinus albus, deve ser avaliado na sétima semana.

  10. Deficiências de macronutrientes no estado nutricional da mamoneira cultivar Iris Deficiencies of macronutrients on nutritional status of castor bean cultivar Iris

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    José Lavres Junior

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o efeito da deficiência dos macronutrientes no crescimento e estado nutricional da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. e a obtenção do quadro sintomatológico das deficiências de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Cultivou-se Ricinus communis L. cultivar Iris em solução nutritiva, tendo como tratamentos soluções completa e deficientes em N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Foram determinadas a concentração indireta de clorofila, a atividade da redutase do nitrato, os teores solúveis de N (NO3-, P (H2PO4- e K+ e realizados testes rápidos para N, P e K. As deficiências de N, Ca, S e Mg foram as que mais restringiram a produção de massa de matéria seca, na ordem decrescente: N>Ca>S>Mg>K>P. Os maiores acúmulos de macronutrientes, no tratamento completo, foram observados nas raízes e no limbo das folhas inferiores. As concentrações críticas para N e Ca, ambas no limbo das folhas superiores e, Mg, no pecíolo das inferiores foram, respectivamente, 46,7, 13,8 e 6,5 g kg-1. As deficiências influenciaram as leituras do clorofilômetro. A atividade da redutase do nitrato guardou relação direta com a determinação da clorofila. Os teores de N (NO3-, P (H2PO4- e K+ foram menores nas folhas deficientes em N, P e K, respectivamente, o mesmo acontecendo quando avaliadas pela análise de toque.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of macronutrient deficiencies on growth and on nutritional status of castor beans (Ricinus communis L., and to obtain the symptoms of the lack of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. Nutrient solutions containing all macronutrients and those from which one of these elements was omitted were the treatments used. The following determinations were made: chlorophyll (indirectly, nitrate reductase activity, NO3--N, H2PO4--P and K+, both on soluble fractions, and by spot tests. Deficiencies of N, Ca, S and Mg were the most limiting for dry matter production, followed in decreasing order by those of K and

  11. Direct sequencing for rapid detection of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Morocco

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    Zakham F

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fathiah Zakham,1,4 Imane Chaoui,1 Amina Hadbae Echchaoui,2 Fouad Chetioui,3 My Driss Elmessaoudi,3 My Mustapha Ennaji,4 Mohammed Abid,2 Mohammed El Mzibri11Unité de Biologie et Recherché Médicale, Centre National de l'Energie, des Sciences et des Techniques Nucléaires (CNESTEN, Rabat, 2Laboratoire de Génétique Mycobacterienne, Institut Pasteur, Tangier, 3Laboratoire de Tuberculose Institut Pasteur, Casablanca, 4Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Hygiène et Virologie, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Mohammedia, MoroccoBackground: Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem with high mortality and morbidity rates, especially in low-income countries. Disturbingly, the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR and extensively drug resistant (XDR TB cases has worsened the situation, raising concerns of a future epidemic of virtually untreatable TB. Indeed, the rapid diagnosis of MDR TB is a critical issue for TB management. This study is an attempt to establish a rapid diagnosis of MDR TB by sequencing the target fragments of the rpoB gene which linked to resistance against rifampicin and the katG gene and inhA promoter region, which are associated with resistance to isoniazid.Methods: For this purpose, 133 sputum samples of TB patients from Morocco were enrolled in this study. One hundred samples were collected from new cases, and the remaining 33 were from previously treated patients (drug relapse or failure, chronic cases and did not respond to anti-TB drugs after a sufficient duration of treatment. All samples were subjected to rpoB, katG and pinhA mutation analysis by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing.Results: Molecular analysis showed that seven strains were isoniazid-monoresistant and 17 were rifampicin-monoresistant. MDR TB strains were identified in nine cases (6.8%. Among them, eight were traditionally diagnosed as critical cases, comprising four chronic and four drug-relapse cases. The last strain was isolated from a

  12. Efeito do processamento UAT (Ultra Alta Temperatura sobre as características físico-químicas do leite Effect of UHT (Ultra High Temperature processing on the physicochemical characteristics of milk

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    Ana Maria Centola Vidal Martins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar as características físico-químicas do leite UAT durante sua industrialização e de comparar os resultados com a legislação vigente, foram analisadas 150 amostras, colhidas em seis etapas, em diferentes fases do processamento, sendo 60 de leite cru, 60 de leite pasteurizado e 30 de leite UAT. As amostras foram submetidas à determinação de acidez titulável, densidade, teor de gordura, extrato seco total (EST e desengordurado (ESD, ponto crioscópico, pH, redutase, estabilidade ao álcool 68% e à pesquisa das enzimas peroxidase e fosfatase alcalina. Os resultados indicaram que os valores médios do extrato seco total e do extrato desengordurado, bem como do índice crioscópico apresentaram-se, em algumas colheitas, inferiores aos estabelecidos pela legislação vigente, indicando possível aumento no teor de água do leite.With the aim of analyzing the physicochemical characteristics of UHT milk during its industrialization and comparing the results with the Brazilian legislation, 150 samples collected in six stages, in different processing phases, were analyzed, being 60 samples of raw milk, 60 of pasteurized milk and 30 of UHT milk. The samples were submitted to the analysis of Dornic acidity, density, fat content, total solids, solids-non-fat, freezing point, pH, methylene blue reduction, stability to 68% alcohol and screening for peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. The results indicated that the mean values of total solids and solids-non-fat and freezing point, were in some collections, lower than the limits established in the Brazilian legislation, demonstrating a possible increase in milk water content.

  13. METABOLISMO DO NITROGÊNIO ASSOCIADO À DEFICIÊNCIA HÍDRICA E SUA RECUPERAÇÃO EM GENÓTIPOS DE MILHO

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    Ferreira Vilma Marques

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estresse hídrico afeta profundamente o metabolismo celular vegetal. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se quantificar os efeitos da deficiência hídrica e sua recuperação sobre a atividade das enzimas do metabolismo do nitrogênio: redutase do nitrato (RN, glutamina sintetase (GS e glutamato sintase (GOGAT e sobre o acúmulo de prolina em plantas dos genótipos de milho BR 2121 e BR 205. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, sob o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, utilizando-se vasos que continham 14,3kg de solo. Os tratamentos consistiram da combinação dos dois genótipos e quatro intervalos entre irrigações (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias. No dia da avaliação (49 dias após emergência, os tratamentos com intervalos entre 3 e 7 dias, haviam sido irrigados no dia anterior, caracterizando-se portanto como recuperação da deficiência hídrica leve e severa, respectivamente. As extrações e análises foram realizadas utilizando-se a terceira folha basípeta completamente expandida. As atividades das enzimas estudadas não diferiram entre os tratamentos de estresse hídrico, controle e recuperação do estresse moderado, entretanto as plantas sob recuperação do estresse severo apresentaram atividade enzimática superior à das plantas controle. O acúmulo de prolina livre nas folhas aumentou com o estresse hídrico e respondeu à recuperação do estresse apresentando redução. De modo geral, a atividade enzimática e o acúmulo de prolina apresentaram respostas inversas dentro dos tratamentos.

  14. Impact of the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence in the prostatic complex of the bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-07-01

    Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression during the annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of total testicular regression on the prostatic morphophisyology and its regulation. The prostatic complex (PC) of animals from the four periods of the reproductive cycle (active, regressing, regressed, and recrudescence) was analyzed by different histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical procedures to characterize its variations, analyze its hormonal regulation and evaluate whether the prostate is affected by the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence. The results indicated a decrease in the prostatic parameters from the active to regressed periods, which are related to decreases in the testicular production of testosterone and in the prostatic expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and aromatase. However, in regressed-recrudescence periods, the prostatic expression of AR, ERα and aromatase increased, indicating the reactivation of the PC. Despite this, the PC appears to have a slower reactivation and seems not to follow the testicular recrudescence in morphological and morphometric terms. With these data, we demonstrate that the prostatic physiology is directly affected by total testicular regression and conclude that it is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, via the production of testosterone by the testes, its conversion to dihydrotestosterone by 5α-redutase and to estrogen by aromatase, and the activation/deactivation of AR and ERα in epithelial cells, which regulate cell expression and proliferation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Carvedilol atenua o estresse oxidativo na cardiopatia chagásica crônica

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    Patrícia Budni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Há cada vez mais evidências sugerindo que doença de Chagas envolve dano oxidativo e contribui para a progressão da doença cardíaca. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do carvedilol sobre marcadores de estresse oxidativo na doença de Chagas crônica. MÉTODOS: A população de estudo incluiu 42 pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica e os biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo foram medidos antes e após um período de seis meses de tratamento com carvedilol (37,5 mg/dia. Os pacientes foram considerados de acordo com a classificação de Los Andes, e a atividade da superóxido dismutase, catalase, glutationa peroxidase, S-transferase e redutase, mieloperoxidase e adenosina deaminase; e os níveis de glutationa reduzida, de espécies reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico, proteína carbonil, vitamina E e óxido nítrico foram medidos no sangue. RESULTADOS: Após o tratamento com carvedilol, todos os grupos apresentaram reduções significativas nos níveis de proteína carbonil e glutationa reduzida, enquanto os níveis de óxido nítrico e atividade da adenosina aumentaram significativamente somente no grupo IA. Além disso, a maioria das enzimas antioxidantes apresentou diminuição de suas atividades, nos grupos IA e IB. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados sugerem que o tratamento com carvedilol foi eficaz na atenuação do dano oxidativo, um efeito que pode ser particularmente importante em doença de Chagas crônica com cardiopatia.

  16. Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras

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    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at different pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilidade das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produção do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas.

  17. Metabolismo de nitrogênio em dois sistemas de cultivo de café sob veranico da estação úmida

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    Carmem Lacerda Lemos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do veranico ocorrido na estação úmida sobre o metabolismo de nitrogênio em cafeeiros em sistema a pleno sol e associados com abacateiro (Persea americana Mill. e ingazeiro (Inga edulis Mart., foi realizado este experimento. O estudo foi conduzido em propriedade situada no município de Barra do Choça, BA, composto por plantas de café (Coffea arabica L., variedade Catuaí, sendo caracterizados dois campos experimentais (sistema sombreado x sistema a pleno sol. As avaliações foram realizadas em janeiro (período de veranico e março (final da estação úmida, em cinco repetições por campo experimental. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste t por meio do programa SAEG, versão 9.1. Maior teor de NO3 - foi verificado no sistema a pleno sol, tanto no período de veranico como no final da estação úmida. Em março foi observado maior acúmulo de N-orgânico no terço superior do cafeeiro a pleno sol e no terço médio do cafeeiro sombreado. Maiores teores de nitrogênio total e a tendência de maior atividade enzimática da redutase do nitrato foram verificados nos sistemas arborizados, quando avaliados dentro do mesmo terço do cafeeiro nas duas estações.

  18. Frequency and Distribution of Tuberculosis Resistance-Associated Mutations between Mumbai, Moldova, and Eastern Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georghiou, S B; Seifert, M; Catanzaro, D; Garfein, R S; Valafar, F; Crudu, V; Rodrigues, C; Victor, T C; Catanzaro, A; Rodwell, T C

    2016-07-01

    Molecular diagnostic assays, with their ability to rapidly detect resistance-associated mutations in bacterial genes, are promising technologies to control the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Sequencing assays provide detailed information for specific gene regions and can help diagnostic assay developers prioritize mutations for inclusion in their assays. We performed pyrosequencing of seven Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene regions (katG, inhA, ahpC, rpoB, gyrA, rrs, and eis) for 1,128 clinical specimens from India, Moldova, and South Africa. We determined the frequencies of each mutation among drug-resistant and -susceptible specimens based on phenotypic drug susceptibility testing results and examined mutation distributions by country. The most common mutation among isoniazid-resistant (INH(r)) specimens was the katG 315ACC mutation (87%). However, in the Eastern Cape, INH(r) specimens had a lower frequency of katG mutations (44%) and higher frequencies of inhA (47%) and ahpC (10%) promoter mutations. The most common mutation among rifampin-resistant (RIF(r)) specimens was the rpoB 531TTG mutation (80%). The mutation was common in RIF(r) specimens in Mumbai (83%) and Moldova (84%) but not the Eastern Cape (17%), where the 516GTC mutation appeared more frequently (57%). The most common mutation among fluoroquinolone-resistant specimens was the gyrA 94GGC mutation (44%). The rrs 1401G mutation was found in 84%, 84%, and 50% of amikacin-resistant, capreomycin-resistant, and kanamycin (KAN)-resistant (KAN(r)) specimens, respectively. The eis promoter mutation -12T was found in 26% of KAN(r) and 4% of KAN-susceptible (KAN(s)) specimens. Inclusion of the ahpC and eis promoter gene regions was critical for optimal test sensitivity for the detection of INH resistance in the Eastern Cape and KAN resistance in Moldova. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT02170441.). Copyright © 2016, American Society for

  19. Whole Genome Sequencing Based Characterization of Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Asho

    2015-02-26

    Improved molecular diagnostic methods for detection drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains are required. Resistance to first- and second- line anti-tuberculous drugs has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in particular genes. However, these SNPs can vary between MTB lineages therefore local data is required to describe different strain populations. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 37 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) MTB isolates from Pakistan and investigated 40 genes associated with drug resistance. Rifampicin resistance was attributable to SNPs in the rpoB hot-spot region. Isoniazid resistance was most commonly associated with the katG codon 315 (92%) mutation followed by inhA S94A (8%) however, one strain did not have SNPs in katG, inhA or oxyR-ahpC. All strains were pyrazimamide resistant but only 43% had pncA SNPs. Ethambutol resistant strains predominantly had embB codon 306 (62%) mutations, but additional SNPs at embB codons 406, 378 and 328 were also present. Fluoroquinolone resistance was associated with gyrA 91-94 codons in 81% of strains; four strains had only gyr B mutations, while others did not have SNPs in either gyrA or gyrB. Streptomycin resistant strains had mutations in ribosomal RNA genes; rpsL codon 43 (42%); rrs 500 region (16%), and gidB (34%) while six strains did not have mutations in any of these genes. Amikacin/kanamycin/capreomycin resistance was associated with SNPs in rrs at nt1401 (78%) and nt1484 (3%), except in seven (19%) strains. We estimate that if only the common hot-spot region targets of current commercial assays were used, the concordance between phenotypic and genotypic testing for these XDR strains would vary between rifampicin (100%), isoniazid (92%), flouroquinolones (81%), aminoglycoside (78%) and ethambutol (62%); while pncA sequencing would provide genotypic resistance in less than half the isolates. This work highlights the importance of expanded

  20. Direct sequencing for rapid detection of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakham, Fathiah; Chaoui, Imane; Echchaoui, Amina Hadbae; Chetioui, Fouad; Elmessaoudi, My Driss; Ennaji, My Mustapha; Abid, Mohammed; Mzibri, Mohammed El

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem with high mortality and morbidity rates, especially in low-income countries. Disturbingly, the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB cases has worsened the situation, raising concerns of a future epidemic of virtually untreatable TB. Indeed, the rapid diagnosis of MDR TB is a critical issue for TB management. This study is an attempt to establish a rapid diagnosis of MDR TB by sequencing the target fragments of the rpoB gene which linked to resistance against rifampicin and the katG gene and inhA promoter region, which are associated with resistance to isoniazid. For this purpose, 133 sputum samples of TB patients from Morocco were enrolled in this study. One hundred samples were collected from new cases, and the remaining 33 were from previously treated patients (drug relapse or failure, chronic cases) and did not respond to anti-TB drugs after a sufficient duration of treatment. All samples were subjected to rpoB, katG and pinhA mutation analysis by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Molecular analysis showed that seven strains were isoniazid-monoresistant and 17 were rifampicin-monoresistant. MDR TB strains were identified in nine cases (6.8%). Among them, eight were traditionally diagnosed as critical cases, comprising four chronic and four drug-relapse cases. The last strain was isolated from a new case. The most recorded mutation in the rpoB gene was the substitution TCG > TTG at codon 531 (Ser531 Leu), accounting for 46.15%. Significantly, the only mutation found in the katG gene was at codon 315 (AGC to ACC) with a Ser315Thr amino acid change. Only one sample harbored mutation in the inhA promoter region and was a point mutation at the -15p position (C > T). The polymerase chain reaction sequencing approach is an accurate and rapid method for detection of drug-resistant TB in clinical specimens, and could be of great interest in the management of TB in

  1. Analysis of facial bone fractures: An 11-year study of 2,094 patients

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    Hwang Kun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The medical records of these patients were reviewed and analysed to determine the clinical characteristics and treatment of facial bone fractures. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 2,094 patients with facial bone fractures from various accidents that were treated at the Inha University Hospital from 1996 to 2007. Results: The most common age group was the third decade of life (29%. Males were more common than females (3.98:1. The most common aetiology was violent assault or nonviolent traumatic injury (49.4%. The most common isolated fracture site was the nasal bone (37.7%, followed by the mandible (30%, orbital bones (7.6%, zygoma (5.7%, maxilla (1.3% and the frontal bone (0.3%. The largest group with complex fractures included the inferior region of the orbital floor and zygomaticomaxilla (14%. Closed reduction was performed in 46.3% of the cases while 39.7% of the cases required open reduction. For open reductions, the most commonly used soft-tissue approach was the intraoral approach (32.3%. The complication rate was 6.4% and the most common complication was hypoesthesia (68.4% followed by diplopia (25.6%. Conclusion: Long-term collection of epidemiological data regarding facial fractures and concomitant injuries is important for the evaluation of existing preventive measures and useful in the development of new methods of injury prevention and treatment.

  2. Tritium research activities in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Jung, E-mail: kjjung@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei-Hun, E-mail: shyun@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Min Ho; Kang, Hyun-Goo; Chung, Dongyou; Cho, Seungyon; Lee, Hyeon Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hongsuk; Choi, Woo-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyu-Min; Moon, Chang-Bae [Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Central Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Euy Soo [Dongguk University, Jung-gu, Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jungho; Kim, Dong-Sun [Kongju National University, Cheonan, Chungnam, 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hung-Man [Daesung Industrial Gases Co., Ltd., Danwon-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 425-090 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Seung Jeong [Dankook University, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Hyunchul [Inha University, Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Tae-Whan [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, Chungbuk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • NFRI, KAERI and KHNP CRI are major leading group for the ITER tritium SDS design; studying engineering, simulation of hydride bed, risk analysis (on safety, HAZOP), basic study, control logic & sequential operation, and others. KHNP has WTRF which gives favorable experiences for collaboration researchers. • Supplementary research partners: Five Universities (Dongguk University and POSTECH, Inha University, Dankook University, Korea National Transport University, and Kongju National University) and one industrial company (Daesung Industrial Gases Co., Ltd.); studying on basic and engineering, programming & simulation on the various topics for ITER tritium SDS, TEP, ISS, ADS, and etc. - Abstract: Major progress in tritium research in the Republic of Korea began when Korea became responsible for ITER tritium Storage and Delivery System (SDS) procurement package which is part of the ITER Fuel Cycle. To deliver the tritium SDS package, a variety of research institutes, universities and industry have respectively taken roles and responsibilities in developing technologies that have led to significant progress. This paper presents the current work and status of tritium related technological research and development (R&D) in Korea and introduces future R&D plans in the area of fuel cycle systems for fusion power generation.

  3. A user-friendly web portal for analyzing conformational changes in structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sameer; Thangam, Manonanthini; Vasudevan, Praveen; Kumar, G Ramesh; Unni, Rahul; Devi, P K Gayathri; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Initiation of the Tuberculosis Structural Consortium has resulted in the expansion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) protein structural database. Currently, 969 experimentally solved structures are available for 354 MTB proteins. This includes multiple crystal structures for a given protein under different functional conditions, such as the presence of different ligands or mutations. In depth analysis of the multiple structures reveal that subtle differences exist in conformations of a given protein under varied conditions. Therefore, it is immensely important to understand the conformational differences between the multiple structures of a given protein in order to select the most suitable structure for molecular docking and structure-based drug designing. Here, we introduce a web portal ( http://bmi.icmr.org.in/mtbsd/torsion.php ) that we developed to provide comparative data on the ensemble of available structures of MTB proteins, such as Cα root means square deviation (RMSD), sequence identity, presence of mutations and torsion angles. Additionally, torsion angles were used to perform principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the conformational differences between the structures. Additionally, we present a few case studies to demonstrate this database. Graphical Abstract Conformational changes seen in the structures of the enoyl-ACP reductase protein encoded by the Mycobacterial gene inhA.

  4. Estimating Fitness by Competition Assays between Drug Susceptible and Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis of Predominant Lineages in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatter, Purva; Chatterjee, Anirvan; D'souza, Desiree; Tolani, Monica; Mistry, Nerges

    2012-01-01

    Background Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) is a threat to global tuberculosis control. A significant fitness cost has been associated with DR strains from specific lineages. Evaluation of the influence of the competing drug susceptible strains on fitness of drug resistant strains may have an important bearing on understanding the spread of MDR TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fitness of MDR TB strains, from a TB endemic region of western India: Mumbai, belonging to 3 predominant lineages namely CAS, Beijing and MANU in the presence of drug susceptible strains from the same lineages. Methodology Drug susceptible strains from a single lineage were mixed with drug resistant strain, bearing particular non synonymous mutation (rpoB D516V; inhA, A16G; katG, S315T1/T2) from the same or different lineages. Fitness of M.tuberculosis (M.tb) strains was evaluated using the difference in growth rates obtained by using the CFU assay system. Conclusion/Significance While MANU were most fit amongst the drug susceptible strains of the 3 lineages, only Beijing MDR strains were found to grow in the presence of any of the competing drug susceptible strains. A disproportionate increase in Beijing MDR could be an alarm for an impending epidemic in this locale. In addition to particular non synonymous substitutions, the competing strains in an environment may impact the fitness of circulating drug resistant strains. PMID:22479407

  5. Discovery of novel phthalimide analogs: Synthesis, antimicrobial and antitubercular screening with molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rateb, Heba S; Ahmed, Hany E A; Ahmed, Sahar; Ihmaid, Saleh; Afifi, Tarek H

    2016-01-01

    In continuation of our endeavor towards the design and development of potent and effective antimicrobial agents, three series of phthalimide derivatives ( 4a-i, 5a-f, and 6a-c ) were synthesized, fully characterized and evaluated for their potential antibacterial, antifungal and antimycobacterial activities. These efforts led to the discovery of nine compounds 4c, 4f, 4g, 4h, 4i, 5c, 5d, 5e , and 6c (MIC range from 0.49 to 31.5 μg/mL) with potent antibacterial, antifungal, and antimycobacterial activities. Ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B were used as references for antibacterial and antifungal screening respectively, while isoniazid was used as a reference for antimycobacterial testing. Furthermore, molecular modeling studies were done to explore the binding mode of the most active derivatives to M. tuberculosis enoyl reductase (InhA) and DNA gyrase B. Our study showed the importance of both hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions as a key interaction with the target enzymes.

  6. Analysis of facial bone fractures: An 11-year study of 2,094 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; You, Sun Hye

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The medical records of these patients were reviewed and analysed to determine the clinical characteristics and treatment of facial bone fractures. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 2,094 patients with facial bone fractures from various accidents that were treated at the Inha University Hospital from 1996 to 2007. Results: The most common age group was the third decade of life (29%). Males were more common than females (3.98:1). The most common aetiology was violent assault or nonviolent traumatic injury (49.4%). The most common isolated fracture site was the nasal bone (37.7%), followed by the mandible (30%), orbital bones (7.6%), zygoma (5.7%), maxilla (1.3%) and the frontal bone (0.3%). The largest group with complex fractures included the inferior region of the orbital floor and zygomaticomaxilla (14%). Closed reduction was performed in 46.3% of the cases while 39.7% of the cases required open reduction. For open reductions, the most commonly used soft-tissue approach was the intraoral approach (32.3%). The complication rate was 6.4% and the most common complication was hypoesthesia (68.4%) followed by diplopia (25.6%). Conclusion: Long-term collection of epidemiological data regarding facial fractures and concomitant injuries is important for the evaluation of existing preventive measures and useful in the development of new methods of injury prevention and treatment. PMID:20924449

  7. The Genotype MTBDRplus ver. 2.0 test as a quick indicator of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Nisticò

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a global emergency and a major public health problem, in some cases related to the appearance of strains of multi drug resistance (MDR and extensive drug resistance (XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.The correct determination of antibiotic sensitivity profiles is therefore crucial to carry out appropriate treatment aimed to decrease the infectivity of each patient and to reduce mortality. The poor adherence to treatment by the patient or the use of therapies based on a single drug, as a result of incorrect requirements, promote the development of drug-resistance. Have some time on the market of molecular diagnostic tests that allow, quickly and directly from biological sample to search for resistance genes some key drugs of anti-TB therapy (Rifampicin and Isoniazid. One of the tests in question is the Genotype MTBDRplus ver 2.0 which can reveal the presence of genes for resistance to Isoniazid (INH and Rifampin (RMP.The loci analyzed are those corresponding to the rpoB gene for rifampicin, katG and inhA for isoniazid. Our study is based on the analysis of 83 strains of tubercular Mycobacteria identified and isolated from patients with tuberculosis disease and subjected to the tests sensitivity, searching for mutations and phenotypic susceptibility testing for Rifampicin and Isoniazid.The comparison of the results has shown that the results obtained using the Genotype MTBDRplus ver 2.0 test, were similar to the results obtained by the traditional susceptibility testing.

  8. Relationship between physicians' perceived stigma toward depression and physician referral to psycho-oncology services on an oncology/hematology ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Hyoung; Bae, Jae-Nam; Lim, Joohan; Lee, Moon-Hee; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Yi, Hyeon Gyu

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to identify relationships between physicians' perceived stigma toward depression and psycho-oncology service utilization on an oncology/hematology ward. The study participants were 235 patients in an oncology/hematology ward and 14 physicians undergoing an internal medicine residency training program in Inha University Hospital (Incheon, South Korea). Patients completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and residents completed the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination scale that evaluates perceived stigma toward depression. A total PHQ-9 score of ≥5 was defined as clinically significant depression. Physicians decided on referral on the basis of their opinions and those of their patients. The correlates of physicians' recommendation for referral to psycho-oncology services and real referrals psycho-oncology services were examined. Of the 235 patients, 143 had PHQ-9 determined depression, and of these 143 patients, 61 received psycho-oncology services. Physicians recommended that 87 patients consult psycho-oncology services. Multivariate analyses showed that lower physicians' perceived stigma regarding depression was significantly associated with physicians' recommendation for referral, and that real referral to psycho-oncology services was significantly associated with presence of a hematologic malignancy and lower physicians' perceived stigma toward depression. Physicians' perceived stigma toward depression was found to be associated with real referral to psycho-oncology services and with physician recommendation for referral to psycho-oncology services. Further investigations will be needed to examine how to reduce physicians' perceived stigma toward depression. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Impact of bacterial genetics on the transmission of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gagneux

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecology of drug-resistant pathogens is essential for devising rational programs to preserve the effective lifespan of antimicrobial agents and to abrogate epidemics of drug-resistant organisms. Mathematical models predict that strain fitness is an important determinant of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission, but the effects of strain diversity have been largely overlooked. Here we compared the impact of resistance mutations on the transmission of isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis in San Francisco during a 9-y period. Strains with a KatG S315T or inhA promoter mutation were more likely to spread than strains with other mutations. The impact of these mutations on the transmission of isoniazid-resistant strains was comparable to the effect of other clinical determinants of transmission. Associations were apparent between specific drug resistance mutations and the main M. tuberculosis lineages. Our results show that in addition to host and environmental factors, strain genetic diversity can influence the transmission dynamics of drug-resistant bacteria.

  10. Systematic review of allelic exchange experiments aimed at identifying mutations that confer drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Hanna; Jacobson, Karen R; Farhat, Maha R; Murray, Megan B

    2014-02-01

    Improving our understanding of the relationship between the genotype and the drug resistance phenotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis will aid the development of more accurate molecular diagnostics for drug-resistant tuberculosis. Studies that use direct genetic manipulation to identify the mutations that cause M. tuberculosis drug resistance are superior to associational studies in elucidating an individual mutation's contribution to the drug resistance phenotype. We systematically reviewed the literature for publications reporting allelic exchange experiments in any of the resistance-associated M. tuberculosis genes. We included studies that introduced single point mutations using specialized linkage transduction or site-directed/in vitro mutagenesis and documented a change in the resistance phenotype. We summarize evidence supporting the causal relationship of 54 different mutations in eight genes (katG, inhA, kasA, embB, embC, rpoB, gyrA and gyrB) and one intergenic region (furA-katG) with resistance to isoniazid, the rifamycins, ethambutol and fluoroquinolones. We observed a significant role for the strain genomic background in modulating the resistance phenotype of 21 of these mutations and found examples of where the same drug resistance mutations caused varying levels of resistance to different members of the same drug class. This systematic review highlights those mutations that have been shown to causally change phenotypic resistance in M. tuberculosis and brings attention to a notable lack of allelic exchange data for several of the genes known to be associated with drug resistance.

  11. Radiologic findings of double contrast knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hye Ran; Ahn, Byeong Yeob; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, So Hyun; Suh, Chang Hae; Chung, Won Kyun

    1990-01-01

    The double contrast arthrography of the knee is a highly accurate diagnostic modality in wide rage of the clinical disorders of the knee. It allows radiological assessment of the menisci, the articular cartilages, the synovium and the ligaments. The double contrast knee arthrography was performed in 356 cases at Inha hospital for about 3 years from June 1986 to June 1989. Among them, 115 cases were abnormal, and were analyzed clinically and radiologically with the back ground of the operative finding. The results were as follows ; 1. Of the 115 cases, male were 77 and female 38. Male exceeds female in the ratio of 2 : 1. 2. The age group of 20 - 39 years was commonly involved (60%). 3. The right knee was more commonly involved than the left and the medial meniscus tear was more common (61%). The posterior horn of the meniscus was more frequently torn than the other parts of the meniscus (42%). 4. The incidence of the bucket-handle tear was the most frequent (33%). 5. The cases of the popliteal cyst were 16 (13.9%), and the combined meniscus tears were in 4 cases (25%). 6. The numbers of the discoid meniscus were 9 (7.8%), and all were present in the lateral meniscus, and combined tears were in 4 cases (44.4%). 7. The diagnostic accuracy of the double contrast knee arthrogram was 82.7% compared with operative finding. The false positive examination were 17.3%

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the E test, Löwenstein-Jensen proportion, and DNA sequencing methods among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates discrepancies, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Moura Freixo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to streptomycin (SM, isoniazid (INH, and/or rifampin (RIF as determined by the conventional Löwenstein-Jensen proportion method (LJPM were compared with the E test, a minimum inhibitory concentration susceptibility method. Discrepant isolates were further evaluated by BACTEC and by DNA sequence analyses for mutations in genes most often associated with resistance to these drugs (rpsL, katG, inhA, and rpoB. Preliminary discordant E test results were seen in 75% of isolates resistant to SM and in 11% to INH. Discordance improved for these two drugs (63% for SM and none for INH when isolates were re-tested but worsened for RIF (30%. Despite good agreement between phenotypic results and sequencing analyses, wild type profiles were detected on resistant strains mainly for SM and INH. It should be aware that susceptible isolates according to molecular methods might contain other mechanisms of resistance. Although reproducibility of the LJPM susceptibility method has been established, variable E test results for some M. tuberculosis isolates poses questions regarding its reproducibility particularly the impact of E test performance which may vary among laboratories despite adherence to recommended protocols. Further studies must be done to enlarge the evaluated samples and looked possible mutations outside of the hot spot sequenced gene among discrepant strains.

  13. Efeito da coenzima Q10 nos danos oxidativos induzidos pela L-tiroxina no músculo sóleo de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Barreiro de Freitas Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: os músculoesqueléticos são tecidos dinâmicos que podem alterar suas características fenotípicas proporcionando melhor adaptação funcional com estímulos variados. A L-tiroxina é um hormônio produzido pela glândula tireoide e tem sido utilizada como modelo experimental para estimulação de estresse oxidativo no músculo esquelético. A coenzima Q10 é uma provitamina lipossolúvel sintetizada endogenamente e naturalmente encontrada em alimentos como carne vermelha, peixes, cereais, brócolis e espinafre. Apresenta propriedade antioxidante e tem potencial no tratamento de doenças degenerativas e neuromusculares. OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito protetor da coenzima Q10 no músculo sóleo de ratos frente aos danos oxidativos provocados pela L-tiroxina. MÉTODOS: os ratos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais cada: Grupo 1 controle; Grupo 2 coenzima Q10; Grupo 3 L-tiroxina e Grupo 4 coenzima Q10 e L-tiroxina. Após a eutanásia, o sangue dos animais foi colhido e foi analisada a atividade sérica das enzimas creatina quinase CK e aspartato aminotransferase AST. No homogenato do músculo sóleo foram avaliados fatores relacionados ao estresse oxidativo. RESULTADOS: a coenzima Q10 protegeu o músculo sóleo dos danos provocados pela L-tiroxina e favoreceu a manutenção da atividade das enzimas antioxidantes glutationa redutase e glutationa peroxidase, da concentração de glutationa reduzida e oxidada, além de evitar a lipoperoxidação. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados indicam que a coenzima Q10 protege o músculo sóleo de ratos dos danos oxidativos provocados pela L-tiroxina.

  14. Characterization of DNA polymorphisms in Caryocar brasiliense (Camb. in populations with and without thorn at the endocarp by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana N. Londe

    2010-09-01

    característica está relacionada com a divergência genética da espécie. Análise em Blastn evidenciou a similaridade dos genes Dof1 e com o gene da fosfinotricina-acetiltransferase de Z. mays. Na análise da BLASTx, a similaridade foi verificada com as proteínas responsáveis pela deficiência de ferro 4 redutase e catalase.

  15. Antioxidant isoenzyme responses to nickel-induced stress in tobacco cell suspension culture Resposta de isoenzimas antioxidantes ao estresse induzido por níquel em cultura de células em suspensão de fumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Bertoni Pompeu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to nickel (Ni at high concentrations can lead to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS resulting in oxidative damage at the cellular level. We investigated the antioxidative responses of Nicotiana tabacum cv BY-2 cell suspension to Ni stress (0.075 and 0.75 mM NiCl2 over a 72 h period with special attention to potential alterations in isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR. Two main SOD isoenzymes were observed, a Mn-SOD (band I and a Fe-SOD (band II, as well as one CAT isoenzyme and four GR isoenzymes. Activity staining analysis revealed that CAT activity plays a major role in the early response to Ni-induced oxidative stress, particularly when the Ni concentration used was low, whilst a specific GR isoenzyme appears to respond to the Ni-induced oxidative stress when a much higher Ni concentration was used to induce the stress for the same period of treatment. These results illustrate the importance and advantages of determining individual isoenzyme activities.A exposição ao níquel (Ni, em altas concentrações, pode levar à produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EAOs, resultando em danos oxidativos em nível celular. Foram investigadas as respostas antioxidativas de células em suspensão do cultivar BY-2 de Nicotiana tabacum submetidas ao estresse por Ni (0.075 e 0.75 mM de NiCl2 por 72 h, com atenção especial às alterações potencias em isoenzimas de superóxido dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT e glutatione redutase (GR. Duas principais isoenzimas de SOD foram observadas, uma Mn-SOD (banda I e outra Fe-SOD (banda II, bem como uma isoenzima CAT e quatro isoenzimas de GR. As análises revelaram que a atividade de CAT tem papel principal no momento inicial de resposta ao estresse oxidativo induzido por Ni, particularmente, quando sua concentração foi mais baixa, enquanto uma isoenzima específica de GR parece responder a este estresse na concentração mais alta de Ni

  16. Potenciais biomarcadores da terapia cognitivo-comportamental para o transtorno de estresse pós-traumático: uma revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O estabelecimento de biomarcadores relacionados à terapia cognitivo-comportamental (TCC é uma maneira de consolidar a eficácia do tratamento de forma mais objetiva, sendo crítico para o avanço desse campo de pesquisa. OBJETIVOS: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de estudos que: 1 utilizaram parâmetros biológicos para verificar a eficácia da TCC no tratamento do transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT; e 2 utilizaram esses parâmetros como preditores de resposta à CBT. MÉTODOS: Foram conduzidas buscas eletrônicas nas bases PubMed/Medline, ISI/Thompson Reuters e Pilot. RESULTADOS: Doze artigos foram selecionados para esta revisão, sendo quatro deles estudos sobre predição de resposta ao tratamento. Foi observada relação entre a eficácia da TCC e modificações nesses parâmetros, sendo a resposta da frequência cardíaca à evocação de sintomas o parâmetro mais utilizado até o presente momento. Sua redução está associada à melhora nos sintomas de TEPT. Potenciais biomarcadores de predição de resposta encontrados incluem 5α-redutase, ativação da amígdala, ativação e volume do córtex cingulado anterior e frequência cardíaca. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da escassez de estudos e das limitações metodológicas neles observadas, investigações iniciais sugerem que os biomarcadores da TCC em pacientes com TEPT poderão ser úteis para o monitoramento mais objetivo dos efeitos do tratamento, identificação de predição de resposta e para o desenvolvimento de estratégias mais eficazes de tratamento e prevenção do desenvolvimento de TEPT.

  17. Efeito do exercício físico e estatinas na função muscular em animais com dislipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilita Falângola Accioly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As estatinas são utilizadas no tratamento das dislipidemias, com grande tolerância; no entanto, vários efeitos colaterais podem surgir, destacando-se miopatia. A prática regular do exercício físico (EF produz modificações favoráveis no perfil lipídico; entretanto, pode gerar lesões musculares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da associação entre exercício físico e estatinas na função muscular, pela análise histológica, em modelo experimental animal com dislipidemia. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 80 ratos machos Wistar, distribuídos em oito grupos, incluindo animais submetidos à dieta hipercolesterolêmica (DH, sinvastatina com (G1 e sem (G2 EF; DH e fluvastatina, com (G3 e sem EF (G4; alimentados com ração comercial (RC na presença (G5 e ausência de (G6 EF; DH submetidos (G7 ou não (G8 a EF. A DH foi administrada por 90 dias, as estatinas e prática de EF em esteira rolante por oito semanas. Os animais foram sacrificados, e o músculo sóleo retirado para análise histológica. Aplicaram-se os testes t de Student pareado e análise multivariada, com nível significante para p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações histológicas encontradas foram fibras de diferentes diâmetros, atróficas, em degeneração, splitting, edema, infiltrado inflamatório. Essas alterações foram observadas em 90% dos animais do grupo G1, 80% do G2, 70% do G3, 30% do G4, 40% do G5 e 30% do G7. Nos grupos G6 e G8 identificaram-se fibras musculares com morfologia preservada. CONCLUSÕES: Na avaliação histológica muscular, a associação entre fluvastatina, sinvastatina e exercício físico acarreta alterações morfológicas com predomínio no uso da sinvastatina, variando de grau leve a grave, no músculo sóleo de ratos, induzidos pelos inibidores da HMG-CoA redutase.

  18. Efeitos de tratamentos térmicos aplicados sobre frutas cítricas armazenadas sob refrigeração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluge Ricardo Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram aplicados tratamentos térmicos em laranja "Valência", tangor "Murcott" e lima ácida "Tahiti" armazenadas em baixa temperatura e avaliados os efeitos na redução de injúrias pelo frio e sobre outras características bioquímicas. Os seguintes tratamentos foram aplicados: T1: frutas armazenadas a 1degreesC (Controle; T2: aquecimento rápido das frutas em água quente a 53degreesC, durante 3 minutos, sendo, em seguida, armazenadas a 1degreesC; T3: aquecimento lento das frutas em câmara regulada para 37degreesC, por 2 dias, com posterior armazenamento a 1degreesC; e T4: aquecimento intermitente em ciclos de 6 dias a 1degreesC + 1 dia a 25degreesC. As frutas foram armazenadas durante 90 dias a 1degreesC e 90-95% de Umidade Relativa (UR, sendo avaliadas a cada 15 dias. Além da incidência dos danos, foram avaliadas também as atividades das enzimas antioxidativas (catalase, glutationa redutase e ascorbato peroxidase. A lima ácida "Tahiti" e o tangor "Murcott" suportaram até 90 dias de armazenamento a 1degreesC com aquecimento intermitente, não apresentando danos pelo frio. No tratamento controle (armazenamento contínuo a 1degreesC, os danos pelo frio surgiram aos 30 dias de armazenamento para a lima "Tahiti" e aos 45 dias para o tangor "Murcott". Em laranjas "Valência", as injúrias pelo frio surgiram aos 45 dias de armazenamento, sendo significativamente menores no condicionamento térmico. Os efeitos dos tratamentos térmicos no aumento da resistência das frutas ao frio podem estar relacionados com a atividade das enzimas antioxidativas. Para a laranja "Valência", os tratamentos térmicos, aplicados na forma de condicionamento térmico ou aquecimento intermitente, reduzem as injúrias pelo frio e podem prolongar a conservação das frutas a 1degreesC e 90-95% UR. Para tangor "Murcott" e lima "Tahiti", o aquecimento intermitente é o tratamento mais eficiente para a redução de injúrias pelo frio e para o aumento na capacidade

  19. Nitrate reductase activity in the diatom Biddulphia longicruris: characterization and daily oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina S Asano

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reductase (NR activity was studied in the marine diatom Biddulphia longicruris. During 24 hours of sampling, NR activity was found during day time and in the transition day-night. Nitrite anions, the product of nitrate reduction, was released by the cells at the times NR was active, and accumulated in the culture medium. Whenever the cultures of B. longicmris were submitted to nitrogen deprivation, NR activity could not be detected. In vitro determination of KM values for NR using nitrate or NADH were respectively 50//M and 80 /*M. Temperature and pH dependence of NR activity were also determined for this organism.A atividade de nitrato redutase (NR foi estudada na diatomácea marinha Biddulphia longicruris. A NR é a enzima responsável pelo processo de assimilação de nitrato. O nitrato é reduzido no interior da célula a nitrito pela ação da NR. Esta enzima é normalmente oligomérica e utiliza o NADH como substrato doador de elétrons. Em alguns organismos também são encontradas NRs capazes de utilizarem o NADPH como doador eletrônico para a redução do nitrato a nitrito. Para a diatomácea B. longicmris foram apresentadas evidências de que a sua NR é específica para NADH e que a redução de nitrato em presença de NADPH não acontece. Determinações in vitro dos valores das constantes de Michaelis-Menten (KM usando nitrato e NADH como substratos, são respectivamente 50µ e 80µM. A temperatura ótima de reação enzimática e a sua dependência ao pH também foram estudadas. Cultivos de B. longicmris foram acompanhados por períodos de 24 horas e foi mostrado que a atividade de NR é encontrada em maiores níveis durante os períodos de transição de luz/escuro. Os anions nitrito, produtos da redução de nitrato, são eliminados pelas células nos períodos de maior atividade de NR e se acumulam no meio de cultura. Células submetidas à ausência de nitrato apresentam uma repressão da expressão de NR, sendo

  20. Physiological responses in the banana plantlets treateds with strobilurinsRespostas fisiológicas em mudas de banananeira tratadas com estrobilurinas

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    Sivia Helena Modenese-Gorla da Silva

    2012-04-01

    âmetro do pseudocaule e a massa da matéria seca da parte aérea de plantas tratadas com estrobilurinas foram superiores às de plantas não tratadas. O efeito do tratamento com fungicidas foi diferenciado, sendo mais pronunciado nas plantas tratadas com piraclostrobina do que nas plantas tratadas com azoxistrobina. Plantas tratadas com piraclostrobina apresentaram área foliar, atividade da redutase do nitrato e teor de clorofila a e de nitrogênio total foliar superiores às plantas tratadas com azoxistrobina e água, que não diferiram entre si. As estrobilurinas afetaram a fisiologia das mudas de bananeira, com destaque para a piraclostrobina.

  1. Muscle biopsy in Pompe disease Biópsia muscular na doença de Pompe

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    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (PD can be diagnosed by measuring alpha-glucosidase levels or by identifying mutations in the gene enzyme. Muscle biopsies can aid diagnosis in doubtful cases. Methods: A review of muscle biopsy from 19 cases of PD (infantile, 6 cases; childhood, 4 cases; and juvenile/adult, 9 cases. Results: Vacuoles with or without glycogen storage were found in 18 cases. All cases had increased acid phosphatase activity. The vacuole frequency varied (almost all fibers in the infantile form to only a few in the juvenile/adult form. Atrophy of type 1 and 2 fibers was frequent in all forms. Atrophic angular fibers in the NADH-tetrazolium reductase and nonspecific esterase activity were observed in 4/9 of the juvenile/adult cases. Conclusion: Increased acid phosphatase activity and vacuoles were the primary findings. Most vacuoles were filled with glycogen, and the adult form of the disease had fewer fibers with vacuoles than the infantile or childhood forms.O diagnóstico da doença de Pompe (PD pode ser feito pela dosagem da enzima alfa-glicosidase ou pela mutação do seu gene codificador. A biópsia muscular pode ajudar em casos duvidosos. Métodos: Revisão das biópsias musculares de 19 casos de PD (forma infantil, 6 casos; infantil tardia, 4; e juvenil/adulto, 9. Resultados: Encontrados vacúolos em 18 casos, com ou sem depósito de glicogênio. Todos mostraram aumento da fosfatase ácida. Os vacúolos estavam presentes na maioria das fibras nas formas infantis, menos frequentes nas formas juvenil e mais raros nas formas do adulto. A atrofia de fibras dos tipos 1 e 2 ocorreram em todas as formas. Fibras atróficas na NADH-tetrazolium redutase e esterase não específica foram observadas em 4/9 das formas infantil tardia/adulta. Conclusões: Os dados mais frequentes foram vacúolos, preenchidos por glicogênio com atividade aumentada da fosfatase ácida. A forma adulta apresenta menor número de vacúolos que as formas infantil e infantil

  2. Finasteride-associated male infertility Infertilidade masculina associada ao uso de finasterida

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    Sidney Glina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride is a potent and specific inhibitor of the 5alpha-reductase enzyme in men. Clinical studies have shown that finasteride 1mg/day is effective for promoting hair growth in men with male pattern hair loss. However, there is a concern about the use of finasteride, especially in young fertile patients, because of its action on testosterone metabolism. This paper describes 3 cases of young patients who had very poor seminal quality during finasteride treatment (1 mg/day, and their seminal quality greatly improved after cessation of finasteride treatment. Two of them presented with a left varicocele and the other was obese. We hypothesize that finasteride may not dramatically change the spermatogenesis process in healthy men, but in patients with conditions related to infertility, an amplification of the negative influence of finasteride could occur. Future studies should be done to clarify the extent of the effect of finasteride in patients fertility problems.A finasterida é um potente e específico inibidor da enzima 5alfa-redutase em homens. Estudos clínicos demonstraram que finasterida 1mg/dia diminui a progressão da queda e aumenta o crescimento do cabelo em homens que sofrem de queda de cabelo hereditária. Por sua influência no metabolismo dos andrógenos existe uma preocupação a respeito do seu uso, principalmente em pacientes em idade fértil. Neste trabalho são descritos 3 casos de pacientes jovens, que apresentaram piora do espermograma durante o uso continuado de finasterida 1mg revertida após a suspensão do mesmo. Dois deles tinham varicocele unilateral e o terceiro era obeso. Aparentemente o tratamento com finasterida promoveu alteração significativa na qualidade seminal. Pode-se especular que talvez a finasterida por si só não traga alteração para a espermatogênese como reportado por Overstreet et al. (1999, mas que em pacientes de risco com possíveis causas de infertilidade associadas, possa ocorrer a

  3. Quadruple-first line drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Vietnam: What can we learn from genes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Quang; Nguyen, Nhung Viet; Contamin, Lucie; Tran, Thanh Hoa Thi; Vu, Thuong Thi; Nguyen, Hung Van; Nguyen, Ngoc Lan Thi; Nguyen, Son Thai; Dang, Anh Duc; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Nguyen, Van Anh Thi

    2017-06-01

    In Vietnam, a country with high tuberculosis (137/100.000 population) and multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB burdens (7.8/100.000 population), little is known about the molecular signatures of drug resistance in general and more particularly of second line drug (SLD) resistance. This study is specifically focused on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to four first-line drugs (FLDs) that make TB much more difficult to treat. The aim is to determine the proportion of SLD resistance in these quadruple drug resistant isolates and the genetic determinants linked to drug resistance to better understand the genetic processes leading to quadruple and extremely drug resistance (XDR). 91 quadruple (rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin) FLD resistant and 55 susceptible isolates were included. Spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU-VNTR techniques were performed and 9 genes and promoters linked to FLD and SLD resistance were sequenced. SLD susceptibility testing was carried out on a subsample of isolates. High proportion of quadruple-FLD resistant isolates was resistant to fluoroquinolones (27%) and second-line injectable drugs (30.2%) by drug susceptibility testing. The sequencing revealed high mutation diversity with prevailing mutations at positions katG315, inhA-15, rpoB531, embB306, rrs1401, rpsL43 and gyrA94. The sensitivity and specificity were high for most drug resistances (>86%), but the sensitivity was lower for injectable drug resistances (resistance. Nevertheless, particular mutation patterns linked to high-level resistance and low fitness costs seem to be favored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Significant adverse reactions to long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of central precocious puberty and early onset puberty

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    Ji Woo Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeLong-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa are commonly used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP in Korea. Although rare, there have been reports on the characteristic of adverse reactions of GnRHa in CPP among the Korean population. This study was intended to report on our clinical experience regarding significant adverse reactions to long-acting GnRHa in CPP and early onset puberty and to evaluate the prevalence rate of serious side effects.MethodsThis retrospective study included children with CPP and early onset puberty, who were administered monthly with long-acting GnRHa (leuprolide acetate, triptorelin acetate at the outpatient clinic of Department of Pediatrics, at Inha University Hospital, between January 2011 and December 2013. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who experienced significant adverse reactions and evaluated the prevalence rate.ResultsSix serious side effects (0.9% were observed among total of 621 CPP and early onset puberty children with GnRHa therapy. The number of sterile abscess formation was four in three patients (4 events of 621. Anaphylaxis occurred in only one patient, and unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE in another one patient. Anaphylaxis occurred after the 6th administration of the monthly depot triptorelin acetate. Unilateral SCFE developed in GnRHa therapy.ConclusionSterile abscess formation occurred in 0.6% of CPP and early onset puberty patients from the administration of a monthly depot GnRHa therapy. The occurrences of anaphylaxis and SCFE are extremely rare, but can have serious implications on patients. Clinicians should be aware of these potential adverse effects related to GnRHa therapy in CPP.

  5. Analysis of orbital bone fractures: a 12-year study of 391 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; You, Sun Hye; Sohn, In Ah

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective study evaluates 391 patients with orbital bone fractures from a variety of accidents that were treated at the department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea, between February 1996 and April 2008. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and analyzed to determine the clinical characteristics and treatment of the orbital bone fractures.The following results were obtained. The mean age of the patients was 31.1 years, and the age range was 4 to 78 years. The most common age group was the third decade of life (32.5%). There was a significant male predominance in all age groups, with a ratio of 4.43:1. The most common etiology was violent (assault) or nonviolent traumatic injury (57.5%) followed by traffic accidents (15.6%) and sports injuries (10.7%).The most common isolated orbital bone fracture site was the orbital floor (26.9%). The largest group of complex fractures included the inferior region of the orbital floor and zygomaticomaxilla (18.9%). Open reduction was performed in 63.2% of the cases, and the most common fracture reconstruction material was MEDPOR (56.4%) followed by a resorbable sheet (41.1%). The postoperative complication rate was 17.9%, and there were no statistically significant differences among the reconstruction materials with regard to complications. During follow-up, diplopia, hypoesthesia, and enophthalmos occurred as complications; however, there was no significant difference between porous polyethylene sheet (MEDPOR) and resorbable sheet groups.Long-term epidemiological data regarding the natural history of orbital bone fractures are important for the evaluation of existing preventative measures and for the development of new methods of injury prevention and treatment.

  6. Clonal expansion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and coexisting drug resistance in patients newly diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Van; Ando, Hiroki; Thuy, Tran Thi-Bich; Kuwahara, Tomoko; Hang, Nguyen Thi-Le; Sakurada, Shinsaku; Thuong, Pham Huu; Lien, Luu Thi; Keicho, Naoto

    2013-11-05

    Newly diagnosed patients without anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment histories have not often undergone drug susceptibility testing (DST), but have received the standard treatment regimen without information about their DST profiles in many countries with inadequate resources. We collected 346 clinical isolates from previously untreated patients with smear-positive active TB in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. Of these, 339 were tested for susceptibility to four first-line anti-TB drugs, including isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), streptomycin (SM), and ethambutol (EMB), using the proportion method. A pyrazinamidase (PZase) test was used to assess pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance. Results of the culture-based drug susceptibility tests were confirmed by those from reverse hybridization-based line probe assays (LiPAs) that detected mutations associated with RMP, INH, PZA, and fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance. To investigate a diversity of these strains, IS6110-probed restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were analyzed. Nucleotide sequences for furA-katG and fabG1-inhA operons, transcription units responsible for INH resistance, were also determined. Of the isolates tested, 127 (37.5%) were resistant to at least one of the four drugs, which included 93 (27.4%) isolates that were resistant to INH. RFLP analysis identified four clusters defined by similarity of the band patterns, which accounted for 46.1% of the tested isolates. Among the clustered isolates, 37.7% were resistant to INH, most of which (85.4%) carried a g944c mutation, which causes an S315T amino acid substitution, in the katG gene. Our results suggest that drug-resistant strains, particularly those with INH resistance characterized by a single mutation, S315T, are spreading in Hanoi, Vietnam. When RMP resistance is combined with this setting, patients are not easily cured by conventional short-term treatment. We will need to carefully monitor these trends and search for the origins and transmission

  7. [Optimum separation conditions of catechin compounds by HCI program in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinzhe; Row, Kyung Ho

    2006-09-01

    An efficient optimization method was used to separate catechin compounds by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The binary mobile phase of water and methanol was utilized with the buffer of acetic acid (AA). The elution profiles were calculated by the plate theory based on the linear and quadratic equations of retention factor, In k = ln kw + SF, k = A + B/F, ln k = L + MF + NF2, where F is the volume fraction of methanol in the mobile phase. The retention theory was modified to calculate the elution profile in both isocratic and gradient modes. Based on the retention theory, elution profiles were predicted by introducing the concept of solute migration in the mobile phase with the linear and quadratic dependence of ln k in terms of the organic modifier content. Using the HCI program (a software designed by Inha University), the recommended experimental conditions of mobile phase composition and gradient step were suggested, and the elution profiles calculated by the quadratic relationship of ln k showed better coincidence with the experimental data than the linear correlation did. The calculated results of mobile phase condition for separation of catechin compounds suggested that the mobile phase composition was 0.1% AA in water/0.1% AA in methanol, 75/25 (v/v), then after 15 min, the composition was linearly changed to 50/50 (v/v) in 10 min and held at the isocratic mode to the end. In the experimental conditions, the agreement between the experimental elution profiles and the calculated values of eluted concentration was relatively good.

  8. Genes con efecto mayor sobre la fertilidad de ovejas. Revisión

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    Carlos Luna Palomera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio genético en razas de ovejas que na turalmente presentan altas tasas de ovulación (TO y de prolificidad, ha permitido detectar la participación de varios genes. Entre ellos están los relacion ados a la superfamilia del factor de crecimiento transformante β(BMPRIB, GDF9 y BMP-15, así como de otros genes con efecto mayor, tales como el “distal-less homeobox 3” (FecL, el receptor de estrógenos (ESR, el rec eptor de prolactina (PRLR y el de las inhibinas (INHA y INHB. Sin embargo, las ovejas homocigotas para la mayoría de las variantes alélicas en BMP-15 o GDF9 son estériles, por lo que es importante el entendimiento de las bases genéticas y moleculares de estos polimorfismos, para su uso en programas racionales de mejoramiento genético con énfasis en la prolificidad. El polimorfismo en el gen de la melatonina (MTNR1 se ha asociado con la no estacionalidad reproductiva en ovejas. La selección en varias razas de ovejas para estas característ icas ha reducido significativamente el anestro estacional, mostrando actividad reproductiva durante la prima vera y el verano. Sin embargo, parece ser que estos genes en algunas razas pueden estar interactuando aditivamente, y una variante alélica en una raza puede no aparecer en otra, o bien dos al mismo tiempo, por lo que son variados los mecanismos genéticos que afectan la tasa ovulatoria y prolificidad.

  9. Reduced susceptibility of clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to reactive nitrogen species promotes survival in activated macrophages.

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    Jonna Idh

    Full Text Available Drugs such as isoniazid (INH and pretomanid (PRT, used against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are active partly through generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS. The aim of this study was to explore variability in intracellular susceptibility to nitric oxide (NO in clinical strains of M. tuberculosis.Luciferase-expressing clinical M. tuberculosis strains with or without INH resistance were exposed to RNS donors (DETA/NO and SIN-1 in broth cultures and bacterial survival was analysed by luminometry. NO-dependent intracellular killing in a selection of strains was assessed in interferon gamma/lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages using the NO inhibitor L-NMMA.When M. tuberculosis H37Rv was compared to six clinical isolates and CDC1551, three isolates with inhA mediated INH resistance showed significantly reduced NO-susceptibility in broth culture. All strains showed a variable but dose-dependent susceptibility to RNS donors. Two clinical isolates with increased susceptibility to NO exposure in broth compared to H37Rv were significantly inhibited by activated macrophages whereas there was no effect on growth inhibition when activated macrophages were infected by clinical strains with higher survival to NO exposure in broth. Furthermore, the most NO-tolerant clinical isolate showed increased resistance to PRT both in broth culture and the macrophage model compared to H37Rv in the absence of mutational resistance in genes associated to reduced susceptibility against PRT or NO.In a limited number of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates we found a significant difference in susceptibility to NO between clinical isolates, both in broth cultures and in macrophages. Our results indicate that mycobacterial susceptibility to cellular host defence mechanisms such as NO need to be taken into consideration when designing new therapeutic strategies.

  10. Efficient differentiation of steroidogenic and germ-like cells from epigenetically-related iPSCs derived from ovarian granulosa cells.

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    Raymond Anchan

    Full Text Available To explore restoration of ovarian function using epigenetically-related, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, we functionally evaluated the epigenetic memory of novel iPSC lines, derived from mouse and human ovarian granulosa cells (GCs using c-Myc, Klf4, Sox2 and Oct4 retroviral vectors. The stem cell identity of the mouse and human GC-derived iPSCs (mGriPSCs, hGriPSCs was verified by demonstrating embryonic stem cell (ESC antigen expression using immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analysis, as well as formation of embryoid bodies (EBs and teratomas that are capable of differentiating into cells from all three germ layers. GriPSCs' gene expression profiles associate more closely with those of ESCs than of the originating GCs as demonstrated by genome-wide analysis of mRNA and microRNA. A comparative analysis of EBs generated from three different mouse cell lines (mGriPSCs; fibroblast-derived iPSC, mFiPSCs; G4 embryonic stem cells, G4 mESCs revealed that differentiated mGriPSC-EBs synthesize 10-fold more estradiol (E2 than either differentiated FiPSC- or mESC-EBs under identical culture conditions. By contrast, mESC-EBs primarily synthesize progesterone (P4 and FiPSC-EBs produce neither E2 nor P4. Differentiated mGriPSC-EBs also express ovarian markers (AMHR, FSHR, Cyp19a1, ER and Inha as well as markers of early gametogenesis (Mvh, Dazl, Gdf9, Boule and Zp1 more frequently than EBs of the other cell lines. These results provide evidence of preferential homotypic differentiation of mGriPSCs into ovarian cell types. Collectively, our data support the hypothesis that generating iPSCs from the desired tissue type may prove advantageous due to the iPSCs' epigenetic memory.

  11. Detection of First-Line Drug Resistance Mutations and Drug-Protein Interaction Dynamics from Tuberculosis Patients in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachappa, Somanna Ajjamada; Neelambike, Sumana M; Amruthavalli, Chokkanna; Ramachandra, Nallur B

    2017-08-16

    Diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis predominantly relies on culture-based drug susceptibility testing, which take weeks to produce a result and a more time-efficient alternative method is multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR). Also, understanding the role of mutations in causing resistance helps better drug designing. To evaluate the ability of MAS-PCR in the detection of drug resistance and to understand the mechanism of interaction of drugs with mutant proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Detection of drug-resistant mutations using MAS-PCR and validation through DNA sequencing. MAS-PCR targeted five loci on three genes, katG 315 and inhA -15 for the drug isoniazid (INH), and rpoB 516, 526, and 531 for rifampicin (RIF). Furthermore, the sequence data were analyzed to study the effect on interaction of the anti-TB drug molecule with the target protein using in silico docking. We identified drug-resistant mutations in 8 out of 114 isolates with 2 of them as multidrug-resistant TB using MAS-PCR. DNA sequencing confirmed only six of these, recording a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 99.3% for MAS-PCR. Molecular docking showed estimated free energy of binding (ΔG) being higher for RIF binding with RpoB S531L mutant. Codon 315 in KatG does not directly interact with INH but blocks the drug access to active site. We propose DNA sequencing-based drug resistance detection for TB, which is more accurate than MAS-PCR. Understanding the action of resistant mutations in disrupting the normal drug-protein interaction aids in designing effective drug alternatives.

  12. Expression Profiles of Fsh-Regulated Ovarian Genes during Oogenesis in Coho Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, José M.; Luckenbach, J. Adam; Yamamoto, Yoji; Swanson, Penny

    2014-01-01

    The function of follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) during oogenesis in fishes is poorly understood. Using coho salmon as a fish model, we recently identified a suite of genes regulated by Fsh in vitro and involved in ovarian processes mostly unexplored in fishes, like cell proliferation, differentiation, survival or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To better understand the role of these Fsh-regulated genes during oocyte growth in fishes, we characterized their mRNA levels at discrete stages of the ovarian development in coho salmon. While most of the transcripts were expressed at low levels during primary growth (perinucleolus stage), high expression of genes associated with cell proliferation (pim1, pcna, and mcm4) and survival (ddit4l) was found in follicles at this stage. The transition to secondary oocyte growth (cortical alveolus and lipid droplet stage ovarian follicles) was characterized by a marked increase in the expression of genes related to cell survival (clu1, clu2 and ivns1abpa). Expression of genes associated with cell differentiation and growth (wt2l and adh8l), growth factor signaling (inha), steroidogenesis (cyp19a1a) and the ECM (col1a1, col1a2 and dcn) peaked in vitellogenic follicles, showing a strong and positive correlation with transcripts for fshr. Other genes regulated by Fsh and associated with ECM function (ctgf, wapl and fn1) and growth factor signaling (bmp16 and smad5l) peaked in maturing follicles, along with increases in steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, ovarian genes regulated by Fsh showed marked differences in their expression patterns during oogenesis in coho salmon. Our results suggest that Fsh regulates different ovarian processes at specific stages of development, likely through interaction with other intra- or extra-ovarian factors. PMID:25485989

  13. A role for Waldeyer's ring in immunological response to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masieri, Simonetta; Trabattoni, Daria; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; De Luca, Maria Cristina; Dell'Albani, Ilaria; Leo, Gualtiero; Frati, Franco

    2014-02-01

    Adenoids, tubal tonsil, palatine tonsil, and lingual tonsil are immunological organs included in the Waldeyer's ring, the basic function of which is the antibody production to common environmental antigens. Adenoidal hypertrophy (AH) is a major medical issue in children, and adenoidectomy is still the most used treatment worldwide. The response of adenoids to allergens is a good model to evaluate their immunological function. This report assessed the immunological changes in adenoid tissues from children with allergic rhinitis (AR) undergoing sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Adenoid samples from 16 children (seven males, nine females, mean age 7.12 years) with AH and clinical indication to adenoidectomy were collected. Of them, five children were not allergic and 11 had house dust mite and grass pollen-induced AR. Among allergic children, in four AR was treated by antihistamines while in seven AR was treated by high-dose SLIT during 4-6 months. The evaluation addressed the T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th3 cells by performing a PCR array on mRNA extracted from adenoid samples. In non-allergic children, a typical Th1 pattern was found. SLIT induced a strong down-regulation of genes involved in Th2 and Th1 activation and function. In particular, in SLIT-treated allergic children IL-4, CCR2, CCR3, and PTGDR2 (Th2 related genes) and CD28, IL-2, and INHA (Th1 related genes) expression was reduced, compared with children treated with antihistamines. These preliminary findings warrant investigation in trials including larger numbers of patients, but indicate that hypertrophic adenoids of allergic children have the typical response to the specific allergen administered by SLIT. This should suggest that one should reconsider the immunological role of adenoids.

  14. Comparison of Normal and Pre-Eclamptic Placental Gene Expression: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

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    O Brew

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia (PE is a serious multi-factorial disorder of human pregnancy. It is associated with changes in the expression of placental genes. Recent transcription profiling of placental genes with microarray analyses have offered better opportunities to define the molecular pathology of this disorder. However, the extent to which placental gene expression changes in PE is not fully understood. We conducted a systematic review of published PE and normal pregnancy (NP control placental RNA microarrays to describe the similarities and differences between NP and PE placental gene expression, and examined how these differences could contribute to the molecular pathology of the disease. A total of 167 microarray samples were available for meta-analysis. We found the expression pattern of one group of genes was the same in PE and NP. The review also identified a set of genes (PE unique genes including a subset, that were significantly (p < 0.05 down-regulated in pre-eclamptic placentae only. Using class prediction analysis, we further identified the expression of 88 genes that were highly associated with PE (p < 0.05, 10 of which (LEP, HTRA4, SPAG4, LHB, TREM1, FSTL3, CGB, INHA, PROCR, and LTF were significant at p < 0.001. Our review also suggested that about 30% of genes currently being investigated as possibly of importance in PE placenta were not consistently and significantly affected in the PE placentae. We recommend further work to confirm the roles of the PE unique and associated genes, currently not being investigated in the molecular pathology of the disease.

  15. Harvesting energy wood in connection to young stand treatment; Energiapuun korjuu taimikon harvennuksen yhteydessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, J.; Lilleberg, R.; Poikela, A.; Rieppo, K. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    In the study felling-bunching and the Chipset chipharvester was tried in late thinning of a young stand. Also the impact of energy wood recovery in the young stand stage on the profitability of first thinning was monitored. On the study site the amount of trees to be cut was 5 300 - 22 000 trees/ha, mean height 2,7 - 5,0 m and the total biomass amounted to 26 - 75 m{sup 3}/ha. The felling-bunching was made with a chain-saw equipped with felling handles. The work consisted of opening of the strip roads, of thinning the stand between strip roads and of bunching the trees for the chip-harvester. The effective time expenditure of felling-bunching was on the different sites 8,5 - 27 in/ha or 0,24 - 0,64 h/m{sup 3}. The calculated costs of the work were 900 - 2 800 FIM/ha or 26 - 67 FIM/m{sup 3}. The density and volume of the trees strongly influenced work productivity. The Chipset chipping productivity was 5,7 - 8,7 m{sup 3} per gross effective hour. The chipping costs, when hauling distance was 250 meters, were 44 - 81 FIM/m{sup 3} or 21 - 43 FIM/MVVh. The total costs of energy wood procurement at the plant were 112 - 144 FIM/m{sup 3} or 56 - 73 FIM/MWh. The opening of strip roads during young stand treatment decreases net volume later in the first thinning. According to calculations made for the example sites the net volume decreased by approx. 9 m{sup 3}/ha. The first thinning costs thus increased by 4 FIM/m{sup 3} or ca 5 %. In the extension project the technical, economical and productional preconditions for combining young stand treatment, energy wood harvesting and first thinning will be monitored

  16. Epigenetic characteristics in inflammatory candidate genes in aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Susanne; Immel, Uta Dorothee; Just, Louise; Schaller, Hans-Günter; Gläser, Christiane; Reichert, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease triggered by the host immune response. Epigenetic modifications also affect the immune response. We assessed CpG methylation in 22 inflammatory candidate genes (ATF2, CCL25, CXCL14, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6, FADD, GATA3, IL10RA, IL12A, IL12B, IL13, IL13RA1, IL15, IL17C, IL17RA, IL4R, IL6R, IL6ST, IL7, INHA, and TYK2) with respect to the occurrence of aggressive periodontitis (AgP). In this study 15 AgP patients (53.3% males, 41.4±10.5 years) and 10 controls (40.0% males, 36.9±17.5 years) were included. The methylation patterns of gingival biopsies were quantified using EpiTect® Methyl Signature PCR Array Human Inflammatory Response. In gingival biopsies taken from patients with AgP, CpG methylation of CCL25 (1.73% vs. 2.59%, p=0.015) and IL17C (6.89% vs. 19.27%, p=0.002) was significantly reduced as compared with periodontally healthy tissues. We showed for the first time a differential methylation pattern for CCL25 and IL17C in periodontitis. CCL25 plays an important role in T-cell development, whereas IL17C regulates innate epithelial immune responses. The decrease in CpG methylation is presumably accompanied by an increase in gene expression. This could lead to a greater availability of CCL25 and interleukin 17C and support periodontal loss of attachment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Outcome analysis of sports-related multiple facial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; You, Sun Hye; Lee, Hong Sik

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we report a retrospective study of 236 patients with facial bone fractures from various sports who were treated at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea, between February 1996 and April 2007. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and analyzed to determine the clinical characteristics and treatment of the sports-related facial bone fractures. The highest frequency of sports-related facial bone fractures was in the age group 11 to 20 years (40.3%); there was a significant male predominance in all age groups (13.75:1). The most common causes of the injury were soccer (38.1%), baseball (16.1%), basketball (12.7%), martial arts (6.4%), and skiing or snowboarding (11%). Fractures of the nasal bone were the most common in all sports; mandible fractures were common in soccer and martial arts, orbital bone fractures were common in baseball, basketball, and ice sports, and fractures of the zygoma were frequently seen in soccer and martial arts. The main causes of the sports injuries were direct body contact (50.8%), and the most commonly associated soft tissue injuries were found in the head and neck regions (92.3%). Nasal bone fractures were the most common (54.2%), and tripod fractures were the most common type of complex injuries (4.2%). The complication rate was 3.0%. Long-term epidemiological data regarding the natural history of sports-related facial bone fractures are important for the evaluation of existing preventative measures and for the development of new methods of injury prevention and treatment.

  18. Is a medical humanities test needed in the National Medical Licensing Examination of Korea? Opinions of medical students and physician writers (secondary publication

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    Kun Hwang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the opinions of medical students and physician writers regarding the medical humanities as a subject and its inclusion in the medical school curriculum. Furthermore, we addressed whether an assessment test should be added to the National Medical Licensing Examination of Korea (KMLE. A total of 192 medical students at Inha University and 39 physician writers registered with the Korean Association of Physician Essayists and the Korean Association of Physician Poets participated in this study. They were asked to answer a series of questionnaires. Most medical students (59% and all physician writers (100% answered that the medical humanities should be included in the medical school curriculum to train good physicians. They thought that the KMLE did not currently include an assessment of the medical humanities (medical students 69%, physician writers 69%. Most physician writers (87%; Likert scale, 4.38 ± 0.78 felt that an assessment of the medical humanities should be included in the KMLE. Half of the medical students (51%; Likert scale, 2.51 ± 1.17 were against including it in the KMLE, which they would have to pass after several years of study. For the preferred field of assessment, medical ethics was the most commonly endorsed subject (medical students 59%, physician writers 39%. The most frequently preferred evaluation method was via an interview (medical students 45%, physician writers 33%. In terms of the assessment of the medical humanities and the addition of this subject to the KMLE, an interview-based evaluation should be developed.

  19. Prevalence and genetic determinant of drug-resistant tuberculosis among patients completing intensive phase of treatment in a Tertiary Referral Center in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Aminu Bashir; Iliyasu, Garba; Habib, Abdulrazaq Garba

    2017-01-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) continues to be a challenge in developing countries with poor resources. Despite the high prevalence of primary DR-TB, its routine screening prior to the treatment is not performed in public hospitals in Nigeria. Data regarding drug resistance and its genetic determinant among follow-up patients with TB are lacking in Nigeria. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genetic determinant of drug resistance among the follow-up patients with TB in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional, laboratory-based study conducted on 384 sputum samples collected from consented follow-up patients with TB. Standard microbiology methods (Ziehl-Neelsen staining and microscopy) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; line probe assay [LIPA]) were used to analyze the collected samples. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to analyze the generated data. Out of 384 sputum samples analyzed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and DR-TB, 25 (6.5%) tested positive for acid-fast bacilli. These samples were subjected to PCR (LIPA), of which 18 (72%) tested positive for DR-TB. Of these 18 samples, mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin (rpoB) and isoniazid (katG and/or inhA) were detected in 12 (66.7%) and 6 (33.3%) samples, respectively. Transmission dynamics of DR-TB was not significantly (P > 0.05) dependent on demographic characteristics. There is a need to strengthen the laboratory capacity for the diagnosis of TB and drug resistance testing and make these services available, affordable, and accessible to the patients who need them.

  20. Evaluating the ovarian cancer gonadotropin hypothesis: A candidate gene study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice W.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Stram, Douglas A.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Plisiecka-Halasa, Joanna; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Myers, Emily J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Vergote, Ignace; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Lambrechts, Diether; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Eilber, Ursula; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Odunsi, Kunle; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Goodman, Marc T.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Dörk, Thilo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dürst, Matthias; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Leminen, Arto; Edwards, Robert P.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Harter, Philipp; Schwaab, Ira; Heitz, Florian; du Bois, Andreas; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Karlan, Beth Y.; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Jensen, Allan; Vierkant, Robert A.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Goode, Ellen L.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Giles, Graham G.; Bruinsma, Fiona; Wu, Xifeng; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Lu, Karen; Liang, Dong; Bisogna, Maria; Levine, Douglas A.; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Berchuck, Andrew; Terry, Kathryn L.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bjorge, Line; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Krakstad, Camilla; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Aben, Katja K.H.; van Altena, Anne M.; Bean, Yukie; Pejovic, Tanja; Kellar, Melissa; Le, Nhu D.; Cook, Linda S.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Cybulski, Cezary; Jakubowska, Anna; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Yang, Hannah; Nedergaard, Lotte; Lundvall, Lene; Hogdall, Claus; Song, Honglin; Campbell, Ian G.; Eccles, Diana; Glasspool, Rosalind; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Carty, Karen; Paul, James; McNeish, Iain A.; Sieh, Weiva; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Whittemore, Alice S.; McLaughlin, John R.; Risch, Harvey A.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Harrington, Patricia; Pike, Malcolm C.; Modugno, Francesmary; Rossing, Mary Anne; Ness, Roberta B.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Stram, Daniel O.; Wu, Anna H.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Ovarian cancer is a hormone-related disease with a strong genetic basis. However, none of its high-penetrance susceptibility genes and GWAS-identified variants to date are known to be involved in hormonal pathways. Given the hypothesized etiologic role of gonadotropins, an assessment of how variability in genes involved in the gonadotropin signaling pathway impacts disease risk is warranted. Methods Genetic data from 41 ovarian cancer study sites were pooled and unconditional logistic regression was used to evaluate whether any of the 2185 SNPs from 11 gonadotropin signaling pathway genes was associated with ovarian cancer risk. A burden test using the admixture likelihood (AML) method was also used to evaluate gene-level associations. Results We did not find any genome-wide significant associations between individual SNPs and ovarian cancer risk. However, there was some suggestion of gene-level associations for four gonadotropin signaling pathway genes: INHBB (p = 0.045, mucinous), LHCGR (p = 0.046, high-grade serous), GNRH (p = 0.041, high-grade serous), and FSHB (p = 0.036, overall invasive). There was also suggestive evidence for INHA (p = 0.060, overall invasive). Conclusions Ovarian cancer studies have limited sample numbers, thus fewer genome-wide susceptibility alleles, with only modest associations, have been identified relative to breast and prostate cancers. We have evaluated the majority of ovarian cancer studies with biological samples, to our knowledge, leaving no opportunity for replication. Using both our understanding of biology and powerful gene-level tests, we have identified four putative ovarian cancer loci near INHBB, LHCGR, GNRH, and FSHB that warrant a second look if larger sample sizes and denser genotype chips become available. PMID:25528498

  1. Prevalência dos fatores trombofílicos em mulheres com infertilidade Prevalence of thrombophilic factors in infertile women

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    Adriana de Góes e Silva Soligo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a prevalência dos fatores trombofílicos em mulheres inférteis. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal, no qual foram admitidas mulheres inférteis atendidas em clínica privada e submetidas à investigação de trombofilia, conforme protocolo da referida clínica, no período de março de 2003 a março de 2005, após aprovação do Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP. Foram incluídas mulheres com história de infertilidade, definida como um ano de coito desprotegido sem concepção. Foram excluídas mulheres com hepatopatia e dados incompletos em prontuário, obtendo-se uma amostra de 144 mulheres. Os fatores trombofílicos avaliados foram: o anticorpo anticardiolipina (ACL, o anticoagulante lúpico (ACGL, a deficiência de proteína C (DPC, a deficiência de proteína S (DPS, a deficiência de antitrombina III (DAT, a presença do fator V de Leiden, uma mutação no gene da protrombina e a mutação do metileno tetrahidrofolato redutase (MTHFR. Resultados: os valores de prevalência obtidos para ACL e ACGL foram de 2%. A prevalência dos fatores trombofílicos hereditários foram: DPC=4%, DPS=6%, DAT=5%, fator V de Leiden=3%, mutação da protrombina=3% e mutação MTHFR=57%. CONCLUSÕES: das 144 pacientes selecionadas, 105 mulheres, ou seja, 72,9% apresentavam pelo menos um fator trombofílico presente. Isto reforça a importância e justifica a necessidade da investigação destes fatores neste grupo de mulheres.PURPOSE: to establish the prevalence of thrombophilic factors in infertile women. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was performed, in which infertile women, seen in a private clinic with investigation for thrombophilia were included, according to the protocol of the clinic, between March 2003 and March 2005, after the approval of the Research Ethics Committee of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP. One hundred and forty-four infertile women without any liver

  2. Variabilidade genética MTHFR no desenvolvimento da doença arterial coronária MTHFR genetic variability on coronary artery disease development

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    Patrícia Matos Biselli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Concentração elevada de homocisteína (Hcy é considerada um fator de risco para doença arterial coronária (DAC. Alterações genéticas da enzima metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase (MTHFR, envolvida no metabolismo da Hcy, podem reduzir sua termolabilidade contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de lesões ateroscleróticas. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre os polimorfismos MTHFR C677T e A1298C e a presença, extensão e gravidade da DAC. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 175 pacientes com DAC, confirmada por angiografia e 108 indivíduos sem DAC (grupo controle. O polimorfismo MTHFR C677T foi investigado por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR seguida de digestão enzimática. A genotipagem do polimorfismo MTHFR A1298C foi realizada pela técnica de PCR alelo-específica. RESULTADOS: A frequência do alelo alterado MTHFR 677C foi de 0,38 no grupo DAC e 0,37 no grupo controle. Em relação ao alelo polimórfico MTHFR 1298C, a frequência foi de 0,22 e 0,27, respectivamente. As distribuições genotípicas MTHFR C677T e A1298C não diferiram em relação ao número de artérias lesadas (P > 0,05. Também não foi observada relação entre o polimorfismo para MTHFR C677T e grau de obstrução arterial coronária (P > 0,05, assim como MTHFR A1298C (P > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados não demonstraram associação entre os polimorfismos MTHFR A1298C e MTHFR C677T e presença, extensão ou gravidade da DAC.OBJECTIVE: Increased homocysteine (Hcy concentration is considered a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. Genetic alterations of the metylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR enzyme could reduce its thermolability and alter the Hcy metabolism, contributing to development of atherosclerotic lesions. Objective of this study was to investigate the relation between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and presence, extension, and severity of CAD. METHODS: One hundred seventy-five patients with CAD confirmed by

  3. Absorção e redução de nitrato em duas cultivares de arroz na presença de alumínio Uptake and reduction of nitrate in two rice cultivars in the presence of aluminum

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    Gilberto Costa Justino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do alumínio (Al sobre a absorção e a redução de nitrato, em duas cultivares de arroz: Fernandes (tolerante e Maravilha (sensível, expostas a 0 e 500 µM de Al. Depois de 21 dias de crescimento, foram determinados o comprimento, a produção de matéria seca, os teores de Al e de nitrato e a atividade in vitro da redutase do nitrato (RN, nas raízes e na parte aérea, bem como as constantes cinéticas de absorção de nitrato pelas raízes. O Al reduziu o crescimento em comprimento e a produção de matéria seca, nas duas partes das plantas, apenas da cultivar Maravilha. Os teores de Al aumentaram nas raízes e parte aérea das plantas nas duas cultivares, enquanto o teor de nitrato sofreu redução apenas nas raízes da cultivar Maravilha. A Vmax não se modificou, enquanto o Km da absorção de nitrato diminuiu cerca de 11% na cultivar Fernandes e aumentou 310% na Maravilha. Em presença de Al, houve redução na atividade da RN nas raízes das duas cultivares, e na parte aérea apenas da cultivar Maravilha. A cultivar tolerante foi mais eficiente na absorção e na redução de nitrato, o que indica que esses processos são importantes componentes da tolerância ao Al em arroz.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of Al on the nitrate uptake and reduction in two rice cultivars, Fernandes (Al tolerant and Maravilha (Al sensitive, exposed to 0 and 500 µM Al. After 21 days of Al treatment, growth in size and dry matter yield, Al and nitrate contents and in vitro nitrate reductase activity (NR in the tops and roots, and the kinetic constants of root nitrate uptake were determined. Aluminum reduced the growth and dry matter yield of both plant parts only in the Maravilha cultivar. Aluminum content increased in the tops and roots of both cultivars, while nitrate content decreased only in the roots of Maravilha cultivar. Vmax did not change, while Km of the nitrate uptake

  4. Brazilian blood donation eligibility criteria for dermatologic patients Critérios brasileiros de elegibilidade à doação de sangue para pacientes dermatológicos

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    Carlos Gustavo Wambier

    2012-08-01

    determinado pela Portaria Ministerial no 1353/2011 do Ministério da Saúde e atuais normas internas do Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, um centro de referência regional em procedimentos hemoterápicos. Critérios para inaptidão definitiva: doenças autoimunes (>1 órgão comprometido, antecedente pessoal de câncer diferente de carcinoma basocelular, dermatite atópica ou psoríase graves, pênfigo foliáceo, porfirias, filariose, hanseníase, tuberculose ou paracoccidioidomicose extrapulmonares e uso prévio de etretinato. São condições de inelegibilidade temporária: uso de outros retinóides sistêmicos, corticoides sistêmicos, inibidores da 5-alfa-redutase, vacinas, metotrexato, betabloqueadores, minoxidil, anticonvulsivantes e antipsicóticos. Outras condições responsáveis por inaptidão temporária: acidente ocupacional com material biológico, "piercing", tatuagem, doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, herpes, infecções bacterianas, entre outras. Discussão: Talidomida atualmente não consta na lista de medicações teratogênicas. Apesar do uso da finasterida já ter sido considerada como critério para inaptidão definitiva, de acordo com sua meia-vida curta a restrição atual de 1 mês ainda é demasiadamente longa. Dermatologistas devem ser capazes de aconselhar seus pacientes sobre o momento adequado para doar sangue e discutir o impacto da suspensão de medicações nos resultados do tratamento de forma a respeitar os períodos de restrição designados.

  5. Potencial de Cajanus cajan e Crotalaria spectabilis parafitorremediação: absorção de arsênio e respostas antioxidativas Potential of Cajanus cajan and Crotalaria spectabilis for phytoremediation: arsenic absorption and antioxidative responses

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    Rafaella Teles Arantes Felipe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliaram-se os efeitos tóxicos do arsênio (As sobre o crescimento e atividade de enzimas antioxidativas dismutase do superóxido (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidases (POX, peroxidase do ascorbato peroxidase (APX e glutationa redutase (GR em plantas de Cajanus cajan e Crotalaria spectabili. Plantas das duas espécies foram expostas a diferentes concentrações de As, em solução nutritiva de Hoagland, pH 6,5. A taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR das duas espécies reduziu-se com o aumento da concentração de As na solução nutritiva, sendo de forma mais intensa em C. cajan. A concentração de As na solução capaz de reduzir em 50% a TCR de C. cajan foi de 0,93 mg L-1, enquanto em C. spectabilis foi de 4,80 mg L-1. As duas espécies apresentaram reduzida translocação de As para a parte aérea, sendo em raízes de C. spectabilis observada a maior concentração desse elemento. C. cajan exposto ao As teve as atividades das enzimas CAT, POX e APX reduzidas, ao contrário do que ocorreu em C. spectabilis. Esta espécie, quando submetida ao As, apresentou incremento na atividade de todas as enzimas avaliadas. A maior tolerância ao As observada em C. spectabilis pode estar relacionada à maior capacidade em reter o As nas raízes e à indução das enzimas SOD, CAT, POX, APX e GR. Dessa forma, C. spectabilis é uma espécie com potencial para utilização em programas de revegetação de áreas contaminadas com As.The toxic effects of Arsenic (As on the growth and activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POX, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR of Cajanus cajan and Crotalaria spectabilsi were studied. AQUI Plants of the two species were exposed to different As concentrations in Hoagland's nutrient solution, pH 6.5. The relative growth rate (RGR of the two species reduced with the increase in As concentration in the nutrient solution, especially in C. cajan

  6. Thrombophilic mutations and risk of retinal vein occlusion Mutações trombofílicas e risco de oclusão venosa retiniana

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    Ana Luiza Biancardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The association of retinal vein occlusion and hereditary thrombophilia abnormalities is not established, with controversial results in the literature. This study investigates the association between retinal vein occlusion and three thrombophilic mutations: factor V 1691A (factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210A (PT 20210A and homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677T (MTHFR 677TT. METHODS: 55 consecutive retinal vein occlusion patients and 55 controls matched by age, gender and race, were tested for the presence of the following mutations: factor V Leiden, PT 20210A and MTHFR 677TT. The frequencies of the three mutations in cases and controls were compared. RESULTS: Factor V Leiden was found in 3.6% of patients and in 0% of controls; PT 20210A was found in 1.8% of patients and 3.6% of controls, (matched-pair odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 5.51; MTHFR 677TT was found in 9% of patients and 9% of controls (matched-pair odds ratio, 1; 95% confidence interval, 0.92 to 3.45. Arterial hypertension was more frequent in patients than controls (matched-pair odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 9.21. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that thrombophilic mutations are not risk factors for RVO. Routine investigation of hereditary thrombophilia in these patients is not justified.OBJETIVOS: A associação entre oclusão venosa retiniana e trombofilias hereditárias não está estabelecida, com resultados controversos na literatura. O presente estudo investiga a associação entre a oclusão venosa retiniana e três mutações trombofílicas: fator V 1691A (fator V Leiden, protrombina 20210A (PT 20210A e mutação C677T do gene da metileno-tetra-hidro-folato redutase (MTHFR 677TT. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e cinco pacientes portadores de oclusão venosa retiniana e 55 controles pareados por idade, sexo e raça foram testados para a presença das seguintes mutações: fator V Leiden, PT 20210A e MTHFR 677TT. As freq

  7. Efeito do extrato aquoso de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L. sobre o estresse oxidativo em ratos diabéticos Effect of aqueous rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L. on the oxidative stress of diabetic rats

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    Ana Mara de Oliveira e Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do extrato aquoso de alecrim sobre o estresse oxidativo em ratos diabéticos. MÉTODOS: O extrato aquoso de alecrim foi obtido por método sequencial. Os fenólicos totais foram determinados pelo método de Folin Ciocateau e a atividade antioxidante in vitro foi determinada através de três métodos: β-caroteno/ácido linoleico, varredura do radical 2,2 Difenil-1-Picril-hidrazil e oxigen radical absorbance capacity. Ratos Wistar machos foram distribuídos em 5 grupos: controle, diabético, e três grupos de animais diabéticos tratados com extrato aquoso de alecrim em concentrações diferentes: 25, 50 ou 100mg/kg por via oral durante 30 dias. O diabetes foi induzido por estreptozotocina e, no final do experimento, foi coletado sangue para avaliar o percentual de hemoglobina glicada e os tecidos hepático e cerebral para determinação das enzimas antioxidantes: superóxido dismutase, catalase, glutationa peroxidase e glutationa redutase. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que o extrato aquoso de alecrim apresentou altos teores de compostos fenólicos totais e expressiva atividade antioxidante in vitro nos três métodos de avaliação. O extrato aquoso de alecrim na concentração de 50mg/kg diminuiu o percentual de hemoglobina glicada e aumentou a atividade das enzimas catalase e glutationa peroxidase no fígado, e da superóxido dismutase no cérebro de ratos diabéticos. No entanto, não foi observado efeito dose-resposta nas demais concentrações analisadas. CONCLUSÃO: O extrato aquoso de alecrim apresenta significativa capacidade antioxidante in vitro, atribuída à presença de compostos fenólicos em sua composição. E, quando administrado em ratos na concentração de 50mg/kg, demonstrou-se eficiente na atenuação do estresse oxidativo presente no diabetes experimental.OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effect of aqueous rosemary extract on the oxidative stress of diabetic rats. METHODS: Aqueous rosemary extract

  8. Is MTHFR polymorphism a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease like APOE? Polimorfismo da MTHFR é um fator de risco para demência de Alzheimer como APOE?

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    Liana Lisboa Fernandez

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene polymorphisms as risk factors for the occurence of Alzheimer's disease (AD is still controversial: OBJECTIVE: To verify the association between MTHFR and apolipoprotein E (APOE polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease. METHOD: This work was conducted as a case-control study. Cases included thirty patients with probable AD. Controls were constituted by 29 individuals without dementia according to neuropsychological tests paired to age, sex, race and educational level. DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes of anticoagulated venous blood. Genotyping of APOE and MTHFR were performed by DNA amplification and digestion. The frequences of APOE and MTHFR genotypes were submitted by chi-square test corrected by Fisher test; the APOE genotypes, to chi-square linear tendency test and the frequences of MTHFR mutant and AD, by stratificated anlysis adjust by Mantel-Haenszel method. RESULTS: There was significant difference about APOE4 and APOE2 in the groups. (p=0.002 The odds ratio increased exponentially with the increased number of E4 allele (chi2 linear tendency test. No significant difference was detected on MTHFR genotypes in both case and control groups. CONCLUSION: The APOE4 is a risk factor and demonstrated a dose-depenent effect while APOE2 allele conferred a protection to AD. The MTHFR mutation had no correlation with AD.INTRODUÇÃO: O papel do polimorfismo do gene da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase (MTHFR como um fator de risco para demência de Alzheimer (DA é controverso ainda. OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação entre os polimorfismos da MTHFR e apolipoproteína E (APOE e DA. MÉTODO: O trabalho foi conduzido como um estudo caso-controle. Trinta pacientes com DA provável foram incluídos no grupo caso. Vinte e nove indivíduos sem demência comprovadas por testes neuropsicológicos, emparelhados pela idade, sexo, cor e nível educacional constituíram o grupo

  9. O carvedilol potencializa o efeito antioxidante das vitaminas E e C na cardiopatia chagásica crônica

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    Patrícia Budni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A doença de Chagas continua a ser uma importante doença endêmica no país, sendo o acometimento cardíaco a sua manifestação mais grave. OBJETIVO: Verificar se o uso concomitante de carvedilol potencializará o efeito antioxidante das vitaminas E e C na atenuação do estresse oxidativo sistêmico na cardiopatia chagásica crônica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 42 pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica, agrupados de acordo com a classificação modificada de Los Andes, em quatro grupos: 10 pacientes no grupo IA (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma normais: sem envolvimento do coração, 20 pacientes do grupo IB (eletrocardiograma normal e ecocardiograma anormal: ligeiro envolvimento cardíaco, oito pacientes no grupo II (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma anormais, sem insuficiência cardíaca: moderado envolvimento cardíaco e quatro pacientes no grupo III (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma anormais com insuficiência cardíaca: grave envolvimento cardíaco. Os marcadores de estresse oxidativo foram medidos no sangue, antes e após um período de seis meses de tratamento com carvedilol e após seis meses de terapia combinada com vitaminas E e C. Os marcadores foram: atividades da superóxido dismutase, catalase, glutationa peroxidase, glutationa S-transferase e redutase, mieloperoxidase e adenosina deaminase, e os níveis de glutationa reduzida, de espécies reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico, proteína carbonilada, vitamina E e óxido nítrico. RESULTADOS: Após o tratamento com carvedilol, todos os grupos apresentaram diminuições significativas dos níveis de proteína carbonilada e glutationa reduzida, enquanto os níveis de óxido nítrico e atividade da adenosina aumentaram significativamente apenas no grupo menos acometido (IA. Além disso, a maioria das enzimas antioxidantes mostrou atividades diminuídas nos grupos menos acometidos (IA e IB. Com a adição das vitaminas ao carvedilol houve diminuição dos danos em prote

  10. Glutathione redox cycle in small intestinal mucosa and peripheral blood of pediatric celiac disease patients

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    Vesnać Stojiljković

    2012-03-01

    estresse oxidativo estão fortemente associados à doença celíaca. O glutatião (GSH é o principal detoxificante de ROS endógeno ou exógeno no intestino. Para explicar o papel do ciclo redox do glutatião nos pacientes celíacos, nós examinamos as atividades das enzimas GSH-relacionadas e anti-oxidantes (AO glutatião peroxidase (GPx e glutatião redutase (GR, assim como a concentração de GHS em biópsias do intestino delgado e sangue periférico de crianças afetadas pela doença celíaca. A concentração dos hidroperóxidos lipídicos (LOOH como marcadores do dano oxidativo foi medida em várias amostras. Os resultados mostram claramente a mal função significante do ciclo redox do GSH com uma diminuição concomitante da capacidade de regenerar GSH e detoxificar LOOH nos pacientes celíacos, mesmo após vários anos de GFD. A administração oral de GSH e uma dieta rica em anti-oxidantes naturais, assim como de suplementos apropriados na dieta, poderiam ser de grande benefício aos pacientes.

  11. The pentose phosphate pathway in Trypanosoma cruzi: a potential target for the chemotherapy of Chagas disease

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    Mariana Igoillo-Esteve

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is highly sensitive to oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species. Trypanothione, the parasite's major protection against oxidative stress, is kept reduced by trypanothione reductase, using NADPH; the major source of the reduced coenzyme seems to be the pentose phosphate pathway. Its seven enzymes are present in the four major stages in the parasite's biological cycle; we have cloned and expressed them in Escherichia coli as active proteins. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which controls glucose flux through the pathway by its response to the NADP/NADPH ratio, is encoded by a number of genes per haploid genome, and is induced up to 46-fold by hydrogen peroxide in metacyclic trypomastigotes. The genes encoding 6-phosphogluconolactonase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transaldolase and transketolase are present in the CL Brener clone as a single copy per haploid genome. 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase is very unstable, but was stabilized introducing two salt bridges by site-directed mutagenesis. Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase belongs to Type B; genes encoding Type A enzymes, present in mammals, are absent. Ribulose-5-phosphate epimerase is encoded by two genes. The enzymes of the pathway have a major cytosolic component, although several of them have a secondary glycosomal localization, and also minor localizations in other organelles.Trypanosoma cruzi é altamente sensível ao estresse oxidativo causado por espécies reativas do oxigênio. Tripanotiona, o principal protetor do parasita contra o estresse oxidativo, é mantido reduzido pela tripanotiona redutase, pela presença deNADPH; a principal fonte da coenzima reduzida parece ser a via da pentose fosfato. As sete enzimas dessa via estão presentes nos quatro principais estágios do ciclo biológico do parasita; nós clonamos e expressamos as enzimas em Escherichia coli como proteínas ativas. Glucose 6-fosfato desidrogenase, que controla o fluxo da glucose da

  12. Efeito da disponibilidade de nitrato em solução nutritiva sobre a absorção de nitrogênio e atividade enzimática de duas cultivares de arroz Effect of nitrate availability in nutrient solution on nitrogen uptake and enzimatic activity of two rice cultivars

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    André Marques dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas cultivares de arroz, Piauí (tradicional e IAC-47 (melhorada, foram colocadas em solução nutritiva contendo 20 mg de N-NO3- L-1 até 32 dias após a germinação (DAG. Depois disso, um grupo de plantas passou a receber 200 mg de N-NO3- L-1, enquanto o outro continuou recebendo 20 mg de N-NO3- L-1 até os 42 DAG. De 42 até os 56 DAG, todas as plantas receberam 5 mg de N-NO3- L-1 até o fim do ciclo. Esses tratamentos foram empregados visando simular o fluxo sazonal de nitrato existente nos solos de regiões tropicais. As plantas foram coletadas aos 133 DAG e separadas em folha bandeira, folha 2, colmos e raízes. Foram determinados os teores de N na forma de aminoácidos, nitrato e amônio, açúcares solúveis, atividades da nitrato redutase (NR e glutamina sintetase (GS. O fluxo sazonal de nitrato influenciou significativamente a absorção e o uso de N. As variedades estudadas foram responsivas de maneira diferenciada em relação ao acúmulo e à translocação de N, quando submetidas ao fluxo sazonal de nitrato. A cultivar Piauí parece acumular mais NO3- em seus tecidos na fase inicial do seu ciclo, podendo permitir sua posterior translocação. A folha bandeira e folha 2 parecem atuar como local preferencial de acúmulo de N, sendo este acúmulo mais intenso na cultivar Piauí.Two rice cultivars, Piaui (a landrace and IAC-47 (an improved variety, were grown in nutrient solution containing 20 mg nitrate (N-NO3- L-1 up to 32 days after germination (DAG. After this, a group of plants received 200 mg N-NO3- L-1, while the other was kept at 20 mg N-NO3- L-1 up to 42 DAG. From 42 until 56 DAG, all plants received 5 mg N-NO3- L-1 until the end of the cycle. These treatments were applied with the objective to simulate nitrate flush in tropical regions. Plants were collected at 133 DAG and separated in to leaf flag, leaf 2, stem and roots. N contents in amino acids, nitrate and ammonium forms, soluble sugars, nitrate reductase (NR and

  13. O papel das selenoproteínas no câncer The role of selenoproteins in cancer

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    Kaluce Gonçalves de Sousa Almondes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidências têm demonstrado que distúrbios do metabolismo são comuns em células tumorais, levando ao aumento do estresse oxidativo. A elevação na produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs associada à baixa atividade antioxidante tem sido relacionada a vários tipos de câncer. O selênio, micronutriente antioxidante, pode funcionar como um agente antimutagênico, prevenindo transformações malignas de células normais. Realizou-se um levantamento bibliográfico no período 2000 a 2009 mediante consulta à base de dados PubMed (National Library of Medicine´s Medline Biomedical Literature, USA, selecionando-se 39 artigos que avaliaram a relação entre câncer, estresse oxidativo e suplementação com selênio. O efeito protetor desse mineral é especialmente associado à sua presença na glutationa peroxidase e na tioredoxina redutase, enzimas protetoras do DNA e outros componentes celulares contra o dano oxidativo causado pelas EROs. Vários estudos têm demonstrado a expressão reduzida destas enzimas em diversos tipos de câncer, principalmente quando associados a uma baixa ingestão de selênio, que pode acentuar os danos causados. A suplementação de selênio parece ocasionar redução do risco de alguns tipos de câncer diminuindo o estresse oxidativo e o dano ao DNA. No entanto, mais estudos são necessários para esclarecer as doses de selênio adequadas para cada situação (sexo, localização geográfica e tipo de câncer.There are evidences that metabolic disorders are common in tumoral cells, leading to increased oxidative stress. The rising in the production of reactive oxygen species associated to low antioxidant activity have been associated to different types of cancer. Selenium, an antioxidant micronutrient can work as an anti-cancer agent preventing malignant modification in healthy cells. A literature review was carried out in the period 2000-2009 in the database PubMed selecting 39 articles which assessed

  14. Regulação da absorção e assimilação do nitrogênio nas plantas Regulation of nitrogen absortion and assimilation in plants

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    Christian Bredemeier

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A presente revisão tem por objetivo discutir os mecanismos de regulação da absorção e assimilação do nitrogênio nas plantas, de modo que a eficiência de uso desse nutriente seja aumentada. O nitrogênio é absorvido nas raízes sob a forma de NO3- ou NH4+, sendo então incorporado em aminoácidos na própria raiz ou na parte aérea. A taxa e a quantidade de nitrogênio absorvido e assimilado durante o ciclo da planta dependem da presença de carregadores específicos na membrana plasmática, da atividade das enzimas envolvidas no seu ciclo, da disponibilidade de energia necessária para os processos de absorção e assimilação e do estádio de desenvolvimento da planta. Inúmeros grupos de pesquisa têm centrado esforços na identificação dos pontos mais limitantes do metabolismo do nitrogênio nas plantas. Os limitadores têm sido relacionados com: a a afinidade dos carregadores pelo nitrato e amônio; b o suprimento de carboidratos às raízes; c o nível de aminoácidos no floema radicular; d a atividade das enzimas redutase do nitrato (RN, sintetase da glutamina (GS e sintase do glutamato (GOGAT; e a fonte de N suprida às plantas (NO3- ou NH4+; f o local de assimilação do N (raiz ou parte aérea. Esses estudos têm mostrado que o metabolismo do N é multiregulado e integrado ao metabolismo geral da planta. A identificação de pontos metabólicos específicos que são mais limitantes para o incremento da produtividade é complexa. A perspectiva é que a clonagem dos transportadores de N poderá auxiliar os programas de melhoramento genético na obtenção de plantas mais eficientes na absorção do nitrogênio.Nitrogen is absorbed as NO3- ou NH4+ and assimilated into aminoacids both in roots and shoots. Root absortion (rate and total amount at each plant developmental stage depends on specific plasma membrane carriers, enzyme activity for reduction and assimilation and energy availability for both processes. Several research

  15. Redução assimilatória de NO-3 em plantas de cajueiros cultivados em meio salinizado NO-3 assimilatory reduction in cashew plants grown in salinized medium

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    Ricardo A. Viégas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar os efeitos e mecanismos iniciais da ação da salinidade sobre a redução de NO-3 e a acumulação de solutos nitrogenados, plantas de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., CCP - 1001, com 42 dias de idade foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva contendo 100 mmol L-1 de NaCl, durante 8 dias, em casa de vegetação. A transpiração foi o principal fator de regulação da atividade de redutase de NO-3 (RN que foi fortemente reduzida nas folhas. Contrariamente, a atividade de glutamina sintetase (GS aumentou nas folhas em resposta à salinidade. Esta tendência de aumento da atividade de GS nas folhas foi acompanhada pelas concentrações de aminoácidos solúveis totais, particularmente prolina e proteínas solúveis totais. Por outro lado, o aumento nas concentrações das frações orgânicas de N, nas folhas, foi seguido por decréscimos nas concentrações de clorofilas e por acréscimos nas concentrações de NH+4 . É provável que o aumento da atividade de GS nas folhas de plantas de cajueiro, tenha sido induzido por um adicional suprimento de NH+4 e glutamato, a partir do catabolismo de aminoácidos e de proteínas e por aumentos na atividade fotorrespiratória.To evaluate the effects and initial-action mechanism of salinity on NO-3 reduction and N compounds accumulation, 42-day-old Anacardium occidentale (CCP-1001 plants were hydroponically grown in 100 mmol L-1 NaCl for 8 days (short-term experiment, in greenhouse. The results show that reduction in transpiration rates due to salinity had a relevant role in the regulation of NO-3 reductase (NR activity, which decreased considerably in leaf. On the contrary, glutamine sintetase (GS activity increased in leaf due to salinity. The increase in activity of GS in leaf was followed by the soluble amino acids concentration, in particular proline, and by the total soluble proteins content as well. On the other hand, increase in concentration of organic N fractions in

  16. Efeitos neuromusculares in vitro e in vivo do atracúrio e do rocurônio em ratos submetidos a tratamento de sete dias com carbamazepina Efectos neuromusculares in vitro e in vivo del atracurio y del rocuronio en ratones sometidos a tratamiento de siete días con carbamazepina In vitro and in vivo neuromuscular effects of atracurium and rocuronium in rats treated with carbamazepine for seven days

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    Caroline Coutinho de Barcelos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Trata-se de um estudo experimental que investigou in vitro e in vivo o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio e atracúrio em ratos tratados com carbamazepina e determinou as concentrações de citocromo P450 e b5 redutase em microssomos hepáticos. MÉTODO: Ratos foram tratados por sete dias com carbamazepina (CBZ - 40 mg.kg-1 pelo método de gavagem e sacrificados no oitavo dia sob anestesia com uretana. As preparações in vitro e in vivo foram montadas de acordo com as técnicas de Bulbring e de Leeuwin e Wolters, respectivamente. As concentrações e doses utilizadas dos bloqueadores nas preparações in vitro e in vivo foram, respectivamente, 20 µg.mL-1 e 0,5 mg.kg-1 para atracúrio (ATC; 4 µg.mL-1 e 0,6 mg.kg-1 para rocurônio (ROC. Cada protocolo teve um n = 5 e as respostas foram observadas por 60 minutos. Os efeitos do ATC e ROC foram avaliados nas preparações de ratos tratados (Cbz t e comparados com os observados nas de ratos não-tratados (CBZst. As concentrações de citocromo P450 e b5 redutase foram determinadas em microssomos isolados de fígados de ratos tratados (CBZt e comparadas com as obtidas em ratos não tratados (CBZst. RESULTADOS: A carbamazepina não alterou a amplitude das respostas musculares; in vitro e in vivo, não houve diferença entre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio nas preparações CBZt versus CBZst; o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio nas preparações CBZt foi potencializado in vitro. A carbamazepina não alterou as concentrações de citocromo P450 e b5. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento por sete dias com carbamazepina não influenciou no bloqueio produzido pelo atracúrio, e alterou in vitro os efeitos do rocurônio. O tempo de tratamento não foi suficiente para causar indução enzimática e diminuir a sensibilidade ao rocurônio.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Se trata de un estudio experimental que investigó in vitro e in vivo el bloqueo

  17. Rapid Screening of MDR-TB in Cases of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using Geno Type MTBDRplus.

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    Richa Kumari

    Full Text Available Drug resistance in tuberculosis is a major public health challenge in developing countries. The limited data available on drug resistance in extra pulmonary tuberculosis stimulated us to design our study on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in cases of extra pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary referral hospital of North India. We performed Geno Type MTBDRplus assay in comparison with conventional drug susceptibility testing by proportion method to study the mutation patterns in rpoB, katG and inhA genes.A total of 510 extra pulmonary samples were included in this study. After the smear microscopy, all the specimens were subjected for culture on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ media. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST was performed on LJ media for all the MTB isolates and compared with the results of Geno Type MTBDRplus assay which was performed with the DNA isolated from the culture by conventional method.Of 510 specimens cultured, the total culture positivity obtained was 11.8% (60 encompassing 54 (10.6% Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6 (1.2% non-tubercular mycobacteria (NTM. DST results by Geno Type MTBDRplus assay and solid culture methods were compared in 51 MTB isolates excluding the two Rif indeterminate and one invalid test. Geno Type MTBDRplus accurately identified 13 of 14 rifampicin-resistant strains, 14 of 15 isoniazid-resistant strains and 13 of 14 as multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in comparison with conventional method. Sensitivity and specificity were 92.86% and 97.30% respectively for detection of RIF resistance, 93.33% and 94.44% respectively for detection of INH resistance, 92.86% and 97.30% respectively for detection of MDR-TB, while the overall concordance of Geno Type MTBDRplus assay with conventional DST was 94.11%. The turn-around time for performing Geno Type MTBDRplus assay test was 48 hours.The problem of MDR in extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB cannot be overlooked and due attention on patients

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in northwestern Russia: an update from Russian-EU/Latvian border region.

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    Igor Mokrousov

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pskov oblast in northwestern Russia, to view it in the geographical context, to compare drug resistance properties across major genetic families. Ninety M. tuberculosis strains from tuberculosis (TB patients, permanent residents in Pskov oblast were subjected to LAM-specific IS6110-PCR and spoligotyping, followed by comparison with SITVITWEB and MIRU-VNTRplus databases. The Beijing genotype (n = 40 was found the most prevalent followed by LAM (n = 18, T (n = 13, Haarlem (n = 10, Ural (n = 5, and Manu2 (n = 1; the family status remained unknown for 3 isolates. The high rate of Beijing genotype and prevalence of LAM family are similar to those in the other Russian settings. A feature specific for M. tuberculosis population in Pskov is a relatively higher rate of Haarlem and T types. Beijing strains were further typed with 12-MIRU (followed by comparison with proprietary global database and 3 hypervariable loci QUB-3232, VNTR-3820, VNTR-4120. The 12-MIRU typing differentiated 40 Beijing strains into 14 types (HGI = 0.82 while two largest types were M2 (223325153533 prevalent throughout former USSR and M11 (223325173533 prevalent in Russia and East Asia. The use of 3 hypervariable loci increased a discrimination of the Beijing strains (18 profiles, HGI = 0.89. Both major families Beijing and LAM had similar rate of MDR strains (62.5 and 55.6%, respectively that was significantly higher than in other strains (21.9%; P = 0.001 and 0.03, respectively. The rpoB531 mutations were more frequently found in Beijing strains while LAM drug resistant strains mainly harbored rpoB516 and inhA -15 mutations. Taken together with a high rate of multidrug resistance among Beijing strains from new TB cases (79.3% versus 44.4% in LAM, these findings suggest the critical impact of the Beijing genotype on the current situation with MDR-TB in the

  19. Simplified microarray system for simultaneously detecting rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin resistance markers in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Yvonne; Kukhtin, Alexander; Golova, Julia; Perov, Alexander; Lambarqui, Amine; Bryant, Lexi; Rudy, George B; Dionne, Kim; Fisher, Stefanie L; Parrish, Nicole; Chandler, Darrell P

    2014-06-01

    We developed a simplified microarray test for detecting and identifying mutations in rpoB, katG, inhA, embB, and rpsL and compared the analytical performance of the test to that of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST). The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be at least 110 genome copies per amplification reaction. The microarray test correctly detected 95.2% of mutations for which there was a sequence-specific probe on the microarray and 100% of 96 wild-type sequences. In a blinded analysis of 153 clinical isolates, microarray sensitivity for first-line drugs relative to phenotypic DST (true resistance) was 100% for rifampin (RIF) (14/14), 90.0% for isoniazid (INH) (36/40), 70% for ethambutol (EMB) (7/10), and 89.1% (57/64) combined. Microarray specificity (true susceptibility) for first-line agents was 95.0% for RIF (132/139), 98.2% for INH (111/113), and 98.6% for EMB (141/143). Overall microarray specificity for RIF, INH, and EMB combined was 97.2% (384/395). The overall positive and negative predictive values for RIF, INH, and EMB combined were 84.9% and 98.3%, respectively. For the second-line drug streptomycin (STR), overall concordance between the agar proportion method and microarray analysis was 89.5% (137/153). Sensitivity was 34.8% (8/23) because of limited microarray coverage for STR-conferring mutations, and specificity was 99.2% (129/130). All false-susceptible discrepant results were a consequence of DNA mutations that are not represented by a specific microarray probe. There were zero invalid results from 220 total tests. The simplified microarray system is suitable for detecting resistance-conferring mutations in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and can now be used for prospective trials or integrated into an all-in-one, closed-amplicon consumable. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. FIND Tuberculosis Strain Bank: a Resource for Researchers and Developers Working on Tests To Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Related Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Belay; Nabeta, Pamela; Valli, Eloise; Albertini, Audrey; Collantes, Jimena; Lan, Nguyen Huu; Romancenco, Elena; Tukavdze, Nestani; Denkinger, Claudia M; Dolinger, David L

    2017-04-01

    The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB hampers global efforts in the fight against tuberculosis. To enhance the development and evaluation of diagnostic tests quickly and efficiently, well-characterized strains and samples from drug-resistant tuberculosis patients are necessary. In this project, the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) has focused on the collection, characterization, and storage of such well-characterized reference materials and making them available to researchers and developers. The collection is being conducted at multiple centers in Southeast Asia, South America, Eastern Europe, and soon the sub-Saharan Africa regions. Strains are characterized for their phenotypic resistances and MICs to first-line drugs (FLDs) and second-line drugs (SLDs) using the automated MGIT 960 system following validated procedures and WHO criteria. Analysis of resistance-associated mutations is done by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) using the Illumina NextSeq system. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and WGS are used to determine strain lineages. All strains are maintained frozen at -80°C ± 10°C as distinct mother and daughter lots. All strains are extensively quality assured. The data presented here represent an analysis of the initial part of the collection. Currently, the bank contains 118 unique strains with extracted genomic DNA and matched sputum, serum, and plasma samples and will be expanded to a minimum of 1,000 unique strains over the next 3 years. Analysis of the current strains by phenotypic resistance testing shows 102 (86.4%), 10 (8.5%), and 6 (5.1%) MDR, XDR, and mono/poly resistant strains, respectively. Two of the strains are resistant to all 11 drugs that were phenotypically tested. WGS mutation analysis revealed FLD resistance-associated mutations in the rpoB , katG , inhA , embB , embA , and pncA genes; SLD resistance in the gyr

  1. Relationship between XRCC1 polymorphism and acute complication of chemoradiation therapy in the patients with colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Chul; Choi, Sun Keun [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yun Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-03-15

    It is well known from clinical experience that acute complications of chemoradiation therapy vary from patients to patients. However, there are no known factors to predict these acute complications before treatment starts. The human XRCC1 gene is known as a DNA base excision repair gene. We investigated the possibilities of XRCC1 gene polymorphisms as a predictor for the acute complications of chemoradiation therapy in colorectal cancer patients. From July 1997 to June 2003, 86 colorectal cancer patients (71 rectal cancer, 13 sigmoid colon cancer and 2 colon cancer patients) were treated with chemoradiation therapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Inha University Hospital. Twenty-two patients were in stage B, 50 were in stage C, 8 were in stage D and 6 patients were unresectable cases. External radiation therapy was delivered with 10MV X-ray at a 1.8 Gy fraction per day for a total dose of radiation of 30.6 {approx} 59.4 Gy (median: 54 Gy). All the patients received 5-FU based chemotherapy regimen. We analyzed the acute complications of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract based on the RTOG complication scale. The initial and lowest WBC and platelet count were recorded during both the RT period and the whole treatment period. Allelic variants of the XRCC1 gene at codons 194, 280 and 399 were analyzed in the lymphocyte DNA by performing PCR-RFLP. Statistical analyses were carried out with the SAS (version 6.12) statistical package. When all the variables were assessed on the multivariate analysis, recurrent disease revealed the factors that significantly correlated with upper gastrointestinal acute complications. Arg399Gln polymorphisms of the XRCC1 gene, the radiation dose and the frequencies of chemotherapy during radiation therapy were significantly correlated with lower gastrointestinal complications. Arg399Gln polymorphisms also affected the decrease of the WBC and platelet count during radiation therapy. Although the present sample size was too small

  2. Relationship between XRCC1 polymorphism and acute complication of chemoradiation therapy in the patients with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Chul; Choi, Sun Keun; Hong, Yun Chul

    2006-01-01

    It is well known from clinical experience that acute complications of chemoradiation therapy vary from patients to patients. However, there are no known factors to predict these acute complications before treatment starts. The human XRCC1 gene is known as a DNA base excision repair gene. We investigated the possibilities of XRCC1 gene polymorphisms as a predictor for the acute complications of chemoradiation therapy in colorectal cancer patients. From July 1997 to June 2003, 86 colorectal cancer patients (71 rectal cancer, 13 sigmoid colon cancer and 2 colon cancer patients) were treated with chemoradiation therapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Inha University Hospital. Twenty-two patients were in stage B, 50 were in stage C, 8 were in stage D and 6 patients were unresectable cases. External radiation therapy was delivered with 10MV X-ray at a 1.8 Gy fraction per day for a total dose of radiation of 30.6 ∼ 59.4 Gy (median: 54 Gy). All the patients received 5-FU based chemotherapy regimen. We analyzed the acute complications of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract based on the RTOG complication scale. The initial and lowest WBC and platelet count were recorded during both the RT period and the whole treatment period. Allelic variants of the XRCC1 gene at codons 194, 280 and 399 were analyzed in the lymphocyte DNA by performing PCR-RFLP. Statistical analyses were carried out with the SAS (version 6.12) statistical package. When all the variables were assessed on the multivariate analysis, recurrent disease revealed the factors that significantly correlated with upper gastrointestinal acute complications. Arg399Gln polymorphisms of the XRCC1 gene, the radiation dose and the frequencies of chemotherapy during radiation therapy were significantly correlated with lower gastrointestinal complications. Arg399Gln polymorphisms also affected the decrease of the WBC and platelet count during radiation therapy. Although the present sample size was too small for

  3. Genetic sequencing for surveillance of drug resistance in tuberculosis in highly endemic countries: a multi-country population-based surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zignol, Matteo; Cabibbe, Andrea Maurizio; Dean, Anna S; Glaziou, Philippe; Alikhanova, Natavan; Ama, Cecilia; Andres, Sönke; Barbova, Anna; Borbe-Reyes, Angeli; Chin, Daniel P; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Colvin, Charlotte; Dadu, Andrei; Dreyer, Andries; Driesen, Michèle; Gilpin, Christopher; Hasan, Rumina; Hasan, Zahra; Hoffner, Sven; Hussain, Alamdar; Ismail, Nazir; Kamal, S M Mostofa; Khanzada, Faisal Masood; Kimerling, Michael; Kohl, Thomas Andreas; Mansjö, Mikael; Miotto, Paolo; Mukadi, Ya Diul; Mvusi, Lindiwe; Niemann, Stefan; Omar, Shaheed V; Rigouts, Leen; Schito, Marco; Sela, Ivita; Seyfaddinova, Mehriban; Skenders, Girts; Skrahina, Alena; Tahseen, Sabira; Wells, William A; Zhurilo, Alexander; Weyer, Karin; Floyd, Katherine; Raviglione, Mario C

    2018-03-21

    In many countries, regular monitoring of the emergence of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is hampered by the limitations of phenotypic testing for drug susceptibility. We therefore evaluated the use of genetic sequencing for surveillance of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Population-level surveys were done in hospitals and clinics in seven countries (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, and Ukraine) to evaluate the use of genetic sequencing to estimate the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, pyrazinamide, kanamycin, amikacin, and capreomycin. For each drug, we assessed the accuracy of genetic sequencing by a comparison of the adjusted prevalence of resistance, measured by genetic sequencing, with the true prevalence of resistance, determined by phenotypic testing. Isolates were taken from 7094 patients with tuberculosis who were enrolled in the study between November, 2009, and May, 2014. In all tuberculosis cases, the overall pooled sensitivity values for predicting resistance by genetic sequencing were 91% (95% CI 87-94) for rpoB (rifampicin resistance), 86% (74-93) for katG, inhA, and fabG promoter combined (isoniazid resistance), 54% (39-68) for pncA (pyrazinamide resistance), 85% (77-91) for gyrA and gyrB combined (ofloxacin resistance), and 88% (81-92) for gyrA and gyrB combined (moxifloxacin resistance). For nearly all drugs and in most settings, there was a large overlap in the estimated prevalence of drug resistance by genetic sequencing and the estimated prevalence by phenotypic testing. Genetic sequencing can be a valuable tool for surveillance of drug resistance, providing new opportunities to monitor drug resistance in tuberculosis in resource-poor countries. Before its widespread adoption for surveillance purposes, there is a need to standardise DNA extraction methods, recording and reporting nomenclature, and data interpretation. Bill & Melinda

  4. Magnitude of gene mutations conferring drug resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from lymph node aspirates in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tessema, Belay; Rodloff, Arne C; Sack, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to drugs is due to particular genomic mutations in the specific genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Timely genetic characterization will allow identification of resistance mutations that will optimize an effective antibiotic treatment regimen. We determine the magnitude of gene mutations conferring resistance to isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) and ethambutol (EMB) among tuberculosis (TB) lymphadenitis patients. A cross sectional prospective study was conducted among 226 M.tuberculosis isolates from culture positive lymph node aspirates collected from TB lymphadenitis patients between April 2012 and May 2012. Detection of mutations conferring resistance to drugs was carried out using GenoType(®) MTBDRplus and GenoType® MTBDRsl assay. Out of the 226 strains, mutations conferring resistance to INH, RMP, multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and EMB were 8, 3, 2 and 2 isolates, respectively. There was no isolated strain that showed mutation in the inhA promoter region gene. All INH resistant strains had mutations in the katG gene at codon 315 with amino acid change of S315T1. Among rifampicin resistant strains, two isolates displayed mutations at codon 531 in the rpoB gene with amino acid change of S531L and one isolate was by omission of wild type probes at Q513L. According to mutations associated with ethambutol resistance, all of the isolates had mutations in the embB gene with aminoacid change of M306I. All isolates resistant to INH, RMP and MDR using BacT/AlerT 3D system were correctly identified by GenoType® MTBDRplus assay. We observed mutations conferring resistance to INH at S315T1 of the katG gene, RMP at S531L and Q513L in the rpoB genes and EMB at M306I of the embB gene. In the absence of conventional drug susceptibility testing, the effort to develop easy, rapid and cost effective molecular assays for drug resistance TB monitoring is definitely desirable and the GenoType® MTBDRplus assay was found to be a useful method for diagnosis

  5. Nano-graphene oxide composite for in vivo imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang SC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sung-Chan Jang,1,2,* Sung-Min Kang,1,* Jun Young Lee,3,* Seo Yeong Oh,1 AT Ezhil Vilian,4 Ilsong Lee,1,2 Young-Kyu Han,4 Jeong Hoon Park,3 Wan-Seob Cho,5,* Changhyun Roh,2,6 Yun Suk Huh1 1Department of Biological Engineering, Biohybrid Systems Research Center (BSRC, Inha University, Incheon, 2Biotechnology Research Division, 3Radiation Instrumentation Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, Jeongeup, 4Department of Energy and Materials Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul, 5Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Health Sciences, Dong-A University, Busan, 6Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope Science, University of Science and Technology (UST, Daejeon, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET tracers has the potential to revolutionize cancer imaging and diagnosis. PET tracers offer non-invasive quantitative imaging in biotechnology and biomedical applications, but it requires radioisotopes as radioactive imaging tracers or radiopharmaceuticals. Method: This paper reports the synthesis of 18F-nGO-PEG by covalently functionalizing PEG with nano-graphene oxide, and its excellent stability in physiological solutions. Using a green synthesis route, nGO is then functionalized with a biocompatible PEG polymer to acquire high stability in PBS and DMEM. Results and discussion: The radiochemical safety of 18F-nGO-PEG was measured by a reactive oxygen species and cell viability test. The biodistribution of 18F-nGO-PEG could be observed easily by PET, which suggested the significantly high sensitivity tumor uptake of 18F-nGO-PEG and in a tumor bearing CT-26 mouse compared to the control. 18F-nGO-PEG was applied successfully as an efficient radiotracer or drug agent in vivo using PET imaging. This article is expected to assist many researchers in the fabrication of

  6. Whole genome sequencing-based characterization of extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Objectives: The global increase in drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains increases the focus on improved molecular diagnostics for MTB. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) - TB is caused by MTB strains resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics. Resistance to anti-tuberculous drugs has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in particular MTB genes. However, there is regional variation between MTB lineages and the SNPs associated with resistance. Therefore, there is a need to identify common resistance conferring SNPs so that effective molecular-based diagnostic tests for MTB can be developed. This study investigated used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 37 XDR MTB isolates from Pakistan and investigated SNPs related to drug resistance. Methods: XDR-TB strains were selected. DNA was extracted from MTB strains, and samples underwent WGS with 76-base-paired end fragment sizes using Illumina paired end HiSeq2000 technology. Raw sequence data were mapped uniquely to H37Rv reference genome. The mappings allowed SNPs and small indels to be called using SAMtools/BCFtools. Results: This study found that in all XDR strains, rifampicin resistance was attributable to SNPs in the rpoB RDR region. Isoniazid resistance-associated mutations were primarily related to katG codon 315 followed by inhA S94A. Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributable to gyrA 91-94 codons in most strains, while one did not have SNPs in either gyrA or gyrB. Aminoglycoside resistance was mostly associated with SNPs in rrs, except in 6 strains. Ethambutol resistant strains had embB codon 306 mutations, but many strains did not have this present. The SNPs were compared with those present in commercial assays such as LiPA Hain MDRTBsl, and the sensitivity of the assays for these strains was evaluated. Conclusions: If common drug resistance associated with SNPs evaluated the concordance between phenotypic and

  7. Dual UV irradiation-based metal oxide nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity in Escherichia coli and M13 bacteriophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin SE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Su-Eon Jin,1 Woochul Hwang,2 Hyo Jung Lee,3 Hyo-Eon Jin3 1Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, 2ECOSET Co., Ltd., Ansan, 3College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea Abstract: Metal oxide (MO nanoparticles have been studied as nano-antibiotics due to their antimicrobial activities even in antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. We hypothesized that a hybrid system of dual UV irradiation and MO nanoparticles would have enhanced antimicrobial activities compared with UV or MO nanoparticles alone. In this study, nanoparticles of ZnO, ZnTiO3, MgO, and CuO were selected as model nanoparticles. A dual UV collimated beam device of UV-A and UV-C was developed depending upon the lamp divided by coating. Physicochemical properties of MO nanoparticles were determined using powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, and field emission-scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy with an electrostatic force microscopy mode was used to confirm the surface topology and electrostatic characteristics after dual UV irradiation. For antimicrobial activity test, MO nanoparticles under dual UV irradiation were applied to Escherichia coli and M13 bacteriophage (phage. The UV-A and UV-C showed differential intensities in the coated and uncoated areas (UV-A, coated = uncoated; UV-C, coated << uncoated. MO nanoparticles showed sharp peaks in PXRD patterns, matched to pure materials. Their primary particle sizes were less than 100 nm with irregular shapes, which had an 8.6~25.6 m2/g of specific surface area with mesopores of 22~262 nm. The electrostatic properties of MO nanoparticles were modulated after UV irradiation. ZnO, MgO, and CuO nanoparticles, except ZnTiO3 nanoparticles, showed antibacterial effects on E. coli. Antimicrobial effects on E. coli and phages were also enhanced after cyclic exposure of dual UV and MO nanoparticle

  8. Molecular detection of rifampin and isoniazid resistance to guide chronic TB patient management in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinsi Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    were the H526D (15.6%, the H526Y (15.6%, and the S531L (9.4%. All isoniazid-resistant cases (n 36 identified by the molecular assay were carrying a S315T substitution in the katG gene. In 41.7% of cases, a mutation affecting the promoter region of the inhA gene was also detected. Conclusion The GenoType® MTBDRplus assay performed directly on sputum specimens improves the management of chronic TB cases allowing more appropriate anti-TB regimens.

  9. Analysis of isoniazid, streptomycin and ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoui, Imane; Sabouni, Radia; Kourout, Moussa; Jordaan, Annemie M; Lahlou, Ouafae; Elouad, Rajae; Akrim, Mohammed; Victor, Thomas C; El Mzibri, Mohammed

    2009-05-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major problem worldwide. Based on the knowledge of specific mutations occurring in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, drug resistance can be detected earlier. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the most common mutations associated with resistance to Isoniazid (INH), Streptomycin (SM) and Ethambutol (EMB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Morocco in order to select target mutations to develop tests for rapid detection of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Moroccan isolates. A total of 199 M. tuberculosis isolates collected from the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory in Morocco were subject to katG, inhA, rrs, rpsL and emb mutation analysis by PCR probe-based assay. The genotypic results were then compared to drug susceptibility testing results for the corresponding drugs. Among 66 phenotypically INH resistant isolates, 80.3% (53/66) were found to be genotypically INH resistant from which 77.3% (51/66) and 3% (2/66) had respective mutations in katG315 and inhp-15 codons. Of the 58 phenotypically SM resistant isolates, genotypic SM resistance was confirmed in 17.2% (10/58) cases. Nucleotide mutations at codons 43 and 88 of rpsL gene and at codon 512 of rrs gene were found respectively in 12.1% (7/58); 1.7% (1/58) and 3.4% (2/58) of the phenotypically SM resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Finally, mutations at codon 306 of embB gene were identified in 42.3% (11/26) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates phenotypically EMB resistant. This study showed that a large proportion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant isolates from Morocco carry a large number of mutations in different codons (especially katG315, embB306 and rpsL43) of the corresponding genes associated with drug resistance. Thus, molecular analysis based on the identification of such mutations is useful but not fully sufficient to predict all drug resistance cases. Based on these results, rapid drug resistance

  10. First evaluation in Argentina of the GenoType® MTBDRplus assay for multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection from clinical isolates and specimens Primera evaluación en Argentina de GenoType® MTBDRplus para la detección de Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrogo-resistente desde aislamientos y especímenes clínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén R Imperiale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB and multidrug and extensively drug-resistant (DR TB are important public health problems that are spreading worldwide. The aims of this study were to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType® MT BDRplus assay from smear-positive clinical specimens and isolates and to explore its possible application in routine work. Clinical samples were previously decontaminated using NaOH-N-acetyl-L-cystein or NaOH-ClNa hypertonic solution for Ziehl-Neelsen staining and cultures. The leftover sediments of smear-positive samples were stored at -20 ºC, 70 of which were selected to be included in this study according to their DR profile. Thirty DR Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were also assessed. Sequencing was used as gold standard to detect mutations conferring isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF resistance. Valid results were obtained in 94.0 % of the samples and 85.5 % (53/62 of the INH-R samples were properly identified. Mutations in the katGS315T gene and inhA C-15T gene promoter region were present in 59.7 % (37/62 and 25.8% (16/62 of the INH-R samples, respectively. The system could also identify 97.7 % (41/42 of the RIF-R samples; the mutations found were rpoBS531L (66.7 %, 28/42, D516V (19.0 %, 8/42, H526Y and S531P/W (4.8 %, 2/42 each one, and S522L/Q (2.4 %, 1/42. A 98.8 % concordance between the GenoType assay and sequencing was obtained. GenoType® MT BDRplus has demonstrated to be easy to implement and to perform in clinical laboratories and useful for a rapid detection of DR M. tuberculosis from decontaminated sputa and clinical isolates. Therefore, this assay could be applied as a rapid tool to predict INH-R and/or RIF-R in DR risk cases.La tuberculosis (TBC, y la TBC multi y extensivamente drogo-resistentes (DR son importantes problemas de salud pública mundial. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la sensibilidad y especificidad del sistema GenoType® MT BDRplus a partir de esputos (baciloscop

  11. EDITORIAL: Welcome to the 2012 volume Welcome to the 2012 volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ephrahim

    2012-01-01

    articles last year, as well as our authors and contributors for submitting their high quality research. We very much look forward to your further involvement with the journal in 2012. Finally, I would like to extend a huge thank you to our diverse Board of Associate Editors who have devoted their time and energy giving invaluable advice on each submitted article, and have been dedicated ambassadors for SMS. A special welcome to Professor Kwang J Kim who joined the Board a few months ago. Professor D Abbott, University of Adelaide, Australia Professor G Akhras, Royal Military College of Canada, Ontario, Canada Professor C Boller, University of Saarland, Saarbrücken, Germany; Fraunhofer-Institut für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren, Dresden, Germany Professor Cagnol, École Centrale Paris, France Professor G Carman, University of California-Los Angeles, USA Professor S-B Choi, Inha University, Incheon, Korea Dr S H Choi, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA Professor A Del Grosso, Università degli Studi di Genova, Italy Professor D Erickson, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Professor A Flatau, University of Maryland, College Park, USA Professor U Gabbert, Universität Magdeburg, Germany Professor A Güemes, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain Professor S Gopalakrishnan, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India Professor J Kim, Inha University, Incheon, Korea Professor K J Kim, University of Nevada, Reno, USA Professor S J Kim, Seoul National University, Korea Professor D Lagoudas, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA Professor R Lammering, Helmut-Schmidt-Universität/Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Professor C K Lee, National Taiwan University, Taiwan Professor J Leng, Harbin Institute of Technology, China Professor W Li, University of Wollongong, Australia Professor W H Liao, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China Professor C S Lynch, University of California-Los Angeles, USA Dr S Masri, University of Southern California

  12. Estrutura arbórea da Floresta Ombrófila Densa Altomontana de serras do Sul do Brasil Tree component structure of tropical upper montane rain forests in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2011-12-01

    tree individuals (perimeter at breast height - PBH > 10 cm were sampled, which included 28 families, 43 genera and 78 species. The cloud forest sampled in Serra Gigante showed the highest richness (41 species, followed by Serra da Prata (37, Serra da Igreja (34 and Serra do Ibitiraquire (26. The mean tree height was 4.8 m, the PBH was 22.9 cm, the tree abundance was 4779 in/ha, the basal area was 33.5 m²/ha and the Shannon diversity index was 2.68 nats/ind. Combining our data with the published data on the Serra do Mar region, resulting in a total of 11 surveys and 204 plots (10200 m², a matrix with 75 identified species was obtained. In this matrix, the five most important species in the structure of the forest were Ilex microdonta, Siphoneugena reitzii, Drimys angustifolia, Ocotea porosa and Ilex chamaedrifolia. The cloud forests sampled in Serra do Mar showed lower richness and diversity indexes than the cloud forests in Serra da Mantiqueira (Southeast and higher richness and diversity than cloud forests in Aparados da Serra Geral (South. These differences are possibly related to the anthropic influences, geographic distances, different centers of endemism, the tropical and subtropical surroundings, and geomorphology, among other factors.

  13. Factors associated with appropriate inhaler use in patients with COPD – lessons from the REAL survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price D

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available David Price,1,2 Dorothy L Keininger,3 Boomi Viswanad,4 Matthias Gasser,5 Susann Walda,5 Florian S Gutzwiller3 1Division of Applied Health Sciences, Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; 2Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute, Singapore; 3Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 4Novartis Healthcare Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad, India; 5GfK Switzerland AG, Basel, Switzerland Background: Nonadherence to medication and incorrect use of inhalers represent significant barriers to optimal disease management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Thus, health care professionals (HCPs play a critical role in educating their patients on appropriate inhaler use and in ensuring medication adherence. However, many patients do not receive appropriate inhaler training or have not had their inhaler technique checked.Methods: The Real-life Experience and Accuracy of inhaLer use (REAL survey was a computer-assisted, telephonic survey consisting of 23 questions gathering real-world information on correct inhaler use, inhalation technique, device attributes, adherence, dosing accuracy, training, correct device use, ease of use, and factors that influence patient adherence in commercially available inhalers delivering COPD maintenance therapy. All results are based on patient-reported data.Results: The survey was conducted between January 4, 2016 and February 2, 2016. A total of 764 patients using various inhalers (Breezhaler® =186; Ellipta® =191; Genuair® =194; Respimat® =201 with mild to very severe COPD, with a mean ± SD age 56±9.8 years, completed the survey. Patient self-reported adherence was significantly lower in younger patients compared to older patients (p=0.020. Eighty-three percent of patients indicated that a demonstration (in-person was “very helpful” versus 58% for video. Patient preferences for training methods were as follows: demonstration of inhaler use (83%, video (58%, instructions for

  14. EDITORIAL: Welcome to the 2013 volume Welcome to the 2013 volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ephrahim

    2013-01-01

    Professor Derek Abbott, Professor Alison Flatau, Professor Jinsong Leng and Professor Yuji Matsuzaki who have retired from the Board. Professor Matsuzaki worked on the journal for almost two decades. Associate Editors Professor G Akhras, Royal Military College of Canada, Ontario, Canada Professor C Boller, University of Saarland, Saarbrücken, Germany; Fraunhofer-Institut für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren, Dresden, Germany Professor Cagnol, École Centrale Paris, France Professor G Carman, University of California-Los Angeles, USA Professor S-B Choi, Inha University, Incheon, Korea Professor S H Choi, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA Professor A Del Grosso, Università degli Studi di Genova, Italy Professor D Erickson, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Professor U Gabbert, Universität Magdeburg, Germany Professor A Güemes, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain Professor S Gopalakrishnan, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India Professor J Kim, Inha University, Incheon, Korea Professor K J Kim, University of Nevada, Reno, USA Professor S J Kim, Seoul National University, Korea Professor D Lagoudas, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA Professor R Lammering, Helmut-Schmidt-Universität/Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Professor C K Lee, National Taiwan University, Taiwan Professor W Li, University of Wollongong, Australia Professor W H Liao, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China Professor Y Liu, Harbin Institute of Technology, China Professor C S Lynch, University of California-Los Angeles, USA Professor S Masri, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA Professor W M Ostachowicz, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk, Poland Professor K Peters, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA Professor M Shahinpoor, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA Professor H Sodano, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA Professor G Song, University of Houston, TX, USA Professor W J Staszewski, AGH University of Science

  15. Welcome to the 2014 volume of Smart Materials and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-01-01

    last year after many years in service as Associate Editors. Associate Editors in 2013: Professor G Akhras, Royal Military College of Canada, Ontario, Canada Professor C Boller, University of Saarland, Saarbrücken, Germany Fraunhofer-Institut für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren, Dresden, Germany Professor J Cagnol, École Centrale Paris, France Professor G Carman, University of California-Los Angeles, USA Professor S-B Choi, Inha University, Incheon, Korea Professor S H Choi, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA Professor A Del Grosso, Università degli Studi di Genova, Italy Professor A Erturk, Georgia Institute of Technology, GA, USA Professor U Gabbert, Universität Magdeburg, Germany Professor A Güemes, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain Professor S Gopalakrishnan, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India Professor J Kim, Inha University, Incheon, Korea Professor K J Kim, University of Nevada, Reno, USA Professor S J Kim, Seoul National University, Korea Professor D Lagoudas, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA Professor R Lammering, Helmut-Schmidt-Universität/Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Professor C K Lee, National Taiwan University, Taiwan Professor W Li, University of Wollongong, Australia Professor W H Liao, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China Professor Y Liu, Harbin Institute of Technology, China Professor C S Lynch, University of California-Los Angeles, USA Professor S Masri, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA Professor W M Ostachowicz, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk, Poland Professor K Peters, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA Professor M Shahinpoor, University of Maine, Orono, USA Professor H Sodano, University of Florida, Gainsville, USA Professor G Song, University of Houston, TX, USA Professor W J Staszewski, AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland Professor N Takeda, University of Tokyo, Japan Professor D-H Wang, Chongqing University, China

  16. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Halil Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    China) gave plenary talks on novel MR shear thickening fluids, MR rubber composites and MR plastomers, respectively. H J Choi (INHA University, Korea), X Zhao (Northwestern Polytechnical University, China) and R Tao (Temple University, USA) delivered plenary lectures on issues relating to the area of electrorheological (ER) fluids. In their talks, Choi and Zhao covered novel ER materials with core-shell structured microspheres and micro/nano hierarchical structured titania particles, respectively, and Tao focused on the reduction of the viscosity of liquid suspensions for energy applications in transporting crude oil via pipelines. Attendance of the presentations was exceptionally high. Poster presentations were divided into two sessions and held in the afternoons after the close of the sessions, which were filled with stimulating discussions. The award for the best student research in the area of electrorheological fluids, sponsored by the Winslow family, was given to Y D Liu of INHA University, Korea on research entitled 'Copolyaniline coated monodisperse polystyrene microparticles and their electrorheological response'. The award for the best student research on magnetorheological suspensions, sponsored by the LORD Corporation, was given to S Kaneko of Keio University, Japan on research entitled 'Effect of a magnetic field on sloshing pressure in a magnetic fluid'. Besides the purely scientific program during the five days, some special events were also organized. A guided tour of the old city and some important landmarks of the capital city of Ankara were organized before the Gala Dinner. Special samples of Turkish classical music and folk dancing were performed by a group from the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism to exhibit Turkish culture to the delegates at Gala Night, which was truly appreciated. Following the conclusion of this successful meeting, the next conference is expected to be organized at the University of Granada, Spain by Professor

  17. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. França

    2001-12-01

    relacionados ao metabolismo secundário da cana de açúcar e investigar o padrão de expressão gênica de enzimas chaves reguladoras das principais vias biossintéticas ativas nos diferentes tipos de tecidos e situações de estresse físico-químico e biológico a que estão submetidas plantas cultivadas em casas de vegetação, campo ou in vitro. A estratégia de mineração dos dados da database de sequências expressas de cana de açúcar, SUCEST, usando ferramentas de bioinformática, focalizou classes de compostos como isoprenóides e fenilpropanóides que comprovadamente desempenham um papel na resposta de plantas a variações ambientais. Foram identificados e caracterizados genes que codificam enzimas chaves para a síntese de terpenóides, como a sesquiterpeno ciclase (SC; (CHS para síntese de flavonóides; isoflavona sintase (IFS envolvida na biossíntese de isoflavonóides que desempenharm importante papel na defesa de plantas e nodulação de raízes; isoflavona redutases (IFR enzimas chaves para a síntese de fenilpropanóide fitoalexinas, bem como enzimas relacionadas à síntese de precursores de lignina, como a enzima ácido caféico- O- metiltransferase. O efeito do estresse causado por bactérias como Herbaspirillum rubri e Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans também foi avaliado tendo sido constatada a indução da expressão de chalcona sintase (CHS em plântulas infectadas com esses agentes, sugerindo a ativação da via de flavonóides em resposta a este estresse biológico. Esses resultados apontam para o fato de que as vias do metabolismo de isopropanóides e de fenilpropanóides em cana de açúcar são ativadas de acordo com o estágio de desenvolvimento, especificidade de tecidos e em resposta a situações de estresse. Essas observações deverão ser confirmadas por meio de experimentação genética e bioquímica.

  18. Distúrbios trombofílicos em crianças e adolescentes com trombose da veia porta Thrombophilic disorders in children and adolescents with portal vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. Pinto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a freqüência de deficiência da proteína C (PC, proteína S (PS e antitrombina (AT e das mutações fator V Leiden (FVL, G20210A, no gene da protrombina (PTR, e C677T da metileno-tetraidrofolato redutase (MTFR em crianças e adolescentes com trombose da veia porta (TVP, e definir o padrão hereditário de uma eventual deficiência. MÉTODOS: durante o período de dois anos, foi investigada a presença de distúrbios trombofílicos em 14 crianças e adolescentes (grupo 1 com TVP, seus pais (grupo 2, n = 25 e dois grupos controles constituídos, o primeiro, por crianças e adolescentes sem hepatopatia, pareados por idade com as crianças do grupo 1 (n = 28, e o outro, por pacientes com cirrose (n = 24. Os pacientes com TVP foram investigados do ponto de vista clínico, laboratorial, endoscópico e com biópsia de fígado. O diagnóstico da trombose foi realizado por ultra-sonografia abdominal com Doppler e/ou estudo angiográfico. RESULTADOS: a freqüência da deficiência de PC, PS e AT nos pacientes com TVP foi de 6/14 (42,9% (p 0,05 e 1/14 (7,1% (p > 0,05, respectivamente. Nos pacientes com cirrose, a freqüência da deficiência de PC, PS e AT foi de 14/24 (58,3%, 7/24 (29,2% e 11/24 (45,8%, respectivamente (p OBJECTIVE: to determine the frequency of protein C, protein S and antithrombin deficiency, and factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations in children and adolescents with portal vein thrombosis, as well as assessing the hereditary character of this disorders. METHODS: a two-year study was carried out to determine the frequency of thrombophilic disorders in children and adolescents with portal vein thrombosis (n = 14, their parents (n = 24, and two control groups, one age-matched children and adolescents free of liver disease (n = 28 and another group with cirrhosis (n = 24. The portal vein thrombosis patients were investigated by clinical and laboratory means

  19. Inoculação de Azospirillum amazonense em dois genótipos de milho sob diferentes regimes de nitrogênio Inoculation of Azospirillum amazonense in two maize genotypes under different N treatments

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    Fábio Bueno dos Reis Junior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A adaptabilidade de genótipos de milho a ambientes onde os nutrientes não estejam prontamente disponíveis pode ser relacionada com a adaptação à predominância, nos solos, das formas de N nítrica e amoniacal e à associação com microrganismos benéficos como as bactérias diazotróficas e, ou, promotoras de crescimento de plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o comportamento de dois híbridos intervarietais de milho sob diferentes doses e formas de N, assim como o efeito da inoculação com Azospirillum amazonense, em um ensaio em casa de vegetação, utilizando vasos preenchidos com vermiculita e solução nutritiva de Hoagland como fonte de nutrientes. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, constituindo os tratamentos em: dois híbridos intervarietais, H1 (Carioca x Eldorado e H2 (Palha Roxa ES x Sol da Manhã; plantas inoculadas ou não inoculadas com A. amazonense, e três regimes de N, conforme doses e proporções seguintes: 126 mg semana-1 de N (75 % NH4+ : 25 % NO3-; 126 mg semana-1 de N (25 % NH4+ : 75 % NO3-, e 12,6 mg semana-1 de N (50 % NH4+ : 50 % NO3-. Vinte e cinco dias após o plantio, as plantas foram separadas em raiz e parte aérea para determinação da matéria seca, conteúdos totais de N e P, atividade das enzimas nitrato redutase e glutamina sintetase e açúcares solúveis totais. O híbrido H1, mais eficiente em avaliações preliminares em campo, produziu mais matéria seca e apresentou maior eficiência na utilização de N e P. Plantas que receberam a maior dose de N, independentemente do predomínio da forma nítrica ou amoniacal, apresentaram maior acúmulo de N (nas raízes e parte aérea e P (na parte aérea e maior índice de utilização de P. Com o predomínio da forma amoniacal, observou-se incremento na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e na atividade da glutamina sintetase, bem como decréscimo na concentração de açúcares solúveis totais

  20. Comportamento celular e resposta antioxidante diferenciados de Saccharomyces cerevisiae e de Saccharomyces chevalieri ao metavanadato de amónio Different cellular behaviour and antioxidant response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces chevalieri growing in presence of ammonium metavanadate

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    R. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A fermentação do vinho é um processo microbiológico complexo que requere a presença de leveduras adaptadas a condições de stresse. No ambiente celular de organismos aeróbios ocorrem naturalmente espécies reactivas de oxigénio (ROS como subprodutos da respiração mitocondrial. A elevada reactividade destas espécies químicas pode gerar danos moleculares que, em alguns casos, levam à morte celular. Em condições fisiológicas normais ou como resposta ao stresse oxidativo, a célula pode desencadear respostas adaptativas que envolvem mecanismos antioxidantes como os enzimas glutationo redutase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2 e catalases T (CAT T; EC 1.11.1.6 e A (CAT A; EC 1.11.1.6. O vanádio, um metal pesado presente em alguns fitofármacos, pode também com portar-se como um gerador de ROS, alterando o estado redox intracelular e exercendo efeitos nocivos em leveduras expostas a quantidade excessiva deste elemento. O principal objectivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito do metavanadato de amónio (NH4VO3, um sal pentavalente de vanádio, na viabilidade celular e nas actividades enzimáticas GR, CAT T e CAT A das leveduras vínicas Saccharomyces cerevisiae UE-ME3 e Saccharomyces chevalieri UE-ME1. Os resultados obtidos mostram que S. chevalieri UE-ME1 revelou menor tolerância ao NH4VO3 do que S. cerevisiae UE-ME3, uma vez que culturas de S. chevalieri não sobreviveram para valores de concentração do sal de vanádio superiores a 7,5 mM enquanto que células de S. cerevisiae mantiveram-se viáveis em presença de metavanadato de amónio 75 mM. As actividades enzimáticas estudadas apresentaram em S. chevalieri valores muito inferiores aos que foram determinados em S. cerevisiae embora em ambas as espécies de levedura o NH4VO3 pareça comportarse como um indutor de stresse oxidativo ao provocar um decréscimo significativo da actividade GR (PThe fermentation of wine is a complex microbiological process which requires yeast adaptation to stress

  1. Efeito renoprotetor da estatina: modelo animal de isquemia-reperfusão Renoprotective effect of statin: a ischemia-reperfusion animal model

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    Claudia Akemi Shibuya Teshima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A lesão renal aguda isquêmica, de causa multifatorial, apresenta morbidade e mortalidade alarmantes. A estatina, inibidor de HMG-CoA redutase, tem demonstrado papel renoprotetor, com componente antioxidante, antiinflamatório e vascular. A atividade de heme oxigenase-1 pode ser mediadora desses efeitos pleitrópicos da estatina sobre o rim, ou seja, independente da ação de redução de lipídio. Esse estudo visou avaliar se o efeito renoprotetor da estatina pode ter mecanismo heme de proteção em ratos. MÉTODOS: O modelo isquêmico foi obtido por meio do clampeamento dos pedículos renais bilaterais por 30 minutos, seguido de reperfusão. Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, machos, pesando entre 250-300g, distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: SHAM (controle, sem clampeamento renal; Isquemia; Iquemia+Estatina (sinvastatina 0,5 mg/kg, via oral por 3 dias; Isquemia+Hemin (indutor de HO-1, 1 mg/100g, intraperitoneal 24h antes da cirurgia; Isquemia+SnPP (inibidor de HO-1, 2μmol/kg intraperitoneal 24h antes da cirurgia; Isquemia+Estatina+Hemin e Isquemia+Estatina+SnPP. Foram avaliados a função renal (clearance de creatinina, Jaffé, osmolalidade urinária, peróxidos urinários e a imunohistoquímica para ED-1. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que a estatina melhorou a função renal, a osmolalidade urinária, reduziu a excreção de peróxidos urinários e a infiltração de macrófagos em rins de animais submetidos à isquemia renal. O indutor da heme oxigenase-1 e a sua associação com sinvastatina reproduziram o padrão de melhora determinado pela sinvastatina. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo confirmou o efeito renoprotetor da estatina, com ação antioxidante e antiinflamatória, e sugere que esse efeito tenha interface com o sistema heme de proteção renal.OBJECTIVE: Ischemic acute kidney injury (iLRA, with multifatorial cause, presents alarming morbidity and mortality. Statin, HMG-CoA inhibition reductase has shown a renoprotective effect

  2. Light exercise causes adaptive changes in muscles of young Brasileiro de Hipismo horses Atividade física leve causa mudanças adaptativas musculares em eqüinos jovens da raça Brasileiro de Hipismo

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    Flora Helena de Freitas D'Angelis

    2008-08-01

    policiamento desenvolvido pela PM-SP por 10 meses, foram retirados fragmentos do músculo Gluteus medius nas profundidades de 20mm e 60mm. Para a determinação dos tipos de fibra muscular, foram feitas análises histoquímicas por meio das técnicas de adenosina trifosfatase miofibrilar (mATPase e nicotinamida adenina dinucleotídeo tetrazólio redutase (NADH-TR. Na análise morfométrica das fibras, calculou-se a área de secção transversal (AST, a freqüência média (F e a área de secção transversal relativa (ASTR. Após o período de atividade física, as fibras tipo IIA apresentaram aumento da F e da ASTR nas duas profundidades. As fibras tipo I apresentaram diminuição da F na profundidade de 60mm e as fibras tipo IIX não sofreram alteração da F nas duas profundidades. A ASTR das fibras tipo I e IIX não apresentaram alteração após os 10 meses. A atividade física de baixa intensidade produziu adaptações significativas no músculo Gluteus medius de cavalos da raça BH, incluindo mudança nas propriedades metabólicas e contráteis evidenciadas pelo aumento da área ocupada pelas fibras tipo IIA, nas duas profundidades de biópsia.

  3. Carvedilol atenua o estresse oxidativo na cardiopatia chagásica crônica Carvedilol atenúa el estrés oxidativo en la cardiopatía chagásica crónica Carvedilol attenuates oxidative stress in chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy

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    Patrícia Budni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Há cada vez mais evidências sugerindo que doença de Chagas envolve dano oxidativo e contribui para a progressão da doença cardíaca. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do carvedilol sobre marcadores de estresse oxidativo na doença de Chagas crônica. MÉTODOS: A população de estudo incluiu 42 pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica e os biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo foram medidos antes e após um período de seis meses de tratamento com carvedilol (37,5 mg/dia. Os pacientes foram considerados de acordo com a classificação de Los Andes, e a atividade da superóxido dismutase, catalase, glutationa peroxidase, S-transferase e redutase, mieloperoxidase e adenosina deaminase; e os níveis de glutationa reduzida, de espécies reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico, proteína carbonil, vitamina E e óxido nítrico foram medidos no sangue. RESULTADOS: Após o tratamento com carvedilol, todos os grupos apresentaram reduções significativas nos níveis de proteína carbonil e glutationa reduzida, enquanto os níveis de óxido nítrico e atividade da adenosina aumentaram significativamente somente no grupo IA. Além disso, a maioria das enzimas antioxidantes apresentou diminuição de suas atividades, nos grupos IA e IB. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados sugerem que o tratamento com carvedilol foi eficaz na atenuação do dano oxidativo, um efeito que pode ser particularmente importante em doença de Chagas crônica com cardiopatia.FUNDAMENTO: Hay cada vez más evidencias sugiriendo que la enfermedad de Chagas envuelve daño oxidativo y contribuye a la progresión de la enfermedad cardíaca. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto del carvedilol sobre marcadores de estrés oxidativo en la enfermedad de Chagas crónica. MÉTODOS: La población de estudio incluyó 42 pacientes con cardiopatía chagásica y los biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo fueron medidos antes y después de un período de seis meses de tratamiento con carvedilol (37,5 mg/día. Los pacientes fueron

  4. Amenorréia primária e cariótipo XY: identificando pacientes em risco Primary amenorrhea and XY karyotype: identifying patients in risk

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    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência e as características clínicas de pacientes com amenorréia primária e cariótipo XY avaliadas em nosso Serviço com o intuito de identificar achados que possam auxiliar em seu reconhecimento. MÉTODOS: no período de Janeiro de 1975 a Novembro de 2007, foram avaliadas 104 pacientes com amenorréia primária. Para todos os casos foi realizada a análise pelo cariótipo por bandas GTG. Destas, 21 (20,2% apresentavam uma constituição 46,XY. Contudo, duas foram excluídas do estudo por terem prontuários incompletos. Das 19 pacientes que compuseram a amostra, a maior parte veio encaminhada pela ginecologia (63,2%. Suas idades variaram entre 16 e 41 anos (média de 22,1 anos. Realizou-se uma coleta de dados sobre sua história familiar e pregressa, exame físico e resultados de exames complementares. Para determinação dos seus diagnósticos levaram-se em consideração essas informações. RESULTADOS: a síndrome de resistência aos androgênios foi o diagnóstico predominante (n=12; 63,2%. Cinco pacientes (26,3% apresentavam disgenesia gonadal pura XY (DGP XY, uma (5,3% deficiência de 17-alfa hidroxilase e uma (5,3% deficiência de 5-alfa redutase. Achados clínicos freqüentemente observados nessas pacientes incluíram desenvolvimento anormal dos caracteres sexuais secundários (n=19, agenesia uterina com vagina em fundo de saco (n=14, história familiar de amenorréia (n=8 e gônadas palpáveis no canal inguinal (n=5. Duas delas apresentavam história de hérnia inguinal. Hipertensão arterial sistêmica foi diagnosticada somente na paciente com deficiência de 17-alfa hidroxilase, e malignização gonadal, naquela com DGP XY. CONCLUSÕES: a freqüência de pacientes com cariótipo XY (20% foi superior à usualmente descrita na literatura (3 a 11%. Acreditamos que isso tenha relação com a forma de encaminhamento das pacientes ao Serviço. Certos achados da história clínica e do exame físico deveriam

  5. Bilateral lung masses: The same aetiology?

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    C. Damas

    2007-03-01

    de pulmão do tipo pequenas células. No estadiamento da doença foram identificadas lesões hepáticas secundárias, motivo porque a doença foi considerada como disseminada, dada a existência de lesões hepáticas e pulmonares contra-laterais. Foi, nesta fase, iniciada quimioterapia com carboplatinum e etoposídeo. Seis meses mais tarde, a lesão direita inha diminuído, mas a lesão esquerda apresentava aumento das suas dimensões. A biópsia desta lesão mostrou uma citologia compatível com adenocarcinoma do pulmão, motivo porque inicia novo ciclo de quimioterapia com vinorelbina e gencitabina. Aos quatro ciclos e por não se evidenciar nenhuma resposta ao tratamento, foi realizada radioterapia da lesão esquerda. Durante este período (28 meses mantém-se assintomática, mantendo a sua actividade diária habitual.De acordo com o momento do diagnóstico as neoplasias do pulmão podem ser consideradas síncronas ou metácronas. Estas últimas são mais frequentes, representando cerca de 50–70% dos casos, sendo o padrão histológico mais frequente o adenocarcinoma.No caso apresentado, a situação parecia ser uma doença disseminada, o que afastou a hipótese de tumores síncronos. Apesar de a doença se apresentar num estádio avançado aquando do diagnóstico e do mau prognóstico associado, a evolução dos dois tipos de tumor não pareceu comprometer a actividade diária da doente. Key-words: Primitive lung tumor, synchronous lung tumor, metachronous lung tumour, Palavras-chave: Tumor primitivo do pulmão, tumores síncronos do pulmão, tumores metácronos do pulmão

  6. Massas pulmonares bilaterais. Mesma etiologia?

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    C. Damas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Os autores descrevem o caso de uma mulher de 50 anos, fumadora. Assintomática até Setembro de 2003, altura em que refere o aparecimento de tosse seca, cansaço e perda de peso. Na radiografia do tórax eram evidentes duas massas, uma no lobo superior direito e outra no lobo lingular. A doente foi submetida a biópsia aspirativa transtorácica e a citologia obtida foi compatível com carcinoma de pulmão do tipo pequenas células. No estadiamento da doença foram identificadas lesões hepáticas secundárias, motivo porque a doença foi considerada como disseminada, dada a existência de lesões hepáticas e pulmonares contra-laterais. Foi, nesta fase, iniciada quimioterapia com carboplatinum e etoposídeo. Seis meses mais tarde, a lesão direita inha diminuído, mas a lesão esquerda apresentava aumento das suas dimensões. A biópsia desta lesão mos-trou uma citologia compatível com adenocarcinoma do pulmão, motivo porque inicia novo ciclo de quimioterapia com vinorelbina e gencitabina. Aos quatro ciclos e por não se evidenciar nenhuma resposta ao tratamento, foi realizada radioterapia da lesão esquerda. Durante este período (28 meses mantém-se assintomática, mantendo a sua actividade diária habitual.De acordo com o momento do diagnóstico as neo-plasias do pulmão podem ser consideradas síncronas ou metácronas. Estas últimas são mais frequentes, re-presentando cerca de 50-70% dos casos, sendo o pa-drão histológico mais frequente o adenocarcinoma.No caso apresentado, a situação parecia ser uma doença disseminada, o que afastou a hipótese de tumores síncronos. Apesar de a doença se apresentar num estádio avançado aquando do diagnóstico e do mau prognósti-co associado, a evolução dos dois tipos de tumor não pareceu comprometer a actividade diária da doente.Rev Port Pneumol 2007; XIII (2: 287

  7. Bilateral lung masses: The same aetiology? Massas pulmonares bilaterais: Mesma etiologia?

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    C Damas

    2007-03-01

    pequenas células. No estadiamento da doença foram identificadas lesões hepáticas secundárias, motivo porque a doença foi considerada como disseminada, dada a existência de lesões hepáticas e pulmonares contra-laterais. Foi, nesta fase, iniciada quimioterapia com carboplatinum e etoposídeo. Seis meses mais tarde, a lesão direita inha diminuído, mas a lesão esquerda apresentava aumento das suas dimensões. A biópsia desta lesão mostrou uma citologia compatível com adenocarcinoma do pulmão, motivo porque inicia novo ciclo de quimioterapia com vinorelbina e gencitabina. Aos quatro ciclos e por não se evidenciar nenhuma resposta ao tratamento, foi realizada radioterapia da lesão esquerda. Durante este período (28 meses mantém-se assintomática, mantendo a sua actividade diária habitual. De acordo com o momento do diagnóstico as neoplasias do pulmão podem ser consideradas síncronas ou metácronas. Estas últimas são mais frequentes, representando cerca de 50-70% dos casos, sendo o padrão histológico mais frequente o adenocarcinoma. No caso apresentado, a situação parecia ser uma doença disseminada, o que afastou a hipótese de tumores síncronos. Apesar de a doença se apresentar num estádio avançado aquando do diagnóstico e do mau prognóstico associado, a evolução dos dois tipos de tumor não pareceu comprometer a actividade diária da doente.

  8. Prospecção hidrobiológica da Baía de Sepetiba Color and transparence of waters of Sepetiba Bay, in Rio de Janeiro State

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    Lejeune P. H. de Oliveira

    1971-01-01

    green in the localities with blooms of the diatom Coscinodiscus. The central portion of the bay, 150 Km[squared] hole-green, full of larvae of shrimps Penaeus schmidti; some shoals of shrimps moves its pleopods and by displacement of botton with diatoms and reddish sediment produces a rust color spot in surface of waters seen by fishermen. The estuaries are Isabell color, and caramel. That is a preliminar survey, to future comparison, because to day Sepetiba Bay is not polluted. But futurelly, it will be polluted by an harbour for 3.000,000 tons of iron ore, and by a quay for cargo boats, and siderurgy mills, airports, and other industries. Several polluted waters of Guanabara Bay are black and asphalt color, and cub color. That colors are not found in Sepetiba Bay to day. In 1965, we do not find the "red waters" and "red tides" with blooms of dinoflagellates in Sepetiba Bay, that they are present sometimes in Guanabara Bay with mortalities of fishes. Sepetiba Bay is not biologic problem, to day, is not polluted. The fig. 3 shows a map of transparence of waters by the disc of Secchi and a relation is given of color and transparence, in Sepetiba: Forel color 5: transparence 2.8 m to 2.9 m; Forel n. 6: 2.0 m; Forel color n. 7: 1.0 m to 1.5 m. Moss green waters: 0.6 to 1.5 m; hellebore green waters: 0.9 to 1.5 m; emerald green waters: 2.0 m to 2.2 m; In Guanabara Bay, into the polluted Enseada de Inhaúma: asphalt color waters: 0.02 - 0.05 m; and in black waters: trasnparence of 1 cm. The extintion koeficient of light is indicated in explanation of the fig. 3.

  9. Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Quebec IREQ, Varennes Canada Etienne PARKINSON Andritz Hydro Ltd. Switzerland B V S S S PRASAD Indian Institute of Technology Madras India Stefan RIEDELBAUCH Stuttgart University Germany Michel SABOURIN Alstom Hydro Canada Inc Canada Bruno SCHIAVELLO Flowserve Corporation USA Katsumasa SHIMMEI Hitachi Ltd Japan Christoph SINGRTüN VDMA Germany Ale? SKOTAK CKD Blansko Engineering, a s Czech Republic Toshiaki SUZUKI Toshiba Corporation Japan Andy C C TAN Queensland University of Technology Australia Geraldo TIAGO FILHO Universidade Federal de Itajuba Brazi Thi C VU Andritz Hydro Ltd Canada Satoshi WATANABE Kyushu University Japan S H WINOTO National University of Singapore Singapore Woo-Seong WOO STX Institute of Technology Korea International Technical Committee François AVELLAN (principal) EPFL-LMH Switzerland Xingqi LUO (principal) Xi'an University of Technology China Martin BÖHLE Kaiserslautern University Germany Gerard BOIS ENSAM France Young-Seok CHOI KITECH Korea Luca d'AGOSTINO University of Pisa Italy Eduard EGUSQUIZA Polytechnical University Catalonia Spain Arpad FAY University of Miskolcz Hungary Richard FISHER Voith Hydro Inc USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLA Institute Polytechnique de Grenoble France Aleksandar GAJIC University of Belgrade Serbia José GONZÁLEZ Universidad de Oviedo Spain François GUIBAULT Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Canada Toshiaki IKOHAGI Tohoku University Japan Chisachi KATO University of Tokyo Japan Kwang-Yong KIM Inha University Korea Youn-Jea KIM Sungkyunkwan University Korea Smaine KOUIDRI Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6) France Shengcai LI Warwick University UK Adrian LUNGU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Romania Torbjøm K NIELSEN NTNU Norway Michihiro NISHI Tsinghua University China Peter PELZ Darmstadt University Germany Frantisek POCHYLY Brno University Czech Republic Albert RUPRECHT University of Stuttgart Germany Rudolf SCHILLING Technische University München Germany Wei SHYY HKUST Hong Kong,China Romeo SUSAN

  10. PREFACE: International Conference on Inverse Problems 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Yiu-Chung; Ling, Leevan

    2011-03-01

    Conference 2010, we wish to express our cordial thanks to all the keynote, plenary, and invited speakers and members of the Advisory Board. We would like to thank the City University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Mathematical Society, the K C Wong Education Foundation, the Lee Hysan Foundation, and the Wei Lun Foundation for their generous financial support. Particularly, we wish to thank Miss Lonn Chan for her excellent administrative work in making all the arrangements for the conference. March 2011Yiu-Chung Hon, City University of Hong Kong, HKSARLeevan Ling, Hong Kong Baptist University, HKSAR Invited Keynote SpeakerH Thomas Banks, North Carolina State University, USA Invited Plenary SpeakersRyuichi Ashino, Osaka Kyoiku University, JapanAndrea Caponnetto, City University of Hong Kong, HKSARJeng-Tzong Chen, National Taiwan Ocean University, TaiwanHiromichi Itou, Gunma University, JapanHyeonbae Kang, Inha University, South KoreaMichael Klibanov, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USAKim Knudsen, Technical University of Denmark, DenmarkRainer Kress, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GermanyJérôme Le Rousseau, University of Orleans, FranceChang-Ock Lee, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South KoreaGui-Rong Liu, University of Cincinnati, USAShuai Lu, Fudan University, ChinaFadil Santosa, University of Minnesota, USATomoya Takeuchi, North Carolina State University, USAXiang Xu, Zhejiang University, ChinaJun Zou, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, HKSAR Invited SpeakersMohamed Abdel-Mooty, The American University in Cairo, EgyptKrishna Agarwal, National University of Singapore, SingaporeHui Cao, Sun Yat-sen University, ChinaWen Chen, Hohai University, ChinaJin Cheng, Fudan University, ChinaLian Duan, University of Oxford, UKMeibao Ge, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, ChinaRalf Hielscher, TU Chemnitz, GermanyGuanghui Hu, Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics (WIAS), GermanyKiwan Jeon, National Institute for Mathematical